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  1. MiR-503 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth via inhibition of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yao; Tian, Qinggang; He, Jiantai; Huang, Ming; Yang, Chao; Gong, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) have been demonstrated to play key roles in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulatory mechanism of miR-503 in HCC has not been fully uncovered. In this study, we found that miR-503 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissues compared to nontumorous liver tissues. Moreover, lower miR-503 levels were associated with the malignant progression of HCC, and the expression of miR-503 was also decreased in several common HCC cell lines compared to normal human liver cell line THLE-3. Overexpression of miR-503 inhibited proliferation but induced apoptosis of LM3 and HepG2 cells. Bioinformatical analysis and luciferase reporter assay further identified insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) as a novel target of miR-503 in 293T cells. Moreover, overexpression of miR-503 led to a significant decrease in the protein levels of IGF-1R, while knockdown of miR-503 enhanced its protein levels in LM3 and HepG2 cells. Besides, overexpression of IGF-1R reversed the effects of miR-503-mediated HCC cell proliferation and apoptosis, indicating that IGF-1R acts as a downstream effector of miR-503 in HCC cells. Furthermore, IGF-1R was found to be significantly upregulated in HCC tissues compared to nontumorous liver tissues. In addition, the mRNA levels of IGF-1R were inversely correlated to the miR-503 levels in the HCC tissues. Thus, we demonstrate that miR-503 inhibits the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of HCC cells, partly at least, by directly targeting IGF-1R, and suggest that IGF-1R may serve as a promising target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27366090

  2. Transactivation of the TIEG1 confers growth inhibition of transforming growth factor-β-susceptible hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lei; Lai, Yiu-Kay; Zhang, Jin-Fang; Chan, Chu-Yan; Lu, Gang; Lin, Marie CM; He, Ming-Liang; Li, Ji-Cheng; Kung, Hsiang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1) in TGF-β-induced growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS: Human hepatocyte and HCC cell lines with varied susceptibilities to TGF-β1 were tested by methylthiazoletetrazolium (MTT) assay. The expression changes of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, Smad7, TIEG1 and TIEG2 gene following treatment with TGF-β1 in a TGF-β-sensitive hepatocyte cell line (MIHA), a TGF-β-sensitive hepatoma cell line (Hep3B) and two TGF-β-insensitive hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Bel7404) were examined. SiRNA targeting TIEG1 was transfected into Hep3B cells and the sensitivity of cells to TGF-β1 was examined. Overexpression of TIEG1 was induced by lentiviral-mediated transduction in TGF-β1-resistant hepatoma cell lines (Bel7404 and HepG2). MTT assay and 4’,6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole staining were used to identify cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. The expression level of stathmin was measured by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western-blotting analysis, and stathmin promoter activity by TIEG1 was monitored by a luciferase reporter gene system. RESULTS: TIEG1 was significantly upregulated by TGF-β1 in the TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cell line, Hep3B, but not in the resistant cell lines. The suppression of TIEG1 by siRNAs decreased the sensitivity of Hep3B cells to TGF-β1, whereas the overexpression of TIEG1 mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in TGF-β1-resistant HCC cell lines, which resembled those of TGF-β1-sensitive HCC cells treated with TGF-β1. Our data further suggested that stathmin was a direct target of TIEG1, as stathmin was significantly downregulated by TIEG1 overexpression, and stathmin promoter activity was inhibited by TIEG1 in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that transactivation of TIEG1 conferred growth inhibition of TGF-β-susceptible human HCC cells. PMID:22563190

  3. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:26682000

  4. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  5. Augmentation of tumor necrosis factor family-induced apoptosis by E3330 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines via inhibition of NFκB

    PubMed Central

    Saitou, Yukiko; Shiraki, Katsuya; Yamanaka, Takenari; Miyashita, Kazumi; Inoue, Tomoko; Yamanaka, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yumi; Enokimura, Naoyuki; Yamamoto, Norihiko; Itou, Keiichi; Sugimoto, Kazushi; Nakano, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the reduction of cell viability in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines induced by inhibition of nuclear factor κB (NFκB). METHODS: HLE, SKHep1, and HepG2 were incubated and E3330 was used to compare the stimulation of some chemotherapeutic drugs with that of TNF family, Fas ligand, TNFα and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) at the point of the reduction of cell viability by inhibiting NFκB. RESULTS: E3330 decreased NFκB levels in HLE cells stimulated by TNF and TRAIL. The cytotoxicity of the combination of TRAIL, TNFα, Fas ligand, and E3330 increased synergistically in a dose-dependent manner compared to either E3330 alone in all HCC cell lines by MTT assay. However, the combination of some chemotherapeutic drugs and E3330 did not decrease the cell viability. CONCLUSION: Inhibition of NFκB sensitizes human HCC cell lines to TNF-mediated apoptosis including TRAIL, and TRAIL-based tumor therapy might be a powerful potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of human HCC. PMID:16419152

  6. Potentiating the efficacy of molecular targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the insulin-like growth factor pathway.

    PubMed

    Ou, Da-Liang; Lee, Bin-Shyun; Chang, Ya-Chi; Lin, Liang-In; Liou, Jun-Yang; Hsu, Chiun; Cheng, Ann-Lii

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is an important regulatory mechanism of tumorigenesis and drug resistance in many cancers. The present study explored the potential synergistic effects between IGF receptor (IGFR) inhibition and other molecular targeted agents (MTA) in HCC cells. HCC cell lines (Hep3B, PLC5, and SK-Hep1) and HUVECs were tested. The MTA tested included sorafenib, sunitinib, and the IGFR kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541. The potential synergistic antitumor effects were tested by median dose effect analysis and apoptosis assay in vitro and by xenograft models in vivo. The activity and functional significance of pertinent signaling pathways and expression of apoptosis-related proteins were measured by RNA interference and Western blotting. We found that IGF can activate IGFR and downstream AKT signaling activities in all the HCC cells tested, but the growth-stimulating effect of IGF was most prominent in Hep3B cells. NVP-AEW541 can abrogate IGF-induced activation of IGFR and AKT signaling in HCC cells. IGF can increase the resistance of HCC cells to sunitinib. The apoptosis-inducing effects of sunitinib, but not sorafenib, were enhanced when IGFR signaling activity was inhibited by NVP-AEW541 or IGFR knockdown. Chk2 kinase activation was found contributory to the synergistic anti-tumor effects between sunitinib and IGFR inhibition. Our data indicate that the apoptosis-potentiating effects of IGFR inhibition for HCC may be drug-specific. Combination therapy of IGFR inhibitors with other MTA may improve the therapeutic efficacy in HCC.

  7. EVI1, a target gene for amplification at 3q26, antagonizes transforming growth factor-β-mediated growth inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kohichiroh; Konishi, Chika; Gen, Yasuyuki; Endo, Mio; Dohi, Osamu; Tomie, Akira; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Yamada, Nobuhisa; Iwai, Naoto; Nishikawa, Taichiro; Yamaguchi, Kanji; Moriguchi, Michihisa; Sumida, Yoshio; Mitsuyoshi, Hironori; Tanaka, Shinji; Arii, Shigeki; Itoh, Yoshito

    2015-07-01

    EVI1 (ecotropic viral integration site 1) is one of the most aggressive oncogenes associated with myeloid leukemia. We investigated DNA copy number aberrations in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. We found that a novel amplification at the chromosomal region 3q26 occurs in the HCC cell line JHH-1, and that MECOM (MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus), which lies within the 3q26 region, was amplified. Quantitative PCR analysis of the three transcripts transcribed from MECOM indicated that only EVI1, but not the fusion transcript MDS1-EVI1 or MDS1, was overexpressed in JHH-1 cells and was significantly upregulated in 22 (61%) of 36 primary HCC tumors when compared with their non-tumorous counterparts. A copy number gain of EVI1 was observed in 24 (36%) of 66 primary HCC tumors. High EVI1 expression was significantly associated with larger tumor size and higher level of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin, a tumor marker for HCC. Knockdown of EVI1 resulted in increased induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p15(INK) (4B) by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and decreased expression of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and phosphorylated Rb in TGF-β-treated cells. Consequently, knockdown of EVI1 led to reduced DNA synthesis and cell viability. Collectively, our results suggest that EVI1 is a probable target gene that acts as a driving force for the amplification at 3q26 in HCC and that the oncoprotein EVI1 antagonizes TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition of HCC cells.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma: epidemiology and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the major malignant tumors in the world today. The number of new cases of the tumor increases year by year, and hepatocellular carcinoma almost always runs a fulminant course and carries an especially grave prognosis. It has a low resectability rate and a high recurrence rate after surgical intervention, and responds poorly to anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. Hepatocellular carcinoma does not have a uniform geographical distribution: rather, very high incidences occur in Eastern and Southeastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In these regions and populations, the tumor shows a distinct shift in age distribution toward the younger ages, seen to greatest extent in sub-Saharan Black Africans. In all populations, males are more commonly affected. The most common risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-poor populations with a high incidence of the tumor are chronic hepatitis B virus infection and dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1. These two causative agents act either singly or synergistically. Both the viral infection and exposure to the fungus occur from early childhood, and the tumor typically presents at an early age. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection is an important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in resource-rich countries with a low incidence of the tumor. The infection is acquired in adulthood and hepatocellular carcinoma occurs later than it does with hepatitis B virus-induced tumors. In recent years, obesity and the metabolic syndrome have increased markedly in incidence and importance as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in some resource-rich regions. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. Excessive iron accumulation in hereditary hemochromatosis and dietary iron overload in the Black African population and membranous obstruction of the inferior cava

  9. Prognostic factors for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Schiumerini, Ramona; Cucchetti, Alessandro; Cescon, Matteo; Taddia, Martina; Marasco, Giovanni; Festi, Davide

    2014-05-28

    The recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, represents an important clinical problem, since it may occur after both surgical and medical treatment. The recurrence rate involves 2 phases: an early phase and a late phase. The early phase usually occurs within 2 years after resection; it is mainly related to local invasion and intrahepatic metastases and, therefore, to the intrinsic biology of the tumor. On the other hand, the late phase occurs more than 2 years after surgery and is mainly related to de novo tumor formation as a consequence of the carcinogenic cirrhotic environment. Since recent studies have reported that early and late recurrences may have different risk factors, it is clinically important to recognize these factors in the individual patient as soon as possible. The aim of this review was, therefore, to identify predicting factors for the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, by means of invasive and non-invasive methods, according to the different therapeutic strategies available. In particular the role of emerging techniques (e.g., transient elastography) and biological features of hepatocellular carcinoma in predicting recurrence have been discussed. In particular, invasive methods were differentiated from non-invasive ones for research purposes, taking into consideration the emerging role of the genetic signature of hepatocellular carcinoma in order to better allocate treatment strategies and surveillance follow-up in patients with this type of tumor.

  10. Tumor suppressor XAF1 induces apoptosis, inhibits angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li Ming; Shi, Dong Mei; Dai, Qiang; Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Yao, Wei Yan; Sun, Ping Hu; Ding, Yanfei; Qiao, Min Min; Wu, Yun Lin; Jiang, Shi Hu; Tu, Shui Ping

    2014-07-30

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP)-associated factor 1 (XAF1), a XIAP-binding protein, is a tumor suppressor gene. XAF1 was silent or expressed lowly in most human malignant tumors. However, the role of XAF1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of XAF1 on tumor growth and angiogenesis in hepatocellular cancer cells. Our results showed that XAF1 expression was lower in HCC cell lines SMMC-7721, Hep G2 and BEL-7404 and liver cancer tissues than that in paired non-cancer liver tissues. Adenovirus-mediated XAF1 expression (Ad5/F35-XAF1) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells in dose- and time- dependent manners. Infection of Ad5/F35-XAF1 induced cleavage of caspase -3, -8, -9 and PARP in HCC cells. Furthermore, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment significantly suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model of liver cancer cells. Western Blot and immunohistochemistry staining showed that Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment suppressed expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is associated with tumor angiogenesis, in cancer cells and xenograft tumor tissues. Moreover, Ad5/F35-XAF1 treatment prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate that XAF1 inhibits tumor growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. XAF1 may be a promising target for liver cancer treatment.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 inhibits IGF-1-induced proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by controlling bFGF and PDGF autocrine/paracrine loops.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yang; Han, Chen-Chen; Li, Yifan; Wang, Yang; Wei, Wei

    2016-09-16

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are responsible for the growth of HCC cells. Accumulating evidence shows that insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) suppresses HCC cell proliferation in both IGF-dependent and independent manners. It's unknown, however, whether treatment with exogenous IGFBP-3 inhibits bFGF and PDGF production in HCC cells. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3 suppressed IGF-1-induced bFGF and PDGF expression while it does not affect their expression in the absence of IGF-1. To delineate the underlying mechanism, western-blot and RT-PCR assays confirmed that the transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) is involved in IGFBP-3 regulation of bFGF and PDGF. IGFBP-3 inhibition of type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R), ERK and AKT activation is IGF-1-dependent. Furthermore, transient transfection with constitutively activated AKT or MEK partially blocks the IGFBP-3 inhibition of EGR1, bFGF and PDGF expression. In conclusion, these findings suggest that IGFBP-3 suppresses transcription of EGR1 and its target genes bFGF and PDGF through inhibiting IGF-1-dependent ERK and AKT activation. It demonstrates the importance of IGFBP-3 in the regulation of HCC cell proliferation, suggesting that IGFBP-3 could be a target for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27521890

  12. LincRNA-p21 activates endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haibin, Zhang; Hui, Sima; Nan, Zhu; Guangshun, Yang

    2015-01-01

    LincRNA-p21 is a downstream long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript of p53. LincRNA-p21 serves as a repressor in p53-dependent transcriptional responses and participates in diverse biological processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle, metabolism and pluripotency. However, the role of lincRNA-p21 in human hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be defined. Here in this work, we demonstrated that lincRNA-p21 acted as a tumor suppressive lncRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We firstly found the downregulation of lincRNA-p21 level in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and showed that low expression of lincRNA-p21 was associated with high disease stage and predicted poor survival. Further we showed that lincRNA-p21 knockdown promoted proliferation and colony formation of HepG2, Huh7 and Bel-7042 cells in vitro, while lincRNA-p21 overexpression obtained oppose results. Using tumor xenograft experiments, we also demonstrated that lincRNA-p21 inhibited HepG2 cell growth in vivo and lincRNA-p21 contributed to sorafenib-induced growth regression of HepG2 cell in vivo. Further mechanism analysis revealed that lincRNA-p21 promoted ER stress both in vitro and in vivo, which facilitated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Finally, we demonstrated that ER stress accounted for lincRNA-p21 effects on apoptosis, proliferation and in vivo growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings implicate that lincRNA-p21 is a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26305675

  13. LincRNA-p21 activates endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ning; Fu, Yong; Zhang, Haibin; Sima, Hui; Zhu, Nan; Yang, Guangshun

    2015-09-29

    LincRNA-p21 is a downstream long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcript of p53. LincRNA-p21 serves as a repressor in p53-dependent transcriptional responses and participates in diverse biological processes, including apoptosis, cell cycle, metabolism and pluripotency. However, the role of lincRNA-p21 in human hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be defined. Here in this work, we demonstrated that lincRNA-p21 acted as a tumor suppressive lncRNA in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We firstly found the downregulation of lincRNA-p21 level in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and showed that low expression of lincRNA-p21 was associated with high disease stage and predicted poor survival. Further we showed that lincRNA-p21 knockdown promoted proliferation and colony formation of HepG2, Huh7 and Bel-7042 cells in vitro, while lincRNA-p21 overexpression obtained oppose results. Using tumor xenograft experiments, we also demonstrated that lincRNA-p21 inhibited HepG2 cell growth in vivo and lincRNA-p21 contributed to sorafenib-induced growth regression of HepG2 cell in vivo. Further mechanism analysis revealed that lincRNA-p21 promoted ER stress both in vitro and in vivo, which facilitated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Finally, we demonstrated that ER stress accounted for lincRNA-p21 effects on apoptosis, proliferation and in vivo growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. These findings implicate that lincRNA-p21 is a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26305675

  14. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α: a novel approach for inhibiting angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Julia; Ehrlich, Sandra M; Pfitzer, Lisa; Liebl, Johanna; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Haider, Christine; Vollmar, Angelika M; Zahler, Stefan

    2016-05-10

    We recently introduced CDK5 as target in HCC, regulating DNA damage response. Based on this and on our previous knowledge about vascular effects of CDK5, we investigated the role of CDK5 in angiogenesis in HCC, one of the most vascularized tumors. We put a special focus on the transcription factor HIF-1α, a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis.The interaction of CDK5 with HIF-1α was tested by Western blot, PCR, reporter gene assay, immunohistochemistry, kinase assay, co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and mutation studies. In vivo, different murine HCC models, were either induced by diethylnitrosamine or subcutaneous injection of HUH7 or HepG2 cells. The correlation of vascular density and CDK5 was assessed by immunostaining of a microarray of liver tissues from HCC patients.Inhibition of CDK5 in endothelial or HCC cells reduced HIF-1α levels in vitro and in vivo, and transcription of HIF-1α target genes (VEGFA, VEGFR1, EphrinA1). Mass spectrometry and site directed mutagenesis revealed a stabilizing phosphorylation of HIF-1α at Ser687 by CDK5. Vascular density was decreased in murine HCC models by CDK5 inhibition.In conclusion, inhibiting CDK5 is a multi-modal systemic approach to treat HCC, hitting angiogenesis, as well as the tumor cells themselves. PMID:27027353

  15. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α: a novel approach for inhibiting angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Julia; Ehrlich, Sandra M.; Pfitzer, Lisa; Liebl, Johanna; Fröhlich, Thomas; Arnold, Georg J.; Mikulits, Wolfgang; Haider, Christine; Vollmar, Angelika M.; Zahler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We recently introduced CDK5 as target in HCC, regulating DNA damage response. Based on this and on our previous knowledge about vascular effects of CDK5, we investigated the role of CDK5 in angiogenesis in HCC, one of the most vascularized tumors. We put a special focus on the transcription factor HIF-1α, a master regulator of tumor angiogenesis. The interaction of CDK5 with HIF-1α was tested by Western blot, PCR, reporter gene assay, immunohistochemistry, kinase assay, co-immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, and mutation studies. In vivo, different murine HCC models, were either induced by diethylnitrosamine or subcutaneous injection of HUH7 or HepG2 cells. The correlation of vascular density and CDK5 was assessed by immunostaining of a microarray of liver tissues from HCC patients. Inhibition of CDK5 in endothelial or HCC cells reduced HIF-1α levels in vitro and in vivo, and transcription of HIF-1α target genes (VEGFA, VEGFR1, EphrinA1). Mass spectrometry and site directed mutagenesis revealed a stabilizing phosphorylation of HIF-1α at Ser687 by CDK5. Vascular density was decreased in murine HCC models by CDK5 inhibition. In conclusion, inhibiting CDK5 is a multi-modal systemic approach to treat HCC, hitting angiogenesis, as well as the tumor cells themselves. PMID:27027353

  16. Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in India

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Premashis

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of death all over the world, more so in Asia and Africa. The representative data on epidemiology of HCC in India is very scanty and cancer is not a reportable disease in India and the cancer registries in India are mostly urban. 45 million people who are suffering from chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and approximately 15 million people who are afflicted with chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India. HBV and HCV infection is considered an important etiologic factor in HCC. Positive association between HCC and consumption of alcohol where alcohol contribute as a cofactor for hepatotoxins and hepatitis viruses. Aflatoxin contamination in the diets, Hepatitis B virus infection and liver cirrhosis in Andhra Pradesh, India and direct chronic exposure to aflatoxins was shown to cause liver cirrhosis. Cirrhosis of liver of any cause lead to develop about 70%–90% of HCC. Aflatoxin interact synergistically with Hepatitis B virus (HBV)/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection which increase the risk of HCC. HBV infection, HBV infection with Aflatoxin exposure, viral infection and alcohol consumption leading to overt cirrhosis of the liver, alcohol consumption leading to cirrhosis of the liver with viral infection are the predominant risk factor for the development of HCC. HCV and alcohol are also associated with HCC in India. Indians develop diabetes at younger age, Asians have strong genetic susceptibility for type II diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is identified as a risk factor for HCC. Prevention of viral infection by universal vaccination against hepatitis virus, HCC surveillance program, preventing alcoholic liver diseases, fungal contamination of grains and ground crops to prevent basically Aflatoxin exposure are important measures to prevent liver diseases and HCC among those at risk. PMID:25755609

  17. PF-04691502 triggers cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and inhibits the angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng-Ze; Peng-Jiao; Yang, Na-Na; Chuang-Yuan; Zhao, Ya-Li; Liu, Qiang-Qiang; Fei, Hong-Rong; Zhang, Ji-Guo

    2013-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. The aim of the present study is to determine the antitumor effect of PF-04691502, a potent inhibitor of PI3K and mTOR kinases, on the apoptosis and angiogenesis of the hepatoma cancer cells. Our results indicate that treatment of cancer cells with PF-04691502 reduces cell viability and inhibits cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. PF-04691502 triggers apoptosis via a mitochondrial pathway, accompanied by activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Pre-treatment of hepatoma cells with the caspase-3 inhibitor (z-DEVD-fmk) blocks the PF-04691502-induced death of these cells. In addition, growth factors-induced tube formation and the migration of HUVECs are markedly inhibited by PF-04691502 treatment. The mechanisms of anti-angiogenesis of PF-04691502 are associated with inhibiting the expression of VEGF and HIF-1α. Based on the overall results, we suggest that PF-04691502 reduces hepatocellular carcinoma cell viability, induces cell apoptosis, and inhibits cell growth and tumor angiogenesis, implicating its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of HCC.

