Science.gov

Sample records for factor governing multiple

  1. Multiple-camera tracking: UK government requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosmer, Paul

    2007-10-01

    The Imagery Library for Intelligent Detection Systems (i-LIDS) is the UK government's new standard for Video Based Detection Systems (VBDS). The standard was launched in November 2006 and evaluations against it began in July 2007. With the first four i-LIDS scenarios completed, the Home Office Scientific development Branch (HOSDB) are looking toward the future of intelligent vision in the security surveillance market by adding a fifth scenario to the standard. The fifth i-LIDS scenario will concentrate on the development, testing and evaluation of systems for the tracking of people across multiple cameras. HOSDB and the Centre for the Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) identified a requirement to track targets across a network of CCTV cameras using both live and post event imagery. The Detection and Vision Systems group at HOSDB were asked to determine the current state of the market and develop an in-depth Operational Requirement (OR) based on government end user requirements. Using this OR the i-LIDS team will develop a full i-LIDS scenario to aid the machine vision community in its development of multi-camera tracking systems. By defining a requirement for multi-camera tracking and building this into the i-LIDS standard the UK government will provide a widely available tool that developers can use to help them turn theory and conceptual demonstrators into front line application. This paper will briefly describe the i-LIDS project and then detail the work conducted in building the new tracking aspect of the standard.

  2. Managing Multiple Risk Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-01

    cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g

  3. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  4. Institutional factors, government policies and appropriate technologies.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, S

    1980-01-01

    Traditionally the use of inappropriate technologies in the developing countries has been explained by the existence of factor price distortions, e.g. the price of labor being artificially raised by labor legislation, and the price of capital being reduced by subsidies and unrealistic exchange rates. In reality the technological choice is often determined by economic conditions and the local sociocultural/political conditions. The institutional framework of the country may discourage the appropriate technology. The obstacles can be overcome when the following conditions are met: 1) a national consensus about the need for development efforts and importance of policy goals; 2) promising market prospects and/or an effective marketing system; and, 3) sufficient industrial competition in both home and international markets. Institutional problems come from the generation and diffusion of technologies from the supply side which are introduced to people who do not see the need for them. More emphasis on the marketing side ususally results in application of correct technology, especially where governments fund research and development projects and formulate their plans on the basis of a concrete investment or production plan and a clear idea about the target market. Land reforms and agricultural price policies are needed as well as the establishment of an efficient national administrative network.

  5. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    PubMed

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems.

  6. Critical Factors in Data Governance for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elouazizi, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the main challenges of data governance modelling in the context of learning analytics for higher education institutions, and discusses the critical factors for designing data governance models for learning analytics. It identifies three fundamental common challenges that cut across any learning analytics data…

  7. GEOCHEMICAL FACTORS GOVERNING METHYL MERCURY PRODUCTION IN MERCURY CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench scale experiments were conducted to improve our understanding of aquatic mercury transformation processes (biotic and abiotic), specifically those factors which govern the production of methyl mercury (MeHg) in sedimentary environments. The greatest cause for concern regar...

  8. Teacher Governance Factors and Social Cohesion: Insights from Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halai, Anjum; Durrani, Naureen

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores teacher governance factors, particularly recruitment and deployment of teachers, in relation to inequalities and social cohesion. Pakistan introduced major reforms in education in the post 9/11 context of escalating conflict. These include a merit and needs-based policy on teacher recruitment to eliminate corruption in…

  9. Spin-Glass Model Governs Laser Multiple Filamentation.

    PubMed

    Ettoumi, W; Kasparian, J; Wolf, J-P

    2015-07-17

    We show that multiple filamentation patterns in high-power laser beams can be described by means of two statistical physics concepts, namely, self-similarity of the patterns over two nested scales and nearest-neighbor interactions of classical rotators. The resulting lattice spin model perfectly reproduces the evolution of intense laser pulses as simulated by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, shedding new light on multiple filamentation. As a side benefit, this approach drastically reduces the computing time by 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the standard simulation methods of laser filamentation.

  10. Factors governing the total rainfall yield from continental convective clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Gagin, Abraham

    1989-01-01

    Several important factors that govern the total rainfall from continental convective clouds were investigated by tracking thousands of convective cells in Israel and South Africa. The rainfall volume yield (Rvol) of the individual cells that build convective rain systems has been shown to depend mainly on the cloud-top height. There is, however, considerable variability in this relationship. The following factors that influence the Rvol were parameterized and quantitatively analyzed: (1) cloud base temperature, (2)atmospheric instability, and (3) the extent of isolation of the cell. It is also shown that a strong low level forcing increases the duration of Rvol of clouds reaching the same vertical extent.

  11. Mapping of government land encroachment in Cameron Highlands using multiple remote sensing datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, M. H. M.; Ahmad, B.

    2014-02-01

    The cold and refreshing highland weather is one of the factors that give impact to socio-economic growth in Cameron Highlands. This unique weather of the highland surrounded by tropical rain forest can only be found in a few places in Malaysia. It makes this place a famous tourism attraction and also provides a very suitable temperature for agriculture activities. Thus it makes agriculture such as tea plantation, vegetable, fruits and flowers one of the biggest economic activities in Cameron Highlands. However unauthorized agriculture activities are rampant. The government land, mostly forest area have been encroached by farmers, in many cases indiscriminately cutting down trees and hill slopes. This study is meant to detect and assess this encroachment using multiple remote sensing datasets. The datasets were used together with cadastral parcel data where survey lines describe property boundary, pieces of land are subdivided into lots of government and private. The general maximum likelihood classification method was used on remote sensing image to classify the land-cover in the study area. Ground truth data from field observation were used to assess the accuracy of the classification. Cadastral parcel data was overlaid on the classification map in order to detect the encroachment area. The result of this study shows that there is a land cover change of 93.535 ha in the government land of the study area between years 2001 to 2010, nevertheless almost no encroachment took place in the studied forest reserve area. The result of this study will be useful for the authority in monitoring and managing the forest.

  12. The Future of Government Funding for Persons with Disabilities: Some Key Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Clarke

    1980-01-01

    The paper identifies and discusses key factors associated with government funding for disabled individuals. An introductory section traces the growth of public expenditures in recent years. Five key factors affecting government funding are examined (sample subtopics in parentheses): state government tax and spending limits (Proposition 13 and the…

  13. Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, K. D.

    The author notes that two trends appear to be developing in litigation over the governance of the public schools. One trend is increasing participation of organized groups in suits against the schools. The other is a greater volume of litigation dealing with open meeting laws and freedom of information acts. Reflecting the second trend, the…

  14. Structural factors governing azide and cyanide binding to mammalian metmyoglobins.

    PubMed

    Brancaccio, A; Cutruzzolá, F; Allocatelli, C T; Brunori, M; Smerdon, S J; Wilkinson, A J; Dou, Y; Keenan, D; Ikeda-Saito, M; Brantley, R E

    1994-05-13

    The structural factors governing azide and cyanide binding have been examined by measuring the effects of 46 mutations at key topological positions in the distal pocket in sperm whale, pig, and human myoglobin. Replacement of His64 (E7) with smaller amino acids results in dramatic increases in the association rate constant for azide binding primarily due to relief of steric hindrance imposed by the imidazole side chain. Gln64 and His64 (native) metmyoglobins have abnormally low rate constants for azide dissociation (0.1-0.3 s-1) due to direct hydrogen bonding between the N epsilon atoms of these residues and the bound ligand. Mutations at positions 67(E10) and 68(E11) produce large but complex changes in the azide binding parameters as a result of both steric and electrostatic effects, which alter water coordination, influence the rate of anion movement into the distal pocket, and affect the stability of the Fe-N3 bond. Replacement of Phe46 with Leu or Val and substitution of Arg(Lys)45 with Glu and Ser cause disorder in the position of the distal histidine side chain and result in 4-700-fold increases in both k'N3 and kN3 but produce little change in overall azide affinity. All of these results suggest strongly that azide enters the distal pocket of native myoglobin through a polar channel that is regulated by a His64 "gate." In contrast to azide binding, the rate constant for cyanide association decreases 4-300-fold when the distal histidine is replaced with apolar residues. His64, Gln64, and distal pocket water molecules appear to facilitate deprotonation of HCN, which is the major kinetic barrier to cyanide binding at neutral pH.

  15. Factors Associated with Multiple-Partner Fertility among Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manlove, Jennifer; Logan, Cassandra; Ikramullah, Erum; Holcombe, Emily

    2008-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 1,731 fathers aged 16 - 45 from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth to identify factors associated with multiple-partner fertility. Almost one third of fathers who reported multiple-partner fertility did so across a series of nonmarital relationships, and nonmarital-only multiple-partner fertility has been…

  16. Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Planning: Goals and Strategies of Local Governments.

    PubMed

    LOEW

    2000-07-01

    Drawing from experiences gained from the development and implementation of four approved habitat conservation plans (HCPs), I describe the goals and strategies used by the nine local government members of the Riverside County Habitat Conservation Agency (RCHCA) to reconcile conflicts among a rapidly growing population and the need to conserve the habitat of a number of declining wildlife species in western Riverside County, California. Several important goals have been pursued by RCHCA member governments in their sponsorship of multiple-species habitat conservation plans (MSHCPs), including (1) establishing certainty and control over future uses of land; (2) eliminating project-by-project negotiations with federal and state wildlife agencies; (3) coordinating mitigation obligations under the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act, California Environmental Quality Act, and other federal and state laws; (4) reducing conflict and litigation resulting from land development activities; and (5) ensuring that wildlife conservation activities are conducted in a manner that permits local governments to perform those functions necessary to maintain public health, safety, and welfare. I also describe the emergence of strategies by local governments to achieve MSHCP goals, including (1) use of an inclusive planning process that seeks to build consensus among affected interests; (2) extensive involvement of federal and state wildlife agencies in the preparation of MSHCP documents; (3) management of public lands to support MSHCP conservation objectives; (4) encouragement of voluntary conservation by private property owners through incentive programs; and (5) active solicitation of federal and state funding for MSHCP implementation activities.

  17. Multiple factor analysis with continuous and dichotomous variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanoon, Thanoon Y.; Adnan, Robiah; Saffari, Seyed Ehsan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, continuous and dichotomous variables are used in multiple factor analysis method. When all variables within the same group are continuous, we use principal component analysis method in factor analysis, if all variables within the same group are dichotomous we use multiple correspondence analysis method in factor analysis. Statistical analyses, which involve Eigen roots, Eigen vectors, multiple factor loadings, correlation coefficient RV, contribution table, are discussed. The proposed procedure is illustrated by a lung cancer data consists of four groups "group of personal variables", "group of therapeutic variables", "group of nutritional variables", "group of genetic variables". Analysis are done by using XLSTAT program.

  18. Fluroxypyr biodegradation in soils by multiple factors.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ling; Yang, Hong

    2011-04-01

    Fluroxypyr (4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridinyl-1-methylheptyl ester) is a widely used herbicide for controlling weeds, fungi, and insects. However, extensive use of the herbicide has led to its high accumulation in ecosystems and contamination to soils and crops. Environmental behaviors and fate of herbicides are dependent on many physiochemical and biological factors. Whether fluroxypyr is significantly affected and how it is degraded under the environmental conditions is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of soil microbe, soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOM), temperature, soil moisture, and surfactant on fluroxypyr degradation in soils. Application of DOM derived from sludge and straw to fluroxypyr-contaminated soils increased degradation of fluroxypyr. Environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, soil microbe and soil type could affect the rate of fluroxypyr dissipation. Also, the microorganism affected the degradation of fluroxypyr. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass revealed that the reaction in soils might include the removal of 1-methylheptyl ester to generate fluroxypyr acid (4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-2-pyridiny). Our results provided initial data that a set of biological and physiochemical factors coordinately regulates the decay of fluroxypyr in soils.

  19. Risk Governance of Multiple Natural Hazards: Centralized versus Decentralized Approach in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komendantova, Nadejda; Scolobig, Anna; Vinchon, Charlotte

    2014-05-01

    The multi-risk approach is a relatively new field and its definition includes the need to consider multiple hazards and vulnerabilities in their interdependency (Selva, 2013) and the current multi-hazards disasters, such as the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, tsunami and nuclear catastrophe, showed the need for a multi-risk approach in hazard mitigation and management. Our knowledge about multi-risk assessment, including studies from different scientific disciplines and developed assessment tools, is constantly growing (White et al., 2001). However, the link between scientific knowledge, its implementation and the results in terms of improved governance and decision-making have gained significantly less attention (IRGC, 2005; Kappes et al., 2012), even though the interest to risk governance, in general, has increased significantly during the last years (Verweiy and Thompson, 2006). Therefore, the key research question is how risk assessment is implemented and what is the potential for the implementation of a multi-risk approach in different governance systems across Europe. More precisely, how do the characteristics of risk governance, such as the degree of centralization versus decentralization, influence the implementation of a multi-risk approach. The methodology of this research includes comparative case study analysis of top-down and bottom-up interactions in governance in the city of Naples, (Italy), where the institutional landscape is marked by significant autonomy of Italian regions in decision-making processes for assessing the majority of natural risks, excluding volcanic, and in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, an overseas department of France, where the decision-making process is marked by greater centralization in decision making associated with a well established state governance within regions, delegated to the prefect and decentralised services of central ministries. The research design included documentary analysis and extensive empirical work involving

  20. Unscaled Bayes factors for multiple hypothesis testing in microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Francesco; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Racugno, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing collects a series of techniques usually based on p-values as a summary of the available evidence from many statistical tests. In hypothesis testing, under a Bayesian perspective, the evidence for a specified hypothesis against an alternative, conditionally on data, is given by the Bayes factor. In this study, we approach multiple hypothesis testing based on both Bayes factors and p-values, regarding multiple hypothesis testing as a multiple model selection problem. To obtain the Bayes factors we assume default priors that are typically improper. In this case, the Bayes factor is usually undetermined due to the ratio of prior pseudo-constants. We show that ignoring prior pseudo-constants leads to unscaled Bayes factor which do not invalidate the inferential procedure in multiple hypothesis testing, because they are used within a comparative scheme. In fact, using partial information from the p-values, we are able to approximate the sampling null distribution of the unscaled Bayes factor and use it within Efron's multiple testing procedure. The simulation study suggests that under normal sampling model and even with small sample sizes, our approach provides false positive and false negative proportions that are less than other common multiple hypothesis testing approaches based only on p-values. The proposed procedure is illustrated in two simulation studies, and the advantages of its use are showed in the analysis of two microarray experiments.

  1. Factors governing the textural development of Skaergaard gabbros: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBirney, Alexander R.

    2009-07-01

    Recent work has shown that the nomenclature and earlier interpretations of "cumulates" no longer provide an adequate conceptual framework for understanding basic plutonic rocks. Most of the rocks have undergone extensive recrystallization and no longer preserve their original textures, compositions, or modal proportions. Depending on the conditions governing these metasomatic changes, they can produce a wide variety of effects. We still have much to learn, but with the abundant evidence available in well-studies bodies like the Skaergaard Intrusion it should be possible to reach a better understanding of the late-stage processes that have had such pervasive effects on mafic layered intrusions.

  2. Modifiable factors governing indoor fungal diversity and risk of asthma.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, R; Thornton, C R; Osborne, N J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to dampness and fungi in the home is a known risk factor for individuals with allergic asthma. Inadequate heating and ventilation may lead to dampness and concomitant increased exposure to spores of allergenic fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium. These fungi have been cultured from sputum of asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals, and implicated in the initiation or exacerbation of asthma. Indoor environmental factors influence the presence and concentrations of fungal propagules and, in turn, risk of asthma outcomes. This review aims to identify modifiable risk factors in the built environment that have been shown to influence fungal composition indoors, and to examine this association with the risk of asthma development and/or exacerbation. A complex interaction between residential characteristics, the built environment and the behaviour of people regulate the diversity and concentrations of indoor fungi. Modifiable factors include build age, architectural design, level of maintenance, variations in construction materials, presence of pets, heating and ventilation patterns. Risk of fungal contamination and asthma outcomes are also influenced by low occupant awareness concerning potential health effects and socio-economic factors. Addressing these factors provides an opportunity to improve future housing interventions, though it is not clear how the built environment and occupant behaviours interact to modify the diversity of indoor fungi and resultant risk of asthma. A combination of housing improvements combined with awareness programmes and the alleviation of fuel poverty can be used to lower the allergen burden associated with damp homes. Further research is needed to identify factors that regulate the concentration and diversity of indoor fungi and how this may act as a modifier for asthma outcomes.

  3. 41 CFR 109-40.112 - Transportation factors in the location of Government facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in the location of Government facilities. 109-40.112 Section 109-40.112 Public Contracts and Property... 40.1-General Provision § 109-40.112 Transportation factors in the location of Government facilities... prior to the selection of new site locations and during the planning and construction phases in...

  4. Pesticides in surface waters: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Steven J.; Capel, Paul D.; Majewski, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Pesticde use in agriculture and non-agriculture settings has increased dramatically over the last several decades. Concern about adverse effects on the environment and human health has spurred an enormous amount of research into their environmental behavior and fate. Pesticides in Surface Waters presents a comprehensive summary of this research. This book evaluates published studies that focus on measuring pesticide concentration. The studies chosen include peer reviewed scientific literature, government reports, laboratory studies, and those using microcosms and artificial streams and ponds. The authors used this information to develop their overview of pesticide contamination of surface waters. The exhaustive compilation of data along with the fundamental science make this book essential for those involved in pesticide use, environmental protection, water quality, and human or ecological risk assessment. Pesticides in Surface Waters covers the results of actual studies, sources of pesticides to surface water, fate and transport, and environmental significance. Hundreds of data-packed tables, maps, charts, and drawings illustrate the key points, making research and application easy and cost effective.

  5. Multiple Facets of Candidate Image Structure: Effects of the McGovern Television Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwood, L. Erwin; And Others

    In this comparison of the political "images" of Richard Nixon and George McGovern, public opinion data were collected on President Nixon in 1968 and 1972 and on Senator McGovern in 1972 just before and just after the television broadcast of the biography of McGovern. Changes in political attitudes toward Nixon and McGovern as a result of…

  6. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  7. Factors governing water condensation in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colburn, David S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Modeling results are presented suggesting a diurnal condensation cycle at high altitudes at some seasons and latitudes. In a previous paper, the use of atmospheric optical depth measurements at the Viking lander site to show diurnal variability of water condensation at different seasons of the Mars year was described. Factors influencing the amount of condensation include latitude, season, atmospheric dust content and water vapor content at the observation site. A one-dimensional radiative-convective model is used herein based on the diabatic heating routines under development for the Mars General Circulation Model. The model predicts atmospheric temperature profiles at any latitude, season, time of day and dust load. From these profiles and an estimate of the water vapor, one can estimate the maximum occurring at an early morning hour (AM) and the minimum in the late afternoon (PM). Measured variations in the atmospheric optical density between AM and PM measurements were interpreted as differences in AM and PM condensation.

  8. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Hubbard, S.S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this paper is to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed an thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system.

  9. Factors governing sustainable groundwater pumping near a river.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingqi; Hubbard, Susan; Finsterle, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to provide new insights into processes affecting riverbank filtration (RBF). We consider a system with an inflatable dam installed for enhancing water production from downstream collector wells. Using a numerical model, we investigate the impact of groundwater pumping and dam operation on the hydrodynamics in the aquifer and water production. We focus our study on two processes that potentially limit water production of an RBF system: the development of an unsaturated zone and riverbed clogging. We quantify river clogging by calibrating a time-dependent riverbed permeability function based on knowledge of pumping rate, river stage, and temperature. The dynamics of the estimated riverbed permeability reflects clogging and scouring mechanisms. Our results indicate that (1) riverbed permeability is the dominant factor affecting infiltration needed for sustainable RBF production; (2) dam operation can influence pumping efficiency and prevent the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed only under conditions of sufficient riverbed permeability; (3) slow river velocity, caused by dam raising during summer months, may lead to sedimentation and deposition of fine-grained material within the riverbed, which may clog the riverbed, limiting recharge to the collector wells and contributing to the development of an unsaturated zone beneath the riverbed; and (4) higher river flow velocities, caused by dam lowering during winter storms, scour the riverbed and thus increase its permeability. These insights can be used as the basis for developing sustainable water management of a RBF system.

  10. Multiple promoter elements govern expression of the human ornithine decarboxylase gene in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moshier, J A; Osborne, D L; Skunca, M; Dosescu, J; Gilbert, J D; Fitzgerald, M C; Polidori, G; Wagner, R L; Friezner Degen, S J; Luk, G D

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression of the ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene may be important to the development and maintenance of colonic neoplasms, as well as tumors in general. In this study, we examined the promoter elements governing constitutive expression of the human ODC gene in HCT 116 human colon carcinoma cells and, for comparison, K562 human erythro-leukemia cells. It was determined by functional analysis that the promoter elements responsible reside within the 378 bp immediately upstream from the transcription start site. Within this sequence, there are at least three regions that modulate the efficiency of the ODC promoter cooperatively. Both DNA bandshift and footprint assays demonstrated all three regions to be rich in sites that bind to nuclear proteins isolated from HCT 116 and K562 cells; the protein binding pattern of non-transformed, diploid fibroblasts was found to be much less complex. Several of the protein binding sequences have little or no homology to common regulatory elements. We suggest that the constitutive activity of the ODC gene in HCT 116 colon carcinoma cells, and perhaps transformed cells in general, involves a complex interaction of multiple regulatory sequences and their associated nuclear proteins. Finally, the saturation of the promoter in these transformed cell lines suggests that high levels of protein binding in the ODC promoter may contribute to elevated constitutive expression of this gene. Images PMID:1598217

  11. Factors governing risk of cougar attacks on humans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David; Logan, Kenneth; Sweanor, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s wildlife managers in the United States and Canada have expressed increasing concern about the physical threat posed by cougars (Puma concolor) to humans. We developed a conceptual framework and analyzed 386 human–cougar encounters (29 fatal attacks, 171 instances of nonfatal contact, and 186 close-threatening encounters) to provide information relevant to public safety. We conceived of human injury and death as the outcome of 4 transitions affected by different suites of factors: (1) a human encountering a cougar: (2) given an encounter, odds that the cougar would be aggressive; (3) given aggression, odds that the cougar would attack; and (4) given an attack, odds that the human would die. We developed multivariable logistic regression models to explain variation in odds at transitions three and four using variables pertaining to characteristics of involved people and cougars. Young (≤ 2.5 years) or unhealthy (by weight, condition, or disease) cougars were more likely than any others to be involved in close (typically <5 m) encounters that threatened the involved person. Of cougars in close encounters, females were more likely than males to attack, and of attacking animals, adults were more likely than juveniles to kill the victim (32% versus 9% fatality, respectively). During close encounters, victims who used a weapon killed the involved cougar in 82% of cases. Other mitigating behaviors (e.g., yelling, backing away, throwing objects, increasing stature) also substantially lessened odds of attack. People who were moving quickly or erratically when an encounter happened (running, playing, skiing, snowshoeing, biking, ATV-riding) were more likely to be attacked and killed compared to people who were less active (25% versus 8% fatality). Children (≤ 10 years) were more likely than single adults to be attacked, but intervention by people of any age reduced odds of a child’s death by 4.6×. Overall, cougar attacks on people in Canada and the

  12. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  13. Multiple factors in the reptile extinctions of the Cretaceous period.

    PubMed

    Cloudsley-Thompson, J

    2001-08-01

    The selective extinction of the dinosaurs and other giant reptiles has long been a topic of speculation and controversy. Everyone is familiar with the theory of the giant bollide colliding with Earth. But, would it not be more likely that that multiple factors acted over a relatively long period of time to produce this mass extinction?

  14. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in...

  15. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in...

  16. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in...

  17. 17 CFR 240.19c-5 - Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of options on national securities exchanges. 240.19c-5 Section 240.19c-5 Commodity and Securities... of Exchange Members § 240.19c-5 Governing the multiple listing of options on national securities exchanges. (a) The rules of each national securities exchange that provides a trading market in...

  18. Structured plant metabolomics for the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Nikolay; Boccard, Julien; Lang, Gerhard; Grömping, Ulrike; Fischer, Rainer; Goepfert, Simon; Rudaz, Serge; Schillberg, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple factors act simultaneously on plants to establish complex interaction networks involving nutrients, elicitors and metabolites. Metabolomics offers a better understanding of complex biological systems, but evaluating the simultaneous impact of different parameters on metabolic pathways that have many components is a challenging task. We therefore developed a novel approach that combines experimental design, untargeted metabolic profiling based on multiple chromatography systems and ionization modes, and multiblock data analysis, facilitating the systematic analysis of metabolic changes in plants caused by different factors acting at the same time. Using this method, target geraniol compounds produced in transgenic tobacco cell cultures were grouped into clusters based on their response to different factors. We hypothesized that our novel approach may provide more robust data for process optimization in plant cell cultures producing any target secondary metabolite, based on the simultaneous exploration of multiple factors rather than varying one factor each time. The suitability of our approach was verified by confirming several previously reported examples of elicitor–metabolite crosstalk. However, unravelling all factor–metabolite networks remains challenging because it requires the identification of all biochemically significant metabolites in the metabolomics dataset. PMID:27853298

  19. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  20. Exclusion Factors in Latin American Higher Education: A Preliminary Analyze From University Governing Board Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Diego; Rodríguez-Gómez, David; Gairín, Joaquín

    2017-01-01

    Access to higher education has increased substantially in Latin America, but inequalities in access to and completion of higher education still remain. In this regard, identifying vulnerable groups and exclusion factors is a priority in Latin America's university systems. The aim of this article is to understand in depth governing board…

  1. Factors Influencing the Design, Establishment, Administration, and Governance of Correctional Education for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Johnica; McFadden, Cheryl; Colaric, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a study conducted to investigate factors influencing the organizational design, establishment, administration, and governance of correctional education for females. The research involved interviews with correctional and community college administrators and practitioners representing North Carolina female…

  2. Kin17 facilitates multiple double-strand break repair pathways that govern B cell class switching

    PubMed Central

    Le, Michael X.; Haddad, Dania; Ling, Alexanda K.; Li, Conglei; So, Clare C.; Chopra, Amit; Hu, Rui; Angulo, Jaime F.; Moffat, Jason; Martin, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells requires the timely repair of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) that result from lesions produced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Through a genome-wide RNAi screen, we identified Kin17 as a gene potentially involved in the maintenance of CSR in murine B cells. In this study, we confirm a critical role for Kin17 in CSR independent of AID activity. Furthermore, we make evident that DSBs generated by AID or ionizing radiation require Kin17 for efficient repair and resolution. Our report shows that reduced Kin17 results in an elevated deletion frequency following AID mutational activity in the switch region. In addition, deficiency in Kin17 affects the functionality of multiple DSB repair pathways, namely homologous recombination, non-homologous end-joining, and alternative end-joining. This report demonstrates the importance of Kin17 as a critical factor that acts prior to the repair phase of DSB repair and is of bona fide importance for CSR. PMID:27853268

  3. Space adaptation syndrome: multiple etiological factors and individual differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1991-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a significant operational concern in the American and Soviet space programs. Nearly 70% of all astronauts and cosmonauts are affected to some degree during their first several days of flight. It is now beginning to appear that space motion sickness like terrestrial motion sickness is the consequence of multiple etiological factors. As we come to understand basic mechanisms of spatial orientation and sensory-motor adaptation we can begin to predict etiological factors in different motion environments. Individuals vary greatly in the extent to which they are susceptible to these different factors. However, individuals seem to be relatively self-consistent in terms of their rates of adaptation to provocative stimulation and their retention of adaptation. Attempts to relate susceptibility to motion sickness during the microgravity phases of parabolic flight maneuvers to vestibular function under 1G and 0G test conditions are described.

  4. Multiple Illuminant Colour Estimation via Statistical Inference on Factor Graphs.

    PubMed

    Mutimbu, Lawrence; Robles-Kelly, Antonio

    2016-08-31

    This paper presents a method to recover a spatially varying illuminant colour estimate from scenes lit by multiple light sources. Starting with the image formation process, we formulate the illuminant recovery problem in a statistically datadriven setting. To do this, we use a factor graph defined across the scale space of the input image. In the graph, we utilise a set of illuminant prototypes computed using a data driven approach. As a result, our method delivers a pixelwise illuminant colour estimate being devoid of libraries or user input. The use of a factor graph also allows for the illuminant estimates to be recovered making use of a maximum a posteriori (MAP) inference process. Moreover, we compute the probability marginals by performing a Delaunay triangulation on our factor graph. We illustrate the utility of our method for pixelwise illuminant colour recovery on widely available datasets and compare against a number of alternatives. We also show sample colour correction results on real-world images.

  5. Experiences with Information Technology Planning in State Government: A Multiple-Site Based Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Terry Anthony; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses planning for information technology (IT) in state government and reports on the IT planning experiences of eight state agencies in Florida. Florida's Information Resource Commission is described, the information resources management (IRM) planning process is explained, and recommendations for IRM for other states are given. (20…

  6. The multiple meanings of global health governance: a call for conceptual clarity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The term global health governance (GHG) is now widely used, with over one thousand works published in the scholarly literature, almost all since 2002. Amid this rapid growth there is considerable variation in how the term is defined and applied, generating confusion as to the boundaries of the subject, the perceived problems in practice, and the goals to be achieved through institutional reform. Methodology This paper is based on the results of a separate scoping study of peer reviewed GHG research from 1990 onwards which undertook keyword searches of public health and social science databases. Additional works, notably books, book chapters and scholarly articles, not currently indexed, were identified through Web of Science citation searches. After removing duplicates, book reviews, commentaries and editorials, we reviewed the remaining 250 scholarly works in terms of how the concept of GHG is applied. More specifically, we identify what is claimed as constituting GHG, how it is problematised, the institutional features of GHG, and what forms and functions are deemed ideal. Results After examining the broader notion of global governance and increasingly ubiquitous term “global health”, the paper identifies three ontological variations in GHG scholarship - the scope of institutional arrangements, strengths and weaknesses of existing institutions, and the ideal form and function of GHG. This has produced three common, yet distinct, meanings of GHG that have emerged – globalisation and health governance, global governance and health, and governance for global health. Conclusions There is a need to clarify ontological and definitional distinctions in GHG scholarship and practice, and be critically reflexive of their normative underpinnings. This will enable greater precision in describing existing institutional arrangements, as well as serve as a prerequisite for a fuller debate about the desired nature of GHG. PMID:24775919

  7. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphical summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.

  8. Multiple response optimization for higher dimensions in factors and responses

    DOE PAGES

    Lu, Lu; Chapman, Jessica L.; Anderson-Cook, Christine M.

    2016-07-19

    When optimizing a product or process with multiple responses, a two-stage Pareto front approach is a useful strategy to evaluate and balance trade-offs between different estimated responses to seek optimum input locations for achieving the best outcomes. After objectively eliminating non-contenders in the first stage by looking for a Pareto front of superior solutions, graphical tools can be used to identify a final solution in the second subjective stage to compare options and match with user priorities. Until now, there have been limitations on the number of response variables and input factors that could effectively be visualized with existing graphicalmore » summaries. We present novel graphical tools that can be more easily scaled to higher dimensions, in both the input and response spaces, to facilitate informed decision making when simultaneously optimizing multiple responses. A key aspect of these graphics is that the potential solutions can be flexibly sorted to investigate specific queries, and that multiple aspects of the solutions can be simultaneously considered. As a result, recommendations are made about how to evaluate the impact of the uncertainty associated with the estimated response surfaces on decision making with higher dimensions.« less

  9. Multiplicity of mechanisms govern efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation for soil-borne disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies demonstrated that carbon input type influenced control of various fungi, oomycetes and plant parasitic nematodes with anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD). Findings implicated multiple mechanisms may contribute to the overall level of disease control attained. In strawberry field trials, ASD ...

  10. Factors governing phytoplankton biomass and production in tropical estuaries of western Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ching-Wen; Chuang, Yi-Li; Chou, Lien-Siang; Chen, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Hsing-Juh

    2016-04-01

    Factors governing phytoplankton community composition and production in tropical estuaries remain mostly unknown. We aimed to quantify phytoplankton biomass, production, and community composition seasonally in 2 tropical estuaries with different levels of nutrient concentrations and turbidity, and we compared them with an offshore control site on the western coast of central Taiwan for two years. Phytoplankton biomass and production varied with season and site. Annual integrated primary production showed that these three sites were mesotrophic systems. Spearman rank correlations showed that phytoplankton biomass and production were positively correlated with water temperature, but negatively correlated with turbidity. The threshold of turbidity was 12 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU), above which phytoplankton chlorophyll a concentrations were <0.5 mg m-3, and gross production rate was <100 mg C m-3 d-1. The results of nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) showed that the community was primarily structured by season and secondarily by site. The functional traits further showed that turbidity, water temperature, and SiO2 concentration were governing factors for the variations in the community. In summary, turbidity was the main factor governing phytoplankton biomass and production, whereas water temperature and SiO2 concentration had both a direct effect on production and an indirect effect by changing community composition.

  11. Do climate factors govern soil microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L.; Guo, C.; Lü, X.; Yuan, S.; Wang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil microbial communities play important role in organic matter decomposition, nutrient cycling and vegetation dynamic. However, little is known about factors driving soil microbial community composition at large scales. The objective of this study was to determine whether climate dominates among environmental factors governing microbial community composition and biomass at a regional scale. Here, we compared soil microbial communities using phospholipid fatty acid method across 7 land use types from 23 locations in North-East China Transect (850 km x 50 km). The results showed that soil water availability and land use changes exhibited the dominant effects on soil microbial community composition and biomass at the regional scale, while climate factors (expressed as a function of large-scale spatial variation) did not show strong relationships with distribution of microbial community composition. Likewise, factors such as spatial structure, soil texture, nutrient availability and vegetation types were not important. Wetter soils had higher contributions of gram-positive bacteria, whereas drier soils had higher contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Heavily disturbed soils had lower contributions of gram-negative bacteria and fungi than historically disturbed and undisturbed soils. The lowest microbial biomass appeared in the wettest and driest soils. In conclusion, dominant climate factors, commonly known to structure distribution of macroorganisms, were not the most important drivers governing regional pattern of microbial communities because of inclusion of irrigated and managed practices. In comparison, soil water regime and land use types appear to be primary determinants of microbial community composition and biomass.

  12. Analysis of the financial factors governing the profitability of lunar helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Thompson, H.; Ott, S.

    1989-01-01

    Financial factors influencing the profitability of the mining and utilization of lunar helium-3 are examined. The analysis addressed the following questions: (1) which financial factors have the greatest leverage on the profitability of He-3; (2) over what range can these factors be varied to keep the He-3 option profitable; and (3) what ultimate effect could this energy source have on the price of electricity for U.S. consumers. Two complementary methods of analysis were used in the assessment: rate of return on incremental investment required and reduction revenue requirements (total cost to customers) achieved. Some of the factors addressed include energy demand, power generation costs with and without fusion, profitability for D-He(3) fusion, annual capital and operating costs, launch mass and costs, He-3 price, and government funding. Specific conclusions are made with respect to each of the companies considered: utilities, lunar mining company, and integrated energy company.

  13. Assessing social capacity and vulnerability of private households to natural hazards - integrating psychological and governance factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werg, J.; Grothmann, T.; Schmidt, P.

    2013-06-01

    People are unequally affected by extreme weather events in terms of mortality, morbidity and financial losses; this is the case not only for developing, but also for industrialized countries. Previous research has established indicators for identifying who is particularly vulnerable and why, focusing on socio-demographic factors such as income, age, gender, health and minority status. However, these factors can only partly explain the large disparities in the extent to which people are affected by natural hazards. Moreover, these factors are usually not alterable in the short to medium term, which limits their usefulness for strategies of reducing social vulnerability and building social capacity. Based on a literature review and an expert survey, we propose an approach for refining assessments of social vulnerability and building social capacity by integrating psychological and governance factors.

  14. Spatial and temporal variation in factors governing the radon source potential of soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sextro, R.G.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Turk, B.H.

    1988-10-01

    Soil is the predominant source of radon in most US homes, particularly for those homes with elevated indoor concentrations. Three factors help govern the indoor radon concentration, the radon production rate in the soil, the air permeability of the soil surrounding the building substructure, and the coupling between the soil and the building. In order to evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of the first two factors, soil permeabilities and soil gas radon concentrations have been measured at different locations and as a function of time. The spatial variability in permeability measurements at an individual homesite was seen to range from approximately a factor of ten to more than four orders of magnitude. Similarly, spatial variations in soil gas radon concentrations are less than a factor of two at some homesites to a factor of /approximately/200 at others. The temporal changes in permeability and soil gas radon at a given sampling location are somewhat smaller, yielding variations ranging from less than a factor of two to a factor of /approximately/90 in the case of permeability, and from less than a factor of three to a factor of /approximately/40 for soil gas radon concentrations. A method of combining measurements of soil gas radon and air permeability to provide a characteristic parameter -- the radon source potential -- has been developed and is briefly reviewed. Calculated indoor radon concentrations, based on measured values of radon source potential at a few sample homesites, correlate with the measured indoor radon concentrations. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Factors controlling spatial and temporal patterns of multiple pesticide compounds in groundwater (Hesbaye chalk aquifer, Belgium).

    PubMed

    Hakoun, Vivien; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain; Brouyère, Serge

    2017-04-01

    Factors governing spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide compounds (pesticides and metabolites) concentrations in chalk aquifers remain unclear due to complex flow processes and multiple sources. To uncover which factors govern pesticide compound concentrations in a chalk aquifer, we develop a methodology based on time series analyses, uni- and multivariate statistics accounting for concentrations below detection limits. The methodology is applied to long records (1996-2013) of a restricted compound (bentazone), three banned compounds (atrazine, diuron and simazine) and two metabolites (deethylatrazine (DEA) and 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM)) sampled in the Hesbaye chalk aquifer in Belgium. In the confined area, all compounds had non-detects fractions >80%. By contrast, maximum concentrations exceeded EU's drinking-water standard (100 ng L(-1)) in the unconfined area. This contrast confirms that recent recharge and polluted water did not reach the confined area, yet. Multivariate analyses based on variables representative of the hydrogeological setting revealed higher diuron and simazine concentrations in the southeast of the unconfined area, where urban activities dominate land use and where the aquifer lacks protection from a less permeable layer of hardened chalk. At individual sites, positive correlations (up to τ=0.48 for bentazone) between pesticide compound concentrations and multi-annual groundwater level fluctuations confirm occurrences of remobilization. A downward temporal trend of atrazine concentrations likely reflects decreasing use of this compound over the last 28 years. However, the lack of a break in concentrations time series and maximum concentrations of atrazine, simazine, DEA and BAM exceeding EU's standard post-ban years provide evidence of persistence. Contrasting upward trends in bentazone concentrations show that a time lag is required for restriction measures to be efficient. These results shed light on factors governing pesticide

  16. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  17. Multiple metabolic risk factors and mammographic breast density

    PubMed Central

    Tehranifar, Parisa; Reynolds, Diane; Fan, Xiaozhou; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Engmann, Natalie J.; Flom, Julie D.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined whether obesity and a history of diabetes, hypertension, and elevated cholesterol, individually and in combination, are associated with breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Methods We measured percent density and dense area using a computer-assisted method (n=191; age range=40-61 years). We used linear regression models to examine the associations of each metabolic condition and the number of metabolic conditions (0, 1, 2, and 3 or 4 conditions) with breast density. Results Among individual metabolic conditions, only high blood cholesterol was inversely associated with percent density (β=-5.4, 95% CI: -8.5, -2.2) and dense area (β= -6.7, 95% CI=-11.1, -2.4). Having multiple metabolic conditions was also associated with lower breast density, with 2 conditions and 3 or 4 conditions vs. 0 conditions associated with 6.4% (95% CI:-11.2, -1.6) and 7.4% (95% CI:-12.9, -1.9) reduction in percent density and with 6.5 cm2 (95% CI: -13.1, -0.1) and 9.5 cm2 (95% CI: -17.1, -1.9) smaller dense area. Conclusions A history of high blood cholesterol and multiple metabolic conditions were associated with lower relative and absolute measures of breast density. The positive association between metabolic abnormalities and breast cancer risk may be driven by pathways unrelated to mammographic breast density. PMID:24698111

  18. Multiple Factors Influence Glomerular Albumin Permeability in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Ruben M.; Wagner, Mark C.; Patel, Monica; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B.; Rhodes, George J.; Wang, Exing; Wean, Sarah E.; Clendenon, Sherry S.

    2012-01-01

    Different laboratories recently reported incongruous results describing the quantification of albumin filtration using two-photon microscopy. We investigated the factors that influence the glomerular sieving coefficient for albumin (GSCA) in an effort to explain these discordant reports and to develop standard operating procedures for determining GSCA. Multiple factors influenced GSCA, including the kidney depth of image acquisition (10–20 μm was appropriate), the selection of fluorophore (probes emitting longer wavelengths were superior), the selection of plasma regions for fluorescence measurements, the size and molecular dispersion characteristics of dextran polymers if used, dietary status, and the genetic strain of rat. Fasting reduced the GSCA in Simonsen Munich Wistar rats from 0.035±0.005 to 0.016±0.004 (P<0.01). Frömter Munich Wistar rats had a much lower GSCA in both the fed and the fasted states. Finally, we documented extensive albumin transcytosis with vesicular and tubular delivery to and fusion with the basolateral membrane in S1 proximal tubule cells. In summary, these results help explain the previously conflicting microscopy and micropuncture data describing albumin filtration and highlight the dynamic nature of glomerular albumin permeability. PMID:22223875

  19. Multiple Signals Govern Utilization of a Polysaccharide in the Gut Bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron

    PubMed Central

    Schwalm, Nathan D.; Townsend, Guy E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The utilization of simple sugars is widespread across all domains of life. In contrast, the breakdown of complex carbohydrates is restricted to a subset of organisms. A regulatory paradigm for integration of complex polysaccharide breakdown with simple sugar utilization was established in the mammalian gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, whereby sensing of monomeric fructose regulates catabolism of both fructose and polymeric fructans. We now report that a different regulatory paradigm governs utilization of monomeric arabinose and the arabinose polymer arabinan. We establish that (i) arabinan utilization genes are controlled by a transcriptional activator that responds to arabinan and by a transcriptional repressor that responds to arabinose, (ii) arabinose utilization genes are regulated directly by the arabinose-responding repressor but indirectly by the arabinan-responding activator, and (iii) activation of both arabinan and arabinose utilization genes requires a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator necessary for survival in the mammalian gut. Genomic analysis predicts that this paradigm is broadly applicable to the breakdown of other polysaccharides in both B. thetaiotaomicron and other gut Bacteroides spp. The uncovered mechanism enables regulation of polysaccharide utilization genes in response to both the polysaccharide and its breakdown products. PMID:27729509

  20. Loop-loop interactions govern multiple steps in indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zaccardi, Margot J; O'Rourke, Kathleen F; Yezdimer, Eric M; Loggia, Laura J; Woldt, Svenja; Boehr, David D

    2014-03-01

    Substrate binding, product release, and likely chemical catalysis in the tryptophan biosynthetic enzyme indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) are dependent on the structural dynamics of the β1α1 active-site loop. Statistical coupling analysis and molecular dynamic simulations had previously indicated that covarying residues in the β1α1 and β2α2 loops, corresponding to Arg54 and Asn90, respectively, in the Sulfolobus sulfataricus enzyme (ssIGPS), are likely important for coordinating functional motions of these loops. To test this hypothesis, we characterized site mutants at these positions for changes in catalytic function, protein stability and structural dynamics for the thermophilic ssIGPS enzyme. Although there were only modest changes in the overall steady-state kinetic parameters, solvent viscosity and solvent deuterium kinetic isotope effects indicated that these amino acid substitutions change the identity of the rate-determining step across multiple temperatures. Surprisingly, the N90A substitution had a dramatic effect on the general acid/base catalysis of the dehydration step, as indicated by the loss of the descending limb in the pH rate profile, which we had previously assigned to Lys53 on the β1α1 loop. These changes in enzyme function are accompanied with a quenching of ps-ns and µs-ms timescale motions in the β1α1 loop as measured by nuclear magnetic resonance studies. Altogether, our studies provide structural, dynamic and functional rationales for the coevolution of residues on the β1α1 and β2α2 loops, and highlight the multiple roles that the β1α1 loop plays in IGPS catalysis. Thus, substitution of covarying residues in the active-site β1α1 and β2α2 loops of indole-3-glycerol phosphate synthase results in functional, structural, and dynamic changes, highlighting the multiple roles that the β1α1 loop plays in enzyme catalysis and the importance of regulating the structural dynamics of this loop through noncovalent

  1. Multiple Sclerosis Associated Risk Factors: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    POOROLAJAL, Jalal; MAZDEH, Mehrdokht; SAATCHI, Mohammad; TALEBI GHANE, Elaheh; BIDERAFSH, Azam; LOTFI, Bahar; FERYADRES, Mohammad; PAJOHI, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hamadan Province is one of the high-risk regions in Iran for Multiple sclerosis (MS). A majority of the epidemiological studies conducted in Iran addressing MS are descriptive. This study was conducted to assess MS and its associated risk factors in Hamadan Province, the west of Iran. Methods: This case-control study compared 100 patients with MS (case group) and 100 patients with acute infectious diseases (control group) from September 2013 to March 2014. A checklist was used to assess the demographic, medical, and family history of the patients. The Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire was also used to assess personality type. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression model with Stata 11 software program. Results: The adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimate of MS was 4.37 (95% CI: 2.33, 8.20) for females compared to males; 0.15 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.43) for people aged above 50 years compared to aged 14 to 29 years; 0.44 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.91) for overweight or obese people compared to normal weights. Crude OR indicated a significant association between the occurrence of MS and exclusive breast feeding, season of birth, and smoking. However, the association was not statistically significant after adjustment for other covariates. Conclusion: The risk of MS is significantly lower in male gender, obese/overweight, and old people. Furthermore, non-smoking, non-exclusive breast-feeding, and born in autumn may increase the risk of MS but need further investigation. However, long-term large prospective cohort studies are needed to investigate the true effect of the potential risk factors on MS. PMID:26744707

  2. Pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Capel, Peter D.

    1999-01-01

    More than 20 years after the ban of DDT and other organochlorine pesticides, pesticides continue to be detected in air, rain, soil, surface water, bed sediment, and aquatic and terrestrial biota throughout the world. Recent research suggests that low levels of some of these pesticides may have the potential to affect the development, reproduction, and behavior of fish and wildlife, and possibly humans. Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors assesses the occurrence and behavior of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota-the two major compartments of the hydrologic system where organochlorine pesticides are most likely to accumulate. This book collects, for the first time, results from several hundred monitoring studies and field experiments, ranging in scope from individual sites to the entire nation. Comprehensive tables provide concise summaries of study locations, pesticides analyzed, and study outcomes. Comprehensive and extensively illustrated, Pesticides in Stream Sediment and Aquatic Biota: Distribution, Trends, and Governing Factors evaluates the sources, environmental fate, geographic distribution, and long-term trends of pesticides in bed sediment and aquatic biota. The book focuses on organochlorine pesticides, but also assesses the potential for currently used pesticides to be found in bed sediment and aquatic biota. Topics covered in depth include the effect of land use on pesticide occurrence, mechanisms of pesticide uptake and accumulation by aquatic biota, and the environmental significance of observed levels of pesticides in stream sediment and aquatic biota.

  3. Regulatory factors governing adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Hong, HuiQi; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Chen, Leilei

    2015-03-31

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent mode of transcript modification in higher eukaryotes, is catalysed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). A-to-I editing imposes an additional layer of gene regulation as it dictates various aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA folding, processing, localization and degradation. Furthermore, editing events in exonic regions contribute to proteome diversity as translational machinery decodes inosine as guanosine. Although it has been demonstrated that dysregulated A-to-I editing contributes to various diseases, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing this critical cellular process have yet to be fully elucidated. However, integration of previous studies revealed that regulation of A-to-I editing is multifaceted, weaving an intricate network of auto- and transregulations, including the involvement of virus-originated factors like adenovirus-associated RNA. Taken together, it is apparent that tipping of any regulatory components will have profound effects on A-to-I editing, which in turn contributes to both normal and aberrant physiological conditions. A complete understanding of this intricate regulatory network may ultimately be translated into new therapeutic strategies against diseases driven by perturbed RNA editing events. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms governing A-to-I editing and propose the role of other co-factors that may be involved in this complex regulatory process.

  4. Molecular mechanisms of multiple toxin–antitoxin systems are coordinated to govern the persister phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Fasani, Rick A.; Savageau, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Toxin–antitoxin systems are ubiquitous and have been implicated in persistence, the multidrug tolerance of bacteria, biofilms, and, by extension, most chronic infections. However, their purpose, apparent redundancy, and coordination remain topics of debate. Our model relates molecular mechanisms to population dynamics for a large class of toxin–antitoxin systems and suggests answers to several of the open questions. The generic architecture of toxin–antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and even when the systems do not exhibit bistability alone, they can be coupled to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal and toxic states. Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch the system to the toxic state, creating a heterogeneous population of growing and nongrowing cells, or persisters, that exist under normal conditions, rather than as an induced response. Multiple toxin–antitoxin systems can be cooperatively marshaled for greater effect, with the dilution determined by growth rate serving as the coordinating signal. The model predicts and elucidates experimental results that show a characteristic correlation between persister frequency and the number of toxin–antitoxin systems. PMID:23781105

  5. Is Hypovitaminosis D One of the Environmental Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, Charles; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    The role of hypovitaminosis D as a possible risk factor for multiple sclerosis is reviewed. First, it is emphasized that hypovitaminosis D could be only one of the risk factors for multiple sclerosis and that numerous other environmental and genetic risk factors appear to interact and combine to trigger the disease. Secondly, the classical…

  6. Critical parameters governing energy density of Li-storage cathode materials unraveled by confirmatory factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohn, Kee-Sun; Han, Su Cheol; Park, Woon Bae; Pyo, Myoungho

    2016-03-01

    Despite extensive effort during the past few decades, a comprehensive understanding of the key variables governing the electrochemical properties of cathode materials in Li-ion batteries is still far from complete. To elucidate the critical parameters affecting energy density (ED) and capacity (Q) retention in layer and spinel cathodes, we data-mine the existing experimental data via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on a structural equation model (SEM), which is a proven, versatile tool in understanding complex problems in the social science. The data sets are composed of 18 and 15 parameters extracted from 38 layer and 33 spinel compounds, respectively. CFA reveals the irrelevance of Q retention to all the parameters we adopt, but it also reveals the sensitive variations of ED with specific parameters. We validate the usefulness of CFA in material science and pinpointed critical parameters for high-ED cathodes, hoping to suggest a new insight in materials design.

  7. What factors are most influential in governing stemflow production from plantation-grown teak trees?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Nobuaki; Levia, Delphis; Igarashi, Yasunori; Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Tanaka, Katsunori; Tantasirin, Chatchai; Nanko, Kazuki; Suzuki, Masakazu; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2017-01-01

    Stemflow (SF) has been recognized as an important process delivering water to spatially localized areas of the forest floor. Based on almost six years of daily SF data from nine teak trees in a Thai plantation, together with detailed above-canopy meteorological data and daily leaf area index (LAI) data, this study sought to better understand how specific biotic and abiotic factors affect both individual and stand-scale SF production from teak trees. Specifically, the factors affecting stemflow funneling ratio (SFFR) at individual and stand scales were analyzed and compared by means of boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis. The largest variation of SFFR among individual teak trees was observed in the leafed state. For trees taller than average, the BRT analysis revealed that vapor pressure deficit during rain was the most influential factor affecting SFFR. Vapor pressure deficit had a negative influence on SFFR, implying significant control of evaporative demand during rain. In contrast, for trees shorter than the average, rain duration (RD) was the most influential variable, having a positive correlation with SFFR. The stand-scale BRT analysis for all nine teak trees demonstrated that RD was the most influential factor affecting SFFR (exerting positive influence) but that an array of other factors (both abiotic and biotic) played intricate and complex roles in governing SFFR. The effect of LAI on SFFR was complicated and varied greatly among individual teak trees. It is possible that spatially heterogeneous flowpaths of intercepted water inside the teak canopy, which could be a product of the large-sized mature leaves of teak, may account for the tree-to-tree variation in the responses of SFFR to changing LAI. Although our study focused on teak trees, the demonstrated physically-based mechanistic explanations of stemflow production could apply to other even-aged deciduous forests and monospecific plantations.

  8. What Are the Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this cancer are at least 65 years old. Gender Men are slightly more likely to develop multiple ... would like to unsubscribe/opt out from our communications, please follow this link: http://www.cancer.org/ ...

  9. RepA-WH1 prionoid: Clues from bacteria on factors governing phase transitions in amyloidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Giraldo, Rafael; Fernández, Cristina; Moreno-del Álamo, María; Molina-García, Laura; Revilla-García, Aída; Sánchez-Martínez, María Cruz; Giménez-Abián, Juan F.; Moreno-Díaz de la Espina, Susana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In bacterial plasmids, Rep proteins initiate DNA replication by undergoing a structural transformation coupled to dimer dissociation. Amyloidogenesis of the ‘winged-helix’ N-terminal domain of RepA (WH1) is triggered in vitro upon binding to plasmid-specific DNA sequences, and occurs at the bacterial nucleoid in vivo. Amyloid fibers are made of distorted RepA-WH1 monomers that assemble as single or double intertwined tubular protofilaments. RepA-WH1 causes in E. coli an amyloid proteinopathy, which is transmissible from mother to daughter cells, but not infectious, and enables conformational imprinting in vitro and in vivo; i.e. RepA-WH1 is a ‘prionoid’. Microfluidics allow the assessment of the intracellular dynamics of RepA-WH1: bacterial lineages maintain two types (strains-like) of RepA-WH1 amyloids, either multiple compact cytotoxic particles or a single aggregate with the appearance of a fluidized hydrogel that it is mildly detrimental to growth. The Hsp70 chaperone DnaK governs the phase transition between both types of RepA-WH1 aggregates in vivo, thus modulating the vertical propagation of the prionoid. Engineering chimeras between the Sup35p/[PSI+] prion and RepA-WH1 generates [REP-PSI+], a synthetic prion exhibiting strong and weak phenotypic variants in yeast. These recent findings on a synthetic, self-contained bacterial prionoid illuminate central issues of protein amyloidogenesis. PMID:27040981

  10. Multiple functions of nucleosomes and regulatory factors in transcription.

    PubMed

    Workman, J L; Buchman, A R

    1993-03-01

    The in vivo packaging of DNA with histone proteins to form chromatin makes its transcription a difficult process. Biochemical and genetic studies are beginning to reveal mechanistic details of how transcriptional regulatory factors confront at least two hurdles created by nucleosomes, the primary structural unit of chromatin. Regulatory factors must gain access to their respective binding sites and activate the formation of transcription complexes at core promoter elements. Distinct regulatory factors may be specialized to perform these functions.

  11. Factors governing particle number emissions in a waste-to-energy plant.

    PubMed

    Ozgen, Senem; Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-05-01

    Particle number concentration and size distribution measurements were performed on the stack gas of a waste-to-energy plant which co-incinerates municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and clinical waste in two lines. Average total number of particles was found to be 4.0·10(5)cm(-3) and 1.9·10(5)cm(-3) for the line equipped with a wet flue gas cleaning process and a dry cleaning system, respectively. Ultrafine particles (dp<100nm) accounted for about 97% of total number concentration for both lines, whereas the nanoparticle (dp<50nm) contribution differed slightly between the lines (87% and 84%). The experimental data is explored statistically through some multivariate pattern identifying methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis to help the interpretation of the results regarding the origin of the particles in the flue gas with the objective of determining the factors governing the particle number emissions. The higher moisture of the flue gas in the wet cleaning process was found to increase the particle number emissions on average by a factor of about 2 due to increased secondary formation of nanoparticles through nucleation of gaseous precursors such as sulfuric acid, ammonia and water. The influence of flue gas dilution and cooling monitored through the variation of the sampling conditions also confirms the potential effect of the secondary new particle formation in increasing the particle number emissions. This finding shows the importance of reporting the experimental conditions in detail to enable the comparison and interpretation of particle number emissions. Regarding the fuel characteristics no difference was observed in terms of particle number concentration and size distributions between the clinical waste feed and the municipal solid waste co-incineration with sludge.

  12. Factors Governing the Germination of Sulfate-Reducing Desulfotomaculum Endospores Involved in Oil Reservoir Souring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherry, A.; Bell, E.; Cueto, G.; Suarez-Suarez, A.; Pilloni, G.; Hubert, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoir souring is caused by the activity of sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) in subsurface oil reservoirs, and is often induced by seawater injection during secondary oil recovery. Souring can potentially contribute to corrosion of infrastructure, health and safety hazards to the workforce, and reduction in value by increasing refining costs associated with producing the oil resource. Souring causes annual losses in the billions of dollars to the oil industry. Endospore-forming SRM, such as Desulfotomaculum spp., are often suspected culprits in reservoir souring. Endospores can survive unfavourable conditions for long periods, yet remain poised to germinate and become active if conditions become more favourable. Factors governing endospore germination are poorly understood, but are thought to include availability of nutrients, possibly metabolic by products of other anaerobic bioprocesses, and/or variations in temperature. Most research has focused on aerobic Bacillus spp., with very few studies dedicated to spore germination among anaerobes (order Clostridiales) including the sulfate-reducing Desulfotomaculum found in anoxic subsurface petroleum reservoirs. For Desulfotomaculum spores in deep hot oil reservoirs, cold seawater introduction during secondary oil recovery may create thermal viability zones for sulfate reduction near the injection wellbore. To evaluate these processes, sulfate-containing microcosms were prepared with different marine sediments as a source of spores, and amended with organic substrates in the presence or absence of oil. Incubation at 80°C for six days was followed by a down-shift in temperature to 60°C to mimic cold seawater injection into a hot reservoir. Souring did not occur at 80°C, but commenced within hours at 60°C. Microcosms were monitored for sulfate reduction and organic acids in combination with next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA genes (Ion Torrent, Illumina MiSeq). Through a combination of high

  13. Exploring the role of nerve growth factor in multiple sclerosis: implications in myelin repair.

    PubMed

    Acosta, C M R; Cortes, C; MacPhee, H; Namaka, M P

    2013-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease resulting from targeted destruction of central nervous system (CNS) myelin. MS is suggested to be an autoimmune disease involving the pathogenic activation of CD4(+) T cells by a foreign antigen in the peripheral blood. The activated CD4(+) T cells liberate inflammatory cytokines that facilitate the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) promoting their passage into the CNS. Inside the CNS, CD4(+) T cells become re-activated by myelin proteins sharing a similar structure to the foreign antigen that initially triggered the immune response. The CD4(+) T cells continue to liberate inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), which activates macrophages and antibodies responsible for the phagocytosis of myelin. Acute CNS lesions can be re-myelinated, however, the repair of chronic demyelinating lesions is limited, leading to permanent neurological deficits. Although current MS treatments reduce severity and slow disease progression, they do not directly repair damaged myelin. Henceforth, recent treatment strategies have focused on neurotrophins, such as nerve growth factor (NGF) for myelin repair. NGF promotes axonal regeneration, survival, protection and differentiation of oligodendrocytes (OGs) and facilitates migration and proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors (OPs) to the sites of myelin damage. NGF also directly regulates key structural proteins that comprise myelin. Interestingly, NGF also induces the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), another integral neurotrophin involved in myelination. The intricate signaling between neurotrophins and cytokines that governs myelin repair supports the role of NGF as a leading therapeutic candidate in white matter disorders, such as MS.

  14. Insulin-like growth factor 1: common mediator of multiple enterotrophic hormones and growth factors

    PubMed Central

    Bortvedt, Sarah F.; Lund, P. Kay

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize recent evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of multiple trophic factors and discuss clinical relevance. Recent findings Recent reviews and original reports indicate benefits of growth hormone (GH) and long-acting glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) analogues in short bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease. This review highlights evidence that biomarkers of sustained small intestinal growth or mucosal healing and evaluation of intestinal epithelial stem cell biomarkers may improve clinical measures of intestinal growth or response to trophic hormones. Compelling evidence that IGF1 mediates growth effects of GH and GLP2 on intestine or linear growth in preclinical models of resection or Crohn’s disease is presented, along with a concept that these hormones or IGF1 may enhance sustained growth if given early after bowel resection. Evidence that SOCS protein induction by GH or GLP2 in normal or inflamed intestine, may limit IGF1-induced growth, but protect against risk of dysplasia or fibrosis is reviewed. Whether IGF1 receptor mediates IGF1 action and potential roles of insulin receptors are addressed. Summary IGF1 has a central role in mediating trophic hormone action in small intestine. Better understanding of benefits and risks of IGF1, receptors that mediate IGF1 action, and factors that limit undesirable growth are needed. PMID:22241077

  15. Molecular and Physicochemical Factors Governing Solubility of the HIV gp41 Ectodomain.

    PubMed

    Manssour-Triedo, Fadia; Crespillo, Sara; Morel, Bertrand; Casares, Salvador; Mateo, Pedro L; Notka, Frank; Roger, Marie G; Mouz, Nicolas; El-Habib, Raphaelle; Conejero-Lara, Francisco

    2016-08-23

    The HIV gp41 ectodomain (e-gp41) is an attractive target for the development of vaccines and drugs against HIV because of its crucial role in viral fusion to the host cell. However, because of the high insolubility of e-gp41, most biophysical and structural analyses have relied on the production of truncated versions removing the loop region of gp41 or the utilization of nonphysiological solubilizing conditions. The loop region of gp41 is also known as principal immunodominant domain (PID) because of its high immunogenicity, and it is essential for gp41-mediated HIV fusion. In this study we identify the aggregation-prone regions of the amino acid sequence of the PID and engineer a highly soluble mutant that preserves the trimeric structure of the wild-type e-gp41 under physiological pH. Furthermore, using a reverse mutagenesis approach, we analyze the role of mutated amino acids upon the physicochemical factors that govern solubility of e-gp41. On this basis, we propose a molecular model for e-gp41 self-association, which can guide the production of soluble e-gp41 mutants for future biophysical analyses and biotechnological applications.