  18. Novel roles of TMEM100: inhibition metastasis and proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dong; Xiao, Shuai; Yang, Lianyue

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane protein 100 (TMEM100) was activated by ALK1/TGF-β signaling. We found that TMEM100 was decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and in highly metastatic cell lines. Overexpressed of TMEM100 inhibited invasion, migration and proliferation. Low levels of TMEM100 were associated with cirrhosis, tumor size, Tumor nodule number, TNM stage, BCLC stage, Edmondson-Steiner Stage and vein invasion. Furthermore, TMEM100 was an independent risk factor for overall survival (P = 0.03) and disease-free survival (P = 0.019). The current findings suggest that TMEM100 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC metastasis and proliferation. PMID:25978032

  19. MiR-940 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth and correlates with prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Bo; Liang, Yasha; Wang, Duoning; Luo, Fengming

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the leading causes of cancer-related death in China. Deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) contributes to HCC development by influencing cell growth, apoptosis, migration or invasion. It has been proved that miR-940 plays important roles in various cancers. Here we investigated the role of miR-940 in HCC. We found that miR-940 was remarkably decreased in HCC tissues and cell lines. Importantly, lower miR-940 expression in HCC tissues significantly correlated with the reduced patient’s survival rate. Overexpression of miR-940 inhibited HCC cell line growth and induced cell apoptosis, and vice versa. Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ESRRG) was targeted by miR-940, and suppression of ESRRG inhibited HCC cell lines growth and induced cell apoptosis. In conclusion, we found that a lower level of miR-940 in HCC promoted cellular proliferation via ESRRG, which may lead to the short survival period of HCC patients. PMID:25940592

  20. Knockdown of Histone Methyltransferase hSETD1A Inhibits Progression, Migration, and Invasion in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin-Sheng; Sun, Shi-Bo; Zhong, Feng; He, Kun; Zhou, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the expression of human SET domain containing protein 1A (hSETD1A) in hepatocellular carcinoma patients and its relationship with human hepatocellular carcinoma cell function. A total of 30 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were enrolled in this study. The expression of hSETD1A was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting. The immortalized normal human liver cell line including SMMC-7721 was subjected to real-time PCR for hSETD1A mRNA. Furthermore, hSETD1A-small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to knock down hSETD1A expression in SMMC-7721 cells. Cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell migration were determined by CCK8, flow cytometry, and Transwell assays. The positive expression rate level of hSETD1A mRNA and protein in liver carcinoma tissues was 73.33%. hSETD1A knockdown using a specific hSETD1A-shRNA inhibited cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells. It was also found that downregulation of hSETD1A inhibited cell migration ability but did not affect cell invasion. In conclusion, the expression of hSETD1A occurs at a high rate in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. The expression state of hSETD1A may be a prognostic factor in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27656834

  1. Epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Montalto, Giuseppe; Cervello, Melchiorre; Giannitrapani, Lydia; Dantona, Fabio; Terranova, Angela; Castagnetta, Luigi A M

    2002-06-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma is increasing in many countries. The estimated number of new cases annually is over 500,000, and the yearly incidence comprises between 2.5 and 7% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The incidence varies between different geographic areas, being higher in developing areas; males are predominantly affected, with a 2:3 male/female ratio. The heterogeneous geographic distribution reflects the epidemiologic impact of the main etiologic factors and environmental risk, which are the hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses. The percentage of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma attributable to HBV worldwide is 52.3% and is higher in Asia where the seroprevalence of HBsAg in the population is high. However, the vaccination campaign against this virus in some eastern countries has tended to lower the incidence of new cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. The percentage of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma attributable to HCV is 25%, and it is more prevalent in Japan, Spain, and Italy where the association between hepatocellular carcinoma and antibodies to HCV ranges between 50 and 70%. In most cases hepatocellular carcinoma develops in cirrhotic livers, where the persistent proliferation of liver cells represents the key factor of progression to hepatocellular carcinoma independent of the etiology. Another minor risk factor is aflatoxin B1 consumption, which is responsible for most cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in Africa, where the consumption of contaminated foods is common. Other known risk factors are some hereditary diseases, such as hemochromatosis, porphyria cutanea tarda, hereditary tyrosinemia, and alpha1 anti-trypsin deficiency. The natural history of hepatocellular carcinoma is heterogeneous and is influenced by nodule dimension, the mono- or plurifocality of lesions at diagnosis, the growth rate of the tumor, and the stage of the underlying cirrhosis. Available data to date suggest that tumor growth in a cirrhotic

  2. Knockdown of TMEM16A suppressed MAPK and inhibited cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Liang; Yang, Jihong; Chen, Hongwu; Ma, Bo; Pan, Kangming; Su, Caikun; Xu, Fengfeng; Zhang, Jihong

    2016-01-01

    TMEM16A plays an important role in cell proliferation in various cancers. However, less was known about the expression and role of TMEM16A in hepatocellular carcinoma. We screened the expression of TMEM16A in patients’ hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, and also analyzed the biological function of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by knockdown of TMEM16A, as well as the expression of MAPK signaling proteins, including p38, p-p38, ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, JNK, and p-JNK, and cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 in TMEM16A siRNA-transfected SMMC-7721 cells by Western blot. Our results showed that TMEM16A was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed the cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and cell cycle progression but did not influence the cell apoptosis. TMEM16A siRNA-suppressed cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth were accompanied by a reduction of p38 and ERK1/2 activation and cyclin D1 induction, and were not influenced by other tested MAPK signaling proteins. In addition, inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed tumorigenicity in vivo. TMEM16A is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, and that inhibition of TMEM16A suppressed MAPK and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. TMEM16A could be a potentially novel therapeutic target for human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26834491

  3. Downregulation of CCR1 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaofeng; Fan Jia; E-mail: jiafan99@yahoo.com; Wang Xiaoying; Zhou Jian; Qiu Shuangjian; Yu Yao; Liu Yinkun; Tang Zhaoyou

    2007-04-20

    CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) has an important role in the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. The migration and metastasis of tumor cells shares many similarities with leukocyte trafficking, which is mainly regulated by chemokine receptor-ligand interactions. CCR1 is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and tissues with unknown functions. In this study, we silenced CCR1 expression in the human HCC cell line HCCLM3 using artificial microRNA (miRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) and examined the invasiveness and proliferation of CCR1-silenced HCCLM3 cells and the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. The miRNA-mediated knockdown expression of CCR1 significantly inhibited the invasive ability of HCCLM3 cells, but had only a minor effect on the cellular proliferation rate. Moreover, CCR1 knockdown significantly reduced the secretion of MMP-2. Together, these findings indicate that CCR1 has an important role in HCCLM3 invasion and that CCR1 might be a new target of HCC treatment.

  4. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC. PMID:23924858

  5. Knockdown of Pokemon protein expression inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation by suppression of AKT activity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaosan; Dai, Yichen; Chen, Zhangxin; Xie, Junpei; Zeng, Wei; Lin, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of Pokemon, which is an erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor protein, occurs in different cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pokemon is also reported to have an oncogenic activity in various human cancers. This study investigated the effect of Pokemon knockdown on the regulation of HCC growth. POK shRNA suppressed the expression of Pokemon protein in HepG2 cells compared to the negative control vector-transfected HCC cells. Pokemon knockdown also reduced HCC cell viability and enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. AKT activation and the expression of various cell cycle-related genes were inhibited following Pokemon knockdown. These data demonstrate that Pokemon may play a role in HCC progression, suggesting that inhibition of Pokemon expression using Pokemon shRNA should be further evaluated as a novel target for the control of HCC.

  6. Dysregulated serum response factor triggers formation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ohrnberger, Stefan; Thavamani, Abhishek; Braeuning, Albert; Lipka, Daniel B; Kirilov, Milen; Geffers, Robert; Authenrieth, Stella E; Römer, Michael; Zell, Andreas; Bonin, Michael; Schwarz, Michael; Schütz, Günther; Schirmacher, Peter; Plass, Christoph; Longerich, Thomas; Nordheim, Alfred

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed transcriptional regulator serum response factor (SRF) is controlled by both Ras/MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and Rho/actin signaling pathways, which are frequently activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We generated SRF-VP16iHep mice, which conditionally express constitutively active SRF-VP16 in hepatocytes, thereby controlling subsets of both Ras/MAPK- and Rho/actin-stimulated target genes. All SRF-VP16iHep mice develop hyperproliferative liver nodules that progresses to lethal HCC. Some murine (m)HCCs acquire Ctnnb1 mutations equivalent to those in human (h)HCC. The resulting transcript signatures mirror those of a distinct subgroup of hHCCs, with shared activation of oncofetal genes including Igf2, correlating with CpG hypomethylation at the imprinted Igf2/H19 locus. Conclusion: SRF-VP16iHep mHCC reveal convergent Ras/MAPK and Rho/actin signaling as a highly oncogenic driver mechanism for hepatocarcinogenesis. This suggests simultaneous inhibition of Ras/MAPK and Rho/actin signaling as a treatment strategy in hHCC therapy. (Hepatology 2015;61:979–989) PMID:25266280

  7. MTBP inhibits migration and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qian; Ranjan, Atul; Fan, Rui; Agarwal, Neeraj; Welch, Danny R; Weinman, Steven A; Ding, Jie; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with increasing incidence. Despite curative surgical resection and advanced chemotherapy, its survival rate remains low. The presence of microvascular invasion and occult metastasis is one of the major causes for this poor outcome. MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) has been implicated in the suppression of cell migration and cancer metastasis. However, clinical significance of MTBP, particularly in human cancer, is poorly understood. Specifically, clinical relevance of MTBP in human HCC has never been investigated. Here we demonstrated that expression of MTBP was significantly reduced in human HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. MTBP expression was negatively correlated with capsular/vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of MTBP resulted in the suppression of the migratory and metastatic potential of HCC cells, while its downregulation increased the migration. Consistent with the previous report, MTBP endogenously bound to alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) and suppressed ACTN4-mediated cell migration in multiple HCC cell lines. However, MTBP also inhibited migratory potential of PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells whose migration was not altered by manipulation of ACTN4 expression. These results suggest that mechanisms behind MTBP-mediated migration suppression may not be limited to the pathway involving ACTN4 in certain cellular contexts. Additionally, as a potential mechanism for reduced MTBP expression in tumors, we found that MTBP expression was increased following the treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). Our study, for the first time, provides clinical relevance of MTBP in the suppression of HCC metastasis.

  8. MTBP inhibits migration and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bi, Qian; Ranjan, Atul; Fan, Rui; Agarwal, Neeraj; Welch, Danny R; Weinman, Steven A; Ding, Jie; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide with increasing incidence. Despite curative surgical resection and advanced chemotherapy, its survival rate remains low. The presence of microvascular invasion and occult metastasis is one of the major causes for this poor outcome. MDM2 Binding Protein (MTBP) has been implicated in the suppression of cell migration and cancer metastasis. However, clinical significance of MTBP, particularly in human cancer, is poorly understood. Specifically, clinical relevance of MTBP in human HCC has never been investigated. Here we demonstrated that expression of MTBP was significantly reduced in human HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. MTBP expression was negatively correlated with capsular/vascular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Overexpression of MTBP resulted in the suppression of the migratory and metastatic potential of HCC cells, while its downregulation increased the migration. Consistent with the previous report, MTBP endogenously bound to alpha-actinin 4 (ACTN4) and suppressed ACTN4-mediated cell migration in multiple HCC cell lines. However, MTBP also inhibited migratory potential of PLC/PRF/5 HCC cells whose migration was not altered by manipulation of ACTN4 expression. These results suggest that mechanisms behind MTBP-mediated migration suppression may not be limited to the pathway involving ACTN4 in certain cellular contexts. Additionally, as a potential mechanism for reduced MTBP expression in tumors, we found that MTBP expression was increased following the treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs). Our study, for the first time, provides clinical relevance of MTBP in the suppression of HCC metastasis. PMID:25759210

  9. Knockdown of Golgi phosphoprotein 2 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and motility

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xiaodi; Sun, Ting; Jiang, Junchang; Li, Ying; Chen, Mingliang; Wei, Zhen; Jiang, Weiqin; Zhou, Linfu

    2016-01-01

    Golgi phosphoprotein 2 (GP73) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it serves as a biomarker and indicator of disease progression. We used MTS assays, anchorage-independent cell colony formation assays and a xenograft tumor model to show that GP73-specific siRNAs inhibit HCC proliferation in HepG2, SMMC-7721, and Huh7 cell lines and in vivo. Following GP73 silencing, levels of p-Rb, a factor related to metastasis, were reduced, but cell cycle progression was unaffected. Our results suggest that GP73 silencing may not directly suppress proliferation, but may instead inhibit cell motility. Results from proliferation assays suggest GP73 reduces expression of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related factors and promotes cell motility, while transwell migration and invasion assays indicated a possible role in metastasis. Immunofluorescence co-localization microscopy and immunoblotting showed that GP73 decreases expression of N-cadherin and E-cadherin, two key factors in EMT, which may in turn decrease intracellular adhesive forces and promote cell motility. This study confirmed that GP73 expression leads to increased expression of EMT-related proteins and that GP73 silencing reduces HCC cell migration in vitro. These findings suggest that GP73 silencing through siRNA delivery may provide a novel low-toxicity therapy for the inhibition of tumor proliferation and metastasis. PMID:26870893

  10. Synergistic growth inhibition by sorafenib and vitamin K2 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yafei; Zhang, Bicheng; Zhang, Anran; Zhao, Yong; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Jian; Gao, Jianfei; Fang, Dianchun; Rao, Zhiguo

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Sorafenib is an oral multikinase inhibitor that has been proven effective as a single-agent therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma, and there is a strong rationale for investigating its use in combination with other agents. Vitamin K2 is nearly non-toxic to humans and has been shown to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. METHODS: Flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and nude mouse xenograft assays were used to examine the effects of sorafenib and vitamin K2 on the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Western blotting was used to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying these effects. RESULTS: Assays for 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) revealed a strong synergistic growth-inhibitory effect between sorafenib and vitamin K2. Flow cytometry showed an increase in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis after treatment with a combination of these two drugs at low concentrations. Sorafenib-mediated inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation was promoted by vitamin K2, and downregulation of Mcl-1, which is required for sorafenib-induced apoptosis, was observed after combined treatment. Vitamin K2 also attenuated the downregulation of p21 expression induced by sorafenib, which may represent the mechanism by which vitamin K2 promotes the inhibitory effects of sorafenib on cell proliferation. Moreover, the combination of sorafenib and vitamin K2 significantly inhibited the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS: Our results determined that combined treatment with sorafenib and vitamin K2 can work synergistically to inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. This finding raises the possibility that this combined treatment strategy might be promising as a new therapy against

  11. SILIBININ INHIBITS ETHANOL METABOLISM AND ETHANOL-DEPENDENT CELL PROLIFERATION IN AN IN VITRO MODEL OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Brandon-Warner, Elizabeth; Sugg, James A.; Schrum, Laura W.; McKillop, Iain H.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a known risk factor for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The use of plant-derived antioxidants is gaining increasing clinical prominence as a potential therapy to ameliorate the effects of ethanol on hepatic disease development and progression. This study demonstrates silibinin, a biologically active flavanoid derived from milk thistle, inhibits cytochrome p4502E1 induction, ethanol metabolism and reactive oxygen species generation in HCC cells in vitro. These silibinin-mediated effects also inhibit ethanol-dependent increases in HCC cell proliferation in culture. PMID:19900758

  12. Inhibition of Snail Family Transcriptional Repressor 2 (SNAI2) Enhances Multidrug Resistance of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rong-Jie; Lv, Ya-Ping; Jin, Wei; Meng, Chao; Chen, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    China accounts for almost half of the total number of liver cancer cases and deaths worldwide, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most primary liver cancer. Snail family transcriptional repressor 2 (SNAI2) is known as an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-inducing transcription factor that drives neoplastic epithelial cells into mesenchymal phenotype. However, the roles of endogenous SNAI2 remain controversial in different types of malignant tumors. Herein, we surprisingly identify that anchorage-independent growth, including the formation of tumor sphere and soft agar colony, is significantly increased when SNAI2 expression is inhibited by shRNAs in HCC cells. Suppression of SNAI2 suffices to up-regulate several cancer stem genes. Although unrelated to the metastatic ability, SNAI2 inhibition does increase the efflux of Hoechst 33342 and enhance multidrug resistance in vitro and in vivo. In agreement with this data, we demonstrate for the first time that decreasing SNAI2 level can transcriptionally upregulate several ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes such as ABCB1. Moreover, ABC transporters’ inhibitor verapamil can rescue the multidrug resistance induced by SNAI2 inhibition. Our results implicate that SNAI2 behaves as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting multidrug resistance via suppressing ABC transporter genes in HCC cells. PMID:27760172

  13. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background : Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods : Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results : Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion : The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone. PMID:27471568

  14. Inhibition of Regulatory Volume Decrease Enhances the Cytocidal Effect of Hypotonic Shock in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kudou, Michihiro; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Morimura, Ryo; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ikoma, Hisashi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Hosogi, Shigekuni; Nakahari, Takashi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypotonic shock induces cytocidal effects through cell rupture, and cancer therapy based on this mechanism has been clinically administered to hepatocellular carcinoma patients. We herein investigated the effectiveness of hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease as cancer therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Morphological changes in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were observed under a differential interference contrast microscope connected to a high-speed digital video camera. Cell volume changes under hypotonic shock with or without chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers were observed using a high-resolution flow cytometer. In order to investigate cytocidal effects, the number of surviving cells was compared after exposure to hypotonic solution with and without each channel blocker (re-incubation experiment). Results: Video recordings showed that cells exposed to distilled water rapidly swelled and then ruptured. Cell volume measurements revealed regulatory volume decrease under mild hypotonic shock, whereas severe hypotonic shock increased the number of broken fragments as a result of cell rupture. Moreover, regulatory volume decrease was inhibited in cells treated with each channel blocker. Re-incubation experiments showed the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in cells exposed to hypotonic solution, and additional treatments with each channel blocker enhanced these effects. Conclusion: The inhibition of regulatory volume decrease with chloride, potassium, or water channel blockers may enhance the cytocidal effects of hypotonic shock in hepatocellular carcinoma. Hypotonic shock combined with the inhibition of regulatory volume decrease was a more effective therapy than hypotonic shock alone. PMID:27471568

  15. Recent insights on risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Nabil Mohie

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a disease prevalent in many populations worldwide. It initiates many economic and health problems in management modalities and leads to increasing mortality rates. Worldwide, trials have attempted to discover specific early markers for detection and prediction of the disease, hoping to set a more precise strategy for liver cancer prevention. Unfortunately, many economic, cultural and disciplinary levels contribute to confounding preventive strategies. Many risk factors contribute to predisposition to HCC, which can present individually or simultaneously. Previous articles discussed many risk factors for hepatocellular carcinogenesis; however, most of them didn't consider collectively the most recent data relating to causes. In this article, the pathogenesis and risk factors of HCC are discussed. Most of the intermediary steps of HCC involve molecular and transcriptional events leading to hepatocyte malignant transformation. These steps are mainly triggered by hepatitis B, C or transfusion-transmitted virus, either alone, or with other factors. Diabetes seems to be a major contributing risk factor. Schistosomiasis, a blood infestation, mostly affects Nile basin inhabitants leading to bladder, renal and hepatic cancers. Alcoholism, food and water pollutants and some drugs can also lead to HCC. Additionally, some hereditary diseases, as hemochromatosis, α-1-antitrypsin deficiency and tyrosinaemia are known to lead to the development of HCC, if not well managed. PMID:21160959

  16. Inhibition of VEGF165/VEGFR2-dependent signaling by LECT2 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chi-Kuan; Yu, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Tsu-Yao; Chen, Min-Wei; Su, Chia-Yi; Yang, Yi-Chieh; Kuo, Tsang-Chih; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Huang, Ya-Chi; Hsiao, Michael; Hua, Kuo-Tai; Hung, Mien-Chie; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) relies on angiogenesis for growth and metastasis. Leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2) is a cytokine and preferentially expressed in the liver. Previous studies have found that LECT2 targets to both immune and tumor cells to suppress HCC development and vascular invasion. Although LECT2 did not affect HCC cells growth in vitro, it still suppressed HCC xenografts growth in immune-deficient mice, suggesting other cells such as stroma cells may also be targeted by LECT2. Here, we sought to determine the role of LECT2 in tumor angiogenesis in HCC patients. We found that LECT2 expression inhibited tumor growth via angiogenesis in the HCC xenograft model. Specifically, we demonstrated that recombinant human LECT2 protein selectively suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, LECT2 reduced VEGF receptor 2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT phosphorylation. Furthermore, LECT2 gene expression correlated negatively with angiogenesis in HCC patients. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LECT2 inhibits VEGF165-induced HCC angiogenesis through directly binding to VEGFR2 and has broad applications in treating VEGF-mediated solid tumors. PMID:27507763

  17. A small interfering RNA targeting vascular endothelial growth factor efficiently inhibits growth of VX2 cells and VX2 tumor model of hepatocellular carcinoma in rabbit by transarterial embolization-mediated siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yu; Guo, Chuan-Gen; Yang, Zheng-Gang; Sun, Jun-Hui; Zhang, Min-Ming; Fu, Cai-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma is currently the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with an increasing incidence. Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor small interfering RNA (VEGF-siRNA) on rabbit VX2 carcinoma cell viability in vitro and the effect of transarterial embolization (TAE)-mediated VEGF-siRNA delivery on the growth of rabbit VX2 liver-transplanted model in vivo. Methods Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western blot technologies were used to detect the expression level of VEGF. TAE and computed tomography scan were used to deliver the VEGF-siRNA and detect the tumor volume in vivo, respectively. Microvessel density was detected by immunohistochemistry with CD34 antibody. A biochemical autoanalyzer was used to evaluate the hepatic and renal toxicity. Results The designed VEGF-siRNAs could effectively decrease the expression levels of VEGF mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the viability of rabbit VX2 carcinoma cells was reduced by 38.5%±7.3% (VEGF-siRNA no 1) and 30.0%±5.8% (VEGF-siRNA no 3) at 48 hours after transfection. Moreover, in rabbit VX2 liver-transplanted model, the growth ratios of tumors at 28 days after TAE-mediated siRNA delivery were 155.18%±19.42% in the control group, 79.67%±19.63% in the low-dose group, and 36.09%±15.73% in the high-dose group, with significant differences among these three groups. Microvessel density dropped to 34.22±4.01 and 22.63±4.07 in the low-dose group and high-dose group, respectively, compared with the control group (57.88±5.67), with significant differences among these three groups. Furthermore, inoculation of VX2 tumor into the liver itself at later stage induced significant increase in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, indicating an obvious damage of liver functions, while treatment of VX2 tumor via TAE

  18. Noscapine inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Niu, Z; Dong, J; Zhao, Y; Zhang, Y; Li, X

    2016-01-01

    Noscapine, a phthalideisoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been demonstrated as a promising anti-tumor compound against various cancers. However, the anti-cancer activity of noscapine in hepatocellular carcinoma has not been defined. In this study, we investigate the inhibitive effects of noscapine on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using both in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro proliferation assay showed that noscapine suppressed HepG2 and Huh7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. With a mouse xenograft model, noscapine showed notable inhibition on HCC tumor growth in vivo without suppression of body weight. Moreover, apoptotic induction and regulation of related signalings by noscapine were examined by nuclear DNA staining, TUNEL, and western blotting assays. Results showed that noscapine induced apoptosis in HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Further studies indicated that noscapine induced antive-capsase-3, cleavage PARP, and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Hence, these data indicates that noscapine selectively suppresses HCC cell growth through apoptosis induction, providing evidence for application of noscapine as a novel agent against human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27468876

  19. Prognostic value of peritumoral heat-shock factor-1 in patients receiving resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J-B; Guo, K; Sun, H-C; Zhu, X-D; Zhang, B; Lin, Z-H; Zhang, B-H; Liu, Y-K; Ren, Z-G; Fan, J

    2013-01-01

    Background: The cross-talk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and abnormal metabolic signals in peritumoral microenvironment modifies our knowledge of hepatocarcinogenesis. As an indispensable modulator of various stresses, the clinical significance of heat-shock transcription factor-1 (HSF1) in HCC microenvironment has never been defined. Methods: Hepatocellular carcinoma and matched peritumoral liver tissues (n=332) were semiquantitatively analysed for HSF1 expression, followed by correlation with clinicopathological parameters (patient outcomes). Moreover, the effects of HSF1 deficiency in L02 on monocarboxylate transporter-4 (MCT4) and HCC cells' colonisation and proliferation were investigated. Results: High expression of HSF1 in peritumoral tissue but not in HCC tissue was associated with poorer overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR), especially early recurrence (ER), which was further reconfirmed in validation cohort. Multivariate analysis showed that prognostic performance of peritumoral HSF1 was independent of other clinicopathological factors (hazard ratio for OS=2.60, P=0.002, for TTR=2.52, P<0.001). Notably, downregulation of HSF1 in L02 decreased MCT4 expression significantly. The supernatant from L02-shRNA-HSF1 in hypoxia, NOT normoxia condition, inhibited HCC cell colonisation and proliferation. Moreover, the combination of peritumoral HSF1 and MCT4 was the best predictor for ER and OS. Conclusion: High peritumoral HSF1 expression can serve as a sensitive ‘readout' for high-risk HCC ER, and could be a potential metabolic intervention target following curative resection. PMID:24002609

  20. Untreated hepatocellular carcinoma in Egypt: outcome and prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeeneldin, Ahmed Abdelmabood; Salem, Salem Eid; Darwish, Amira Diaa; El-Gammal, Mosaad Mahmoud; Hussein, Marwa Mahmoud; Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer worldwide as well as in Egypt with hepatitis C and B, alcohol and aflatoxins being the commonest risk factors. Aim The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS) of untreated HCC in Egypt. Methods This retrospective study was conducted at Tanta Cancer Center, Egypt where 288 HCC cases who received no specific therapy and were followed-up until death were identified. The impact of possible prognostic factors on OS was assessed using the log-rank test (univariate analyses) and Cox regression method (multivariate analysis). Results The median OS of untreated HCC was 2.3 months (95% confidence interval: 1.9–2.6). The 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 months OS rates were 84%, 42%, 21%, 9%, and 3%, respectively. All cases had died by 46 months. Male sex, advanced Child-Pugh class, the clinical presentation of ascites, cough, fatigue, and the presence of metastases were associated with poor survival (P<0.05 for all). In multivariate analysis; cough, presence of ascites, and Child-Pugh class were independent predictors of poor survival. Conclusion OS in untreated HCC in Egypt is very short. Many factors interact to produce this dismal survival. PMID:27508189

  1. Risk Factors for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Chitapanarux, Taned; Phornphutkul, Kannika

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer worldwide. The incidence of HCC is on the rise in Thailand, where it has become the most common malignancy in males and the third most common in females. Here, we review some of the risk factors that have contributed to this increase in HCC incidence in the Thai population. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the main etiologic risk factor for HCC, followed by hepatitis C virus (HCV). Patients with HBV genotype C have a higher positive rate of hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg) and progress to cirrhosis and HCC earlier than genotype B. For HCV patients, 16% developed HCC associated cirrhosis by year 5 after diagnosis, and the cumulative risk for death from HCC at year 10 was 60%. Dietary exposure to the fungal hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 has been shown to interact synergistically with HBV infection to increase the risk of early onset HCC. Chronic alcohol abuse remains an important risk factor for malignant transformation of hepatocytes, frequently in association with alcohol-induced cirrhosis. In recent years, obesity and metabolic syndrome have markedly increased the incidence of HCC and are important causes of HCC in some resource-rich regions. PMID:26623264

  2. The Epidemiological Investigation on the Risk Factors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Jianjun; Lin, Yong; Guo, Zhinan; Niu, Mu; Su, Chenghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ranked the fifth in male and ninth in the female counterparts, and 50% of incidence HCC cases were occurred in China with high hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence. HCC has seriously compromised the health status of general population in China. A case–control study of 314 HCC cases and 346 controls was conducted in Xiamen, which is an epidemic area in China for both hepatitis B infection and HCC. Face-to-face interview was conducted to gather information on demographic characteristics as well as exposure of environmental factors. Commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used to determine the status of serological markers of HBV infection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using unconditional logistic regression. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to evaluate the potential interactions of variables or confounders. As expected, HBV and alcohol intake still are the major risk factors of HCC. Liver disease history and passive smoking are also associated with elevated HCC risk. Indoor air pollution and pesticide exposure have newly identified as risk factors of HCC. Fruit and tea intake can significantly lower the HCC risk. The application of HBV vaccine and reduction on alcohol intake should be further promoted in high-risk population. Fruit and tea can be served as chemoprevention in daily life due to their high accessibility. PMID:26871825

  3. Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor: Its Possible Involvement in the Progression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Hirayuki; Nakamura, Hideji; Liu, Weidong; Nishiguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    The development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important complication of viral infection induced by hepatitis virus C, and our major research theme is to identify a new growth factor related to the progression of HCC. HDGF (hepatoma-derived growth factor) is a novel growth factor that belongs to a new gene family. HDGF was initially purified from the conditioned medium of a hepatoma cell line. HDGF promotes cellular proliferation as a DNA binding nuclear factor and a secreted protein acting via a receptor-mediated pathway. HDGF is a unique multi-functional protein that can function as a growth factor, angiogenic factor and anti-apoptotic factor and it participates in the development and progression of various malignant diseases. The expression level of HDGF may be an independent prognostic factor for predicting the disease-free and overall survival in patients with various malignancies, including HCC. Furthermore, the overexpression of HDGF promotes the proliferation of HCC cells, while a reduction in the HDGF expression inhibits the proliferation of HCC cells. This article provides an overview of the characteristics of HDGF and describes the potential role of HDGF as a growth-promoting factor for HCC. PMID:26101867

  4. Non-viral factors contributing to hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hamed, Manal A; Ali, Sanaa A

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, accounting for over half a million deaths per year. The geographic pattern of HCC incidence is parallel to exposure to viral etiologic factors. Its incidence is increasing, ranging between 3% and 9% annually depending on the geographical location, and variability in the incidence rates correspond closely to the prevalence and pattern of the primary etiologic factors. Chronic infections with hepatitis B viruses or hepatitis C viruses have both been recognized as human liver carcinogens with a combined attributable fraction of at least 75% of all HCC cases. Multiple non-viral factors have been implicated in the development of HCC. Increased body mass index and diabetes with subsequent development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis represent significant risk factors for HCC. Other non-viral causes of HCC include iron overload syndromes, alcohol use, tobacco, oral contraceptive, aflatoxin, pesticides exposure and betel quid chewing, a prevalent habit in the developing world. Wilson disease, α-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Porphyrias, autoimmune hepatitis, Schistosoma japonicum associated with positive hepatitis B surface antigen, and thorotrast-ray are also contributing hepatocellualar carcinoma. In addition, primary biliary cirrhosis, congestive liver disease and family history of liver cancer increase the risk of HCC incident. In conclusion, clarification of relevant non-viral causes of HCC will help to focus clinicians on those risk factors that are modifiable. The multilevel preventative approach will hopefully lead to a reduction in incidence of non-viral HCC, and a decrease in the patient morbidity and mortality as well as the societal economic burden associated with HCC. PMID:23805355

  5. Downregulation of FOXP1 Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inducing G1/S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Ji; Cui, Meiling; Zhao, Fangyu; Ge, Chao; Chen, Taoyang; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) belongs to a family of winged-helix transcription factors that are involved in the processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and longevity. FOXP1 can affect cell proliferation and migratory ability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. However, little is known about the mechanism of FOXP1 in the proliferation of HCC cells. This study aimed to further explore the function of FOXP1 on the proliferation of HCC cells as well as the relevant mechanism involved. Western blot analysis, tumor xenograft models, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to elucidate the function of FOXP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in human HCC. We observed that silencing FOXP1 significantly suppressed the growth ability of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of FOXP1 induced G1/S phase arrest, and the expression of total and phosphorylated Rb (active type) as well as the levels of E2F1 were markedly decreased at 24 h; however, other proteins, including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 and cyclin D1 did not show noticeable changes. In conclusion, downregulation of FOXP1 inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing G1/S phase cell cycle arrest, and the decrease in phosphorylated Rb is the main contributor to this G1/S phase arrest. PMID:27618020

  6. Downregulation of FOXP1 Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Inducing G1/S Phase Cell Cycle Arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Ji; Cui, Meiling; Zhao, Fangyu; Ge, Chao; Chen, Taoyang; Yao, Ming; Li, Jinjun

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box P1 (FOXP1) belongs to a family of winged-helix transcription factors that are involved in the processes of cellular proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and longevity. FOXP1 can affect cell proliferation and migratory ability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro. However, little is known about the mechanism of FOXP1 in the proliferation of HCC cells. This study aimed to further explore the function of FOXP1 on the proliferation of HCC cells as well as the relevant mechanism involved. Western blot analysis, tumor xenograft models, and flow cytometry analysis were performed to elucidate the function of FOXP1 in the regulation of cell proliferation in human HCC. We observed that silencing FOXP1 significantly suppressed the growth ability of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, knockdown of FOXP1 induced G1/S phase arrest, and the expression of total and phosphorylated Rb (active type) as well as the levels of E2F1 were markedly decreased at 24 h; however, other proteins, including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 and cyclin D1 did not show noticeable changes. In conclusion, downregulation of FOXP1 inhibits cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing G1/S phase cell cycle arrest, and the decrease in phosphorylated Rb is the main contributor to this G1/S phase arrest. PMID:27618020

  7. 125I-labeled anti-bFGF monoclonal antibody inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Peng-Hui; Pan, Lan-Hong; Wong, Patrick Ting-Yat; Chen, Wen-Hui; Yang, Yan-Qing; Wang, Hong; Xiang, Jun-Jian; Xu, Meng

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory efficacy of 125I-labeled anti-basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) monoclonal antibody (mAb) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: bFGF mAb was prepared by using the 1G9B9 hybridoma cell line with hybridization technology and extracted from ascites fluid through a Protein G Sepharose affinity column. After labeling with 125I through the chloramine-T method, bFGF mAb was further purified by a Sephadex G-25 column. Gamma radiation counter GC-1200 detected radioactivity of 125I-bFGF mAb. The murine H22 HCC xenograft model was established and randomized to interventions with control (phosphate-buffered saline), 125I-bFGF mAb, 125I plus bFGF mAb, bFGF mAb, or 125I. The ratios of tumor inhibition were then calculated. Expression of bFGF, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The purified bFGF mAb solution was 8.145 mg/mL with a titer of 1:2560000 and was stored at -20 °C. After coupling, 125I-bFGF mAb was used at a 1: 1280000 dilution, stored at 4 °C, and its specific radioactivity was 37 MBq/mg. The corresponding tumor weight in the control, 125I, bFGF mAb, 125I plus bFGF mAb, and 125I-bFGF mAb groups was 1.88 ± 0.25, 1.625 ± 0.21, 1.5 ± 0.18, 1.41 ± 0.16, and 0.98 ± 0.11 g, respectively. The tumor inhibition ratio in the 125I, bFGF mAb, 125I plus bFGF mAb, and 125I-bFGF mAb groups was 13.6%, 20.2%, 25.1%, and 47.9%, respectively. Growth of HCC xenografts was inhibited significantly more in the 125I-bFGF mAb group than in the other groups (P < 0.05). Expression of bFGF and FGFR mRNA in the 125I-bFGF mAb group was significantly decreased in comparison with other groups (P < 0.05). Groups under interventions revealed increased expression of VEGF mRNA (except for 125I group) compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: 125I-bFGF m

  8. Antagonism of Sorafenib and Regorafenib actions by platelet factors in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelets are frequently altered in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Platelet lysates (hPL) can enhance HCC cell growth and decrease apoptosis. The aims were to evaluate whether hPL can modulate the actions of Sorafenib or Regorafenib, two clinical HCC multikinase antagonists. Methods Several human HCC cell lines were grown in the presence and absence of Sorafenib or Regorafenib, with or without hPL. Growth was measured by MTT assay, apoptosis was assessed by Annexin V and by western blot, and autophagy and MAPK growth signaling were also measured by western blot, and migration and invasion were measured by standard in vitro assays. Results Both Sorafenib and Regorafenib-mediated inhibition of cell growth, migration and invasion were all antagonized by hPL. Drug-mediated apoptosis and decrease in phospho-ERK levels were both blocked by hPL, which also increased anti-apoptotic phospho-STAT, Bax and Bcl-xL levels. Preliminary data, obtained with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), included in hPL, revealed that these factors were able to antagonized Sorafenib in a proliferation assay, in particular when used in combination. Conclusions Platelet factors can antagonize Sorafenib or Regorafenib-mediated growth inhibition and apoptosis in HCC cells. The modulation of platelet activity or numbers has the potential to enhance multikinase drug actions. PMID:24885890

  9. Metformin inhibits the prometastatic effect of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma by upregulating the expression of TIP30.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhigui; Cao, Manqing; You, Abin; Gao, Junrong; Zhou, Hongyuan; Li, Huikai; Cui, Yunlong; Fang, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Song, Tianqiang; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Sun, Huichuan; Zhang, Ti

    2016-04-01

    We previously found that a low dose of sorafenib had a prometastatic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was caused by downregulation of TIP30 expression. More recently, metformin has been shown to have potential as a preventive and therapeutic agent for different cancers, including HCC. This study evaluated whether the combination of sorafenib and metformin is sufficient to revert the expression of TIP30, thereby simultaneously reducing lung metastasis and improving survival. Our data show that the combination of sorafenib and metformin inhibits proliferation and invasion in vitro, prolongs median survival, and reduces lung metastasis of HCC in vivo. This effect is closely associated with the upregulation of TIP30, partly through activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Thioredoxin, a prometastasis factor, is negatively regulated by TIP30 and plays an essential role during the process of HCC metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that metformin might be a potent enhancer for the treatment of HCC by using sorafenib.