  16. Factors governing hole expansion ratio of steel sheets with smooth sheared edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jae Ik; Jung, Jaimyun; Lee, Hak Hyeon; Kim, Gyo-Sung; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-11-01

    Stretch-flangeability measured using hole expansion test (HET) represents the ability of a material to form into a complex shaped component. Despite its importance in automotive applications of advanced high strength steels, stretch-flangeability is a less known sheet metal forming property. In this paper, we investigate the factors governing hole expansion ratio (HER) by means of tensile test and HET. We correlate a wide range of tensile properties with HERs of steel sheet specimens because the stress state in the hole edge region during the HET is almost the same as that of the uniaxial tensile test. In order to evaluate an intrinsic HER of steel sheet specimens, the initial hole of the HET specimen is produced using a milling process after punching, which can remove accumulated shearing damage and micro-void in the hole edge region that is present when using the standard HER evaluation method. It was found that the intrinsic HER of steel sheet specimens was proportional to the strain rate sensitivity exponent and post uniform elongation.

  17. Crepuscular Flight Activity of an Invasive Insect Governed by Interacting Abiotic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January–March; primary flight: May–July; and secondary flight: September–October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30°C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35°C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30°C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for

  18. Peak Stress Intensity Factor Governs Crack Propagation Velocity In Crosslinked UHMWPE

    PubMed Central

    Sirimamilla, P. Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare

    2013-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax-Kmin, MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax, during cyclic loading, rather than by ΔK. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasi-static manner. The current study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax. The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components. PMID:23165898

  19. Crepuscular flight activity of an invasive insect governed by interacting abiotic factors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigen; Seybold, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and diurnal flight patterns of the invasive walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, were assessed between 2011 and 2014 in northern California, USA in the context of the effects of ambient temperature, light intensity, wind speed, and barometric pressure. Pityophthorus juglandis generally initiated flight in late January and continued until late November. This seasonal flight could be divided approximately into three phases (emergence: January-March; primary flight: May-July; and secondary flight: September-October). The seasonal flight response to the male-produced aggregation pheromone was consistently female-biased (mean of 58.9% females). Diurnal flight followed a bimodal pattern with a minor peak in mid-morning and a major peak at dusk (76.4% caught between 1800 and 2200 h). The primarily crepuscular flight activity had a Gaussian relationship with ambient temperature and barometric pressure but a negative exponential relationship with increasing light intensity and wind speed. A model selection procedure indicated that the four abiotic factors collectively and interactively governed P. juglandis diurnal flight. For both sexes, flight peaked under the following second-order interactions among the factors when: 1) temperature between was 25 and 30 °C and light intensity was less than 2000 lux; 2) temperature was between 25 and 35 °C and barometric pressure was between 752 and 762 mba (and declined otherwise); 3) barometric pressure was between 755 and 761 mba and light intensity was less than 2000 lux (and declined otherwise); and 4) temperature was ca. 30 °C and wind speed was ca. 2 km/h. Thus, crepuscular flight activity of this insect can be best explained by the coincidence of moderately high temperature, low light intensity, moderate wind speed, and low to moderate barometric pressure. The new knowledge provides physical and temporal guidelines for the application of semiochemical-based control techniques as part of an IPM program for this

  20. Peak stress intensity factor governs crack propagation velocity in crosslinked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Sirimamilla, Abhiram; Furmanski, Jevan; Rimnac, Clare

    2013-04-01

    Ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) has been successfully used as a bearing material in total joint replacement components. However, these bearing materials can fail as a result of in vivo static and cyclic loads. Crack propagation behavior in this material has been considered using the Paris relationship which relates fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN (mm/cycle) versus the stress intensity factor range, ΔK (Kmax - Kmin , MPa√m). However, recent work suggests that the crack propagation velocity of conventional UHMWPE is driven by the peak stress intensity (Kmax ), not ΔK. The hypothesis of this study is that the crack propagation velocity of highly crosslinked and remelted UHMWPE is also driven by the peak stress intensity, Kmax , during cyclic loading. To test this hypothesis, two highly crosslinked (65 kGy and 100 kGy) and remelted UHMWPE materials were examined. Frequency, waveform, and R-ratio were varied between test conditions to determine the governing factor for fatigue crack propagation. It was found that the crack propagation velocity in crosslinked UHMWPE is also driven by Kmax and not ΔK, and is dependent on loading waveform and frequency in a predictable quasistatic manner. This study supports that crack growth in crosslinked UHMWPE materials, even under cyclic loading conditions, can be described by a relationship between the velocity of crack growth, da/dt and the peak stress intensity, Kmax . The findings suggest that stable crack propagation can occur as a result of static loading only and this should be taken into consideration in design of UHMWPE total joint replacement components.

  1. Factors Influencing the Selection of the Systems Integration Organizational Model Type for Planning and Implementing Government High-Technology Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Leann; Utley, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    While there has been extensive research in defining project organizational structures for traditional projects, little research exists to support high technology government project s organizational structure definition. High-Technology Government projects differ from traditional projects in that they are non-profit, span across Government-Industry organizations, typically require significant integration effort, and are strongly susceptible to a volatile external environment. Systems Integration implementation has been identified as a major contributor to both project success and failure. The literature research bridges program management organizational planning, systems integration, organizational theory, and independent project reports, in order to assess Systems Integration (SI) organizational structure selection for improving the high-technology government project s probability of success. This paper will describe the methodology used to 1) Identify and assess SI organizational structures and their success rate, and 2) Identify key factors to be used in the selection of these SI organizational structures during the acquisition strategy process.

  2. The Evolution of Prognostic Factors in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Hassanein, Mona; Rasheed, Walid; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Alsharif, Fahad

    2017-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous hematologic malignancy involving the proliferation of plasma cells derived by different genetic events contributing to the development, progression, and prognosis of this disease. Despite improvement in treatment strategies of MM over the last decade, the disease remains incurable. All efforts are currently focused on understanding the prognostic markers of the disease hoping to incorporate the new therapeutic modalities to convert the disease into curable one. We present this comprehensive review to summarize the current standard prognostic markers used in MM along with novel techniques that are still in development and highlight their implications in current clinical practice. PMID:28321258

  3. Registered nurses select multiple factors associated with their errors.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mary Beth

    2010-06-01

    Errors in health care are a leading cause of death and injury, requiring new methods for evaluating the efficacy of health care services. A board of nursing staff member conducted a study to examine perceptions of registered nurses who had been sanctioned for practice errors to ascertain the level of patient harm, and individual, health care team, patient, and system factors that contributed to the error or patient harm. Gaining the perspective of nurses who have been involved in a practice error can contribute to a better understanding of the factors involved in error commission.

  4. Teachers' Grading Decision Making: Multiple Influencing Factors and Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liying; Sun, Youyi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated Chinese secondary school English language teachers' grading decision making, focusing on the factors they considered and types of assessment they used for grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 secondary school English language teachers in China. Descriptive analyses of the questionnaire data showed that these teachers…

  5. Investigation of Multiple Human Factors in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Huang, Pei-Ren; Shih, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of personalized learning systems have been developed and they mainly focus on learners' prior knowledge. On the other hand, previous research suggested that gender differences and cognitive styles have great effects on student learning. To this end, this study examines how human factors, especially gender differences…

  6. E-Government and Citizen Adoption of Innovations: Factors Underlying Citizen Use of the Internet for State Tax Filing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Electronic government has been embraced by many organizations seeking to dramatically improve service delivery, but results to date have often fallen short of expectations. This dissertation is focused on state revenue agencies and their electronic tax filing mechanisms for state individual income taxes. It asks: What factors best explain whether…

  7. Multiple jeopardy: risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring.

    PubMed

    Luthar, S S; Cushing, G; Merikangas, K R; Rounsaville, B J

    1998-01-01

    Objectives of this study were to ascertain risk and protective factors in the adjustment of 78 school-age and teenage offspring of opioid- and cocaine-abusing mothers. Using a multimethod, multiinformant approach, child outcomes were operationalized via lifetime psychiatric diagnoses and everyday social competence (each based on both mother and child reports), and dimensional assessments of symptoms (mother report). Risk/protective factors examined included the child sociodemographic attributes of gender, age, and ethnicity, aspects of maternal psychopathology, and both mother's and children's cognitive functioning. Results revealed that greater child maladjustment was linked with increasing age, Caucasian (as opposed to African American) ethnicity, severity of maternal psychiatric disturbance, higher maternal cognitive abilities (among African Americans) and lower child cognitive abilities (among Caucasians). Limitations of the study are discussed, as are implications of findings for future research.

  8. Multiple Factors Involved in the Pathogenesis of White Matter Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jing; Wang, Dilong; Lan, Linfang

    2017-01-01

    White matter lesions (WMLs), also known as leukoaraiosis (LA) or white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), are characterized mainly by hyperintensities on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images. With the aging of the population and the development of imaging technology, the morbidity and diagnostic rates of WMLs are increasing annually. WMLs are not a benign process. They clinically manifest as cognitive decline and the subsequent development of dementia. Although WMLs are important, their pathogenesis is still unclear. This review elaborates on the advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of WMLs, focusing on anatomy, cerebral blood flow autoregulation, venous collagenosis, blood brain barrier disruption, and genetic factors. In particular, the attribution of WMLs to chronic ischemia secondary to venous collagenosis and cerebral blood flow autoregulation disruption seems reasonable. With the development of gene technology, the effect of genetic factors on the pathogenesis of WMLs is gaining gradual attention. PMID:28316994

  9. Characteristic Factors for Multiple Recurrence and Combinatorial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Donald

    Since Furstenberg's proof of Szemerédi's theorem in the 1970s a mutually beneficial relationship has blossomed between ergodic theory and density Ramsey theory. In this thesis we contribute to this relationship by using the method of characteristic factors to prove some extensions and generalizations of Szemeredi's theorem, building on recent work by many authors. Specifically, in Chapter 3 we prove a two-sided version of the Furstenberg correspondence theorem for amenable groups, in Chapter 4 we describe characteristic factors for correlations that generalize Szemeredi's theorem to amenable groups, in Chapter 5 we enlarge the collections of polynomials for which the multidimensional polynomial Szemeredi theorem ins known to hold, and in Chapter 7 we prove that every large subset of an amenable group contains a two-sided finite products set.

  10. Factors Associated with Multiple Biomarkers of Systemic Inflammation†

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Sandi L.; Kantor, Elizabeth D.; Song, Xiaoling; Milne, Ginger L.; Lampe, Johanna W.; Kratz, Mario; White, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Background While much is known about correlates of C-reactive protein (CRP), little is known about correlates of other inflammation biomarkers. As these measures are increasingly being used in epidemiologic studies, it is important to determine what factors affect inflammation biomarker concentrations. Methods Using age, sex and body mass index (BMI) adjusted linear regression, we examined 38 exposures (demographic and anthropometric measures, chronic disease history, NSAIDs, dietary factors, supplement use) of 8 inflammation biomarkers [CRP, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR) in plasma; and prostaglandin E2 –metabolite (PGE-M) in urine] in 217 adults, aged 50-76 years. Results Increasing age was associated with higher concentrations of all biomarkers except IL-1β. BMI was positively associated with CRP and sTNFR I and II. Saturated fat intake was associated with increased CRP, sTNFRII, TNF-α, and IL-1β, while EPA+DHA intake (diet or total) was associated with decreased CRP, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Results for sex were varied: CRP and IL-6 were lower among men, whereas PGE-M and sTNFRI were higher. Higher CRP was also associated with smoking, HRT use, and γ-tocopherol intake; lower CRP with physical activity, and intakes of dietary vitamin C and total fiber. Conclusions Although the associations varied by biomarker, the factors having the greatest number of significant associations (p<=0.05) with the inflammation biomarkers were age, BMI, dietary saturated fat and EPA+DHA omega 3 fatty acids. Impact Our results suggest that potential confounders in epidemiologic studies assessing associations with inflammation biomarkers vary across specific biomarkers. PMID:26908433

  11. Impact of Multiple Factors on the Degree of Tinnitus Distress

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Petra; Szczepek, Agnieszka J.; Rose, Matthias; McKenna, Laurence; Olze, Heidi; Mazurek, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The primary cause of subjective tinnitus is a dysfunction of the auditory system; however, the degree of distress tinnitus causes depends largely on the psychological status of the patient. Our goal was to attempt to associate the grade of tinnitus-related distress with the psychological distress, physical, or psychological discomfort patients experienced, as well as potentially relevant social parameters, through a simultaneous analysis of these factors. Methods: We determined the level of tinnitus-related distress in 531 tinnitus patients using the German version of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ). In addition, we used the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ); General Depression Scale Allgemeine Depression Skala (ADS), Berlin Mood Questionnaire (BSF); somatic symptoms inventory (BI), and SF-8 health survey as well as general information collected through a medical history. Results: The TQ score significantly correlated with a score obtained using PSQ, ADS, BSF, BI, and SF-8 alongside psychosocial factors such as age, gender, and marital status. The level of hearing loss and the auditory properties of the specific tinnitus combined with perceived stress and the degree of depressive mood and somatic discomfort of a patient were identified as medium-strong predictors of chronic tinnitus. Social factors such as gender, age, or marital status also had an impact on the degree of tinnitus distress. The results that were obtained were implemented in a specific cortical distress network model. Conclusions: Using a large representative sample of patients with chronic tinnitus permitted a simultaneous statistical measurement of psychometric and audiological parameters in predicting tinnitus distress. We demonstrate that single factors can be distinguished in a manner that explains their causative association and influence on the induction of tinnitus-related distress. PMID:27445776

  12. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Johanna; Arponen, Anni; Visconti, Piero; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-09-27

    Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development.

  13. Governance factors in the identification of global conservation priorities for mammals

    PubMed Central

    Eklund, Johanna; Arponen, Anni; Visconti, Piero; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Global conservation priorities have often been identified based on the combination of species richness and threat information. With the development of the field of systematic conservation planning, more attention has been given to conservation costs. This leads to prioritizing developing countries, where costs are generally low and biodiversity is high. But many of these countries have poor governance, which may result in ineffective conservation or in larger costs than initially expected. We explore how the consideration of governance affects the selection of global conservation priorities for the world's mammals in a complementarity-based conservation prioritization. We use data on Control of Corruption (Worldwide Governance Indicators project) as an indicator of governance effectiveness, and gross domestic product per capita as an indicator of cost. We show that, while core areas with high levels of endemism are always selected as important regardless of governance and cost values, there are clear regional differences in selected sites when biodiversity, cost or governance are taken into account separately. Overall, the analysis supports the concentration of conservation efforts in most of the regions generally considered of high priority, but stresses the need for different conservation approaches in different continents owing to spatial patterns of governance and economic development. PMID:21844045

  14. On Studying Common Factor Variance in Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    A method for examining common factor variance in multiple-component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on an application of the latent variable modeling methodology and is concerned with evaluating observed variance explained by a global factor and by one or more additional component-specific factors. The approach furnishes…

  15. Sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease risk factors among older adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Peltzer, Karl; Chirinda, Witness; Musekiwa, Alfred; Kose, Zamakayise

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are important risk factors of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the sociodemographic predictors of multiple non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors experienced by elderly South Africans. Methods We conducted a national population-based cross-sectional survey with a sample of 3,840 individuals aged 50 years or above in South Africa in 2008. The outcome variable was the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors (tobacco use, alcohol, physical inactivity, fruit and vegetable intake, overweight or obesity, and hypertension) in each individual. The exposure variables were sociodemographic characteristics, namely, age, gender, education, wealth status, population group, marital status, and residence. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association between sociodemographic variables and multiple NCD risk factors. Results The mean number of NCD risk factors among all participants was three (95% confidence interval: 2.81–3.10). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that being female, being in the age group of 60–69 years, and being from the Coloured and Black African race were associated with a higher number of NCD risk factors. Marital status, educational level, wealth, and residence were not significantly associated with the number of NCD risk factors experienced. Conclusions The co-existence of multiple lifestyle NCD risk factors among the elderly is a public health concern. Comprehensive health-promotion interventions addressing the co-existence of multiple NCD risk factors tailored for specific sociodemographic groups are needed. PMID:24044582

  16. Multiple nutritional factors and the risk of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shiqian; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-03-14

    Background Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT) is considered to be the most common autoimmune disease. It is currently accepted that genetic susceptibility, environmental factors and immune disorders contribute to its development. Regarding nutritional factors, evidence implicates high iodine intake, deficiencies of selenium and iron with a potential relevance of vitamin D status. To elucidate the role of nutritional factors in the risk, pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT), PubMed and the Cochrane Library were searched for publications on iodine, iron, selenium and vitamin D and risk/treatment of HT. Summary Iodine: Chronic exposure to excess iodine intake induces autoimmune thyroiditis, partly because highly-iodinated thyroglobulin is more immunogenic. Recent introduction of universal salt iodization can have a similar, though transient, effect. Iron: Iron deficiency impairs thyroid metabolism. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the enzyme responsible for the production of thyroid hormones is a heme (iron-containing) enzyme; it becomes active at the apical surface of thyrocytes only after binding heme. HT patients are frequently iron-deficient as autoimmune gastritis, which impairs iron absorption, is a common co-morbidity. Treatment of anemic women with impaired thyroid function with iron improved thyroid-hormone concentrations while thyroxine and iron together were more effective in improving iron status. Selenium: Selenoproteins are essential to thyroid action. In particular, the glutathione peroxidases protect the thyroid by removing excessive hydrogen peroxide produced there for thyroglobulin iodination. Genetic data implicate the anti-inflammatory selenoprotein S in HT risk. There is evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials that selenium/selenoproteins can reduce TPO-antibody titer, hypothyroidism and post-partum thyroiditis. Vitamin D: Lower vitamin D status has been found in HT patients than in controls and inverse

  17. Multiple Spontaneous Intracerebral Hematoma without Presenting Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sangman; Park, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Ju-Seong

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of intracerebral hemorrhage in those aged 45–84 years is 0.3-0.5%. In people over 80 years of age, this incidence increases 25-fold compared with that of the total population. The most common causes of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the younger population are vascular malformation, aneurysm, and overuse of drugs. In contrast, common causes in the elderly include hypertension, tumors, and coagulation disorders. Here, we present a case involving a 72-year-old male patient who, without any of these predisposing conditions, was admitted to the hospital with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and showed signs of multifocal intracerebral hemorrhage during his stay. We conclude that spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage can occur without any predisposing factors, and can lead to a patient's death. Therefore, the possibility of recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage must be considered in patients with primary spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27847776

  18. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  19. Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  20. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of human remains in forensic examinations. The present study is aimed to compare the reliability and accuracy of stature estimation and to demonstrate the variability in estimated stature and actual stature using multiplication factor and regression analysis methods. The study is based on a sample of 246 subjects (123 males and 123 females) from North India aged between 17 and 20 years. Four anthropometric measurements; hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth taken on the left side in each subject were included in the study. Stature was measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Multiplication factors were calculated and linear regression models were derived for estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions. Derived multiplication factors and regression formula were applied to the hand and foot measurements in the study sample. The estimated stature from the multiplication factors and regression analysis was compared with the actual stature to find the error in estimated stature. The results indicate that the range of error in estimation of stature from regression analysis method is less than that of multiplication factor method thus, confirming that the regression analysis method is better than multiplication factor analysis in stature estimation.

  1. Multiple genetic factors in the heterogeneity of thyroid hormone resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.E.; Refetoff, S. ); Marcocci, C.; Bruno-Bossio, G. )

    1993-01-01

    Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone (GRTH), a syndrome of inherited tissue hyposensitivity to thyroid hormone, is linked to thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mutations. A typical feature of GRTH is variable severity of organ involvement among families that, surprisingly, does not correlate with the degree of T[sub 3]-binding impairment of the corresponding in vitro synthesized mutant TRs. Furthermore, variations in the clinical severity among family members harboring identical TR[beta] mutations have been reported. The authors compared serum levels of thyroid hormones that maintained a normal TSH in members of a large family with GRTH divided in three groups: Group A, 8 affected subjects with a mutation replacing arginine-320 with a histidine in the T[sub 3]-binding domain of TR[beta]; Group B, 11 first degree relatives (sibs and children of affected subjects) with no TR[beta] mutation; Group C, 16 controls related by marriage. TSH values were not different among the three groups. As expected, total and free T[sub 4] and T[sub 3], and rT[sub 3] levels were significantly higher in Group A vs Groups B and C. However, with the exception of T[sub 3], the same tests were also significantly higher in Group B vs Group C. The latter differences are not due to thyroid hormone transport in serum since TBG concentrations were not different. It is postulated that genetic variability of factors that contribute to the action of thyroid hormone modulate the phenotype of GRTH associated with TR[beta] mutations. 23 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. An Exploration of the Factors Influencing the Adoption of an IS Governance Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Sharon L.

    2013-01-01

    This research explored IT governance framework adoption, leveraging established IS theories. It applied both the technology acceptance model (TAM) and the technology, organization, environment (TOE) models. The study consisted of developing a model utilizing TOE and TAM, deriving relevant hypotheses. Interviews with a group of practitioners…

  3. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tastan Kirik, Özgecan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management…

  4. An Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptors 1 and 3 Axis Governs Cellular Senescence of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Promotes Growth and Vascularization of Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Tohru; Nakajima, Shinji; Okitsu, Yoko; Onishi, Yasushi; Fukuhara, Noriko; Ichinohasama, Ryo; Okada, Yoshinori; Harigae, Hideo

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells and there is much interest in how MSCs contribute to the regulation of the tumor microenvironment. Whether MSCs exert a supportive or suppressive effect on tumor progression is still controversial, but is likely dependent on a variety of factors that are tumor-type dependent. Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by growth of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. It has been shown that the progression of MM is governed by MSCs, which act as a stroma of the myeloma cells. Although stroma is created via mutual communication between myeloma cells and MSCs, the mechanism is poorly understood. Here we explored the role of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in cellular events where MSCs were converted into either MM-supportive or MM-suppressive stroma. We found that myeloma cells stimulate MSCs to produce autotaxin, an indispensable enzyme for the biosynthesis of LPA, and LPA receptor 1 (LPA1) and 3 (LPA3) transduce opposite signals to MSCs to determine the fate of MSCs. LPA3-silenced MSCs (siLPA3-MSCs) exhibited cellular senescence-related phenotypes in vitro, and significantly promoted progression of MM and tumor-related angiogenesis in vivo. In contrast, siLPA1-MSCs showed resistance to cellular senescence in vitro, and efficiently delayed progression of MM and tumor-related angiogenesis in vivo. Consistently, anti-MM effects obtained by LPA1-silencing in MSCs were completely reproduced by systemic administration of Ki6425, an LPA1 antagonist. Collectively, our results indicate that LPA signaling determines the fate of MSCs and has potential as a therapeutic target in MM. Stem Cells 2017;35:739-753.

  5. Investigating the Nature of Method Factors through Multiple Informants: Evidence for a Specific Factor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Tisak, John; Barbaranelli, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    When a self-report instrument includes a balanced number of positively and negatively worded items, factor analysts often use method factors to aid model fitting. The nature of these factors, often referred to as acquiescence, is still debated. Relying upon previous results (Alessandri et al., 2010; DiStefano & Motl, 2006, 2008; Rauch, Schweizer,…

  6. Modeling individual subtests of the WAIS IV with multiple latent factors.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Dennis J

    2013-01-01

    Performance on a cognitive test can be viewed either as measuring a unitary function or as reflecting the operation of multiple factors. Individual subtests in batteries designed to measure human abilities are commonly modeled as a single latent factor. Several latent factors are then used to model groups of subtests. However these latent factors are not independent as they are related through hierarchical or oblique structures. As a result, the simple structure of subtest performance results in complex latent factors. The present study used structural equation modeling to evaluate several multidimensional models of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-fourth edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Multidimensional models of subtest performance provided better model fit as compared to several previously proposed one dimensional models. These multidimensional models also generalized well to new samples of populations differing in age from that used to estimate the model parameters. Overall these results show that models that describe subtests as multidimensional functions of uncorrelated factors provided a better fit to the WAIS-IV correlations than models that describe subtests as one dimensional functions of correlated factors. There appears to be a trade-off in modeling subtests as one dimensional and modeling with homogeneous latent traits. More consideration should be given to models that include multiple uncorrelated latent factors as determinants of the performance on a given subtest. These results support the view that performance on any given cognitive test is potentially the result of multiple factors. Simple structure may be too simple.

  7. Modeling Individual Subtests of the WAIS IV with Multiple Latent Factors

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Performance on a cognitive test can be viewed either as measuring a unitary function or as reflecting the operation of multiple factors. Individual subtests in batteries designed to measure human abilities are commonly modeled as a single latent factor. Several latent factors are then used to model groups of subtests. However these latent factors are not independent as they are related through hierarchical or oblique structures. As a result, the simple structure of subtest performance results in complex latent factors. The present study used structural equation modeling to evaluate several multidimensional models of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales- fourth edition (WAIS-IV) subtests. Multidimensional models of subtest performance provided better model fit as compared to several previously proposed one dimensional models. These multidimensional models also generalized well to new samples of populations differing in age from that used to estimate the model parameters. Overall these results show that models that describe subtests as multidimensional functions of uncorrelated factors provided a better fit to the WAIS-IV correlations than models that describe subtests as one dimensional functions of correlated factors. There appears to be a trade-off in modeling subtests as one dimensional and modeling with homogeneous latent traits. More consideration should be given to models that include multiple uncorrelated latent factors as determinants of the performance on a given subtest. These results support the view that performance on any given cognitive test is potentially the result of multiple factors. Simple structure may be too simple. PMID:24058643

  8. Factors Associated With Occupational Sun-Protection Policies in Local Government Organizations in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Walkosz, Barbara J.; Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Wallis, Allan; Buller, Mary Klein; Scott, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Skin cancer prevention remains a national priority. Reducing chronic UV radiation exposure for outdoor workers through sun-safety practices is an important step to help reduce the incidence of skin cancer. OBJECTIVE To determine the presence of occupational sun-safety policies at local government organizations in a single state. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Of 571 potentially eligible local government organizations of Colorado cities, counties, and special tax districts, we enrolled 98 in a randomized pretest-posttest controlled experiment starting August 15, 2010, that evaluated an intervention to promote the adoption of sun-safety policies. We used a policy-coding protocol to evaluate personal sun-protection practices, environmental and administrative controls, and policy directives for sun safety starting February 10, 2011. We report the baseline assessment of the occupational sun-protection policies of these organizations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The presence of an occupational sun-safety policy. RESULTS Overall, 85 local government organizations (87%) had policies that required personal sun-protection practices, including the use of eyewear, hats, and protective clothing. However, of the 98 responding organizations, only 8 hat policies (8%), 10 eyewear policies (10%), and 7 clothing policies (7%) mentioned sun protection as the intent of the policy. Only cosmopoliteness, operationalized as proximity to an urban area, was associated with the presence of a sun-safety policy (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.98–1.00]; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Outdoor workers are at increased risk for skin cancer because of long-term exposure to solar UV radiation. Although organizational policies have the potential to increase sun protection in occupational settings, occupational sun-safety policies were uncommon among local governments. Opportunities exist for dermatologists and other physicians to influence occupational sun-safety practices and

  9. Multiple Motives, Conflicting Conceptions: Parsing the Contexts of Differentiated Access to Scientific Information in the Federal Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oltmann, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Scientific information, used by the U.S. federal government to formulate public policy in many arenas, is frequently contested and sometimes altered, blocked from publication, deleted from reports, or restricted in some way. This dissertation examines how and why restricted access to science policy (RASP) occurs through a comparative case study.…

  10. Service-Learning from a Distance: Partnering Multiple Universities and Local Governments in a Large Scale Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poindexter, Sandra; Arnold, Pamela; Osterhout, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Service-learning can be academically effective even when the distances between students and client organizations prevent face-to-face interchanges and site visits. Working with the State of Michigan and Michigan Townships Association, Michigan students from five universities learned about local government while helping Michigan townships develop…

  11. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y Transcription Factors Respond to Abiotic Stress in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Lin, Zhongyuan; Tao, Qing; Liang, Mingxiang; Zhao, Gengmao; Yin, Xiangzhen; Fu, Ruixin

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola), each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12) and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12) and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3) were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides insight into

  12. Multiple NUCLEAR FACTOR Y transcription factors respond to abiotic stress in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lin, Zhongyuan; Tao, Qing; Liang, Mingxiang; Zhao, Gengmao; Yin, Xiangzhen; Fu, Ruixin

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant NUCLEAR FACTOR Y (NF-Y) family are composed of the NF-YA, NF-YB, and NF-YC subunits. In Brassica napus (canola), each of these subunits forms a multimember subfamily. Plant NF-Ys were reported to be involved in several abiotic stresses. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple members of thirty three BnNF-Ys responded rapidly to salinity, drought, or ABA treatments. Transcripts of five BnNF-YAs, seven BnNF-YBs, and two BnNF-YCs were up-regulated by salinity stress, whereas the expression of thirteen BnNF-YAs, ten BnNF-YBs, and four BnNF-YCs were induced by drought stress. Under NaCl treatments, the expression of one BnNF-YA10 and four NF-YBs (BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly increased. Under PEG treatments, the expression levels of four NF-YAs (BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, BnNF-YA11, and BnNF-YA12) and five NF-YBs (BnNF-YB1, BnNF-YB8, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) were greatly induced. The expression profiles of 20 of the 27 salinity- or drought-induced BnNF-Ys were also affected by ABA treatment. The expression levels of six NF-YAs (BnNF-YA1, BnNF-YA7, BnNF-YA8, BnNF-YA9, BnNF-YA10, and BnNF-YA12) and seven BnNF-YB members (BnNF-YB2, BnNF-YB3, BnNF-YB7, BnNF-YB10, BnNF-YB11, BnNF-YB13, and BnNF-YB14) and two NF-YC members (BnNF-YC2 and BnNF-YC3) were greatly up-regulated by ABA treatments. Only a few BnNF-Ys were inhibited by the above three treatments. Several NF-Y subfamily members exhibited collinear expression patterns. The promoters of all stress-responsive BnNF-Ys harbored at least two types of stress-related cis-elements, such as ABRE, DRE, MYB, or MYC. The cis-element organization of BnNF-Ys was similar to that of Arabidopsis thaliana, and the promoter regions exhibited higher levels of nucleotide sequence identity with Brassica rapa than with Brassica oleracea. This work represents an entry point for investigating the roles of canola NF-Y proteins during abiotic stress responses and provides insight into

  13. Governance and management dynamics of landscape restoration at multiple scales: Learning from successful environmental managers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Lucas; Elbakidze, Marine; Angelstam, Per; Gordon, Johanna

    2017-03-14

    Due to a long history of intensive land and water use, habitat networks for biodiversity conservation are generally degraded in Sweden. Landscape restoration (LR) is an important strategy for achieving representative and functional green infrastructures. However, outcomes of LR efforts are poorly studied, particularly the dynamics of LR governance and management. We apply systems thinking methods to a series of LR case studies to analyse the causal structures underlying LR governance and management in Sweden. We show that these structures appear to comprise of an interlinked system of at least three sets of drivers and four core processes. This system exhibits many characteristics of a transformative change towards an integrated, adaptive approach to governance and management. Key challenges for Swedish LR projects relate to institutional and regulatory flexibility, the timely availability of sufficient funds, and the management of learning and knowledge production processes. In response, successful project leaders develop several key strategies to manage complexity and risk, and enhance perceptions of the attractiveness of LR projects.

  14. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  15. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution. PMID:26904402

  16. Multiple Brain Abscesses in an Immunocompetent Patient With Factor V Leiden Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Saeed Zubair; Pervin, Najwa; Manthri, Sukesh; Bhattarai, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    Multiple brain abscesses in an immunocompetent patient is a challenging clinical problem in the medical world despite advances in imaging techniques, laboratory diagnostics, surgical interventions, and antimicrobial treatment. It is a clinical entity that typically tends to occur in the presence of known predisposing factors. Clinicians seek to determine the potential risk factors responsible for the development of brain abscess because it is very crucial for management of this life-threatening condition. At times, like in our case, there are clinical situations where it is difficult to reveal any traditional risk factors. We report a case of multiple brain abscesses in a 51-year-old female with a past medical history significant only for factor V Leiden mutation, and deep vein thrombosis on chronic anticoagulation. She underwent thorough evaluation but no predisposing factors were found. Based on our extensive literature review, this is the index case of multiple brain abscesses in a patient with history of factor V Leiden mutation and the absence of any conventional risk factors. We also postulate a possible mechanism of infection in such patients. PMID:28203573

  17. Stakeholder Perceptions of Governance: Factors Influencing Presidential Perceptions of Board Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proper, Eve; Willmer, Wesley K.; Hartley, Harold V., III; Caboni, Timothy C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the factors that influence presidents' perceptions of board effectiveness in relation to their boards' fundraising role. Data from a survey of small college presidents are used to see what factors influence each of four areas of satisfaction: deciding policy, making financial contributions, referring donor prospects and…

  18. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization. PMID:19918055

  19. Evidence from intrinsic activity that asymmetry of the human brain is controlled by multiple factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hesheng; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Sepulcre, Jorge; Hedden, Trey; Buckner, Randy L

    2009-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization is a fundamental property of the human brain and a marker of successful development. Here we provide evidence that multiple mechanisms control asymmetry for distinct brain systems. Using intrinsic activity to measure asymmetry in 300 adults, we mapped the most strongly lateralized brain regions. Both men and women showed strong asymmetries with a significant, but small, group difference. Factor analysis on the asymmetric regions revealed 4 separate factors that each accounted for significant variation across subjects. The factors were associated with brain systems involved in vision, internal thought (the default network), attention, and language. An independent sample of right- and left-handed individuals showed that hand dominance affects brain asymmetry but differentially across the 4 factors supporting their independence. These findings show the feasibility of measuring brain asymmetry using intrinsic activity fluctuations and suggest that multiple genetic or environmental mechanisms control cerebral lateralization.

  20. A double-blind trial of transfer factor vs placebo in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R C; Espinoza, L R; Plank, C R; Ebers, G C; Rosenberg, R A; Zabriskie, J B

    1978-01-01

    A double-blind trial of the effect of transfer factor on multiple sclerosis patients was carried out. In a series of fifty-six multiple sclerosis patients treated with monthly injections of either transfer factor or placebo for 1 year, no beneficial effect of transfer factor was noted. In addition, none of the immunological and serological parameters studied (measles migration inhibition, measles HI titre or CSF immunoglobulin) changed as a result of transfer factor therapy. Histocompatibility typing and CSF IgG/TP ratios were correlated with the disease activity. Of interest was the finding that the presence of the DW2 antigen, when unassociated with HLA-B7 antigen, appeared to correlate with the mildest form of disease activity. PMID:361313

  1. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 2: Environmental and physiological factors governing mercury flux to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of physiological and environmental factors in governing the flux of elemental mercury from plants to the atmosphere. Five species (Lepidium latifolium, Artemisia douglasiana, Caulanthus sp., Fragaria vesca, and Eucalyptus globulus) with different ecological and physiological attributes and growing in soils with high levels of mercury contamination were examined. Studies were conducted in a whole-plant, gas-exchange chamber providing precise control of environmental conditions, and mercury flux was estimated using the mass balance approach. Mercury flux increased linearly as a function of temperature within the range of 20 to 40 C, and the mean temperature coefficient (Q{sub 10}) was 2.04. The temperature dependence of mercury flux was attributed to changes in the contaminant`s vapor pressure in the leaf interior. Mercury flux from foliage increased linearly as a function of irradiance within the range of 500 to 1,500 {micro}mol m/s, and the light enhancement of mercury flux was within a factor of 2.0 to 2.5 for all species. Even though the leaf-to-atmosphere diffusive path for mercury vapor from foliage is similar to that of water vapor, stomatal conductance played a secondary role in governing mercury flux. In a quantitative comparison with other studies in both laboratory and field settings, a strong linear relationship is evident between mercury vapor flux and the natural logarithm of soil mercury concentration, and this relationship may have predictive value in developing regional- and continental-scale mercury budgets. The most critical factors governing mercury flux from plants are mercury concentration in the soil, leaf area index, temperature, and irradiance.

  2. Unified development of multiplicative algorithms for linear and quadratic nonnegative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhirong; Oja, Erkki

    2011-12-01

    Multiplicative updates have been widely used in approximative nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) optimization because they are convenient to deploy. Their convergence proof is usually based on the minimization of an auxiliary upper-bounding function, the construction of which however remains specific and only available for limited types of dissimilarity measures. Here we make significant progress in developing convergent multiplicative algorithms for NMF. First, we propose a general approach to derive the auxiliary function for a wide variety of NMF problems, as long as the approximation objective can be expressed as a finite sum of monomials with real exponents. Multiplicative algorithms with theoretical guarantee of monotonically decreasing objective function sequence can thus be obtained. The solutions of NMF based on most commonly used dissimilarity measures such as α- and β-divergence as well as many other more comprehensive divergences can be derived by the new unified principle. Second, our method is extended to a nonseparable case that includes e.g., γ-divergence and Rényi divergence. Third, we develop multiplicative algorithms for NMF using second-order approximative factorizations, in which each factorizing matrix may appear twice. Preliminary numerical experiments demonstrate that the multiplicative algorithms developed using the proposed procedure can achieve satisfactory Karush-Kuhn-Tucker optimality. We also demonstrate NMF problems where algorithms by the conventional method fail to guarantee descent at each iteration but those by our principle are immune to such violation.

  3. The Development of School Autonomy and Accountability in Hong Kong: Multiple Changes in Governance, Work, Curriculum, and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, James; Cheng, Yin Cheong; Lee, Theodore Tai Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to trace the development of school autonomy and accountability and related multiple changes and impacts in key areas of school education in Hong Kong since implementing school-based management (SBM) from 1990s. Design/methodology/approach: To explore the evolution and the uniqueness of autonomy and…

  4. Interactions between tobamovirus replication proteins and cellular factors: their impacts on virus multiplication.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Kazuhiro; Nishikiori, Masaki; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2010-11-01

    Most viral gene products function inside cells in the presence of various host proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. Thus, viral gene products come into direct contact with these molecules. The replication proteins of tobamovirus participate not only in viral genome replication but also in counterdefense mechanisms against RNA silencing and other plant defense systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that these functions are carried out through interactions with specific host components. Interactions with some cellular factors, however, are inhibitory to virus multiplication and contribute to host range restriction of tobamovirus. The interactions that have positive and negative impacts on virus multiplication should have been maintained and lost, respectively, during adaptation of the viruses to their respective natural hosts. This review lists the host factors that interact with the replication proteins of tobamovirus and discusses how they influence multiplication of the virus.

  5. On Highest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in the Secondary School Mathematics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Attention is drawn to an ancient Greek method for finding the least common multiple (LCM) of two numbers. A link is established between this method and a well-known method of obtaining the highest common factor (HCF) numbers. This leads to consideration of some relationships between HCF and LCM. (Author/MK)

  6. Mathematical Model for Addiction: Application to Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial Data for Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, David P.; Elketroussi, Mehdi

    1989-01-01

    Describes habituation and addiction, both psychological and physiological, using simple equations of mathematical model of ideodynamics, optimized to smoking data from Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) program. With only four constant parameters, it was possible to calculate accurate time trends for recidivism to smoking among…

  7. The Effect of Auxiliary Variables and Multiple Imputation on Parameter Estimation in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jin Eun

    2009-01-01

    This Monte Carlo study investigates the beneficiary effect of including auxiliary variables during estimation of confirmatory factor analysis models with multiple imputation. Specifically, it examines the influence of sample size, missing rates, missingness mechanism combinations, missingness types (linear or convex), and the absence or presence…

  8. Primary Factors Related to Multiple Placements for Children in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggertsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Using an ecological framework, this study identified which factors related to out-of-home placements significantly influenced multiple placements for children in Utah during 2000, 2001, and 2002. Multinomial logistic regression statistical procedures and a geographical information system (GIS) were used to analyze the data. The final model…

  9. Effects of dietary factors on energy regulation: Consideration of multiple- versus single-dietary-factor models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While short-term studies demonstrate consistent effects of dietary protein, fiber, glycemic index and energy density on energy intake, long-term effectiveness trials typically indicate small or non-significant effects of these dietary factors on long-term weight change. In consequence, most lifestyl...

  10. Outrage Factors in Government Press Releases of Food Risk and Their Influence on News Media Coverage.

    PubMed

    Ju, Youngkee; Lim, Jeongsub; Shim, Minsun; You, Myoungsoon

    2015-08-01

    An appropriate level of risk perception should be a critical issue in modern "risk society." There have been many studies on the influences on risk perception. This study investigates whether risk communication scholar Dr. Peter Sandman's outrage factors intensify journalistic attention to health risks from food consumption. A content analysis of a health institution's press releases was conducted to examine 15 outrage factors of food risks conveyed in the governmental risk communication. In addition, the news stories covering the food risks informed by the press releases were calculated to evaluate the relation between outrage factors of a risk and the number of news stories covering the risk. Results showed that controllability was the most salient outrage factor, followed by trust, voluntariness, familiarity, and human origin; the greater the outrage score of a risk, the more news stories of the risk. For individual outrage factors, a risk with an implication of catastrophic potential was associated with an increase of news stories. Food providers' distrustful behaviors also influenced journalistic attention to the food risks. The implication of the findings to health message designers is discussed.

  11. The bHLH Transcription Factor NeuroD Governs Photoreceptor Genesis and Regeneration Through Delta-Notch Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott M.; Alvarez-Delfin, Karen; Saade, Carole J.; Thomas, Jennifer L.; Thummel, Ryan; Fadool, James M.; Hitchcock, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Photoreceptor genesis in the retina requires precise regulation of progenitor cell competence, cell cycle exit, and differentiation, although information around the mechanisms that govern these events currently is lacking. In zebrafish, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis, but the signaling pathways through which NeuroD functions are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify these pathways, and during photoreceptor genesis, Notch signaling was investigated as the putative mediator of NeuroD function. Methods In embryos, genetic mosaic analysis was used to determine if NeuroD functions is cell- or non–cell-autonomous. Morpholino-induced NeuroD knockdown, CRISPR/Cas9 mutation, and pharmacologic and transgenic approaches were used, followed by in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), to identify mechanisms through which NeuroD functions. In adults, following photoreceptor ablation and NeuroD knockdown, similar methods as above were used to identify NeuroD function during photoreceptor regeneration. Results In embryos, NeuroD function is non–cell-autonomous, NeuroD knockdown increases Notch pathway gene expression, Notch inhibition rescues the NeuroD knockdown-induced deficiency in cell cycle exit but not photoreceptor maturation, and Notch activation and CRISPR/Cas9 mutation of neurod recapitulate NeuroD knockdown. In adults, NeuroD knockdown prevents cell cycle exit and photoreceptor regeneration and increases Notch pathway gene expression, and Notch inhibition rescues this phenotype. Conclusions These data demonstrate that during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor genesis via non–cell-autonomous mechanisms and that, during photoreceptor development and regeneration, Notch signaling is a mechanistic link between NeuroD and cell cycle exit. In contrast, during embryonic development, NeuroD governs photoreceptor maturation via mechanisms

  12. Cytokinin Response Factor 5 has transcriptional activity governed by its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Striberny, Bernd; Melton, Anthony E; Schwacke, Rainer; Krause, Kirsten; Fischer, Karsten; Goertzen, Leslie R; Rashotte, Aaron M

    2017-02-01

    Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-2-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription.

  13. Study of Core Competency Elements and Factors Affecting Performance Efficiency of Government Teachers in Northeastern Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate the core competency elements and the factors affecting the performance efficiency of the civil service teachers in the northeastern region, Thailand. The research procedure consisted of two steps. In the first step, the data were collected using a questionnaire with the reliability (Cronbach's Alpha) of 0.90. The…

  14. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  15. c-Jun Gene-Modified Schwann Cells: Upregulating Multiple Neurotrophic Factors and Promoting Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Liangliang; Quan, Xin; Liu, Zhongyang; Ma, Teng; Wu, Yazhen; Ge, Jun; Zhu, Shu; Yang, Yafeng; Liu, Liang; Sun, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified Schwann cells (SCs) that overexpress neurotrophic factors (NFs), especially those that overexpress multiple NFs, hold great potential for promoting nerve regeneration. Currently, only one NF can be upregulated in most genetically modified SCs, and simultaneously upregulating multiple NFs in SCs remains challenging. In this study, we found that the overexpression of c-Jun, a component of the AP-1 transcription factor, effectively upregulated the expression and secretion of multiple NFs, including glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, artemin, leukemia inhibitory factor, and nerve growth factor. The c-Jun gene-modified SCs showed a normal morphology in scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent staining analysis. In addition, the c-Jun-modified SCs showed enhanced proliferation and migration abilities compared with vector control cells. We used transwell chambers to establish coculture systems imitating the in vivo conditions in which transplanted SCs might influence native SCs and neurons. We found that the c-Jun-modified SCs enhanced native SC migration and promoted the proliferation of native SCs in the presence of axons. Further analysis revealed that in the c-Jun group, the average length and the total area of neurites divided by the total area of the explant body were μm 1180±25 and 6.4±0.4, respectively, which were significantly greater compared with the other groups. These findings raise the possibility of constructing an optimal therapeutic alternative for nerve repair using c-Jun-modified SCs, which have the potential to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery by upregulating multiple NFs. In addition, these cells exhibit enhanced migration and proliferation abilities, enhance the biological functions of native SCs, and promote neurite outgrowth. PMID:25588149

  16. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  17. Mining 3D genome structure populations identifies major factors governing the stability of regulatory communities

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Chao; Li, Wenyuan; Tjong, Harianto; Hao, Shengli; Zhou, Yonggang; Li, Qingjiao; Chen, Lin; Zhu, Bing; Alber, Frank; Jasmine Zhou, Xianghong

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) genome structures vary from cell to cell even in an isogenic sample. Unlike protein structures, genome structures are highly plastic, posing a significant challenge for structure-function mapping. Here we report an approach to comprehensively identify 3D chromatin clusters that each occurs frequently across a population of genome structures, either deconvoluted from ensemble-averaged Hi-C data or from a collection of single-cell Hi-C data. Applying our method to a population of genome structures (at the macrodomain resolution) of lymphoblastoid cells, we identify an atlas of stable inter-chromosomal chromatin clusters. A large number of these clusters are enriched in binding of specific regulatory factors and are therefore defined as ‘Regulatory Communities.' We reveal two major factors, centromere clustering and transcription factor binding, which significantly stabilize such communities. Finally, we show that the regulatory communities differ substantially from cell to cell, indicating that expression variability could be impacted by genome structures. PMID:27240697

  18. Intrinsic epigenetic factors cooperate with the steroid hormone ecdysone to govern dendrite pruning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kirilly, Daniel; Wong, Jack Jing Lin; Lim, Edwin Kok Hao; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Heng; Wang, Cheng; Liao, Qiuming; Wang, Haifeng; Liou, Yih-Cherng; Wang, Hongyan; Yu, Fengwei

    2011-10-06

    Pruning that selectively removes unnecessary axons/dendrites is crucial for sculpting neural circuits during development. During Drosophila metamorphosis, dendritic arborization sensory neurons, ddaCs, selectively prune their larval dendrites in response to the steroid hormone ecdysone. However, it is unknown whether epigenetic factors are involved in dendrite pruning. Here, we analyzed 81 epigenetic factors, from which a Brahma (Brm)-containing chromatin remodeler and a histone acetyltransferase CREB-binding protein (CBP) were identified for their critical roles in initiating dendrite pruning. Brm and CBP specifically activate a key ecdysone response gene, sox14, but not EcR-B1. Furthermore, the HAT activity of CBP is important for sox14 expression and dendrite pruning. EcR-B1 associates with CBP in the presence of ecdysone, which is facilitated by Brm, resulting in local enrichment of an active chromatin mark H3K27Ac at the sox14 locus. Thus, specific intrinsic epigenetic factors cooperate with steroid hormones to activate selective transcriptional programs, thereby initiating neuronal remodeling.

  19. Factors Governing Stemflow Production from Plantation Grown Teak Trees in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, N.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Igarashi, Y.; Yoshifuji, N.; Tanaka, K.; Chatchai, T.; Nanko, K.; Suzuki, M.; Kumagai, T.

    2015-12-01

    Stemflow (SF) is recognized as an important process delivering water, solute, and particulate fluxes to spatially localized areas of the forest floor. Using both long-term SF data from nine even-aged deciduous teak trees grown in the same plantation and meteorological data from a nearby tower, this study seeks to better understand how: (1) specific biotic and abiotic factors control stand-scale SF production of teak; and (2) various biotic and abiotic factors affect tree-to-tree variations in teak SF production. A conventional regression analysis of SF volume against rainfall indicates that, for five individuals among the nine, SF was more efficiently produced in the leafless than in the leafed. However, for the other individuals, there was no such a relation, suggesting tree-to-tree variation in the response of SF to canopy status. A boosted regression tree (BRT) analysis setting daily basis SF funneling ratios (SFF) of the nine trees as dependent variables, indicates that SFF was intricately controlled by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors. The top six influential factors were, in descending order, rainfall duration, tree height, rainfall intensity, air temperature, wind speed, and antecedent dry period length having positive, negative, positive, negative, positive, and negative influence on SFF, respectively. Although teak exhibits drastic intra-annual changes in leaf phenology, leaf area index (LAI) had an unexpectedly small influence on SFF on a stand scale. Additional BRT analyses focusing on individuals with the maximum and the minimum SFF values (among the nine individuals) showed that there was considerable tree-to-tree variation in an array of the influential variables for SFF, even though they were planted in the same year and grown in the same plot. In addition to this difference, the BRT analyses also showed that response of SFF to LAI differs between the two individuals. The differentiating responses to LAI depending on individuals may be the

  20. Reported Pain During Labour – A Qualitative Study of Influencing Factors among Parturient During Confinement in Private or Government Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Ravishankar, M.; Hemanthkumar, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Labour pain is distressing and it produces undue side effects both to the mother and the baby. The incidence is high in developing countries like India where the awareness about labour analgesia is still lacking. Aim It is to find out the incidence of labour pain and the influence of various described factors on pain with a comparison between patients admitted in a government set up with a private set up in a south Indian semi-urban area. Materials and Methods Two hundred continuous uneventful normal deliveries each in a Government (group G) and a private hospital (group P) were enrolled for the study. The reported pain during labour was noted 6-7 hours after delivery by interacting with the patient. The factors like age of the mother, sex and weight of the baby, literacy, socioeconomic status, the use of oxytocics and analgesia were evaluated. Results The incidence of severe pain was more in group G (43.5%) than group P (12%). There was no analgesic intervention in 68.5% in group G while it was 13.5% (27/200) in group P. Even among these 27 patients who did not receive analgesics, only three parturients reported severe pain. Even administration of analgesics in a Government set up did not decrease pain to a significant extent. There were richer and more literate patients in group P. Booked cases were less in group G. Logistic regression analyses to find out factors which influenced pain in either group was used. Gravida, analgesic intervention and admission in a Govt. hospital influenced the pain experience of the parturient. There was minimal antenatal preparation in both the groups. There were no post partum complications. Conclusion Mothers suffered from labour pain to a significant extent and there is an urgent need for awareness about labour analgesia. Primigravida, admission in a Govt. set up and analgesic interventions were the factors which influenced pain than others. Patients admitted in Govt. hospitals suffered more pain with less analgesic

  1. Factors and processes governing the C-14 content of carbonate in desert soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundson, Ronald; Wang, Yang; Chadwick, Oliver; Trumbore, Susan; Mcfadden, Leslie; Mcdonald, Eric; Wells, Steven; Deniro, Michael

    1994-01-01

    A model is presented describing the factors and processes which determine the measured C-14 ages of soil calcium carbonate. Pedogenic carbonate forms in isotopic equilium with soil CO2. Carbon dioxide in soils is a mixture of CO2 derived from two biological sources: respiration by living plant roots and respiration of microorganisms decomposing soil humus. The relative proportion of these two CO2 sources can greatly affect the initial C-14 content of pedogenic carbonate: the greater the contribution of humus-derived CO2, the greater the initial C-14 age of the carbonate mineral. For any given mixture of CO2 sources, the steady-state (14)CO2 distribution vs. soil depth can be described by a production/diffusion model. As a soil ages, the C-14 age of soil humus increases, as does the steady-state C-14 age of soil CO2 and the initial C-14 age of any pedogenic carbonate which forms. The mean C-14 age of a complete pedogenic carbonate coating or nodule will underestimate the true age of the soil carbonate. This discrepancy increases the older a soil becomes. Partial removal of outer (and younger) carbonate coatings greatly improves the relationship between measured C-14 age and true age. Although the production/diffusion model qualitatively explains the C-14 age of pedogenic carbonate vs. soil depth in many soils, other factors, such as climate change, may contribute to the observed trends, particularily in soils older than the Holocene.

  2. Attributing seasonal pH variability in surface ocean waters to governing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    On-going ocean acidification and increasing availability of high-frequency pH data have stimulated interest to understand seasonal pH dynamics in surface waters. Here we show that it is possible to accurately reproduce observed pH values by combining seasonal changes in temperature (T), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and total alkalinity (TA) from three time series stations with novel pH sensitivity factors. Moreover, we quantify the separate contributions of T, DIC, and TA changes to winter-to-summertime differences in pH, which are in the ranges of -0.0334 to -0.1237, 0.0178 to 0.1169, and -0.0063 to 0.0234, respectively. The effects of DIC and temperature are therefore largely compensatory, and are slightly tempered by changes in TA. Whereas temperature principally drives pH seasonality in low-latitude to midlatitude systems, winter-to-summer DIC changes are most important at high latitudes. This work highlights the potential of pH sensitivity factors as a tool for quantifying the driving mechanisms behind pH changes.

  3. Defining high, medium and low impact prognostic factors for developing multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tintore, Mar; Rovira, Àlex; Río, Jordi; Otero-Romero, Susana; Arrambide, Georgina; Tur, Carmen; Comabella, Manuel; Nos, Carlos; Arévalo, María Jesús; Negrotto, Laura; Galán, Ingrid; Vidal-Jordana, Angela; Castilló, Joaquin; Palavra, Filipe; Simon, Eva; Mitjana, Raquel; Auger, Cristina; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Montalban, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    Natural history studies have identified factors that predict evolution to multiple sclerosis or risk of disability accumulation over time. Although these studies are based on large multicentre cohorts with long follow-ups, they have limitations such as lack of standardized protocols, a retrospective data collection or lack of a systematic magnetic resonance imaging acquisition and analysis protocol, often resulting in failure to take magnetic resonance and oligoclonal bands into account as joint covariates in the prediction models. To overcome some of these limitations, the aim of our study was to identify and stratify baseline demographic, clinical, radiological and biological characteristics that might predict multiple sclerosis development and disability accumulation using a multivariate approach based on a large prospective cohort of patients with clinically isolated syndromes. From 1995 to 2013, 1058 patients with clinically isolated syndromes were included. We evaluated the influence of baseline prognostic factors on the risk for developing clinically definite multiple sclerosis, McDonald multiple sclerosis, and disability accumulation (Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3.0) based on univariate (hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) and multivariate (adjusted hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals) Cox regression models. We ultimately included 1015 patients followed for a mean of 81 (standard deviation = 57) months. Female/male ratio was 2.1. Females exhibited a similar risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and of disability accumulation compared to males. Each younger decade at onset was associated with a greater risk of conversion to multiple sclerosis and with a protective effect on disability. Patients with optic neuritis had a lower risk of clinically definite multiple sclerosis [hazard ratio 0.6 (0.5-0.8)] and disability progression [hazard ratio 0.5 (0.3-0.8)]; however, this protective effect remained marginal only for disability

  4. Determination of the factors governing soil erodibility using hyperspectral visible and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Fang, Qingqing; Teng, Yanguo; Yu, Jingshan

    2016-12-01

    Soil erodibility, which is difficult to estimate and upscaling, was determined in this study using multiple spectral models of soil properties (soil organic matter (SOM), water-stable aggregates (WSA) > 0.25 mm, the geometric mean radius (Dg)). Herein, the soil erodibility indicators were calculated, and soil properties were quantitatively analyzed based on laboratory simulation experiments involving two selected contrasting soils. In addition, continuous wavelet transformation was applied to the reflectance spectra (350-2500 nm) of 65 soil samples from the study area. To build the relationship, the soil properties that control erodibility were identified prior to the spectral analysis. In this study, the SOM, Dg and WSA >0.25 mm were selected to represent the most significant soil properties controlling erodibility and describe the erodibility indicator based on a logarithmic regression model as a function of SOM or WSA > 0.25 mm. Five, six and three wavelet features were observed to calibrate the estimated soil properties model, and the best performance was obtained with a combination feature regression model for SOM (R2 = 0.86, p < 0.01), Dg (R2 = 0.79, p < 0.01) and WSA >0.25 mm (R2 = 0.61, p < 0.01), respectively. One part of the wavelet features captured amplitude variations in the broad shape of the reflectance spectra, and another part captured variations in the shape and depth of the soil dry substances. The wavelet features for the validated dataset used to predict the SOM, WSA >0.25 mm and Dg were not significantly different compared with the calibrated dataset. The synthesized spectral models of soil properties, and the formation of a new equation for soil erodibility transformed from the spectral models of soil properties are presented in this study. These results show that a spectral analytical approach can be applied to complex datasets and provide new insights into emerging dynamic variation with erodibility estimation.

  5. Comparison of different multiple flow algorithms for topographic RUSLE factor (LS) calculation in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bircher, Pascal; Liniger, Hanspeter; Prasuhn, Volker

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion is a well-known challenge both from a global perspective and in Switzerland, and it is assessed and discussed in many projects (e.g. national or European erosion risk maps). Meaningful assessment of soil erosion requires models that adequately reflect surface water flows. Various studies have attempted to achieve better modelling results by including multiple flow algorithms in the topographic length and slope factor (LS-factor) of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The choice of multiple flow algorithms is wide, and many of them have been implemented in programs or tools like Saga-Gis, GrassGis, ArcGIS, ArcView, Taudem, and others. This study compares six different multiple flow algorithms with the aim of identifying a suitable approach to calculating the LS factor for a new soil erosion risk map of Switzerland. The comparison of multiple flow algorithms is part of a broader project to model soil erosion for the entire agriculturally used area in Switzerland and to renew and optimize the current erosion risk map of Switzerland (ERM2). The ERM2 was calculated in 2009, using a high resolution digital elevation model (2 m) and a multiple flow algorithm in ArcView. This map has provided the basis for enforcing soil protection regulations since 2010 and has proved its worth in practice, but it has become outdated (new basic data are now available, e.g. data on land use change, a new rainfall erosivity map, a new digital elevation model, etc.) and is no longer user friendly (ArcView). In a first step towards its renewal, a new data set from the Swiss Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo) was used to generate the agricultural area based on the existing field block map. A field block is an area consisting of farmland, pastures, and meadows which is bounded by hydrological borders such as streets, forests, villages, surface waters, etc. In our study, we compared the six multiple flow algorithms with the LS factor calculation approach used in

  6. Edaphic factors do not govern the ectomycorrhizal specificity of Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jeremy A; Horton, Thomas R

    2012-11-01

    Pisonia grandis (Nyctaginaceae), a widespread tree of Pacific coral atolls and islands, displays one of the more restrictive ranges of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus associates among autotrophic plants. Only five ECM fungi are currently known associates; our study adds one. In many habitats, P. grandis is restricted to large seabird colonies where nitrogen and phosphorus inputs in the form of guano are substantial. It has been suggested that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of the unusual nutrient-rich habitat in which P. grandis grows. On Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, P. grandis grows in habitats heavily influenced by guano additions and also in upland forests where seabirds do not roost or nest. To test the hypothesis that the ECM specificity displayed by P. grandis is the result of nutrient-related or toxicity-related factors associated with guano inputs, we sampled P. grandis growing in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats on Rota, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. We identified ECM symbionts of P. grandis from both habitats as well as two symbionts of Intsia bijuga (Fabaceae) from nutrient-rich habitats. We identified three ECM symbionts of P. grandis from Rota; all three were found in both guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. No differences in community diversity were detected between guano-rich and guano-poor habitats. We also detected two ECM fungal species associating with I. bijuga but not associating with P. grandis inside guano-rich habitats. From these results, we infer that edaphic factors are not responsible for limiting the ECM community associating with P. grandis to its observed level of specificity.

  7. SOA governance in healthcare organisations.

    PubMed

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos; Vassilakopoulos, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is increasingly adopted by many sectors, including healthcare. Due to the nature of healthcare systems there is a need to increase SOA adoption success rates as the non integrated nature of healthcare systems is responsible for medical errors that cause the loss of tens of thousands patients per year. Following our previous research [1] we propose that SOA governance is a critical success factor for SOA success in healthcare. Literature reports multiple SOA governance models that have limitations and they are confusing. In addition to this, there is a lack of healthcare specific SOA governance models. This highlights a literature void and thus the purpose of this paper is to proposed a healthcare specific SOA governance framework.