  10. Metformin inhibits the prometastatic effect of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma by upregulating the expression of TIP30.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhigui; Cao, Manqing; You, Abin; Gao, Junrong; Zhou, Hongyuan; Li, Huikai; Cui, Yunlong; Fang, Feng; Zhang, Wei; Song, Tianqiang; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaolin; Sun, Huichuan; Zhang, Ti

    2016-04-01

    We previously found that a low dose of sorafenib had a prometastatic effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which was caused by downregulation of TIP30 expression. More recently, metformin has been shown to have potential as a preventive and therapeutic agent for different cancers, including HCC. This study evaluated whether the combination of sorafenib and metformin is sufficient to revert the expression of TIP30, thereby simultaneously reducing lung metastasis and improving survival. Our data show that the combination of sorafenib and metformin inhibits proliferation and invasion in vitro, prolongs median survival, and reduces lung metastasis of HCC in vivo. This effect is closely associated with the upregulation of TIP30, partly through activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Thioredoxin, a prometastasis factor, is negatively regulated by TIP30 and plays an essential role during the process of HCC metastasis. Overall, our results suggest that metformin might be a potent enhancer for the treatment of HCC by using sorafenib. PMID:26752068

  11. Baicalein inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells through suppressing the expression of CD24.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhengquan; Zhu, Shengming; Han, Xiao; Wang, Zian; Wu, Shiwu; Zheng, Rongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and is the most common type of liver cancer. Current therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma are still rather limited and novel therapeutic strategies are required. Baicalein, extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, has anticancer effects on HCC in vitro and vivo. However, the detailed mechanisms are not well studied yet. In the present study, we evaluated anticancer effects of purified botanical extracts on HCC cells using high-throughput screening and investigated the effects of baicalein on HCC cells using proliferation and apoptosis assays, RT-PCR, and Western blot. Transfection was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of these effects. Our results showed that baicalein is the most efficient botanical extract in a HCC cell line as compared with the other 13 extracts. Baicalein significantly decreased the expression of c-Myc, a crucial regulator of cell proliferation, apoptosis and cellular transformation, in dose- and time-dependent manners in HCC cells. Moreover, baicalein inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. The mRNA and protein expressions of CD24 were downregulated by baicalein in HCC cells and ectopic overexpression of CD24 reversed baicalein-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and survival. Taken together, our results demonstrate efficient anticancer effects of baicalein on HCC cells and indicate that baicalein suppresses cell growth and cell survival through downregulation of CD24.

  12. TCP10L acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Jie; Cai, Hao; Wu, Yanhua; Ma, Haijie; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Chao; Han, Dingding; Ji, Guoqing; Yu, Long

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TCP10L was down-regulated in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Expression of TCP10L correlated significantly with tumor size and Milan criteria. • Overexpression of TCP10L attenuated growth of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo. • Knocking down TCP10L promoted cell proliferation and tumorigenesis of HCC cells. - Abstract: TCP10L (T-complex 10 (mouse)-like) has been identified as a liver and testis-specific gene. Although a potential transcriptional suppression function of TCP10L has been reported previously, biological function of this gene still remains largely elusive. In this study, we reported for the first time that TCP10L was significantly down-regulated in clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples when compared to the corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues. Furthermore, TCP10L expression was highly correlated with advanced cases exceeding the Milan criteria. Overexpression of TCP10L in HCC cells suppressed colony formation, inhibited cell cycle progression through G0/G1 phase, and attenuated cell growth in vivo. Consistently, silencing of TCP10L promoted cell cycle progression and cell growth. Therefore, our study has revealed a novel suppressor role of TCP10L in HCC, by inhibiting proliferation of HCC cells, which may facilitate the diagnosis and molecular therapy in HCC.

  13. Risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chao-Wei; Tsai, Hsin-I; Sung, Chang-Mu; Chen, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Wei; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chan, Kun-Ming; Yu, Ming-Chin; Lee, Wei-Chen; Chen, Miin-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in surgical technique and medical care, liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a high-risk major operation. The present study evaluated the risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy.We retrospectively reviewed records of patients undergoing liver resection for HCC between 1983 and 2015. A point score (Risk Assessment for early Mortality (RAM) score) for hepatectomy was developed based on multivariate analyses.Three hundred eighty-three patients (11.3%) expired within 6 months after the operation. Logistic regression analyses identified that operative duration >270 minutes and blood loss >800 cc were significant predictors of major surgical complications (P = 0.013 and 0.002, respectively). On the other hand, diabetes mellitus, albumin ≤3.5 g/dL, α-fetoprotein (AFP) >200 ng/mL, major surgical procedure, blood loss >800 cc, and major surgical complications were independent risk factors for early mortality after hepatectomy (P = 0.019, <0.001, <0.001, 0.006, 0.018, and <0.001, respectively). Risk Assessment for early Mortality score (RAM score) identified 3 subgroups of patients with distinct 6-month mortality rate, with Class III (score 10) having highest risk of early mortality.Our study demonstrated that meticulous surgical techniques to minimize blood loss and avoid prolonged operative time may help decrease the occurrence of major surgical complications. In addition to major surgical complications, diabetes mellitus, hypoalbuminemia, high AFP, massive blood loss, and major surgical procedure are also associated with early mortality after liver resection. Further study is warranted to validate the utility of RAM score as a bedside scoring system to predict postoperative outcome. PMID:27684875

  14. Hypoxia inducible factor in hepatocellular carcinoma: A therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Daniel; Wu, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and deadly cancers worldwide; its incidence has been rising in the United States due to the increase in hepatitis C associated cirrhosis and the growing epidemic of obesity. There have been no effective therapeutic options in the advanced disease setting beyond sorafenib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that showed significant survival benefit. Because of this, there is an urgent need to search for novel pathways in sorafenib experienced patients. This review will focus on the role of hypoxia and hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α) in cancer development, specifically in HCC. We will discuss the biology of HIF-1α, the pathways with which it interacts, and the function of HIF-1α in HCC. Furthermore, we will review studies highlighting the relevance of HIF-1α in the clinical setting, as well as the pre-clinical data supporting its further investigation. Finally, we will conclude with a discussion of the potential role of a HIF-1α mRNA antagonist for the treatment of HCC, and hypothesize the ways in which such an inhibitor may be best utilized in the management of advanced HCC. Hypoxia plays a significant role in the development of HCC. HIF-1α is a key transcription factor involved in the hypoxic response of cancer cells. It activates transcription of genes responsible for angiogenesis, glucose metabolism, proliferation, invasion and metastasis in HCC. Its involvement in multiple, essential tumor pathways makes it an attractive potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:26576101

  15. Antibody mediated therapy targeting CD47 inhibits tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Chung, Haniee; Banan, Babak; Manning, Pamela T.; Ott, Katherine C.; Lin, Shin; Capoccia, Benjamin J.; Subramanian, Vijay; Hiebsch, Ronald R.; Upadhya, Gundumi A.; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Frazier, William A.; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival times. The efficacy of current systemic therapies for HCC is limited. In this study, we used xenograft tumor models to investigate the use of antibodies that block CD47 and inhibit HCC tumor growth. Immunostaining of tumor tissue and HCC cell lines demonstrated CD47 over-expression in HCC as compared to normal hepatocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis of HCC cells was increased after treatment with CD47 antibodies (CD47mAbs) that block CD47 binding to SIRPα. Further, CD47 blockade inhibited tumor growth in both heterotopic and orthotopic models of HCC, and promoted the migration of macrophages into the tumor mass. Our results demonstrate that targeting CD47 by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC. PMID:25721088

  16. Corosolic Acid Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Migration by Targeting the VEGFR2/Src/FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Chung-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ren; Lin, Hsuan-Yuan; Lu, Shao-Chun; Lin, Jung-Yaw

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of VEGFR2 activity has been proposed as an important strategy for the clinical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we identified corosolic acid (CA), which exists in the root of Actinidia chinensis, as having a significant anti-cancer effect on HCC cells. We found that CA inhibits VEGFR2 kinase activity by directly interacting with the ATP binding pocket. CA down-regulates the VEGFR2/Src/FAK/cdc42 axis, subsequently decreasing F-actin formation and migratory activity in vitro. In an in vivo model, CA exhibited an effective dose (5 mg/kg/day) on tumor growth. We further demonstrate that CA has a synergistic effect with sorafenib within a wide range of concentrations. In conclusion, this research elucidates the effects and molecular mechanism for CA on HCC cells and suggests that CA could be a therapeutic or adjuvant strategy for patients with aggressive HCC. PMID:25978354

  17. Artemisinin inhibits in vitro and in vivo invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Weifeng, Tan; Feng, Shen; Xiangji, Luo; Changqing, Su; Zhiquan, Qiu; Huazhong, Zeng; Peining, Yan; Yong, Yu; Mengchao, Wu; Xiaoqing, Jiang; Wan-Yee, Lau

    2011-01-15

    Artemisinin (ART) is isolated from the medicinal plant Artemisia annua L. To determine its effects on the invasion and metastasis of tumors, the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721 were treated with different concentrations of ART. Starting at 12.5μM, ART had inhibitory effects in migration and invasion assays that increased at higher concentrations. The inhibitory effect also became stronger with time, from 24 to 72h. ART significantly inhibited the in vivo metastatic abilities of the HepG2 HCC cell line. ART inhibited the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo by reducing the level of the MMP2 metalloproteinase, and by inducing the TIMP2 protein. ART activated Cdc42, which enhanced E-cadherin activity, resulting in greater cell-cell adhesion, and significantly reduced metastasis. PMID:20739158

  18. Synergistic growth inhibition of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by acyclic retinoid and GW4064, a farnesoid X receptor ligand.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tomohiko; Shirakami, Yohei; Shimizu, Masahito; Kubota, Masaya; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Yasuda, Yoichi; Kochi, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-10-28

    Abnormalities in the expression and function of retinoid X receptor (RXR), a master regulator of the nuclear receptor superfamily, are associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Dysfunction of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), one of the nuclear receptors that forms a heterodimer with RXR, also plays a role in liver carcinogenesis. In the present study, we examined the effects of acyclic retinoid (ACR), a synthetic retinoid targeting RXRα, plus GW4064, a ligand for FXR, on the growth of human HCC cells. We found that ACR and GW4064 preferentially inhibited the growth of HLE, HLF, and Huh7 human HCC cells in comparison with Hc normal hepatocytes. The combination of 1μM ACR plus 1μM GW4064 synergistically inhibited the growth of HLE cells by inducing apoptosis. The combined treatment with these agents acted cooperatively to induce cell cycle arrest in the G(0)/G(1) phase and inhibit the phosphorylation of RXRα, which is regarded as a critical factor for liver carcinogenesis, through inhibition of ERK and Stat3 phosphorylation. This combination also increased the expression levels of p21(CIP1) and SHP mRNA, while decreasing the levels of c-myc and cyclin D1 mRNA in HLE cells. In addition, a reporter assay indicated that the FXRE promoter activity was significantly increased by treatment with ACR plus GW4064. Our results suggest that ACR and GW4064 cooperatively inhibit RXRα phosphorylation, modulate the expression of FXR-regulated genes, thus resulting in the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of growth in HCC cells. This combination might therefore be effective for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of HCC.

  19. The silencing of Pokemon attenuates the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chan-Chan; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Liu, Yun-Peng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Jazag, Amarsanaa; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Guleng, Bayasi; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor), which belongs to the POK protein family, is also called LRF, OCZF and FBI-1. As a transcriptional repressor, Pokemon assumes a critical function in cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. Our study identified an oncogenic role for Pokemon in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We successfully established human HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines in which Pokemon was stably knocked down. We demonstrated that Pokemon silencing inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Pokemon knockdown inhibited the PI3K/Akt and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways and modulated the expression of various cell cycle regulators in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Therefore, Pokemon may also be involved in cell cycle progression in these cells. We confirmed that Pokemon silencing suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in tumor xenograft mice. These results suggest that Pokemon promotes cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerates tumor development in an Akt- and ERK-signaling-dependent manner. PMID:23300578

  20. The silencing of Pokemon attenuates the proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chan-Chan; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Liu, Yun-Peng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Xiao-Ning; Jazag, Amarsanaa; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Guleng, Bayasi; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic factor), which belongs to the POK protein family, is also called LRF, OCZF and FBI-1. As a transcriptional repressor, Pokemon assumes a critical function in cellular differentiation and oncogenesis. Our study identified an oncogenic role for Pokemon in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We successfully established human HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines in which Pokemon was stably knocked down. We demonstrated that Pokemon silencing inhibited cell proliferation and migration. Pokemon knockdown inhibited the PI3K/Akt and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathways and modulated the expression of various cell cycle regulators in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Therefore, Pokemon may also be involved in cell cycle progression in these cells. We confirmed that Pokemon silencing suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma growth in tumor xenograft mice. These results suggest that Pokemon promotes cell proliferation and migration in hepatocellular carcinoma and accelerates tumor development in an Akt- and ERK-signaling-dependent manner.

  1. Downregulation of tetrahydrobiopterin inhibits tumor angiogenesis in BALB/c-nu mice with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Youguo; Cui, Jin; Gan, Ping; Li, Weiming

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly vascular tumor, and treatment options for patients of advanced-stage are limited. Nitric oxide (NO), which is derived from endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), provides crucial signals for angiogenesis in the tumor microenvironment. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor eNOS and represents a critical determinant of NO production. To examine whether treatment of 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) inhibits angiogenesis of HCC, BALB/c-nu mice were injected with HepG-2 cells with DAHP. Supplemental DAHP treatment decreased K-ras mRNA transcripts, inhibition of phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt, inhibition of guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH), and decreased significantly NO synthesis, and then inhibited angiogenesis, compared with the results observed in the saline group. Histopathology demonstrated angiogenesis and tumor formation were significantly inhibited in HCC. DAHP downregulates GTPCH protein expression, corresponding to decreased levels of BH4 and the contents of NO. In addition, DAHP downregulates eNOS and Akt protein expression, corresponding to decreased eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177 and Akt phosphorylation, compared with the saline control. We suggest that DAHP, recognized as a specific competitive inhibitor of GTPCH, can decrease tumor BH4 and NO by the inhibition of the wild-type Ras-PI3K/Akt pathway, and then inhibiting angiogenesis, and may provide a novel and promising way to target BH4 synthetic pathways to inhibit angiogenesis and to control potential progression of HCC. Whether DAHP has a therapeutic potential will require more direct testing in humans. PMID:27279530

  2. AR-42 induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via HDAC5 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Pan, Yida; Dorfman, Robert G.; Chen, Zhaogui; Liu, Fuchen; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dongqin; Liu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play critical roles in apoptosis and contribute to the proliferation of cancer cells. AR-42 is a novel Class I and II HDAC inhibitor that shows cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. The present study aims to identify the target of AR-42 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. We found that HDAC5 was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and this was correlated with reduced patient survival. CCK8 and colony-formation assays showed that HDAC5 overexpression promotes proliferation in HCC cell lines. Treatment with AR-42 decreased HCC cell growth and increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and this was rescued by HDAC5 overexpression. We demonstrated that AR-42 can inhibit the deacetylation activity of HDAC5 and its downstream targets in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that AR-42 targets HDAC5 and induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. AR-42 therefore shows potential as a new drug candidate for HCC therapy. PMID:26993777

  3. AR-42 induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via HDAC5 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Pan, Yida; Dorfman, Robert G; Chen, Zhaogui; Liu, Fuchen; Zhou, Qian; Huang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Dongqin; Liu, Jie

    2016-04-19

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play critical roles in apoptosis and contribute to the proliferation of cancer cells. AR-42 is a novel Class I and II HDAC inhibitor that shows cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. The present study aims to identify the target of AR-42 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as well as evaluate its therapeutic efficacy. We found that HDAC5 was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and this was correlated with reduced patient survival. CCK8 and colony-formation assays showed that HDAC5 overexpression promotes proliferation in HCC cell lines. Treatment with AR-42 decreased HCC cell growth and increased caspase-dependent apoptosis, and this was rescued by HDAC5 overexpression. We demonstrated that AR-42 can inhibit the deacetylation activity of HDAC5 and its downstream targets in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that AR-42 targets HDAC5 and induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. AR-42 therefore shows potential as a new drug candidate for HCC therapy.

  4. Novel celastrol derivatives inhibit the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenografts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wu, Song; Wang, Xiaolin; Sun, Chris Kin-Wai; Yang, Xiaoyang; Yan, Xinrui; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel

    2014-07-30

    The molecular co-chaperone CDC37 is over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, where it functions with HSP90 to regulate the activity of protein kinases in multiple oncogenic signaling pathways that contribute towards hepatocarcinogenesis. Disruption of these signaling pathways via inhibition of HSP90/CDC37 interaction is therefore a rational therapeutic approach. We evaluated the anti-tumor effects of celastrol, pristimerin, and two novel derivatives (cel-D2, and cel-D7) on HCC cell lines in vitro and on orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo. All four compounds preferentially inhibited viability of HCC cells in vitro,and significantly inhibited the growth of three orthotopic HCC patient-derived xenografts in vivo; with the novel derivatives cel-D2 and cel-D7 exhibiting lower toxicity. All four compounds also induced cell apoptosis; and promoted degradation and inhibited phosphorylation of protein kinases in the Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We demonstrated that HSP90/CDC37 antagonists are potentially broad spectrum agents that might be beneficial for treating the heterogeneous subtypes of HCC, either as monotherapy, or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  5. Suppression of BRD4 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma by repressing MYC and enhancing BIM expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-Quan; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Seng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hua-Peng; Ma, Xiu-Xian; Zhang, Gong; Li, Jie; Yan, Bing; Tang, Hong-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Shui-Jun

    2016-01-19

    Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic regulator that, when inhibited, has anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated whether BRD4 could be a target for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that BRD4 is over-expressed in HCC tissues. Suppression of BRD4, either by siRNA or using JQ1, a pharmaceutical BRD4 inhibitor, reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines while also slowing HCC xenograft tumor growth in mice. JQ1 treatment induced G1 cell cycle arrest by repressing MYC expression, which led to the up-regulation of CDKN1B (P27). JQ1 also de-repressed expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11 (BIM). Moreover, siRNA knockdown of BIM attenuated JQ1-triggered apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting an essential role for BIM in mediating JQ1 anti-HCC activity. PMID:26575167

  6. Suppression of BRD4 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma by repressing MYC and enhancing BIM expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Seng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hua-Peng; Ma, Xiu-Xian; Zhang, Gong; Li, Jie; Yan, Bing; Tang, Hong-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Shui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic regulator that, when inhibited, has anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated whether BRD4 could be a target for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that BRD4 is over-expressed in HCC tissues. Suppression of BRD4, either by siRNA or using JQ1, a pharmaceutical BRD4 inhibitor, reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines while also slowing HCC xenograft tumor growth in mice. JQ1 treatment induced G1 cell cycle arrest by repressing MYC expression, which led to the up-regulation of CDKN1B (P27). JQ1 also de-repressed expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11 (BIM). Moreover, siRNA knockdown of BIM attenuated JQ1-triggered apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting an essential role for BIM in mediating JQ1 anti-HCC activity. PMID:26575167

  7. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2’s potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  8. Expression and Critical Role of Interleukin Enhancer Binding Factor 2 in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shaobing; Jiang, Xu; Ding, Chaofeng; Du, Chengli; Owusu-Ansah, Kwabena Gyabaah; Weng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Wendi; Peng, Chuanhui; Lv, Zhen; Tong, Rongliang; Xiao, Heng; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Wu, Jian; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 (ILF2), a transcription factor, regulates cell growth by inhibiting the stabilization of mRNA. Currently, its role has gained recognition as a factor in the tumorigenic process. However, until now, little has been known about the detailed role ILF2 plays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the expression levels of ILF2 in HCC tissue with Western blot and immunohistochemical assays. To examine the effect of ILF2 on liver cancer cell growth and apoptosis, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting ILF2 were recombined to create lentiviral overexpression vectors. Our results showed higher expression levels of ILF2 mRNA and ILF2 protein in HCC tissue compared with matched peritumoral tissue. Expression of ILF2 may regulate cell growth and apoptosis in liver cancer cells via regulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 related ovarian killer (Bok), Bcl-2-associated X protein (BAX), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1). Moreover, we inoculated nude mice with liver cancer cells to investigate the effect of ILF2 on tumorigenesis in vivo. As expected, a rapid growth was observed in cancer cells inoculated with a lentiviral vector coding Flag-ILF2 (Lenti-ILF2) compared with the control cells. Hence, these results promote a better understanding of ILF2's potential role as a therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27556459

  9. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - factors influencing outcome and disease-free survival

    PubMed Central

    Fahrner, René; Dondorf, Felix; Ardelt, Michael; Dittmar, Yves; Settmacher, Utz; Rauchfuß, Falk

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver transplantation can be a curative treatment in selected patients. However, there are several factors that influence disease-free survival after transplantation. This review addresses the pre-, intra- and postoperative factors that influence the risk of tumor recurrence after liver transplantation. PMID:26576092

  10. Hepatitis C virus suppresses Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha, a key regulator of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Dafou, Dimitra; Vassilaki, Niki; Mavromara, Penelope; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection presents with a disturbed lipid profile and can evolve to hepatic steatosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF4α) is the most abundant transcription factor in the liver, a key regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and a critical determinant of Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and hepatic development. We have previously shown that transient inhibition of HNF4α initiates transformation of immortalized hepatocytes through a feedback loop consisting of miR-24, IL6 receptor (IL6R), STAT3, miR-124 and miR-629, suggesting a central role of HNF4α in HCC. However, the role of HNF4α in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)-related hepatocarcinoma has not been evaluated and remains controversial. In this study, we provide strong evidence suggesting that HCV downregulates HNF4α expression at both transcriptional and translational levels. The observed decrease of HNF4α expression correlated with the downregulation of its downstream targets, HNF1α and MTP. Ectopic overexpression of HCV proteins also exhibited an inhibitory effect on HNF4α levels. The inhibition of HNF4α expression by HCV appeared to be mediated at transcriptional level as HCV proteins suppressed HNF4α gene promoter activity. HCV also up-regulated IL6R, activated STAT3 protein phosphorylation and altered the expression of acute phase genes. Furthermore, as HCV triggered the loss of HNF4α a consequent change of miR-24, miR-629 or miR-124 was observed. Our findings demonstrated that HCV-related HCC could be mediated through HNF4α-microRNA deregulation implying a possible role of HNF4α in HCV hepatocarcinogenesis. HCV inhibition of HNF4α could be sustained to promote HCC. PMID:27477312

  11. MNT inhibits the migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC7721 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Yafeng; Zhou, Xiangbing; Li, Jiaping

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNT is a member of the Myc/Max/Mad network that plays a role in cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our study further emphasized the role of MNT in migration inhibition of SMMC7721 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MNT might be a promising target for HCC chemotherapy. -- Abstract: Max binding protein (MNT) is a member of the Myc/Max/Mad network that plays a role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We previously observed that MNT was differentially expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and interacted with Nck1 by 2-DE. Nck family adaptor proteins function to couple tyrosine phosphorylation signals, regulate actin cytoskeletal reorganization and lead to cell motility. In order to investigate the regulatory role of MNT in HCC migration, we used transient transfection with a MNT expressing vector to overexpress MNT protein in SMMC7721 cells, and MNT siRNA to knockdown MNT expression. Rho Family Small GTPase activation assay, Western blots and transwell assay were used to determine the migration potential of cells. We found that knockdown of MNT expression might promote SMMC7721 cell migration, while the overexpressed MNT could significantly inhibit cell migration. It further emphasized the role of MNT in inhibition of cell migration that might be a promising target for HCC chemotherapy.

  12. PS341 inhibits hepatocellular and colorectal cancer cells through the FOXO3/CTNNB1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhao; Liu, Shengwu; Zhu, Mingao; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Ji; Xu, Qian; Lin, Kaisu; Zhou, Xiumin; Tao, Min; Li, Chong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are among the most common cancers across the world. Particularly, a large number of patients with CRC also have liver metastasis. Currently, there are just a few targeted drugs against these two kinds of tumors which can only benefit a very small population of patients. Therefore, the need of more effective therapeutic drugs or strategies for these two types of cancers is urgent. PS341 (Bortezomib) is the first proteasome inhibitor drug which has been approved in clinical treatment for multiple myeloma. Here we demonstrated that PS341 negatively regulated HCC and CRC both in vitro and in vivo, including the inhibition of cell proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the expression of stemness-related genes, cell migration and invasiveness. Mechanically, PS341 upregulated the expression of FOXO3, which inhibited the transcriptional activation of CTNNB1. The downregualtion of CTNNB1 led to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and the inhibition of migration, invasion, self-renewal and tumor formation of these two cancer types. In sum, our findings shed light on the PS341 mediated targeted therapy against both HCC and CRC in the future. PMID:26915315

  13. TQ inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vitro and in vivo via repression of Notch signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xiquan; Zhao, Yan; Lu, Xinlan; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yuanyuan; Ren, Mudan; Lu, Guifang; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Zhenguo; Xu, Zhipeng; Song, Jee Hoon; Cheng, Yulan; Meltzer, Stephen J.; He, Shuixiang

    2015-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) has been reported to possess anti-tumor activity in various types of cancer. However, its effects and molecular mechanism of action in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still not completely understood. We observed that TQ inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro, where treatment with TQ arrested the cell cycle in G1 by upregulating p21 and downregulating cyclinD1 and CDK2 expression; moreover, TQ induced apoptosis by decreasing expression of Bcl-2 and increasing expression of Bax. Simultaneously, TQ demonstrated a suppressive impact on the Notch pathway, where overexpression of NICD1 reversed the inhibitory effect of TQ on cell proliferation, thereby attenuating the repressive effects of TQ on the Notch pathway, cyclinD1, CDK2 and Bcl-2, and also diminishing upregulation of p21 and Bax. In a xenograft model, TQ inhibited HCC growth in nude mice; this inhibitory effect in vivo, as well as of HCC cell growth in vitro, was associated with a discernible decline in NICD1 and Bcl-2 levels and a dramatic rise in p21 expression. In conclusion, TQ inhibits HCC cell growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, achieving these effects by repression of the Notch signaling pathway, suggesting that TQ represents a potential preventive or therapeutic agent in HCC patients. PMID:26416455

  14. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  15. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  16. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction by (+)-Cyanidan-3-ol in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monga, Jitender; Pandit, Saurabh; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh; Chauhan, Chetan Singh; Chauhan, Shailender Singh; Sharma, Manu

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of (+)-cyanidan-3-ol (CD-3) in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and chemopreventive potential against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Balb/c mice. The HepG2 cell line was treated with CD-3 at various concentrations and the proliferation of the HepG2 cells was measure by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), sulforhodamine B (SRB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. Cell apoptosis was detected by Hoechst 33258 (HO), Acridine orange/ethylene dibromide (AO/EB) staining, DNA fragmentation analysis and the apoptosis rate was detected by flow cytometry. The HCC tumor model was established in mice by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine/carbon tetrachloride (NDEA/CCl4) and the effect of CD-3 on tumor growth in-vivo was studied. The levels of liver injury markers, tumor markers, and oxidative stress were measured. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in in-vitro and in vivo models were determined by RT-PCR and ELISA. The CD-3 induced cell death was considered to be apoptotic by observing the typical apoptotic morphological changes under fluorescent microscopy and DNA fragmentation analysis. Annexin V/PI assay demonstrated that apoptosis increased with increase in the concentration of CD-3. The expression levels of apoptosis-related genes that belong to bcl-2 and caspase family were increased and AP-1 and NF-κB activities were significantly suppressed by CD-3. Immunohistochemistry data revealed less localization of p53, p65 and c-jun in CD-3 treated tumors as compared to localization in NDEA/CCl4 treated tumors. Taken together, our data demonstrated that CD-3 could significantly inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells in-vitro and suppress HCC tumor growth in-vivo by apoptosis induction. PMID:23894334

  17. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth and improves survival in models of chronic fibrosis via paracrine inhibition of activated hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Tong-Chun; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Zhang, Ke-Zhi; Zhang, Qiang-Bo; You, Yang; Tian, Hui; Qin, Lun-Xiu; Tang, Zhao-You

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fibrosis is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathological progression of hepatic fibrosis has been linked to cellular processes that promote tumor growth and metastasis. Several recent studies have highlighted the cross-talk between tumor cells and activated hepatic stellate cells (aHSCs) in HCC. The herbal compound Songyou Yin (SYY) is known to attenuate hepatoma cell invasion and metastasis via down-regulation of cytokine secretion by aHSCs. However the underlying mechanism of SYY treatment in reversal of hepatic fibrosis and metastasis of liver cancers is not known. In the current study, a nude mouse model with liver fibrosis bearing orthotopic xenograft was established and we found that SYY could reduce associated fibrosis, inhibit tumor growth and improve survival. In the subcutaneous tumor model with fibrosis, we found that SYY could inhibit liver cancer. In vitro, hepatoma cells incubated with conditioned media (CM) from SYY treated aHSCs showed reduced proliferation, decrease in colony formation and invasive potential. SYY treated group showed altered gene expression, with 1205 genes up-regulated and 1323 genes down-regulated. Gene cluster analysis indicated that phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) was one of the key genes altered in the expression profiles. PI3K related markers were all significantly down-regulated. ELISA also indicated decreased secretion of cytokines which were regulated by PI3K/AKT signaling after SYY treatment in the hepatic stellate cell line, LX2. These data clearly demonstrate that SYY therapy inhibits HCC invasive and metastatic potential and improves survival in nude mice models with chronic fibrosis background via inhibition of cytokine secretion by activated hepatic stellate cells. PMID:26517671

  18. Inhibition of mTOR promotes hyperthermia sensitivity in SMMC-7721 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QING-LIANG; LIU, BO; LI, XIAO-JIE; HU, KUN-PENG; ZHAO, KUN; YE, XIAO-MING

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a critical mediator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mTOR signaling pathway, and mTOR activity is induced following heat shock. Thermotherapy is used to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of mTOR in modulating thermosensitivity in HCC has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, the antisense plasmid pEGFP-C1-mTOR was transfected into SMMC-7721 cells, and the expression levels of mTOR were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The thermal responses of the transfected cells were also examined. The results revealed that SMMC-7721 cells were sensitive to heat treatment, and cell viability was significantly inhibited following hyperthermia treatment (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of mTOR decreased post-transfection. Cell proliferation, colony-forming ability and motility were all significantly decreased following hyperthermia treatment in the transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that apoptosis was significantly increased following treatment (P<0.01). The number of cells in S phase was increased, and the cell cycle was arrested in S phase. In conclusion, inhibition of mTOR increased the thermosensitivity of SMMC-7721 cells by increasing cellular apoptosis and inducing S phase arrest. PMID:26998020

  19. Silencing cathepsin S gene expression inhibits growth, invasion and angiogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Qi; Wang, Xuedi; Zhang, Hanguang; Li, Chuanwei; Fan, Junhua; Xu, Jing

    2012-09-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S is highly expressed in HCC cells with high metastatic potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits growth and invasion of HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knockdown of Cat S inhibits HCC-associated angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy. -- Abstract: Cathepsin S (Cat S) plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis by its ability to degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). Our previous study suggested there could be a potential association between Cat S and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. The present study was designed to determine the role of Cat S in HCC cell growth, invasion and angiogenesis, using RNA interference technology. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences for the Cat S gene were synthesized and transfected into human HCC cell line MHCC97-H. The Cat S gene targeted siRNA-mediated knockdown of Cat S expression, leading to potent suppression of MHCC97-H cell proliferation, invasion and angiogenesis. These data suggest that Cat S might be a potential target for HCC therapy.

  20. RAD001 (everolimus) inhibits tumour growth in xenograft models of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hung; Chow, K H Pierce; Soo, Khee Chee; Toh, Han Chong; Choo, Su Pin; Foo, Kian Fong; Poon, Donald; Ngo, Van Chanh; Tran, Evelyn

    2009-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy worldwide and highly resistant to available chemotherapies. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions to regulate protein translation, angiogenesis and cell cycle progression in many cancers including HCC. In the present study, subcutaneous patient-derived HCC xenografts were used to study the effects of an mTOR inhibitor, RAD001 (everolimus), on tumour growth, apoptosis and angiogenesis. We report that oral administration of RAD001 to mice bearing patient-derived HCC xenografts resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of tumour growth. RAD001-induced growth suppression was associated with inactivation of downstream targets of mTOR, reduction in VEGF expression and microvessel density, inhibition of cell proliferation, up-regulation of p27(Kip1) and down-regulation of p21(Cip1/Waf1), Cdk-6, Cdk-2, Cdk-4, cdc-25C, cyclin B1 and c-Myc. Our data indicate that the mTOR pathway plays an important role in angiogenesis, cell cycle progression and proliferation of liver cancer cells. Our study provides a strong rationale for clinical investigation of mTOR inhibitor RAD001 in patients with HCC.

  1. Targeting ODC1 inhibits tumor growth through reduction of lipid metabolism in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yunseon; Oh, Sang Taek; Won, Min-Ah; Choi, Kyung Mi; Ko, Min Ji; Seo, Daekwan; Jeon, Tae-Won; Baik, In Hye; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Park, Keon Uk; Park, In-Chul; Jang, Byeong-Churl; Seo, Jun-Young; Lee, Yun-Han

    2016-09-30

    Ornithine decarboxylase 1 (ODC1), a metabolic enzyme critically involved in the polyamine biosynthesis, is commonly upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite its altered expression in human HCC tissues, the molecular mechanism by which ODC1 alters the course of HCC progression and functions in HCC cell survival is unknown. Here we identified that silencing of ODC1 expression with small interfering (si) RNA causes inhibition of HCC cell growth through blockade of cell cycle progression and induction of apoptosis. Next, to obtain insights into the molecular changes in response to ODC1 knockdown, global changes in gene expression were examined using RNA sequencing. It revealed that 119 genes show same directional regulation (76 up- and 43 down-regulated) in both Huh1 and Huh7 cells and were considered as a common ODC1 knockdown signature. Particularly, we found through a network analysis that KLF2, which is known to inhibit PPARγ expression and adipogenesis, was commonly up-regulated. Subsequent Western blotting affirmed that the downregulation of ODC1 was accompanied by a decrease in the levels of PPARγ as well as of PARP-1, cyclin E1 and pro-caspase 9 delaying cell cycle progression and accelerating apoptotic signaling. Following the down-regulation of PPARγ expression, ODC1 silencing resulted in a strong inhibition in the expression of important regulators of glucose transport and lipid biogenesis, and caused a marked decrease in lipid droplet accumulation. In addition, ODC1 silencing significantly inhibited the growth of human HCC xenografts in nude mice. These findings indicate that the function of ODC1 is correlated with HCC lipogenesis and suggest that targeting ODC1 could be an attractive option for molecular therapy of HCC. PMID:27592554

  2. Luteoloside suppresses proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shao-hua; Wang, Yan-yan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Wu, Dong-mei; Li, Meng-qiu; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zi-feng; Cheng, Wei; Shan, Qun

    2014-01-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation is mediated by NLR proteins that respond to stimuli. Among NLRs, NLRP3 senses the widest array of stimuli. NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the development of many cancer types. However, Whether NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. Here, the anticancer effect of luteoloside, a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Gentiana macrophylla, against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Luteoloside significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Live-cell imaging and transwell assays showed that the migration and invasive capacities of HCC cells, which were treated with luteoloside, were significantly inhibited compared with the control cells. The inhibitory effect of luteoloside on metastasis was also observed in vivo in male BALB/c-nu/nu mouse lung metastasis model. Further studies showed that luteoloside could significantly reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The decreased levels of ROS induced by luteoloside was accompanied by decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by luteoloside resulted in inhibition of IL-1β. Thus, luteoloside exerts its inhibitory effect on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicate that luteoloside can be a potential therapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for HCC, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic HCC.

  3. Luteoloside Suppresses Proliferation and Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by Inhibition of NLRP3 Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Zheng, Yuan-lin; Wu, Dong-mei; Li, Meng-qiu; Hu, Bin; Zhang, Zi-feng; Cheng, Wei; Shan, Qun

    2014-01-01

    The inflammasome is a multi-protein complex which when activated regulates caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation is mediated by NLR proteins that respond to stimuli. Among NLRs, NLRP3 senses the widest array of stimuli. NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the development of many cancer types. However, Whether NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in the process of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unknown. Here, the anticancer effect of luteoloside, a naturally occurring flavonoid isolated from the medicinal plant Gentiana macrophylla, against HCC cells and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. Luteoloside significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Live-cell imaging and transwell assays showed that the migration and invasive capacities of HCC cells, which were treated with luteoloside, were significantly inhibited compared with the control cells. The inhibitory effect of luteoloside on metastasis was also observed in vivo in male BALB/c-nu/nu mouse lung metastasis model. Further studies showed that luteoloside could significantly reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. The decreased levels of ROS induced by luteoloside was accompanied by decrease in expression of NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in decrease in proteolytic cleavage of caspase-1. Inactivation of caspase-1 by luteoloside resulted in inhibition of IL-1β. Thus, luteoloside exerts its inhibitory effect on proliferation, invasion and metastasis of HCC cells through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. Our results indicate that luteoloside can be a potential therapeutic agent not only as an adjuvant therapy for HCC, but also, in the control and prevention of metastatic HCC. PMID:24587153

  4. MiR-214 inhibits cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppression of {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaojun; Chen, Ji; Li, Feng; Lin, Yanting; Zhang, Xiaoping; Lv, Zhongwei; Jiang, Jiaji

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 is frequently downregulated in human HCC cell lines and tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 overexpression inhibits HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 directly targets {beta}-catenin 3 Prime -UTR in HCC cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-214 regulates {beta}-catenin downstream signaling molecules. -- Abstract: Mounting evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in carcinogenesis and can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Recent profile studies of miRNA expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-214) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its potential functions and underlying mechanisms in hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we confirmed that miR-214 is significantly downregulated in HCC cells and specimens. Ectopic overexpression of miR-214 inhibited proliferation of HCC cells in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Further studies revealed that miR-214 could directly target the 3 Prime -untranslated region (3 Prime -UTR) of {beta}-catenin mRNA and suppress its protein expression. Similar to the restoring miR-214 expression, {beta}-catenin downregulation inhibited cell growth, whereas restoring the {beta}-catenin expression abolished the function of miR-214. Moreover, miR-214-mediated reduction of {beta}-catenin resulted in suppression of several downstream genes including c-Myc, cyclinD1, TCF-1, and LEF-1. These findings indicate that miR-214 serves as tumor suppressor and plays substantial roles in inhibiting the tumorigenesis of HCC through suppression of {beta}-catenin. Given these, miR-214 may serve as a useful prognostic or therapeutic target for treatment of HCC.

  5. Targeting the insulin-like growth factor pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Enguita-Germán, Mónica; Fortes, Puri

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Only 30%-40% of the patients with HCC are eligible for curative treatments, which include surgical resection as the first option, liver transplantation and percutaneous ablation. Unfortunately, there is a high frequency of tumor recurrence after surgical resection and most HCC seem resistant to conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Sorafenib, a multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only chemotherapeutic option for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients treated with Sorafenib have a significant increase in overall survival of about three months. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative treatments. Due to its role in cell growth and development, the insulin-like growth factor system is commonly deregulated in many cancers. Indeed, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis has recently emerged as a potential target for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. To this aim, several inhibitors of the pathway have been developed such as monoclonal antibodies, small molecules, antisense oligonucleotides or small interfering RNAs. However recent studies suggest that, unlike most tumors, HCC development requires increased signaling through insulin growth factor II rather than insulin growth factor I. This may have great implications in the future treatment of HCC. This review summarizes the role of the IGF axis in liver carcinogenesis and the current status of the strategies designed to target the IGF-I signaling pathway for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment. PMID:25349643

  6. Reexpression of ARHI inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis and impairs the mTOR/VEGF pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xiaohai; Li, Jinfeng; Zhuo, Jianxin; Cai, Liuxin

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Reconstitution of ARHI suppresses the growth of HCC xenografts. {yields} ARHI reexpression impairs tumor angiogenesis in vivo. {yields} Inhibition of the mTOR/VEGF signaling by forced expression of ARHI. {yields} Manipulating ARHI may be of therapeutic benefit in treatment of ARHI-negative HCCs. -- Abstract: The Ras-related tumor suppressor gene aplasia Ras homolog member I (ARHI) is frequently downregulated in many types of cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we sought to explore the therapeutic implications of ARHI reconstitution in the treatment of HCC. We generated stable cell lines overexpressing ARHI in Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells, both of which lack endogenous ARHI. The effects of ARHI reexpression on tumor growth and angiogenesis were assessed. Given the key role of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in HCC progression, we also tested whether ARHI overexpression affected the mTOR pathway. Forced expression of ARHI resulted in a significant inhibition of the proliferation of both Hep3B and SK-Hep1 cells compared to control cells (P < 0.01). Cell cycle analysis revealed a G0-G1 arrest induced by ARHI reexpression. Moreover, ARHI reexpression significantly retarded Hep3B xenograft growth in vivo, and caused a marked reduction in tumor angiogenesis assessed by CD31-stained microvessel count. Western blot analysis of the xenografts showed that ARHI overexpression substantially reduced the phosphorylation of two mTOR substrates, S6K1 and 4E-BP1, indicative of an inactivation of the mTOR pathway. Accompanying with the mTOR inactivation, the angiogenic factors, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor, were significantly downregulated. These data highlighted an important role for ARHI in controlling HCC growth and angiogenesis, therefore offering a possible therapeutic strategy against this malignancy.