  8. Rimonabant: a cannabinoid receptor type 1 blocker for management of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Eli V; Cannon, Christopher P

    2006-05-16

    Rimonabant is a first selective blocker of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) being developed for the treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking. In four large trials, after one year of treatment, rimonabant 20 mg led to greater weight loss and reduction in waist circumference compared with placebo. Therapy with rimonabant is also associated with favorable changes in serum lipid levels and an improvement in glycemic control in prediabetes patients and in type 2 diabetic patients. At the same dose, rimonabant significantly increased cigarette smoking quit rates as compared with placebo. Rimonabant seems to be well tolerated, with a primary side effect of mild nausea. As an agent with a novel mechanism of action, rimonabant has a potential to be a useful adjunct to lifestyle and behavior modification in treatment of multiple cardiometabolic risk factors, including abdominal obesity and smoking.

  9. To Fish or Not to Fish: Factors at Multiple Scales Affecting Artisanal Fishers' Readiness to Exit a Declining Fishery

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Tim M.; Cinner, Joshua E.; McClanahan, Timothy R.; Brown, Katrina; Stead, Selina M.; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; Maina, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Globally, fisheries are challenged by the combined impacts of overfishing, degradation of ecosystems and impacts of climate change, while fisheries livelihoods are further pressured by conservation policy imperatives. Fishers' adaptive responses to these pressures, such as exiting from a fishery to pursue alternative livelihoods, determine their own vulnerability, as well as the potential for reducing fishing effort and sustaining fisheries. The willingness and ability to make particular adaptations in response to change, such as exiting from a declining fishery, is influenced by economic, cultural and institutional factors operating at scales from individual fishers to national economies. Previous studies of exit from fisheries at single or few sites, offer limited insight into the relative importance of individual and larger-scale social and economic factors. We asked 599 fishers how they would respond to hypothetical scenarios of catch declines in 28 sites in five western Indian Ocean countries. We investigated how socioeconomic variables at the individual-, household- and site-scale affected whether they would exit fisheries. Site-level factors had the greatest influence on readiness to exit, but these relationships were contrary to common predictions. Specifically, higher levels of infrastructure development and economic vitality - expected to promote exit from fisheries - were associated with less readiness to exit. This may be due to site level histories of exit from fisheries, greater specialisation of fishing households, or higher rewards from fishing in more economically developed sites due to technology, market access, catch value and government subsidies. At the individual and household scale, fishers from households with more livelihood activities, and fishers with lower catch value were more willing to exit. These results demonstrate empirically how adaptive responses to change are influenced by factors at multiple scales, and highlight the importance

  10. Multiple factors explain injury risk in adolescent elite athletes: applying a biopsychosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, Philip; Frohm, Anna; Kottorp, Anders; Fridén, Cecilia; Heijne, Annette

    2017-02-16

    Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a validated questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training volume, training intensity and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, p<0.01), which was the strongest risk factor identified. In addition, an increase by one score of competence-based self-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, p=0.01). Based on the multiple cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume.. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. On the factors governing the abundance of oxalic acid in tropospheric aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Pinxteren, D.; Neusuess, C.; Brüggemann, E.; Gnauk, T.; Müller, K.; Herrmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Oxalic acid is frequently observed as one of the most abundant single organic compounds in tropospheric particles. Its sources are commonly believed to be of secondary nature. In state-of-the-art multiphase chemistry models, different pathways exist, which can lead to oxalic acid as final product. Anthropogenic hydrocarbon emissions can be photochemically degraded to glyoxal and methyglyoxal, which - after partitioning into deliquescent particles or cloud droplets - are further oxidized via glyoxylic acid to oxalic acid [Herrmann et al., 2005]. A biogenic oxidation pathway starts with isoprene or monoterpene emissions and leads to glycolaldehyde and methylglyoxal via methacrolein and methylvinylketone, followed by aqueous phase oxalic acid formation [Lim et al., 2005]. As suggested by Warneck, 2003, a marine pathway might exist, starting from marine ethene emissions and leading via glycolaldehyde to oxalic acid. The aim of this study was to elucidate from field measurements the importance of each of these pathways. To this aim, oxalic acid concentrations from 144 size-resolved particle samples (5-stage Berner impactor) from different continental and coastal European sampling sites were statistically analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). Hourly back trajectories were calculated for each sampling interval using the HYSPLIT model [Draxler and Rolph, 2003] and combined in a novel way with global land cover data to yield “residence times” of the sampled air masses above urban, agricultural, forested, and oceanic areas. These residence times served as quantitative proxies for different emission regimes (anthropogenic, biogenic, marine) in the statistical analysis. Additionally, meteorological parameters such as sunflux along the trajectories or mixing layer depth at the sampling site were retrieved from the HYSPLIT output. PCA of the continental dataset retrieved two factors that were connected to the oxalic acid concentrations. A first one showed high

  12. Factors related to patients' general satisfaction with removable partial dentures: a stepwise multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Zlatarić, Dubravka Knezović; Celebić, Asja

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze factors related to patients' general satisfaction with removable partial dentures (RPDs), such as esthetics, retention, speech, chewing, and comfort. A total of 103 patients with Kennedy Class I RPDs (34 to 82 years old; mean age: 63; 35 men, 68 women) assessed their satisfaction with dentures. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship among the factors. Significant correlations were found between general satisfaction and each of the individual components (P < .05). The patients' assessment of esthetics explained almost 50% of general satisfaction in both arches (P < .05). Esthetics, chewing, and speech had significant effects on the patients' general satisfaction with dentures.

  13. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression: a Danish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten; Vangsted, Annette J; Østergaard, Brian; Gregersen, Henrik; Frølund, Ulf Christian; Andersen, Niels F; Helleberg, Carsten; Andersen, Kristian T; Pedersen, Robert S; Pedersen, Per; Abildgaard, Niels; Gimsing, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in patients with smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) have been proposed; however, all have been developed using single-center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to multiple myeloma (MM) for SMM, we analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort of 321 patients with newly diagnosed SMM registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis significantly influenced TTP (HR 2.7, 95%CI (1.5;4.7), P = 0.001, and HR 3.3, 95%CI (1.4;7.8), P = 0.002, respectively). High free light chain (FLC) ratio did not significantly influence TTP in our cohort. Therefore, our data do not support recent IMWG proposal of identifying patients with FLC ratio above 100 as having ultra high-risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥30 g/L, we created a scoring system to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk SMM. This first population-based study of patients with SMM confirms that an M-protein ≥30 g/L and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression to MM.

  14. Association of Multiple Behavioral Risk Factors with Adolescents’ Willingness to Engage in eHealth Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Graham, Amanda L.; Wilson, Lara D.; Walker, Leslie R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study examines adolescents’ willingness to use the internet and other forms of technology for health promotion purposes (i.e., “eHealth promotion” willingness) and determines if a relationship exists between adolescents’ behavioral risks and their eHealth promotion willingness. Methods A total of 332 adolescents provided data at a routine medical check-up, including assessments of technology access, eHealth promotion willingness, and multiple behavioral risk factors for child- and adult-onset disease (body mass index, physical activity, smoking, sun protection, depression). Results The level of access to technology among the sample was high, with moderate willingness to engage in eHealth promotion. After adjusting for adolescents’ access to technology, the presence of multiple behavioral risk factors was positively associated with willingness to use technology for health promotion purposes (β =.12, p =.03). Conclusions Adolescents with both single and multiple behavioral risk factors are in need of health promotion to prevent the onset of disease later in life. eHealth appears to be an acceptable and promising intervention approach with this population. PMID:18723566

  15. Structural factors governing steel resistance during operation in corrosive media under cavitation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Berezovskaya, V.V.

    1988-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of structural factors on the corrosion resistance of steel under cavitation, a study was made of the effect of cavitation on chromium (95Kh18) and chromium-nickel (12Kh18N9T) corrosion-resistant steels and also on maraging steel 03Kh10N5K5M3KTYuS, specially developed for the loading conditions being studied, together with the austenitic steel 03Kh23N28M3D3T. A study of the effect of martensite content on corrosion and cavitation-corrosion resistance was carried out on steels 12Kh18N9T and 95Kh18 after different treatments. Corrosion tests were conducted in solutions of H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and scanning electron microscopy was used to assess phase and corrosion behavior. Maraging steels treated for maximum hardness and overaging exhibited high cavitation-corrosion resistance in acid solutions owing to high strength and resistance to microcrack initiation and propagation. It was recommended that under cavitation conditions in corrosive media, high alloy austenitic corrosion-resistant steels are substituted by maraging steels.

  16. Factors governing change in water withdrawals for U.S. industrial sectors from 1997 to 2002.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Small, Mitchell J; Dzombak, David A

    2014-03-18

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) reports that U.S. water withdrawals have been steady since 1980, but the population and economy have grown since then. This implies that other factors have contributed to offsetting decreases in water withdrawals. Using water withdrawal data from USGS and economic data from Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), direct and total water withdrawals were estimated for 134 industrial summary sectors in the 1997 U.S. economic input-output (EIO) table and 136 industrial sectors in the 2002 EIO table. Using structural decomposition analysis (SDA), the change in water withdrawals for the economy from 1997 to 2002 was allocated to changes in population, GDP per capita, water use intensity, production structure, and consumption patterns. The changes in population, GDP per capita, and water use intensity led to increased water withdrawals, while the changes in production structure and consumption patterns decreased water withdrawals from 1997 to 2002. Consumption patterns change was the largest net contributor to the change in water withdrawals. The model was used to predict aggregate changes in total water withdrawals from 2002 to 2010 due to known changes in population and GDP per capita; a more complete model assessment must await release of updated data on USGS water withdrawals and EIO data.

  17. Evaluation of the factors governing metal biosorption and metal toxicity in acidic soil isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, A.A.

    1992-06-09

    This research project was designed to determine the feasibility of microbial biosorption processes for removing metal ions from aqueous systems. A culture of acidic soil actinomycetes, grown in an aerobic environment in a completely mixed, semibatch culture reactor, was used for the study. The experiments were based on removal of copper and lead from test solutions. The anionic systems tested were nitrate, sulfate, and chloride. To determine the factors influencing biosorption and to characterize metal uptake by cellular and extracellular components of the microbial system, a dialysis testing procedure was developed. The effectiveness of biosorption was influenced by pH, initial concentration of metals, type of anionic system, and organic content of the system. respirometric runs were carried out to identify potential inhibitory effects of metal accumulation on microbial activities. In general, metal accumulation resulted in a decrease in the microbial oxygen uptake rate. Also, a lag phase was observed before the onset of the respiratory activity particularly at concentrations of copper and lead greater than 100 ppM.

  18. The Aspergillus fumigatus Transcription Factor Ace2 Governs Pigment Production, Conidiation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ejzykowicz, Daniele E.; Cunha, Marcel M.; Rozental, Sonia; Solis, Norma V.; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Sheppard, Donald C.; Filler, Scott G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Aspergillus fumigatus causes serious and frequently fatal infections in immunocompromised patients. To investigate the regulation of virulence of this fungus, we constructed and analyzed an A. fumigatus mutant that lacked the transcription factor Ace2, which influences virulence in other fungi. The Δace2 mutant had dysmorphic conidiophores, reduced conidia production, and abnormal conidial cell wall architecture. This mutant produced an orange pigment when grown on solid media, although its conidia had normal pigmentation. Conidia of the Δace2 mutant were larger and had accelerated germination. The resulting germlings were resistant to hydrogen peroxide, but not other stressors. Non-neutropenic mice that were immunosuppressed with cortisone acetate and infected with the Δace2 mutant had accelerated mortality, greater pulmonary fungal burden, and increased pulmonary inflammatory responses compared to mice infected with the wild-type or Δace2∷ace2 complemented strains. The Δace2 mutant had reduced ppoC, ecm33, and ags3 mRNA expression. It is known that A. fumigatus mutants with absent or reduced expression of these genes have increased virulence in mice, as well as other phenotypic similarities to the Δace2 mutant. Therefore, reduced expression of these genes likely contributes to the increased virulence of the Δace2 mutant. PMID:19220748

  19. Factors governing the atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to remote areas.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Pilar; Carrera, Guillem; Grimalt, Joan O; Ventura, Marc; Camarero, Lluís; Catalan, Jordi; Nickus, Ulrike; Thies, Hansjörg; Psenner, Roland

    2003-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in bulk atmospheric deposition collected in three remote areas of Europe during 1997-1998. Mean total PAH fluxes over a period of 18 months were 1560 +/- 750 and 1150 +/- 630 ng m(-2) mo(-1) in the Pyrenees and the Alps, respectively. In the Caledonian mountains (Scandinavia) the observed mean fluxes were 1900 +/- 940 ng m(-2) mo(-1) (6 month collection). Similar qualitative PAH compositions (p values <0.05) in the bulk atmospheric deposition have been observed between sites, which are dominated by the more volatile parent compounds. The main differences between lakes are related to the high molecular weight compounds. Atmospheric deposition of PAH to these remote sites appears to be independent of their concentrations in the atmosphere, which are similar between sites (in the range of 1.8-3.0 ng x m(-3)), being controlled mainly by particle deposition, followed by precipitation and air temperature. A multilevel regression model including these three variables accounted for 74% of the total variability in total PAH bulk deposition; however, the contribution of each variable in the model is compound and site-dependent. The deposition of high molecular weight PAH depends more on particle deposition and precipitation, whereas air temperature is the main factor controlling the deposition fluxes of the low molecular weight PAH.

  20. Temporally controlled release of multiple growth factors from a self-assembling peptide hydrogel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruggeman, Kiara F.; Rodriguez, Alexandra L.; Parish, Clare L.; Williams, Richard J.; Nisbet, David R.

    2016-09-01

    Protein growth factors have demonstrated great potential for tissue repair, but their inherent instability and large size prevents meaningful presentation to biologically protected nervous tissue. Here, we create a nanofibrous network from a self-assembling peptide (SAP) hydrogel to carry and stabilize the growth factors. We significantly reduced growth factor degradation to increase their lifespan by over 40 times. To control the temporal release profile we covalently attached polysaccharide chitosan molecules to the growth factor to increase its interactions with the hydrogel nanofibers and achieved a 4 h delay, demonstrating the potential of this method to provide temporally controlled growth factor delivery. We also describe release rate based analysis to examine the growth factor delivery in more detail than standard cumulative release profiles allow and show that the chitosan attachment method provided a more consistent release profile with a 60% reduction in fluctuations. To prove the potential of this system as a complex growth factor delivery platform we demonstrate for the first time temporally distinct release of multiple growth factors from a single tissue specific SAP hydrogel: a significant goal in regenerative medicine.

  1. Exploration and comparison of crash modification factors for multiple treatments on rural multilane roadways.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed; Lee, Chris

    2014-09-01

    As multiple treatments (or countermeasures) are simultaneously applied to roadways, there is a need to assess their combined safety effects. Due to a lack of empirical crash modification factors (CMFs) for multiple treatments, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) and other related studies developed various methods of combining multiple CMFs for single treatments. However, the literature did not evaluate the accuracy of these methods using CMFs obtained from the same study area. Thus, the main objectives of this research are: (1) develop CMFs for two single treatments (shoulder rumble strips, widening shoulder width) and one combined treatment (shoulder rumble strips+widening shoulder width) using before-after and cross-sectional methods and (2) evaluate the accuracy of the combined CMFs for multiple treatments estimated by the existing methods based on actual evaluated combined CMFs. Data was collected for rural multi-lane highways in Florida and four safety performance functions (SPFs) were estimated using 360 reference sites for two crash types (All crashes and Single Vehicle Run-off Roadway (SVROR) crashes) and two severity levels (all severity (KABCO) and injury (KABC)). The results of both before-after and cross-sectional methods show that the two single treatments and the combined treatment produced safety improvement. It was found that safety effects were higher for the roadway segments with shoulder rumble strips and wider shoulder width. It was also found that the treatments were more safety effective (i.e. lower CMF) for the roadway segments with narrower original shoulder width in the before period. However, although CMFs for multiple treatments were generally lower than CMFs for single treatments, they were similar for the roadway segments with shoulder width of 8-12 feet. More specifically, CMFs for single treatments were lower than CMFs for multiple treatments for the roadway segments with shoulder width of 9 feet or higher. Among different methods of

  2. Hierarchies, multiple energy barriers, and robustness govern the fracture mechanics of alpha-helical and beta-sheet protein domains.

    PubMed

    Ackbarow, Theodor; Chen, Xuefeng; Keten, Sinan; Buehler, Markus J

    2007-10-16

    The fundamental fracture mechanisms of biological protein materials remain largely unknown, in part, because of a lack of understanding of how individual protein building blocks respond to mechanical load. For instance, it remains controversial whether the free energy landscape of the unfolding behavior of proteins consists of multiple, discrete transition states or the location of the transition state changes continuously with the pulling velocity. This lack in understanding has thus far prevented us from developing predictive strength models of protein materials. Here, we report direct atomistic simulation that over four orders of magnitude in time scales of the unfolding behavior of alpha-helical (AH) and beta-sheet (BS) domains, the key building blocks of hair, hoof, and wool as well as spider silk, amyloids, and titin. We find that two discrete transition states corresponding to two fracture mechanisms exist. Whereas the unfolding mechanism at fast pulling rates is sequential rupture of individual hydrogen bonds (HBs), unfolding at slow pulling rates proceeds by simultaneous rupture of several HBs. We derive the hierarchical Bell model, a theory that explicitly considers the hierarchical architecture of proteins, providing a rigorous structure-property relationship. We exemplify our model in a study of AHs, and show that 3-4 parallel HBs per turn are favorable in light of the protein's mechanical and thermodynamical stability, in agreement with experimental findings that AHs feature 3.6 HBs per turn. Our results provide evidence that the molecular structure of AHs maximizes its robustness at minimal use of building materials.

  3. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  4. Modelling University Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trakman, Leon

    2008-01-01

    Twentieth century governance models used in public universities are subject to increasing doubt across the English-speaking world. Governments question if public universities are being efficiently governed; if their boards of trustees are adequately fulfilling their trust obligations towards multiple stakeholders; and if collegial models of…

  5. Factors governing selection of operating frequency for subsurface- imaging synthetic-aperture radar

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Patitz, W.E.

    1993-12-31

    A subsurface-imaging synthetic-aperture radar (SISAR) has potential for application in areas as diverse as non-proliferation programs for nuclear weapons to environmental monitoring. However, subsurface imaging is complicated by propagation loss in the soil and surface-clutter response. Both the loss and surface-clutter response depend on the operating frequency. This paper examines several factors which provide a basis for determining optimum frequencies and frequency ranges which will allow synthetic-aperture imaging of buried targets. No distinction can be made between objects at different heights when viewed with a conventional imaging radar (which uses a one-dimensional synthetic aperture), and the return from a buried object must compete with the return from the surface clutter. Thus, the signal-to-clutter ratio is an appropriate measure of performance for a SISAR. A parameter-based modeling approach is used to model the complex dielectric constant of the soil from measured data obtained from the literature. Theoretical random-surface scattering models, based on statistical solutions to Maxwell`s equations, are used to model the clutter. These models are combined to estimate the signal-to-clutter ratio for canonical targets buried in several soil configurations. Results indicate that the HF spectrum (3--30), although it could be used to detect certain targets under some conditions, has limited practical value for use with SISAR, while the upper VIHF through UHF spectrum ({approximately}100 MHz - 1 GHz) shows the most promise for a general purpose SISAR system. Recommendations are included for additional research.

  6. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE PROVIDING FACILITY AMONG WORKERS IN A LOCAL GOVERNMENT SECRETARIAT IN SOUTH WESTERN NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Uchendu, O.C.; Ilesanmi, O.S.; Olumide, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the choice of health care providing facility in Nigeria. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the factors influencing choice and satisfaction with health service providers among local government staff. Methods: A cross sectional survey of all 312 workers in a Local Government Secretariat in South West Nigeria was done. Chi Square and logistic regression analysis was done. Results: The mean age was 38.6 ± 7.5 years, 55% were females and 71.7% had tertiary education. The median monthly family income of the respondents was N 28, 000 (N3,000 – N500,000), with 24.4% earning a monthly income of N21, 000 to N30, 000. Many (72.3%) utilized public health facilities attributing the choice to the low cost of services. Respondents who are satisfied with their usual care providing facilities are 12.2 times more likely to have used public facilities than private facilities (95%, CI 3.431 – 43.114). Respondents who described the quality with ease of getting care/short waiting times as being good are 3.9 times more likely to have private facilities as their chosen health care providing facility (95%, CI 1.755 – 8.742). Cost/payment for service is 2.9 times more likely to predict the use of public health facility as the usual health care provider. Conclusion: Private facilities though costlier do not appear to be providing better services than public facilities. To increase access to health care the cost of services and the waiting time are important factors to address. PMID:25161426

  7. Screening for Future Cardiovascular Disease Using Age Alone Compared with Multiple Risk Factors and Age

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Nicholas J.; Simmonds, Mark; Morris, Joan K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk factors such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol are used, with age, in screening for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The value of using these risk factors with age compared with using age alone is not known. We compared screening for future CVD events using age alone with screening using age and multiple risk factors based on regular Framingham risk assessments. Methods Ten-year CVD risk was estimated using Framingham risk equations in a hypothetical sample population of 500,000 people aged 0–89 years. Risk estimates were used to identify individuals who did and did not have a CVD event over a ten-year period. For screening using age alone (age screening) and screening using multiple risk factors and age (Framingham screening) we estimated the (i) detection rate (sensitivity); (ii) false–positive rate; (iii) proportion of CVD-free years of life lost in affected individuals with positive results (person-years detection rate); and (iv) cost per CVD-free life year gained from preventive treatment. Results Age screening using a cut-off of 55 years detected 86% of all first CVD events arising in the population every year and 72% of CVD-free years of life lost for a 24% false-positive rate; for five yearly Framingham screening the false-positive rate was 21% for the same 86% detection rate. The estimated cost per CVD-free year of life gained was £2,000 for age screening and £2,200 for Framingham screening if a Framingham screen costs £150 and the annual cost of preventive treatment is £200. Conclusion Age screening for future CVD events is simpler than Framingham screening with a similar screening performance and cost-effectiveness. It avoids blood tests and medical examinations. The advantages of age screening in the prevention of heart attack and stroke warrant considering its use in preference to multiple risk factor screening. PMID:21573224

  8. Hydroecological factors governing surface water flow on a low-gradient floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, J.W.; Schaffranek, R.W.; Noe, G.B.; Larsen, L.G.; Nowacki, D.J.; O'Connor, B.L.

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between hydrology and aquatic ecosystems are better understood in streams and rivers compared to their surrounding floodplains. Our goal was to characterize the hydrology of the Everglades ridge and slough floodplain ecosystem, which is valued for the comparatively high biodiversity and connectivity of its parallel-drainage features but which has been degraded over the past century in response to flow reductions associated with flood control. We measured flow velocity, water depth, and wind velocity continuously for 3 years in an area of the Everglades with well-preserved parallel-drainage features (i.e., 200-m wide sloughs interspersed with slightly higher elevation and more densely vegetated ridges). Mean daily flow velocity averaged 0.32 cm s-1 and ranged between 0.02 and 0.79 cm s-1. Highest sustained velocities were associated with flow pulses caused by water releases from upstream hydraulic control structures that increased flow velocity by a factor of 2-3 on the floodplain for weeks at a time. The highest instantaneous measurements of flow velocity were associated with the passage of Hurricane Wilma in 2005 when the inverse barometric pressure effect increased flow velocity up to 5 cm s-1 for several hours. Time-averaged flow velocities were 29% greater in sloughs compared to ridges because of marginally higher vegetative drag in ridges compared to sloughs, which contributed modestly (relative to greater water depth and flow duration in sloughs compared to ridges) to the predominant fraction (86%) of total discharge through the landscape occurring in sloughs. Univariate scaling relationships developed from theory of flow through vegetation, and our field data indicated that flow velocity increases with the square of water surface slope and the fourth power of stem diameter, decreases in direct proportion with increasing frontal area of vegetation, and is unrelated to water depth except for the influence that water depth has in controlling

  9. Parent Involvement in School Conceptualizing Multiple Dimensions and Their Relations with Family and Demographic Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Gwynne O; Lengua, Liliana J; McMahon, Robert J

    2000-11-01

    Parent involvement (PI) in school is associated with more positive academic performance and social competence in children. However, there are inadequacies in current measures of PI and a need for a better understanding of predictors of PI. In this study, measures were obtained from a normative sample of 387 children in kindergarten and first grade from high-risk neighborhoods in 4 different sites. First, a confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical factor model of PI identified 6 reliable multiple-reporter PI factors: Parent-Teacher Contact, Parent Involvement at School, Quality of Parent-Teacher Relationship, Teacher's Perception of the Parent, Parent Involvement at Home, and Parent Endorsement of School. Next, the relations among 3 specific family and demographic risk factors-parental education level, maternal depression, and single-parent status-and these 6 PI factors were examined using path analyses in structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the 3 risk factors were differentially associated with the 6 PI factors: Parental education was significantly associated with 4 PI outcomes, maternal depression was significantly associated with 5 PI outcomes, and single-parent status was significantly associated with 3 PI outcomes. No significant ethnic group differences between African American and Caucasian families were found in these relations.

  10. Solutions of Stress Intensity Factors of Multiple Internal Axial Cracks in Hollow Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-01-01

    This paper solved numerically the stress intensity factors of multiple internal axial cracks in hollow cylinders under internal pressure. Semi-elliptical shaped cracks are modelled using ANSYS finite element program and the stress intensity factors are calculated using interaction domain integral which is based on the J-integral. There are two important parameters are considered such as crack aspect ratio, a/t is 0.2, 0.4 and 0.75 and crack spacing distance, d/c is 0.4, 0.7 and 1.1. For multiple internal axial cracks under internal pressure, stress intensity factors along the crack front decreased when crack aspect ratio, a/t is increased. It is also revealed that the role of crack spacing on the stress intensity factor is insignificant especially for the shallow cracks (a/t < 0.4). However, for the crack having a/t = 0.75, increasing the distance of d/c capable to increase the SIFs due to interaction effect.

  11. Factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China: a multiple statistical analysis study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Wu, Xin-wu

    2011-04-01

    A relationship between the waste production and socio-economic factors is essential in waste management. In the present study, the factors influencing municipal solid waste generation in China were investigated by multiple statistical analysis. Twelve items were chosen for investigation: GDP, per capita GDP, urban population, the proportion of urban population, the area of urban construction, the area of paved roads, the area of urban gardens and green areas, the number of the large cities, annual per capita disposable income of urban households, annual per capita consumption expenditure of urban households, total energy consumption and annual per capital consumption for households. Two methodologies from multiple statistical analysis were selected; specifically principal components analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA). Three new dimensions were identified by PCA: component 1: economy and urban development; component 2: energy consumption; and component 3: urban scale. The three components together accounted for 99.1% of the initial variance. The results show that economy and urban development are important items influencing MSW generation. The proportion of urban population and urban population had the highest loadings in all factors. The relationship between growth of gross domestic product (GDP) and production of MSW was not as clear-cut as often assumed in China, a situation that is more likely to apply to developed countries. Energy consumption was another factor considered in our study of MSW generation. In addition, the annual MSW quantity variation was investigated by cluster analysis.

  12. Multiplicative update rules for concurrent nonnegative matrix factorization and maximum margin classification.

    PubMed

    Zoidi, Olga; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2013-03-01

    The state-of-the-art classification methods which employ nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) employ two consecutive independent steps. The first one performs data transformation (dimensionality reduction) and the second one classifies the transformed data using classification methods, such as nearest neighbor/centroid or support vector machines (SVMs). In the following, we focus on using NMF factorization followed by SVM classification. Typically, the parameters of these two steps, e.g., the NMF bases/coefficients and the support vectors, are optimized independently, thus leading to suboptimal classification performance. In this paper, we merge these two steps into one by incorporating maximum margin classification constraints into the standard NMF optimization. The notion behind the proposed framework is to perform NMF, while ensuring that the margin between the projected data of the two classes is maximal. The concurrent NMF factorization and support vector optimization are performed through a set of multiplicative update rules. In the same context, the maximum margin classification constraints are imposed on the NMF problem with additional discriminant constraints and respective multiplicative update rules are extracted. The impact of the maximum margin classification constraints on the NMF factorization problem is addressed in Section VI. Experimental results in several databases indicate that the incorporation of the maximum margin classification constraints into the NMF and discriminant NMF objective functions improves the accuracy of the classification.

  13. Monitoring a Nuclear Factor-κB Signature of Drug Resistance in Multiple Myeloma*

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yun; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth R.; Oliveira, Vasco; Yarde, Danielle; He, Lili; Cheng, Jin Q.; Mathews, Linda; Boucher, Kelly; Cubitt, Christopher; Perez, Lia; Gauthier, Ted J.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Shain, Kenneth H.; Dalton, William S.; Hazlehurst, Lori; Koomen, John M.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of acquired drug resistance results from multiple compensatory mechanisms acting to prevent cell death. Simultaneous monitoring of proteins involved in drug resistance is a major challenge for both elucidation of the underlying biology and development of candidate biomarkers for assessment of personalized cancer therapy. Here, we have utilized an integrated analytical platform based on SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry, a versatile and powerful tool for targeted quantification of proteins in complex matrices, to evaluate a well-characterized model system of melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma (MM). Quantitative assays were developed to measure protein expression related to signaling events and biological processes relevant to melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma, specifically: nuclear factor-κB subunits, members of the Bcl-2 family of apoptosis-regulating proteins, and Fanconi Anemia DNA repair components. SDS-PAGE protein fractionation prior to liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring methods were developed for quantification of these selected target proteins in amounts of material compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens (i.e. less than 50,000 cells). As proof of principle, both relative and absolute quantification were performed on cell line models of MM to compare protein expression before and after drug treatment in naïve cells and in drug resistant cells; these liquid chromatography-multiple reaction monitoring results are compared with existing literature and Western blots. The initial stage of a systems biology platform for examining drug resistance in MM has been implemented in cell line models and has been translated to MM cells isolated from a patient. The ultimate application of this platform could assist in clinical decision-making for individualized patient treatment. Although these specific assays have

  14. Analyzing Multiple Multivariate Time Series Data Using Multilevel Dynamic Factor Models.

    PubMed

    Song, Hairong; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate time series data offer researchers opportunities to study dynamics of various systems in social and behavioral sciences. Dynamic factor model (DFM), as an idiographic approach for studying intraindividual variability and dynamics, has typically been applied to time series data obtained from a single unit. When multivariate time series data are collected from multiple units, how to synchronize dynamical information becomes a silent issue. To address this issue, the current study presented a multilevel dynamic factor model (MDFM) that analyzes multiple multivariate time series in multilevel SEM frameworks. MDFM not only disentangles within- and between-person variability but also models dynamics of the intraindividual processes. To illustrate the uses of MDFMs, we applied lag0, lag1, and lag2 MDFMs to empirical data on affect collected from 205 dating couples who had at least 50 consecutive days of observations. We also considered a model extension where the dynamical coefficients were allowed to be randomly varying in the population. The empirical analysis yielded interesting findings regarding affect regulation and coregulation within couples, demonstrating promising uses of MDFMs in analyzing multiple multivariate time series. In the end, we discussed a number of methodological issues in the applications of MDFMs and pointed out possible directions for future research.

  15. Robustness of the fractal regime for the multiple-scattering structure factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katyal, Nisha; Botet, Robert; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    In the single-scattering theory of electromagnetic radiation, the fractal regime is a definite range in the photon momentum-transfer q, which is characterized by the scaling-law behavior of the structure factor: S(q) ∝ 1 /q df. This allows a straightforward estimation of the fractal dimension df of aggregates in Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments. However, this behavior is not commonly studied in optical scattering experiments because of the lack of information on its domain of validity. In the present work, we propose a definition of the multiple-scattering structure factor, which naturally generalizes the single-scattering function S(q). We show that the mean-field theory of electromagnetic scattering provides an explicit condition to interpret the significance of multiple scattering. In this paper, we investigate and discuss electromagnetic scattering by three classes of fractal aggregates. The results obtained from the TMatrix method show that the fractal scaling range is divided into two domains: (1) a genuine fractal regime, which is robust; (2) a possible anomalous scaling regime, S(q) ∝ 1 /qδ, with exponent δ independent of df, and related to the way the scattering mechanism uses the local morphology of the scatterer. The recognition, and an analysis, of the latter domain is of importance because it may result in significant reduction of the fractal regime, and brings into question the proper mechanism in the build-up of multiple-scattering.

  16. Multiple modifiable risk factors for first ischemic stroke: a population-based epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Hadjiev, D I; Mineva, P P; Vukov, M I

    2003-09-01

    The aims of this epidemiological population-based cohort study were to examine the prevalence of the multiple modifiable vascular risk factors, their distribution patterns and outcomes among a Bulgarian urban population. A total of 500 volunteers, 200 men and 300 women, without clinical signs and symptoms of cerebrovascular disease, aged 50-79 years, were enrolled in the study. A structured questionnaire, physical examination, electrocardiogram records, a battery of laboratory tests and carotid duplex scanning were employed. Three or more modifiable vascular risk factors were detected in 52% (260/500) of the subjects. Dyslipidemias, hypertension, obesity, cigarette smoking and cardiac diseases were found to be the most prevalent single risk factors. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis (ACS) of 50% or greater was detected in 8.8% (23/260) of the volunteers examined. After a 2-year follow-up, 2.7% (7/260) of the persons with modifiable vascular risk factors reached the end point transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), ischemic stroke and myocardial infarction. The following combinations of risk factors among the subjects enrolled in the study were significantly associated with these outcomes: hypertension and cardiac diseases (OR = 6.82; 95% CI, 1.21-38.41), cardiac diseases and obesity (OR = 6.13; 95% CI, 1.27-29.72), ACS and high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (OR = 11.11; 95% CI, 1.58-78.29). The identification of subjects with multiple vascular risk factors may be important for primary medical or surgical stroke prevention.

  17. Multiple risk factor interventions for primary prevention of coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Shah; Beswick, Andrew; Burke, Margaret; Smith, George Davey

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary prevention programmes in many countries attempt to reduce mortality and morbidity due to coronary heart disease (CHD) through risk factor modification. It is widely believed that multiple risk factor intervention using counselling and educational methods is efficacious and cost-effective and should be expanded. Recent trials examining risk factor changes have cast considerable doubt on the effectiveness of these multiple risk factor interventions. Objectives To assess the effects of multiple risk factor intervention for reducing cardiovascular risk factors, total mortality, and mortality from CHD among adults without clinical evidence of established cardiovascular disease. Search strategy MEDLINE was searched for the original review to 1995. This was updated by searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials on The Cochrane Library Issue 3 2001, MEDLINE(2000 to September 2001) and EMBASE (1998 to September 2001). Selection criteria Intervention studies using counselling or education to modify more than one cardiovascular risk factor in adults from general populations, occupational groups, or high risk groups. Trials of less than 6 months duration were excluded. Data collection and analysis Data were extracted by two reviewers independently. Investigators were contacted to obtain missing information. Main results A total of 39 trials were found of which ten reported clinical event data. In the ten trials with clinical event end-points, the pooled odds ratios for total and CHD mortality were 0.96 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.92 to 1.01) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.04) respectively. Net changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and blood cholesterol were (weighted mean differences) −3.6 mmHg (95% CI −3.9 to −3.3 mmHg), −2.8 mmHg (95% CI −2.9 to −2.6 mmHg) and −0.07 mMol/l (95% CI −0.8 to −0.06 mMol/l) respectively. Odds of reduction in smoking prevalence was 20% (95% CI 8% to 31%). Statistical heterogeneity

  18. Analysis of multiple factors involved in acute progressive cerebral infarction and extra- and intracranial arterial lesions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuefu; Liu, Yajie; Luo, Chenghong; Lu, Weiheng; Su, Binru

    2014-06-01

    In order to identify the potential factors involved in the development of acute progressive cerebral infarction (PCI), the association between potential risk factors and extra- and intracranial arterial lesions was investigated. A total of 608 patients underwent cerebral angiography to analyze the morphological characteristics between the PCI and NPCI groups. In addition, data from numerous cases of extra- and intracranial arterial lesions were collected and compared with the control groups, and the associations between the severity of arterial lesions and the potential influential factors were analyzed. In the blood vessels responsible for cerebral infarction, various degrees of atherosclerotic plaques and stenosis were observed. Age, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, glycosylated hemoglobin and blood pressure affected the degrees of hardening, plaques and stenosis. Analysis of cerebral artery stenosis revealed that age, diabetes mellitus and plasma fibrinogen were risk factors for cerebral artery stenosis, while the HDL/low density lipoprotein ratio was a protective factor. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that the lesions of blood vessels are a major pathological change in PCI and multiple factors are involved in the pathogenesis.

  19. Cellular factors required for multiple stages of SV40 DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Fairman, M P; Stillman, B

    1988-01-01

    Plasmids containing the SV40 origin replicate in the presence of SV40 T antigen and a cell free extract derived from human 293 cells. Upon fractionation of this extract, two essential replication factors have been identified. One of these is a multi-subunit DNA binding protein containing polypeptides of 70,000, 34,000 and 11,000 daltons which may function as a eukaryotic single strand DNA binding protein (SSB). The other partially purified fraction is required with T antigen for the first stage of DNA replication, the formation of a pre-synthesis complex at the replication origin. These results, and others, define multiple stages of SV40 DNA replication in vitro which are analogous to multiple stages of Escherichia coli and phage lambda replication, and may reflect similar events in the replication of cellular chromosomes. Images PMID:2841119

  20. Spatially distributed influence of agro-environmental factors governing nitrate fate and transport in an irrigated stream-aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, R. T.; Ahmadi, M.; Gates, T. K.; Arabi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Elevated levels of nitrate (NO3) in groundwater systems pose a serious risk to human populations and natural ecosystems. As part of an effort to remediate NO3 contamination in irrigated stream-aquifer systems, this study elucidates agricultural and environmental parameters and processes that govern NO3 fate and transport at the regional (500 km2), local (50 km2), and field scales (< 1 km2). Specifically, the revised Morris sensitivity analysis method was applied to a finite-difference nitrogen cycling and reactive transport model of a regional-scale study site in the lower Arkansas River valley in southeastern Colorado. The method was used to rank the influence of anthropogenic activities and natural chemical processes on NO3 groundwater concentration, NO3 mass leaching, and NO3 mass loading to the Arkansas River from the aquifer. Sensitivity indices were computed for the entire study area in aggregate as well as each canal command area, crop type, and individual grid cells. Results suggest that fertilizer loading, crop uptake, and heterotrophic denitrification govern NO3 fate and transport for the majority of the study area, although their order of influence on NO3 groundwater concentration and mass leaching varies according to crop type and command area. Canal NO3 concentration and rates of autotrophic denitrification, nitrification, and humus decomposition also dominate or partially dominate in other locations. Each factor, with the exception of O2 reduction rate, is the dominating influence on NO3 groundwater concentration at one or more locations within the study area. Results can be used to determine critical processes and key management actions for future data collection and remediation strategies, with efforts able to be focused on localized areas.

  1. Management and Outcomes Among Chinese Hospitalized Patients With Established Cardiovascular Disease or Multiple Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jingang; Yang, Yuejin; Gu, Hongqiu; Li, Wei; Hu, Dayi

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the management and outcomes among hospitalized patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease (PAD), or with multiple (≥ 2) cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (multiple risk factors [MRFs]). We retrospectively studied 3732 hospitalized patients of either CV disease or ≥ 2 risk factors for atherothrombosis from October 2004 to January 2005. Outcomes included CV death, myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and hospitalization for atherothrombotic events. About one-third had disease involving ≥ 1 vascular bed. Medication was more intense in patients with CAD than in others. The lowest use of statins and antiplatelet treatment was in the PAD-only group. Patients with PAD experienced a higher CV mortality (5.1%) than the patients with CAD (3.73%) or stroke (4.1%), P < .001. Cardiovascular death ranged from 1.2% for patients with MRFs, 2.8% for patients with 1-bed disease, 4.7% for patients with 2-bed disease to 6.4% for patients with 3-bed disease (P for trend <.001). For hospitalized patients with established atherosclerotic arterial disease, a substantial increase in CV event rates occurs with increasing numbers of affected arterial beds. Patients with PAD were at an especially high risk.

  2. Multiple Levels of Family Factors and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms Among Chinese Children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Heath, Melissa A; Chi, Peilian; Xu, Shousen; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-11-30

    Family factors are closely associated with child developmental outcomes. This study examined the relationship of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and factors at whole family, dyadic, and individual levels in Chinese children. Participants, who were recruited from 14 primary schools in north, east, and south-west China, included 80 father-child dyads and 169 mother-child dyads. Children in the participating dyads were previously diagnosed with ODD. Results revealed that family cohesion/adaptability was indirectly associated with ODD symptoms via parent-child relationship and child emotion regulation. Parent-child relationship affected ODD symptoms directly and indirectly through child emotion regulation. In addition, the effects of family cohesion/adaptability on parent emotion regulation and child emotion regulation were mediated by the parent-child relationship. The tested model provides a comprehensive framework of how family factors at multiple levels are related to child ODD symptoms and highlights the importance of understanding child emotional and behavioral problems within the family context, more specifically within the multiple levels of family relationships.

  3. Science Teaching Efficacy of Preservice Elementary Teachers: Examination of the Multiple Factors Reported as Influential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taştan Kırık, Özgecan

    2013-12-01

    This study explores the science teaching efficacy beliefs of pr-service elementary teachers and the relationship between efficacy beliefs and multiple factors such as antecedent factors (participation in extracurricular activities and number of science and science teaching methods courses taken), conceptual understanding, classroom management beliefs and science teaching attitudes. Science education majors ( n = 71) and elementary education majors ( n = 262) were compared with respect to these variables. Finally, the predictors of two constructs of science teaching efficacy beliefs, personal science teaching efficacy (PSTE) and science teaching outcome expectancy (STOE), were examined by multiple linear regression analysis. According to the results, participation in extracurricular activities has a significant but low correlation with science concept knowledge, science teaching attitudes, PSTE and STOE. In addition, there is a small but significant correlation between science concept knowledge and outcome expectancy, which leads the idea that preservice elementary teachers' conceptual understanding in science contributes to their science teaching self-efficacy. This study reveals a moderate correlation between science teaching attitudes and STOE and a high correlation between science teaching attitudes and PSTE. Additionally, although the correlation coefficient is low, the number of methodology courses was found to be one of the correlates of science teaching attitudes. Furthermore, students of both majors generally had positive self-efficacy beliefs on both the STOE and PSTE. Specifically, science education majors had higher science teaching self-efficacy than elementary education majors. Regression results showed that science teaching attitude is the major factor in predicting both PSTE and STOE for both groups.

  4. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Yang, Bong-Min; Kang, Minah

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country.

  5. Factor Configurations with Governance as Conditions for Low HIV/AIDS Prevalence in HIV/AIDS Recipient Countries: Fuzzy-set Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Kang, Minah

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate whether good governance of a recipient country is a necessary condition and what combinations of factors including governance factor are sufficient for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in HIV/AIDS aid recipient countries during the period of 2002-2010. For this, Fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) was used. Nine potential attributes for a causal configuration for low HIV/AIDS prevalence were identified through a review of previous studies. For each factor, full membership, full non-membership, and crossover point were specified using both author's knowledge and statistical information of the variables. Calibration and conversion to a fuzzy-set score were conducted using Fs/QCA 2.0 and probabilistic tests for necessary and sufficiency were performed by STATA 11. The result suggested that governance is the necessary condition for low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in a recipient country. From sufficiency test, two pathways were resulted. The low level of governance can lead to low level of HIV/AIDS prevalence when it is combined with other favorable factors, especially, low economic inequality, high economic development and high health expenditure. However, strengthening governance is a more practical measure to keep low prevalence of HIV/AIDS because it is hard to achieve both economic development and economic quality. This study highlights that a comprehensive policy measure is the key for achieving low prevalence of HIV/AIDS in recipient country. PMID:26617451

  6. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Evapotranspiration in Response to Multiple Environmental Factors Simulated by the Community Land Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Xiaoying; Mao, Jiafu; Thornton, P.; Huang, Maoyi

    2013-04-25

    Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration (ET) over the period from 1982 to 2008 are investigated and attributed to multiple environmental factors using the Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4). Our results show that CLM4 captures the spatial distribution and interannual variability of ET well when compared to observation-based estimates. We find that climate dominates the predicted variability in ET. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration also plays an important role in modulating the trend of predicted ET over most land areas, and replaces climate to function as the dominant factor controlling ET changes over the North America, South America and Asia regions. Compared to the effect of climate and CO2 concentration, the roles of other factors such as nitrogen deposition, land use change and aerosol deposition are less pronounced and regionally dependent. The aerosol deposition contribution is the third most important factor for trends of ET over Europe, while it has the smallest impact over other regions. As ET is a dominant component of the terrestrial water cycle, our results suggest that environmental factors like elevated CO2, nitrogen and aerosol depositions, and land use change, in addition to climate, could have significant impact on future projections of water resources and water cycle dynamics at global and regional scales.

  7. Vitamin-D Deficiency As a Potential Environmental Risk Factor in Multiple Sclerosis, Schizophrenia, and Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kočovská, Eva; Gaughran, Fiona; Krivoy, Amir; Meier, Ute-Christiane

    2017-01-01

    In this short review, we want to summarize the current findings on the role of vitamin-D in multiple sclerosis (MS), schizophrenia, and autism. Many studies have highlighted hypovitaminosis-D as a potential environmental risk factor for a variety of conditions such as MS, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and, more recently, psychiatric diseases. However, whether hypovitaminosis-D is a potential causative factor for the development or activity in these conditions or whether hypovitaminosis-D may be due to increased vitamin-D consumption by an activated immune system (reverse causation) is the focus of intense research. Here, we will discuss current evidence exploring the role of vitamin-D in MS, schizophrenia, and autism and its impact on adaptive and innate immunity, antimicrobial defense, the microbiome, neuroinflammation, behavior, and neurogenesis. More work is needed to gain insight into its role in the underlying pathophysiology of these conditions as it may offer attractive means of intervention and prevention.

  8. Familial monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma: epidemiology, risk factors, and biological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Alexandra J; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Vachon, Celine M

    2012-06-07

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a precursor to multiple myeloma (MM), is one of the most common premalignant conditions in the general population. The cause of MGUS is largely unknown. Recent studies show that there is an increased prevalence of MGUS in blood relatives of persons with lymphoproliferative and plasma cell proliferative disorders, suggesting presence of shared underlying genetic influences. In the past few years, additional studies have examined risk factors and biologic characteristics that may contribute to the increased prevalence of MGUS among relatives of probands with MGUS, MM, and other blood malignancies. This article reviews the known epidemiology and risk factors for familial MGUS and myeloma, the risk of lymphoproliferative disorders and other malignancies among blood-relatives of patients with MGUS and MM, and discusses future directions for research.

  9. Reversal of Ischemic Cardiomyopathy with Sca-1+ Stem Cells Modified with Multiple Growth Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Pasha, Zeeshan; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that bone marrow derived Sca-1+ stem cells (BM Sca-1+) transduced with multiple therapeutic cytokines with diverse effects will induce faster angiomyogenic differentiation in the infarcted myocardium. Methods and Results BM Sca-1+ were purified from transgenic male mice expressing GFP. Plasmids encoding for select quartet of growth factors, i.e., human IGF-1, VEGF, SDF-1α and HGF were prepared and used for genetic modification of Sca-1+ cells (GFSca-1+). Scramble transfected cells (ScSca-1+) were used as a control. RT-PCR and western blotting showed significantly higher expression of the growth factors in GFSca-1+. Besides the quartet of the therapeutic growth factors, PCR based growth factor array showed upregulation of multiple angiogenic and prosurvival factors such as Ang-1, Ang-2, MMP9, Cx43, BMP2, BMP5, FGF2, and NGF in GFSca-1+ (p<0.01 vs ScSca-1+). LDH and TUNEL assays showed enhanced survival of GFSca-1+ under lethal anoxia (p<0.01 vs ScSca-1+). MTS assay showed significant increased cell proliferation in GFSca-1+ (p<0.05 vs ScSca-1+). For in vivo study, female mice were grouped to receive the intramyocardial injection of 15 μl DMEM without cells (group-1) or containing 2.5×105 ScSca-1+ (group-2) or GFSca-1+ (group-3) immediately after coronary artery ligation. As indicated by Sry gene, a higher survival of GFSca-1+ in group-3 on day4 (2.3 fold higher vs group-2) was observed with massive mobilization of stem and progenitor cells (cKit+, Mdr1+, Cxcr4+ cells). Heart tissue sections immunostained for actinin and Cx43 at 4 weeks post engraftment showed extensive myofiber formation and expression of gap junctions. Immunostaining for vWF showed increased blood vessel density in both peri-infarct and infarct regions in group-3. Infarct size was attenuated and the global heart function was improved in group-3 as compared to group-2. Conclusions Administration of BM Sca-1+ transduced with multiple genes is a novel approach to treat

  10. NAC transcription factors in plant multiple abiotic stress responses: progress and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongbo; Wang, Hongyan; Tang, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stresses adversely affect plant growth and agricultural productivity. According to the current climate prediction models, crop plants will face a greater number of environmental stresses, which are likely to occur simultaneously in the future. So it is very urgent to breed broad-spectrum tolerant crops in order to meet an increasing demand for food productivity due to global population increase. As one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants, NAC TFs play vital roles in regulating plant growth and development processes including abiotic stress responses. Lots of studies indicated that many stress-responsive NAC TFs had been used to improve stress tolerance in crop plants by genetic engineering. In this review, the recent progress in NAC TFs was summarized, and the potential utilization of NAC TFs in breeding abiotic stress tolerant transgenic crops was also be discussed. In view of the complexity of field conditions and the specificity in multiple stress responses, we suggest that the NAC TFs commonly induced by multiple stresses should be promising candidates to produce plants with enhanced multiple stress tolerance. Furthermore, the field evaluation of transgenic crops harboring NAC genes, as well as the suitable promoters for minimizing the negative effects caused by over-expressing some NAC genes, should be considered. PMID:26579152

  11. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of multiple risk factor interventions for preventing coronary heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.; Smith, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of multiple risk factor intervention in reducing cardiovascular risk factors, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease among adults. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in workforces and in primary care in which subjects were randomly allocated to more than one of six interventions (stopping smoking, exercise, dietary advice, weight control, antihypertensive drugs, and cholesterol lowering drugs) and followed up for at least six months. SUBJECTS: Adults aged 17-73 years, 903000 person years of observation were included in nine trials with clinical event outcomes and 303000 person years in five trials with risk factor outcomes alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking rates, blood cholesterol concentrations, total mortality, and mortality from coronary heart disease. RESULTS: Net decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, smoking prevalence, and blood cholesterol were 4.2 mm Hg (SE 0.19 mm Hg), 2.7 mm Hg (0.09 mm Hg), 4.2% (0.3%), and 0.14 mmol/l (0.01 mmol/l) respectively. In the nine trials with clinical event end points the pooled odds ratios for total and coronary heart disease mortality were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.92 to 1.02) and 0.96 (0.88 to 1.04) respectively. Statistical heterogeneity between the studies with respect to changes in mortality and risk factors was due to trials focusing on hypertensive participants and those using considerable amounts of drug treatment, with only these trials showing significant reductions in mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled effects of multiple risk factor intervention on mortality were insignificant and a small, but potentially important, benefit of treatment (about a 10% reduction in mortality) may have been missed. Changes in risk factors were modest, were related to the amount of pharmacological treatment used, and in some cases may have been overestimated

  12. Possible environmental factors underlying amphibian decline in eastern Puerto Rico: Analysis of U.S. government data archives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The past three decades have seen major declines in populations of several species of amphibians at high elevations in eastern Puerto Rico, a region unique in the humid tropics because of the degree of environmental monitoring that has taken place through the efforts of U.S. government agencies. I examined changes in environmental conditions by examining time-series data sets that extend back at least into the 1980s, a period when frog populations were declining. The data include forest cover; annual mean, minimum, and maximum daily temperature; annual rainfall; rain and stream chemistry; and atmospheric-dust transport. I examined satellite imagery and air-chemistry samples from a single National Aeronautics and Space Administration aircraft flight across the Caribbean showing patches of pollutants, described as thin sheets or lenses, in the lower troposphere. The main source of these pollutants appeared to be fires from land clearing and deforestation, primarily in Africa. Some pollutant concentrations were high and, in the case of ozone, approached health limits set for urban air. Urban pollution impinging on Puerto Rico, dust generation from Africa (potential soil pathogens), and tropical forest burning (gaseous pollutants) have all increased during the last three decades, overlapping the timing of amphibian declines in eastern Puerto Rico. None of the data sets pointed directly to changes so extreme that they might be considered a direct lethal cause of amphibian declines in Puerto Rico. More experimental research is required to link any of these environmental factors to this problem.

  13. Molecular Factors Governing the Liquid and Glassy States Recrystallization of Celecoxib in Binary Mixtures with Excipients of Different Molecular Weights.

    PubMed

    Grzybowska, K; Chmiel, K; Knapik-Kowalczuk, J; Grzybowski, A; Jurkiewicz, K; Paluch, M

    2017-03-08

    Transformation of poorly water-soluble crystalline pharmaceuticals to the amorphous form is one of the most promising strategies to improve their oral bioavailability. Unfortunately, the amorphous drugs are usually thermodynamically unstable and may quickly return to their crystalline form. A very promising way to enhance the physical stability of amorphous drugs is to prepare amorphous compositions of APIs with certain excipients which can be characterized by significantly different molecular weights, such as polymers, acetate saccharides, and other APIs. By using different experimental techniques (broadband dielectric spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction) we compare the effect of adding the large molecular weight polymer-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K30)-and the small molecular weight excipient-octaacetylmaltose (acMAL)-on molecular dynamics as well as the tendency to recrystallization of the amorphous celecoxib (CEL) in the amorphous solid dispersions: CEL-PVP and CEL-acMAL. The physical stability investigations of the binary systems were performed in both the supercooled liquid and glassy states. We found that acMAL is a better inhibitor of recrystallization of amorphous CEL than PVP K30 deep in the glassy state (T < Tg). In contrast, PVP K30 is a better crystallization inhibitor of CEL than acMAL in the supercooled liquid state (at T > Tg). We discuss molecular factors governing the recrystallization of amorphous CEL in examined solid dispersions.

  14. Functional neovascularization of biodegradable dextran hydrogels with multiple angiogenic growth factors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoming; Shen, Yu-I; Kusuma, Sravanti; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Steenbergen, Charles J; Gerecht, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Slow vascularization of functional blood limits the transplantation of tissue constructs and the recovery of ischemic and wounded tissues. Despite the widespread investigation of polysaccharide-based hydrogel scaffolds for their therapeutic applications, blood vessel ingrowth into these hydrogel scaffolds remains a challenge. We hypothesized that modifying the properties of biodegradable hydrogel scaffolds with immobilization of multiple angiogenic growth factors (GFs) would induce a rapid proliferation of functional vasculature into the scaffolds. To this end, we remodeled the hydrogel structure by decreasing crosslinking density via reduced degree of substitution of crosslinking groups, which resulted in improved hydrogel properties including reduced rigidity, increased swelling, increased vascular endothelial GF (VEGF) release capability, and facilitated rapid hydrogel disintegration and tissue ingrowth. Immobilizing VEGF in the scaffolds promoted tissue ingrowth and expedited biodegradation. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of multiple angiogenic GFs was established; the coimmobilization of VEGF+ angiopoietin-1, and VEGF+ insulin-like GF+ stromal cell-derived factor-1 induced more and larger blood vessels than any individual GF, while the combination of all GFs dramatically increased the size and number of newly formed functional vessels. Altogether, our data demonstrate that rapid, efficient, and functional neovascularization can be achieved by precisely manipulating hydrogel scaffold properties and immobilizing defined angiogenic GFs.

  15. Apoglobin Stability Is the Major Factor Governing both Cell-free and in Vivo Expression of Holomyoglobin*♦

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Premila P.; Smith, Lucian P.; Phillips, George N.; Olson, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Expression levels in animal muscle tissues and in Escherichia coli vary widely for naturally occurring mammalian myoglobins (Mb). To explore this variation, we developed an in vitro transcription and wheat germ extract-based translation assay to examine quantitatively the factors that govern expression of holoMb. We constructed a library of naturally occurring Mbs from two terrestrial and four deep-diving aquatic mammals and three distal histidine mutants designed to enhance apoglobin stability but decrease hemin affinity. A strong linear correlation is observed between cell-free expression levels of holo-metMb variants and their corresponding apoglobin stabilities, which were measured independently by guanidine HCl-induced unfolding titrations using purified proteins. In contrast, there is little dependence of expression on hemin affinity. Our results confirm quantitatively that deep diving mammals have highly stable Mbs that express to higher levels in animal myocytes, E. coli, and the wheat germ cell-free system than Mbs from terrestrial mammals. Our theoretical analyses show that the rate of aggregation of unfolded apoMb is very large, and as a result, the key factor for high level expression of holoMb, and presumably other heme proteins, is an ultra high fraction of folded, native apoglobin that is capable of rapidly binding hemin. This fraction is determined by the overall equilibrium folding constant and not hemin affinity. These results also demonstrate that the cell-free transcription/translation system can be used as a high throughput platform to screen for apoglobin stability without the need to generate large amounts of protein for in vitro unfolding measurements. PMID:26205820

  16. An examination of the factors governing the development of karst topography in the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, R.V. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    The landscape of the Cumberland Valley of South Central Pennsylvania is dominated by karst topography. A study was initiated to determine if the development of karst was controlled primarily by geologic structure or by lithologic differences. Existing data concerning the geographic locations of karst features, the hydrogeologic characteristics of the Cumberland Valley, and the chemistry of the eleven carbonate formations within the 518 km[sup 2] study area were compiled. Data concerning 366 mapped sinkholes and over 9,000 additional karst features and their relations to the structural, lithological and spatial characteristics of the study area were collected and compiled into the database. Other factors contributing to karst development such as groundwater flow, soil and colluvium characteristics, and geographic distribution were considered. The data suggest that structure dominates lithology in the development of karst features within the study area. Structural features such as fractures, joints and folds, which create secondary porosity, are prerequisite for solution of the carbonate bedrock. Joint systems, fold axes, igneous intrusions, caves, springs and groundwater flow have a significant impact on the development of karst features. The presence of faults proved inconclusive. There are a greater number of karst features per unit area in areas of purer limestones (units with a lower percentage of acid insoluble residue). Lithological variations impact karst development only when structural features are present to provide secondary porosity that enhances chemical weathering. The distribution of karst features and the geologic factors governing their development and distribution should be taken into account when land-use decisions in karst terrains are made.

  17. Influence of multiple dynamic factors on the performance of myoelectric pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Khushaba, Rami N; Al-Timemy, Ali; Kodagoda, Sarath

    2015-08-01

    Hand motion classification using surface Electromyogram (EMG) signals has been widely studied for the control of powered prosthetics in laboratory conditions. However, clinical applicability has been limited, as imposed by factors like electrodes shift, variations in the contraction force levels, forearm rotation angles, change of limb position and many other factors that all affect the EMG pattern recognition performance. While the impact of several of these factors on EMG parameter estimation and pattern recognition has been considered individually in previous studies, a minimum number of experiments were reported to study the influence of multiple dynamic factors. In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of varying forearm rotation angles and contraction force levels on the robustness of EMG pattern recognition, while utilizing different time-and-frequency based feature extraction methods. The EMG pattern recognition system has been validated on a set of 11 subjects (ten intact-limbed and one bilateral transradial amputee) performing six classes of hand motions, each with three different force levels, each at three different forearm rotation angles, with six EMG electrodes plus an accelerometer on the subjects' forearm. Our results suggest that the performance of the learning algorithms can be improved with the Time-Dependent Power Spectrum Descriptors (TD-PSD) utilized in our experiments, with average classification accuracies of up to 90% across all subjects, force levels, and forearm rotation angles.

  18. Multiple risk factors for work-related injuries and illnesses in korean-chinese migrant workers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye

    2015-01-01

    Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers.

  19. [A multiple variable analysis about the risk factors of breast cancer in women].

    PubMed

    Tan, H; Liu, A; Wan, J

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation to the risk factors of breast cancer was carried out in 146 pairs of women subjects, with the method of 1:1 matched case-control study, and of logistic regression analysis and principal component analysis. As a result, a regression equation which includes 5 independent variables has been established by logistic regression analysis; Ten principal components were extracted from 22 risk factors of breast cancer through principal component analysis, and the cumulative contribution of variances of the 10 principal components is 64.8%. The result combining the mono-factor analysis and the multiple variables analysis indicated that the principal risk factors of breast cancer are cadre occupation, the age of primiparity and late marriage, more intake of salted meat and sausage, passive smoking, having the history of family tumor, of breast benign tumor, and of the mastadenitis; but the more number of giving births, longer period of time of lactation, more vegetable intake, and taking more vitamin may have preventive effect for breast cancer.