  7. Downregulation and pro-apoptotic effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Leilei; Sun, Yun-fan; Yang, Xing-rong; Fan, Jia; Ren, Jian-wei; Chen, George G.; Lai, Paul B.S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of HIF-2α in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern and role of HIF-2α in HCC patients. Immunohistochemical staining and western blotting analyses were applied to detect the protein level of HIF-2α in 206 paired HCC and peritumoral tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were performed to identify risk factors for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in these patients. The function of HIF-2α was studied in HCC cells and in vivo models. We found that the protein levels of HIF-2α in HCC tissues were lower than in peritumoral tissues, and were negatively correlated with tumor size (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival and univariate analysis revealed that HCC patients with high HIF-2α protein levels had longer overall survival (P < 0.05). Over-expression of HIF-2α induced apoptosis in HCC cells and increased the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins, Bak, ZBP-89 and PDCD4, whereas the inhibition of HIF-2α expression achieved opposite results. The findings were confirmed in a mouse HCC xenograft model. In conclusion, our study revealed that HIF-2α was decreased and played an anti-tumorigenic role in HCC. PMID:27119229

  8. Suppression of glypican 3 inhibits growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through up-regulation of TGF-β2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chris K; Chua, Mei-Sze; He, Jing; So, Samuel K

    2011-08-01

    Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a valuable diagnostic marker and a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To evaluate the efficacy of targeting GPC3 at the translational level, we used RNA interference to examine the biologic and molecular effects of GPC3 suppression in HCC cells in vitro and in vivo. Transfection of Huh7 and HepG2 cells with GPC3-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited cell proliferation (P < .001) together with cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase, down-regulation of antiapoptotic protein (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1), and replicative senescence. Gene expression analysis revealed that GPC3 suppression significantly correlated with transforming growth factor beta receptor (TGFBR) pathway (P = 4.57e-5) and upregulated TGF-β2 at both RNA and protein levels. The effects of GPC3 suppression by siRNA can be recapitulated by addition of human recombinant TGF-β2 to HCC cells in culture, suggesting the possible involvement of TGF-β2 in growth inhibition of HCC cells. Cotransfection of siRNA-GPC3 with siRNA-TGF-β2 partially attenuated the effects of GPC3 suppression on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and replicative senescence, confirming the involvement of TGF-β2 in siRNA-GPC3-mediated growth suppression. In vivo, GPC3 suppression significantly inhibited the growth of orthotopic xenografts of Huh7 and HepG2 cells (P < .05), accompanied by increased TGF-β2 expression, reduced cell proliferation (observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining), and enhanced apoptosis (by TUNEL staining). In conclusion, molecular targeting of GPC3 at the translational level offers an effective option for the clinical management of GPC3-positive HCC patients.

  9. Tankyrase inhibitors attenuate WNT/β-catenin signaling and inhibit growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Wang, Xiaolin; Jia, Tao; Wei, Wei; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated WNT/β-catenin signaling contributes to the development of a subgroup of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Within this pathway, the tankyrase enzymes (TNKS1 and TNKS2) degrade AXIN and thereby enhance β-catenin activity. We evaluate TNKS enzymes as potential therapeutic targets in HCC, and the anti-tumor efficacy of tankyrase inhibitors (XAV939, and its novel nitro-substituted derivative WXL-8) in HCC cells. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, we found significantly elevated levels of TNKS1/2 mRNA in tumor liver tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor livers, at protein levels only TNKS1 is increased. In HepG2, Huh7cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown suppression of endogenous TNKS1 and TNKS2 reduced cell proliferation, together with decreased nuclear β-catenin levels. XAV939 and WXL-8 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in HepG2, Huh7, and Hep40 cells (p < 0.05), with stabilization of AXIN1 and AXIN2, and decreased β-catenin protein levels. XAV939 and WXL-8 also attenuated rhWNT3A-induced TOPflash luciferase reporter activity in HCC cells, indicating reduced β-catenin transcriptional activity, consistent with decreased nuclear β-catenin levels. In vivo, intra-tumor injections of XAV939 or WXL-8 significantly inhibited the growth of subcutaneous HepG2 xenografts (P < 0.05). We suggest that tankyrase inhibition is a potential therapeutic approach for treating a subgroup HCC with aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26246473

  10. Autophagy inhibition sensitizes KU-0063794-mediated anti-HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cell activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yongxi, Tong; Haijun, Huang; Jiaping, Zheng; Guoliang, Shao; Hongying, Pan

    2015-09-25

    Recent studies have indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling has a critical role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, we investigated the activity of KU-0063794, a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor, against HepG2 HCC cells. Our results demonstrated that KU-0063794 blocked mTOR complex 1/2 (mTORC1/2) activation, and downregulated mTOR-regulated genes (Cyclin D1 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) in HepG2 cells. Consequently, KU-0063794 induced significant anti-survival and pro-apoptotic activities against HepG2 cells. When analyzing the possible KU-0063794-resistance factors, we showed that KU-0063794 induced cyto-protective autophagy activation in HepG2 cells, evidenced by GFP-light chain 3B (LC3B) puncta formation, p62 degradation, Beclin-1 expression and LC3B-I to LC3B-II conversion. Correspondingly, autophagy inhibitors, including bafliomycin A1, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine, dramatically enhanced KU-0063794-induced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cells. Further, RNAi knockdown of Beclin-1 also increased KU-0063794 sensitivity in HepG2 cells. In vivo, oral administration of KU-0063794 repressed HepG2 xenograft growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and its activity was further enhanced with co-administration of the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. In summary, KU-0063794 inhibits HepG2 cell growth in vitro and in vivo, its activity could be further enhanced with autophagy inhibition.

  11. Small molecule inhibitors of Late SV40 Factor (LSF) abrogate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): Evaluation using an endogenous HCC model

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Siddiq, Ayesha; Willoughby, Jennifer L.S.; Biagi, Jessica M.; Christadore, Lisa M.; Yunes, Sarah A.; Gredler, Rachel; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L.; Akiel, Maaged A.; Shen, Xue-Ning; Subler, Mark A.; Windle, Jolene J.; Schaus, Scott E.; Fisher, Paul B.; Hansen, Ulla; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with high mortality and poor prognosis. Oncogenic transcription factor Late SV40 Factor (LSF) plays an important role in promoting HCC. A small molecule inhibitor of LSF, Factor Quinolinone Inhibitor 1 (FQI1), significantly inhibited human HCC xenografts in nude mice without harming normal cells. Here we evaluated the efficacy of FQI1 and another inhibitor, FQI2, in inhibiting endogenous hepatocarcinogenesis. HCC was induced in a transgenic mouse with hepatocyte-specific overexpression of c-myc (Alb/c-myc) by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) followed by FQI1 or FQI2 treatment after tumor development. LSF inhibitors markedly decreased tumor burden in Alb/c-myc mice with a corresponding decrease in proliferation and angiogenesis. Interestingly, in vitro treatment of human HCC cells with LSF inhibitors resulted in mitotic arrest with an accompanying increase in CyclinB1. Inhibition of CyclinB1 induction by Cycloheximide or CDK1 activity by Roscovitine significantly prevented FQI-induced mitotic arrest. A significant induction of apoptosis was also observed upon treatment with FQI. These effects of LSF inhibition, mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis by FQI1s provide multiple avenues by which these inhibitors eliminate HCC cells. LSF inhibitors might be highly potent and effective therapeutics for HCC either alone or in combination with currently existing therapies. PMID:26313006

  12. miR-592/WSB1/HIF-1α axis inhibits glycolytic metabolism to decrease hepatocellular carcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ying; Liu, Mei-You; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Xue, Yan; Wen, Ai-Dong; Shi, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells rapidly switch their energy source from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolytic metabolism in order to efficiently proliferate. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this switch remain unclear. In this study, we found that miR-592 was frequently downregulated in human HCC tissues and cell lines, and its downregulation was closely correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Overexpression of miR-592 inhibited aerobic glycolysis and proliferation in HCC cells in vitro. Conversely, knockdown of miR-592 promoted HCC growth in both subcutaneous injection and orthotopic liver tumor implantation models in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-592 downregulation in human HCCs was correlated with an upregulation of WD repeat and SOCS box containing 1 (WSB1). We further showed that miR-592 directly binds to the 3′-UTR of the WSB1 gene, thus disrupting hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein stabilization. In turn, overexpression of WSB1 in HCC cells rescued decreased HIF-1α expression, glucose uptake, and HCC growth induced by miR-592. Collectively, our clinical data and functional studies suggest that miR-592 is a new robust inhibitor of the Warburg effect and a promising therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27153552

  13. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha deletion promotes diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rodents.

    PubMed

    Walesky, Chad; Edwards, Genea; Borude, Prachi; Gunewardena, Sumedha; O'Neil, Maura; Yoo, Byunggil; Apte, Udayan

    2013-06-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4α), the master regulator of hepatocyte differentiation, has been recently shown to inhibit hepatocyte proliferation by way of unknown mechanisms. We investigated the mechanisms of HNF4α-induced inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation using a novel tamoxifen (TAM)-inducible, hepatocyte-specific HNF4α knockdown mouse model. Hepatocyte-specific deletion of HNF4α in adult mice resulted in increased hepatocyte proliferation, with a significant increase in liver-to-body-weight ratio. We determined global gene expression changes using Illumina HiSeq-based RNA sequencing, which revealed that a significant number of up-regulated genes following deletion of HNF4α were associated with cancer pathogenesis, cell cycle control, and cell proliferation. The pathway analysis further revealed that c-Myc-regulated gene expression network was highly activated following HNF4α deletion. To determine whether deletion of HNF4α affects cancer pathogenesis, HNF4α knockdown was induced in mice treated with the known hepatic carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Deletion of HNF4α significantly increased the number and size of DEN-induced hepatic tumors. Pathological analysis revealed that tumors in HNF4α-deleted mice were well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and mixed HCC-cholangiocarcinoma. Analysis of tumors and surrounding normal liver tissue in DEN-treated HNF4α knockout mice showed significant induction in c-Myc expression. Taken together, deletion of HNF4α in adult hepatocytes results in increased hepatocyte proliferation and promotion of DEN-induced hepatic tumors secondary to aberrant c-Myc activation.

  14. Adenoviral-mediated RNA interference targeting URG11 inhibits growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Li, Xiaohua; Du, Wenqi; Zou, Xue; Du, Rui; Zhao, Lina; Luo, Guanhong; Mo, Ping; Xia, Lin; Pan, Yanglin; Shi, Yongquan; Lian, Zhaorui; Feitelson, Mark A; Nie, Yongzhan; Liu, Jie; Fan, Daiming

    2011-06-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common malignancy in Asia, with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5% due to high recurrence after surgery and resistance to chemotherapy. A variety of therapeutic interventions to treat HCC, particularly gene therapy, have recently been investigated in tumor model systems to provide a more complete understanding of hepatocarcinogenesis and effectively design therapeutic strategies to treat this disease. In our study, we constructed an adenoviral vector expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting a newly discovered gene named upregulated gene 11 (URG11). We introduced this vector into HCC cells to investigate the role of URG11 in HCC carcinogenesis. We observed that upon URG11 knockdown, HCC cell proliferation was inhibited through downregulation of several G1-S phase related molecules including cyclin D1 and apoptosis was induced as a result of Bcl-2 downregulation. Besides decreased expression of cyclin D1, CDK4, pRb and Bcl-2, URG11 also suppressed several other proteins including CAPN9, which was identified by cDNA microarray and 2D gel electrophoresis. Moreover, Ad-URG11-siRNA significantly suppressed HCC tumor growth in nude mice. In conclusion, Ad-URG11-siRNA can significantly suppress HCC tumor growth in vitro and in vivo by silencing the URG11 gene, and the use of this vector for gene therapy may represent a novel strategy to treat human HCC.

  15. Arsenite-loaded nanoparticles inhibit PARP-1 to overcome multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hanyu; Zhang, Zongjun; Chi, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Zhenghuan; Huang, Dengtong; Jin, Jianbin; Gao, Jinhao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the highest incidences in cancers; however, traditional chemotherapy often suffers from low efficiency caused by drug resistance. Herein, we report an arsenite-loaded dual-drug (doxorubicin and arsenic trioxide, i.e., DOX and ATO) nanomedicine system (FeAsOx@SiO2-DOX, Combo NP) with significant drug synergy and pH-triggered drug release for effective treatment of DOX resistant HCC cells (HuH-7/ADM). This nano-formulation Combo NP exhibits the synergistic effect of DNA damage by DOX along with DNA repair interference by ATO, which results in unprecedented killing efficiency on DOX resistant cancer cells. More importantly, we explored the possible mechanism is that the activity of PARP-1 is inhibited by ATO during the treatment of Combo NP, which finally induces apoptosis of HuH-7/ADM cells by poly (ADP-ribosyl) ation suppression and DNA lesions accumulation. This study provides a smart drug delivery strategy to develop a novel synergistic combination therapy for effectively overcome drug- resistant cancer cells. PMID:27484730

  16. Low Concentration of Caffeine Inhibits the Progression of the Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Akt Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shuying; Kong, Jian; Kong, Jinge; Shen, Qiang; Kong, Fandong; Sun, Wenbing; Zheng, Lemin

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidences have reported that caffeine has anticancer effects at high blood concentrations. However, whether caffeine has anticancer effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells at low concentration, especially at physiologically applicable concentration (< 412 μM) is still not well understood. In this study, HCC cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 were used. The cells were incubated with varying concentrations of caffeine (0, 50, 100, 200, 400 or 600 μM). MTT assay was used to investigate the proliferation ability in vitro. Migration and invasion abilities were determined by wound healing assay and transwell assay. The molecular changes were detected by western blot. An ectopic nude mice model which the mice were gavaged with caffeine was used to reveal the anticancer effects of caffeine on HepG2 cells in vivo. Results showed that caffeine could inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion significantly at physiologically applicable concentration in vitro. Also the associated molecular changes of cancer progression were observed. In animal experiment, the mice gavaged with caffeine also performanced reduced tumor burden in vivo. Moreover, the interrelated protein expression was also observed in vivo which was coincident with the results in vitro. All in all, this observation indicated that caffeine may suppress the progression of HCC through Akt signaling pathway. This makes caffeine a potential candidate for treating HCC which will be a safer and more effective treatment by giving for a long time at physiologically applicable concentration. PMID:25666502

  17. Reversal of multidrug resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by metformin through inhibiting NF-κB gene transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Yang, Jun-Ling; Wang, Yi-Lang; Wang, Han; Yao, Min; Wang, Li; Gu, Juan-Juan; Cai, Yin; Shi, Yun; Yao, Deng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To interfere with the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) with metformin and explore its effect in reversing multidrug resistance (MDR) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. METHODS Expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and NF-κB in human HepG2 or HepG2/adriamycin (ADM) cells treated with pCMV-NF-κB-small interference RNA (siRNA) with or without metformin, was analyzed by Western blot or fluorescence quantitative PCR. Cell viability was tested by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry and Annexin-V-PE/7-AnnexinV apoptosis detection double staining assay, respectively. RESULTS P-gp overexpression in HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells was closely related to mdr1 mRNA (3.310 ± 0.154) and NF-κB mRNA (2.580 ± 0.040) expression. NF-κB gene transcription was inhibited by specific siRNA with significant down-regulation of P-gp and enhanced HCC cell chemosensitivity to doxorubicin. After pretreatment with metformin, HepG2/ADM cells were sensitized to doxorubicin and P-gp was decreased through the NF-κB signaling pathway. The synergistic effect of metformin and NF-κB siRNA were found in HepG2/ADM cells with regard to proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest and inducing cell apoptosis. CONCLUSION Metformin via silencing NF-κB signaling could effectively reverse MDR of HCC cells by down-regulating MDR1/P-gp expression. PMID:27621764

  18. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-producing hepatocellular carcinoma with abrupt changes

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Hiroaki; Komatsu, Shuhei; Takaki, Wataru; Okayama, Tokunari; Sawabe, Yasunori; Ishii, Michiaki; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Otsuji, Eigo; Konosu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-producing tumor is one of the rare types of cancer clinically characterized by an elevated fever and white blood cell (WBC) increment. Although G-CSF producing tumors have been reported in several types of cancer including those of the lungs, cervix and bladder, G-CSF producing hepatocellular carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a rapidly growing and poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma producing G-CSF. The patient showed symptoms of continuous high fever, stomach pain and cough, and high serum WBC counts, C-reactive protein (CRP) and G-CSF levels were found in laboratory tests. After a radical hepatectomy, the patient completely recovered from the above symptoms and inflammatory state. The serum levels of G-CSF were reduced to normal levels after radical surgery. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed the overexpression of G-CSF in the cytoplasm of certain hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell. The patient’s serum WBC, CRP and G-CSF levels remained within normal levels in the six months after surgery without recurrence. This is the 9th case report of G-CSF producing hepatocellular carcinoma in English literature. We review the clinical characteristics of the G-CSF producing HCC and discuss a possible treatment strategy. PMID:27777880

  19. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  20. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3-β improves liver microcirculation and hepatocellular function after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Jellestad, Lena; Fink, Tobias; Pradarutti, Sascha; Kubulus, Darius; Wolf, Beate; Bauer, Inge; Thiemermann, Chris; Rensing, Hauke

    2014-02-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion may cause liver injury and are characterized by hepatic microperfusion failure and a decreased hepatocellular function. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a serine-threonine kinase that has recently emerged as a key regulator in the modulation of the inflammatory response after stress events, may be protective in conditions like sepsis, inflammation and shock. Therefore, aim of the study was to assess the role of GSK-3β in liver microcirculation and hepatocellular function after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (H/R). Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent pretreatment with Ringer´s solution, vehicle (DMSO) or TDZD-8 (1 mg/kg), a selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 30 min before induction of hemorrhagic shock (mean arterial pressure 35±5 mmHg for 90 min) and were resuscitated with shed blood and Ringer´s solution (2h). 5h after resuscitation hepatic microcirculation was assessed by intravital microscopy. Propidium iodide (PI) positive cells, liver enzymes and alpha-GST were measured as indicators of hepatic injury. Liver function was estimated by assessment of indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate. H/R led to a significant decrease in sinusoidal diameters and impairment of liver function compared to sham operation. Furthermore, the number of PI positive cells in the liver as well as serum activities of liver enzymes and alpha-GST increased significantly after H/R. Pretreatment with TDZD-8 prevented the changes in liver microcirculation, hepatocellular injury and liver function after H/R. A significant rise in the plasma level of IL-10 was observed. Thus, inhibition of GSK-3β before hemorrhagic shock modulates the inflammatory response and improves hepatic microcirculation and hepatocellular function.

  1. miR-101 Inhibiting Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Downregulating Girdin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ke; Li, Jingjing; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Qinghai; He, Siqi; Yu, Li; Zhou, Jianda; Cao, Peiguo

    2016-02-01

    miR-101 is considered to play an important role in hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to confirm whether Girdin is a target gene of miR-101 and determine the tumor suppressor of miR-101 through Girdin pathway. In our previous studies, we firstly found Girdin protein was overexpressed in HCC tissues, and it closely correlated to tumor size, T stage, TNM stage and Edmondson-Steiner stage of HCC patients. After specific small interfering RNA of Girdin was transfected into HepG2 and Huh7.5.1 cells, the proliferation and invasion ability of tumor cells were significantly inhibited. In this study, we further explored the detailed molecular mechanism of Girdin in HCC. Interestingly, we found that miR-101 significantly low-expressed in HCC tissues compared with that in matched normal tissues while Girdin had a relative higher expression, and miR-101 was inversely correlated with Girdin expression. In addition, after miR-101 transfection, the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of HepG2 cells were weakened. Furthermore, we confirmed that Girdin is a direct target gene of miR-101. Finally we confirmed Talen-mediated Girdin knockout markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC while down-regulation of miR-101 significantly restored the inhibitory effect. Our findings suggested that miR-101/Girdin axis could be a potential application of HCC treatment.