  20. Modeling the impacts of multiple environmental stress factors on estuarine copepod populations.

    PubMed

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; De Hoop, Lisette; Mialet, Benoit; Maris, Tom; Tackx, Micky L M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2014-05-20

    Many studies have focused on natural stress factors that shape the spatial and temporal distribution of calanoid copepods, but bioassays have shown that copepods are also sensitive to a broad range of contaminants. Although both anthropogenic and natural stress factors are obviously at play in natural copepod communities, most studies consider only one or the other. In the present investigation, we modeled the combined impact of both anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. The model was applied to estimate Eurytemora affinis densities in the contaminated Scheldt estuary and the relatively uncontaminated Darß-Zingst estuary in relation to temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and sediment concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc. The results indicated that temperature was largely responsible for seasonal fluctuations of E. affinis densities. Our model results further suggested that exposure to zinc and copper was largely responsible for the reduced population densities in the contaminated estuary. The model provides a consistent framework for integrating and quantifying the impacts of multiple anthropogenic and natural stress factors on copepod populations. It facilitates the extrapolation of laboratory experiments to ecologically relevant end points pertaining to population viability.

  1. Population Heterogeneity in the Salience of Multiple Risk Factors for Adolescent Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cooper, Brittany R.; Bray, Bethany C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present mixture regression analysis as an alternative to more standard regression analysis for predicting adolescent delinquency. We demonstrate how mixture regression analysis allows for the identification of population subgroups defined by the salience of multiple risk factors. Methods We identified population subgroups (i.e., latent classes) of individuals based on their coefficients in a regression model predicting adolescent delinquency from eight previously established risk indices drawn from the community, school, family, peer, and individual levels. The study included N = 37,763 tenth-grade adolescents who participated in the Communities that Care Youth Survey. Standard, zero-inflated, and mixture Poisson and negative binomial regression models are considered. Results Standard and mixture negative binomial regression models are selected as optimal. The five-class regression model is interpreted based on the class-specific regression coefficients, indicating that risk factors have varying salience across classes of adolescents. Conclusions Standard regression shows that all risk factors are significantly associated with delinquency. Mixture regression provides more nuanced information, suggesting a unique set of risk factors that are salient for different subgroups of adolescents. Implications for the design of subgroup-specific interventions are discussed. PMID:24231260

  2. Insulin-like growth factor I induces migration and invasion of human multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Ya-Wei; Yao, Lei; Tosato, Giovanna; Rudikoff, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable form of cancer characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. During the course of this disease, tumor cells cross endothelial barriers and home to the bone marrow. In latter stages, myeloma cells extravasate through blood vessels and may seed a variety of organs. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is one of several growth factors shown to promote the growth of MM cells. In the current study, we have assessed the ability of IGF-I to serve additionally as a chemotactic factor affecting the mobility and invasive properties of these cells. Results indicate that IGF-I promotes transmigration through vascular endothelial cells and bone marrow stromal cell lines. Analysis of endogenous signaling pathways revealed that protein kinase D/protein kinase Cmicro (PKD/PKCmicro) and RhoA were both activated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K)-dependent manner. Inhibition of PI-3K, PKCs, or Rho-associated kinase by pharmacologic inhibitors abrogated migration, whereas mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Akt, and p70S6 kinase inhibitors had no effect. These results suggest that IGF-I promotes myeloma cell migration by activation of PI-3K/PKCmicro and PI-3K/RhoA pathways independent of Akt. The identification of IGF-I as both a proliferative and migratory factor provides a rational basis for the development of targeted therapeutic strategies directed at IGF-I in the treatment of MM.

  3. Current understanding of multiple risk factors as the metabolic syndrome: distillation or deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2006-02-01

    The "metabolic syndrome" is a new term that defines the clustering of vascular risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, obesity, elevated blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose. Controversy exists regarding the use of the term, which raises the question of whether the unique grouping of vascular risk factors adds more clinical risk then the additive effect of multiple risk factors viewed as separate but important entities. Whatever the answer, the metabolic syndrome constitutes a major public health problem with over 47 million persons in the United States meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Although studies have demonstrated that the metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for overall mortality as well as cardiovascular events, the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and ischemic stroke has not been well characterized. Two large cross-sectional studies report an association between metabolic syndrome and increased risk of a history of stroke. One large multiethnic prospective study found the metabolic syndrome to be significantly associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for sociodemographics and other cardiovascular risk factors. This study estimated that the metabolic syndrome may account for 19% of ischemic strokes including 30% of stroke in women and over 40% of stroke in Hispanics. Despite debate about the utility of its definition, there is evidence to suggest that the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, with differential effects by gender and race-ethnicity. Further, the metabolic syndrome has important clinical and public health implications by helping to easily identify individuals at greatest risk of vascular events.

  4. SpoIIE governs the phosphorylation state of a protein regulating transcription factor sigma F during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Arigoni, F; Duncan, L; Alper, S; Losick, R; Stragier, P

    1996-01-01

    Cell-specific activation of the transcription factor sigma F during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is controlled by a regulatory pathway involving the proteins SpoIIE, SpoIIAA, and SpoIIAB. SpoIIAB is an antagonist of sigma F, and SpoIIAA, which is capable of overcoming SpoIIAB-mediated inhibition of sigma F, is an antagonist of SpoIIAB. SpoIIAA is, in turn, negatively regulated by SpoIIAB, which phosphorylates SpoIIAA on serine 58. SpoIIAA is also positively regulated by SpoIIE, which dephosphorylates SpoIIAA-P, the phosphorylated form of SpoIIAA. Here, isoelectric focusing and Western blot analysis were used to examine the phosphorylation state of SpoIIAA in vivo. SpoIIAA was found to be largely in the phosphorylated state during sporulation in wild-type cells but a significant portion of the protein that was unphosphorylated could also be detected. Consistent with the idea that SpoIIE governs dephosphorylation of SpoIIAA-P, SpoIIAA was entirely in the phosphorylated state in spoIIE mutant cells. Conversely, overexpression of spoIIE led to an increase in the ratio of unphosphorylated SpoIIAA to SpoIIAA-P and caused inappropriate activation of sigma F in the predivisional sporangium. We also show that a mutant form of SpoIIAA (SpoIIAA-S58T) in which serine 58 was replaced with threonine was present exclusively as SpoIIAA-P, a finding that confirms previous biochemical evidence that the mutant protein is an effective substrate for the SpoIIAB kinase but that SpoIIAA-S58T-P cannot be dephosphorylated by SpoIIE. We conclude that SpoIIE plays a crucial role in controlling the phosphorylation state of SpoIIAA during sporulation and thus in governing the cell-specific activation of sigma F. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:8622920

  5. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build

  6. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  7. Simultaneous Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Multiple Large Scale Gene Expression Datasets in Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Clare M.; Mudaliar, Manikhandan A. V.; Haggart, D. R.; Wolf, C. Roland; Miele, Gino; Vass, J. Keith; Higham, Desmond J.; Crowther, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Non-negative matrix factorization is a useful tool for reducing the dimension of large datasets. This work considers simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization of multiple sources of data. In particular, we perform the first study that involves more than two datasets. We discuss the algorithmic issues required to convert the approach into a practical computational tool and apply the technique to new gene expression data quantifying the molecular changes in four tissue types due to different dosages of an experimental panPPAR agonist in mouse. This study is of interest in toxicology because, whilst PPARs form potential therapeutic targets for diabetes, it is known that they can induce serious side-effects. Our results show that the practical simultaneous non-negative matrix factorization developed here can add value to the data analysis. In particular, we find that factorizing the data as a single object allows us to distinguish between the four tissue types, but does not correctly reproduce the known dosage level groups. Applying our new approach, which treats the four tissue types as providing distinct, but related, datasets, we find that the dosage level groups are respected. The new algorithm then provides separate gene list orderings that can be studied for each tissue type, and compared with the ordering arising from the single factorization. We find that many of our conclusions can be corroborated with known biological behaviour, and others offer new insights into the toxicological effects. Overall, the algorithm shows promise for early detection of toxicity in the drug discovery process. PMID:23272042

  8. Exercise and brain health--implications for multiple sclerosis: Part 1--neuronal growth factors.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley J; Castellano, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of regular exercise to promote general health and reduce the risk of hypokinetic diseases associated with sedentary lifestyles are well recognized. Recent studies suggest that exercise may enhance neurobiological processes that promote brain health in aging and disease. A current frontier in the neurodegenerative disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) concerns the role of physical activity for promoting brain health through protective, regenerative and adaptive neural processes. Research on neuromodulation, raises the possibility that regular physical activity may mediate favourable changes in disease factors and symptoms associated with MS, in part through changes in neuroactive proteins. Insulin-like growth factor-I appears to act as a neuroprotective agent and studies indicate that exercise could promote this factor in MS. Neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor likely play roles in neuronal survival and activity-dependent plasticity. Physical activity has also been shown to up-regulate hippocampal BDNF, which may play a role in mood states, learning and memory to lessen the decline in cognitive function associated with MS. In addition, exercise may promote anti-oxidant defences and neurotrophic support that could attenuate CNS vulnerability to neuronal degeneration. Exercise exposure (preconditioning) may serve as a mechanism to enhance stress resistance and thereby may support neuronal survival under heightened stress conditions. Considering that axonal loss and cerebral atrophy occur early in the disease, exercise prescription in the acute stage could promote neuroprotection, neuroregeneration and neuroplasticity and reduce long-term disability. This review concludes with a proposed conceptual model to connect these promising links between exercise and brain health.

  9. Factors Contributing to the Accumulation of Primary Teacher's Debts to the Government of Tanzania: A Case Study for Dar Es Salaam Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kombo, Ibun

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of the study which was conducted to determine factors contributing to the accumulation of primary school teacher's debts to the Government of Tanzania, a case study of Dar es Salaam Region in its three municipalities namely, Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke. Data was obtained through sampling method which also helped to…

  10. Investigating the Interpersonal and Contextual Factors Govern Saudi Lecturers' Motivation in Creating Innovative Blended Learning Environment That Web 2.0-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghanmi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining success in higher education within an ever-changing landscape largely depends on academics' motivation to cope with it. Essentially, this study aims to explore the interpersonal and contextual factors that govern the introduction of blended learning in a Saudi context. A collective case study approach was employed with Self-…

  11. Interactive effects of multiple climate change factors on ammonia oxidizers and denitrifiers in a temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuijing; Shen, Jupei; Sun, Yifei; Wang, Juntao; Zhang, Limei; Yang, Zhongling; Han, Hongyan; Wan, Shiqiang; He, Jizheng

    2017-03-15

    Global climate change could have profound effects on belowground microbial communities and subsequently affect soil biogeochemical processes. The interactive effects of multiple co-occurring climate change factors on microbially-mediated processes are not well understood. A four-factorial field experiment with elevated CO2, watering, nitrogen (N) addition and night warming was conducted in a temperate steppe of northern China. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism, combined with clone library techniques were applied to examine the effects of those climate change factors on N-related microbial abundance and community composition. Only the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria significantly increased by nitrogen addition and decreased by watering. The interactions of watering × warming on the bacterial amoA community and warming × nitrogen addition on the nosZ community were found. Redundancy analysis indicated that the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community was affected by total N and total carbon, while the community of bacterial amoA and nosZ were significantly affected by soil pH. According to a structural equation modeling analysis, climate change influenced net primary production indirectly by altering microbial abundance and activities. These results indicated that microbial responses to the combination of chronic global change tend to be smaller than expected from single-factor global change manipulations.

  12. Quantitative analysis of cerebrospinal fluid brain derived neurotrophic factor in the patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mashayekhi, Farhad; Salehi, Zivar; Jamalzadeh, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common cause ofnontraumatic neurological disability in Europe and North America. Growth factor expression could participate in the repair process of the demyelinating disease. Among growth factors, brain derived neurotrophic factors (BDNF) has been demonstrated to play an important role in neuronal and axonal survival. In the central nervous system (CNS), neurons are the main source of BDNF. Another potential source are activated astrocytes, which are present in inflamed areas in the CNS as shown in MS. In this study, total protein concentration (TPC) and BDNF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from the patients with MS (n = 48) and control subjects (n = 53) were measured using a Bio-Rad protein assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant change in the CSF TPC of patients with MS was seen as compared to normal CSF. The presence of BDNF in the CSF samples was shown by Western blot. Using ELISA, it was shown that the level of BDNF in the MS CSF is higher than in normal CSF. It is concluded that BDNF is a constant component of human CSF. Moreover, it could be implicated in the pathophysiology of MS.

  13. CD24: from a Hematopoietic Differentiation Antigen to a Genetic Risk Factor for Multiple Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yixin; Zhao, Ming; Xiang, Bo; Chang, Christopher; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-02-01

    The autoantibody is an essential characteristic of inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases remain elusive, accumulated evidence has implicated that genetic factors play important roles in autoimmune inflammation. Among these factors, CD24 was first identified as a heat-stable antigen in 1978 and first successfully cloned in 1990. Thereafter, its functional roles have been intensively investigated in various human diseases, especially autoimmune diseases and cancers. It is currently known that CD24 serves as a costimulatory factor of T cells that regulate their homeostasis and proliferation, while in B cells, CD24 is functionally involved in cell activation and differentiation. CD24 can enhance autoimmune diseases in terms of its protective role in the clonal deletion of autoreactive thymocytes. Furthermore, CD24 deficiency has been linked to mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Finally, CD24 genetic variants, including single-nucleotide polymorphisms and deletions, are etiologically relevant to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Therefore, CD24 is a promising biomarker and novel therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases.

  14. Factors that contribute to quality of life outcomes prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Maggie; Peters, Tim J; Sharp, Deborah J; Campbell, Rona

    2003-02-01

    The aim was to investigate factors associated with depression and social function, two outcomes identified as important by people with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to identify underlying dimensions of psycho-social well-being that may be useful as outcome measures. People with MS in eight randomly selected health authorities/boards in England and Scotland completed a postal questionnaire relating to preferences and needs for their health and social care, along with the Beck Depression Inventory and the SF-36. Responses to 10 of the original items were subjected to factor analysis. These and other explanatory variables were entered into multivariable regression models for the two outcomes. The factor analysis resulted in three dimensions representing different aspects of psycho-social well-being; one of these (representing autonomy) was associated with improvements in both outcomes, as was the SF-36 emotional role limitation score. Three other SF-36 dimensions and lack of contact with a health professional in the last year were related just to social function. The regression models emphasise the value of enabling autonomy and self-reliance amongst people with MS, as well as more general measures of emotional health. The present work identifies specific questions that could be used to measure pivotal aspects of an individual's psycho-social well-being. While these findings warrant replication for people with MS, they may have relevance to those with other long-term illnesses.

  15. Multiple factors contribute to anautogenous reproduction by the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Elliot, Anne; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti is an anautogenous mosquito that must blood feed on a vertebrate host to produce and lay a clutch of eggs. The rockpool mosquito, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is related to A. aegypti but is a facultatively autogenous species that produces its first clutch of eggs shortly after emerging without blood feeding. Consumption of a blood meal by A. aegypti triggers the release of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone (OEH) and insulin-like peptide 3 (ILP3) from the brain, which stimulate egg formation. OEH and ILP3 also stimulate egg formation in G. atropalpus but are released at eclosion independently of blood feeding. These results collectively suggest that blood meal dependent release of OEH and ILP3 is one factor that prevents A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously. Here, we examined two other factors that potentially inhibit autogeny in A. aegypti: teneral nutrient reserves and the ability of OEH and ILP3 to stimulate egg formation in the absence of blood feeding. Measures of nutrient reserves showed that newly emerged A. aegypti females had similar wet weights but significantly lower protein and glycogen reserves than G. atropalpus females when larvae were reared under identical conditions. OEH stimulated non-blood fed A. aegypti females to produce ecdysteroid hormone and package yolk into oocytes more strongly than ILP3. OEH also reduced host seeking and blood feeding behavior, yet females produced few mature eggs. Overall, our results indicate that multiple factors prevent A. aegypti from reproducing autogenously.

  16. Exploring the human microbiome from multiple perspectives: factors altering its composition and function.

    PubMed

    Rojo, David; Méndez-García, Celia; Raczkowska, Beata Anna; Bargiela, Rafael; Moya, Andrés; Ferrer, Manuel; Barbas, Coral

    2017-02-25

    Our microbiota presents peculiarities and characteristics that may be altered by multiple factors. The degree and consequences of these alterations depend on the nature, strength and duration of the perturbations as well as the structure and stability of each microbiota. The aim of this review is to sketch a very broad picture of the factors commonly influencing different body sites, and which have been associated with alterations in the human microbiota in terms of composition and function. To do so, first, a graphical representation of bacterial, fungal and archaeal genera reveals possible associations among genera affected by different factors. Then, the revision of sequence-based predictions provides associations with functions that become part of the active metabolism. Finally, examination of microbial metabolite contents and fluxes reveals whether metabolic alterations are a reflection of the differences observed at the level of population structure, and in the last step, link microorganisms to functions under perturbations that differ in nature and aetiology. The utilisation of complementary technologies and methods, with a special focus on metabolomics research, is thoroughly discussed to obtain a global picture of microbiota composition and microbiome function and to convey the urgent need for the standardisation of protocols.

  17. Testing the facilitation–competition paradigm under the stress-gradient hypothesis: decoupling multiple stress factors

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Takashi; Tokeshi, Mutsunori

    2007-01-01

    While the facilitation–competition paradigm under the stress-gradient hypothesis has received recent attention, its rigorous testing is yet to be explored. Most of the studies have considered a switch in the net interactions from competition to facilitation with increasing environmental stress as primary evidence supporting the hypothesis, though few studies examined changes in interaction along a full range of a stress gradient. Here, we have conceptualized possible variations in the patterns of change in interaction strength along such gradient. Based on this, we empirically evaluated the temporal shift in the interaction between two marine sessile animals, goose barnacles (Capitulum mitella) and mussels (Septifer virgatus), under multiple stress factors. The net effect of goose barnacles on mussel survivorship was positively related to the total stress gradient encompassing two stress factors, physical disturbance and thermal stress, while no negative value occurred even under mild conditions. When the two stress factors were treated separately, however, the net effect demonstrated apparently different patterns: monotonic increase with physical disturbance versus a quasi-asymptotic pattern (no change over a wide range) with thermal stress. These variable situations have not previously been recognized in this discipline, and the present study emphasizes the importance of an integrative and mechanistic approach to testing and deciphering the facilitation–competition paradigm. PMID:17686725

  18. Pathophysiological processes in multiple sclerosis: focus on nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 and emerging pathways

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Philipp; Mojumder, Deb; DeToledo, John; Lucius, Ralph; Wilms, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by the demyelination of neuronal axons. Four different patterns of demyelination have been described, showing the heterogeneity in the immunopathologic processes involved in the demyelination. This review will focus on reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related inflammation in MS. Special emphasis will be placed on the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as it regulates the transcription of ROS-protective genes. In the cytosol, Nrf2 binds to Keap1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1), and together they are degraded by the 26S proteasome after ubiquitination. If challenged by ROS Nrf2, binding to Keap1 is abrogated, and it translocates into the nucleus. Here it binds to the antioxidant response element and to a small protein termed Maf (musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog). This leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS protective genes and represents the physiological answer against ROS challenge. It has been shown that dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has the same effect and leads to an enhanced transcription of ROS-protective genes. This response is mediated through a reduced binding of Nrf2 to Keap1, thus resulting in a higher level of free Nrf2 in the cytosol. Consequently, more Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus, promoting transcription of its target genes. DMF has been used for the treatment of psoriasis for many years in Germany without the occurrence of major side effects. In psoriasis, DMF reduces ROS-related inflammation in skin. A DMF analog, BG-12, was recently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS by the European Union and the US Food and Drug Administration. As an oral formulation, it gives patients a convenient and effective alternative to the injectable immune modulators in the long-term treatment of MS. PMID:24591852

  19. Statistical study to identify the key factors governing ground water recharge in the watersheds of the arid Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Binq-Qi; Wang, Yue-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the source and recharge of ground waters is of great significance to our knowledge in hydrological cycles in arid environments over the world. Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China is a significant repository of information relating to the hydrological evolution and climatic changes in central Asia. In this study, two multivariate statistical techniques, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to assess the ground water recharge and its governing factors, with the principal idea of exploring the above techniques to utilize all available hydrogeochemical variables in the quality assessment, which are not considered in the conventional techniques like Stiff and Piper diagrams. Q-mode HCA and R-mode PCA were combined to partition the water samples into seven major water clusters (C1-C7) and three principal components (PC1-PC3, PC1 salinity, PC2 hydroclimate, PC3 contaminant). The water samples C1 + C4 were classified as recharge area waters (Ca-HCO3 water), C2 + C3 as transitional zone waters (Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 water), and C5 + C6 + C7 as discharge area waters (Na-SO4 water). Based on the Q-mode PCA scores, three groups of geochemical processes influencing recharge regimes were identified: geogenic (i.e., caused by natural geochemical processes), geomorphoclimatic (caused by topography and climate), and anthropogenic (caused by ground water contamination). It is proposed that differences in recharge mechanism and ground water evolution, and possible bedrock composition difference, are responsible for the chemical genesis of these waters. These will continue to influence the geochemistry of the northern Xinjiang drainage system for a long time due to its steady tectonics and arid climate. This study proved that the chemistry differentiation of ground water can effectively support the identification of ground water recharge and evolution patterns.

  20. The multiple lives of NMD factors: balancing roles in gene and genome regulation

    PubMed Central

    Isken, Olaf; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) largely functions to ensure the quality of gene expression. However, NMD is also crucial to regulating appropriate expression levels for certain genes and for maintaining genome stability. Furthermore, just as NMD serves cells in multiple ways, so do its constituent proteins. Recent studies have clarified that UPF and SMG proteins, which were originally discovered to function in NMD, also have roles in other pathways, including specialized pathways of mRNA decay, DNA synthesis and cell-cycle progression, and the maintenance of telomeres. These findings suggest a delicate balance of metabolic events — some not obviously related to NMD — that can be influenced by the cellular abundance, location and activity of NMD factors and their binding partners. PMID:18679436

  1. Multiple sclerosis in the Orkney and Shetland Islands. I: Epidemiology, clinical factors, and methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Poskanzer, D C; Prenney, L B; Sheridan, J L; Kondy, J Y

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiological and clinical study of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Orkney and Shetland Islands showed that the prevalence rate of the disease is the highest in the world (309 and 184/100 000, respectively). The clinical entity, MS, is similar to that found in other parts of the world, except that optic neuritis not followed by MS is rare. Analysis of death certificates indicated that MS has probably occurred at the same rate in these islands for nearly a century. Although the incidence of MS is high, the incidence rate has remained constant over time. A rapidly increasing prevalence of MS has occurred in Orkney, with a more modest increase in Shetland, over the past 20 years, which is largely due to an increase in survival. Demographic factors, case ascertainment, and emigration have contributed little to the increasing prevalence of MS in these islands. Images PMID:7241022

  2. Factors That Moderate Activity Limitation and Participation Restriction in People With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goverover, Yael; Strober, Lauren; Chiaravalloti, Nancy; DeLuca, John

    2015-01-01

    We examined the variables most associated with activity limitation (i.e., cooking) and participation restriction (i.e., employment) in 72 people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Participants underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery assessing memory, executive functions, visual perception, and processing speed and completed questionnaires assessing activity, participation, fatigue, and affective symptoms. Results showed that processing speed was the only variable consistently significantly related to both activity and participation. When examining specific aspects of activity and participation in isolation, employment status was significantly associated with education level, visual memory, fatigue, and processing speed. Cooking ability was associated with performance on tasks of working memory, verbal memory, and processing speed. These findings suggest that processing speed is a primary cognitive factor in MS influencing quality of both activity and participation in everyday life.

  3. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    SciTech Connect

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects of the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.

  4. Integrative assessment of multiple pesticides as risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men

    PubMed Central

    De Roos, A J; Zahm, S; Cantor, K; Weisenburger, D; Holmes, F; Burmeister, L; Blair, A

    2003-01-01

    Methods: During the 1980s, the National Cancer Institute conducted three case-control studies of NHL in the midwestern United States. These pooled data were used to examine pesticide exposures in farming as risk factors for NHL in men. The large sample size (n = 3417) allowed analysis of 47 pesticides simultaneously, controlling for potential confounding by other pesticides in the model, and adjusting the estimates based on a prespecified variance to make them more stable. Results: Reported use of several individual pesticides was associated with increased NHL incidence, including organophosphate insecticides coumaphos, diazinon, and fonofos, insecticides chlordane, dieldrin, and copper acetoarsenite, and herbicides atrazine, glyphosate, and sodium chlorate. A subanalysis of these "potentially carcinogenic" pesticides suggested a positive trend of risk with exposure to increasing numbers. Conclusion: Consideration of multiple exposures is important in accurately estimating specific effects and in evaluating realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:12937207

  5. The multiple sulfatase deficiency gene encodes an essential and limiting factor for the activity of sulfatases.

    PubMed

    Cosma, Maria Pia; Pepe, Stefano; Annunziata, Ida; Newbold, Robert F; Grompe, Markus; Parenti, Giancarlo; Ballabio, Andrea

    2003-05-16

    In multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a human inherited disorder, the activities of all sulfatases are impaired due to a defect in posttranslational modification. Here we report the identification, by functional complementation using microcell-mediated chromosome transfer, of a gene that is mutated in MSD and is able to rescue the enzymatic deficiency in patients' cell lines. Functional conservation of this gene was observed among distantly related species, suggesting a critical biological role. Coexpression of SUMF1 with sulfatases results in a strikingly synergistic increase of enzymatic activity, indicating that SUMF1 is both an essential and a limiting factor for sulfatases. These data have profound implications on the feasibility of enzyme replacement therapy for eight distinct inborn errors of metabolism.

  6. Statistical mechanical model of coupled transcription from multiple promoters due to transcription factor titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydenfelt, Mattias; Cox, Robert Sidney, III; Garcia, Hernan; Phillips, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) with regulatory action at multiple promoter targets is the rule rather than the exception, with examples ranging from the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) in E. coli that regulates hundreds of different genes simultaneously to situations involving multiple copies of the same gene, such as plasmids, retrotransposons, or highly replicated viral DNA. When the number of TFs heavily exceeds the number of binding sites, TF binding to each promoter can be regarded as independent. However, when the number of TF molecules is comparable to the number of binding sites, TF titration will result in correlation (“promoter entanglement”) between transcription of different genes. We develop a statistical mechanical model which takes the TF titration effect into account and use it to predict both the level of gene expression for a general set of promoters and the resulting correlation in transcription rates of different genes. Our results show that the TF titration effect could be important for understanding gene expression in many regulatory settings.

  7. Multiple Imputation to Correct for Nonresponse Bias: Application in Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factors Survey

    PubMed Central

    Miri, Hamid Heidarian; Hassanzadeh, Jafar; Rajaeefard, Abdolreza; Mirmohammadkhani, Majid; Angali, Kambiz Ahmadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out to use multiple imputation (MI) in order to correct for the potential nonresponse bias in measurements related to variable fasting blood glucose (FBS) in non-communicable disease risk factors survey conducted in Iran in 2007. Methods: Five multiple imputation methods as bootstrap expectation maximization, multivariate normal regression, univariate linear regression, MI by chained equation, and predictive mean matching were applied to impute variable fasting blood sugar. To make FBS consistent with normality assumption natural logarithm (Ln) and Box-Cox (BC) transformations were used prior to imputation. Measurements from which we intended to remove nonresponse bias included mean of FBS and percentage of those with high FBS. Results: For mean of FBS results didn’t considerably change after applying MI methods. Regarding the prevalence of high blood sugar all methods on original scale tended to increase the estimates except for predictive mean matching that along with all methods on BC or Ln transformed data didn’t change the results. Conclusions: FBS-related measurements didn’t change after applying different MI methods. It seems that nonresponse bias was not an important challenge regarding these measurements. However use of MI methods resulted in more efficient estimations. Further studies are encouraged on accuracy of MI methods in these settings. PMID:26234966

  8. [Factors associated to the work situation of patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Cores, Evangelina V; Vanotti, Sandra; Burin, Débora I; Politis, Daniel G; Villa, Andrés

    2014-02-16

    Introduccion. La esclerosis multiple es una enfermedad neurologica desmielinizante que suele provocar trastornos motrices, perceptivos, afectivos y cognitivos a quienes la padecen. Estos sintomas pueden llevar a la persona a perder su empleo, y disminuir la calidad de vida del paciente y sus familiares. Objetivo. Revisar estudios sobre variables demograficas, clinicas, cognitivas, psiquiatricas, laborales y sociales asociadas con la situacion laboral. Desarrollo. Estudios transversales y longitudinales han detectado variables relacionadas con el desempleo. Las investigaciones empiricas muestran una influencia clara de la discapacidad fisica, la fatiga y el curso de la enfermedad sobre la situacion laboral. Sin embargo, el genero, la depresion, la edad, la duracion de la enfermedad y las variables cognitivas no poseen el mismo grado de evidencia. Caracteristicas de la ocupacion, como discriminacion laboral, actitud del empleador, leyes laborales, actitud de los compañeros de trabajo y dificultades en el transporte han sido variables poco consideradas. Conclusiones. Muchos de los factores que determinan la perdida de empleo en un paciente con esclerosis multiple pueden identificarse a tiempo para poder modificarlos o compensarlos. Los conocimientos aportados por los estudios reseñados permiten detectar a aquellos pacientes que se encuentran en riesgo de perder su empleo para realizar intervenciones posibles con el objetivo de prevenir esta situacion. En particular, el perfil de vulnerabilidad incluye alta discapacidad fisica y fatiga, curso progresivo de la enfermedad y presencia de deterioro cognitivo, entre otros.

  9. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis in Kuwait: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Al-Afasy, Hanan H; Al-Obaidan, Mohammed A; Al-Ansari, Yousef A; Al-Yatama, Sarah A; Al-Rukaibi, Mohammed S; Makki, Nourah I; Suresh, Anita; Akhtar, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and progressively disabling inflammatory autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system. MS has a multifactorial etiology and is triggered by environmental factors in individuals with complex genetic risk profiles. The epidemiology of MS changes with the spatial and temporal distribution of these genetic and nongenetic risk factors. This population-based matched case-control study aimed to determine the risk factors for MS in Kuwait. From May 2 to 9, 2010, we enrolled 101 confirmed MS cases using the list frame maintained by the Multiple Sclerosis Association of Kuwait. For each case, two population controls individually matched for age (±2 years), gender and nationality were selected. Data on demographic, socioeconomic variables, potential genetic and environmental factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. For a case, the questions were directed to the period that preceded the recognition of the disease, while for each of the two matched controls, a date of 'pseudodiagnosis' of MS was established, i.e. the date on which the control subject was of the same age as his/her matched case was at MS diagnosis and accordingly questions were directed to the preceding period. The multivariable conditional logistic regression model showed that compared with controls, the cases were significantly more likely to have a family history of MS [matched odds ratio (OR)(adj) = 6.7; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.5-18.0; p < 0.001] or have suffered from a head trauma in the past before MS diagnosis (matched OR(adj) = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.2-5.5; p = 0.014). Furthermore, compared with controls, cases were significantly more likely to have stayed in Kuwait during the Iraqi invasion of 1990 (matched OR(adj) = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5; p = 0.022). This study showed that a family history of MS, a history of head injury, and presence in Kuwait at the time of the Iraqi invasion of 1990 were associated with a significantly increased MS risk

  10. The quality and effectiveness of interventions that target multiple risk factors among young people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Anthony; Havard, Alys; Maple, Myfanwy; Foley, Catherine; Shakeshaft, Bernie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To identify evaluations of interventions that target multiple risk factors in high‐risk young people, describe their characteristics, critique their methodological quality and summarise their effectiveness. Methods: A search of the literature published between 2009 and 2014 identified 13 evaluations of interventions that targeted multiple risk factors, compared to 95 evaluations that targeted single risk factors. The methodological adequacy of the 13 evaluation studies was analysed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and information regarding characteristics and intervention effectiveness was extracted and summarised. Results: There were very few outcome evaluation studies of interventions that targeted multiple risk factors, relative to single risk factors, among high‐risk young people. Of the identified studies, half were methodologically weak. Interventions delivered in community settings targeted a greater number of risk factors, while those delivered in a school or health setting reported a higher proportion of statistically significant outcomes. No economic analyses were conducted. Conclusions and Implications for Public Health: More methodologically rigorous evaluations of interventions targeting multiple risk factors among high‐risk young people are required, especially for those delivered in community settings. Four key areas for improvement are: i) more precisely defining the risk factors experienced by high‐risk young people; ii) achieving greater consistency across interventions; iii) standardising outcome measures; and iv) conducting economic analyses. PMID:27624886

  11. Multiple isoforms of GAGA factor, a critical component of chromatin structure.

    PubMed Central

    Benyajati, C; Mueller, L; Xu, N; Pappano, M; Gao, J; Mosammaparast, M; Conklin, D; Granok, H; Craig, C; Elgin, S

    1997-01-01

    The GAGA transcription factor of Drosophila melanogaster is ubiquitous and plays multiple roles. Characterization of cDNA clones and detection by domain- specific antibodies has revealed that the 70-90 kDa major GAGA species are encoded by two open reading frames producing GAGA factor proteins of 519 amino acids (GAGA-519) and 581 amino acids (GAGA-581), which share a common N-terminal region that is linked to two different glutamine-rich C-termini. Purified recombinant GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 proteins can form homomeric complexes that bind specifically to a single GAGA sequence in vitro. The two GAGA isoforms also function similarly in transient transactivation assays in tissue culture cells and in chromatin remodeling experiments in vitro . Only GAGA-519 protein accumulates during the first 6 h of embryogenesis. Thereafter, both GAGA proteins are present in nearly equal amounts throughout development; in larval salivary gland nuclei they colocalize completely to specific regions along the euchromatic arms of the polytene chromosomes. Coimmunoprecipitation of GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 from crude nuclear extracts and from mixtures of purified recombinant proteins, indicates direct interactions. We suggest that homomeric complexes of GAGA-519 may function during early embryogenesis; both homomeric and heteromeric complexes of GAGA-519 and GAGA-581 may function later. PMID:9241251

  12. Risk factors for multiple sclerosis and associations with anti-EBV antibody titers.

    PubMed

    Mouhieddine, Tarek H; Darwish, Hala; Fawaz, Lama; Yamout, Bassem; Tamim, Hani; Khoury, Samia J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelination of the central nervous system. We investigated the prevalence of EBV seropositivity and other known risk factors for MS (age, smoking, low vitamin D) and their effect on anti-EBV antibody titers. We retrospectively studied 249 MS patients receiving care at the American University of Beirut Medical Center and 230 controls, during 2010-2014. EBV seropositivity was higher in MS patients compared to controls for both anti-VCA (99.5%; 97.2%) and anti-EBNA-1 (96.3%; 89.4%), and the titers were significantly higher in MS patients. MS patients had a significantly lower vitamin D level (15.5 ± 8.3 ng/ml) compared to controls (20.4 ± 11.3 ng/ml). The proportion of heavy smokers and overweight individuals was significantly higher in MS patients. Lebanese MS patients have risk factors similar to those in western countries. Older age and female gender were associated with a higher anti-VCA titer and male gender with a higher anti-EBNA-1.

  13. Multiple Factors Related to the Secretion of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XingChun; Liu, Huan; Chen, Jiaqi; Li, Yan; Qu, Shen

    2015-01-01

    The glucagon-like peptide-1 is secreted by intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. It regulates the secretion and sensitivity of insulin while suppressing glucagon secretion and decreasing postprandial glucose levels. It also improves beta-cell proliferation and prevents beta-cell apoptosis induced by cytotoxic agents. Additionally, glucagon-like peptide-1 delays gastric emptying and suppresses appetite. The impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 has negative influence on diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance related diseases. Thus, glucagon-like peptide-1-based therapies (glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors) are now well accepted in the management of type 2 diabetes. The levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 are influenced by multiple factors including a variety of nutrients. The component of a meal acts as potent stimulants of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. The levels of its secretion change with the intake of different nutrients. Some drugs also have influence on GLP-1 secretion. Bariatric surgery may improve metabolism through the action on GLP-1 levels. In recent years, there has been a great interest in developing effective methods to regulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. This review summarizes the literature on glucagon-like peptide-1 and related factors affecting its levels. PMID:26366173

  14. Associations between the big five personality factors and multiple mini-interviews.

    PubMed

    Griffin, B; Wilson, I

    2012-08-01

    Given the accumulating evidence that performance in medical school and beyond is related to personality, it is important for research to consider how personality assessment can be included as part of the process of selecting medical students. Interviews are one way of measuring personality and this study extends prior research investigating whether the multiple mini interview (MMI) is related to the five factor model of personality. In contrast to prior results (Kulasegaram et al. in Adv Health Sci Edu 15:415-423, 2010), examination of MMI scores for 868 applicants to an Australian medical school over 3 years showed significant uncorrected correlations every year with extraversion (.19, .19, .30) and conscientiousness (.20, .22, .25) and with agreeableness in 2 years (.17, .19). Investigation of personality at a facet-level revealed differing relationships with the MMI within the five factors of personality. MMI scores were also correlated in 2 years (.17, .22) with a situational judgment test of interpersonal understanding (UMAT Section 2) but were unrelated to tests of logical reasoning ability (UMAT Section 1), non-verbal reasoning (Section 3), or past academic performance (Higher School Certificate results).

  15. Case-control study of multiple myeloma with special reference to diet as risk factor.

    PubMed

    Vlajinac, H D; Pekmezović, T D; Adanja, B J; Marinković, J M; Kanazir, M S; Suvajdzić, N D; Colović, M D

    2003-01-01

    The case-control study was conducted in Belgrade (Yugoslavia) during the period 1994-1998. The objective of the study was to investigate factors related to the occurrence of multiple myeloma (MM). The study group consisted of 100 newly diagnosed MM patients and the same number of matched hospital controls. In the analysis conditional univariate and multivariate logistic regression were applied. According to multivariate analysis the following factors were significantly related to MM: smoking > or =25 cigarettes per day (Odds ratio--OR=6.7, 95% confidence interval--95% CI=1.3-34.3); having more than two brothers (OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.3-5.3), rheumatoid arthritis in personal history (OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.8), and frequent (4-7 times per week vs. lower frequency) consumption of yogurt (OR=3.1, 95% CI=1.6-6.0) and vegetables (OR=0.4, 95% CI=0.1-1.0).

  16. Blockade of nonhormonal fibroblast growth factors by FP-1039 inhibits growth of multiple types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Harding, Thomas C; Long, Li; Palencia, Servando; Zhang, Hongbing; Sadra, Ali; Hestir, Kevin; Patil, Namrata; Levin, Anita; Hsu, Amy W; Charych, Deborah; Brennan, Thomas; Zanghi, James; Halenbeck, Robert; Marshall, Shannon A; Qin, Minmin; Doberstein, Stephen K; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Kavanaugh, W Michael; Williams, Lewis T; Baker, Kevin P

    2013-03-27

    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) pathway promotes tumor growth and angiogenesis in many solid tumors. Although there has long been interest in FGF pathway inhibitors, development has been complicated: An effective FGF inhibitor must block the activity of multiple mitogenic FGF ligands but must spare the metabolic hormone FGFs (FGF-19, FGF-21, and FGF-23) to avoid unacceptable toxicity. To achieve these design requirements, we engineered a soluble FGF receptor 1 Fc fusion protein, FP-1039. FP-1039 binds tightly to all of the mitogenic FGF ligands, inhibits FGF-stimulated cell proliferation in vitro, blocks FGF- and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vivo, and inhibits in vivo growth of a broad range of tumor types. FP-1039 antitumor response is positively correlated with RNA levels of FGF2, FGF18, FGFR1c, FGFR3c, and ETV4; models with genetic aberrations in the FGF pathway, including FGFR1-amplified lung cancer and FGFR2-mutated endometrial cancer, are particularly sensitive to FP-1039-mediated tumor inhibition. FP-1039 does not appreciably bind the hormonal FGFs, because these ligands require a cell surface co-receptor, klotho or β-klotho, for high-affinity binding and signaling. Serum calcium and phosphate levels, which are regulated by FGF-23, are not altered by administration of FP-1039. By selectively blocking nonhormonal FGFs, FP-1039 treatment confers antitumor efficacy without the toxicities associated with other FGF pathway inhibitors.

  17. Effect of multiple clinical factors on recurrent angina after percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chengyu; Pan, Chenliang; Bai, Ming; Zhang, Jin; Peng, Yu; Zheng, Dingchang; Zhang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recurrent angina (RA) has an important influence on health status of patients after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the effect of multiple clinical factors on both short-term and long-term development of RA. A total of 398 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients were studied for up to 12 months. The primary clinical outcome, RA, was assessed at 1-month and 12-month. In multivariate analyses, the effect of clinical factors, including baseline demographics, medical history, infarction-related arteries, procedural characteristics of PCI, and the use of medicines, was investigated in patients with and without RA. The Logistic regression analysis showed that the patients with treatment through radial approach PCI (odds ratio [OR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.18–0.96, P < 0.05) were less likely to have RA during 1-month assessment. During 12 months after PCI, male patients (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.29–0.96, P < 0.05), and/or those treated with radial approach PCI (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.21–0.97, P < 0.05) were less likely to have RA, whereas the patients with infarction related artery (IRA) in left anterior descending (LAD) (OR: 2.41, 95% CI: 1.20–4.84, P < 0.01) were more likely to have RA at follow-up. The Cox regression analysis further revealed that the patients with infarction of the LAD artery (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.08, 95% CI: 1.10–3.92, P < 0.05), but not with treatment through radial artery during PCI (HR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.18–0.96, P < 0.05) had higher potential of development of RA during 12 months after PCI. We studied the effects of multiple clinical factors on the development of RA after PCI. Our findings suggest that patients with infarction of the LAD artery, and/or treatment not through radial artery during PCI were associated with higher risk of RA and may require close follow-up. PMID:27741110

  18. Government Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlatch, Jo Bell

    1979-01-01

    Reviews recent federal publications on government information, particularly in the area of general informational services, public access to government information and privacy issues, coordination of government information systems, and congressional information needs. (Author)

  19. Ethylene Response Factors Are Controlled by Multiple Harvesting Stresses in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Putranto, Riza-Arief; Duan, Cuifang; Kuswanhadi; Chaidamsari, Tetty; Rio, Maryannick; Piyatrakul, Piyanuch; Herlinawati, Eva; Pirrello, Julien; Dessailly, Florence; Leclercq, Julie; Bonnot, François; Tang, Chaorong; Hu, Songnian; Montoro, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Tolerance of recurrent mechanical wounding and exogenous ethylene is a feature of the rubber tree. Latex harvesting involves tapping of the tree bark and ethephon is applied to increase latex flow. Ethylene is an essential element in controlling latex production. The ethylene signalling pathway leads to the activation of Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) transcription factors. This family has been identified in Hevea brasiliensis. This study set out to understand the regulation of ERF genes during latex harvesting in relation to abiotic stress and hormonal treatments. Analyses of the relative transcript abundance were carried out for 35 HbERF genes in latex, in bark from mature trees and in leaves from juvenile plants under multiple abiotic stresses. Twenty-one HbERF genes were regulated by harvesting stress in laticifers, revealing an overrepresentation of genes in group IX. Transcripts of three HbERF-IX genes from HbERF-IXc4, HbERF-IXc5 and HbERF-IXc6 were dramatically accumulated by combining wounding, methyl jasmonate and ethylene treatments. When an ethylene inhibitor was used, the transcript accumulation for these three genes was halted, showing ethylene-dependent induction. Subcellular localization and transactivation experiments confirmed that several members of HbERF-IX are activator-type transcription factors. This study suggested that latex harvesting induces mechanisms developed for the response to abiotic stress. These mechanisms probably depend on various hormonal signalling pathways. Several members of HbERF-IX could be essential integrators of complex hormonal signalling pathways in Hevea.

  20. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  1. Elk-1 a transcription factor with multiple facets in the brain.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    The ternary complex factor (TCF) Elk-1 is a transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene (IEG) expression via the serum response element (SRE) DNA consensus site. Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of serum response factor (SRF) at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), p38/MAPK, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). This phosphorylation event is critical for triggering SRE-dependent transcription. Although MAPKs are fundamental actors for the instatement and maintenance of memory, and much investigation of their downstream signaling partners have been conducted, no data yet clearly implicate Elk-1 in these processes. This is partly due to the complexity of Elk-1 sub-cellular localization, and hence functions, within neurons. Elk-1 is present in its resting state in the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with mitochondrial proteins or microtubules. In this particular sub-cellular compartment, overexpression of Elk-1 is toxic for neuronal cells. When phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK, Elk-1 translocates to the nucleus where it is implicated in regulating chromatin remodeling, SRE-dependent transcription, and neuronal differentiation. Another post-translational modification is the conjugation to SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier), which relocalizes Elk-1 in the cytoplasm. Thus, Elk-1 plays a dual role in neuronal functions: pro-apoptotic within the cytoplasm, and pro-differentiation within the nucleus. To address the role of Elk-1 in the brain, one must be aware of its multiple facets, and design molecular tools that will shut down Elk-1 expression, trafficking, or activation, in specific neuronal compartments. We summarize in this review the known molecular functions of Elk-1, its regulation in neuronal cells, and present evidence of its possible implication in model systems of synaptic plasticity, learning, but also in

  2. Distribution Patterns of Infection with Multiple Types of Human Papillomaviruses and Their Association with Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Soto-De Leon, Sara; Camargo, Milena; Sanchez, Ricardo; Munoz, Marina; Perez-Prados, Antonio; Purroy, Antonio; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Background Infection with multiple types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the main risk factors associated with the development of cervical lesions. In this study, cervical samples collected from 1,810 women with diverse sociocultural backgrounds, who attended to their cervical screening program in different geographical regions of Colombia, were examined for the presence of cervical lesions and HPV by Papanicolau testing and DNA PCR detection, respectively. Principal Findings The negative binomial distribution model used in this study showed differences between the observed and expected values within some risk factor categories analyzed. Particularly in the case of single infection and coinfection with more than 4 HPV types, observed frequencies were smaller than expected, while the number of women infected with 2 to 4 viral types were higher than expected. Data analysis according to a negative binomial regression showed an increase in the risk of acquiring more HPV types in women who were of indigenous ethnicity (+37.8%), while this risk decreased in women who had given birth more than 4 times (−31.1%), or were of mestizo (−24.6%) or black (−40.9%) ethnicity. Conclusions According to a theoretical probability distribution, the observed number of women having either a single infection or more than 4 viral types was smaller than expected, while for those infected with 2–4 HPV types it was larger than expected. Taking into account that this study showed a higher HPV coinfection rate in the indigenous ethnicity, the role of underlying factors should be assessed in detail in future studies. PMID:21379574

  3. Optimization of Thermochemical, Kinetic, and Electrochemical Factors Governing Partitioning of Radionuclides during Melt Decontamination of Radioactively Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Avyle, James A.; Melgaard, David; Molecke, Martin; Shelmidine, Greg J.; Pal, Uday; Bychkov, Sergie I.

    1999-12-31

    Metal waste generated from domestic nuclear operations for defense and commercial applications has led to a growing stockpile of radioactively contaminated scrap metal, much of which is stainless steel. This steel contains large quantities of strategic elements such as nickel and chromium and constitutes a valuable domestic resource [1]. A significant fraction of this material cannot be efficiently surface decontaminated, and burial of this material would be wasteful and expensive, since long term monitoring would be necessary in order to minimize environmental risk. Melt decontamination of this material would maintain the chemical pedigree of the stainless steel, allowing its controlled reuse within the nuclear community. This research addresses the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting (ESR). ESR is industrially used for the production of specialty steels and superalloys to remove a variety of contaminates and to improve metal chemistry. Correctly applied, it could maintain the specified chemistry and mechanical properties of the original material while capturing the radioactive transuranic elements in a stable slag phase. The ESR process also produces a high quality metal ingot free of porosity that can be directly forged or rolled into final shapes. The goal of this project was to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between the metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. This research program included three segments. At Boston University, Prof. Uday Pal and his group conducted research to develop a fundamental understanding of thermochemical and electrochemical behaviors of slag/metal/radionuclide surrogate systems. This work combined experimental characterization and

  4. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers

    PubMed Central

    Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J.; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R.; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2–2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on

  5. Sexual dysfunction in women with multiple sclerosis: Dimensions and contributory factors

    PubMed Central

    Ashtari, Fereshteh; Rezvani, Roya; Afshar, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction (SD) is a common reported problem in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Aims: to examine frequency and distribution of SD dimensions and to determine whether SD is related to various clinical and demographic variables in female patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 271 MS women (age: 19-50 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. We used a structured demographic and clinical interview and Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19). Disability was rated by Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS). Results: 63.5% (n = 173) of women had SD included 142 (52.4%) women with primary SD, 102 (37.5%) women with secondary SD and 120 (41%) women with tertiary SD. The most common SD-related complaint was orgasmic problem (41.2%). Women with primary SD were significantly older and had higher EDSS score. No significant relationship was found between primary SD and disease duration. Fatigue (OR = 2.69, 95% CI: 1.352-5.385, P = 0.005), memory and concentration complaints (OR = 1.915, 95% CI: 1.034-3.546, P = 0.039) and some of urinary symptoms such as frequency (OR = 2.108, 95% CI: 1.015-4.375, P = 0.045) were seem to be the significant predictors. Fatigue was also found to be the most powerful predicting factor for tertiary SD (OR = 2.793, 95% CI: 1.358-5.744 P = 0.005). Conclusion: SD, a common multifactorial problem among MS women, can arise at any time during the disease and with any level of disability. However, we found relationships between SD and some of clinical variables and symptoms. Understanding these relationships would help us to develop practical approach and treatment for SD. PMID:24949030

  6. Prevalence and Mortality-Related Factors of Multiple Myeloma in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Wang, Yung-Chih; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2016-01-01

    In this retrospective cohort study based in Taiwan, we reported the current epidemiology of patients with multiple myeloma and analyzed the factors affecting mortality. We identified 7285 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) between 1997 and 2013 in Taiwan. Privileges data from the National Health Institute Research Database was used, as it is made readily available to the public in electronic format for research purposes. From 1997 to 2013, the average incidence of MM per 100,000 people was 1.83. The mortality accounted for an average of 0.44 per 100,000 deaths. In all 7285 inpatients with MM, the proportion of male patients was greater than that of female (59.90% vs. 40.10%); the mean age was 68.71 years with the proportion of those >55 years of age was 85.11%; and the proportion of a catastrophic illness was 66.51%. The death risk of the inpatient dialysis group was 3.044 times that of patients without dialysis (P <0.001). Moreover, the risk of death to men in the hospital setting was 1.162 times that of women (P = 0.012), and in the group of patients aged >55 years, the risk of in-hospital death was 1.511 times more than that in those aged ≤55 years (P <0.001). The risk of hospital death due to catastrophic illness was 1.347 times that of a non-catastrophic illness (P <0.001). Male patients and those >55 years of age had the most common prevalence of MM in Taiwan. Hemodialysis treatment, male sex, old age, and catastrophic illness were independent predictors of hospital mortality in patients with MM. PMID:27907052

  7. Multiple Factors Affect Socioeconomics and Wellbeing of Artisanal Sea Cucumber Fishers.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Steven W; Ngaluafe, Poasi; Foale, Simon J; Cocks, Nicole; Cullis, Brian R; Lalavanua, Watisoni

    2016-01-01

    Small-scale fisheries are important to livelihoods and subsistence seafood consumption of millions of fishers. Sea cucumbers are fished worldwide for export to Asia, yet few studies have assessed factors affecting socioeconomics and wellbeing among fishers. We interviewed 476 men and women sea cucumber fishers at multiple villages within multiple locations in Fiji, Kiribati, Tonga and New Caledonia using structured questionnaires. Low rates of subsistence consumption confirmed a primary role of sea cucumbers in income security. Prices of sea cucumbers sold by fishers varied greatly among countries, depending on the species. Gender variation in landing prices could be due to women catching smaller sea cucumbers or because some traders take advantage of them. Dissatisfaction with fishery income was common (44% of fishers), especially for i-Kiribati fishers, male fishers, and fishers experiencing difficulty selling their catch, but was uncorrelated with sale prices. Income dissatisfaction worsened with age. The number of livelihood activities averaged 2.2-2.5 across countries, and varied significantly among locations. Sea cucumbers were often a primary source of income to fishers, especially in Tonga. Other common livelihood activities were fishing other marine resources, copra production in Kiribati, agriculture in Fiji, and salaried jobs in New Caledonia. Fishing other coastal and coral reef resources was the most common fall-back livelihood option if fishers were forced to exit the fishery. Our data highlight large disparities in subsistence consumption, gender-related price equity, and livelihood diversity among parallel artisanal fisheries. Improvement of supply chains in dispersed small-scale fisheries appears as a critical need for enhancing income and wellbeing of fishers. Strong evidence for co-dependence among small-scale fisheries, through fall-back livelihood preferences of fishers, suggests that resource managers must mitigate concomitant effects on other

  8. U. S. Government Factors Influencing an Expansion of Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane-Toomey, Cara

    2014-01-01

    As the United States continued to grow as a world power throughout the later part of the twentieth century, government funding for international education grew more closely connected to its national security needs. Federal funds have contributed to the growth of Area Studies and studying Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs). Within the last ten…

  9. Variation at Local Government Level in the Support for Families of Severely Disabled Children and the Factors that Affect It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsyth, Rob; McNally, Richard; James, Peter; Crossland, Kevin; Woolley, Mark; Colver, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine geographical variability in the support for families caring for children with severe disabilities as well as the relationships between this variability and local government social and educational performance indicators. Method: Data were collected from a cross-sectional, self-completed postal survey of the…

  10. Factors Influencing Low Level of Women Participation in Literacy Programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Aminchi

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the extent to which poverty, gender stereotype, socio-cultural belief and lack of awareness influence low level of women participation in literacy programme in Maiha Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Survey designed was adopted for the study and a sample consisting of three hundred (300) women who were…

  11. Multiple nuclear localization signals function in the nuclear import of the transcription factor Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Melanie; Kawai, Yumiko; Yang, Jianqi; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Reddy, Sekhar P; Villalta, Fernando; Arinze, Ifeanyi J

    2008-04-04

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates the transcriptional response of cells to oxidative stress and is translocated into the nucleus following, or concomitant with, its activation by electrophiles or reactive oxygen species. The mechanism of its translocation into the nucleus is not entirely elucidated. Here we have identified two novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs in murine Nrf2, one located near the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 42-53) and the other (residues 587-593) located near the C-terminal region. Imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Nrf2 revealed that mutation(s) in any of these sequences resulted in decreased nuclear fluorescence intensity compared with the wild-type Nrf2 when Nrf2 activation was induced with the electrophile tert-butylhydroquinone. The mutations also impaired Nrf2-induced transactivation of antioxidant response element-driven reporter gene expression to the same extent as the Nrf2 construct bearing mutation in a previously identified bipartite NLS that maps at residues 494-511. When linked to GFP or to GFP-PEPCK-C each of the novel NLS motifs was sufficient to drive nuclear translocation of the fusion proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that importins alpha5 and beta1 associate with Nrf2, an interaction that was blocked by the nuclear import inhibitor SN50. SN50 also blocked tert-butylhydroquinone-induced nuclear fluorescence of GFP-Nrf2 in cells transfected with wild-type GFP-Nrf2. Overall these results reveal that multiple NLS motifs in Nrf2 function in its nuclear translocation in response to pro-oxidant stimuli and that the importin alpha-beta heterodimer nuclear import receptor system plays a critical role in the import process.

  12. Stimulation of the multiplication of Micrococcus luteus by an autocrine growth factor.

    PubMed

    Mukamolova, G V; Kormer, S S; Kell, D B; Kaprelyants, A S

    1999-07-01

    Viable cells of Micrococcus luteus secrete a proteineous growth factor (Rpf) which promotes the resuscitation of dormant, nongrowing cells to yield normal, colony-forming bacteria. When washed M. luteus cells were used as an inoculum, there was a pronounced influence of Rpf on the true lag phase and cell growth on lactate minimal medium. In the absence of Rpf, there was no increase in colony-forming units for up to 10 days. When the inoculum contained less than 10(5) cells ml-1, macroscopically observable M. luteus growth was not obtained in succinate minimal medium unless Rpf was added. Incubation of M. luteus in the stationary phase for 100 h resulted in a failure of the cells to grow in lactate minimal medium from inocula of small size although the viability of these cells was close to 100% as estimated using agar plates made from lactate minimal medium or rich medium. The underestimation of viable cells by the most-probable-number (MPN) method in comparison with colony-forming units was equivalent to the requirement that at least 10(5) cells grown on succinate medium, 10(3) cells from old stationary phase, or approximately 10-500 washed cells are required per millilitre of inoculum for growth to lead to visible turbidity. The addition of Rpf in the MPN dilutions led to an increase of the viable cell numbers estimated to approximately the same levels as those determined by colony-forming units. Thus, a basic principle of microbiology - "one cell-one culture" - may not be applicable in some circumstances in which the metabolic activity of "starter" cells is not sufficient to produce enough autocrine growth factor to support cell multiplication.

  13. Feasibility and acceptability of a multiple risk factor intervention: The Step Up randomized pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interventions are needed which can successfully modify more than one disease risk factor at a time, but much remains to be learned about the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of multiple risk factor (MRF) interventions. To address these issues and inform future intervention development, we conducted a randomized pilot trial (n = 52). This study was designed to assess the feasibility and acceptability of the Step Up program, a MRF cognitive-behavioral program designed to improve participants' mental and physical well-being by reducing depressive symptoms, promoting smoking cessation, and increasing physical activity. Methods Participants were recruited from a large health care organization and randomized to receive usual care treatment for depression, smoking, and physical activity promotion or the phone-based Step Up counseling program plus usual care. Participants were assessed at baseline, three and six months. Results The intervention was acceptable to participants and feasible to offer within a healthcare system. The pilot also offered important insights into the optimal design of a MRF program. While not powered to detect clinically significant outcomes, changes in target behaviors indicated positive trends at six month follow-up and statistically significant improvement was also observed for depression. Significantly more experimental participants reported a clinically significant improvement (50% reduction) in their baseline depression score at four months (54% vs. 26%, OR = 3.35, 95% CI [1.01- 12.10], p = 0.05) and 6 months (52% vs. 13%, OR = 7.27, 95% CI [1.85 - 37.30], p = 0.004) Conclusions Overall, results suggest the Step Up program warrants additional research, although some program enhancements may be beneficial. Key lessons learned from this research are shared to promote the understanding of others working in this field. Trial registration The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00644995). PMID:21414216

  14. The insulin-like growth factor system in multiple myeloma: diagnostic and therapeutic potential

    PubMed Central

    Bieghs, Liesbeth; Johnsen, Hans E.; Maes, Ken; Menu, Eline; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Overgaard, Michael T.; Nyegaard, Mette; Conover, Cheryl A.; Vanderkerken, Karin; De Bruyne, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a highly heterogeneous plasma cell malignancy. The MM cells reside in the bone marrow (BM), where reciprocal interactions with the BM niche foster MM cell survival, proliferation, and drug resistance. As in most cancers, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system has been demonstrated to play a key role in the pathogenesis of MM. The IGF system consists of IGF ligands, IGF receptors, IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs), and IGFBP proteases and contributes not only to the survival, proliferation, and homing of MM cells, but also MM-associated angiogenesis and osteolysis. Furthermore, increased IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) expression on MM cells correlates with a poor prognosis in MM patients. Despite the prominent role of the IGF system in MM, strategies targeting the IGF-IR using blocking antibodies or small molecule inhibitors have failed to translate into the clinic. However, increasing preclinical evidence indicates that IGF-I is also involved in the development of drug resistance against current standard-of-care agents against MM, including proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents, and corticoids. IGF-IR targeting has been able to overcome or revert this drug resistance in animal models, enhancing the efficacy of standard-of-care agents. This finding has generated renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of IGF-I targeting in MM. The present review provides an update of the impact of the different IGF system components in MM and discusses the diagnostic and therapeutic potentials. PMID:27129151

  15. The role of dorsal root ganglia activation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenjun; Frost, Emma E; Begum, Farhana; Vora, Parvez; Au, Kelvin; Gong, Yuewen; MacNeil, Brian; Pillai, Prakash; Namaka, Mike

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by focal destruction of the white matter of the brain and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of the disease are unknown. Many studies have shown that MS is predominantly an autoimmune disease with an inflammatory phase followed by a demyelinating phase. Recent studies alongside current treatment strategies, including glatiramer acetate, have revealed a potential role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in MS. However, the exact role of BDNF is not fully understood. We used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS in adolescent female Lewis rats to identify the role of BDNF in disease progression. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal cords were harvested for protein and gene expression analysis every 3 days post-disease induction (pdi) up to 15 days. We show significant increases in BDNF protein and gene expression in the DRG of EAE animals at 12 dpi, which correlates with peak neurological disability. BDNF protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly increased at 12 dpi, and maintained at 15 dpi. However, there was no significant change in mRNA levels. We show evidence for the anterograde transport of BDNF protein from the DRG to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal roots. Increased levels of BDNF within the DRG and spinal cord in EAE may facilitate myelin repair and neuroprotection in the CNS. The anterograde transport of DRG-derived BDNF to the spinal cord may have potential implications in facilitating central myelin repair and neuroprotection.

  16. Multiple factor design for reactive mixture selection for use in reactive walls in mine drainage treatment.

    PubMed

    Cocos, Ioana A; Zagury, Gerald J; Clément, Bernard; Samson, Réjean

    2002-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing reactive walls installed in situ in the path of acid mine drainage contaminated groundwater, present a promising passive treatment technology. However, a rigorous and methodical selection of the most appropriate reactive mixture composition still needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was the selection of the most reactive medium using a multiple factor design and the modeling of the sulfate-reduction rate. Reactivity of 17 mixtures was assessed in batch reactors (in duplicates) using a synthetic AMD. Results indicate that within 41 days, sulfate concentrations decreased from initial concentrations of 2,000-3,200 mg/l to final concentrations of <90 mg/l. Metal removal efficiencies ranged between 51-84% for Ni and 73-93% for Zn. Generated sulfate-reduction rate predictive models which had very satisfactory parameters (R2 = 0.86, F = 62.38 (p-level < 10(-13)) and R2 = 0.90. F = 62.30 (p-level < 10(-13))) identified poultry manure and two other carbon sources as the critical variables for sulfate-reduction rate.

  17. Multiple repeats of a promoter segment causes transcription factor autoregulation in red apples.

    PubMed

    Espley, Richard V; Brendolise, Cyril; Chagné, David; Kutty-Amma, Sumathi; Green, Sol; Volz, Richard; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Gardiner, Susan E; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding for either the biosynthetic or transcriptional regulation of the anthocyanin pathway have been linked to color phenotypes. Generally, this is a loss of function resulting in a reduction or a change in the distribution of anthocyanin. Here, we describe a rearrangement in the upstream regulatory region of the gene encoding an apple (Malus x domestica) anthocyanin-regulating transcription factor, MYB10. We show that this modification is responsible for increasing the level of anthocyanin throughout the plant to produce a striking phenotype that includes red foliage and red fruit flesh. This rearrangement is a series of multiple repeats, forming a minisatellite-like structure that comprises five direct tandem repeats of a 23-bp sequence. This MYB10 rearrangement is present in all the red foliage apple varieties and species tested but in none of the white fleshed varieties. Transient assays demonstrated that the 23-bp sequence motif is a target of the MYB10 protein itself, and the number of repeat units correlates with an increase in transactivation by MYB10 protein. We show that the repeat motif is capable of binding MYB10 protein in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Taken together, these results indicate that an allelic rearrangement in the promoter of MYB10 has generated an autoregulatory locus, and this autoregulation is sufficient to account for the increase in MYB10 transcript levels and subsequent ectopic accumulation of anthocyanins throughout the plant.

  18. Scattering from phase-separated vesicles. I. An analytical form factor for multiple static domains

    DOE PAGES

    Heberle, Frederick A.; Anghel, Vinicius N. P.; Katsaras, John

    2015-08-18

    This is the first in a series of studies considering elastic scattering from laterally heterogeneous lipid vesicles containing multiple domains. Unique among biophysical tools, small-angle neutron scattering can in principle give detailed information about the size, shape and spatial arrangement of domains. A general theory for scattering from laterally heterogeneous vesicles is presented, and the analytical form factor for static domains with arbitrary spatial configuration is derived, including a simplification for uniformly sized round domains. The validity of the model, including series truncation effects, is assessed by comparison with simulated data obtained from a Monte Carlo method. Several aspects ofmore » the analytical solution for scattering intensity are discussed in the context of small-angle neutron scattering data, including the effect of varying domain size and number, as well as solvent contrast. Finally, the analysis indicates that effects of domain formation are most pronounced when the vesicle's average scattering length density matches that of the surrounding solvent.« less

  19. Evidence for Multiple Mediator Complexes in Yeast Independently Recruited by Activated Heat Shock Factor

    PubMed Central

    Anandhakumar, Jayamani; Moustafa, Yara W.; Chowdhary, Surabhi; Kainth, Amoldeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Mediator is an evolutionarily conserved coactivator complex essential for RNA polymerase II transcription. Although it has been generally assumed that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mediator is a stable trimodular complex, its structural state in vivo remains unclear. Using the “anchor away” (AA) technique to conditionally deplete select subunits within Mediator and its reversibly associated Cdk8 kinase module (CKM), we provide evidence that Mediator's tail module is highly dynamic and that a subcomplex consisting of Med2, Med3, and Med15 can be independently recruited to the regulatory regions of heat shock factor 1 (Hsf1)-activated genes. Fluorescence microscopy of a scaffold subunit (Med14)-anchored strain confirmed parallel cytoplasmic sequestration of core subunits located outside the tail triad. In addition, and contrary to current models, we provide evidence that Hsf1 can recruit the CKM independently of core Mediator and that core Mediator has a role in regulating postinitiation events. Collectively, our results suggest that yeast Mediator is not monolithic but potentially has a dynamic complexity heretofore unappreciated. Multiple species, including CKM-Mediator, the 21-subunit core complex, the Med2-Med3-Med15 tail triad, and the four-subunit CKM, can be independently recruited by activated Hsf1 to its target genes in AA strains. PMID:27185874

  20. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-07-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency.

  1. Multiplication factor for open ground storey buildings-a reliability based evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haran Pragalath, D. C.; Avadhoot, Bhosale; Robin, Davis P.; Pradip, Sarkar

    2016-06-01

    Open Ground Storey (OGS) framed buildings where the ground storey is kept open without infill walls, mainly to facilitate parking, is increasing commonly in urban areas. However, vulnerability of this type of buildings has been exposed in past earthquakes. OGS buildings are conventionally designed by a bare frame analysis that ignores the stiffness of the infill walls present in the upper storeys, but doing so underestimates the inter-storey drift (ISD) and thereby the force demand in the ground storey columns. Therefore, a multiplication factor (MF) is introduced in various international codes to estimate the design forces (bending moments and shear forces) in the ground storey columns. This study focuses on the seismic performance of typical OGS buildings designed by means of MFs. The probabilistic seismic demand models, fragility curves, reliability and cost indices for various frame models including bare frames and fully infilled frames are developed. It is found that the MF scheme suggested by the Israel code is better than other international codes in terms of reliability and cost.

  2. Causes of Death and Prognostic Factors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuhide; Igarashi, Hisato; Uehara, Hirotsugu; Berna, Marc J.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is classically characterized by the development of functional or nonfunctional hyperplasia or tumors in endocrine tissues (parathyroid, pancreas, pituitary, adrenal). Because effective treatments have been developed for the hormone excess state, which was a major cause of death in these patients in the past, coupled with the recognition that nonendocrine tumors increasingly develop late in the disease course, the natural history of the disease has changed. An understanding of the current causes of death is important to tailor treatment for these patients and to help identify prognostic factors; however, it is generally lacking. To add to our understanding, we conducted a detailed analysis of the causes of death and prognostic factors from a prospective long-term National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 106 MEN1 patients with pancreatic endocrine tumors with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (MEN1/ZES patients) and compared our results to those from the pooled literature data of 227 patients with MEN1 with pancreatic endocrine tumors (MEN1/PET patients) reported in case reports or small series, and to 1386 patients reported in large MEN1 literature series. In the NIH series over a mean follow-up of 24.5 years, 24 (23%) patients died (14 MEN1-related and 10 non-MEN1-related deaths). Comparing the causes of death with the results from the 227 patients in the pooled literature series, we found that no patients died of acute complications due to acid hypersecretion, and 8%–14% died of other hormone excess causes, which is similar to the results in 10 large MEN1 literature series published since 1995. In the 2 series (the NIH and pooled literature series), two-thirds of patients died from an MEN1-related cause and one-third from a non-MEN1-related cause, which agrees with the mean values reported in 10 large MEN1 series in the literature, although in the literature the causes of death varied widely. In the NIH and pooled

  3. A retrospective likelihood approach for efficient integration of multiple omics factors in case-control association studies.

    PubMed

    Balliu, Brunilda; Tsonaka, Roula; Boehringer, Stefan; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine

    2015-03-01

    Integrative omics, the joint analysis of outcome and multiple types of omics data, such as genomics, epigenomics, and transcriptomics data, constitute a promising approach for powerful and biologically relevant association studies. These studies often employ a case-control design, and often include nonomics covariates, such as age and gender, that may modify the underlying omics risk factors. An open question is how to best integrate multiple omics and nonomics information to maximize statistical power in case-control studies that ascertain individuals based on the phenotype. Recent work on integrative omics have used prospective approaches, modeling case-control status conditional on omics, and nonomics risk factors. Compared to univariate approaches, jointly analyzing multiple risk factors with a prospective approach increases power in nonascertained cohorts. However, these prospective approaches often lose power in case-control studies. In this article, we propose a novel statistical method for integrating multiple omics and nonomics factors in case-control association studies. Our method is based on a retrospective likelihood function that models the joint distribution of omics and nonomics factors conditional on case-control status. The new method provides accurate control of Type I error rate and has increased efficiency over prospective approaches in both simulated and real data.

  4. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  5. Resource factors for mental health resilience in early childhood: An analysis with multiple methodologies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that relatively little is known about the development of resilience in early childhood, this longitudinal study aimed to identify preschool resource factors associated with young children’s mental health resilience to family adversity. Methods A community sample of 474 young Australian children was assessed in preschool (mean age 4.59 years, 49% male), and again two years later after their transition into formal schooling. At each assessment, standard questionnaires were used to obtain ratings from both parents and teachers about the quality of children’s relationships with parents and teachers, children’s self-concept and self-control, mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), and family adversities (including stressful life events and socioeconomic disadvantage). Results Greater exposure to cumulative family adversities was associated with both greater teacher- and parent-reported child mental health difficulties two years later. Multiple methodologies for operationalizing resilience were used to identify resources associated with resilient mental health outcomes. Higher quality child–parent and child-teacher relationships, and greater child self-concept and self-control were associated with resilient mental health outcomes. With the exception of child-teacher relationships, these resources were also prospective antecedents of subsequent resilient mental health outcomes in children with no pre-existing mental health difficulties. Child–parent relationships and child self-concept generally had promotive effects, being equally beneficial for children facing both low- and high-adversity. Child self-control demonstrated a small protective effect on teacher-reported outcomes, with greater self-control conferring greater protection to children under conditions of high-adversity. Conclusions Findings suggest that early intervention and prevention strategies that focus on fostering child-adult relationship quality, self

  6. Multiple Immune Factors Are Involved in Controlling Acute and Chronic Chikungunya Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Poo, Yee Suan; Rudd, Penny A.; Gardner, Joy; Wilson, Jane A. C.; Larcher, Thibaut; Colle, Marie-Anne; Le, Thuy T.; Nakaya, Helder I.; Warrilow, David; Allcock, Richard; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Schroder, Wayne A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.; Lopez, José A.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The recent epidemic of the arthritogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a quest to understand the correlates of protection against virus and disease in order to inform development of new interventions. Herein we highlight the propensity of CHIKV infections to persist long term, both as persistent, steady-state, viraemias in multiple B cell deficient mouse strains, and as persistent RNA (including negative-strand RNA) in wild-type mice. The knockout mouse studies provided evidence for a role for T cells (but not NK cells) in viraemia suppression, and confirmed the role of T cells in arthritis promotion, with vaccine-induced T cells also shown to be arthritogenic in the absence of antibody responses. However, MHC class II-restricted T cells were not required for production of anti-viral IgG2c responses post CHIKV infection. The anti-viral cytokines, TNF and IFNγ, were persistently elevated in persistently infected B and T cell deficient mice, with adoptive transfer of anti-CHIKV antibodies unable to clear permanently the viraemia from these, or B cell deficient, mice. The NOD background increased viraemia and promoted arthritis, with B, T and NK deficient NOD mice showing high-levels of persistent viraemia and ultimately succumbing to encephalitic disease. In wild-type mice persistent CHIKV RNA and negative strand RNA (detected for up to 100 days post infection) was associated with persistence of cellular infiltrates, CHIKV antigen and stimulation of IFNα/β and T cell responses. These studies highlight that, secondary to antibodies, several factors are involved in virus control, and suggest that chronic arthritic disease is a consequence of persistent, replicating and transcriptionally active CHIKV RNA. PMID:25474568

  7. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  8. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  9. Risk factors for fecal colonization with multiple distinct strains of Escherichia coli among long-term care facility residents.

    PubMed

    Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N

    2009-05-01

    Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.

  10. A Multiple Risk Factors Model of the Development of Aggression among Early Adolescents from Urban Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sangwon; Orpinas, Pamela; Kamphaus, Randy; Kelder, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically derived a multiple risk factors model of the development of aggression among middle school students in urban, low-income neighborhoods, using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM). Results indicated that aggression increased from sixth to eighth grade. Additionally, the influences of four risk domains (individual, family,…

  11. Physical and Cognitive-Affective Factors Associated with Fatigue in Individuals with Fibromyalgia: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Veronica; Brooks, Jessica; Tu, Wei-Mo; Moser, Erin; Lo, Chu-Ling; Chan, Fong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to determine the extent to which physical and cognitive-affective factors are associated with fibromyalgia (FM) fatigue. Method: A quantitative descriptive design using correlation techniques and multiple regression analysis. The participants consisted of 302 members of the National Fibromyalgia &…

  12. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  13. Risk Factors for Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome in Severe Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuna; Li, Yue; Yuan, Junliang; Yang, Lei; Li, Shujuan; Hu, Wenli

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe stroke patients have poor clinical outcome which may be associated with development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate independent risk factors for development of MODS in severe stroke patients. Methods Ninety seven severe stroke patients were prospective recruited from Jan 2011 to Jun 2015. The development of MODS was identified by Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (score ≥ 3, at least two organs), which was assessed on day 1, 4, 7, 10 and 14 after admission. Baseline characteristics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Glasgow coma score (GCS) and cerebral imaging parameters were collected at admission. Cox regression was performed to determine predictors for the development of MODS. Medical complications after admission and in-hospital mortality were also investigated. Results 33 (34%) patients were in MODS group and 64 (66%) were in non-MODS group within 14 days after admission. Patients in MODS group had more smoker (51.5% vs 28.1%, p = 0.023), higher NIHSS score (23.48 ± 6.12 vs 19.81 ± 4.83, p = 0.004), higher APACHE II score (18.70 ± 5.18 vs 15.64 ± 4.36, p = 0.003) and lower GCS score (6.33 ± 2.48 vs 8.14 ± 2.73, p = 0.002). They also had higher rate of infarction in multi vascular territories (36.4% vs 10.9%, p = 0.003). The most common complication in all patients was pulmonary infection, while complication scores were comparable between two groups. Patients with MODS had higher in-hospital mortality (69.7% vs 9.4%, p = 0.000). In Cox regression, NIHSS score (RR = 1.084, 95% CI 1.019–1.153) and infarction in multi vascular territories (RR = 2.345 95% CI 1.105–4.978) were independent risk factors for development of MODS. Conclusions In acute phase of stroke, NIHSS score and infarction in multi vascular territories predicted MODS in severe stroke patients. Moreover, patients with MODS had higher in-hospital mortality

  14. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  15. Military Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1949-07-01

    CGSC MG MILITARY GOVERNMENT LIBHARY ARI\\’IY WAR COLLEGE CJ\\RLISLE BARRACKS, PAa This text is approved for resident and extension-course...and functions · of ’ military government . It conforms ·substantially to the subject matter , of Field Manual 27-5, Civil Affairs/ Military Government ...Teaching experience at the Command and General Staff College has ···--·demonstrated the need for a military government text which brings to- gether

  16. [Influence on the spatial distribution of fish in Taizi River basin by environmental factors at multiple scales].

    PubMed

    Ding, Sen; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiao-Dong; Kong, Wei-Jing; Liu, Si-Si; Meng, Wei

    2012-07-01

    The deterioration of fish is influenced by various types of environmental factors. To develop protection plans that are more suitable, non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMS) was used to investigate the influence of environmental factors at multiple scales on the spatial distribution of fish. The results of cluster analysis showed that there were three types of spatial distribution of fish, i.e. upstream timber and tributary headstream area, midstream hilly area, and downstream plain area. Results of NMS analysis indicated the significant correlations between spatial distribution of fish and environmental factors at multiple scales. Altitude, stream order and land use were three important factors influencing the fish distribution at the watershed scale. Combination of velocity and depth, habitat inhomogeneity and electrical conductivity significantly affected fish distribution at the reach scale, whereas the quality of bottom material showed significant influence at the microhabitat scale. Therefore, the effect of specific environmental factors at multiple scales should be taken into consideration in the basin fish conversation management.

  17. Factors associated with the presence of multiple Lugol-voiding lesions in patients with esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Katada, C; Muto, M; Tanabe, S; Higuchi, K; Sasaki, T; Azuma, M; Ishido, K; Katada, N; Sakuramoto, S; Yamashita, K; Masaki, T; Nakayama, M; Okamoto, M; Koizumi, W

    2014-07-01

    Multicentric squamous dysplasia of the esophagus is characterized by multiple Lugol-voiding lesions (LVLs) on Lugol chromoendoscopy. Multiple LVLs are associated with a very high risk of multiple cancers arising in the esophagus as well as the head and neck. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of multiple LVLs of the esophageal mucosa, we studied risk factors for the development of such lesions in 76 patients who had a current or previous diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. All patients underwent Lugol chromoendoscopy of the esophageal mucosa. The history of tobacco and alcohol use was documented. Polymorphisms of the aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2) gene were identified by polymerase chain reaction using sequence-specific primers. Clinical factors related to multiple LVLs were analyzed. All patients with multiple LVLs were drinkers. On univariate analysis, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.84-122.45: P = 0.011), presence of the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.5, 95% CI 1.55-13.24: P = 0.006), and smoking index ≥1000 (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02-6.6: P = 0.045) were associated with multiple LVLs. On multivariate analysis, male sex (OR 10.02, 95% CI 1.13-88.44: P = 0.038) and presence of the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.56, 95% CI 1.4-14.82: P = 0.012) were associated with multiple LVLs. Among drinkers, a daily alcohol intake of ≥100 g pure ethanol with the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 17.5, 95% CI 1.97-155.59: P = 0.01) and a daily alcohol intake of <100 g pure ethanol with the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 8.85, 95% CI 1.68-46.69: P = 0.01) more strongly correlated with multiple LVLs than did a daily alcohol intake of <100 g pure ethanol without the ALDH2-2 allele, whereas a daily alcohol intake of ≥100 g pure ethanol without the ALDH2-2 allele (OR 4.0, 95% CI 0.54-29.81: P = 0.18) did not. In conclusion, male sex and the ALDH2-2 allele are associated with an increased risk for multiple LVLs of the esophageal mucosa in patients with esophageal

  18. Fibroblast growth factor signalling in multiple sclerosis: inhibition of myelination and induction of pro-inflammatory environment by FGF9.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Maren; Thümmler, Katja; Arthur, Ariel; Brunner, Sarah; Elliott, Christina; McElroy, Daniel; Mohan, Hema; Williams, Anna; Edgar, Julia M; Schuh, Cornelia; Stadelmann, Christine; Barnett, Susan C; Lassmann, Hans; Mücklisch, Steve; Mudaliar, Manikhandan; Schaeren-Wiemers, Nicole; Meinl, Edgar; Linington, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Remyelination failure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We now report actively demyelinating lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis are associated with increased glial expression of fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), which we demonstrate inhibits myelination and remyelination in vitro. This inhibitory activity is associated with the appearance of multi-branched 'pre-myelinating' MBP+ / PLP+ oligodendrocytes that interact with axons but fail to assemble myelin sheaths; an oligodendrocyte phenotype described previously in chronically demyelinated multiple sclerosis lesions. This inhibitory activity is not due to a direct effect of FGF9 on cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage but is mediated by factors secreted by astrocytes. Transcriptional profiling and functional validation studies demonstrate that these include effects dependent on increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-sensitive proteases, enzymes more commonly associated with extracellular matrix remodelling. Further, we found that FGF9 induces expression of Ccl2 and Ccl7, two pro-inflammatory chemokines that contribute to recruitment of microglia and macrophages into multiple sclerosis lesions. These data indicate glial expression of FGF9 can initiate a complex astrocyte-dependent response that contributes to two distinct pathogenic pathways involved in the development of multiple sclerosis lesions. Namely, induction of a pro-inflammatory environment and failure of remyelination; a combination of effects predicted to exacerbate axonal injury and loss in patients.

  19. Multiple growth factors, cytokines, and neurotrophins rescue photoreceptors from the damaging effects of constant light.

    PubMed Central

    LaVail, M M; Unoki, K; Yasumura, D; Matthes, M T; Yancopoulos, G D; Steinberg, R H

    1992-01-01

    Recent demonstrations of survival-promoting activity by neurotrophic agents in diverse neuronal systems have raised the possibility of pharmacological therapy for inherited and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system. We have shown previously that, in the retina, basic fibroblast growth factor delays photoreceptor degeneration in Royal College of Surgeons rats with inherited retinal dystrophy and that the growth factor reduces or prevents the rapid photoreceptor degeneration produced by constant light in the rat. This light-damage model now provides an efficient way to assess quantitatively the survival-promoting activity in vivo of a number of growth factors and other molecules. We report here that photoreceptors can be significantly protected from the damaging effects of light by intravitreal injection of eight different growth factors, cytokines, and neurotrophins that typically act through several distinct receptor families. In addition to basic fibroblast growth factor, those factors providing a high degree of photoreceptor rescue include brain-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, interleukin 1 beta, and acidic fibroblast growth factor; those with less activity include neurotrophin 3, insulin-like growth factor II, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; those showing little or no protective effect are nerve growth factor, epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin, insulin-like growth factor I, heparin, and laminin. Although we used at least one relatively high concentration of each agent (the highest available), it is still possible that other concentrations or factor combinations might be more protective. Injecting heparin along with acidic fibroblast growth factor or basic fibroblast growth factor further enhanced the degree of photoreceptor survival and also suppressed the increased incidence of macrophages produced by either factor, especially basic fibroblast growth factor. These results now provide the

  20. Insights into hemolytic uremic syndrome: segregation of three independent predisposition factors in a large, multiple affected pedigree.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Gordillo, Jorge; Jorge, Elena Goicoechea de; Garrido, Cynthia Abarrategui; Carreras, Luis; López-Trascasa, Margarita; Sánchez-Corral, Pilar; de Córdoba, Santiago Rodríguez

    2006-04-01

    Mutations in the complement regulators factor H, membrane cofactor protein (MCP), and factor I are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS, MIM 235400), suggesting that the disease develops as a consequence of the inefficient protection of the renal endothelium from damage by the complement system. Incomplete penetrance of the disease in individuals carrying these mutations is, however, relatively frequent. Here, we report the identification of a large, multiple affected aHUS pedigree in which there is independent segregation of three different aHUS risk factors: a MCP missense mutation (c.-598C>T; Pro165Ser) that decreases MCP expression on the cell surface, a dinucleotide insertion in the coding sequence of factor I (c.-1610insAT) that introduces a premature stop codon in the factor I protein, and the MCPggaac SNP haplotype block that was previously shown to decrease the transcription activity from the MCP promoter. Interestingly, individuals affected by aHUS in the pedigree are only those who have inherited the three aHUS risk factors. These data show an additive effect for mutations in MCP and factor I and provide definitive support to the conclusion that aHUS results from a defective protection of cellular surfaces from complement activation. Furthermore, they help to explain the incomplete penetrance of the disease, illustrating that concurrence of multiple hits in complement regulatory proteins may be necessary to significantly impair host tissue protection and to confer susceptibility to aHUS.

  1. The Difference between Growth Factor Expression after Single and Multiple Fractures: Preliminary Results in Human Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Harald; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Gregori, Markus; Höchtl-Lee, Leonard; Thomas, Anita; Tiefenboeck, Thomas M.; Hajdu, Stefan; Sarahrudi, Kambiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Circulating levels of VEGF-A (Vascular Endothelia Growth Factor-A), TGF-β1 (Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1), and M-CSF (Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor) were found to be predictors of bone healing and therefore prognostic criteria of delayed bone healing or nonunion. The aim of this study was to evaluate a potential rise of these markers in patients with multiple fractures of long bones compared to patients with single fractured long bone. Methods. 92 patients were included in the study and finally after excluding all female patients 45 male patients were left for final analysis and divided into the single or multiple fracture group. TGF-β1, M-CSF, and VEGF-A serum levels were analysed over a time period of two weeks. Results. MCSF serum concentrations were higher in the group with multiple fractures as also TGF-β1 serum concentrations were at one and two weeks after trauma. No statistically significant difference was observed in the VEGF-A serum concentrations of both groups at either measurement point. Conclusion. We did observe a correlation between the quantity of the M-CSF and TGF-β1 expressions in serum and the number of fractured bones; surprisingly there was no statistically significant difference in the serum levels between patients with single and multiple fractures of long bones. PMID:26246654

  2. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15-49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006-2011.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Do, Dung Van

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence.

  3. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  4. Identification of the source of elevated hepatocyte growth factor levels in multiple myeloma patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine which can lead to cancer cell proliferation, migration and metastasis. In multiple myeloma (MM) patients it is an abundant component of the bone marrow. HGF levels are elevated in 50% of patients and associated with poor prognosis. Here we aim to investigate its source in myeloma. Methods HGF mRNA levels in bone marrow core biopsies from healthy individuals and myeloma patients were quantified by real-time PCR. HGF gene expression profiling in CD138+ cells isolated from bone marrow aspirates of healthy individuals and MM patients was performed by microarray analysis. HGF protein concentrations present in peripheral blood of MM patients were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Cytogenetic status of CD138+ cells was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and DNA sequencing of the HGF gene promoter. HGF secretion in co-cultures of human myeloma cell lines and bone marrow stromal cells was measured by ELISA. Results HGF gene expression profiling in both bone marrow core biopsies and CD138+ cells showed elevated HGF mRNA levels in myeloma patients. HGF mRNA levels in biopsies and in myeloma cells correlated. Quantification of HGF protein levels in serum also correlated with HGF mRNA levels in CD138+ cells from corresponding patients. Cytogenetic analysis showed myeloma cell clones with HGF copy numbers between 1 and 3 copies. There was no correlation between HGF copy number and HGF mRNA levels. Co-cultivation of the human myeloma cell lines ANBL-6 and JJN3 with bone marrow stromal cells or the HS-5 cell line resulted in a significant increase in secreted HGF. Conclusions We here show that in myeloma patients HGF is primarily produced by malignant plasma cells, and that HGF production by these cells might be supported by the bone marrow microenvironment. Considering the fact that elevated HGF serum and plasma levels predict poor prognosis, these findings are of

  5. Oral rabies vaccination of raccoons and striped skunks with ONRAB® baits: multiple factors influence field immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Mainguy, Julien; Rees, Erin E; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Bélanger, Denise; Fehlner-Gardiner, Christine; Séguin, Guylaine; Larrat, Sylvain; Lair, Stéphane; Landry, François; Côté, Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Multiple control methods have been used in North America to manage the spread of rabies caused by the raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies virus variant (RRVV). Recently, oral vaccination with ONRAB(®) vaccine baits, which contain an adenovirus rabies glycoprotein recombinant, has been made available as an additional tool for rabies control. Our objectives were to estimate rabies antibody prevalence in wild-caught raccoons and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and identify factors influencing the probability of being antibody positive at the individual level in these species, following oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns in which ONRAB was distributed aerially in 2007-2009 in southern Québec, Canada. Following the aerial distribution of 43-155 ONRAB baits/km(2), the annual percentages of antibody-positive raccoons and skunks varied between 35% and 56% and 11% and 17%, respectively. In raccoons, the probability of being antibody positive was positively associated with age and density of ONRAB distributed, and influenced by the number of previous ORV campaigns conducted. Conversely, this probability was negatively associated with estimated abundance of raccoons in the trapping cell and proportion of residential areas near the raccoon capture location. None of the variables examined explained variation in the probability of being antibody positive in skunks. Our results indicate that the ONRAB density applied during ORV campaigns should be adjusted to account for variations in raccoon population density and presence of residential areas to increase the likelihood of creating an effective immunological barrier against RRVV. The high percentage of juvenile raccoons (annual mean =45 ± 3 [SE]%) and skunks (66 ± 2%) captured during post-ORV monitoring suggests that ORV campaigns should be conducted at least annually to account for the recruitment of naïve individuals into the populations. In Québec, the increasing use of ONRAB coincided with the elimination of rabies

  6. Las Matematicas: Lenguaje Universal. Nivel 2c: Factores y Multiplos (Mathematics: A Universql Language. Level 2c: Factors and Multiples).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    This is one of a series of student booklets designed for use in a bilingual mathematics program in grades 6-8. The general format is to present each page in both Spanish and English. The mathematical topics in this booklet include factors, prime and composite numbers, divisibility, and exponents. (MK)

  7. Epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptors collaborate to induce multiple biological responses in bovine mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Accornero, P; Martignani, E; Miretti, S; Starvaggi Cucuzza, L; Baratta, M

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this work was to explore whether epidermal growth factor (EGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) could increase the biological responses of a mammary epithelial cell line of bovine origin when added simultaneously. We also investigated a possible molecular mechanism underlying this cooperation. The development of mammary gland requires several circulating and locally produced hormones. Hepatocyte growth factor and its tyrosine kinase receptor, mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET), are expressed and temporally regulated during mammary development and differentiation. Epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands have also been implicated in the growth and morphogenesis of the mammary epithelium. Both EGF and HGF seem to exert a morphogenic program in this tissue; therefore, we hypothesized that these cytokines could act cooperatively in bovine mammary epithelial cells. We have already shown that the bovine BME-UV cell line, a nontumorigenic mammary epithelial line, expresses both MET and EGF receptor. Simultaneous treatment with HGF and EGF elicited an increase in proliferation, dispersion, degradation of extracellular matrix, and motility. Following EGF treatment, BME-UV mammary cells exhibited an increase in MET expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. Long-term treatment of BME-UV cells with HGF and EGF together increased the level of activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B signaling pathways when compared with HGF or EGF alone. These data outline a possible cooperative role of the EGF and HGF pathways and indicate that cross-talk between their respective receptors may modulate mammary gland development in the cow.

  8. Evaluating the Governing Factors of Variability in Nocturnal Boundary Layer Height Based on Elastic Lidar in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Pan, Zengxin; Du, Lin

    2016-11-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), an atmospheric region near the Earth's surface, is affected by surface forcing and is important for studying air quality, climate, and weather forecasts. In this study, long-term urban nocturnal boundary layers (NBLs) were estimated by an elastic backscatter light detection and ranging (LiDAR) with various methods in Wuhan (30.5° N, 114.4° E), a city in Central China. This study aims to explore two ABL research topics: (1) the relationship between NBL height (NBLH) and near-surface parameters (e.g., sensible heat flux, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity) to elucidate meteorological processes governing NBL variability; and (2) the influence of NBLH variations in surface particulate matter (PM) in Wuhan. We analyzed the nocturnal ABL-dilution/ABL-accumulation effect on surface particle concentration by using a typical case. A long-term analysis was then performed from 5 December 2012-17 June 2016. Results reveal that the seasonal averages of nocturnal (from 20:00 to 05:00 next day, Chinese standard time) NBLHs are 386 ± 161 m in spring, 473 ± 154 m in summer, 383 ± 137 m in autumn, and 309 ± 94 m in winter. The seasonal variations in NBLH, AOD, and PM2.5 display a deep (shallow) seasonal mean NBL, consistent with a small (larger) seasonal mean PM2.5 near the surface. Seasonal variability of NBLH is partly linearly correlated with sensible heat flux at the surface (R = 0.72). Linear regression analyses between NBLH and other parameters show the following: (1) the positive correlation (R = 0.68) between NBLH and surface temperature indicates high (low) NBLH corresponding to warm (cool) conditions; (2) the slight positive correlation (R = 0.52) between NBLH and surface relative humidity in Wuhan; and (3) the weak positive correlation (R = 0.38) between NBLH and wind speed inside the NBL may imply that the latter is not an important direct driver that governs the seasonal variability of NBLH.

  9. Evaluating the Governing Factors of Variability in Nocturnal Boundary Layer Height Based on Elastic Lidar in Wuhan

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Gong, Wei; Pan, Zengxin; Du, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), an atmospheric region near the Earth’s surface, is affected by surface forcing and is important for studying air quality, climate, and weather forecasts. In this study, long-term urban nocturnal boundary layers (NBLs) were estimated by an elastic backscatter light detection and ranging (LiDAR) with various methods in Wuhan (30.5° N, 114.4° E), a city in Central China. This study aims to explore two ABL research topics: (1) the relationship between NBL height (NBLH) and near-surface parameters (e.g., sensible heat flux, temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity) to elucidate meteorological processes governing NBL variability; and (2) the influence of NBLH variations in surface particulate matter (PM) in Wuhan. We analyzed the nocturnal ABL-dilution/ABL-accumulation effect on surface particle concentration by using a typical case. A long-term analysis was then performed from 5 December 2012–17 June 2016. Results reveal that the seasonal averages of nocturnal (from 20:00 to 05:00 next day, Chinese standard time) NBLHs are 386 ± 161 m in spring, 473 ± 154 m in summer, 383 ± 137 m in autumn, and 309 ± 94 m in winter. The seasonal variations in NBLH, AOD, and PM2.5 display a deep (shallow) seasonal mean NBL, consistent with a small (larger) seasonal mean PM2.5 near the surface. Seasonal variability of NBLH is partly linearly correlated with sensible heat flux at the surface (R = 0.72). Linear regression analyses between NBLH and other parameters show the following: (1) the positive correlation (R = 0.68) between NBLH and surface temperature indicates high (low) NBLH corresponding to warm (cool) conditions; (2) the slight positive correlation (R = 0.52) between NBLH and surface relative humidity in Wuhan; and (3) the weak positive correlation (R = 0.38) between NBLH and wind speed inside the NBL may imply that the latter is not an important direct driver that governs the seasonal variability of NBLH. PMID:27809295

  10. Risk stratification in multiple myeloma, part 2: the significance of genetic risk factors in the era of currently available therapies.

    PubMed

    Biran, Noa; Jagannath, Sundar; Chari, Ajai

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous disease, and a variety of risk factors at the time of initial diagnosis can be used to stratify patients. In the first part of this 2-part series, we reviewed the currently identified prognostic factors, characterized by disease burden, host factors, tumor biology, and depth of response to therapy. However, these risk factors cannot be interpreted independently of therapies. Novel therapies have the potential to worsen or improve outcomes compared with conventional therapy in high-risk patients, or actually overcome the high-risk status, thereby resulting in reclassification as standard risk. For example, thalidomide (Thalomid, Celgene) is associated with worse outcomes in patients with high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as deletion of chromosomes 13 and 17p, whereas proteasome inhibitors appear to overcome t(4;14). The second part of this series reviews the significance of various genetic risks in the era of novel therapies for MM.

  11. Empirical Study of the Role of Government Support and Success Factors in Industry-University-Institute Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…

  12. Tailored design of electrospun composite nanofibers with staged release of multiple angiogenic growth factors for chronic wound healing.

    PubMed

    Lai, Huan-Ju; Kuan, Chen-Hsiang; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tsai, Jui-Che; Chen, Tim-Mo; Hsieh, Dar-Jen; Wang, Tzu-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research study is to develop a collagen (Col) and hyaluronic acid (HA) inter-stacking nanofibrous skin equivalent substitute with the programmable release of multiple angiogenic growth factors (vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and endothelial growth factor (EGF)) either directly embedded in the nanofibers or encapsulated in the gelatin nanoparticles (GNs) by electrospinning technology. The delivery of EGF and bFGF in the early stage is expected to accelerate epithelialization and vasculature sprouting, while the release of PDGF and VEGF in the late stage is with the aim of inducing blood vessels maturation. The physiochemical characterizations indicate that the Col-HA-GN nanofibrous membrane possesses mechanical properties similar to human native skin. The design of a particle-in-fiber structure allows growth factors for slow controlled release up to 1month. Cultured on biodegradable Col-HA membrane with four kinds of growth factors (Col-HA w/4GF), endothelial cells not only increase in growth rate but also form a better network with a thread-like tubular structure. The therapeutic effect of Col-HA w/4GF membrane on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats reveals an accelerated wound closure rate, together with elevated collagen deposition and enhanced maturation of vessels, as revealed by Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. From the above, the electrospun Col-HA-GN composite nanofibrous skin substitute with a stage-wise release pattern of multiple angiogenic factors could be a promising bioengineered construct for chronic wound healing in skin tissue regeneration.

  13. Expanding the Regulatory Network Governed by the Extracytoplasmic Function Sigma Factor σH in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Koichi; Teramoto, Haruhiko; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σH is responsible for the heat and oxidative stress response in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Due to the hierarchical nature of the regulatory network, previous transcriptome analyses have not been able to discriminate between direct and indirect targets of σH. Here, we determined the direct genome-wide targets of σH using chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) for analysis of a deletion mutant of rshA, encoding an anti-σ factor of σH. Seventy-five σH-dependent promoters, including 39 new ones, were identified. σH-dependent, heat-inducible transcripts for several of the new targets, including ilvD encoding a labile Fe-S cluster enzyme, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, were detected, and their 5′ ends were mapped to the σH-dependent promoters identified. Interestingly, functional internal σH-dependent promoters were found in operon-like gene clusters involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, riboflavin biosynthesis, and Zn uptake. Accordingly, deletion of rshA resulted in hyperproduction of riboflavin and affected expression of Zn-responsive genes, possibly through intracellular Zn overload, indicating new physiological roles of σH. Furthermore, sigA encoding the primary σ factor was identified as a new target of σH. Reporter assays demonstrated that the σH-dependent promoter upstream of sigA was highly heat inducible but much weaker than the known σA-dependent one. Our ChIP-chip analysis also detected the σH-dependent promoters upstream of rshA within the sigH-rshA operon and of sigB encoding a group 2 σ factor, supporting the previous findings of their σH-dependent expression. Taken together, these results reveal an additional layer of the sigma factor regulatory network in C. glutamicum. PMID:25404703

  14. Multiple Regression Analysis of Factors that May Influence Middle School Science Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative multiple regression study was to determine whether a relationship existed between Maryland State Assessment (MSA) reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, age, and MSA science scores. Also examined was if MSA reading scores, MSA math scores, gender, ethnicity, and age can be used in combination or alone…

  15. Merging Worlds of Nanomaterials and Biological Environment: Factors Governing Protein Corona Formation on Nanoparticles and Its Biological Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroozandeh, Parisa; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-05-01

    Protein corona has became a prevalent subject in the field of nanomedicine owing to its diverse role in determining the efficiency, efficacy, and the ultimate biological fate of the nanomaterials used as a tool to treat and diagnose various diseases. For instance, protein corona formation on the surface of nanoparticles can modify its physicochemical properties and interfere with its intended functionalities in the biological microenvironments. As such, much emphasis should be placed in understanding these complex phenomena that occur at the bio-nano interface. The main aim of this review is to present different factors that are influencing protein-nanoparticle interaction such as physicochemical properties of nanoparticle ( i.e., size and size distribution, shape, composition, surface chemistry, and coatings) and the effect of biological microenvironments. Apart from that, the effect of ignored factors at the bio-nano interface such as temperature, plasma concentration, plasma gradient effect, administration route, and cell observer were also addressed.

  16. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  17. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  18. Degree and Direction of Multiple Career Factors: Sex Differences and Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Michal; And Others

    Personality, environment, and the interaction between them have been suggested as the major factors accounting for career development. Students (N=283) were asked to respond to 28 items on a recently revised self-report instrument, the Career Factor Checklist (CFC), in order to establish the construct validity of the revised CFC and to investigate…

  19. Sociodemographic Correlates of Modifiable Risk Factors for Hypertension in a Rural Local Government Area of Oyo State South West Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abdulsalam, Saliu; Olugbenga-Bello, Adenike; Olarewaju, Olakunle; Abdus-salam, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    Modifiable risk factors of hypertension contribute significantly to all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of and the association of modifiable risk factors with hypertension in rural community. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 166 male and 201 female adults of 18 years and above using cluster sampling technique. Data were collected using modified WHO STEPS instrument and hypertensive subjects were defined as those with systolic greater than or equal to 140 and diastolic of 90 mmHg. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17 with level of significance at P < 0.05. The mean age of the subjects was 36.36 (±16.88) years and mean systolic and diastolic pressures were 124 (±16.93) and 76.32 (±11.85) mmHg, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension was high (22.9%) in this rural communities but awareness was low, 10.71%. The prevalence of alcohol consumption, sedentary lifestyle, abnormal weight, inadequate sleep, smoking, significant stress, and female use of hormonal contraceptives was 149 (40.6%), 91 (24.8%), 88 (24.0%), 122 (33.2%), 14 (3.8%), 65 (17.7%), and 53 (26.5%), respectively. Overweight, sex, inadequate sleep, and stress were established as positive predictors of hypertension. The rising prevalence of hypertension and its modifiable risk factors in rural communities require prompt interventions directed at reversing these trends. PMID:25580284

  20. Replication analysis identifies TYK2 as a multiple sclerosis susceptibility factor.

    PubMed

    Ban, Maria; Goris, An; Lorentzen, Aslaug R; Baker, Amie; Mihalova, Tania; Ingram, Gillian; Booth, David R; Heard, Robert N; Stewart, Graeme J; Bogaert, Elke; Dubois, Bénédicte; Harbo, Hanne F; Celius, Elisabeth G; Spurkland, Anne; Strange, Richard; Hawkins, Clive; Robertson, Neil P; Dudbridge, Frank; Wason, James; De Jager, Philip L; Hafler, David; Rioux, John D; Ivinson, Adrian J; McCauley, Jacob L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Sexton, David; Haines, Jonathan; Sawcer, Stephen; Compston, Alastair

    2009-10-01

    In a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on 12,374 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms we identified a number of candidate multiple sclerosis susceptibility genes. Here, we describe the extended analysis of 17 of these loci undertaken using an additional 4234 patients, 2983 controls and 2053 trio families. In the final analysis combining all available data, we found that evidence for association was substantially increased for one of the 17 loci, rs34536443 from the tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) gene (P=2.7 x 10(-6), odds ratio=1.32 (1.17-1.47)). This single nucleotide polymorphism results in an amino acid substitution (proline to alanine) in the kinase domain of TYK2, which is predicted to influence the levels of phosphorylation and therefore activity of the protein and so is likely to have a functional role in multiple sclerosis.

  1. Behavioral phenotypes in schizophrenic animal models with multiple combinations of genetic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Noda, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a multifactorial psychiatric disorder in which both genetic and environmental factors play a role. Genetic [e.g., Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), Neuregulin-1 (NRG1)] and environmental factors (e.g., maternal viral infection, obstetric complications, social stress) may act during the developmental period to increase the incidence of schizophrenia. In animal models, interactions between susceptibility genes and the environment can be controlled in ways not possible in humans; therefore, such models are useful for investigating interactions between or within factors in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We provide an overview of schizophrenic animal models investigating interactions between or within factors. First, we reviewed gene-environment interaction animal models, in which schizophrenic candidate gene mutant mice were subjected to perinatal immune activation or adolescent stress. Next, environment-environment interaction animal models, in which mice were subjected to a combination of perinatal immune activation and adolescent administration of drugs, were described. These animal models showed interaction between or within factors; behavioral changes, which were obscured by each factor, were marked by interaction of factors and vice versa. Appropriate behavioral approaches with such models will be invaluable for translational research on novel compounds, and also for providing insight into the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  2. Role of socio-economic and reproductive factors in the risk of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Magyari, M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of multiple sclerosis is increasing in Danish women. Their risk of developing multiple sclerosis has more than doubled in 25 years while it has remained virtually unchanged for men. The explanation for these epidemiological changes should be sought in the environment as they are too rapid to be explained by gene alterations. We investigated the effect of numerous biological social physical and chemical environmental exposures in different periods of life. These data were available from population-based registries and were used in a case-control approach. This study database included all multiple sclerosis cases (n = 1403) from the Danish MS Registry with clinical onset between 2000 and 2004 as well as 35,045 controls drawn by random from the Danish Civil Registration System and matched by sex year of birth and residential municipality at the reference year. Having newborn children reduced the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in women but not in men. Childbirths reduced the risk of MS by about 46% during the following 5 years. Even pregnancies terminated early had a protective effect on the risk of developing MS suggesting a temporary immunosuppression during pregnancy. Our data on social behaviour regarding educational level income and relationship stability did not indicate reverse causality. A greater likelihood to be exposed to common infections did not show any effect on the risk of MS neither in puberty nor in adulthood. Socio-economic status and lifestyle expressed in educational level and sanitary conditions in youth were not associated with the risk of MS.

  3. Impact of aerobic training on immune-endocrine parameters, neurotrophic factors, quality of life and coordinative function in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Gold, Stefan M; Witte, Jan; Bartsch, Katharina; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer; Reer, Rüdiger; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Heesen, Christoph

    2004-10-15

    In recent years it has become clear that multiple sclerosis (MS) patients benefit from physical exercise as performed in aerobic training but little is known about the effect on functional domains and physiological factors mediating these effects. We studied immunological, endocrine and neurotrophic factors as well as coordinative function and quality of life during an 8-week aerobic bicycle training in a waitlist control design. In the immune-endocrine study (1) 28 patients were included, the coordinative extension study (2) included 39 patients. Training was performed at 60% VO(2)max after determining individual exertion levels through step-by-step ergometry. Metabolic (lactate), endocrine (cortisol, adrendocortico-releasing hormone, epinephrine, norepinephrine), immune (IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor), and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF)) parameters were compared from a prestudy and a poststudy endurance test at 60% VO(2)max for 30 min. In study (1), lowered lactate levels despite higher workload levels indicated a training effect. Disease-specific quality of life (as measured by the Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire for Multiple Sclerosis, HAQUAMS) significantly increased in the training group. No significant training effects were seen for endocrine and immune parameters or neurotrophins. In study (2), two out of three coordinative parameters of the lower extremities were significantly improved. In summary, low-level aerobic training in MS improves not only quality of life but also coordinative function and physical fitness.

  4. Female pseudohermaphroditism with multiple caudal anomalies: Absence of Y-specific DNA sequences as pathogenetic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Seaver, L.H.; Grimes, J.; Erickson, R.P.

    1994-05-15

    46,XX female pseudohermaphrodites have been previously described with nearly complete masculinization of the external genitalia and no apparent source of testosterone. Multiple malformations of internal genital, urinary, and gastrointestinal tracts are associated. We have evaluated four such infants with female pseudohermaphroditism and multiple caudal anomalies. Three cases had apparently normal chromosome (46,XX); one had a 46,XX,del(10)(q25.3{yields}qter) chromosome constitution. The chromosome breakpoint is in the region of PAX2, a developmentally important paired box gene which is expressed in urogenital tissue. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we screened for the presence of multiple Y specific sequences, including SRY (sex determining region, Y chromosome), that could explain masculinization of the external genitalia. All were negative for Y centromeric sequences, ZFY (Zinc finger Y), and SRY. Furthermore, there was no evidence for adrenal or other sources of testosterone. We suggest that the masculinization in these cases is the result of abnormal expression of genes which would normally be regulated by testosterone. 32 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Nasal administration of interleukin-33 induces airways angiogenesis and expression of multiple angiogenic factors in a murine asthma surrogate.

    PubMed

    Shan, Shan; Li, Yan; Wang, Jingjing; Lv, Zhe; Yi, Dawei; Huang, Qiong; Corrigan, Chris J; Wang, Wei; Quangeng, Zhang; Ying, Sun

    2016-05-01

    The T-helper cell type 2-promoting cytokine interleukin-33 (IL-33) has been implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Angiogenesis is a feature of airways remodelling in asthma. We hypothesized that IL-33 induces airways angiogenesis and expression of angiogenic factors in an established murine surrogate of asthma. In the present study, BALB/c mice were subjected to serial intranasal challenge with IL-33 alone for up to 70 days. In parallel, ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized mice were subjected to serial intranasal challenge with OVA or normal saline to serve as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of expression of von Willebrand factor and erythroblast transformation-specific-related gene, both blood vessel markers, and angiogenic factors angiogenin, insulin-like growth factor-1, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor and amphiregulin was performed in lung sections ex vivo. An established in-house assay was used to test whether IL-33 was able to induce microvessel formation by human vascular endothelial cells. Results showed that serial intranasal challenge of mice with IL-33 or OVA resulted in proliferation of peribronchial von Willebrand factor-positive blood vessels to a degree closely related to the total expression of the angiogenic factors amphiregulin, angiogenin, endothelin-1, epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. IL-33 also induced microvessel formation by human endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent fashion in vitro. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that IL-33 has the capacity to induce angiogenesis at least partly by increasing local expression of multiple angiogenic factors in an allergen-independent murine asthma surrogate, and consequently that IL-33 or its receptor is a potential novel molecular target for asthma therapy.

  6. Evaluating the Evidence for the General Factor of Personality across Multiple Inventories

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Wright, Aidan G.C.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    A general factor of personality (GFP) has been proposed as the apex of a personality trait hierarchy that explains covariance among the lower-order factors measured by various personality inventories. In this study we evaluated the GFP hypothesis across several personality inventories, unlike most previous research in which the GFP has been derived from individual instruments in isolation. Exploratory analyses did not produce substantial evidence for the existence of a single cross-instrument higher-order factor of factors and efforts to specify a range of GFP-inspired models in a confirmatory framework led to significant estimation difficulties and poor fit to the data. Overall these results fail to support a common GFP that is positioned at the top of a personality trait hierarchy. PMID:22879686

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in neuroimmunology: lessons learned from multiple sclerosis patients and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis models.

    PubMed

    Lühder, Fred; Gold, Ralf; Flügel, Alexander; Linker, Ralf A

    2013-04-01

    The concept of neuroprotective autoimmunity implies that immune cells, especially autoantigen-specific T cells, infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) after injury and contribute to neuroregeneration and repair by secreting soluble factors. Amongst others, neurotrophic factors and neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) are considered to play an important role in this process. New data raise the possibility that this concept could also be extended to neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) where autoantigen-specific T cells infiltrate the CNS, causing axonal/neuronal damage on the one hand, but also providing neuroprotective support on the other hand. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on BDNF levels analyzed in MS patients in different compartments and its correlation with clinical parameters. Furthermore, new approaches in experimental animal models are discussed that attempt to decipher the functional relevance of BDNF in autoimmune demyelination.

  8. Callous-unemotional traits and social information processing: multiple risk-factor models for understanding aggressive behavior in antisocial youth.

    PubMed

    Stickle, Timothy R; Kirkpatrick, Neil M; Brush, Lauren N

    2009-12-01

    This study examined multiple risk factor models of links among callous-unemotional traits, aggression beliefs, social information processing, impulsivity, and aggressive behavior in a sample of 150 antisocial adolescents. Consistent with past research, results indicated that beliefs legitimizing aggression predicted social information processing biases and that social information processing biases mediated the effect of beliefs on aggressive behavior. Callous-unemotional traits accounted for unique variance in aggression above and beyond effects of more established risk factors of early onset of antisocial behavior, social information processing, and impulsivity. These findings add to recent research showing that callous-unemotional traits are a unique risk factor associated with aggression and criminal offending and suggest that targeting both affective and cognitive vulnerabilities may enhance clinical intervention with antisocial youth.

  9. [Effects of multiple environmental factors on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils].

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Hui; Shan, Zheng-Jun; Shi, Li-Li; Guo, Min; Xu, Jing; Kong, De-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Triflulsulfuron-methyl, a widely used sulfonylurea herbicide, has done harm to the soil and crop. Its environment fate was affected by many factors such as physicochemical or biological factors. In order to understand the effects of different environmental factors on the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil, simulated indoor incubation experiments were carried out to explore the effects of soil microbe, soil type, dissolved organic matter (DOM), temperature, and soil moisture on triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in soils. The results showed that different environmental factors such as temperature, soil moisture, soil microorganisms and soil type influenced triflulsulfuron-methyl degradation in different degrees. The increased soil microbial biomass, soil organic matters and DOM were beneficial to the soil degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl, meanwhile, the decrease in soil pH could accelerate its degradation in soils. The results showed that soil microorganisms were the main factor effecting the degradation of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soil. Our results provided initial data for the conclusion that a set of biological and physiochemical factors coordinately regulate the decay of triflulsulfuron-methyl in soils.

  10. Spatially varying relationships between land-cover change and driving factors at multiple sampling scales.

    PubMed

    Du, Shihong; Wang, Qiao; Guo, Luo

    2014-05-01

    Modeling the relationships between environment, human activity, and natural conditions is very important for understanding human-environment interactions. This study aims at examining how these relationships vary over spatial sampling scales and investigating the spatially varying relationships between land-cover changes and driving factors, as well as the variations in the relationships at different sampling scales in the Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Qinghai Province, P.R. China. Regular sampling methods are used first to generate eight sets of data points at different scales, and then the values for land-cover changes and the factors are extracted for these data points. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) model is applied to analyze the relationships between land-cover changes and the factors at different sampling scales. The results indicate that the influences of the factors (e.g. the signs, significances, and values of coefficients) change greatly over different sampling scales; similarly, for different types of land-cover changes, the contributions of the factors also vary. Generally, roads, rivers, and lakes contribute greatly to land-cover changes, while villages, temples, and elevations contribute less. A possible reason is that the densities of roads, rivers, and lakes is much greater than those of villages and temples, and the populations in temples and villages are too small to have much effect on land-cover changes. The results demonstrate that the sampling scales have an important influence on the relationships between land-cover change and the factors.

  11. Systems analysis of multiple regulator perturbations allows discovery of virulence factors in Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyunjin; Ansong, Charles; McDermott, Jason E.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Smith, Richard D.; Heffron, Fred; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2011-06-28

    Background: Systemic bacterial infections are highly regulated and complex processes that are orchestrated by numerous virulence factors. Genes that are coordinately controlled by the set of regulators required for systemic infection are potentially required for pathogenicity. Results: In this study we present a systems biology approach in which sample-matched multi-omic measurements of fourteen virulence-essential regulator mutants were coupled with computational network analysis to efficiently identify Salmonella virulence factors. Immunoblot experiments verified network-predicted virulence factors and a subset was determined to be secreted into the host cytoplasm, suggesting that they are virulence factors directly interacting with host cellular components. Two of these, SrfN and PagK2, were required for full mouse virulence and were shown to be translocated independent of either of the type III secretion systems in Salmonella or the type III injectisome-related flagellar mechanism. Conclusions: Integrating multi-omic datasets from Salmonella mutants lacking virulence regulators not only identified novel virulence factors but also defined a new class of translocated effectors involved in pathogenesis. The success of this strategy at discovery of known and novel virulence factors suggests that the approach may have applicability for other bacterial pathogens.

  12. Action of multiple intra-QTL genes concerted around a co-localized transcription factor underpins a large effect QTL

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Shalabh; Kumar Biswal, Akshaya; Min, Aye; Henry, Amelia; Oane, Rowena H.; Raorane, Manish L.; Longkumer, Toshisangba; Pabuayon, Isaiah M.; Mutte, Sumanth K.; Vardarajan, Adithi R.; Miro, Berta; Govindan, Ganesan; Albano-Enriquez, Blesilda; Pueffeld, Mandy; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Slamet-Loedin, Inez; Sundarvelpandian, Kalaipandian; Tsai, Yuan-Ching; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Hsing, Yue-Ie C.; Kumar, Arvind; Kohli, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Sub-QTLs and multiple intra-QTL genes are hypothesized to underpin large-effect QTLs. Known QTLs over gene families, biosynthetic pathways or certain traits represent functional gene-clusters of genes of the same gene ontology (GO). Gene-clusters containing genes of different GO have not been elaborated, except in silico as coexpressed genes within QTLs. Here we demonstrate the requirement of multiple intra-QTL genes for the full impact of QTL qDTY12.1 on rice yield under drought. Multiple evidences are presented for the need of the transcription factor ‘no apical meristem’ (OsNAM12.1) and its co-localized target genes of separate GO categories for qDTY12.1 function, raising a regulon-like model of genetic architecture. The molecular underpinnings of qDTY12.1 support its effectiveness in further improving a drought tolerant genotype and for its validity in multiple genotypes/ecosystems/environments. Resolving the combinatorial value of OsNAM12.1 with individual intra-QTL genes notwithstanding, identification and analyses of qDTY12.1has fast-tracked rice improvement towards food security. PMID:26507552

  13. Multiple muscle wasting-related transcription factors are acetylated in dexamethasone-treated muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Wei; Gonnella, Patricia; Alamdari, Nima; Aversa, Zaira; Hasselgren, Per-Olof

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the expression and activity of the histone acetyltransferase p300 are upregulated in catabolic muscle allowing for acetylation of cellular proteins. The function of transcription factors is influenced by posttranslational modifications, including acetylation. It is not known if transcription factors involved in the regulation of muscle mass are acetylated in atrophying muscle. We determined cellular levels of acetylated C/EBPβ, C/EBPδ, FOXO1, FOXO3a, and NF-kB/p65 in dexamethasone-treated L6 muscle cells, a commonly used in vitro model of muscle wasting. The role of p300 in dexamethasone-induced transcription factor acetylation and myotube atrophy was examined by transfecting muscle cells with p300 siRNA. Treatment of L6 myotubes with dexamethasone resulted in increased cellular levels of acetylated C/EBPβ and δ, FOXO1 and 3a, and p65. Downregulation of p300 with p300 siRNA reduced acetylation of transcription factors and decreased dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy and expression of the ubiquitin ligase MuRF1. The results suggest that several muscle wasting-related transcription factors are acetylated supporting the concept that posttranslational modifications of proteins regulating gene transcription may be involved in the loss of muscle mass. The results also suggest that acetylation of the transcription factors is at least in part regulated by p300 and plays a role in glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. Targeting molecules that regulate acetylation of transcription factors may help reduce the impact of muscle wasting.

  14. Level of education and multiple sclerosis risk after adjustment for known risk factors: The EnvIMS study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørnevik, Kjetil; Riise, Trond; Cortese, Marianna; Holmøy, Trygve; Kampman, Margitta T; Magalhaes, Sandra; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Wolfson, Christina; Pugliatti, Maura

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several recent studies have found a higher risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) among people with a low level of education. This has been suggested to reflect an effect of smoking and lower vitamin D status in the social class associated with lower levels of education. Objective: The objective of this paper is to investigate the association between level of education and MS risk adjusting for the known risk factors smoking, infectious mononucleosis, indicators of vitamin D levels and body size. Methods: Within the case-control study on Environmental Factors In MS (EnvIMS), 953 MS patients and 1717 healthy controls from Norway reported educational level and history of exposure to putative environmental risk factors. Results: Higher level of education were associated with decreased MS risk (p trend = 0.001) with an OR of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41–0.68) when comparing those with the highest and lowest level of education. This association was only moderately reduced after adjusting for known risk factors (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.44–0.83). The estimates remained similar when cases with disease onset before age 28 were excluded. Conclusion: These findings suggest that factors related to lower socioeconomic status other than established risk factors are associated with MS risk. PMID:26014605

  15. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor: Multiple Anticoagulant Activities for a Single Protein.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is an anticoagulant protein that inhibits early phases of the procoagulant response. Alternatively spliced isoforms of TFPI are differentially expressed by endothelial cells and human platelets and plasma. The TFPIβ isoform localizes to the endothelium surface where it is a potent inhibitor of TF-factor VIIa complexes that initiate blood coagulation. The TFPIα isoform is present in platelets. TFPIα contains a stretch of 9 amino acids nearly identical to those found in the B-domain of factor V that are well conserved in mammals. These amino acids provide exosite binding to activated factor V, which allows for TFPIα to inhibit prothrombinase during the initiation phase of blood coagulation. Endogenous inhibition at this point in the coagulation cascade was only recently recognized and has provided a biochemical rationale to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying several clinical disorders. These include the east Texas bleeding disorder that is caused by production of an altered form of factor V with high affinity for TFPI and a paradoxical procoagulant effect of heparins. In addition, these findings have led to ideas for pharmacological targeting of TFPI that may reduce bleeding in hemophilia patients.

  16. The first three domains of the insulin receptor differ structurally from the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in the regions governing ligand specificity

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Meizhen; Garrett, Thomas P. J.; McKern, Neil M.; Hoyne, Peter A.; Epa, V. Chandana; Bentley, John D.; Lovrecz, George O.; Cosgrove, Leah J.; Frenkel, Maurice J.; Ward, Colin W.

    2006-01-01

    The insulin receptor (IR) and the type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) are homologous multidomain proteins that bind insulin and IGF with differing specificity. Here we report the crystal structure of the first three domains (L1–CR–L2) of human IR at 2.3 Å resolution and compare it with the previously determined structure of the corresponding fragment of IGF1R. The most important differences seen between the two receptors are in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The first is at the corner of the ligand-binding surface of the L1 domain, where the side chain of F39 in IR forms part of the ligand binding surface involving the second (central) β-sheet. This is very different to the location of its counterpart in IGF1R, S35, which is not involved in ligand binding. The second major difference is in the sixth module of the CR domain, where IR contains a larger loop that protrudes further into the ligand-binding pocket. This module, which governs IGF1-binding specificity, shows negligible sequence identity, significantly more α-helix, an additional disulfide bond, and opposite electrostatic potential compared to that of the IGF1R. PMID:16894147

  17. The first three domains of the insulin receptor differ structurally from the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor in the regions governing ligand specificity.

    PubMed

    Lou, Meizhen; Garrett, Thomas P J; McKern, Neil M; Hoyne, Peter A; Epa, V Chandana; Bentley, John D; Lovrecz, George O; Cosgrove, Leah J; Frenkel, Maurice J; Ward, Colin W

    2006-08-15

    The insulin receptor (IR) and the type-1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) are homologous multidomain proteins that bind insulin and IGF with differing specificity. Here we report the crystal structure of the first three domains (L1-CR-L2) of human IR at 2.3 A resolution and compare it with the previously determined structure of the corresponding fragment of IGF1R. The most important differences seen between the two receptors are in the two regions governing ligand specificity. The first is at the corner of the ligand-binding surface of the L1 domain, where the side chain of F39 in IR forms part of the ligand binding surface involving the second (central) beta-sheet. This is very different to the location of its counterpart in IGF1R, S35, which is not involved in ligand binding. The second major difference is in the sixth module of the CR domain, where IR contains a larger loop that protrudes further into the ligand-binding pocket. This module, which governs IGF1-binding specificity, shows negligible sequence identity, significantly more alpha-helix, an additional disulfide bond, and opposite electrostatic potential compared to that of the IGF1R.