  2. miR-101 Inhibiting Cell Proliferation, Migration and Invasion in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Downregulating Girdin

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Ke; Li, Jingjing; Zhao, Yong; Wang, Qi; Zeng, Qinghai; He, Siqi; Yu, Li; Zhou, Jianda; Cao, Peiguo

    2016-01-01

    miR-101 is considered to play an important role in hepato-cellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here, we aimed to confirm whether Girdin is a target gene of miR-101 and determine the tumor suppressor of miR-101 through Girdin pathway. In our previous studies, we firstly found Girdin protein was overexpressed in HCC tissues, and it closely correlated to tumor size, T stage, TNM stage and Edmondson-Steiner stage of HCC patients. After specific small interfering RNA of Girdin was transfected into HepG2 and Huh7.5.1 cells, the proliferation and invasion ability of tumor cells were significantly inhibited. In this study, we further explored the detailed molecular mechanism of Girdin in HCC. Interestingly, we found that miR-101 significantly low-expressed in HCC tissues compared with that in matched normal tissues while Girdin had a relative higher expression, and miR-101 was inversely correlated with Girdin expression. In addition, after miR-101 transfection, the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of HepG2 cells were weakened. Furthermore, we confirmed that Girdin is a direct target gene of miR-101. Finally we confirmed Talen-mediated Girdin knockout markedly suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion in HCC while down-regulation of miR-101 significantly restored the inhibitory effect. Our findings suggested that miR-101/Girdin axis could be a potential application of HCC treatment. PMID:26743900

  3. Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) facilitates cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Jia, Yuli; Liu, Zhikui; Ding, Linglong; Tian, Run; Gu, Hua; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongyong; Tu, Kangsheng; Liu, Qingguang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that the abnormal expression of chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) (CHAF1A) was involved in the development of some types of malignant tumors. However, CHAF1A expression and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we first investigated CHAF1A expression in six cell lines and 116 pairs of HCC and matched normal tumor-adjacent tissues to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of CHAF1A in HCC. Then, we detected the proliferation and apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, a subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice was performed to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. We found that the expression of CHAF1A was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (P<0.01). Clinical analysis indicated that CHAF1A expression was significantly correlated with the tumor–node–metastasis stage, tumor number, and tumor differentiation in HCC tissues (P<0.05, respectively). We also found that CHAF1A may potentially function as a poor prognostic indicator for 5-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with HCC (P<0.05, respectively). The elevated expression of CHAF1A was also observed in HCC cell lines compared with that in normal LO2 hepatic cell line (P<0.01). HCC cancer cells exhibited inhibition of cell growth, reduction in colony-formation ability, increased cell apoptosis rate, and impaired tumorigenicity in nude mice after CHAF1A knockdown. Collectively, we propose that CHAF1A by potentially mediating cancer cell proliferation plays an important role in promoting the development of HCC and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27445493

  4. C/EBPα Short-Activating RNA Suppresses Metastasis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Inhibiting EGFR/β-Catenin Signaling Mediated EMT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuejiao; Wu, Lili; Liu, Weihui; Habib, Nagy A.; Bie, Ping; Xia, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with high mortality, and tumor metastasis is an important reason for poor prognosis. However, metastasis has not been effectively prevented in clinical therapy and the mechanisms underlying metastasis have not been fully characterized. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα) is a transcriptional regulator with an essential role in tumor metastasis. We used short-activating RNAs (saRNA) to enhance expression of C/EBPα. Intravenous injection of C/EBPα-saRNA in a nude mouse liver orthotopic xenograft tumor model inhibited intrahepatic and distant metastasis. C/EBPα-saRNA-treated mice showed increased serum levels of albumin and decreased alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST), indicating a role of C/EBPα in improving liver function. Migration and invasion were inhibited in hepatoma cell lines transfected with C/EBPα-saRNA. We also observed an inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR phosphorylation, and β-catenin in C/EBPa-saRNA-transfected cells. Our results suggested that C/EBPα-saRNA successfully inhibited HCC metastasis by inhibiting EGFR/β-catenin signaling pathway mediated EMT in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27050434

  5. Inhibition of microRNA-126 promotes the expression of Spred1 to inhibit angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian-Song; Xu, Min; Song, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Min-Jiang; Chen, Wei-Qian; Tu, Jian-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has been found to promote angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. So, we conducted this study to explore the effect of miR-126 expression on angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The expression levels of miR-126 and sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing protein (Spred)1 in surgically resected HCC tissue, HCC tissue with TACE + operation, and tumor-adjacent tissues were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of miR-126, Spred1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were found by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) of tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The miR-126 and Spred1 expressions in HCC tissue with TACE + operation were elevated and decreased, respectively, as compared to those in surgically resected HCC tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues (all P<0.001), which indicated that the expression of Spred1 was negatively correlated with miR-126 (P<0.001, r=-0.6224). Based on the bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter gene activity detection, Spred1 was found to target miR-126 (P<0.001). Inhibition of miR-126 expression reduces the degree of weight loss and tumor size in TACE model rats. The MVD in TACE + operation group was increased compared to that in the control group; inhibition of miR-126 expression had a reversal effect, to a certain extent, on MVD increase after TACE (all P<0.05). Inhibition of miR-126 expression increased Spred1 expression and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.01). In summary, this study unveiled the potential mechanism by which miR-126 regulates angiogenesis in HCC tissues through embolization treatment by targeting Spred1, and also showed that the feasibility of TACE with the miR-126 inhibitor has a certain value in the medical treatment of HCC. PMID:27499630

  6. Inhibition of microRNA-126 promotes the expression of Spred1 to inhibit angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization: in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian-Song; Xu, Min; Song, Jing-Jing; Zhao, Zhong-Wei; Chen, Min-Jiang; Chen, Wei-Qian; Tu, Jian-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) has been found to promote angiogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. So, we conducted this study to explore the effect of miR-126 expression on angiogenesis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The expression levels of miR-126 and sprouty-related, EVH1 domain containing protein (Spred)1 in surgically resected HCC tissue, HCC tissue with TACE + operation, and tumor-adjacent tissues were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The expression levels of miR-126, Spred1, and vascular endothelial growth factor were found by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The microvessel density (MVD) of tumor tissues was determined by immunohistochemical staining. The miR-126 and Spred1 expressions in HCC tissue with TACE + operation were elevated and decreased, respectively, as compared to those in surgically resected HCC tissues and tumor-adjacent tissues (all P<0.001), which indicated that the expression of Spred1 was negatively correlated with miR-126 (P<0.001, r=−0.6224). Based on the bioinformatics analysis and luciferase reporter gene activity detection, Spred1 was found to target miR-126 (P<0.001). Inhibition of miR-126 expression reduces the degree of weight loss and tumor size in TACE model rats. The MVD in TACE + operation group was increased compared to that in the control group; inhibition of miR-126 expression had a reversal effect, to a certain extent, on MVD increase after TACE (all P<0.05). Inhibition of miR-126 expression increased Spred1 expression and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression (P<0.01). In summary, this study unveiled the potential mechanism by which miR-126 regulates angiogenesis in HCC tissues through embolization treatment by targeting Spred1, and also showed that the feasibility of TACE with the miR-126 inhibitor has a certain value in the medical treatment of HCC. PMID:27499630

  7. Suppression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by Krüppel-like factor 4

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Shanshan; Tian, Chuan; Cai, Xun; Wang, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant and lethal human cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) enhances the carcinogenesis of HCC, and therapies targeting EMT appear to be promising treatments. We have previously shown that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) suppressed EMT of HCC cells through downregulating EMT-associated proteins. Here, we examined the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in KLF4-regulated EMT in HCC cells. KLF4 induced expression of 3 miRNAs (miR-153, miR-506 and miR-200b) that targeted 3′-UTR of Snail1, Slug and ZEB1 mRNAs, respectively, to inhibit protein translation in HCC cells, which was confirmed by promoter luciferase assay. Expression of either miRNA significantly inhibited HCC cell growth and invasiveness, while the effect of combined expression of all 3 miRNAs was more pronounced. Furthermore, overexpression of antisense of all 3 miRNAs abolished the inhibitory effect of KLF4 on HCC cell growth and invasiveness. Together, our data suggest that KLF4 inhibits EMT-enhanced HCC growth and invasion, possibly through reducing EMT-related proteins Snail1, Slug and ZEB1 via increasing miR-153, miR-506 and miR-200b. PMID:27102441

  8. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates the inhibitory effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4α on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Ping; Shi, Bin; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Wei-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies provided substantial evidence of a striking suppressive effect of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is involved in death receptor-mediated apoptosis and may acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the status and function of ASK1 during HCC progression are unclear. In this study, we found that HNF4α increased ASK1 expression by directly binding to its promoter. ASK1 expression was dramatically suppressed and correlated with HNF4α levels in HCC tissues. Reduced ASK1 expression was associated with aggressive tumors and poor prognosis for human HCC. Moreover, ASK1 inhibited the malignant phenotype of HCC cells in vitro. Intratumoral ASK1 injection significantly suppressed the growth of subcutaneous HCC xenografts in nude mice. More interestingly, systemic ASK1 delivery strikingly inhibited the growth of orthotopic HCC nodules in NOD/SCID mice. In addition, inhibition of endogenous ASK1 partially reversed the suppressive effects of HNF4α on HCC. Collectively, this study highlights the suppressive effect of ASK1 on HCC and its biological significance in HCC development. These outcomes broaden the knowledge of ASK1 function in HCC progression, and provide a novel potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for advanced HCC. PMID:27050273

  9. Inhibiting ROS-STAT3-dependent autophagy enhanced capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Zhijian; Yang, Kaiqing; Hu, Chen; Liao, Ni; Wang, Taoli; Chen, Dongliang; Xie, Feng; Tang, Caixi

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, which is the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peppers, has been reported to possess anticancer activity, including that against hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anticancer effects remain poorly understood. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy in the capsaicin mechanism of action in human hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cancer cells were treated with different doses of capsaicin (50, 100 and 200μmol/L) for 6, 12, and 24 h. Flow cytometry and Caspase-3 activity assay were performed to determine cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to visualize LC3-positive puncta. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the hallmarks of apoptosis and autophagy. Capsaicin can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and Bcl-2 were significantly increased. In line with the apoptosis, capsaicin can trigger autophagy in HepG2 cells. Capsaicin increased LC3-II and beclin-1 expression and GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy further sensitized HepG2 cells to capsaicin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, capsaicin upregulated the Stat3 activity which contributed to autophagy. Importantly, we found that capsaicin triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatoma cells and that the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, NAC abrogated the effects of capsaicin on Stat3-dependent autophagy. In this study, we demonstrated that capsaicin increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3)-dependent autophagy through the generation of ROS signaling pathways in human hepatoma. Inhibiting autophagy could enhance capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27043357

  10. Inhibiting ROS-STAT3-dependent autophagy enhanced capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xun; Tan, Miduo; Xie, Zhiqin; Feng, Bin; Zhao, Zhijian; Yang, Kaiqing; Hu, Chen; Liao, Ni; Wang, Taoli; Chen, Dongliang; Xie, Feng; Tang, Caixi

    2016-07-01

    Capsaicin, which is the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peppers, has been reported to possess anticancer activity, including that against hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anticancer effects remain poorly understood. Herein, we have tested the involvement of autophagy in the capsaicin mechanism of action in human hepatocellular carcinoma. HepG2 cancer cells were treated with different doses of capsaicin (50, 100 and 200μmol/L) for 6, 12, and 24 h. Flow cytometry and Caspase-3 activity assay were performed to determine cell apoptosis. Immunofluorescence was performed to visualize LC3-positive puncta. Western blotting was used to detect the expression of the hallmarks of apoptosis and autophagy. Capsaicin can induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells. The expression levels of CL-PARP and Bcl-2 were significantly increased. In line with the apoptosis, capsaicin can trigger autophagy in HepG2 cells. Capsaicin increased LC3-II and beclin-1 expression and GFP-LC3-positive autophagosomes. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of autophagy further sensitized HepG2 cells to capsaicin-induced apoptosis. Mechanistically, capsaicin upregulated the Stat3 activity which contributed to autophagy. Importantly, we found that capsaicin triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in hepatoma cells and that the levels of ROS decreased with N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger. Moreover, NAC abrogated the effects of capsaicin on Stat3-dependent autophagy. In this study, we demonstrated that capsaicin increased the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3)-dependent autophagy through the generation of ROS signaling pathways in human hepatoma. Inhibiting autophagy could enhance capsaicin-induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir inhibit tumor angiogenesis through suppression of the Notch signaling pathway in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Cao, Zhiyun; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zheng, Liangpu; Peng, Jun; Hong, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, which has a critical role in human tumor growth and development, is tightly regulated by the Notch signaling pathway. Total alkaloids are active components of the plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, which is used for the treatment of various types of cancer. A previous study by our group showed that the total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis through the activation of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in vitro and in vivo, as well as inhibited angiogenesis in a chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. In the present study, to further analyze the specific mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of TARAP, a HCC xenograft mouse model was used to assess the effect of TARAP on angiogenesis in vivo. TARAP was found to suppress the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) A and VEGF receptor-2 in tumor tissues, which resulted in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. In addition, TARAP treatment was observed to inhibit the expression of Notch1, delta-like ligand 4 and jagged 1, which are key mediators of the Notch signaling pathway. The present study identified that the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis through the suppression of the Notch signaling pathway may be one of the mechanisms through which TARAP may be effective in the treatment of cancer.

  12. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy. PMID:25605207

  13. Asparagus polysaccharide and gum with hepatic artery embolization induces tumor growth and inhibits angiogenesis in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ling-Ling; Xiang, Jian-Feng; Lin, Jin-Bo; Yi, Shang-Hui; Yang, Li-Tao; Li, Yi-Sheng; Zeng, Hao-Tao; Lin, Sheng-Ming; Xin, Dong-Wei; Zhao, Hai-Liang; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Min-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is one of leading digestive malignancies with high morbidity and mortality. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapies for this deadly disease. It has been proven that asparagus polysaccharide, one of the most active derivates from the traditional medicine asparagus, possesses notable antitumor properties. However, little is known about the efficacy of asparagus polysaccharide as an adjuvant for liver cancer chemotherapy. Herein, we reported that asparagus polysaccharide and its embolic agent form, asparagus gum, significantly inhibited liver tumor growth with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy in an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor model, while significantly inhibiting angiogenesis and promoting tumor cell apoptosis. Moreover, asparagine gelatinous possessed immunomodulatory functions and showed little toxicity to the host. These results highlight the chemotherapeutic potential of asparagus polysaccharide and warrant a future focus on development as novel chemotherapeutic agent for liver cancer TACE therapy.

  14. Recombinant vascular basement-membrane-derived multifunctional peptide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You-Hua; Cao, Jian-Guo; Xiang, Hong-Lin; Xia, Hong; Qin, Yong; Huang, A-Ji; Xiao, Di; Xu, Fang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of recombinant vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (rVBMDMP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B, HUVE-12 and L-02 cell lines were cultured in vitro and the inhibitory effect of rVBMDMP on proliferation of cells was detected by MTT assay. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of rVBMDMP on HCC was assessed by HepG2 xenografts in nude mice. Distribution of rVBMDMP, mechanism by which the growth of HepG2 xenografts is inhibited, and microvessel area were observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD31 immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that rVBMDMP markedly inhibited the proliferation of human HCC (HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE-12) cells in a dose-dependent manner, with little effect on the growth of L-02 cells. When the IC50 was 4.68, 7.65, 8.96, 11.65 and 64.82 μmol/L, respectively, the potency of rVBMDMP to HepG2 cells was similar to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with an IC50 of 4.59 μmol/L. The selective index of cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells of rVBMDMP was 13.8 (64.82/4.68), which was higher than that of 5-FU [SI was 1.9 (8.94/4.59)]. The VEGF-targeted recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (100 mg/L) did not affect the proliferation of HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B and L-02 cells, but the growth inhibitory rate of bevacizumab (100 mg/L) to HUVE-12 cells was 87.6% ± 8.2%. Alternis diebus intraperitoneal injection of rVBMDMP suppressed the growth of HepG2 xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. rVBMDMP (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) decreased the tumor weight by 12.6%, 55.9% and 79.7%, respectively, compared with the vehicle control. Immunohistochemical staining of rVBMDMP showed that the positive area rates (2.2% ± 0.73%, 4.5% ± 1.3% and 11.5% ± 3.8%) in rVBMDMP treated group (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) were significantly higher than that (0.13% ± 0.04%) in the control group (P < 0.01). The positive

  15. Effect of halofuginone on the inhibition of proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Sibo; Yu, Huiqiu; Li, Chusheng; Zhang, Jiayu; Liu, Tongjun

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancer is a common cancer and the mortality of liver cancer ranks the second of all malignancy-related deaths in China. The most common primary liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, accounting for approximately 90% of the total. Because liver is the largest parenchymatous organ in the body undertaking all kinds of important metabolic functions, liver cancer inevitably causes greater harms and its treatment is extremely difficult. Currently, there are still no effective drugs for the treatment of patients with advanced inoperable liver cancer. We observed the strong inhibitory activity of halofuginone on HepG2 cell growth and the cell cycle and apoptosis assays showed that halofuginone arrested the cell cycle and inhibited the induction. And we found that halofuginone inhibits tumor cell cycle possibly by up-regulating p15 and p21 of expression. Then, we found that the proportion of cleaved PARP, caspase-3, 8 and 9 in HepG2 cells increased after halofuginone treatment. And the results showed that halofuginone down-regulated Mcl-1 and c-IAP1 expression. Finally, our results showed halofuginone regulated the activities of JNK and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In summary, this study shows that halofuginone can inhibit the in vitro growth, arrest the cell cycle and induce the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Its mechanisms of action may be related to the regulation of associated protein expression, up-regulation of JNK, and inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:26884857

  16. Gene Expression of Growth Factors and Growth Factor Receptors for Potential Targeted Therapy of Canine Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    IIDA, Gentoku; ASANO, Kazushi; SEKI, Mamiko; SAKAI, Manabu; KUTARA, Kenji; ISHIGAKI, Kumiko; KAGAWA, Yumiko; YOSHIDA, Orie; TESHIMA, Kenji; EDAMURA, Kazuya; WATARI, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of growth factors and growth factor receptors of primary hepatic masses, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nodular hyperplasia (NH), in dogs. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression of 18 genes in 18 HCCs, 10 NHs, 11 surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues and 4 healthy control liver tissues. Platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B), transforming growth factor-α, epidermal growth factor receptor, epidermal growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor were found to be differentially expressed in HCC compared with NH and the surrounding non-cancerous and healthy control liver tissues. PDGF-B is suggested to have the potential to become a valuable ancillary target for the treatment of canine HCC. PMID:24189579

  17. Nicotinamide inhibits the early stage of carcinogen-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice and suppresses human hepatocellular carcinoma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Young; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Min-Jae; Bae, Suk-Chul; Jang, Ja-June

    2012-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can cause severe complications, resulting in a high incidence of recurrence after treatment of the primary tumor. Recently, we have shown that nicotinamide effectively inhibits the growth and progression of bladder tumors by up-regulating RUNX3 and p300 expression. Therefore, in this study, the efficacy and inhibitory mechanisms of nicotinamide against HCC were investigated in mice and HCC cell lines, respectively. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of nicotinamide on HCC development, mice were injected with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and simultaneously treated with 1% nicotinamide. Also, the effect of nicotinamide on human HCC cell lines was assessed by measuring caspase activity, cell proliferation, and DNA content using immunoblot analysis and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. It was found that nicotinamide significantly inhibited the development of pre-neoplastic lesions (foci and adenomas) during the early stages of HCC. Furthermore, nicotinamide inhibited cell proliferation and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in HCC cell lines. It also increased the expression of p21, and the expression and acetylation of p53. These results strongly suggest that nicotinamide inhibits the progression of early-stage HCC and may contribute to the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of proliferation of HCC cells. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that nicotinamide is a potential chemopreventive agent, i.e., it may prevent the progression of early HCC development and/or the recurrence of HCC after primary treatment.