  18. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features.

  19. Spatially controlled simultaneous patterning of multiple growth factors in three-dimensional hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylie, Ryan G.; Ahsan, Shoeb; Aizawa, Yukie; Maxwell, Karen L.; Morshead, Cindi M.; Shoichet, Molly S.

    2011-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) protein-patterned scaffolds provide a more biomimetic environment for cell culture than traditional two-dimensional surfaces, but simultaneous 3D protein patterning has proved difficult. We developed a method to spatially control the immobilization of different growth factors in distinct volumes in 3D hydrogels, and to specifically guide differentiation of stem/progenitor cells therein. Stem-cell differentiation factors sonic hedgehog (SHH) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) were simultaneously immobilized using orthogonal physical binding pairs, barnase-barstar and streptavidin-biotin, respectively. Barnase and streptavidin were sequentially immobilized using two-photon chemistry for subsequent concurrent complexation with fusion proteins barstar-SHH and biotin-CNTF, resulting in bioactive 3D patterned hydrogels. The technique should be broadly applicable to the patterning of a wide range of proteins.

  20. A dynamic factor modeling framework for analyzing multiple groundwater head series simultaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berendrecht, W. L.; van Geer, F. C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present an approach in which we combine a dynamic factor model (DFM) and predefined response functions to analyze a set of groundwater head series simultaneously. Each groundwater head series is decomposed into: (a) one or more deterministic components as a response to known driving forces, (b) one or more common dynamic factors, representing spatial patterns not related to any of the input series and (c) one specific dynamic factor for each groundwater head series, describing unique variation for that series. The approach reduces the degrees of freedom for each response function, enables the application to irregular observed data, and exploits the correlation between residual series of a set of groundwater head series. The common dynamic factors may be interpreted as spatial patterns due to e.g. limitations in the model specification or concept, spatially correlated errors in input variables, or driving forces which have not been included in the model. In the latter case the model can be applied in the context of an alarming system, e.g. to monitor regional trends. The specific dynamic factor depicts the variation of a particular groundwater head series that cannot be related to any other time series of the set nor to any input series. Therefore the specific dynamic factor is suitable for analyzing local variations and detecting incidental measurement errors, for example in a quality control procedure. The DFM framework is illustrated with a set of 8 groundwater head series and applied for filling gaps in time series, reconstructing high-frequency data, and detecting outliers.

  1. Land use as an explanatory factor for potential phosphorus loss risk, assessed by P indices and their governing parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bin; Vogt, Rolf D; Lu, Xueqiang; Yang, Xiaoguang; Lü, Changwei; Mohr, Christian W; Zhu, Liang

    2015-08-01

    The total level of phosphorus (P) and the distribution of P pools in the topsoil are significantly affected by the excessive application of mineral and organic fertilizers connected with intensive agriculture. This leads to an increased potential risk for P loss, and then contributes to freshwater eutrophication. Soil test P (STP), P sorption index (PSI) and degree of P saturation (DPS) are commonly applied as proxies for assessing the risk of P loss. Although conceptually based, the empirical relationships between these operationally defined proxies and the actual P flux exhibit large spatial variations. Herein, a comprehensive synoptic study and monitoring of soil has been conducted in a watershed in north-eastern China. A set of conventional indicators for soil P loss risk were measured along with the main P pools, P sorption indices, texture, organic matter, as well as Fe and Al oxides and other mineral compositions. Moreover, detailed soil P speciation was conducted using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, phosphatase activities in the soils were determined for each land use soil category. The results reflected that the soil content of total P, total inorganic P and STP increased significantly following the order of increasing management intensity. STP, being strongly coupled to the application of P fertilizers, was a strong explanatory factor for the spatial differences in DPS - both between and within different land uses. The dominant inorganic and organic P species in the soils were orthophosphate and monoester-P, respectively. Their contents were oppositely correlated with the degree of management influence, with the amount of orthophosphate positively related. Alkaline phosphomonoesterase (AlP) represented the highest activities among the four representative phosphatases, i.e. enzymes that hydrolyze organic P - releasing labile orthophosphate. Orchard soils were found to contain the highest levels of monoester P

  2. Adipocytes secreted leptin is a pro-tumor factor for survival of multiple myeloma under chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiu-bai; Mei, Hui-ling; Hu, Yu; Guo, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have shown that adipokines secreted from adipocytes contributes to tumor development, especially leptin. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to explore the effect of leptin on development and chemoresistance in multiple myeloma cells and the potential mechanism. Analysis of levels of adipokines including leptin and adiponectin in 28 multiple myeloma patients identified significantly higher leptin compared with 28 normal controls(P < 0.05), and leptin level was positively correlated with clinical stage, IgG, ER, and ß2MG. Next, by using co-culture system of myeloma and adipocytes, and pharmacologic enhancement of leptin, we found that increased growth of myeloma cells and reduced toxicity of bortezomib were best observed at 50 ng/ml of leptin, along with increased expression of cyclinD1, Bcl-2 and decreased caspase-3 expression. We also found that phosphorylated AKT and STAT3 but not the proteins expression reached peak after 1h and 6h treatment of leptin, respectively. By using AG490, an agent blocking the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, the proliferation of myeloma cells was inhibited, as well as the phosphorylation of AKT and STAT3, even adding leptin. Taken together, our study demonstrated that up-regulated leptin could stimulate proliferation of myeloma and reduce the anti-tumor effect of chemotherapy possibly via activating AKT and STAT3 pathways, and leptin might be one of the potential therapeutic targets for treating myeloma. PMID:27863383

  3. Optimization of thermochemical, kinetic, and electrochemical factors governing partitioning of radionuclides during melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Avyle, J.A. van den

    1998-06-01

    'Melt decontamination of radioactive scrap metal could convert a disposal liability into a final product that would reduce the total volume of material necessary for burial and save substantial material costs. The goal of this project is to optimize a melt decontamination process through a basic understanding of the factors which govern the partitioning of various radionuclides between metal, slag, and gas phases. Radionuclides which are captured by a slag phase may be stabilized by promoting the formation of synthetic minerals within a leach resistant matrix. The main focus of this project is the application of electroslag remelting (ESR) toward cleanup of surface contaminated stainless steels. This report summarizes work accomplished after 9-months of a 3-year project. Activities are ongoing at Sandia National Laboratories and at Boston University.'

  4. Factors Affecting University Entrants' Performance in High-Stakes Tests: A Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uy, Chin; Manalo, Ronaldo A.; Cabauatan, Ronaldo R.

    2015-01-01

    In the Philippines, students seeking admission to a university are usually required to meet certain entrance requirements, including passing the entrance examinations with questions on IQ and English, mathematics, and science. This paper aims to determine the factors that affect the performance of entrants into business programmes in high-stakes…

  5. Factors Influencing New York Doctoral Graduate Student Satisfaction: A Quantitative Multiple Regression Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwenyi, Sabina E.

    2013-01-01

    Higher education administrators face challenges in providing a welcoming environment for doctoral students in higher education institutions. Administrators need to identify factors influencing satisfaction of this group of students to provide a supportive environment, reduce attrition rates, and promote persistence. The purpose of this…

  6. Managing Multiple Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease Through Anger/Hostility Control and Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    of death in men and women. Cardiovascular disease , including CHD, kills nearly 500,000 American women each year and black women generally have a...and 30% of women reported having two or more of the following risk factors for cardiovascular disease : hypertension, high blood cholesterol, diabetes

  7. Factor Structure of the Revised TOEIC[R] Test: A Multiple-Sample Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In'nami, Yo; Koizumi, Rie

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the listening and reading sections of the revised Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC[R]) test. The data from the TOEIC IP (institutional program) test taken by 569 English learners were randomly split into two samples (n = 285 vs. 284). Four models (higher-order, correlated,…

  8. Multivariate meta-analysis of prognostic factor studies with multiple cut-points and/or methods of measurement.

    PubMed

    Riley, Richard D; Elia, Eleni G; Malin, Gemma; Hemming, Karla; Price, Malcolm P

    2015-07-30

    A prognostic factor is any measure that is associated with the risk of future health outcomes in those with existing disease. Often, the prognostic ability of a factor is evaluated in multiple studies. However, meta-analysis is difficult because primary studies often use different methods of measurement and/or different cut-points to dichotomise continuous factors into 'high' and 'low' groups; selective reporting is also common. We illustrate how multivariate random effects meta-analysis models can accommodate multiple prognostic effect estimates from the same study, relating to multiple cut-points and/or methods of measurement. The models account for within-study and between-study correlations, which utilises more information and reduces the impact of unreported cut-points and/or measurement methods in some studies. The applicability of the approach is improved with individual participant data and by assuming a functional relationship between prognostic effect and cut-point to reduce the number of unknown parameters. The models provide important inferential results for each cut-point and method of measurement, including the summary prognostic effect, the between-study variance and a 95% prediction interval for the prognostic effect in new populations. Two applications are presented. The first reveals that, in a multivariate meta-analysis using published results, the Apgar score is prognostic of neonatal mortality but effect sizes are smaller at most cut-points than previously thought. In the second, a multivariate meta-analysis of two methods of measurement provides weak evidence that microvessel density is prognostic of mortality in lung cancer, even when individual participant data are available so that a continuous prognostic trend is examined (rather than cut-points).

  9. The Master Transcription Factor mtfA Governs Aflatoxin Production, Morphological Development and Pathogenicity in the Fungus Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Zhenhong; Lohmar, Jessica M.; Satterlee, Timothy; Cary, Jeffrey W.; Calvo, Ana M.

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus produces a variety of toxic secondary metabolites; among them, the aflatoxins (AFs) are the most well known. These compounds are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic, particularly AFB1. A. flavus is capable of colonizing a number of economically-important crops, such as corn, cotton, peanut and tree nuts, and contaminating them with AFs. Molecular genetic studies in A. flavus could identify novel gene targets for use in strategies to reduce AF contamination and its adverse impact on food and feed supplies worldwide. In the current study, we investigated the role of the master transcription factor gene mtfA in A. flavus. Our results revealed that forced overexpression of mtfA results in a drastic decrease or elimination of several secondary metabolites, among them AFB1. The reduction in AFB1 was accompanied by a decrease in aflR expression. Furthermore, mtfA also regulates development; conidiation was influenced differently by this gene depending on the type of colonized substrate. In addition to its effect on conidiation, mtfA is necessary for the normal maturation of sclerotia. Importantly, mtfA positively affects the pathogenicity of A. flavus when colonizing peanut seeds. AF production in colonized seeds was decreased in the deletion mtfA strain and particularly in the overexpression strain, where only trace amounts were detected. Interestingly, a more rapid colonization of the seed tissue occurred when mtfA was overexpressed, coinciding with an increase in lipase activity and faster maceration of the oily part of the seed. PMID:26805883

  10. Distributed Factorization Computation on Multiple Volunteered Mobile Resource to Break RSA Key

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Zamzami, E. M.; Sihombing, P.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to common asymmeric encryption, RSA can be cracked by usmg a series mathematical calculation. The private key used to decrypt the massage can be computed using the public key. However, finding the private key may require a massive amount of calculation. In this paper, we propose a method to perform a distributed computing to calculate RSA’s private key. The proposed method uses multiple volunteered mobile devices to contribute during the calculation process. Our objective is to demonstrate how the use of volunteered computing on mobile devices may be a feasible option to reduce the time required to break a weak RSA encryption and observe the behavior and running time of the application on mobile devices.

  11. Geophysical Factor Resolving of Rainfall Mechanism for Super Typhoons by Using Multiple Spatiotemporal Components Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsu, Nien-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    This study develops a novel methodology to resolve the geophysical cause of typhoon-induced rainfall considering diverse dynamic co-evolution at multiple spatiotemporal components. The multi-order hidden patterns of complex hydrological process in chaos are detected to understand the fundamental laws of rainfall mechanism. The discovered spatiotemporal features are utilized to develop a state-of-the-art descriptive statistical model for mechanism validation, modeling and further prediction during typhoons. The time series of hourly typhoon precipitation from different types of moving track, atmospheric field and landforms are respectively precede the signal analytical process to qualify each type of rainfall cause and to quantify the corresponding affected degree based on the measured geophysical atmospheric-hydrological variables. This study applies the developed methodology in Taiwan Island which is constituted by complex diverse landform formation. The identified driving-causes include: (1) cloud height to ground surface; (2) co-movement effect induced by typhoon wind field with monsoon; (3) stem capacity; (4) interaction between typhoon rain band and terrain; (5) structural intensity variance of typhoon; and (6) integrated cloudy density of rain band. Results show that: (1) for the central maximum wind speed exceeding 51 m/sec, Causes (1) and (3) are the primary ones to generate rainfall; (2) for the typhoon moving toward the direction of 155° to 175°, Cause (2) is the primary one; (3) for the direction of 90° to 155°, Cause (4) is the primary one; (4) for the typhoon passing through mountain chain which above 3500 m, Cause (5) is the primary one; and (5) for the moving speed lower than 18 km/hr, Cause (6) is the primary one. Besides, the multiple geophysical component-based precipitation modeling can achieve 81% of average accuracy and 0.732 of average correlation coefficient (CC) within average 46 hours of duration, that improve their predictability.

  12. Brefeldin A-Inhibited Guanine Nucleotide-Exchange Factor 1 (BIG1) Governs the Recruitment of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2) to Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1) Signaling Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takuya; Tsuchida, Mei; Kogue, Yosuke; Spadini, Christian; Hirata, Yusuke; Matsuzawa, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a critical mediator of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TRAF2 are not fully understood. Here we show evidence that TRAF2 requires brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (BIG1) to be recruited into TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling complexes. In BIG1 knockdown cells, TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was attenuated and the sensitivity to TNF-α-induced apoptosis was increased. Since these trends correlated well with those of TRAF2 deficient cells as previously demonstrated, we tested whether BIG1 functions as an upstream regulator of TRAF2 in TNFR1 signaling. As expected, we found that knockdown of BIG1 suppressed TNF-α-dependent ubiquitination of TRAF2 that is required for JNK activation, and impaired the recruitment of TRAF2 to the TNFR1 signaling complex (complex I). Moreover, we found that the recruitment of TRAF2 to the death-inducing signaling complex termed complex II was also impaired in BIG1 knockdown cells. These results suggest that BIG1 is a key component of the machinery that drives TRAF2 to the signaling complexes formed after TNFR1 activation. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel and unexpected function of BIG1 that regulates TNFR1 signaling by targeting TRAF2. PMID:27834853

  13. Understanding Horizontal Governance. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal governance is an umbrella term that covers a range of approaches to policy development, service delivery issues, and management practices. A horizontal initiative may take place across levels of government, across boundaries between units of a single department or agency or among multiple departments or agencies, or across public,…

  14. Multiple Factor Analysis and k-Means Clustering-Based Classification of the DOE Groundwater Contaminant Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Hazen, T. C.

    2009-12-01

    A proper classification of the plume characteristics is critical for selecting the most suitable characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. To perform a statistical analysis of the different groundwater plume characteristics, we used the DOE Groundwater Database, including 221 groundwater plumes located at 60 DOE sites. To classify the plume characteristics, we used a multiple factor analysis (MFA), including a principal component analysis (PCA) of quantitative plume characteristics and a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) of qualitative plume characteristics. The input parameters used for the statistical analysis are: the presence of eight types of contaminant groups—chlorinated hydrocarbons, fuels, explosives, sulfates, nitrates, metals, tritium, and radioisotopes; a number and associations of contaminant groups; a contamination severity index (based on the association of contaminant groups and complexity of remediation); contaminant mass and plume volumes; groundwater depth and velocities; and climatic conditions. The input variables are also partitioned into the active and supplementary plume characteristics. Statistical results include the evaluation of the correlation matrix between the groups of variables and individual plume characteristics. From the results of the MFA, the first four factors can be used to describe the variability of the basic plume characteristics. The contaminant severity index and the number of contaminant groups provide a major contribution to the 1st factor; the types of contaminant groups and carbon tetrachloride concentrations provide the major contribution to the 2nd factor. The contribution of the supplementary data (climate and plume depth and velocity) is insignificant. The presence of radioactive contaminants is mostly related to the 1st factor; the presence of sulfates, and to a lesser degree the presence of nitrates and metals, is related to the 2nd factor. The strongest relationship is, as expected

  15. Unsupervised Learning from Multiple Information Sources Based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-20

    Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Information fusion, image, text , non-negative matrix factorization REPORT DOCUMENTATION...Honggang Zhang, Lei Li, Jun Guo. Exploring Interaction Between Images and Texts for Web Image Categorization, The 24th Florida Artificial Intelligence...popularly used in text analysis. These results established the theoretical foundation for NMF to solve unsupervised learning problems. The

  16. Multiple requirements for SHPTP2 in epidermal growth factor-mediated cell cycle progression.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, A M; Hausdorff, S F; O'Reilly, A M; Freeman, R M; Neel, B G

    1996-01-01

    Using transient overexpression and microinjection approaches, we examined SHPTP2's function in growth factor signaling. Overexpression of catalytically inactive SHPTP2 (PTP2CS) but not catalytically inactive SHPTP1, inhibited mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation and Elk-1 transactivation following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of 293 cells. An SHPTP2 mutant with both C-terminal tyrosyl phosphorylation sites converted to phenylalanine (PTP2YF) was also without effect; moreover, PTP2YF rescued PTP2CS-induced inhibition of EGF-induced Elk-1 transactivation. PTP2CS did not inhibit transactivation by activated Ras, suggesting that SHPTP2 acts upstream of or parallel to Ras. Neither PTP2CS nor PTP2YF inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced Elk-1 transactivation. Thus, protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity, but not tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHPTP2, is required for the immediate-early responses to EGF but not to PDGF. To determine whether SHPTP2 is required later in the cell cycle, we assessed S-phase entry in NIH 3T3 cells microinjected with anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or with a glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion protein encoding both SH2 domains (GST-SH2). Microinjection of anti-SHPTP2 antibodies prior to stimulation inhibited EGF- but no PDGF- or serum-induced S-phase entry. Anti-SHPTP2 antibodies or GST-SH2 fusion protein could inhibit EGF-induced S-phase entry for up to 8 h after EGF addition. Although MAP kinase activation was detected shortly after EGF stimulation, no MAP kinase activation was detected around the restriction point. Therefore, SHPTP2 is absolutely required for immediate-early and late events induced by some, but not all, growth factors, and the immediate-early and late signal transduction pathways regulated by SHPTP2 are distinguishable. PMID:8622663

  17. The Impact of Hope and Resilience on Multiple Factors in Neurosurgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Devika; Sacks-Zimmerman, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to outline and review the impact of stable psychological characteristics on the emotional and functional outcomes of neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical patients face adversity as inherent to their diagnoses and, consequently, experience emotional distress. Despite commonalities in diagnoses, diverse outcomes are seen post-neurosurgery, which are influenced by psychological factors. Therefore, an understanding of neurosurgical patients’ behavior, thoughts, and feelings surrounding their diagnoses, informed by psychological concepts, is important for both neuropsychology and neurosurgery. PMID:27909637

  18. Multiple Growth Factors, But Not VEGF, Stimulate Glycosaminoglycan Hyperelongation in Retinal Choroidal Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al Gwairi, Othman; Osman, Narin; Getachew, Robel; Zheng, Wenhua; Liang, X-L.; Kamato, Danielle; Thach, Lyna; Little, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    A major feature of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the thickening of Bruch's membrane in the retina and an alteration in its composition with increased lipid deposition. In certain pathological conditions proteoglycans are responsible for lipid retention in tissues. Growth factors are known to increase the length of glycosaminoglycan chains and this can lead to a large increase in the interaction between proteoglycans and lipids. Using choroidal endothelial cells, we investigated the effects of a number of AMD relevant growth factors TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF, IGF and VEGF on proteoglycan synthesis. Cells were characterized as of endothelial origin using the specific cell markers endothelial nitric oxide synthesis and von Willebrand factor and imaged using confocal microscopy. Cells were treated with growth factors in the presence and absence of the appropriate inhibitors and were radiolabeled with [35S]-SO4. Proteoglycans were isolated by ion exchange chromatography and sized using SDS-PAGE. Radiosulfate incorporation was determined by the cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) precipitation technique. To measure cellular glycosaminoglycan synthesizing capacity we added xyloside and assessed the xyloside-GAGs by SDS-PAGE. TGFβ, thrombin, PDGF & IGF dose-dependently stimulated radiosulfate incorporation and GAG elongation as well as xyloside-GAG synthesis, however VEGF treatment did not stimulate any changes in proteoglycan synthesis. VEGF did not increase pAKT but caused a large increase in pERK relative to the response to PDGF. Thus, AMD relevant agonists cause glycosaminoglycan hyperelongation of proteoglycans synthesised and secreted by retinal choroidal endothelial cells. The absence of a response to VEGF is intriguing and identifies proteoglycans as a novel potential target in AMD. Future studies will examine the relevance of these changes to enhanced lipid binding and the development of AMD. PMID:27570478

  19. Mathematical evaluation of the influence of multiple factors on implant stability quotient values in clinical practice: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hairong; Wismeijer, Daniel; Shao, Xianhong; Wu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to mathematically evaluate the influence of multiple factors on implant stability quotient values in clinical practice. Patients and methods Resonance frequency analysis was performed at T1 (measured immediately at the time of implant placement) and at T2 (measured before dental restoration) in 177 patients (329 implants). Using a multivariate linear regression model, we analyzed the influence of the following eleven candidate factors: sex, age, maxillary/mandibular location, bone type, immediate/delayed implantation, bone grafting (presence or absence), insertion torque, I-/II-stage healing pattern, implant diameter, implant length, and T1–T2 time interval. Results The following factors were identified to significantly influence the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at T1: insertion torque, bone grafting, I-/II-stage healing pattern, immediate/delayed implantation, maxillary/mandibular location, implant diameter, and sex. In contrast, the ISQ values at T2 were significantly influenced only by three factors: implant diameter, T1–T2 time interval, and insertion torque. Conclusion Among the eleven candidate factors, seven key factors were found to influence the T1-ISQ values, while only three key factors influenced the T2-ISQ values. Both T1 and T2-ISQ values were found to be influenced by implant diameter and insertion torque. T1 was influenced specifically by the sex of the patient, the location (maxillary or mandibular), the implantation mode (immediate/delayed implantation), the healing stage, and the absence or presence of bone graft materials. PMID:27785040

  20. Multiple, but not traditional risk factors predict mortality in older people: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Naganathan, Vasi; Blyth, Fiona; Le Couteur, David G; Gnjidic, Danijela; Stanaway, Fiona F; Seibel, Markus J; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Cumming, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify the common risk factors for mortality in community-dwelling older men. A prospective population-based study was conducted with a median of 6.7 years of follow-up. Participants included 1705 men aged ≥70 years at baseline (2005-2007) living in the community in Sydney, Australia. Demographic information, lifestyle factors, health status, self-reported history of diseases, physical performance measures, blood pressure, height and weight, disability (activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADLs, instrumental ADLs (IADLs)), cognitive status, depressive symptoms and blood analyte measures were considered. Cox regression analyses were conducted to model predictors delete time until of mortality. During follow-up, 461 men (27 %) died. Using Cox proportional hazards model, significant predictors of delete time to time to mortality included in the final model (p < 0.05) were older age, body mass index < 20 kg m(2), high white cell count, anaemia, low albumin, current smoking, history of cancer, history of myocardial infarction, history of congestive heart failure, depressive symptoms and ADL and IADL disability and impaired chair stands. We found that overweight and obesity and/or being a lifelong non-drinker of alcohol were protective against mortality. Compared to men with less than or equal to one risk factor, the hazard ratio in men with three risk factors was 2.5; with four risk factors, it was 4.0; with five risk factors, it was 4.9; and for six or more risk factors, it was 11.4, respectively. We have identified common risk factors that predict mortality that may be useful in making clinical decisions among older people living in the community. Our findings suggest that, in primary care, screening and management of multiple risk factors are important to consider for extending survival, rather than simply considering individual risk factors in isolation. Some of the "traditional" risk factors for mortality in a

  1. TCR-based therapy for multiple myeloma and other B-cell malignancies targeting intracellular transcription factor BOB1.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Lorenz; Hombrink, Pleun; Hagedoorn, Renate S; Kester, Michel G D; van der Steen, Dirk M; Rodriguez, Tania; Pentcheva-Hoang, Tsvetelina; de Ru, Arnoud H; Schoonakker, Marjolein P; Meeuwsen, Miranda H; Griffioen, Marieke; van Veelen, Peter A; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Heemskerk, Mirjam H M

    2017-03-09

    Immunotherapy for hematological malignancies or solid tumors by administration of monoclonal antibodies or T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors or T-cell receptors (TCRs) has demonstrated clinical efficacy. However, antigen-loss tumor escape variants and the absence of currently targeted antigens on several malignancies hamper the widespread application of immunotherapy. We have isolated a TCR targeting a peptide of the intracellular B cell-specific transcription factor BOB1 presented in the context of HLA-B*07:02. TCR gene transfer installed BOB1 specificity and reactivity onto recipient T cells. TCR-transduced T cells efficiently lysed primary B-cell leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, and multiple myeloma in vitro. We also observed recognition and lysis of healthy BOB1-expressing B cells. In addition, strong BOB1-specific proliferation could be demonstrated for TCR-modified T cells upon antigen encounter. Furthermore, clear in vivo antitumor reactivity was observed of BOB1-specific TCR-engineered T cells in a xenograft mouse model of established multiple myeloma. Absence of reactivity toward a broad panel of BOB1(-) but HLA-B*07:02(+) nonhematopoietic and hematopoietic cells indicated no off-target toxicity. Therefore, administration of BOB1-specific TCR-engineered T cells may provide novel cellular treatment options to patients with B-cell malignancies, including multiple myeloma.

  2. Determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale dependence of multiplicity in three jet events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, J. William

    2000-06-01

    I examine the determination of the QCD color factor ratio CA/CF from the scale evolution of particle multiplicity in e+e- three jet events. I fit an analytic expression for the multiplicity in three jet events to event samples generated with QCD multihadronic event generators. I demonstrate that a one parameter fit of CA/CF yields the expected result CA/CF=2.25 in the limit of asymptotically large energies if energy conservation is included in the calculation. In contrast, a two parameter fit of CA/CF and a constant offset to the gluon jet multiplicity, proposed in a recent study, does not yield CA/CF=2.25 in this limit. I apply the one parameter fit method to recently published data of the DELPHI experiment at the e+e- collider LEP at CERN and determine the effective value of CA/CF from this technique, at the finite energy of the Z0 boson, to be 1.74+/-0.03+/-0.10, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic.

  3. Heterodynes dominate precipitation isotopes in the East Asian monsoon region, reflecting interaction of multiple climate factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Clemens, Steven C.; Sun, Youbin; Prell, Warren L.; Huang, Yongsong; Gao, Li; Loomis, Shannon; Chen, Guangshan; Liu, Zhengyu

    2016-12-01

    For the past decade, East Asian monsoon history has been interpreted in the context of an exceptionally well-dated, high-resolution composite record of speleothem oxygen isotopes (δ18Ocave) from the Yangtze River Valley. This record is characterized by a unique spectral response, with variance concentrated predominantly within the precession band and an enigmatic lack of variance at the eccentricity and obliquity bands. Here we examine the spectral characteristics of all existing >250-kyr-long terrestrial water isotope records in Asia, including a new water isotope record using leaf wax hydrogen isotope ratios from the Chinese Loess Plateau. There exist profound differences in spectral characteristics among all orbital-scale Asian water isotope records. We demonstrate that these differences result from latitudinal gradients in the influence of the winter and summer monsoons, both of which impact climate and water isotopes throughout East Asia. Water isotope records therefore do not reflect precipitation during a single season or from a single circulation system. Rather, water isotope records in East Asia reflect the complex interplay of oceanic and continental moisture sources, operating at multiple Earth-orbital periods. These non-linear interactions are reflected in water isotope spectra by the presence of heterodynes. Although complex, we submit that water isotope records, when paired with rapidly developing isotope-enabled model simulations, will have the potential to elucidate mechanisms causing seasonal precipitation variability and moisture source variability in East Asia.

  4. Risk factors for MDS and acute leukemia following total therapy 2 and 3 for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Usmani, Saad Z; Sawyer, Jeffrey; Rosenthal, Adam; Cottler-Fox, Michele; Epstein, Joshua; Yaccoby, Shmuel; Sexton, Rachael; Hoering, Antje; Singh, Zeba; Heuck, Christoph J; Waheed, Sarah; Chauhan, Nabeel; Johann, Donald; Abdallah, Al-Ola; Muzaffar, Jameel; Petty, Nathan; Bailey, Clyde; Crowley, John; van Rhee, Frits; Barlogie, Bart

    2013-06-06

    Lenalidomide has been linked to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after autotransplants for myeloma. Total therapy trials (TT; TT2(-/+) thalidomide) and TT3 (TT3a with bortezomib, thalidomide; TT3b with additional lenalidomide) offered the opportunity to examine the contribution of these immune-modulatory agents to MDS-associated cytogenetic abnormalities (MDS-CA) and clinical MDS or acute leukemia ("clinical MDS/AL"). Of 1080 patients with serial cytogenetic studies, MDS-CA occurred in 11% and clinical MDS/AL in 3%. Risk features of MDS-CA included TT3b, age ≥65 years, male gender, levels of β-2-microglobulin >5.5 mg/L, and multiple myeloma relapse. Clinical MDS/AL occurred less frequently in the control arm of TT2 and more often with TT3a and TT3b. Since MDS-CA often antedated clinical disease, periodic cytogenetic monitoring is recommended. Larger CD34 quantities should be collected upfront as the risk of MDS could be reduced by applying higher CD34 doses with transplant. Thus, treatment, host, and myeloma features could be linked to MDS development after therapy for this malignancy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: TT3A: NCT00081939, TT3B: NCT00572169.

  5. Initiation to end point: the multiple roles of fibroblast growth factors in neural development.

    PubMed

    Mason, Ivor

    2007-08-01

    From a wealth of experimental findings, derived from both in vitro and in vivo experiments, it is becoming clear that fibroblast growth factors regulate processes that are central to all aspects of nervous system development. Some of these functions are well known, whereas others, such as the roles of these proteins in axon guidance and synaptogenesis, have been established only recently. The emergent picture is one of remarkable economy, in which this family of ligands is deployed and redeployed at successive developmental stages to sculpt the nervous system.

  6. Heat transfer and friction factor correlations for a solar air heater duct roughened artificially with multiple v-ribs

    SciTech Connect

    Hans, V.S.; Saini, R.P.; Saini, J.S.

    2010-06-15

    The use of artificial roughness on the underside of the absorber plate is an effective and economic way to improve the thermal performance of a solar air heater. Several experimental investigations, involving different types of roughness elements, have been carried out to improve the heat transfer from the absorber plate to air flowing in solar air heaters. This paper presents an experimental investigation carried out to study the effect of multiple v-rib roughness on heat transfer coefficient and friction factor in an artificially roughened solar air heater duct. The experiment encompassed Reynolds number (Re) from 2000 to 20000, relative roughness height (e/D) values of 0.019-0.043, relative roughness pitch (P/e) range of 6-12, angle of attack ({alpha}) range of 30-75 and relative roughness width (W/w) range of 1-10. Extensive experimentation has been conducted to collect data on heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics of a rectangular duct roughened with multiple v-ribs. Using these experimental data, correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor in terms of roughness geometry and flow parameters have been developed. (author)

  7. Environmental factors on the SARS epidemic: air temperature, passage of time and multiplicative effect of hospital infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun; Yee-Tak Fong, Daniel; Zhu, Biliu; Karlberg, Johan

    2006-04-01

    The study sought to identify factors involved in the emergence, prevention and elimination of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Hong Kong during 11 March to 22 May 2003. A structured multiphase regression analysis was used to estimate the potential effects of weather, time and interaction effect of hospital infection. In days with a lower air temperature during the epidemic, the risk of increased daily incidence of SARS was 18.18-fold (95% confidence interval 5.6-58.8) higher than in days with a higher temperature. The total daily new cases might naturally decrease by an average of 2.8 patients for every 10 days during the epidemic. The multiplicative effect of infected hospital staff with patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the proportion of SARS patients in ICUs might respectively increase the risk of a larger SARS epidemic in the community. The provision of protective gear in hospitals was also a very important factor for the prevention of SARS infection. SARS transmission appeared to be dependent on seasonal temperature changes and the multiplicative effect of hospital infection. SARS also appeared to retreat naturally over time.

  8. Atherogenicity and carcinogenicity of high-arsenic artesian well water. Multiple risk factors and related malignant neoplasms of blackfoot disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.J.; Wu, M.M.; Lee, S.S.; Wang, J.D.; Cheng, S.H.; Wu, H.Y.

    1988-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine multiple risk factors and correlated malignant neoplasms of blackfoot disease (BFD), a unique peripheral vascular disease related to continuous exposure to high-arsenic artesian well water. A total of 241 BFD cases, including 169 with spontaneous or surgical amputations of affected extremities, and 759 age-sex-residence-matched healthy community controls were studied to explore the risk factors of BFD. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that artesian well water consumption, arsenic poisoning, familial history of BFD, and undernourishment were significantly associated with the development of BFD. The life-table method used to analyze cancer mortality of 789 BFD patients followed for 15 years showed a significantly higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases, peripheral vascular diseases, and cancers of bladder, skin, lung, and liver among BFD patients as compared with the general population in Taiwan or residents in the BFD-endemic area. The results imply the atherogenicity and carcinogenicity of the artesian well water in the BFD-endemic area.

  9. Multiple factors in the prediction of risk of proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Rand, L I; Krolewski, A S; Aiello, L M; Warram, J H; Baker, R S; Maki, T

    1985-12-05

    To identify risk factors for the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, we compared 111 patients with longstanding insulin-dependent diabetes who had proliferative retinopathy (cases) with 81 patients with diabetes of similar duration (an average of 26 years) who did not have proliferative diabetic retinopathy (controls). The cases had diabetes that was more difficult to manage, as evidenced by their more frequent blood sugar levels above 200 mg per deciliter (11 mmol per liter) on routine clinic visits (odds ratio, 1.6 for each increment of 10 per cent in the relative frequency), and they expended less effort in managing their diabetes, as indicated by their less frequent testing of urine for sugar (odds ratio, 0.3). Among those who did not have myopia, the cases also had an excess of the HLA-DR phenotypes 4/0, 3/0, or X/X (odds ratio, 10.0). Among those with myopia, these phenotypes did not carry an increased risk of proliferative retinopathy. These results support a multifactorial model for the development of proliferative diabetic retinopathy; however, the mechanisms of action of the identified factors remain unknown.

  10. Multiple transcription factor codes activate epidermal wound-response genes in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Joseph C; Juarez, Michelle T; Kim, Myungjin; Drivenes, Øyvind; McGinnis, William

    2009-02-17

    Wounds in Drosophila and mouse embryos induce similar genetic pathways to repair epidermal barriers. However, the transcription factors that transduce wound signals to repair epidermal barriers are largely unknown. We characterize the transcriptional regulatory enhancers of 4 genes-Ddc, ple, msn, and kkv-that are rapidly activated in epidermal cells surrounding wounds in late Drosophila embryos and early larvae. These epidermal wound enhancers all contain evolutionarily conserved sequences matching binding sites for JUN/FOS and GRH transcription factors, but vary widely in trans- and cis-requirements for these inputs and their binding sites. We propose that the combination of GRH and FOS is part of an ancient wound-response pathway still used in vertebrates and invertebrates, but that other mechanisms have evolved that result in similar transcriptional output. A common, but largely untested assumption of bioinformatic analyses of gene regulatory networks is that transcription units activated in the same spatial and temporal patterns will require the same cis-regulatory codes. Our results indicate that this is an overly simplistic view.

  11. Risk Factors Associated with the Onset of Relapsing-Remitting and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Kyla A.; Kwan, Vivian; Duggan, Thomas; Tremlett, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease with a highly heterogeneous course. The aetiology of MS is not well understood but is likely a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 85% of patients present with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), while 10–15% present with primary progressive MS (PPMS). PPMS is associated with an older onset age, a different sex ratio, and a considerably more rapid disease progression relative to RRMS. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify modifiable risk factors that may be associated with these different clinical courses. We performed a search of six databases and integrated twenty observational studies into a descriptive review. Exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) appeared to increase the risk of RRMS, but its association with PPMS was less clear. Other infections, such as human herpesvirus-6 and chlamydia pneumoniae, were not consistently associated with a specific disease course nor was cigarette smoking. Despite the vast literature examining risk factors for the development of MS, relatively few studies reported findings by disease course. This review exposes a gap in our understanding of the risk factors associated with the onset of PPMS, our current knowledge being predominated by relapsing-onset MS. PMID:25802867

  12. Risk factors associated with the onset of relapsing-remitting and primary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    McKay, Kyla A; Kwan, Vivian; Duggan, Thomas; Tremlett, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic central nervous system disease with a highly heterogeneous course. The aetiology of MS is not well understood but is likely a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Approximately 85% of patients present with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), while 10-15% present with primary progressive MS (PPMS). PPMS is associated with an older onset age, a different sex ratio, and a considerably more rapid disease progression relative to RRMS. We systematically reviewed the literature to identify modifiable risk factors that may be associated with these different clinical courses. We performed a search of six databases and integrated twenty observational studies into a descriptive review. Exposure to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) appeared to increase the risk of RRMS, but its association with PPMS was less clear. Other infections, such as human herpesvirus-6 and chlamydia pneumoniae, were not consistently associated with a specific disease course nor was cigarette smoking. Despite the vast literature examining risk factors for the development of MS, relatively few studies reported findings by disease course. This review exposes a gap in our understanding of the risk factors associated with the onset of PPMS, our current knowledge being predominated by relapsing-onset MS.

  13. Is a hypothetical melanoma-like neuromelanin the underlying factor essential for the aetiopathogenesis and clinical manifestations of multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) has undergone a significant increase in incidence in the industrialised nations over the last 130 years. Changing environmental factors, possibly infections or a lack of or altered timing of them, determine the prevalence of the disease. Although a plethora of aetiological factors, clearly evident in a group of children with MS, appear relevant, there may nevertheless be a single factor essential for the aetiopathogenesis and clinical manifestation of MS. Description and discussion This hitherto unknown factor is postulated to be a ‘melanoma-like neuromelanin’ (MLN) dependent on the activation of a gene for syncytin-1. An involvement of MLN could explain the diverse findings in the epidemiology, immunology and pathology of MS, requiring a consideration of a complex infectious background, the human leucocyte antigens, as well as cosmic radiation causing geomagnetic disturbances, vitamin D deficiency, smoking, and lower levels of uric acid. Summary In principle, the MLN-based concept is a unifying one, capable of explaining a number of characteristics of the disease. To date, MLN has not been addressed in studies on MS and future work will need to be done on human patients, as there is little or no neuromelanin (the precursor of MLN) in the animals used as experimental models in the study of MS. PMID:23865526

  14. Multiple sclerosis and environmental factors: the role of vitamin D, parasites, and Epstein-Barr virus infection.

    PubMed

    Correale, J; Gaitán, M I

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms underlying multiple sclerosis development have yet to be clearly identified, but considerable evidence indicates that autoimmunity plays an important role in the etiology of the disease. It is generally accepted that autoimmune diseases like MS arise from complex interactions between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors. Although environmental factors unequivocally influencing MS development have yet to be established, accumulating evidence singles out several candidates, including sunlight-UV exposure or vitamin D deficiency, viral infections, hygiene, and cigarette smoking. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with different autoimmune diseases. Several investigations indicate 125 (OH)2 vitamin D plays a critical role in shaping T-cell response and inducing T cells with immunosuppressive properties. Likewise, helminth infections represent another potential environmental factor exerting immunomodulatory properties. Both epidemiological and experimental data provide evidence to support autoimmune down-regulation secondary to parasite infections in patients with MS, through regulatory T- and B-cell action, with effects extending beyond simple response to an infectious agent. Finally, different epidemiological studies have demonstrated that Epstein-Barr virus infection confers added risk of developing MS. Proposed mechanisms responsible for this association include activation and expansion of self-reactive T and B cells, lower threshold for self-tolerance breakdown, and enhanced autoreactive B-cell survival, all to be discussed in this review. Understanding environmental factors influencing propensity to MS will lead to new and more effective approaches to prevent and treat the disease.

  15. Navigating the “liberation procedure”: a qualitative study of motivating and hesitating factors among people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ploughman, Michelle; Harris, Chelsea; Hogan, Stephen H; Murray, Cynthia; Murdoch, Michelle; Austin, Mark W; Stefanelli, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background The debate within the multiple sclerosis (MS) community initiated by the chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) hypothesis and the subsequent liberation procedure placed some people with MS at odds with health care professionals and researchers. Objective This study explored decision making regarding the controversial liberation procedure among people with MS. Subjects and methods Fifteen people with MS (procedure, n=7; no procedure, n=8) participated in audiotaped semistructured interviews exploring their thoughts and experiences related to the liberation procedure. Data were transcribed and analyzed using an iterative, consensus-based, thematic content-analysis approach. Results Participants described an imbalance of motivating factors affirming the procedure compared to hesitating factors that provoked the participant to pause or reconsider when deciding to undergo the procedure. Collegial conversational relationships with trusted sources (eg, MS nurse, neurologist) and ability to critically analyze the CCSVI hypothesis were key hesitating factors. Fundraising, family enthusiasm, and the ease of navigation provided by medical tourism companies helped eliminate barriers to the procedure. Conclusion Knowledge of factors that helped to popularize the liberation procedure in Canada may inform shared decision making concerning this and future controversies in MS. PMID:25228799

  16. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse. PMID:27635258

  17. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion.

    PubMed

    Mallick, A A; Ishizaka, A; Stephens, K E; Hatherill, J R; Tazelaar, H D; Raffin, T A

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by 125I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of 125I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of 125I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of 125I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  18. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, A.A.; Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Hatherill, J.R.; Tazelaar, H.D.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by {sup 125}I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of {sup 125}I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of {sup 125}I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of {sup 125}I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  19. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  20. Multiple APOBEC3 Restriction Factors for HIV-1 and One Vif to Rule Them All

    PubMed Central

    Desimmie, Belete A.; Delviks-Frankenberry, Krista A.; Burdick, Ryan; Qi, Dongfei; Izumi, Taisuke; Pathak, Vinay K.

    2013-01-01

    Several members of the APOBEC3 family of cellular restriction factors provide intrinsic immunity to the host against viral infection. Specifically, APOBEC3DE, APOBEC3F, APOBEC3G, and APOBEC3H haplotypes II, V, and VII provide protection against HIV-1Δvif through hypermutation of the viral genome, inhibition of reverse transcription, and inhibition of viral DNA integration into the host genome. HIV-1 counteracts APOBEC3 proteins by encoding the viral protein Vif, which contains distinct domains that specifically interact with these APOBEC3 proteins to ensure their proteasomal degradation, allowing virus replication to proceed. Here, we review our current understanding of APOBEC3 structure, editing and non-editing mechanisms of APOBEC3-mediated restriction, Vif-APOBEC3 interactions that trigger APOBEC3 degradation, and the contribution of APOBEC3 proteins to restriction and control of HIV-1 replication in infected patients. PMID:24189052

  1. From cradle to grave: the multiple roles of fibroblast growth factors in neural development.

    PubMed

    Guillemot, François; Zimmer, Céline

    2011-08-25

    The generation of a functional nervous system involves a multitude of steps that are controlled by just a few families of extracellular signaling molecules. Among these, the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is particularly prominent for the remarkable diversity of its functions. FGFs are best known for their roles in the early steps of patterning of the neural primordium and proliferation of neural progenitors. However, other equally important functions have emerged more recently, including in the later steps of neuronal migration, axon navigation, and synaptogenesis. We review here these diverse functions and discuss the mechanisms that account for this unusual range of activities. FGFs are essential components of most protocols devised to generate therapeutically important neuronal populations in vitro or to stimulate neuronal repair in vivo. How FGFs promote the development of the nervous system and maintain its integrity will thus remain an important focus of research in the future.

  2. Is intra-abdominal hypertension a missing factor that drives multiple organ dysfunction syndrome?

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Roberts, Derek J; De Waele, Jan; Laupland, Kevin

    2014-03-19

    In a recent issue of Critical Care, Cheng and colleagues conducted a rabbit model study that demonstrated that intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) may damage both gut anatomy and function. With only 6 hours of IAH at 25 mmHg, these authors observed an 80% reduction in mucosal blood flow, an exponential increase in mucosal permeability, and erosion and necrosis of the jejunal villi. Such dramatic findings should remind all caring for the critically ill that IAH may severely damage the normal gut barrier functions and thus may be reasonably expected to facilitate bacterial and mediator translocation. The potential contribution of IAH as a confounding factor in the efficacy of selective decontamination of the digestive tract should be considered.

  3. "It takes a village" to support the vocabulary development of children with multiple risk factors.

    PubMed

    Baydar, Nazli; Küntay, Aylin C; Yagmurlu, Bilge; Aydemir, Nuran; Cankaya, Dilek; Göksen, Fatos; Cemalcilar, Zeynep

    2014-04-01

    Data from a nationally representative sample from Turkey (N = 1,017) were used to investigate the environmental factors that support the receptive vocabulary of 3-year-old children who differ in their developmental risk due to family low economic status and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Children's vocabulary knowledge was strongly associated with language stimulation and learning materials in all families regardless of risk status. Maternal warmth and responsiveness supported vocabulary competence in families of low economic status only when maternal depressive symptoms were low. In families with the highest levels of risk, that is, with depression and economic distress jointly present, support by the extended family and neighbors for caring for the child protected children's vocabulary development against these adverse conditions. The empirical evidence on the positive contribution of extrafamilial support to young children's receptive vocabulary under adverse conditions allows an expansion of our current theorizing about influences on language development.

  4. Relative importance of multiple factors on terrestrial loading of DOC to Arctic river networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kicklighter, David W.; Hayes, Daniel J; Mcclelland, James W; Peterson, Bruce; Mcguire, David; Melillo, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial carbon dynamics influence the contribution of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to river networks in addition to controlling carbon fluxes between the land surface and the atmosphere. In this study, we use a biogeochemical process model to simulate the lateral transfer of DOC from land to the Arctic Ocean via riverine transport. We estimate that the pan-arctic watershed has contributed, on average, 32 Tg C/yr of DOC to the Arctic Ocean over the 20th century with most coming from the extensive area of boreal deciduous needle-leaved forests and forested wetlands in Eurasian watersheds. We also estimate that the rate of terrestrial DOC loading has been increasing by 0.037 Tg C/yr2 over the 20th century primarily as a result of increases in air temperatures and precipitation. These increases have been partially compensated by decreases in terrestrial DOC loading caused by wildfires. Other environmental factors (CO2 fertilization, ozone pollution, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, timber harvest, agriculture) are estimated to have relatively small effects on terrestrial DOC loading to arctic rivers. The effects of the various environmental factors on terrestrial carbon dynamics have both compensated and enhanced concurrent effects on hydrology to influence terrestrial DOC loading. Future increases in riverine DOC concentrations and export may occur from warming-induced increases in terrestrial DOC production associated with enhanced microbial metabolism and the exposure of additional organic matter from permafrost degradation along with decreases in water yield associated with warming-induced increases in evapotranspiration. Improvements in simulating terrestrial DOC loading to pan-arctic rivers in the future will require better information on the spatial distribution of precipitation and its temporal trends, carbon dynamics of larch-dominated ecosystems in eastern Siberia, and the role of industrial organic effluents on carbon budgets of rivers in western

  5. Multiple epigenetic factors predict the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among the Chinese Han children.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Chen, Xiang-Tao; Luo, Man; Tang, Yuqing; Zhang, Guangxiang; Wu, De; Yang, Bin; Ruan, Di-Yun; Wang, Hui-Li

    2015-05-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood. Despite its prevalence, the critical factors involved in its development remain to be identified. It was recently suggested that epigenetic mechanisms probably contribute to the etiology of ADHD. The present study was designed to examine the associations of epigenetic markers with ADHD among Chinese Han children, aiming to establish the prediction model for this syndrome from the epigenetic perspective. We conducted a pair-matching case-control study, and the ADHD children were systematically evaluated via structured diagnostic interviews, including caregiver interviews, based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, revised criteria (DSM-IV-R). The expression levels of risk genes DAT1, DRD4, DRD5, as well as their promoter methylation, were determined respectively, followed by the expression profiles of histone-modifying genes p300, MYST4, HDAC1, MeCP2. The multivariate logistic regressions were performed to establish ADHD prediction models. All of the seven genes tested were identified as risk factors for ADHD. The methylation of one critical CpG site located upstream of DRD4 was shown to affect its transcription, suggesting a role in ADHD's development. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone acetylation were indicated in ADHD patients. In addition, a prediction model was established using the combination of p300, MYST4 and HDAC1, with the accuracy of 0.9338. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to clearly demonstrate the associations between epigenetic markers and ADHD, shedding light on the preliminary diagnosis and etiological studies of this widespread disorder.

  6. Six-Minute Walk Test for Persons with Mild or Moderate Disability from Multiple Sclerosis: Performance and Explanatory Factors

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donna K.; Pfalzer, Lucinda A.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which health factors, functional measures, and pulmonary impairment explain performance on 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance in ambulatory persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Another purpose was to determine the effect of disability and age on 6MWT performance and explanatory factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used to evaluate factors that explain performance on the 6MWT in 64 community-dwelling persons with MS-related disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] 3.8±1.6). Of the 64 participants, 43 (67.2%) exhibited mild disability (EDSS <4.0) and 21 (32.8%) had moderate disability (EDSS 4.0–6.5). A regression analysis compared 6MWT performance to measures of health factors (EDSS, number of medications, number of comorbidities, resting HR, systolic and diastolic blood pressure [BP]); physical performance (functional stair test [FST], sit-to-stand test [SST], static standing balance [BAL], Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS], Activities-specific Balance Confidence [ABC] Scale); and pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1], forced vital capacity [FVC], maximal voluntary ventilation [MVV], maximal inspiratory pressure [MIP], maximal expiratory pressure [MEP]). Results: EDSS, ABC, FST, SST, BAL, MVV, MIP, and MEP were significantly associated with 6MWT distance after adjusting for age. Multiple step-wise linear regression analysis revealed that ABC, FST, and BAL were significant and independent explanatory factors of 6MWT distance. ABC and FST explained 75% of the variance in 6MWT performance (R2=0.75). Curvilinear regression analysis revealed that the FST is the most significant explanatory factor for 6MWT distance, explaining 79% of the variance (R2=0.79). Conclusions: 6MWT performance in persons with MS was explained by balance confidence (ABC) and stair-climbing ability (FST). The ABC and FST may be practical clinical measures for

  7. Intersectoral action: local governments promoting health.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Riikka; Bortz, Martin; Armada, Francisco

    2014-06-01

    Many local governments around the world promote health through intersectoral action, but to date there has been little systematic evidence of these experiences. To bridge this gap, the World Health Organization Centre for Health Development conducted a study in 2011-2013 on intersectoral action for health (ISA) at local government level. A total of 25 cases were included in the final review. Various approaches were used to carry out ISA by local governments in low-, middle- and high-income countries. Several common facilitating factors and challenges were identified: national and international influences, the local political context, public participation and use of support mechanisms such as coordination structures, funding mechanisms and mandates, engaging sectors through vertical and horizontal collaboration, information sharing, monitoring and evaluation, and equity considerations. The literature on certain aspects of ISA, such as monitoring and evaluation and health equity, was found to be relatively thin. Also, the articles used for the study varied as regards their depth of information and often focused on the point of view of one sector. More in-depth studies of these issues covering multiple angles and different ISA mechanisms could be useful. Local governments can offer a unique arena for implementing intersectoral activities, especially because of their proximity to the people, but more practical guidance to better facilitate local government ISA processes is still needed.

  8. What Factors Influence States' Capacity to Report Children's Health Care Quality Measures? A Multiple-Case Study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Anna L; Petersen, Dana M; Burton, Rachel A; Forsberg, Vanessa C; Devers, Kelly J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to describe factors that influence the ability of state Medicaid agencies to report the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) core set of children's health care quality measures (Child Core Set). Methods We conducted a multiple-case study of four high-performing states participating in the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA) Quality Demonstration Grant Program: Illinois, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Oregon. Cases were purposively selected for their diverse measurement approaches and used data from 2010 to 2015, including 154 interviews, semiannual grant progress reports, and annual public reports on Child Core Set measures. We followed Yin's multiple-case study methodology to describe how and why each state increased the number of measures reported to CMS. Results All four states increased the number of Child Core Set measures reported to CMS during the grant period. Each took a different approach to reporting, depending on the available technical, organizational, and behavioral inputs in the state. Reporting capacity was influenced by a state's Medicaid data availability, ability to link to other state data systems, past experience with quality measurement, staff time and technical expertise, and demand for the measures. These factors were enhanced by CHIPRA Quality Demonstration grant funding and other federal capacity building activities, as hypothesized in our conceptual framework. These and other states have made progress reporting the Child Core Set since 2010. Conclusion With financial support and investment in state data systems and organizational factors, states can overcome challenges to reporting most of the Child Core Set measures.

  9. The soybean GmbZIP1 transcription factor enhances multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shi-Qing; Chen, Ming; Xu, Zhao-Shi; Zhao, Chang-Ping; Li, Liancheng; Xu, Hui-jun; Tang, Yi-miao; Zhao, Xin; Ma, You-Zhi

    2011-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive element binding proteins (AREBs) are basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the ABA-responsive element (ABRE) in the promoter regions of ABA-inducible genes in plants. A novel bZIP transcription factor gene, GmbZIP1, encoding 438 amino acids with a conserved bZIP domain composed of 60 amino acids was isolated from salt-tolerant soybean cv. Tiefeng 8. Southern blotting showed that only one copy was present in the soybean genome. Phylogenetic analyses showed that GmbZIP1 belonged to the AREB subfamily of the bZIP family and was most closely related to AtABF2 and OsTRAB1. The expression of GmbZIP1 was highly induced by ABA, drought, high salt and low temperature; and GmbZIP1 was expressed in soybean roots, stems and leaves under different stress conditions. GmbZIP1 was localized inside the nuclei of transformed onion epidermal cells. Overexpression of GmbZIP1 enhanced the responses of transgenic plants to ABA and triggered stomatal closure under stresses, potentially leading to improved tolerances to several abiotic stresses such as high salt, low temperature and drought in transgenic plants. Furthermore, overexpression of GmbZIP1 affected the expression of some ABA or stress-related genes involved in regulating stomatal closure in Arabidopsis under ABA, drought and high salt stress conditions. A few AREB elements were detected in the promoter region of those ABA or stress-related genes, suggesting that GmbZIP1 regulates the ABA response or stomatal closure mediated by those downstream genes in transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, GmbZIP1 was used to improve the drought tolerance trait of Chinese wheat varieties BS93. Functional analysis showed that overexpression of GmbZIP1 enhanced the drought tolerance of transgenic wheat, and transcripts of GmbZIP1 were detected in transgenic wheat using RT-PCR. In addition, GmbZIP1 overexpression did not result in growth retardation in all transgenic plants, suggesting that Gmb

  10. Dynamics of Radical Intermediates in Prostaglandin H Synthase-1 Cyclooxygenase Reactions is Modulated by Multiple Factors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Tsai, Ah-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of PGG2 and PGH2, the precursor of all prostanoids, from arachidonic acid (AA). PGHS exhibits two enzymatic activities following a branched-chain radical mechanism: 1) a peroxidase activity (POX) that utilizes hydroperoxide through heme redox cycles to generate the critical Tyr385 tyrosyl radical for coupling both enzyme activities; 2) the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity inserting two oxygen molecules into AA to generate endoperoxide/hydroperoxide PGG2 through a series of radical intermediates. Upon the generation of Tyr385 radical, COX catalysis is initiated, with C13 pro-S hydrogen abstraction from AA by Tyr385 radical to generate arachidonyl substrate radical. Oxygen provides a large driving force for the subsequent fast steps leading to the formation of PGG2, including radical redistributions, ring formations, and rearrangements. On the other hand, if the supply of oxygen is severed, equilibrium between arachidonyl radical and tyrosyl radical(s) biases largely towards the latter. In this study, we demonstrate that such equilibrium is shifted by many factors, including temperature, chemical structures of fatty acid substrates and limited supply of oxygen. We also, for the first time, reveal that this equilibrium is significantly affected by co-substrates of POX. The presence of efficient POX co-substrates, which reduces heme to its ferric state, apparently biases the equilibrium towards arachidonyl radical. Therefore a dynamic interplay exists between the two activities of PGHS.

  11. Hierarchical Bayesian inference for HIV dynamic differential equation models incorporating multiple treatment factors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangxin; Wu, Hulin; Acosta, Edward P

    2010-08-01

    Studies on HIV dynamics in AIDS research are very important in understanding the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and also in assessing the effectiveness of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment. Viral dynamic models can be formulated through a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODE), but there has been only limited development of statistical methodologies for inference. This article, motivated by an AIDS clinical study, discusses a hierarchical Bayesian nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach to dynamic ODE models without a closed-form solution. In this model, we fully integrate viral load, medication adherence, drug resistance, pharmacokinetics, baseline covariates and time-dependent drug efficacy into the data analysis for characterizing long-term virologic responses. Our method is implemented by a data set from an AIDS clinical study. The results suggest that modeling HIV dynamics and virologic responses with consideration of time-varying clinical factors as well as baseline characteristics may be important for HIV/AIDS studies in providing quantitative guidance to better understand the virologic responses to ARV treatment and to help the evaluation of clinical trial design in response to existing therapies.

  12. Mitochondrial fission factor Drp1 maintains oocyte quality via dynamic rearrangement of multiple organelles.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Osamu; Ishihara, Takaya; Maeda, Maki; Matsunaga, Yui; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Kawano, Natsuko; Miyado, Kenji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Yokota, Sadaki; Nomura, Masatoshi; Mihara, Katsuyoshi; Mizushima, Noboru; Ishihara, Naotada

    2014-10-20

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that change their morphology by active fusion and fission in response to cellular signaling and differentiation. The in vivo role of mitochondrial fission in mammals has been examined by using tissue-specific knockout (KO) mice of the mitochondria fission-regulating GTPase Drp1, as well as analyzing a human patient harboring a point mutation in Drp1, showing that Drp1 is essential for embryonic and neonatal development and neuronal function. During oocyte maturation and aging, structures of various membrane organelles including mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are changed dynamically, and their organelle aggregation is related to germ cell formation and epigenetic regulation. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of organelle dynamics during the development and aging of oocytes have not been well understood. Here, we analyzed oocyte-specific mitochondrial fission factor Drp1-deficient mice and found that mitochondrial fission is essential for follicular maturation and ovulation in an age-dependent manner. Mitochondria were highly aggregated with other organelles, such as the ER and secretory vesicles, in KO oocyte, which resulted in impaired Ca(2+) signaling, intercellular communication via secretion, and meiotic resumption. We further found that oocytes from aged mice displayed reduced Drp1-dependent mitochondrial fission and defective organelle morphogenesis, similar to Drp1 KO oocytes. On the basis of these findings, it appears that mitochondrial fission maintains the competency of oocytes via multiorganelle rearrangement.

  13. Maintenance of Tissue Pluripotency by Epigenetic Factors Acting at Multiple Levels

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivam, Devendran A.; Huang, Der-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells often adopt a unique developmental program while retaining certain flexibility. The molecular basis of such properties remains unclear. Using differentiation of pluripotent Drosophila imaginal tissues as assays, we examined the contribution of epigenetic factors in ectopic activation of Hox genes. We found that over-expression of Trithorax H3K4 methyltransferase can induce ectopic adult appendages by selectively activating the Hox genes Ultrabithorax and Sex comb reduced in wing and leg discs, respectively. This tissue-specific inducibility correlates with the presence of paused RNA polymerase II in the promoter-proximal region of these genes. Although the Antennapedia promoter is paused in eye-antenna discs, it cannot be induced by Trx without a reduction in histone variants or their chaperones, suggesting additional control by the nucleosomal architecture. Lineage tracing and pulse-chase experiments revealed that the active state of Hox genes is maintained substantially longer in mutants deficient for HIRA, a chaperone for the H3.3 variant. In addition, both HIRA and H3.3 appeared to act cooperatively with the Polycomb group of epigenetic repressors. These results support the involvement of H3.3-mediated nucleosome turnover in restoring the repressed state. We propose a regulatory framework integrating transcriptional pausing, histone modification, nucleosome architecture and turnover for cell lineage maintenance. PMID:26926299

  14. The intronic splicing code: multiple factors involved in ATM pseudoexon definition.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Buratti, Emanuele; van Santen, Maria A; Lührmann, Reinhard; Baralle, Francisco E

    2010-02-17

    Abundance of pseudo splice sites in introns can potentially give rise to innumerable pseudoexons, outnumbering the real ones. Nonetheless, these are efficiently ignored by the splicing machinery, a process yet to be understood completely. Although numerous 5' splice site-like sequences functioning as splicing silencers have been found to be enriched in predicted human pseudoexons, the lack of active pseudoexons pose a fundamental challenge to how these U1snRNP-binding sites function in splicing inhibition. Here, we address this issue by focusing on a previously described pathological ATM pseudoexon whose inhibition is mediated by U1snRNP binding at intronic splicing processing element (ISPE), composed of a consensus donor splice site. Spliceosomal complex assembly demonstrates inefficient A complex formation when ISPE is intact, implying U1snRNP-mediated unproductive U2snRNP recruitment. Furthermore, interaction of SF2/ASF with its motif seems to be dependent on RNA structure and U1snRNP interaction. Our results suggest a complex combinatorial interplay of RNA structure and trans-acting factors in determining the splicing outcome and contribute to understanding the intronic splicing code for the ATM pseudoexon.

  15. Maintenance of Tissue Pluripotency by Epigenetic Factors Acting at Multiple Levels.

    PubMed

    Sadasivam, Devendran A; Huang, Der-Hwa

    2016-02-01

    Pluripotent stem cells often adopt a unique developmental program while retaining certain flexibility. The molecular basis of such properties remains unclear. Using differentiation of pluripotent Drosophila imaginal tissues as assays, we examined the contribution of epigenetic factors in ectopic activation of Hox genes. We found that over-expression of Trithorax H3K4 methyltransferase can induce ectopic adult appendages by selectively activating the Hox genes Ultrabithorax and Sex comb reduced in wing and leg discs, respectively. This tissue-specific inducibility correlates with the presence of paused RNA polymerase II in the promoter-proximal region of these genes. Although the Antennapedia promoter is paused in eye-antenna discs, it cannot be induced by Trx without a reduction in histone variants or their chaperones, suggesting additional control by the nucleosomal architecture. Lineage tracing and pulse-chase experiments revealed that the active state of Hox genes is maintained substantially longer in mutants deficient for HIRA, a chaperone for the H3.3 variant. In addition, both HIRA and H3.3 appeared to act cooperatively with the Polycomb group of epigenetic repressors. These results support the involvement of H3.3-mediated nucleosome turnover in restoring the repressed state. We propose a regulatory framework integrating transcriptional pausing, histone modification, nucleosome architecture and turnover for cell lineage maintenance.

  16. Microfluidic channel structures speed up mixing of multiple emulsions by a factor of ten

    PubMed Central

    Mbanjwa, Mesuli; Korvink, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel use for channel structures in microfluidic devices, whereby two two-phase emulsions, one created on-chip, the other off-chip, are rapidly mixed with each other in order to allow for the coalescence of one emulsion with the other. This approach has been motivated by the difficulty in introducing aqueous cross linking agents into droplets by utilising conventional approaches. These conventional approaches include continuous introduction of the different aqueous reagents before droplet formation or alternatively formation of individual droplets of each reagent and subsequent droplet merging later in the microfluidic device. We show that our approach can decrease the mixing time for these fluidic systems by a factor greater than 10 times when compared to a standard microfluidic channel without structures, thereby also allowing for additional reaction time within the microfluidic device. This method shows an application for microfluidic channel structures not before demonstrated, also demonstrating an alternative method for introducing reagents such as cross linkers which link polymer chains to form particles, and provides an example where enzymes are immobilized in monodisperse particles. PMID:25332738

  17. Methylxanthines Increase Expression of the Splicing Factor SRSF2 by Regulating Multiple Post-transcriptional Mechanisms*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jia; Pabon, Kirk; Scotto, Kathleen W.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that the methylxanthine caffeine increases expression of the splicing factor SRSF2, the levels of which are normally controlled by a negative autoregulatory loop. In the present study we have investigated the mechanisms by which methylxanthines induce this aberrant overexpression. RT-PCR analyses suggested little impact of caffeine on SRSF2 total mRNA levels. Instead, caffeine induced changes in the levels of SRSF2 3′ UTR splice variants. Although some of these variants were substrates for nonsense-medicated decay (NMD), and could potentially have been stabilized by caffeine-mediated inhibition of NMD, down-regulation of NMD by a genetic approach was not sufficient to reproduce the phenotype. Furthermore, cell-based assays demonstrated that some of the caffeine-induced variants were intrinsically more efficiently translated than others; the addition of caffeine increased the translational efficiency of most SRSF2 transcripts. MicroRNA array analyses revealed a significant caffeine-mediated decrease in the expression of two SRSF2-targeting miRs, both of which were shown to repress translation of specific SRSF2 splice variants. These data support a complex model whereby caffeine down-regulates SRSF2-targeting microRNAs, leading to an increase in SRSF2 translation, which in turn induces SRSF2 splicing. SRSF2 splice variants are then stabilized by caffeine-mediated NMD inhibition, breaking the normal negative feedback loop and allowing the aberrant increase in SRSF2 protein levels. These findings highlight the complexity of SRSF2 gene regulation, and suggest ways in which SRSF2 expression may be dysregulated in disease. PMID:25818199

  18. The multiple roles of epidermal growth factor repeat O-glycans in animal development

    PubMed Central

    Haltom, Amanda R; Jafar-Nejad, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeat is a common, evolutionarily conserved motif found in secreted proteins and the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins. EGF repeats harbor six cysteine residues which form three disulfide bonds and help generate the three-dimensional structure of the EGF repeat. A subset of EGF repeats harbor consensus sequences for the addition of one or more specific O-glycans, which are initiated by O-glucose, O-fucose or O-N-acetylglucosamine. These glycans are relatively rare compared to mucin-type O-glycans. However, genetic experiments in model organisms and cell-based assays indicate that at least some of the glycosyltransferases involved in the addition of O-glycans to EGF repeats play important roles in animal development. These studies, combined with state-of-the-art biochemical and structural biology experiments have started to provide an in-depth picture of how these glycans regulate the function of the proteins to which they are linked. In this review, we will discuss the biological roles assigned to EGF repeat O-glycans and the corresponding glycosyltransferases. Since Notch receptors are the best studied proteins with biologically-relevant O-glycans on EGF repeats, a significant part of this review is devoted to the role of these glycans in the regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. We also discuss recently identified proteins other than Notch which depend on EGF repeat glycans to function properly. Several glycosyltransferases involved in the addition or elongation of O-glycans on EGF repeats are mutated in human diseases. Therefore, mechanistic understanding of the functional roles of these carbohydrate modifications is of interest from both basic science and translational perspectives. PMID:26175457

  19. Multiple Risk Factors of Alcoholic and Non-Alcoholic Myocardial Infarction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Harisharan; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Dangal, Nidhu Ram; Surapaneni, Krishna Mohan; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most critical medical emergency and contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide. Myocardial infarction is the most common form of coronary heart disease and leading cause of premature death. Past century has seen substantial advancement in the field of medical sciences but still mortality trends due to myocardial infarction is increasing in developing countries including India. We have conducted this study to compare the Sociodemographic characteristics of alcoholic and non alcoholic MI patients admitted in coronary care unit of Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. Methods: An exploratory cross sectional study was performed by enrolling a convenient sample of 100 Myocardial Infarction patients. Information about Sociodemographic characteristics, past medical history, alcohol and tobacco intake, physical activity, psychological stress and biochemical measurements was gathered. Results: The mean age of the respondents was 46 (SD=6) years and majority of them were male i.e. 82%. 100% married and 89% literate, there were 24% past and 22% present alcoholics. Consumption of alcohol on a monthly, weekly and daily basis was 8%, 11% and 5% respectively. Preference to brandy was 67%, rum was 21% and that the beer was 12%. Current smoker were 20% and former were 11%. 93% and 52% respondents were under medication of beta blocker and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors respectively. Conclusion: Worldwide, MI is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity and hence early diagnosis and management is most essential. Results from our study revealed that, participants had sedentary lifestyles where risk factors of MI such as alcohol consumption, and smoking does existed. PMID:26234988

  20. A Wheat WRKY Transcription Factor TaWRKY10 Confers Tolerance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liulin; Wang, Xiatian; Ma, Hui; Hu, Wei; Yao, Ningcong; Feng, Ying; Chai, Ruihong; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes. PMID:23762295

  1. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    2015-01-01

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway. PMID:26180529

  2. Genotype-Based Bayesian Analysis of Gene-Environment Interactions with Multiple Genetic Markers and Misclassification in Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Iryna; Fan, Ruzong

    A key component to understanding etiology of complex diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, alcohol dependence, is to investigate gene-environment interactions. This work is motivated by the following two concerns in the analysis of gene-environment interactions. First, multiple genetic markers in moderate linkage disequilibrium may be involved in susceptibility to a complex disease. Second, environmental factors may be subject to misclassification. We develop a genotype based Bayesian pseudolikelihood approach that accommodates linkage disequilibrium in genetic markers and misclassification in environmental factors. Since our approach is genotype based, it allows the observed genetic information to enter the model directly thus eliminating the need to infer haplotype phase and simplifying computations. Bayesian approach allows shrinking parameter estimates towards prior distribution to improve estimation and inference when environmental factors are subject to misclassification. Simulation experiments demonstrated that our method produced parameter estimates that are nearly unbiased even for small sample sizes. An application of our method is illustrated using a case-control study of interaction between early onset of drinking and genes involved in dopamine pathway.

  3. Abnormalities in Chromosomes 1q and 13 Independently Correlate With Factors of Poor Prognosis in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyoung; Ju, Young-Su; Lee, Eun Jin; Kang, Hee Jung; Kim, Han-Sung; Cho, Hyoun Chan; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Jung-Ah; Lee, Dong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Background We comprehensively profiled cytogenetic abnormalities in multiple myeloma (MM) and analyzed the relationship between cytogenetic abnormalities of undetermined prognostic significance and established prognostic factors. Methods The karyotype of 333 newly diagnosed MM cases was analyzed in association with established prognostic factors. Survival analysis was also performed. Results MM with abnormal karyotypes (41.1%) exhibited high international scoring system (ISS) stage, frequent IgA type, elevated IgG or IgA levels, elevated calcium levels, elevated creatine (Cr) levels, elevated β2-microglobulin levels, and decreased Hb levels. Structural abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 were independently associated with elevated levels of IgG or IgA, calcium, and Cr, respectively. Chromosome 13 abnormalities were associated with poor prognosis and decreased overall survival. Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that abnormalities in chromosomes 1q, 4, and 13 are associated with established factors for poor prognosis, irrespective of the presence of other concurrent chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 13 abnormalities have a prognostic impact on overall survival in association with elevated Cr levels. Frequent centromeric breakpoints appear to be related to MM pathogenesis. PMID:27578511

  4. Evidence for multiple bone resorption-stimulating factors produced by normal human keratinocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Fried, R M; Voelkel, E F; Rice, R H; Levine, L; Tashjian, A H

    1988-06-01

    Conditioned medium from cultured normal human foreskin keratinocytes enhanced the release of calcium from neonatal mouse calvaria in organ culture. Unfractionated keratinocyte-conditioned medium (KCM) stimulated bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner, but it did not increase the concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the bone culture medium until a maximal dose of KCM for resorption was used. Furthermore, inhibitors of PGE2 synthesis, indomethacin, ibuprofen, and piroxicam, did not inhibit KCM-induced calcium release. High concentrations of KCM increased cAMP production by calvaria in the presence of isobutylmethylxanthine, but the increase was small compared with that produced by a dose of bovine PTH that caused a similar level of bone resorption. The bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCM was not lost after incubation at 56 C for 60 min, but it was lost after heating at 100 C for 10 min. Fractionation of KCM by gel filtration chromatography revealed two distinct peaks of bone resorption-stimulating activity. One peak, KCMI, caused a significant increase in bone resorption at 2 micrograms protein/ml. KCMI did not increase medium PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis in bone had no effect on KCMI-induced bone resorption. KCMI failed to increase cAMP production by human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells. Another peak, KCMII, caused a dose-dependent increase in bone resorption, and a significant increase in medium calcium was noted at a 20-fold lower concentration (0.1 microgram protein/ml) than with KCMI. In contrast to KCMI, the increase in bone resorption stimulated by KCMII was accompanied by a parallel increase in the production of PGE2, and inhibition of PGE2 synthesis completely inhibited the bone resorption-stimulating activity of KCMII. KCMII also caused an increase in cAMP production by SaOS-2 cells. We conclude that KCM contains at least two distinct bone resorption-stimulating factors, one of which acts via a PG-mediated mechanism and the other by

  5. No association of the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Y; Gómez-Choco, M; Arostegui, J L; Casanova, B; Martínez-Rodríguez, J E; Boscá, I; Munteis, E; Yagüe, J; Graus, F; Saiz, A

    2006-04-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin produced by neurons and immune cells, promotes neuronal survival and repair during development and after CNS injury. The BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism is functional and induces abnormal intracellular trafficking and decreased BDNF release. Therefore, we investigated the impact of the BDNF-Val66Met polymorphism on the susceptibility and clinical course in a case-control study of 224 multiple sclerosis (MS) Spanish patients and 177 healthy controls. We found no evidence for association to susceptibility or severity of the disease in our population. Moreover, we did not observe, in a subgroup of 12 MS patients, that the methionine substitution at position 66 in the prodomain had negative impact in the capacity to produce BDNF by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

  6. A novel wheat bZIP transcription factor, TabZIP60, confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lina; Zhang, Lichao; Xia, Chuan; Zhao, Guangyao; Liu, Ji; Jia, Jizeng; Kong, Xiuying

    2015-04-01

    The basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) play vital roles in the response to abiotic stress. However, little is known about the function of bZIP genes in wheat abiotic stress. In this study, we report the isolation and functional characterization of the TabZIP60 gene. Three homologous genome sequences of TabZIP60 were isolated from hexaploid wheat and mapped to the wheat homoeologous group 6. A subcellular localization analysis indicated that TabZIP60 is a nuclear-localized protein that activates transcription. Furthermore, TabZIP60 gene transcripts were strongly induced by polyethylene glycol, salt, cold and exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. Further analysis showed that the overexpression of TabZIP60 in Arabidopsis resulted in significantly improved tolerances to drought, salt, freezing stresses and increased plant sensitivity to ABA in seedling growth. Meanwhile, the TabZIP60 was capable of binding ABA-responsive cis-elements that are present in promoters of many known ABA-responsive genes. A subsequent analysis showed that the overexpression of TabZIP60 led to enhanced expression levels of some stress-responsive genes and changes in several physiological parameters. Taken together, these results suggest that TabZIP60 enhances multiple abiotic stresses through the ABA signaling pathway and that modifications of its expression may improve multiple stress tolerances in crop plants.

  7. Multiple high-risk HPV genotypes are grouped by type and are associated with viral load and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Del Río-Ospina, L; Soto-DE León, S C; Camargo, M; Sánchez, R; Moreno-Pérez, D A; Pérez-Prados, A; Patarroyo, M E; Patarroyo, M A

    2017-02-10

    Investigating whether high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types tend to become grouped in a particular way and whether factors are associated with such grouping is important for measuring the real impact of vaccination. In total, 219 women proving positive for HPV as detected by real-time PCR were included in the study. Each sample was analysed for detecting and quantifying six viral types and the hydroxymethylbilane synthase gene. Multiple correspondence analysis led to determining grouping patterns for six HR-HPV types and simultaneous association with multiple variables and whether viral load was related to the coexistence of other viral types. Two grouping profiles were identified: the first included HPV-16 and HPV-45 and the second profile was represented by HPV-31, HPV-33 and HPV-58. Variables such as origin, contraceptive method, births and pregnancies, educational level, healthcare affiliation regime, atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance and viral load were associated with these grouping profiles. Different socio-demographic characteristics were found when coinfection occurred by phylogenetically related HPV types and when coinfection was due to non-related types. Biological characteristics, the number of viral copies, temporality regarding acquiring infection and competition between viral types could influence the configuration of grouping patterns. Characteristics related to women and HPV, influence such interactions between coexisting HPV types reflecting the importance of their evaluation.

  8. Characteristics of Evoked Potential Multiple EEG Recordings in Patients with Chronic Pain by Means of Parallel Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Juan; Li, Xiaoli; Lu, Chengbiao; Voss, Logan J.; Barnard, John P. M.; Sleigh, Jamie W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative method, called as parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) with a continuous wavelet transform, to analyze of brain activity in patients with chronic pain in the time-frequency-channel domain and quantifies differences between chronic pain patients and controls in these domains. The event related multiple EEG recordings of the chronic pain patients and non-pain controls with somatosensory stimuli (pain, random pain, touch, random touch) are analyzed. Multiple linear regression (MLR) is applied to describe the effects of aging on the frequency response differences between patients and controls. The results show that the somatosensory cortical responses occurred around 250 ms in both groups. In the frequency domain, the neural response frequency in the pain group (around 4 Hz) was less than that in the control group (around 5.5 Hz) under the somatosensory stimuli. In the channel domain, cortical activation was predominant in the frontal region for the chronic pain group and in the central region for controls. The indices of active ratios were statistical significant between the two groups in the frontal and central regions. These findings demonstrate that the PARAFAC is an interesting method to understanding the pathophysiological characteristics of chronic pain. PMID:22400048

  9. Health governance: principal-agent linkages and health system strengthening.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W; Bossert, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Governance is increasingly recognized as an important factor in health system performance, yet conceptually and practically it remains poorly understood and subject to often vague and competing notions of both what its role is and how to address its weaknesses. This overview article for the symposium on health governance presents a model of health governance that focuses on the multiplicity of societal actors in health systems, the distribution of roles and responsibilities among them and their ability and willingness to fulfil these roles and responsibilities. This focus highlights the principal-agent linkages among actors and the resulting incentives for good governance and health system performance. The discussion identifies three disconnects that constitute challenges for health system strengthening interventions that target improving governance: (1) the gap between the good governance agenda and existing capacities, (2) the discrepancy between formal and informal governance and (3) the inattention to sociopolitical power dynamics. The article summarizes the three country cases in the symposium and highlights their governance findings: health sector reform in China, financial management of health resources in Brazilian municipalities and budget reform in hospitals in Lesotho. The concluding sections clarify how the three cases apply the model's principal-agent linkages and highlight the importance of filling the gaps remaining between problem diagnosis and the development of practical guidance that supports 'best fit' solutions and accommodates political realities in health systems strengthening.

  10. Sociocultural and Demographic Risk Factors for the Development of Multiple Sclerosis in Kuwait: A Case - Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shammri, Suhail N.; Hanna, Magdy G.; Chattopadhyay, Arpita; Akanji, Abayomi O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Immunological, genetic and environmental factors are believed to play important roles in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). There have been many studies on risk factors for MS but these have been mainly in Caucasian populations; robust studies in Arab populations remain relatively uncommon. This study therefore aimed to identify behavioral, socio-cultural, and demographic factors associated with development of MS in Kuwait, a high income Arab country, currently undergoing a demographic transition. Subjects and methods In this case- control study, 195 Kuwaiti MS patients and 146 healthy age and sex-matched controls were recruited. Both groups of subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, in relation to anthropometric, socio-cultural and demographic data, residence during the 1990/91 Gulf War and current and past medical history, including medications. We also clinically evaluated, and retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients to derive appropriate clinical information, including associated chronic medical illness requiring long-term treatment. Results On multiple logistic regression analysis after adjustment for potential confounders including age, gender and BMI, in all the subjects, a positive associations prevail with presence of MS and some sociocultural and demographic factors, which included non-Bedouin ethnicity (AOR 2, 95% CI 1.0-3.9, p 0.049), positive family history of MS (AOR 10.6, 95% CI 3.0-36.9), p < 0.001), and low daily sunlight exposure of < 15min/day (AOR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 p < 0.001). In addition, while 41.8% of MS patients indicated at least one comorbidity, only 26.8% of the controls reported any associated physical illness, with the suggestion that presence of certain comorbidities might increase MS risk (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.7, p < 0.001). Other risk variables such as smoking status and mode of routine outdoor dressing were not significant in all the MS subjects taken as a whole, but

  11. Main and interactive effects of multiple global-change factors on soil respiration and its components: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xuhui

    2014-05-01

    Global change usually involves simultaneous changes in multiple environmental factors, which may considerably affect ecosystem structure and functioning and alter ecosystem services to human society. With increased awareness of their potential interactions, some multi-factorial studies have been conducted to investigate their main and interactive effects on carbon (C) cycling in terrestrial ecosystem. However, how multiple global-change factors affected soil respiration (Rs) and its components (i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)) remains controversial among individual studies. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the main and possible 2- or 3-factor interactive effects with warming (W), elevated CO2 (E), nitrogen addition (N), increased precipitation (I) and drought (D) on Rs and its components from 150 published papers. Our results show that E, W, I and N significantly stimulated Rs by 29.23%, 7.19%, 22.95%, and 16.90% (p<0.05), respectively, while I depressed it by 16.90% (p<0.01). E consistently induced a significant positive effect on both Ra and Rh, while I affected them with an opposite trend. Among nine two-way interactive effects on Rs, synergistic interaction (i.e., the effect of combined treatment > the additive effects of single two main factors) occurred in E×N, E×W, I×N, and D×W, while neutral interaction (i.e., the effect of combined treatment ≡ the additive one) and antagonistic interaction (i.e., the effect of combined treatment < the additive one)was rare, only in I×W for neutral one and in N×W and I×E for the latter. In addition, E×W and E×N displayed synergistic interactions on Rh. The more dominance of synergistic interactions in two-way interactive effects on Rs and Rh may determine a central positive tendency of Rs in future, and affect the feedback of terrestrial C cycle to the climate system correspondingly.

  12. Incidence of and Factors Influencing Femoral Neck Shortening in Elderly Patients After Fracture Fixation with Multiple Cancellous Screws

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Xinling; Ren, Jixin; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Background To study the incidence of and factors influencing “neck shortening” in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures using multiple cancellous screws. Material/Methods Of the 197 femoral neck fracture cases treated via closed reduction and cancellous screws fixation from January 2006 to February 2010, 110 were followed up. Patient age, gender, operative time, implantation method, reduction quality, fracture type, bone mineral density, loading time, length of hospital stay, and Harris hip score 12 months after operation were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups (shortening and non-shortening) based on their X-ray performance during follow-up. The healing rates and Harris hip scores of the two groups were compared, and the influencing factors of femoral neck shortening were analyzed. Results Of the 110 cases followed up, 94.5% (104/110) were healed and neck shortening occurred in 41.8% (46/110) within 12.5 months (mean) after treatment. The Harris hip score of the shortening group was lower than that of the non-shortening group (78±17 vs. 86±23, p=0.048). The fracture healing rates of the two groups were not significantly different (p=0.068). The factors influencing neck shortening were significantly correlated with bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture. Conclusions The incidence of neck shortening in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fracture using cancellous screws was high. Bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture were the influencing factors of neck shortening. PMID:28343233

  13. Patient-Identified Factors That Influence Spasticity in People with Stroke and Multiple Sclerosis Receiving Botulinum Toxin Injection Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Janice; Rancourt, Amanda; Di Poce, Stephanie; Levine, Amy; Hoang, Jessica; Ismail, Farooq; Boulias, Chris

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe the nature, extent, and impact of spasticity; determine factors that are perceived to influence its severity; and examine the relationship between time since diagnosis and impact of spasticity on daily activities in people with stroke and multiple sclerosis (MS) who are receiving botulinum toxin injection treatments. Methods: After a cross-sectional telephone survey, descriptive statistics and correlations were analyzed separately for the stroke and MS groups. Results: A total of 29 people with stroke and 10 with MS were surveyed. Both groups perceived increased spasticity with outdoor cold (69% stroke, 60% MS), muscle fatigue (59% stroke, 80% MS), and mental stress (59% stroke, 90% MS). No statistically significant correlations were found between time since diagnosis and perceived impact of spasticity on function in the stroke (r=0.07, p=0.37) or MS (r=0.16, p=0.33) groups. The MS group experienced bilateral and more severe perception of spasticity in the legs than the stroke group and identified more factors as worsening their spasticity (p<0.05). Severity of leg (but not arm) spasticity was significantly correlated with severity of impact of the following factors in the MS group only: lying on the back (r=0.70, p<0.05), outdoor heat (r=0.61, p<0.05), and morning (r=0.59, p<0.05). Conclusion: Intrinsic and extrinsic triggers can influence the perception of spasticity differently depending on individual factors, severity, location (arm vs. leg), and distribution of spasticity (unilateral vs. bilateral). Clinicians can use the findings to better understand, educate, and treat people with stroke and MS. PMID:25931667

  14. Neurons and astroglia govern microglial endotoxin tolerance through macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor-mediated ERK1/2 signals

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chun-Hsien; Wang, Shijun; Li, Chia-Ling; Chen, Shih-Heng; Hu, Chih-Fen; Chung, Yi-Lun; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Wang, Qingshan; Lu, Ru-Band; Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-Shyong

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a reduced responsiveness of innate immune cells like macrophages/monocytes to an endotoxin challenge following a previous encounter with the endotoxin. Although ET in peripheral systems has been well studied, little is known about ET in the brain. The present study showed that brain immune cells, microglia, being different from peripheral macrophages, displayed non-cell autonomous mechanisms in ET formation. Specifically, neurons and astroglia were indispensable for microglial ET. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) secreted from these non-immune cells was essential for governing microglial ET. Neutralization of M-CSF deprived the neuron-glia conditioned medium of its ability to enable microglia to form ET when microglia encountered two lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments. Recombinant M-CSF protein rendered enriched microglia refractory to the second LPS challenge leading to microglial ET. Activation of microglial M-CSF receptor (M-CSFR; also known as CSF1R) and the downstream ERK1/2 signals was responsible for M-CSF-mediated microglial ET. Endotoxin-tolerant microglia in neuron-glia cultures displayed M2-like polarized phenotypes, as shown by upregulation of M2 marker Arg-1, elevated production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10, and decreased secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor α, nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1β). Endotoxin-tolerant microglia protected neurons against LPS-elicited inflammatory insults, as shown by reduced neuronal damages in LPS pre-treatment group compared with the group without LPS pre-treatment. Moreover, while neurons and astroglia became injured during chronic neuroinflammation, microglia failed to form ET. Thus, this study identified a distinct non-cell autonomous mechanism of microglial ET. Interactions of M-CSF secreted by neurons and astroglia with microglial M-CSFR programed microglial ET. Loss of microglial ET could be an important

  15. Simulation of soil loss processes based on rainfall runoff and the time factor of governance in the Jialing River Watershed, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Liu, Xia; Mmereki, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Jialing River is the largest tributary in the catchment area of Three Gorges Reservoir, and it is also one of the important areas of sediment yield in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. In recent years, significant changes of water and sediment characteristics have taken place. The "Long Control" Project implemented since 1989 had greatly changed the surface appearance of the Jialing River Watershed (JRW), and it had made the environments of the watershed sediment yield and sediment transport change significantly. In this research, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation was selected and used to predict the annual average amount of soil erosion for the special water and sediment environments in the JRW after the implementation of the "Long Control" Project, and then the rainfall-runoff modulus and the time factor of governance were both considered as dynamic factors, the dynamic sediment transport model was built for soil erosion monitoring and forecasting based on the average sediment yield model. According to the dynamic model, the spatial and temporal distribution of soil erosion amount and sediment transport amount of the JRW from 1990 to 2007 was simulated using geographic information system (GIS) technology and space-grid algorithm. Simulation results showed that the average relative error of sediment transport was less than 10% except for the extreme hydrological year. The relationship between water and sediment from 1990 to 2007 showed that sediment interception effects of the soil and water conservation projects were obvious: the annual average sediment discharge reduced from 145.3 to 35 million tons, the decrement of sediment amount was about 111 million tons, and decreasing amplitude was 76%; the sediment concentration was also decreased from 2.01 to 0.578 kg/m(3). These data are of great significance for the prediction and estimation of the future changing trends of sediment storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir and the particulate non

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent and -independent routes control shedding of transmembrane growth factors through multiple secretases.

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Juan Carlos; Yuste, Laura; Díaz-Rodríguez, Elena; Esparís-Ogando, Azucena; Pandiella, Atanasio

    2002-01-01

    Solubilization of a number of membrane proteins occurs by the action of cell-surface proteases, termed secretases. Recently, the activity of these secretases has been reported to be controlled by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) routes. In the present paper, we show that shedding of membrane-anchored growth factors (MAGFs) may also occur through MAPK-independent routes. In Chinese-hamster ovary cells, cleavage induced by protein kinase C (PKC) stimulation was largely insensitive to inhibitors of the ERK1/ERK2 and p38 routes. Other reagents such as sorbitol or UV light stimulated MAGF cleavage independent of PKC. The action of sorbitol on cleavage was only partially prevented by the combined action of inhibitors of the p38 and ERK1/ERK2 routes, indicating that sorbitol can also stimulate shedding by MAPK-dependent and -independent routes. Studies in cells devoid of activity of the secretase tumour necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE) indicated that this protease had an essential role in PKC- and ERK1/ERK2-mediated shedding. However, secretases other than TACE may also cleave MAGFs since sorbitol could still induce shedding in these cells. These observations suggest that cleavage of MAGFs is a complex process in which multiple secretases, activated through different MAPK-dependent and -independent routes, are involved. PMID:11931648

  17. Proliferation of endothelial component of parathyroid gland in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Potential relationship with a mitogenic factor.

    PubMed Central

    D'Adda, T.; Amorosi, A.; Bussolati, G.; Brandi, M. L.; Bordi, C.

    1993-01-01

    The basic fibroblast growth factor-like mitogen detected in the plasma of patients with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1) syndrome was found to have a specific mitogenic effect on parathyroid endothelial cells in vitro. To investigate its pathogenic role in humans, the endothelial component of parathyroid glands was evaluated by ultrastructural morphometry in six MEN-1 patients. The results were compared with those found in six patients with uremic hyperparathyroidism (UHPT) and in three subjects with histologically normal glands. Plasma mitogenic activity was found in all MEN-1 patients but not in those with UHPT or in normal subjects. All morphometric parameters investigated (fractional volume and nuclear density of capillary endothelial cells, volume fraction and number per unit area of capillaries) showed 1.5- to 2-fold higher values in patients with MEN-1 than in those with UHPT (P < 0.05). In contrast, no difference was found between MEN-1 cases and normal subjects. Quantitative evaluation of parathyroid pericytes yielded results similar to those of endothelial cells. These data indicate that the proliferation of parathyroid cells in MEN-1 patients is accompanied by parallel increase in the associated endothelial component that does not occur in patients with UHPT and may support the hypothesis of an in vivo role of the MEN-1 mitogen factor on the endothelial component of parathyroid glands in MEN-1 patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:8102033

  18. Elevated Red Blood Cell Distribution Width as a Simple Prognostic Factor in Patients with Symptomatic Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyewon; Kong, Sun-Young; Sohn, Ji Yeon; Shim, Hyoeun; Youn, Hye Sun; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a parameter reported in complete blood cell count tests, and has been reported as an inflammatory biomarker. Multiple myeloma (MM) is known to be associated with inflammatory microenvironments. However, the importance of RDW has been seldom studied in MM. For this study, 146 symptomatic myeloma patients with available RDW at diagnosis were retrospectively reviewed, and their characteristics were compared between two groups, those with high (>14.5%) and normal (≤14.5%) RDW. RDW was correlated to hemoglobin, MM stage, β2-microglobulin, M-protein, bone marrow plasma cells, and cellularity (P < 0.001). During induction, overall response rates of the two groups were similar (P = 0.195); however, complete response rate was higher in the normal-RDW group than it was in the high-RDW group (P = 0.005). With a median follow-up of 47 months, the normal-RDW group showed better progression-free survival (PFS) (24.2 versus 17.0 months, P = 0.029) compared to the high-RDW group. Overall survival was not different according to the RDW level (P = 0.236). In multivariate analysis, elevated RDW at diagnosis was a poor prognostic factor for PFS (HR 3.21, 95% CI 1.24–8.32) after adjustment with other myeloma-related prognostic factors. RDW would be a simple and immediately available biomarker of symptomatic MM, reflecting the systemic inflammation. PMID:24963470

  19. Discovering perturbation of modular structure in HIV progression by integrating multiple data sources through non-negative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sumanta; Maulik, Ujjwal

    2016-12-20

    Detecting perturbation in modular structure during HIV-1 disease progression is an important step to understand stage specific infection pattern of HIV-1 virus in human cell. In this article, we proposed a novel methodology on integration of multiple biological information to identify such disruption in human gene module during different stages of HIV-1 infection. We integrate three different biological information: gene expression information, protein-protein interaction information and gene ontology information in single gene meta-module, through non negative matrix factorization (NMF). As the identified metamodules inherit those information so, detecting perturbation of these, reflects the changes in expression pattern, in PPI structure and in functional similarity of genes during the infection progression. To integrate modules of different data sources into strong meta-modules, NMF based clustering is utilized here. Perturbation in meta-modular structure is identified by investigating the topological and intramodular properties and putting rank to those meta-modules using a rank aggregation algorithm. We have also analyzed the preservation structure of significant GO terms in which the human proteins of the meta-modules participate. Moreover, we have performed an analysis to show the change of coregulation pattern of identified transcription factors (TFs) over the HIV progression stages.

  20. Impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity: analysis of multiple factors working at different spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Pinho, P; Augusto, S; Máguas, C; Pereira, M J; Soares, A; Branquinho, C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the impact of neighbourhood land-cover in epiphytic lichen diversity. We used geostatistics to analyse the spatial structure of lichen-indicators (number of lichen species and Lichen Diversity Value) and correlate them to land-cover considering different distances from the observed data. The results showed that lichen diversity was influenced by different environmental factors that act in the same territory but impact lichens at different distances from the source. The differences in the distance of influence of the several land-cover types seem to be related to the size of pollutants/particles that predominantly are dispersed by each land-cover type. We also showed that a local scale of analysis gives a deeper insight into the understanding of lichen richness and abundance in the region. This work highlighted the importance of a multiple spatial scale of analysis to deeply interpret the relation between lichen diversity and the underling environmental factors.

  1. Carfilzomib and pomalidomide in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma with baseline risk factors.

    PubMed

    Dimopoulos, M A; Sonneveld, P; Siegel, D; Palumbo, A; San-Miguel, J

    2015-11-01

    While survival times have increased over the last decade, most patients with multiple myeloma (MM) eventually relapse and become refractory to therapy. The treatment of patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM is frequently further complicated by the presence of pre-existing comorbidities that arise from an advanced disease state and of toxicities stemming from prior antimyeloma treatment. Carfilzomib and pomalidomide have recently been approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed and refractory MM. While these agents represent important additions to the available treatment options, the identification of patients who may best benefit from the use of each of therapy is still being investigated. A number of patient-related and disease-related factors may impact treatment efficacy and/or tolerability, and the clinical presentation and medical history of each patient must be carefully considered to optimize treatment. Here, we review results from carfilzomib and pomalidomide clinical trials in patients with relapsed and/or refractory MM who also have baseline comorbidities or treatment-induced or disease-induced complications (including the presence of renal impairment, cardiac risk factors, peripheral neuropathy, or high-risk chromosomal abnormalities) to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the two agents in these difficult-to-treat patients and to provide treatment recommendations specific to each scenario.

  2. Risk factors in multiple sclerosis: a population-based case-control study in Sicily. Background and methods.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Alessandra; Messina, Silvia; Bruno, Elisa; Mostile, Giovanni; Quattrocchi, Graziella; Raciti, Loredana; Dibilio, Valeria; Cappellani, Roberto; D'Amico, Emanuele; Sciacca, Giorgia; Lo Fermo, Salvatore; Paradisi, Vincenza; Patti, Francesco; Zappia, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has steeply increased over time during the last 30 years in the city of Catania. We carried out a population-based case-control study to evaluate the possible role of both environmental and genetic factors. From 1975 to 2004 in Catania, 367 MS patients diagnosed according to the Poser's criteria had the onset of disease. A sample of MS patients was randomly selected from this incident cohort. Three controls matched by age and sex were randomly selected from the rosters of 14 GPs. Controls were proportionally selected according to the distribution by municipality of the target population using a multistage sampling methods. All cases and controls underwent a face-to-face interview to record information concerning environmental factors and a blood sample was taken for serological and genetic analysis. 164 MS patients (64 % women; mean age of 46.4 ± 10.7) and 481 controls (69 % women; mean age of 47.7 ± 14.8) were enrolled in the study. The distribution of the whole population and the selected controls by municipalities was similar. A blood sample was taken from 150 MS cases and from 337 controls. At the end of the enrolment, we obtained a representative sample of the MS cases and population controls avoiding possible selection bias. Participation rate was very high also concerning the collection of biological specimens.

  3. Continuum of Care in a Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Program in Ghana: Low Completion Rate and Multiple Obstacle Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yeji, Francis; Shibanuma, Akira; Oduro, Abraham; Debpuur, Cornelius; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Owusu-Agei, Seth; Gyapong, Margaret; Okawa, Sumiyo; Ansah, Evelyn; Asare, Gloria Quansah; Nanishi, Keiko; Williams, John; Addei, Sheila; Tawiah, Charlotte; Yasuoka, Junko; Enuameh, Yeetey; Sakeah, Evelyn; Wontuo, Peter; Jimba, Masamine; Hodgson, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Slow progress has been made in achieving the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in Ghana. Ensuring continuum of care (at least four antenatal visits; skilled birth attendance; postnatal care within 48 hours, at two weeks, and six weeks) for mother and newborn is crucial in helping Ghana achieve these goals and beyond. This study examined the levels and factors associated with continuum of care (CoC) completion among Ghanaian women aged 15–49. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted among women who experienced live births between January 2011 and April 2013 in three regions of Ghana. In a two-stage random sampling method, 1,500 women with infants were selected and interviewed about maternal and newborn service usage in line with CoC. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with CoC completion. Results Only 8.0% had CoC completion; the greatest gap and contributor to the low CoC was detected between delivery and postnatal care within 48 hours postpartum. About 95% of women had a minimum of four antenatal visits and postnatal care at six weeks postpartum. A total of 75% had skilled assisted delivery and 25% received postnatal care within 48 hours. Factors associated with CoC completion at 95% CI were geographical location (OR = 0.35, CI 0.13–0.39), marital status (OR = 0.45; CI 0.22–0.95), education (OR = 2.71; CI 1.11–6.57), transportation (OR = 1.97; CI 1.07–3.62), and beliefs about childhood illnesses (OR = 0.34; CI0.21–0.61). Conclusion The continuum of care completion rate is low in the study site. Efforts should focus on increasing postnatal care within 48 hours and overcoming the known obstacles to increasing the continuum of care completion rate. PMID:26650388

  4. Evaluation of sensor, environment and operational factors impacting the use of multiple sensor constellations for long term resource monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengarajan, Rajagopalan

    Moderate resolution remote sensing data offers the potential to monitor the long and short term trends in the condition of the Earth's resources at finer spatial scales and over longer time periods. While improved calibration (radiometric and geometric), free access (Landsat, Sentinel, CBERS), and higher level products in reflectance units have made it easier for the science community to derive the biophysical parameters from these remotely sensed data, a number of issues still affect the analysis of multi-temporal datasets. These are primarily due to sources that are inherent in the process of imaging from single or multiple sensors. Some of these undesired or uncompensated sources of variation include variation in the view angles, illumination angles, atmospheric effects, and sensor effects such as Relative Spectral Response (RSR) variation between different sensors. The complex interaction of these sources of variation would make their study extremely difficult if not impossible with real data, and therefore, a simulated analysis approach is used in this study. A synthetic forest canopy is produced using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) model and its measured BRDFs are modeled using the RossLi canopy BRDF model. The simulated BRDF matches the real data to within 2% of the reflectance in the red and the NIR spectral bands studied. The BRDF modeling process is extended to model and characterize the defoliation of a forest, which is used in factor sensitivity studies to estimate the effect of each factor for varying environment and sensor conditions. Finally, a factorial experiment is designed to understand the significance of the sources of variation, and regression based analysis are performed to understand the relative importance of the factors. The design of experiment and the sensitivity analysis conclude that the atmospheric attenuation and variations due to the illumination angles are the dominant sources impacting the at

  5. MicroRNA miR-8 regulates multiple growth factor hormones produced from Drosophila fat cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, G J; Jun, J W; Hyun, S

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic organs such as the liver and adipose tissue produce several peptide hormones that influence metabolic homeostasis. Fat bodies, the Drosophila counterpart of liver and adipose tissues, have been thought to analogously secrete several hormones that affect organismal physiology, but their identity and regulation remain poorly understood. Previous studies have indicated that microRNA miR-8, functions in the fat body to non-autonomously regulate organismal growth, suggesting that fat body-derived humoral factors are regulated by miR-8. Here, we found that several putative peptide hormones known to have mitogenic effects are regulated by miR-8 in the fat body. Most members of the imaginal disc growth factors and two members of the adenosine deaminase-related growth factors are up-regulated in the absence of miR-8. Drosophila insulin-like peptide 6 (Dilp6) and imaginal morphogenesis protein-late 2 (Imp-L2), a binding partner of Dilp, are also up-regulated in the fat body of miR-8 null mutant larvae. The fat body-specific reintroduction of miR-8 into the miR-8 null mutants revealed six peptides that showed fat-body organ-autonomous regulation by miR-8. Amongst them, only Imp-L2 was found to be regulated by U-shaped, the miR-8 target for body growth. However, a rescue experiment by knockdown of Imp-L2 indicated that Imp-L2 alone does not account for miR-8's control over the insect's growth. Our findings suggest that multiple peptide hormones regulated by miR-8 in the fat body may collectively contribute to Drosophila growth.

  6. Prediction of the processing factor for pesticides in apple juice by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Gil Garcia, M D; Malato, O; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to establish a mathematical function that correlates pesticide residue levels in apple juice with the levels of the pesticides applied on the raw fruit, taking into account some of their physicochemical properties such as water solubility, the octanol/water partition coefficient, the organic carbon partition coefficient, vapour pressure and density. A mixture of 12 pesticides was applied to an apple tree; apples were collected after 10 days of application. After harvest, apples were treated with a mixture of three post-harvest pesticides and the fruits were then processed in order to obtain apple juice following a routine industrial process. The pesticide residue levels in the apple samples were analysed using two multi-residue methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The concentration of pesticides was determined in samples derived from the different steps of processing. The processing factors (the coefficient between residue level in the processed commodity and the residue level in the commodity to be processed) obtained for the full juicing process were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. In order to investigate the relationships between the levels of pesticide residue found in apple juice samples and their physicochemical properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using two sets of samples (one of them using experimental data obtained in this work and the other including the data taken from the literature). In both cases the correlation was found between processing factors of pesticides in the apple juice and the negative logarithms (base 10) of the water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient and organic carbon partition coefficient. The linear correlation between these physicochemical properties and the processing factor were established using a multiple linear regression technique.

  7. Terminal Uranium(V/VI) Nitride Activation of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Disulfide: Factors Governing Diverse and Well-Defined Cleavage and Redox Reactions.

    PubMed

    Cleaves, Peter A; Kefalidis, Christos E; Gardner, Benedict M; Tuna, Floriana; McInnes, Eric J L; Lewis, William; Maron, Laurent; Liddle, Stephen T

    2017-02-24

    The reactivity of terminal uranium(V/VI) nitrides with CE2 (E=O, S) is presented. Well-defined C=E cleavage followed by zero-, one-, and two-electron redox events is observed. The uranium(V) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)][K(B15C5)2 ] (1, Tren(TIPS) =N(CH2 CH2 NSiiPr3 )3 ; B15C5=benzo-15-crown-5) reacts with CO2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)][K(B15C5)2 ] (3), whereas the uranium(VI) nitride [U(Tren(TIPS) )(N)] (2) reacts with CO2 to give isolable [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)(NCO)] (4); complex 4 rapidly decomposes to known [U(Tren(TIPS) )(O)] (5) with concomitant formation of N2 and CO proposed, with the latter trapped as a vanadocene adduct. In contrast, 1 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(κ(2) -CS3 )][K(B15C5)2 ] (6), 2, and [K(B15C5)2 ][NCS] (7), whereas 2 reacts with CS2 to give [U(Tren(TIPS) )(NCS)] (8) and "S", with the latter trapped as Ph3 PS. Calculated reaction profiles reveal outer-sphere reactivity for uranium(V) but inner-sphere mechanisms for uranium(VI); despite the wide divergence of products the initial activation of CE2 follows mechanistically related pathways, providing insight into the factors of uranium oxidation state, chalcogen, and NCE groups that govern the subsequent divergent redox reactions that include common one-electron reactions and a less-common two-electron redox event. Caution, we suggest, is warranted when utilising CS2 as a reactivity surrogate for CO2 .

  8. Treatment modalities for surgical management of anterior palatal fistula: Comparison of various techniques, their outcomes, and the factors governing treatment plan: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Shetty, Pritham; Sharma, Abhimanyu; Ahlawat, Jyoti; Passi, Deepak; Singh, Mahinder

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aim of this retrospective study was to access the various surgical treatment options available for repair of Anterior palatal fistula depending upon their size and presenting age, and also to anticipate the treatment outcome. Materials and Methods: The series include study report of forty patients with secondary anterior palatal fistula post cleft palate repair, reported in a single unit during a duration of 3 years. All the cases were managed surgically under general anesthesia. The patients were classified depending upon the location of anterior palatal fistula (APF), the quality of tissue and age of patients to chalk out a justified treatment option outlay. Results: Forty cases were split for surgical correction into various options depending on their size, site, and quality of the tissue. Most of the cases were operated with a Bardach's Redo for fistula closure (n = 16) (40%) and crevicular flap technique (n = 13) (32.5%). Our overall success (satisfactory results) was 77.5% as observed in 31 out of 40 cases with individual success rates for Bardach's and crevicular being 75% and 77%, respectively. There was reduction in size of fistula in three cases (7.5%) and a remnant pinpoint hole in four cases (10%) among all the operated cases. Conclusion: Management of post palatoplasty fistulas of the hard palate presents a challenging situation for a clinician following the surgical correction of cleft palate. Current paper describes the diagnosis and clinical management of forty cases reporting with unilateral APF following cleft palate surgery, over 3 years. Authors have attempted to propose different treatment modalities for surgical management of unilateral APF. It was concluded in the primary review that the size of fistula was irrelevant in determining the clinical outcome. Instead, the quality and condition of the adjacent tissue appear to be the major governing factors for selecting treatment modality as well as the surgical consequences. PMID:28356685

  9. Classification and Clustering Methods for Multiple Environmental Factors in Gene-Environment Interaction: Application to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2016-11-01

    There has been an increased interest in identifying gene-environment interaction (G × E) in the context of multiple environmental exposures. Most G × E studies analyze one exposure at a time, but we are exposed to multiple exposures in reality. Efficient analysis strategies for complex G × E with multiple environmental factors in a single model are still lacking. Using the data from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, we illustrate a two-step approach for modeling G × E with multiple environmental factors. First, we utilize common clustering and classification strategies (e.g., k-means, latent class analysis, classification and regression trees, Bayesian clustering using Dirichlet Process) to define subgroups corresponding to distinct environmental exposure profiles. Second, we illustrate the use of an additive main effects and multiplicative interaction model, instead of the conventional saturated interaction model using product terms of factors, to study G × E with the data-driven exposure subgroups defined in the first step. We demonstrate useful analytical approaches to translate multiple environmental exposures into one summary class. These tools not only allow researchers to consider several environmental exposures in G × E analysis but also provide some insight into how genes modify the effect of a comprehensive exposure profile instead of examining effect modification for each exposure in isolation.

  10. Transformative environmental governance | Science Inventory ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  11. Multiple pathogenic factor-induced complications of cirrhosis in rats: A new model of hepatopulmonary syndrome with intestinal endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ying; Han, De-Wu; Zhao, Zhong-Fu; Liu, Ming-She; Wu, Yan-Jun; Chen, Xian-Ming; Ji, Cheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To develop and characterize a practical model of Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in rats. METHODS: The experimental animals were randomized into five feeding groups: (1) control (fed standard diet), (2) control plus intraperitoneal injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), (3) cirrhosis (fed a diet of maize flour, lard, cholesterol, and alcohol plus subcutaneously injection with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) oil solution), (4) cirrhosis plus LPS, and (5) cirrhosis plus glycine and LPS. The blood, liver and lung tissues of rats were sampled for analysis and characterization. Technetium 99m-labeled macroaggregated albumin (Tc99m-MAA) was used to test the dilatation of pulmonary microvasculature. RESULTS: Typical cirrhosis and subsequent hepato-pulmonary syndrome was observed in the cirrhosis groups after an 8 wk feeding period. In rats with cirrhosis, there were a decreased PaO2 and PaCO2 in arterial blood, markedly decreased arterial O2 content, a significantly increased alveolar to arterial oxygen gradient, an increased number of bacterial translocated within mesenteric lymph node, a significant higher level of LPS and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in plasma, and a significant greater ratio of Tc99m-MAA brain-over-lung radioactivity. After LPS administration in rats with cirrhosis, various pathological parameters got worse and pulmonary edema formed. The predisposition of glycine antagonized the effects of LPS and significantly alleviated various pathological alterations. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that: (1) a characte-ristic rat model of HPS can be non-invasively induced by multiple pathogenic factors including high fat diet, alcohol, cholesterol and CCl4; (2) this model can be used for study of hepatopulmonary syndrome and is clinically relevant; and (3) intestinal endotoxemia (IETM) and its accompanying cytokines, such as TNF-α, exert a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HPS in this model. PMID:17659698

  12. The effect of a joint communication campaign on multiple sex partners in Mozambique: the role of psychosocial/ideational factors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Maria Elena; Kincaid, D Lawrence; Hurley, Emily A

    2014-01-01

    Mozambique is one of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa most affected by the HIV epidemic. Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships (MSP/CP) have been recognized as one of the key drivers in the rapid spread of HIV in the region. Though HIV prevention programs have been successful in increasing condom use and HIV testing, reducing the practice of MSP/CP has been more difficult. Grounding their interventions in social and behavior change theory, four organizations in Mozambique joined efforts to implement a year-long, multimedia national campaign for HIV prevention with emphasis on the reduction of MSP/CP. Evaluating its impact and identifying the factors that hinder or contribute to its success are critical to building effective programs in the future. With data from a 2011 population-based survey of 1427 sexually active women and men, multivariate causal attribution (MCA) analysis was used to estimate the impact of the campaign in the four regions of Mozambique with the highest levels of HIV prevalence. The analysis tested the psychosocial pathways through which the campaign was expected to affect MSP. The results indicate that exposure (recall) was high; 81.2% of the respondents could recall one or more of the communication campaign components. The campaign had a significant indirect impact on MSP through its negative effect on attitudes that favor MSP, and its positive effect on knowledge and discussion of MSP risk with sex partner. This study demonstrates the value of identifying appropriate psychosocial factors and using them to design the campaign communication strategy, and evaluate the causal pathways by which it has an impact. The campaign was successful in changing MSP behavior by working through two psychosocial variables.

  13. Targeting the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor to overcome bortezomib resistance in preclinical models of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Deborah J; Berkova, Zuzana; Jones, Richard J; Woessner, Richard; Bjorklund, Chad C; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R Eric; Lin, Pei; Wang, Hua; Madden, Timothy L; Wei, Caimiao; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Wang, Michael; Thomas, Sheeba K; Shah, Jatin J; Weber, Donna M; Orlowski, Robert Z

    2012-10-18

    Proteasome inhibition with bortezomib is a validated approach to the treatment of multiple myeloma, but drug resistance often emerges and limits its utility in the retreatment setting. To begin to identify some of the mechanisms involved, we developed bortezomib-resistant myeloma cell lines that, unlike previously reported models, showed no β5 subunit mutations. Instead, up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis was identified, with increased autocrine and paracrine secretion of IGF-1, leading to increased activation of the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R). Exogenous IGF-1 reduced cellular sensitivity to bortezomib, whereas pharmacologic or small hairpin RNA-mediated IGF-1R suppression enhanced bortezomib sensitivity in cell lines and patient samples. In vitro studies with OSI-906, a clinically relevant dual IGF-1R and insulin receptor inhibitor, showed it acted synergistically with bortezomib, and potently resensitized bortezomib-resistant cell lines and patient samples to bortezomib. Importantly, OSI-906 in combination with bortezomib also overcame bortezomib resistance in an in vivo model of myeloma. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that signaling through the IGF-1/IGF-1R axis contributes to acquired bortezomib resistance, and provide a rationale for combining bortezomib with IGF-1R inhibitors like OSI-906 to overcome or possibly prevent the emergence of bortezomib-refractory disease in the clinic.

  14. Nuclear localization of a putative Phytophthora sojae bZIP1 transcription factor is mediated by multiple targeting motifs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yufeng; Tyler, Brett M

    2017-02-18

    Oomycetes are fungal-like eukaryotic microbes in the kingdom Stramenopila. We recently found that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora sojae uses nuclear localization signals (NLSs) for translocation of proteins into the nucleus that differ from conventional well-characterized NLSs from mammals and yeast. Here we have characterized in depth the nuclear localization signals of a P. sojae basic leucine zipper transcription factor, PsbZIP1. Nuclear localization of PsbZIP1 was determined by a central conserved region overlapping the DNA binding domain. Mutational analysis of this region identified four distinct elements that contributed multiplicatively to nuclear localization, but the conserved DNA binding residues were not required. Three of the elements showed autonomous NLS activity and the fourth served as a nuclear localization enhancer. Sequences within two of the nuclear localization elements defined a new form of bipartite NLS consisting of a triplet of basic residues followed by a tail of scattered basic amino acids. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor beta NcoI polymorphism is associated with inflammatory and metabolic markers in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kallaur, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Sayonara Rangel; Simão, Andréa Name Colado; de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Alfieri, Daniela Frizon; Pereira, Wildea Lice de Carvalho Jennings; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Kaimen-Maciel, Damácio Ramon; Maes, Michael; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the association between the tumor necrosis factor beta (TNF-β) NcoI polymorphism and inflammatory and metabolic markers in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and the association of these markers with disease disability, a 782 base-pair fragment of the TNF-β gene was amplified from genomic DNA and digested with the NcoI restriction enzyme. The serum levels of numerous cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-17) serum lipid levels, plasma insulin levels, and the Homeostasis Model Assessment-Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were evaluated in 123 female and 43 male patients with MS. Females carrying the TNFB2/B2 genotype presented with decreased IL-4 and IL-10 levels and increased TNF-α, glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR levels; moreover, there were positive correlations between EDSS and glucose and between EDSS and HOMA-IR in these females. Males carrying the TNFB2/B2 genotype exhibited increased levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17 (p=0.0326) and decreased levels of IL-4, IL-10, insulin, and HOMA-IR; there was a positive correlation between EDSS and TNF-α levels. The TNFB2/B2 genotype of TNF-β NcoI polymorphism was associated with increased inflammatory and metabolic markers and this association was different according to sex of MS patients.

  16. Factors Influencing Quality of Life for Disabled and Nondisabled Elderly Population: The Results of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Avolio, M.; Montagnoli, S.; Marino, M.; Basso, D.; Furia, G.; Ricciardi, W.; de Belvis, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of our study is to examine the role of some factors (sociodemographic patterns, social relationship support, and trust in healthcare actors) on structure of quality of life among the Italian elderly population, by stratifying according to presence or absence of disability. Methods. Using data of the Italian National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) survey, we obtained a sample of 25,183 Italian people aged 65+ years. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was used to test such a relationship. Results. By applying the MCA between disabled and nondisabled elderly population, we identified three dimensions: “demographic structure and social contacts,” “social relationships,” “trust in the Italian National Health Services (INHS).” Furthermore, the difference in trust on the INHS and its actors was seen among disabled and non-disabled elderly population. Conclusions. Knowledge on the concept of quality of life and its application to the elderly population either with or without disability should make a difference in both people's life and policies and practices affecting life. New domains, such as information and trusting relationships both within and towards the care network's nodes, are likely to play an important role in this relationship. PMID:23878536

  17. Berberine Improves Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats in Association with Multiple Factors of Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yanfeng; Wang, Yanwen; Zhang, Junzeng; Sun, Changhao; Lopez, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the effect of berberine on glucose homeostasis and several biomarkers associated with insulin sensitivity in male Wistar rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Rats with fasting blood glucose 16.7 mmol/L after 2 weeks of STZ injection were divided into two groups. One group was used as the diabetic control and another treated by gavage feeding with 100 mg/kg/d of berberine in water containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose. A group of rats without receiving STZ was used as the normal control. After 7 weeks, berberine supplementation moderately but significantly lowered fasting blood glucose levels and improved oral glucose tolerance. Berberine lowered plasma free fatty acids and C-reactive protein levels without affecting plasma insulin levels. Diabetic rats treated with berberine showed significantly lower plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels. Furthermore, berberine inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase-4 and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B activities. In conclusion, berberine showed a dramatic effect of lowering blood cholesterol and triacylglycerols and improved moderately glucose homeostasis in STZ-induced diabetic rats in association with multiple factors related to insulin resistance. PMID:22363882

  18. Multiparameter flow cytometric remission is the most relevant prognostic factor for multiple myeloma patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Bruno; Vidriales, Maria-Belén; Cerveró, Jorge; Mateo, Gema; Pérez, Jose J.; Montalbán, Maria A.; Sureda, Anna; Montejano, Laura; Gutiérrez, Norma C.; de Coca, Alfonso García; de las Heras, Natalia; Mateos, Maria V.; López-Berges, Maria C.; García-Boyero, Raimundo; Galende, Josefina; Hernández, Jose; Palomera, Luis; Carrera, Dolores; Martínez, Rafael; de la Rubia, Javier; Martín, Alejandro; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan J.; Orfao, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment is standard in many hematologic malignancies but is considered investigational in multiple myeloma (MM). We report a prospective analysis of the prognostic importance of MRD detection by multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) in 295 newly diagnosed MM patients uniformly treated in the GEM2000 protocol VBMCP/VBAD induction plus autologous stem cell transplantation [ASCT]). MRD status by MFC was determined at day 100 after ASCT. Progression-free survival (PFS; median 71 vs 37 months, P < .001) and overall survival (OS; median not reached vs 89 months, P = .002) were longer in patients who were MRD negative versus MRD positive at day 100 after ASCT. Similar prognostic differentiation was seen in 147 patients who achieved immunofixation-negative complete response after ASCT. Moreover, MRD− immunofixation-negative (IFx−) patients and MRD− IFx+ patients had significantly longer PFS than MRD+ IFx− patients. Multivariate analysis identified MRD status by MFC at day 100 after ASCT as the most important independent prognostic factor for PFS (HR = 3.64, P = .002) and OS (HR = 2.02, P = .02). Our findings demonstrate the clinical importance of MRD evaluation by MFC, and illustrate the need for further refinement of MM re-sponse criteria. This trial is registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT00560053. PMID:18669875

  19. The docking protein FRS2alpha is an essential component of multiple fibroblast growth factor responses during early mouse development.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, N; Manova, K; Tanaka, S; Murohashi, M; Hadari, Y; Lee, A; Hamada, Y; Hiroe, T; Ito, M; Kurihara, T; Nakazato, H; Shibuya, M; Lax, I; Lacy, E; Schlessinger, J

    2005-05-01

    The docking protein FRS2alpha is a major mediator of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. However, the physiological role of FRS2alpha in vivo remains unknown. In this report, we show that Frs2alpha-null mouse embryos have a defect in anterior-posterior (A-P) axis formation and are developmentally retarded, resulting in embryonic lethality by embryonic day 8. We demonstrate that FRS2alpha is essential for the maintenance of self-renewing trophoblast stem (TS) cells in response to FGF4 in the extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE) that gives rise to tissues of the placenta. By analyzing chimeric embryos, we found that FRS2alpha also plays a role in cell movement through the primitive streak during gastrulation. In addition, experiments are presented demonstrating that Bmp4 expression in TS cells is controlled by mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent FGF4 stimulation. Moreover, both the expression of Bmp4 in ExE and activation of Smad1/5 in epiblasts are reduced in Frs2alpha-null embryos. These experiments underscore the critical role of FRS2alpha in mediating multiple processes during embryonic development and reveal a potential new link between FGF and Bmp4 signaling pathways in early embryogenesis.

  20. The town of Cabar, Croatia, a high risk area for multiple sclerosis--analytic epidemiology of dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Perković, Olivio; Jurjević, Ante; Rudez, Josip; Antoncić, Igor; Bralić, Marina; Kapović, Miljenko

    2010-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is demyelization disease of central nervous system of unidentified causes. Analytic epidemiological research of 19 patients, clinically approved cases of MS and 25 controls, autochthonic inhabitants of town of Cabar, Croatia, the high-risk zone for the disease, was made. The research plan included case-control investigation--the "door to door" questionnaire--about nutrition habits. An odds ratio (OR) was calculated for all the factors which were more frequently found in the patients than in the controls, and vice versa. The variables that were connected with significant risk for MS in the town of Cabar included: alcohol consumption (p = 0.05), animal fats/dried meat products consumption (p = 0.007), nitrate salting (p = 0.03), strong spices (p = 0.007), mixed bread (p = 0.002), oat and oat products consumption (p = 0.0075). No connection was found with regular consumption of vegetables and fruit (p = 0.009), blue fresh fish (p = 0.028), other fresh fish (p = 0.03), freshwater fish (p = 0.002), canned fish (p = 0.004), dormouse meat (p = 0.007), air-dried meat products (p = 0.004) and using the water from water supply (p = 0.011). In the town of Cabar nutritional customs, primarily food rich in animal fats, alcohol-abuse, and oat consumption could have an influence on MS pathogenesis in genetically inclined individuals.

  1. A dynamic RNA loop in an IRES affects multiple steps of elongation factor-mediated translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Ruehle, Marisa D; Zhang, Haibo; Sheridan, Ryan M; Mitra, Somdeb; Chen, Yuanwei; Gonzalez, Ruben L; Cooperman, Barry S; Kieft, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) are powerful model systems to understand how the translation machinery can be manipulated by structured RNAs and for exploring inherent features of ribosome function. The intergenic region (IGR) IRESs from the Dicistroviridae family of viruses are structured RNAs that bind directly to the ribosome and initiate translation by co-opting the translation elongation cycle. These IRESs require an RNA pseudoknot that mimics a codon-anticodon interaction and contains a conformationally dynamic loop. We explored the role of this loop and found that both the length and sequence are essential for translation in different types of IGR IRESs and from diverse viruses. We found that loop 3 affects two discrete elongation factor-dependent steps in the IRES initiation mechanism. Our results show how the IRES directs multiple steps after 80S ribosome placement and highlights the often underappreciated significance of discrete conformationally dynamic elements within the context of structured RNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08146.001 PMID:26523395

  2. Aerobic training-induced improvements in arterial stiffness are not sustained in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Madden, K M; Lockhart, C; Cuff, D; Potter, T F; Meneilly, G S

    2013-01-01

    There is a well-established relationship between increased arterial stiffness and cardiovascular mortality. We examined whether a long-term aerobic exercise intervention (6 months) would increase arterial compliance in older adults with hypertension complicated by Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia. A total of 52 older adults (mean age 69.3±0.6 years, 30 males and 22 females) with diet/oral hypoglycemic-controlled T2DM, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were recruited. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an aerobic group (6 months vigorous aerobic exercise, AT group) and a non-aerobic group (6 months of no aerobic exercise, NA group). Arterial stiffness was measured as pulse-wave velocity (PWV) using the Complior device. Aerobic training decreased arterial stiffness as measured by both radial (P=0.001, 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures) and femoral (P=0.002) PWV. This was due to a decrease in arterial stiffness in the AT group after 3 months of training, which was not maintained after 6-month training for either radial (P=0.707) or femoral (P=0.680) PWV. Our findings indicate that in older adults with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, short-term improvements in arterial stiffness became attenuated over the long term. PMID:22951625

  3. Governance matters: an ecological association between governance and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ro-Ting; Chien, Lung-Chang; Chen, Ya-Mei; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Governance of a country may have widespread effects on the health of its population, yet little is known about the effect of governance on child mortality in a country that is undergoing urbanization, economic development, and disease control. Methods We obtained indicators of six dimensions of governance (perceptions of voice and accountability, political stability and absence of violence, government effectiveness, regulatory quality, rule of law, and control of corruption) and national under-5 mortality rates for 149 countries between 1996 and 2010. We applied a semi-parametric generalized additive mixed model to examine associations after controlling for the effects of development factors (urbanization level and economy), disease control factors (hygienic conditions and vaccination rates), health expenditures, air quality, and time. Results Governance, development, and disease control showed clear inverse relations with the under-5 mortality rate (p<0.001). Per unit increases in governance, development, and disease control factors, the child mortality rate had a 0.901-, 0.823-, and 0.922-fold decrease, respectively, at fixed levels of the other two factors. Conclusions In the effort to reduce the global under-5 mortality rate, addressing a country's need for better governance is as important as improvements in development and disease control. PMID:24711600

  4. Development of a modified factor analysis/multiple regression model to apportion suspended particulate matter in a complex urban airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morandi, Maria T.; Daisey, Joan M.; Lioy, Paul J.

    A modified factor analysis/multiple regression (FA/MR) receptor-oriented source apportionment model has been developed which permits application of FA/MR statistical methods when some of the tracers are not unique to an individual source type. The new method uses factor and regression analyses to apportion non-unique tracer ambient concentrations in situations where there are unique tracers for all sources contributing to the non-unique tracer except one, and ascribes the residual concentration to that source. This value is then used as the source tracer in the final FA/MR apportionment model for ambient paniculate matter. In addition, factor analyses results are complemented with examination of regression residuals in order to optimize the number of identifiable sources. The new method has been applied to identify and apportion the sources of inhalable particulate matter (IPM; D5015 μm), Pb and Fe at a site in Newark, NJ. The model indicated that sulfate/secondary aerosol contributed an average of 25.8 μ -3 (48%) to IPM concentrations, followed by soil resuspension (8.2 μ -3 or 15%), paint spraying/paint pigment (6.7/gmm -3or 13%), fuel oil burning/space heating (4.3 μ -3 or 8 %), industrial emissions (3.6 μm -3 or 7 %) and motor vehicle exhaust (2.7 μ -3 or 15 %). Contributions to ambient Pb concentrations were: motor vehicle exhaust (0.16μm -3or 36%), soil resuspension (0.10μm -3 or 24%), fuel oil burning/space heating (0.08μm -3or 18%), industrial emissions (0.07 μ -3 or 17 %), paint spraying/paint pigment (0.036 μm -3or 9 %) and zinc related sources (0.022 μ -3 or 5 %). Contributions to ambient Fe concentrations were: soil resuspension (0.43μ -3or 51%), paint spraying/paint pigment (0.28 μm -3or 33 %) and industrial emissions (0.15 μ -3or 18 %). The models were validated by comparing partial source profiles calculated from modeling results with the corresponding published source emissions composition.

  5. KAP Surveys and Dengue Control in Colombia: Disentangling the Effect of Sociodemographic Factors Using Multiple Correspondence Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    During the last few decades, several studies have analyzed and described knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of populations regarding dengue. However, few studies have applied geometric data analytic techniques to generate indices from KAP domains. Results of such analyses have not been used to determine the potential effects of sociodemographic variables on the levels of KAP. The objective was to determine the sociodemographic factors related to different levels of KAP regarding dengue in two hyper-endemic cities of Colombia, using a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) technique. In the context of a cluster randomized trial, 3,998 households were surveyed in Arauca and Armenia between 2012 and 2013. To generate KAP indexes, we performed a MCA followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis to classify each score in different groups. A quantile regression for each of the score groups was conducted. KAP indexes explained 56.1%, 79.7%, and 83.2% of the variance, with means of 4.2, 1.4, and 3.2 and values that ranged from 1 to 7, 7 and 11, respectively. The highest values of the index denoted higher levels of knowledge and practices. The attitudes index did not show the same relationship and was excluded from the analysis. In the quantile regression, age (0.06; IC: 0.03, 0.09), years of education (0.14; IC: 0.06, 0.22), and history of dengue in the family (0.21; IC: 0.12, 0.31) were positively related to lower levels of knowledge regarding dengue. The effect of such factors gradually decreased or disappeared when knowledge was higher. The practices indexes did not evidence a correlation with sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that the transformation of categorical variables into a single index by the use of MCA is possible when analyzing knowledge and practices regarding dengue from KAP questionnaires. Additionally, the magnitude of the effect of socioeconomic variables on the knowledge scores varies according to the levels of knowledge, suggesting

  6. Multiple factors govern the association between pharmacology and toxicity in a class of drugs: toward a unification of class effect terminology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dennis A; Harrison, Anthony; Morgan, Paul

    2011-04-18

    The term class effect has gained in use to describe a side effect including toxicity common to a series of drugs. There is no definition of what constitutes a class effect, and it is not applied against a rigid set of criteria.Thus, the finding of toxicity in one of a series of drugs can raise the concern of a class effect, especially if one or more of the others shows findings even slightly related or at very much lower incidence. This is particularly problematic when the term is used loosely or speculatively on initial events that are themselves of low incidence and serious. This speculation exaggerates and distorts the scientific process in establishing the true benefit risk of the individual drugs and can lead to lengthy development times, or highly restrictive labeling, to the detriment of patient welfare. To provide better definition and application of the term, we suggest that the term class effect toxicity is only used when a clear mechanistic link has been established between a safety concern and drug class based on (I) where the primary pharmacology delivers a clear rationale for the observed findings and toxicities; and (II) where the secondary pharmacology is obligate to the class of the molecule and not subject to variation of structure, and the selectivity cannot be impacted significantly by variations in potency introduced by structural manipulation. With these categorizations, we believe class effect toxicity will be mainly confined to I with examples such as the tetracycline class of antibacterials which inhibit protein synthesis both as a mechanism of antibacterial activity and to produce hepatic injury by mitochondrial injury in the liver.

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of WRKY Transcription Factors under Multiple Stresses in Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    He, Yajun; Mao, Shaoshuai; Gao, Yulong; Zhu, Liying; Wu, Daoming; Cui, Yixin; Li, Jiana; Qian, Wei

    2016-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors play important roles in responses to environmental stress stimuli. Using a genome-wide domain analysis, we identified 287 WRKY genes with 343 WRKY domains in the sequenced genome of Brassica napus, 139 in the A sub-genome and 148 in the C sub-genome. These genes were classified into eight groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In the 343 WRKY domains, a total of 26 members showed divergence in the WRKY domain, and 21 belonged to group I. This finding suggested that WRKY genes in group I are more active and variable compared with genes in other groups. Using genome-wide identification and analysis of the WRKY gene family in Brassica napus, we observed genome duplication, chromosomal/segmental duplications and tandem duplication. All of these duplications contributed to the expansion of the WRKY gene family. The duplicate segments that were detected indicated that genome duplication events occurred in the two diploid progenitors B. rapa and B. olearecea before they combined to form B. napus. Analysis of the public microarray database and EST database for B. napus indicated that 74 WRKY genes were induced or preferentially expressed under stress conditions. According to the public QTL data, we identified 77 WRKY genes in 31 QTL regions related to various stress tolerance. We further evaluated the expression of 26 BnaWRKY genes under multiple stresses by qRT-PCR. Most of the genes were induced by low temperature, salinity and drought stress, indicating that the WRKYs play important roles in B. napus stress responses. Further, three BnaWRKY genes were strongly responsive to the three multiple stresses simultaneously, which suggests that these 3 WRKY may have multi-functional roles in stress tolerance and can potentially be used in breeding new rapeseed cultivars. We also found six tandem repeat pairs exhibiting similar expression profiles under the various stress conditions, and three pairs were mapped in the stress related QTL regions

  8. Stationary spiraling eddies in presence of polar amplification of global warming as a governing factor of ecology of Greenland seals White Sea population: results of verification study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K.; Chernook, V.; Melentyev, V.

    2003-04-01

    Ice-associated forms of marine mammals are representatives of a high level of fodder chains in the ocean and taxation of population number for different group, as assessment of ecology and animal welfare are the important tasks for marine biology, ecology, fishery and other application uses. Many problems create a global warming and antropogenical impact on marine and coastal ecosystem. In order to investigate ice covered Arctic Ocean and charting the number of seals were performed annual inspections onboard research aircraft PINRO "Arktika". Multi-spectral airborne and satellite observations were fulfilled regularly from Barents and White Sea to the Bering and Okhotsk Sea (1996-2002). A contemporary status of different group of sea mammals was evaluated, where number of adults and pups were checked separately. In situ observations were provided with using helicopter and icebreaker for gathering a water samples and ice cores (with following biochemical and toxicological analysis). A prevailing part of life cycle of Greenland seals (harp seal) is strongly depended from winter hydrology (water masses, stable currents, meandering fronts, stationary eddies) and closely connected with type of ice (pack, fast ice) and other parameters of ice (age, origin, salinity, ice edge.). First-year ice floes which has a specific properties and distinctive features are used by harp seals for pupping, lactation, molting, pairing and resting. Ringed seals, inversely, use for corresponding purposes only fast-ice. Different aspects of ecology, and migration features of harp seals were analyzed in frame of verification study. It was revealed a scale of influence of winter severity and wind regime, but stationary eddies in the White Sea is most effective governing factor (novelty). Following relationship " eddies - ecology of Greenland seal White Sea population " will be discussed: A) regularities of eddies formation and their spatial arrangement, temporal (seasonal and annual

  9. Identification of the factors that govern the ability of therapeutic antibodies to provide postchallenge protection against botulinum toxin: a model for assessing postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against agents of bioterrorism and biological warfare.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M; Cao, Linsen; Simpson, Lance L

    2011-08-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare.

  10. Is Tobacco Use Associated with Academic Failure among Government School Students in Urban India?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhavan, Poonam; Stigler, Melissa H.; Perry, Cheryl L.; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Background: Not much is known about the academic correlates of tobacco use among students in developing countries. This study investigated associations between multiple forms of tobacco use, psychosocial risk factors, and academic failure among 10- to 16-year-old government school students in Delhi and Chennai, India. Methods: This study was a…

  11. Treatment Results of Postoperative Radiotherapy on Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity: Coexistence of Multiple Minor Risk Factors Results in Higher Recurrence Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Kang, Chung-Jan

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment results of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). Materials and Methods: This study included 302 OSCC patients who were treated by radical surgery and PORT. Indications for PORT include Stage III or IV OSCC according to the 2002 criteria of the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the presence of perineural invasion or lymphatic invasion, the depth of tumor invasion, or a close surgical margin. Patients with major risk factors, such as multiple nodal metastases, a positive surgical margin, or extracapsular spreading, were excluded. The prescribed dose of PORT ranged from 59.4 to 66.6Gy (median, 63Gy). Results: The 3-year overall and recurrence-free survival rates were 73% and 70%, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed that differentiation, perineural invasion, lymphatic invasion, bone invasion, location (hard palate and retromolar trigone), invasion depths {>=}10mm, and margin distances {<=}4mm were significant prognostic factors. The presence of multiple significant factors of univariate analysis correlated with disease recurrence. The 3-year recurrence-free survival rates were 82%, 76%, and 45% for patients with no risk factors, one or two risk factors, and three or more risk factors, respectively. After multivariate analysis, the number of risk factors and lymphatic invasion were significant prognostic factors. Conclusion: PORT may be an adequate adjuvant therapy for OSCC patients with one or two risk factors of recurrence. The presence of multiple risk factors and lymphatic invasion correlated with poor prognosis, and more aggressive treatment may need to be considered.

  12. 48 CFR 538.270 - Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evaluation of multiple... and Administering Federal Supply Schedules 538.270 Evaluation of multiple award schedule (MAS) offers... determining the Government's price negotiation objectives, consider the following factors: (1)...

  13. Advanced lytic lesion is a poor mobilization factor in peripheral blood stem cell collection in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Lee, Je-Jung

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the incidence and predictors of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization failure in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Retrospective data for 104 patients who received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone or with cyclophosphamide as mobilization regimens were analyzed. The rates of mobilization failure using two definitions of failure (< 2 × 10(6) and < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg) following the first collection attempt were 16.3 and 33.7%, respectively. Predictors of mobilization failure were evaluated using logistic regression analysis which included age, advanced osteolytic lesions, bone marrow cellularity before mobilization, platelet count, body mass index before mobilization, and mobilization method. Lytic bone lesions were assessed using a conventional skeletal survey, and advanced osteolytic lesions were defined as lytic lesions in more than three skeletal sites regardless of the number of lytic lesions. On multivariate analysis, advanced osteolytic lesions [hazard ratio (HR) = 10.95, P = 0.001] and age ≥60 years (HR = 5.45, P = 0.016) were associated with a PBSC yield < 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg, and advanced osteolytic lesions (HR = 5.08, P = 0.006), white blood cell count ≤4,000/µL before mobilization (HR = 4.72, P = 0.005), and G-CSF only mobilization (HR 10.52, P < 0.001) were associated with PBSC yield < 4 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The data suggest that an advanced osteolytic lesion is a significant predictor of mobilization failure in MM patients.

  14. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H; Chinapaw, Mai J M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18-23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days.

  15. Informal caregivers assisting people with multiple sclerosis: factors associated with the strength of the caregiver/care recipient relationship.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Robert J; Huang, Chunfeng

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify characteristics of informal caregivers, caregiving, and people with multiple sclerosis (MS) receiving this assistance that are associated with the strength of the care-giver/care recipient relationship. Data were collected in a national survey of informal caregivers and analyzed using an ordered logistic regression model to identify factors associated with caregiver perceptions of the strength of the relationship with the person with MS. The overall health of the person with MS was significantly associated with caregiver perceptions that providing assistance strengthened the caregiver/care recipient relationship, with poor health having a negative impact on the relationship. A spousal relationship between the caregiver and the person with MS was associated with significantly lower perceptions of a strengthened relationship. Conversely, caregiver perceptions that MS symptoms interfered with the independence of the person with MS in daily life were associated with caregiver perceptions of a strengthened relationship. Longer duration of caregiving and more hours per week spent providing assistance also were associated with a stronger relationship. In contrast, we found a significant negative association between caregiver perceptions that assisting the person with MS was burdensome and the strength of the relationship. Similarly, higher levels of education among caregivers tended to have a significantly negative impact on the caregiver/care recipient relationship. Our findings highlight the importance of addressing the needs and concerns of spousal caregivers. Health professionals who treat informal caregivers, as well as those treating people with MS, should be sensitive to the impact caregiving has on caregivers, especially spouses providing assistance.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic and immunologic factors: beneficial effects of riboflavin on motor disability in murine model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Amani, Reza; Sarkaki, Alireza; Ghadiri, Ata; Samarbafzadeh, Alireza; Jafarirad, Sima; Malehi, Amal Saki

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In the present study, C57BL/6 female mice (n=56) were used to explore the neuroprotective effects of riboflavin in motor disability of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: The animals were assigned into 7 groups: sham-operated 1 (SO1), healthy mice receiving PBS (phosphate buffer saline); sham-operated 2 (SO2), healthy mice receiving PBS and riboflavin; sham treatment 1 (ST1), EAE mice receiving water; sham treatment 2 (ST2), EAE mice receiving sodium acetate buffer; treatment 1 (T1), EAE mice receiving interferon beta-1a (INFβ-1a); treatment 2 (T2), EAE mice receiving riboflavin; treatment 3 (T3), EAE mice receiving INFβ-1a and riboflavin. After EAE induction, scoring was performed based on clinical signs. Upon detecting score 0.5, riboflavin at 10 mg/kg of body weight and/or INFβ-1a at 150 IU/g of body weight administration was started for two weeks. The brain and spinal cord levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) were studied using real-time PCR and ELISA methods. Results: BDNF expression and protein levels were increased in the brain and spinal cord of the T3 group compared with the other groups (P<0.01). IL-6 and IL-17A expressions were increased in the brains of the T3 and T1 groups, respectively, compared to the other groups (P<0.01). The daily clinical score was reduced significantly by riboflavin in both effector and chronic phases of the disease compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings showed that riboflavin is capable of suppressing the neurological disability mediated by BDNF and IL-6. PMID:27279989

  17. Identification of a novel regulatory sequence of actin nucleation promoting factor encoded by Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Zhang, Yongli; Han, Shili; Hu, Xue; Zhou, Yuan; Mu, Jingfang; Pei, Rongjuan; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Xinwen

    2015-04-10

    Actin polymerization induced by nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) is one of the most fundamental biological processes in eukaryotic cells. NPFs contain a conserved output domain (VCA domain) near the C terminus, which interacts with and activates the cellular actin-related protein 2/3 complex (Arp2/3) to induce actin polymerization and a diverse regulatory domain near the N terminus. Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) nucleocapsid protein P78/83 is a virus-encoded NPF that contains a C-terminal VCA domain and induces actin polymerization in virus-infected cells. However, there is no similarity between the N terminus of P78/83 and that of other identified NPFs, suggesting that P78/83 may possess a unique regulatory mechanism. In this study, we identified a multifunctional regulatory sequence (MRS) located near the N terminus of P78/83 and determined that one of its functions is to serve as a degron to mediate P78/83 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. In AcMNPV-infected cells, the MRS also binds to another nucleocapsid protein, BV/ODV-C42, which stabilizes P78/83 and modulates the P78/83-Arp2/3 interaction to orchestrate actin polymerization. In addition, the MRS is also essential for the incorporation of P78/83 into the nucleocapsid, ensuring virion mobility powered by P78/83-induced actin polymerization. The triple functions of the MRS enable P78/83 to serve as an essential viral protein in the AcMNPV replication cycle, and the possible roles of the MRS in orchestrating the virus-induced actin polymerization and viral genome decapsidation are discussed.

  18. Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation of the Presequence of Precursor MULTIPLE ORGANELLAR RNA EDITING FACTOR3 during Import into Mitochondria from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Law, Yee-Song; Zhang, Renshan; Guan, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Shifeng; Sun, Feng; Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W; Whelan, James; Lim, Boon Leong

    2015-10-01

    The nucleus-encoded mitochondria-targeted proteins, multiple organellar RNA editing factors (MORF3, MORF5, and MORF6), interact with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PURPLE ACID PHOSPHATASE2 (AtPAP2) located on the chloroplast and mitochondrial outer membranes in a presequence-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of the presequence of the precursor MORF3 (pMORF3) by endogenous kinases in wheat germ translation lysate, leaf extracts, or STY kinases, but not in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, resulted in the inhibition of protein import into mitochondria. This inhibition of import could be overcome by altering threonine/serine residues to alanine on the presequence, thus preventing phosphorylation. Phosphorylated pMORF3, but not the phosphorylation-deficient pMORF3, can form a complex with 14-3-3 proteins and HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN70. The phosphorylation-deficient mutant of pMORF3 also displayed faster rates of import when translated in wheat germ lysates. Mitochondria isolated from plants with altered amounts of AtPAP2 displayed altered protein import kinetics. The import rate of pMORF3 synthesized in wheat germ translation lysate into pap2 mitochondria was slower than that into wild-type mitochondria, and this rate disparity was not seen for pMORF3 synthesized in rabbit reticulocyte translation lysate, the latter translation lysate largely deficient in kinase activity. Taken together, these results support a role for the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of pMORF3 during the import into plant mitochondria. These results suggest that kinases, possibly STY kinases, and AtPAP2 are involved in the import of protein into both mitochondria and chloroplasts and provide a mechanism by which the import of proteins into both organelles may be coordinated.

  19. Effects of Multiple Sedentary Days on Metabolic Risk Factors in Free-Living Conditions: Lessons Learned and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Altenburg, Teatske M.; Rotteveel, Joost; Serné, Erik H.; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent experimental studies in adults have demonstrated that interruptions to prolonged sitting have beneficial effects on metabolic risk factors in adults, compared to prolonged sitting. We explored the hypothesis that multiple consecutive days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time may have an unfavorable effect on the postprandial response of C-peptide, glucose, and triglycerides in free-living healthy young men. Methods: In this explorative pilot study, healthy young men (n = 7; 18–23 years) consumed standardized mixed meals at 1 and 5 h during two experimental laboratory-sitting days, with 6 days of predominantly prolonged sedentary time in between. Serum and plasma samples were obtained hourly from 0 to 8 h for measurement of glucose, C-peptide, and triglycerides. Participant's sedentary time was monitored using an accelerometer during the prolonged sedentary days as well as during 6 normal days prior to the first laboratory day. Differences in postprandial levels were assessed using generalized estimating equations analysis. Due to the explorative nature of this study and the small sample size, p-value was set at <0.10. Results: Overall, when expressed as % of wear time, sedentary time was 5% higher during the 6 prolonged sedentary days, which was not significantly different compared to the 6 normal days (n = 4). Following 6 prolonged sedentary days, postprandial levels of C-peptide were significantly higher than at baseline (B = 0.11; 90%CI = [0.002; 0.22]; n = 7). Postprandial levels of glucose and triglycerides were not significantly different between the 2 laboratory days. Conclusions: Due to the relatively high sedentary time at baseline, participants were unable to increase their sedentary time substantially. Nevertheless, postprandial C-peptide levels were slightly higher after 6 prolonged sedentary days than after 6 normal days. PMID:28018243

  20. A High-Throughput Photodynamic Therapy Screening Platform with On-Chip Control of Multiple Microenvironmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Xia; Kim, Gwangseong; Yoon, Hyung Ki; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel high-throughput microfluidic platform that enables the evaluation of the anticancer efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) drugs over multiple microenvironmental factors. PDT is uniquely complex, originating from its dependence on three separate but essential elements: drug (or also called photosensitizer), oxygen, and light. Thus, obtaining a reliable evaluation of PDT efficacy is highly challenging, requiring considerable effort and time to evaluate all three interdependent parameters. In this paper, we report a high-throughput efficacy screening platform that we implemented by developing microfluidic components that individually control basic PDT elements (photosensitizer concentrations, oxygen levels, and light fluence), and then integrating them into a single triple-layer device. The integrated microfluidic chip consists of an array of small compartment, each corresponding to a specific combination of these three variables. This allows for more than 1,000 different conditions being tested in parallel. Cancer cells are cultured within the device, exposed to different PDT conditions, and then monitored for their viability using live/dead fluorescence staining. The entire screening assay takes only 1 hour, and the collected PDT outcomes (cell viability) for combinatorial screening are analysed and reported as traditional dose-response curves or 3D bubble charts using a custom software. As a proof of concept, methylene blue is adopted as a photosensitizer and its drug efficacy on C6 glioma cells has been successfully evaluated for total 324 PDT conditions using the fabricated chip. This platform can facilitate not only the development of new photosensitizers but also the optimization of current PDT protocols. PMID:24394779

  1. Genetic risk factors for decreased bone mineral accretion in children with asthma receiving multiple oral corticosteroid bursts

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heung-Woo; Ge, Bing; Tse, Szeman; Grundberg, Elin; Pastinen, Tomi; Kelly, H. William; Tantisira, Kelan G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Long-term, intermittent oral corticosteroid (OCS) use in children with asthma leads to significant decrements in bone mineral accretion (BMA). We aimed to identify genetic factors influencing OCS dose effects on BMA in children with asthma. Methods We first performed a gene by OCS interaction genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BMA in 489 white participants in the Childhood Asthma Management Program trial, who took short-term oral prednisone bursts when they experienced acute asthma exacerbations. We selected the top-ranked 2,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the GWAS and determined whether these SNPs also had cis-regulatory effects on dexamethasone-induced gene expression in osteoblast cells. Results We identified two SNPs (rs9896933 and rs2074439) associated with decreased BMA and related to the tubulin γ pathway. Rs9896933 met criteria for genome-wide significance (P = 3.15 ×10−8 in GWAS) and is located on the intron of tubulin folding cofactor D gene. Rs2074439 (P = 2.74 × 10−4 in GWAS) showed strong cis-regulatory effects on dexamethasone-induced tubulin γ gene expression in osteoblast cells (P = 8.64 × 10−4). Interestingly, we found that BMA worsened with increased dose of prednisone as the number of mutant alleles of the two SNPs increased. Conclusions We have identified two novel tubulin γ pathway SNPs, rs9896933 and rs2074439, showing independent interactive effects with cumulative corticosteroid dose on BMA in children with asthma receiving multiple OCS bursts. PMID:26025128

  2. Changes in Blood B Cell-Activating Factor (BAFF) Levels in Multiple Sclerosis: A Sign of Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kannel, Karin; Alnek, Kristi; Vahter, Liina; Gross-Paju, Katrin; Uibo, Raivo; Kisand, Kalle V.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is mediated primarily by autoreactive T cells. However, evidence suggesting the involvement of humoral immunity in brain diseases has increased interest in the role of B cells and their products during MS pathogenesis. The major survival factor for B cells, BAFF has been shown to play a role in several autoimmune conditions. Elevated BAFF levels have been reported in MS animal model and during MS relapse in patients. Moreover, disease-modifying treatments (DMT) reportedly influence blood BAFF levels in MS patients, but the significance of these changes remains unclear. The present study addresses how blood BAFF levels are associated with the clinical course of relapsing-remitting MS and the effectiveness of DMT and short-term steroid treatment. During a prospective longitudinal follow-up of 2.3 years, BAFF was measured in the blood of 170 MS patients in the stable phase and within 186 relapses. BAFF levels were significantly higher in MS patients compared to healthy controls. However, stable MS patients without relapses exhibited significantly higher BAFF levels than relapsing patients. Treatment with interferon-β and immunosuppressants raised BAFF blood levels. Interestingly, a similar effect was not seen in patients treated with glatiramer acetate. Short-term treatment with high doses of intravenous methylprednisolone did not significantly alter plasma BAFF levels in 65% of relapsing-remitting MS patients. BAFF were correlated weakly but significantly with monocyte and basophil counts, but not with other blood cell types (neutrophils, lymphocytes, or eosinophils) or inflammatory biomarkers. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that higher blood BAFF levels may reflect a more stable and effective MS treatment outcome. These results challenge hypotheses suggesting that elevated blood BAFF levels are associated with more severe disease presentation and could explain the recent failure of pharmaceutical trials targeting

  3. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition

  4. The Drosophila Transcription Factor Dimmed Affects Neuronal Growth and Differentiation in Multiple Ways Depending on Neuron Type and Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Nässel, Dick R.

    2016-01-01

    Growth of postmitotic neurons occurs during different stages of development, including metamorphosis, and may also be part of neuronal plasticity and regeneration. Recently we showed that growth of post-mitotic neuroendocrine cells expressing the basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor Dimmed (Dimm) in Drosophila could be regulated by insulin/IGF signaling and the insulin receptor (dInR). Dimm is also known to confer a secretory phenotype to neuroendocrine cells and can be part of a combinatorial code specifying terminal differentiation in peptidergic neurons. To further understand the mechanisms of Dimm function we ectopically expressed Dimm or Dimm together with dInR in a wide range of Dimm positive and Dimm negative peptidergic neurons, sensory neurons, interneurons, motor neurons, and gut endocrine cells. We provide further evidence that dInR mediated cell growth occurs in a Dimm dependent manner and that one source of insulin-like peptide (DILP) for dInR mediated cell growth in the CNS is DILP6 from glial cells. Expressing both Dimm and dInR in Dimm negative neurons induced growth of cell bodies, whereas dInR alone did not. We also found that Dimm alone can regulate cell growth depending on specific cell type. This may be explained by the finding that the dInR is a direct target of Dimm. Conditional gene targeting experiments showed that Dimm alone could affect cell growth in certain neuron types during metamorphosis or in the adult stage. Another important finding was that ectopic Dimm inhibits apoptosis of several types of neurons normally destined for programmed cell death (PCD). Taken together our results suggest that Dimm plays multiple transcriptional roles at different developmental stages in a cell type-specific manner. In some cell types ectopic Dimm may act together with resident combinatorial code transcription factors and affect terminal differentiation, as well as act in transcriptional networks that participate in long term maintenance

  5. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Do, Dung Van

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37-2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37-2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition, the

  6. Effect of glatiramer acetate on peripheral blood brain-derived neurotrophic factor and phosphorylated TrkB levels in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vacaras, Vitalie; Major, Zsigmond Z; Muresanu, Dafin F; Krausz, Tibor L; Marginean, Ioan; Buzoianu, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) is one of the most widely used disease-modifying drugs for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis; is assumed to have inductor effects on neurotrophic factor expression. One of these neurotrophic factor systems is the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/receptor tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) pathway. Peripheral blood is thought to contain soluble BDNF, and some blood cells express TrkB. We attempted to determine whether GA treatment leads to changes in plasma BDNF levels and TrkB activation. Such a phenomenon are relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients is significantly reduced; GA treatment is not influencing peripheral BDNF levels, after one year of sustained therapy, not from the point of view of total free BDNF nor the phosphorylated TrkB.

  7. The Molecular Circuitry Governing Retinal Determination

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Justin P.

    2009-01-01

    The developing eye of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has become a premier model system for studying the genetic and molecular mechanisms that govern tissue determination. Over the last fifteen years a regulatory circuit consisting of the members of the Pax, Six, Eya and Dach gene families has been identified and shown to govern the specification of a wide range of tissues including the retina of both insects and mammals. These genes are not organized in a simple developmental pathway or cascade in which there is a unidirectional flow of information. Rather, there are multiple feedback loops built into the system rendering its appearance and functionality more in line with the workings of a network. In this review I will attempt to describe the genetic, molecular and biochemical interactions that govern the specification of the Drosophila compound eye. In particular, the primary focus will be on the interactions that have been experimentally verified at the molecular and biochemical levels. During the course of this description I will also attempt to place each discovery in its own historical context. While a number of signaling pathways play significant roles in early eye development this review will focus on the network of nuclear factors that promote retinal determination. PMID:19013263

  8. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2014-09-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (∼50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (∼700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 μm, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn).

  9. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, B. M.; Aravena, R.; Davis, G. B.; Furness, A. J.; Bastow, T. P.; Bouchard, D.

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ13C - 5.2 to - 10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ13C - 39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO2 isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO2 was highly isotopically depleted (δ13C - 28.8 to - 33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO2 data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ13C = - 14.7 to - 21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ13C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ13C values (- 36.8 to - 39.5‰), suggesting CO2 originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO2 concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour biodegradation

  10. Multiple lines of evidence to demonstrate vinyl chloride aerobic biodegradation in the vadose zone, and factors controlling rates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, B M; Aravena, R; Davis, G B; Furness, A J; Bastow, T P; Bouchard, D

    2013-10-01

    A field-based investigation was conducted at a contaminated site where the vadose zone was contaminated with a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The investigation consisted of groundwater and multilevel soil-gas monitoring of a range of contaminants and gases, along with isotope measurements and microbiology studies. The investigation provided multiple lines of evidence that demonstrated aerobic biodegradation of vinyl chloride (VC) was occurring in the vadose zone (i) above the on-site source zone, and (ii) above the downgradient off-site groundwater plume location. Data from both the on-site and off-site locations were consistent in showing substantially greater (an order of magnitude greater) rates of VC removal from the aerobic vadose zone compared to more recalcitrant contaminants trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Soil gas VC isotope analysis showed substantial isotopic enrichment of VC (δ¹³C -5.2 to -10.9‰) compared to groundwater (δ¹³C -39.5‰) at the on-site location. Soil gas CO₂ isotope analysis at both locations showed that CO₂ was highly isotopically depleted (δ¹³C -28.8 to -33.3‰), compared to soil gas CO₂ data originating from natural sediment organic matter (δ¹³C= -14.7 to -21.3‰). The soil gas CO2 δ¹³C values were consistent with near-water table VC groundwater δ¹³C values (-36.8 to -39.5‰), suggesting CO₂ originating from aerobic biodegradation of VC. Bacteria that had functional genes (ethene monooxygenase (etnC) and epoxyalkane transferase (etnE)) involved in ethene metabolism and VC oxidation were more abundant at the source zone where oxygen co-existed with VC. The distribution of VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, together with long-term changes in soil gas CO₂ concentrations and temperature, provided information to elucidate the factors controlling aerobic biodegradation of VC in the vadose zone. Based on the overlapping VC and oxygen vadose zone vapour plumes, aerobic vapour

  11. Characterization of concentration, particle size distribution, and contributing factors to ambient hexavalent chromium in an area with multiple emission sources

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Huang, Lihui; Shin, Jin Young; Artigas, Francisco; Fan, Zhi-hua (Tina)

    2015-01-01

    Airborne hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a known pulmonary carcinogen and can be emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources, including diesel emissions. However, there is limited knowledge about ambient Cr(VI) concentration levels and its particle size distribution. This pilot study characterized ambient Cr(VI) concentrations in the New Jersey Meadowlands (NJ ML) district, which is close to the heavily trafficked New Jersey Turnpike (NJTPK) as well as Chromium Ore Processing Residue (COPR) waste sites. Monitoring was simultaneously conducted at two sites, William site (~50 m from NJTPK) and MERI site (~700 m from NJTPK). The distance between the two sites is approximately 6.2 km. Ambient Cr(VI) concentrations and PM2.5 mass concentrations were concurrently measured at both sites during summer and winter. The summer concentrations (mean ± S.D. [median]), 0.13 ± 0.06 [0.12] ng/m3 at the MERI site and 0.08 ± 0.05 [0.07] ng/m3 at the William site, were all significantly higher than the winter concentrations, 0.02 ± 0.01 [0.02] ng/m3 and 0.03 ± 0.01 [0.03] ng/m3 at the MERI and William sites, respectively. The site difference (i.e., MERI > William) was observed for summer Cr(VI) concentrations; however, no differences for winter and pooled datasets. These results suggest higher Cr(VI) concentrations may be attributed from stronger atmospheric reactions such as photo-oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the summer. The Cr(VI) distribution as a function of particle size, ranging from 0.18 to 18 μm, was determined at the William site. It was found that Cr(VI) was enriched in the particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5). This finding suggested potential health concerns, because PM2.5 are easily inhaled and deposited in the alveoli. A multiple linear regression analysis confirmed ambient Cr(VI) concentrations were significantly affected by meteorological factors (i.e., temperature and humidity) and reactive gases/particles (i.e., O3, Fe and Mn). PMID

  12. The CCND1 870G>A polymorphism is a risk factor for t(11;14)(q13;q32) multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bowang; Försti, Asta; Hosking, Fay J; Broderick, Peter; Ma, Yussanne P; Dobbins, Sara E; Hose, Dirk; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Kaiser, Martin F; Li, Ni L; Gregory, Walter A; Jackson, Graham H; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Neben, Kai; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Eisele, Lewin; Ross, Fiona M; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Houlston, Richard S; Morgan, Gareth J; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    A number of specific chromosomal abnormalities define the subgroups of multiple myeloma. In a meta-analysis of two genomewide association studies of multiple myeloma totaling 1,661 patients we investigated risk for developing a specific tumor karyotype. The t(11;14) (q13;q32) translocation in which CCDN1 is placed under the control of the immunoglobin heavy chain enhancer was strongly associated with the CCDN1 870G>A polymorphism (P =7.96 x10-11). These results provide for a model in which a constitutional genetic factor is associated with risk of a specific chromosomal translocation. PMID:23502783

  13. Legal and Institutional Foundations of Adaptive Environmental Governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legal and institutional structures fundamentally shape opportunities for adaptive governance of environmental resources at multiple ecological and societal scales. Properties of adaptive governance are widely studied. However, these studies have not resulted in consolidated frame...

  14. Risk factors for development of multiple-class resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae Strains in Belgium over a 10-year period: antimicrobial consumption, population density, and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Van Eldere, Johan; Mera, Robertino M; Miller, Linda A; Poupard, James A; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the impact of the usage of antibiotics in ambulatory patients in Belgium in 147 defined geographical circumscriptions and at the individual isolate level. The study included 14,448 Streptococcus pneumoniae strains collected by the Belgium national reference lab from 1994 to 2004. Additional risk factors for resistance, such as population density/structure and day care attendance, were investigated for the same time-space window. A statistical model that included resistance to two or more antimicrobial classes offered the best fit for measuring the changes in nonsusceptibility to penicillin, macrolides, and tetracycline over time and place in Belgium. Analysis at the geographic level identified antimicrobial consumption with a 1-year lag (0.5% increase per additional defined daily dose) and population density as independent predictors of multiple resistance. Independent risk factors at the isolate level were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.55 for children aged <5 years), population density (7% increase in multiple resistance per 100 inhabitants/km(2)), conjugate 7-valent vaccine serotype (OR, 14.3), location (OR, 1.55 for regions bordering high-resistance France), and isolate source (OR, 1.54 for ear isolates). The expansion of multiple-resistant strains explains most of the overall twofold increase and subsequent decrease in single antimicrobial resistance between 1994 and 2004. We conclude that factors in addition to antibiotic use, such as high population density and proximity to high-resistance regions, favor multiple resistance. Regional resistance rates are not linearly related to actual antibiotic use but are linked to past antibiotic use plus a combination of demographic and geographic factors.

  15. Multiple Frequency Parametric Sonar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-28

    300003 1 MULTIPLE FREQUENCY PARAMETRIC SONAR STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and...beams. However, the multiple nonlinear interactions are not taken advantage of in order to generate additional efficiencies, bandwidth, and SNR...array. [0050] It will be understood that many additional changes in details, materials , steps, and arrangements of parts which have been described

  16. Clinical significance of hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AB, and transforming growth factor-alpha in bone marrow and peripheral blood of patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Kara, Ismail Oguz; Sahin, Berksoy; Gunesacar, Ramazan; Unsal, Cagatay

    2006-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a process that plays an important role in the growth and progression of cancer; growing evidence suggests that neovascularization is important in hematologic malignancies. Increased angiogenic potential has been identified in multiple myeloma (MM). In this study, investigators simultaneously measured the levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGFAB), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of 30 patients with MM and 10 healthy controls. Differences in HGF values in BM sera were significant (P=.001) between patients and controls. In detailed analyses of HGF, PDGF-AB, and TGF-alpha, according to disease stage, a significant correlation was found between disease stage and BM HGF (P=.047), BM TGF-alpha (P=.021), and PB PDGF-AB (P=.006), respectively. When correlations between all other parameters were analyzed, significance was noted between PB TGF-alpha and lactate dehydrogenase (P=.02), PB TGF-alpha and PB HGF (P=.002), BM TGF-alpha and CD38 (P=.046), BM TGF-alpha and BM HGF (P=.000), BM TGF-alpha and BM PDGF-AB (P=.048), BM HGF and PB HGF (P=.044), and BM PDGF-AB and PB PDGF-AB (P=.000). BM HGF levels had a significant effect on overall survival, with disease severity assessed in terms of disease stage (P=.0018, log-rank test). These data show that in patients with MM, high levels of BM HGF, BM TGF-alpha, and PB PDGF-AB were associated with advanced disease stage; in addition, HGF played a significant role in disease processing and was related to disease severity. These findings have also led to the concept of a symbiotic relationship between the growth of myeloma cells and HGF, TGF-alpha, and PDGFAB in BM.

  17. A registry-based case-control study of risk factors for the development of multiple non-fatal injuries on the job.

    PubMed

    Li, C Y; Du, C L; Chen, C J; Sung, F C

    1999-07-01

    Using compensation records of Taiwan, we conducted a case-control study nested within a cohort of 77,846 active workers who experienced at least one incidence of non-fatal work-related injury between 1994 and 1996 in order to explore factors associated with risk of sustaining multiple non-fatal injuries in the workplace. Cases (n = 2,616) were workers with more than three incidences of non-fatal injury during the study period and controls (n = 3,974) were randomly sampled from workers who experienced only one incidence of non-fatal injury during the same period. Compared with construction workers, workers employed in mining and quarrying (OR = 2.7), manufacturing (OR = 1.2), commerce (OR = 1.6), transport, storage and communication (OR = 1.3) and social, personal and community service (OR = 1.4) were all at significantly elevated risk of multiple non-fatal injuries. Both age and wage showed a significant dose-response effect on the risk of developing multiple non-fatal injuries. The preliminary analysis suggests that workers in certain industries are at significantly elevated risks of multiple work-related non-fatal injuries, in particular those in the mining and quarry industries. Additionally, further preventive measures should be aimed at protecting older workers from such injuries and further studies would help provide more specific interpretations on the positive association between higher wage earning and risk of multiple non-fatal injuries.

  18. Patterns of Service Use, Individual and Contextual Risk Factors, and Resilience among Adolescents Using Multiple Psychosocial Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Michael; Liebenberg, Linda; Dudding, Peter; Armstrong, Mary; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very little research has examined the relationship between resilience, risk, and the service use patterns of adolescents with complex needs who use multiple formal and mandated services such as child welfare, mental health, juvenile justice, and special educational supports. This article reports on a study of 497 adolescents in…

  19. The Relationship of Selected Supply- and Demand-Side Factors to Forms of Perceived Discrimination among Adults with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Neath, Jeanne; McMahon, Brian T.; Rumrill, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    Single-predictor and stepwise multinomial logistic regression analyses and an external validation were completed on 3,082 allegations of employment discrimination by adults with multiple sclerosis. Women filed two thirds of the allegations, and individuals between 31 and 50 made the vast majority of discrimination charges (73%). Allegations…

  20. Examining the Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Quality of Life Scale among People with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M.; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Bishop, Malachy; Merchant, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitation counseling researchers seeking to more fully understand the phenomenon of psychosocial adaptation to disability are devoting increased attention to the impact of disability on quality of life (QOL). This impact has been of particular interest among multiple sclerosis (MS) researchers. The complex etiology, unpredictable nature, and…

  1. Student Ratings of the Importance of Survey Items, Multiplicative Factor Analysis, and the Validity of the Community of Inquiry Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Sebastian R.; Swan, Karen; Ice, Philip; Kupczynski, Lori

    2010-01-01

    This research builds upon prior validation studies of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) survey by utilizing multiple rating measures to validate the survey's tripartite structure (teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence). In prior studies exploring the construct validity of these 3 subscales, only respondents' course ratings were…

  2. Assessing the Impact of Faking on Binary Personality Measures: An IRT-Based Multiple-Group Factor Analytic Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Anguiano-Carrasco, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a model-based multiple-group procedure for assessing the impact of faking on personality measures and the scores derived from these measures. The assessment is at the item level and the base model, which is intended for binary items, can be parameterized both as an Item Response Theory (IRT) model and as an Item…

  3. Single versus Multiple Suicide Attempts: A Prospective Examination of Psychiatric Factors and Wish to Die/Wish to Live Index

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-18

    to another base, his post-traumatic stress and depressive symptoms worsened. Prior to his suicide , he made two unsuccessful attempts. His mother...one suicide attempt in women. Trauma history. Individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder may display self-destructive and impulsive behaviors...Afghanistan war veterans reporting SINGLE VERSUS MULTIPLE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS 103       subthreshold and threshold Posttraumatic Stress

  4. Multiple-Component Remediation for Developmental Reading Disabilities: IQ, Socioeconomic Status, and Race as Factors in Remedial Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robin D.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Wolf, Maryanne; Sevcik, Rose A.; Steinbach, Karen A.; Frijters, Jan C.; Shapiro, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a controlled evaluation of remedial reading interventions are reported: 279 young disabled readers were randomly assigned to a program according to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design (IQ, socioeconomic status [SES], and race). The effectiveness of two multiple-component intervention programs for children with reading disabilities (PHAB +…

  5. Multiple versus Single Maintaining Factors of Challenging Behaviours as Assessed by the QABF for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Boisjoli, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The "Questions About Behavioral Function" (QABF) correctly identifies maintaining variables of challenging behaviour. However, for adults who have a long history of challenging behaviours, identifying one clear function of the maladaptive behaviour is difficult. Additionally, the person may develop multiple functions of their…

  6. Predicting probability of occurrence and factors affecting distribution and abundance of three Ozark endemic crayfish species at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolen, Matthew S.; Magoulick, Daniel D.; DiStefano, Robert J.; Imhoff, Emily M.; Wagner, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    We found that a range of environmental variables were important in predicting crayfish distribution and abundance at multiple spatial scales and their importance was species-, response variable- and scale dependent. We would encourage others to examine the influence of spatial scale on species distribution and abundance patterns.

  7. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of Hspa1a gene by multiple transcription factors: crucial roles for HSF-1, NF-Y, NF-κB, and CREB.

    PubMed

    Sasi, Binu K; Sonawane, Parshuram J; Gupta, Vinayak; Sahu, Bhavani S; Mahapatra, Nitish R

    2014-01-09

    Although the transcript level of inducible heat shock protein 70.3 (Hsp70.3, also known as Hspa1a) is altered in various disease states, its transcriptional regulation remains incompletely understood. Here, we systematically analyzed the Hspa1a promoter to identify major cis elements and transcription factors that may govern the constitutive/inducible gene expression. Computational analyses coupled with extensive in vitro (promoter-reporter activity and electrophoretic mobility shift assays) and in vivo (chromatin immunoprecipitation assays) revealed interaction of several transcription factors with Hspa1a promoter motifs: HSF-1 (heat shock factor 1) at -114/-97 bp and -788/-777bp, NF-Y (nuclear transcription factor Y) at -73/-58 bp, NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) at -133/-124 bp, and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein) at -483/-476 bp. Consistently, siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated down-regulation of each of these transcription factors caused substantial reduction of endogenous Hspa1a expression. Heat-shock-induced activation of Hspa1a was coordinately regulated by HSF-1 and NF-Y/NF-κB. The Hspa1a expression was augmented by TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and forskolin in NF-κB and CREB-dependent manners, respectively. NF-κB and CREB also activated Hspa1a transcription in cardiac myoblasts upon exposure to ischemia-like conditions. Taken together, this study discovered previously unknown roles for NF-κB and CREB to regulate Hspa1a expression and a coordinated action by several transcription factors for Hspa1a transactivation under heat-shock/ischemia-like conditions and thereby provided new insights into the mechanism of Hspa1a regulation.

  8. Growth differentiation factor 6 derived from mesenchymal stem/stromal cells reduces age-related functional deterioration in multiple tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Daisuke; Ohno-Oishi, Michiko; Nakamura, Shiho; Mabuchi, Yo; Naka-Kaneda, Hayato

    2016-01-01

    The senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) has attracted attention as a mechanism that connects cellular senescence to tissue dysfunction, and specific SASP factors have been identified as systemic pro-aging factors. However, little is known about the age-dependent changes in the secretory properties of stem cells. Young, but not old, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are a well-known source of critical regenerative factors, but the identity of these factors remains elusive. In this study, we identified growth differentiation factor 6 (Gdf6; also known as Bmp13 and CDMP-2) as a regenerative factor secreted from young MSCs. The expression of specific secretory factors, including Gdf6, was regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR-17, whose expression declined with age. Upregulation of Gdf6 restored the osteogenic capacity of old MSCs in vitro and exerted positive effects in vivo on aging-associated pathologies such as reduced lymphopoiesis, insufficient muscle repair, reduced numbers of neural progenitors in the brain, and chronic inflammation. Our results suggest that manipulation of miRNA could enable control of the SASP, and that regenerative factors derived from certain types of young cells could be used to treat geriatric diseases. PMID:27311402

  9. Evidence-based selection of environmental factors and datasets for measuring multiple environmental deprivation in epidemiological research

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This Environment and Human Health project aims to develop a health-based summary measure of multiple physical environmental deprivation for the UK, akin to the measures of multiple socioeconomic deprivation that are widely used in epidemiology. Here we describe the first stage of the project, in which we aimed to identify health-relevant dimensions of physical environmental deprivation and acquire suitable environmental datasets to represent population exposure to these dimensions at the small-area level. We present the results of this process: an evidence-based list of environmental dimensions with population health relevance for the UK, and the spatial datasets we obtained and processed to represent these dimensions. This stage laid the foundations for the rest of the project, which will be reported elsewhere. PMID:20102585

  10. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) inhibits survival and proliferation of VEGF-exposed multiple myeloma cells through its anti-oxidative properties.

    PubMed

    Seki, Ritsuko; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Matsui, Takanori; Yoshida, Takafumi; Torimura, Takuji; Ueno, Takato; Sata, Michio; Okamura, Takashi

    2013-02-22

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been reported not only to induce angiogenesis within the bone marrow, but also directly stimulate the proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma cells, thus being involved in the development and progression of this second most common hematological malignancy. We, along with others, have found that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has anti-angiogenic and anti-vasopermeability properties both in cell culture and animal models by counteracting the biological actions of VEGF. However, effects of PEDF on VEGF-exposed myeloma cells remain unknown. In this study, we examined whether and how PEDF could inhibit the VEGF-induced proliferation and survival of myeloma cells. PEDF, a glutathione peroxidase mimetic, ebselen, or an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, diphenylene iodonium significantly inhibited the VEGF-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increase in anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting factor, myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) expression, and proliferation in U266 myeloma cells. VEGF blocked apoptosis of multiple myeloma cells isolated from patients, which was prevented by PEDF. PEDF also reduced p22phox levels in VEGF-exposed U266 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of dominant-negative human Rac-1 mutant mimicked the effects of PEDF on ROS generation and Mcl-1 expression in U266 cells. Our present study suggests that PEDF could block the VEGF-induced proliferation and survival of multiple myeloma U266 cells through its anti-oxidative properties via suppression of p22phox, one of the membrane components of NADPH oxidase. Suppression of VEGF signaling by PEDF may be a novel therapeutic target for multiple myeloma.

  11. Biochemical changes in the serum of patients with chronic toxigenic mold exposures: a risk factor for multiple renal dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Ebere; Campbell, Andrew W; Vojdani, Aristo; Ehiri, John E; Akpan, Akpan I

    2003-11-03

    This paper analyzes and presents the biochemical abnormalities in the sera of patients presenting with chronic mycosis in order to investigate the relationship with the risks of multiple renal disorders. The study population (n = 10) consisted of six females and four males (mean age 36.3 years) exposed by toxic molds in their homes and offices for an average of 2.8 years. The control group comprised ten people, five males and five females (mean age 35.9 years) without any known exposures to toxic molds. Blood samples were obtained from both the patients and the controls and were processed using specific biochemical methods that included enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA). There were biochemical abnormal concentrations in creatinine, uric acid, phosphorus, alkaline phosphotase, cholesterol, HDH, SGOT/AST, segmented neutrophils, lymphocytes, total T3, IgG and IgA immunoglobulins with significant differences between patients and controls. These abnormalities were consistent with multiple renal disorders. The major complaints of the mycosis patients were headaches, pulmonary symptoms, allergic reactions, memory loss, skin rashes, blurred vision symptoms, fatigue, and runny nose. These findings were depictive of a strong association of chronic mycosis with abnormal renal indicators. It was concluded that, although this research was a pilot investigation, based on the overall results, people exposed to chronic indoor environmental toxic molds were at risk of multiple renal complications.

  12. Multiple sevoflurane anesthesia in pregnant mice inhibits neurogenesis of fetal hippocampus via repressing transcription factor Pax6.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Song, Ruixue; Ling, Xiaomim; Peng, Mengyuan; Xue, Zhanggang; Cang, Jing

    2017-03-06

    Sevoflurane is widely used in non-obstetric surgeries of pregnant women, but its influences on fetal brain are still not fully known. We set out to assess the effects of multiple maternal sevoflurane exposure on neurogenesis and cognitive dysfunction in fetus and offspring. Pregnant mice (gestational day 15.5) and cultured mouse neural stem cells (NSCs) received daily sevoflurane exposure (2.5%×2h and 4.1%×2h respectively) for three consecutive days. Cognitive function of the offspring was determined with the Morris water maze. The expression of Ccnd1 and Pax6 in fetal brains and NSCs were analyzed by immunofluorescence, Western blot and qPCR. The neurogenesis was evaluated by BrdU staining. Results showed that multiple sevoflurane exposure in pregnant mice caused the decrease of Pax6 and Ccnd1 expression, the inhibition of NSCs proliferation and fetal hippocampus neurogenesis, which may contribute to the impaired learning and memory in offspring at P28. Moreover, lithium mitigated the sevoflurane-induced reduction in Pax6, Ccnd1 and neurogenesis. All these results suggest that multiple sevoflurane exposure may induce detrimental effects in the developing brains of fetus and offspring by the depression of neurogenesis through Pax6 pathway.

  13. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs.

  14. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  15. MUFACT: An Algorithm for Multiple Factor Analyses of Singular and Nonsingular Data with Orthogonal and Oblique Transformation Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmann, Richard J.

    1978-01-01

    A general factor analysis computer algorithm is briefly discussed. The algorithm is highly transportable with minimum limitations on the number of observations. Both singular and non-singular data can be analyzed. (Author/JKS)

  16. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, VenkyN.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  17. In vitro squelching of activated transcription by serum response factor: evidence for a common coactivator used by multiple transcriptional activators.

    PubMed Central

    Prywes, R; Zhu, H

    1992-01-01

    Low amounts of serum response factor (SRF) activate transcription in vitro from a fos promoter construct containing an SRF binding site. Using this human HeLa cell-derived in vitro transcription system, we have found that high amounts of SRF inhibited, or 'squelched', transcription from this construct. Transcription from several other promoters activated by different gene-specific factors, including CREB and the acidic activator VP16, was also inhibited by high amounts of SRF. Basal transcription, from TATA-only promoters, however, was not inhibited. These results suggest that SRF binds to a common factor(s) (termed coactivator) required for activated transcription by a diverse group of transcriptional activators. Inhibition of transcription by SRF could be blocked by a double stranded oligonucleotide containing an SRF binding site. Mutations in SRF which abolished its DNA binding activity also reduced its ability to inhibit transcription. In addition, a C-terminal truncation of SRF which reduced its ability to activate transcription also reduced SRF's ability to inhibit transcription. These results suggest that activation and inhibition of transcription may be mediated by SRF binding to the same factor and that SRF can only bind to this factor when SRF is bound to plasmid DNA. Images PMID:1531519

  18. Identification of a yeast artificial chromosome clone encoding an accessory factor for the human interferon gamma receptor: evidence for multiple accessory factors.

    PubMed

    Soh, J; Donnelly, R J; Mariano, T M; Cook, J R; Schwartz, B; Pestka, S

    1993-09-15

    Human chromosomes 6 and 21 are both necessary to confer sensitivity to human interferon gamma (Hu-IFN-gamma), as measured by the induction of human HLA class I antigen. Human chromosome 6 encodes the receptor for Hu-IFN-gamma, and human chromosome 21 encodes accessory factors for generating biological activity through the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor. A small region of human chromosome 21 that is responsible for encoding such factors was localized with hamster-human somatic cell hybrids carrying an irradiation-reduced fragment of human chromosome 21. The cell line with the minimum chromosome 21-specific DNA is Chinese hamster ovary 3x1S. To localize the genes further, 10 different yeast artificial chromosome clones from six different loci in the vicinity of the 3x1S region were fused to a human-hamster hybrid cell line (designated 16-9) that contains human chromosome 6q (supplying the Hu-IFN-gamma receptor) and the human HLA-B7 gene. These transformed 16-9 cells were assayed for induction of class I HLA antigens upon treatment with Hu-IFN-gamma. Here we report that a 540-kb yeast artificial chromosome encodes the necessary species-specific factor(s) and can substitute for human chromosome 21 to reconstitute the Hu-IFN-gamma-receptor-mediated induction of class I HLA antigens. However, the factor encoded on the yeast artificial chromosome does not confer antiviral protection against encephalomyocarditis virus, demonstrating that an additional factor encoded on human chromosome 21 is required for the antiviral activity.

  19. Alternatives to Government Interference in Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Olaf C.

    1997-01-01

    Examines issues in institutional autonomy of universities, including necessary limitations on autonomy and alternatives to government-controlled constraints. Notes five forces (competition, public opinion concerning educational quality, consumer power, the need to serve multiple constituencies, and multiple-source funding) that may exert…

  20. Assessing the relationship of background factors governing the water quality of an agricultural watershed with changes in catchment property (W-Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatvani, István Gábor; Kovács, József; Márkus, László; Clement, Adrienne; Hoffmann, Richárd; Korponai, János

    2015-02-01

    With urbanization and the growth of agriculture, the importance of precisely assessing the contribution of diffuse- and point source loads arriving to surface waters is becoming more and more important. Determining their effects, however, is not as straightforward as it at first seems. The main aim of the study was to determine the driving background factors of a river located in an agricultural watershed, and furthermore, to separate the role of the diffuse- and point source nutrient loads. The method used to achieve the aims was Dynamic Factor Analysis. This is an effective tool for exploring time series which describe such phenomena. It is capable of taking into account the lagged correlation structure, thus enabling the researcher to uncover the background processes operating in time series. Dynamic Factor Analysis was applied to the time series (1978-2006) of 21 response parameters measured in the River Zala and 6 explanatory (agricultural, meteorological, water quality, etc.) parameters measured in its watershed. The results demonstrated that with the aid of Dynamic Factor Analysis the superimposed effects of the socio-economic changes which began in the mid-1980s, and the introduction of advanced wastewater treatment (P removal) in the river catchment in the early 1990s could be separated and their relative importance assessed, as well as that of other determining external factors.

  1. A mammary cell-specific enhancer in mouse mammary tumor virus DNA is composed of multiple regulatory elements including binding sites for CTF/NFI and a novel transcription factor, mammary cell-activating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Mink, S; Härtig, E; Jennewein, P; Doppler, W; Cato, A C

    1992-01-01

    Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-transmitted retrovirus involved in the neoplastic transformation of mouse mammary gland cells. The expression of this virus is regulated by mammary cell type-specific factors, steroid hormones, and polypeptide growth factors. Sequences for mammary cell-specific expression are located in an enhancer element in the extreme 5' end of the long terminal repeat region of this virus. This enhancer, when cloned in front of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase promoter, endows the promoter with mammary cell-specific response. Using functional and DNA-protein-binding studies with constructs mutated in the MMTV long terminal repeat enhancer, we have identified two main regulatory elements necessary for the mammary cell-specific response. These elements consist of binding sites for a transcription factor in the family of CTF/NFI proteins and the transcription factor mammary cell-activating factor (MAF) that recognizes the sequence G Pu Pu G C/G A A G G/T. Combinations of CTF/NFI- and MAF-binding sites or multiple copies of either one of these binding sites but not solitary binding sites mediate mammary cell-specific expression. The functional activities of these two regulatory elements are enhanced by another factor that binds to the core sequence ACAAAG. Interdigitated binding sites for CTF/NFI, MAF, and/or the ACAAAG factor are also found in the 5' upstream regions of genes encoding whey milk proteins from different species. These findings suggest that mammary cell-specific regulation is achieved by a concerted action of factors binding to multiple regulatory sites. Images PMID:1328867

  2. [Governance for health].

    PubMed

    Holčík, Jan

    2012-01-01

    New approaches to governance are driven by the changing nature of the challenges faced by 21st century societies. People, their health and capabilities are the key resources of a knowledge society. In the article the meaning of "governance for health" is explained and some methods of governance are presented. Governance for health will be implemented in the new European health policy - Health 2020.

  3. Multiple classes of transcription factors regulate the expression of VASCULAR-RELATED NAC-DOMAIN7, a master switch of xylem vessel differentiation.