  18. Inhibition of protein kinase C by isojacareubin suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xing; Chen, Hao; Li, Xia; Dai, Ming; Zeng, Huawu; Shan, Lei; Sun, Qingyan; Zhang, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    Targeted inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) proliferation and metastasis. We previously reported the cytotoxicity of a series of synthetic phenyl-substituted polyoxygenated xanthone derivatives against human HCC. In the current study, the most potent natural product, isojacareubin (ISJ), was synthesized, and its cellular-level antihepatoma activities were evaluated. ISJ significantly inhibited cell proliferation and was highly selective for HCC cells in comparison to nonmalignant QSG-7701 hepatocytes. Moreover, ISJ exhibited pro-apoptotic effects on HepG2 hepatoma cells, as well as impaired HepG2 cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, ISJ was a potent inhibitor of PKC, with differential actions against various PKC isotypes. ISJ selectively inhibited the expression of aPKC (PKCζ) in the cytosol and the translocation of cytosolic PKCζ to membrane site. ISJ also directly interacted with cPKC (PKCα) and nPKC (PKCδ, PKCε and PKCμ) and thereby inhibited the early response of major MAPK phosphorylation and the late response of HCC cell invasion and proliferation. In a hepatoma xenograft model, ISJ pretreatment resulted in significant antihepatoma activity in vivo. These findings identify ISJ as a promising lead compound for the development of new antihepatoma agents and may guide the search for additional selective PKC inhibitors. PMID:26245668

  19. Mechanistic and biological significance of DNA methyltransferase 1 upregulated by growth factors in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qin-Liang; Yin, Yi-Rui; Xie, Cheng-Rong; Zhang, Sheng; Zhao, Wen-Xiu; Pan, Chao; Wang, Xiao-Min; Yin, Zhen-Yu

    2015-02-01

    Dysregulation of growth factor signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling the malignancy phenotype and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise oncogenic mechanisms underlying transcription regulation of certain tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) by growth factors are poorly understood. In the present study, we report a novel insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway that mediates de novo DNA methylation and TSG (such as DLC1 and CHD5) silencing by upregulation of the DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) via an AKT/β-transducin repeat-containing protein (βTrCP)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in HCC. Analysis of DNA methylation in CpG islands of target genes revealed high co-localization of DNMT1 and DNMT3B on the promoters of TSGs associated with enhanced CpG hypermethylation. Our results point to a novel epigenetic mechanism for growth factor-mediated repression of TSG transcription that involves DNA methylation. PMID:25420499

  20. Downregulation of CD147 expression alters cytoskeleton architecture and inhibits gelatinase production and SAPK pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Ai-Rong; Zhang, Wei; Cao, Jian-Ping; Yang, Peng-Fei; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Hui-Yun; Weng, Yuan-Yuan; Shang, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Background CD147 plays a critical role in the invasive and metastatic activity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells by stimulating the surrounding fibroblasts to express matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Tumor cells adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins is the first step to the tumor metastasis. MMPs degrade the ECM to promote tumor metastasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of small interfering RNA (siRNA) against CD147 (si-CD147) on hepatocellular carcinoma cells' (SMMC-7721) architecture and functions. Methods Flow cytometry and western blot assays were employed to detect the transfection efficiency of si-CD147. Confocal microscopy was used to determine the effects of si-CD147 on SMMC-7721 cells' cytoskeleton. Invasion assay, gelatin zymography and cell adhesion assay were employed to investigate the effects of si-CD147 on SMMC-7721 cells' invasion, gelatinase production and cell adhesive abilities. Western blot assay was utilized to detect the effects of si-CD147 on focal adhesion kinase (FAK), vinculiln and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression in SMMC-7721 cells. Results Downregulation of CD147 gene induced the alteration of SMMC-7721 cell cytoskeleton including actin, microtubule and vimentin filaments, and inhibited gelatinase production and expression, cells invasion, FAK and vinculin expression. si-CD147 also blocked SMMC-7721 cells adhesion to collagen IV and phosphorylation level of SAPK/JNKs. SAPK/JNKs inhibitor SP600125 inhibited gelatinase production and expression. Conclusion CD147 is required for normal tumor cell architecture and cell invasion. Downregulation of CD147 affects HCC cell structure and function. Moreover, the alteration of cell behavior may be related to SAPK/JNK Pathway. siRNA against CD147 may be a possible new approach for HCC gene therapy. PMID:18847500

  1. Frequent trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpression and promoter hypomethylation in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Okada, Haruhiko; Kimura, Makoto T; Tan, Dongfeng; Fujiwara, Kyoko; Igarashi, Jun; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Hui, Ai-Min; Tsurumaru, Masahiko; Nagase, Hiroki

    2005-02-01

    Expression profiling analysis revealed ectopic high expression of mouse TFF3 in non-tumor liver tissues from the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptible PWK/Rbrc strain. TFF3 is a member of the trefoil factor family peptides, which are small secreted proteins regulating mucosal regeneration and repair, and which are overexpressed during inflammatory processes and cancer progression. We, therefore, analyzed the TFF3 expression extensively in mouse and human HCCs. Expression of the mouse TFF3 gene was significantly increased in 6 out of 7 HCCs from a PWK spontaneous tumor model and in all 7 HCCs from an SV40T antigen-induced transgenic MT-D2C57BL/6 model. In humans, 8 of 20 HCCs (40%) had overexpression of TFF3 in both mRNA level and protein level. We then analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the TFF3 promoter region to evaluate expression regulation of promoter methylation. In mouse HCCs, we demonstrated that two CpGs, at positions -992 and +109, were hypomethylated in 13 of 14 mouse HCCs. In human HCCs, hypomethylation at CpG -260 was associated with TFF3 overexpression (p=0.04). These results indicate that TFF3 overexpression may be a critical process in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and the specific promoter CpG hypomethylation may be one of the regulation mechanisms of TFF3 overexpression in HCCs.

  2. Frequent trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) overexpression and promoter hypomethylation in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    OKADA, HARUHIKO; KIMURA, MAKOTO T.; TAN, DONGFENG; FUJIWARA, KYOKO; IGARASHI, JUN; MAKUUCHI, MASATOSHI; HUI, AI-MIN; TSURUMARU, MASAHIKO; NAGASE, HIROKI

    2008-01-01

    Expression profiling analysis revealed ectopic high expression of mouse TFF3 in non-tumor liver tissues from the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptible PWK/Rbrc strain. TFF3 is a member of the trefoil factor family peptides, which are small secreted proteins regulating mucosal regeneration and repair, and which are overexpressed during inflammatory processes and cancer progression. We, therefore, analyzed the TFF3 expression extensively in mouse and human HCCs. Expression of the mouse TFF3 gene was significantly increased in 6 out of 7 HCCs from a PWK spontaneous tumor model and in all 7 HCCs from an SV40T antigen-induced transgenic MT-D2C57BL/6 model. In humans, 8 of 20 HCCs (40%) had overexpression of TFF3 in both mRNA level and protein level. We then analyzed DNA methylation patterns of the TFF3 promoter region to evaluate expression regulation of promoter methylation. In mouse HCCs, we demonstrated that two CpGs, at positions −992 and +109, were hypomethylated in 13 of 14 mouse HCCs. In human HCCs, hypomethylation at CpG −260 was associated with TFF3 overexpression (p=0.04). These results indicate that TFF3 overexpression may be a critical process in mouse and human hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and the specific promoter CpG hypomethylation may be one of the regulation mechanisms of TFF3 overexpression in HCCs. PMID:15645121

  3. The EGFR/ErbB3 Pathway Acts as a Compensatory Survival Mechanism upon c-Met Inhibition in Human c-Met+ Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Steinway, Steven N.; Dang, Hien; You, Hanning; Rountree, C. Bart; Ding, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background c-Met, a high-affinity receptor for Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF), plays a critical role in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with activated HGF/c-Met signaling have a significantly worse prognosis. Targeted therapies using c-Met tyrosine kinase inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for HCC, although receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition in other cancers has demonstrated early success. Unfortunately, therapeutic effect is frequently not durable due to acquired resistance. Methods We utilized the human MHCC97-H c-Met positive (c-Met+) HCC cell line to explore the compensatory survival mechanisms that are acquired after c-Met inhibition. MHCC97-H cells with stable c-Met knockdown (MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells) were generated using a c-Met shRNA vector with puromycin selection and stably transfected scrambled shRNA as a control. Gene expression profiling was conducted, and protein expression was analyzed to characterize MHCC97-H cells after blockade of the c-Met oncogene. A high-throughput siRNA screen was performed to find putative compensatory survival proteins, which could drive HCC growth in the absence of c-Met. Findings from this screen were validated through subsequent analyses. Results We have previously demonstrated that treatment of MHCC97-H cells with a c-Met inhibitor, PHA665752, results in stasis of tumor growth in vivo. MHCC97-H c-Met KD cells demonstrate slower growth kinetics, similar to c-Met inhibitor treated tumors. Using gene expression profiling and siRNA screening against 873 kinases and phosphatases, we identified ErbB3 and TGF-α as compensatory survival factors that are upregulated after c-Met inhibition. Suppressing these factors in c-Met KD MHCC97-H cells suppresses tumor growth in vitro. In addition, we found that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway serves as a negative feedback signal responsible for the ErbB3 upregulation after c-Met inhibition. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate

  4. KU-0060648 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cells through DNA-PKcs-dependent and DNA-PKcs-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Bin; Zhou, Zhen-Tao; Yang, Lan; Wei, Mu-Xin; Tang, Min; Ruan, Ting-Yan; Xu, Jun-Ying; Zhou, Xiao-Zhong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Pei-Hua

    2016-03-29

    Here we tested anti-tumor activity of KU-0060648 in preclinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) models. Our results demonstrated that KU-0060648 was anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic in established (HepG2, Huh-7 and KYN-2 lines) and primary human HCC cells, but was non-cytotoxic to non-cancerous HL-7702 hepatocytes. DNA-PKcs (DNA-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit) is an important but not exclusive target of KU-0060648. DNA-PKcs knockdown or dominant negative mutation inhibited HCC cell proliferation. On the other hand, overexpression of wild-type DNA-PKcs enhanced HepG2 cell proliferation. Importantly, KU-0060648 was still cytotoxic to DNA-PKcs-silenced or -mutated HepG2 cells, although its activity in these cells was relatively weak. Further studies showed that KU-0060648 inhibited PI3K-AKT-mTOR activation, independent of DNA-PKcs. Introduction of constitutively-active AKT1 (CA-AKT1) restored AKT-mTOR activation after KU-0060648 treatment in HepG2 cells, and alleviated subsequent cytotoxicity. In vivo, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of KU-0060648 significantly inhibited HepG2 xenograft growth in nude mice. AKT-mTOR activation was also inhibited in xenografted tumors. Finally, we showed that DNA-PKcs expression was significantly upregulated in human HCC tissues. Yet miRNA-101, an anti-DNA-PKcs miRNA, was downregulated. Over-expression of miR-101 in HepG2 cells inhibited DNA-PKcs expression and cell proliferation. Together, these results indicate that KU-0060648 inhibits HCC cells through DNA-PKcs-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

  5. Estrogen Represses Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Growth via Inhibiting Alternative Activation of Tumor-associated Macrophages (TAMs)*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiwei; Lu, Yan; Xu, Yichen; Xu, Lizhi; Zheng, Wei; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Long; Shen, Pingping

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma cancer (HCC), one of the most malignant cancers, occurs significantly more often in men than in women; however, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we identified that 17β-estradiol (E2) could suppress tumor growth via regulating the polarization of macrophages. We showed that E2 re-administration reduced tumor growth in orthotopic and ectopic mice HCC models. E2 functioned as a suppressor for macrophage alternative activation and tumor progression by keeping estrogen receptor β (ERβ) away from interacting with ATP5J (also known as ATPase-coupling factor 6), a part of ATPase, thus inhibiting the JAK1-STAT6 signaling pathway. These studies introduce a novel mechanism for suppressing male-predominant HCC. PMID:22908233

  6. Matrine derivative WM130 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Qian, Liqiang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Yang; Ji, Weidan; Wu, Qiuye; Liu, Yongjing; Gao, Quangen; Su, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Matrine, a sophora alkaloid, has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on many types of cancer. However, its bioactivity is weak and its potential druggability is low. We modified the structure of matrine and obtained a new matrine derivative, WM130 (C30N4H40SO5F), which exhibited better pharmacological activities than matrine. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity and the underlying mechanisms of WM130 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo, and found that WM130 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, after treatment with WM130, the expressions of p-EGFR, p-ERK, p-AKT, MMP-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were significantly down-regulated, whereas the expression of PTEN was increased in HCC cells. Moreover, WM130 inhibited Huh-7 xenograft tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner after intravenous administration. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that WM130 treatment resulted in down-regulation of p-EGFR, MMP-2, and Ki67 and up-regulation of PTEN. The findings indicated that WM130 could inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis in HCC cells by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways and may be a novel effective candidate for HCC treatment.

  7. Matrine derivative WM130 inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Qian, Liqiang; Liu, Yan; Xu, Yang; Ji, Weidan; Wu, Qiuye; Liu, Yongjing; Gao, Quangen; Su, Changqing

    2015-11-01

    Matrine, a sophora alkaloid, has been demonstrated to exert antitumor effects on many types of cancer. However, its bioactivity is weak and its potential druggability is low. We modified the structure of matrine and obtained a new matrine derivative, WM130 (C30N4H40SO5F), which exhibited better pharmacological activities than matrine. In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity and the underlying mechanisms of WM130 on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in vitro and in vivo, and found that WM130 inhibited the proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis of HCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, after treatment with WM130, the expressions of p-EGFR, p-ERK, p-AKT, MMP-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax were significantly down-regulated, whereas the expression of PTEN was increased in HCC cells. Moreover, WM130 inhibited Huh-7 xenograft tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner after intravenous administration. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that WM130 treatment resulted in down-regulation of p-EGFR, MMP-2, and Ki67 and up-regulation of PTEN. The findings indicated that WM130 could inhibit cell proliferation, invasion, migration and induced apoptosis in HCC cells by suppressing EGFR/ERK/MMP-2 and PTEN/AKT signaling pathways and may be a novel effective candidate for HCC treatment. PMID:26259512

  8. Salinomycin decreases doxorubicin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by inhibiting the β-catenin/TCF complex association via FOXO3a activation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Zhi, Xiao; Feng, Xinhua; Bai, Xueli; Liang, Tingbo

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a conventional and effective chemotherapy drug against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, during long-term doxorubicin monotherapy, HCC cells may eventually develop acquired-resistance to doxorubicin which results in recurrence and a poor prognosis. Salinomycin, an ionophore antibiotic, was recently reported to selectively kill human cancer stem cells (CSCs) which were response for chemoresistance. In this study, salinomycin was found to exert synergistic cytotoxicity with doxorubicin in HCC cells and be capable of inhibiting doxorubicin-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), an important cellular process involved in the acquired chemoresistance of tumors. Further experiments revealed that FOXO3a, a multifunctional transcription factor that can be activated by salinomycin, was vital in mediating doxorubicin-induced EMT. In addition, activated FOXO3a disturbed the interaction between β-catenin and TCF and inhibited the expression of β-catenin/TCF target genes (ZEB1, c-Myc and CyclinD1), which played important roles in doxorubicin-induced EMT in HCC cells. Finally, the enhanced curative efficacy of combination treatment of doxorubicin and salinomycin for HCC was confirmed in established xenograft models. In summary, the present study identifies a new doxorubicin-based chemotherapy for advanced HCC and provides a potential anti-cancer strategy targeting FOXO3a and related cell pathway molecules. PMID:25871400

  9. Ursolic acid inhibited growth of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through AMPKα-mediated reduction of DNA methyltransferase 1.

    PubMed

    Yie, Yinyi; Zhao, Shunyu; Tang, Qin; Zheng, Fang; Wu, Jingjing; Yang, LiJuan; Deng, ShiGuan; Hann, Swei Sunny

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major histological subtype of primary liver cancer, remains one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Due to the complicated pathogenesis of this malignancy, the outcome for comprehensive treatment is limited. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is emerging as a promising choice for its multi-targets and coordinated intervention effects against HCC. Ursolic acid (UA), a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid found in CHM, exerts anti-tumor effects and is emerging as an effective compound for cancer prevention and therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of UA remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that UA inhibited the growth of HCC cells and induced apoptosis in the dose- and time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, we found that UA induced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase alpha (AMPKα) and suppressed the protein expression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) in the dose-dependent manner. The inhibitor of AMPK, compound C blocked, while an activator of AMPK, metformin augmented the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression. In addition, UA suppressed the expression of transcription factor Sp1. Conversely, overexpression of Sp1 reversed the effect of UA on DNMT1 expression and cell growth. Collectively, our results show for the first time that UA inhibits growth of HCC through AMPKα-mediated inhibition of Sp1; this in turn results in inhibition of DNMT1. This study reveals a potential novel mechanism by which UA controls growth of HCC cells and suggests that DNMT1 could be novel target for HCC chemoprevention and treatment.

  10. Hydroxysafflor yellow A inhibits angiogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma via blocking ERK/MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangfang; Li, Jingmin; Zhu, Jinhui; Wang, Dong; Chen, Shaoshui; Bai, Xianyong

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA), a flavonoid derived and isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Carthamus tinctorius L., possesses anti-tumor activity. However, its effects on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have not been investigated. The proliferation and metastasis of HCC are dependent on angiogenesis, which also strongly links with several signal transduction pathways associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis. This study aimed to explore the effect of HSYA on vasculogenesis and to determine its molecular mechanism by investigating the expression of ERK/MAPK (p-c-Raf, c-Raf, p-ERK1/2, ERK1/2) and NF-κB (p65, IκB and p-IκB) signaling pathway in H22 tumor-bearing mice. The results showed that HSYA could considerably suppress tumor growth by inhibiting secretion of angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor A, basic fibroblast growth factor) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor1. At the moleculcould block ERK1/2 phosphorylation and then restrain the activation of NF-κB and its nuclear translocation by down-regulating the expression of p65 in the nucleus, up-regulating p65 level in the cytoplasm, inhibiting IκB phosphorylation and cytoplasmic degradation of IκB-α. Finally, we demonstrate that HSYA could suppress mRNA expression levels of cell proliferation-related genes (cyclinD1, c-myc, c-Fos) compared with negative control group. And best of all, HSYA could improve spleen/thymus indexes, which was evaluated as the marker of protective effect on the immune system. Our findings support HSYA as a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of HCC. PMID:25720342

  11. Transfer of bcl-xs plasmid is effective in preventing and inhibiting rat hepatocellular carcinoma induced by N-nitrosomorpholine.

    PubMed

    Baba, M; Iishi, H; Tatsuta, M

    2001-08-01

    To examine the effect of the bcl-xs gene on the sequence from hepatic precancerous lesions, foci and neoplastic nodules, to hepatocellular carcinomas, Sprague-Dawley rats were given water containing 175 mg/l N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM) for 8 weeks. At weeks 1, 4 and 7, the left lobe of the rat liver was exposed and injected with the bcl-xs plasmid (pCR3.1-rat bcl-xs cDNA) or pCR3.1 encapsulated in cationic empty liposomes each at a dose of 80 microg plasmid/kg body weight. One minute later, low-field-strength, long-duration electric pulses were applied to the left lobe using a pincette electrode with circular poles 1 cm in diameter. The in vivo electroporation procedure significantly increased the transfer of the reporter gene chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) plasmid via empty liposomes. Thus, CAT mRNA was expressed not only at the sites of electrode contact but at sites 0.5-1.0 cm away from the electrode, and expression also increased with increasing doses of plasmid, meaning that in vivo electroporation enabled the expression of plasmid DNA throughout an extensive area of the rat liver. By week 11, the neoplastic nodules were significantly fewer and smaller in the bcl-xs group than in the pCR3.1 group at the two sites, one with and the other without electrode contact. No hepatocellular carcinomas were found in the rats that had received the bcl-xs plasmid, whereas these tumors were observed in 30% of the rats given pCR3.1. Moreover, overexpression of the bcl-xs protein was detected, and apoptotic activity was significantly increased in the neoplastic nodules, foci and hepatocytes adjacent to the hepatic lesions. These results indicate that the bcl-xs plasmid inhibits the occurrence and growth of rat hepatocellular carcinoma and may thus be effective for the prevention and treatment of human liver tumors.

  12. Type I insulin-like growth factor as a liver reserve assessment tool in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Shehata, Samir; Hassan, Manal M; Habra, Mouhammed A; Eskandari, Ghazaleh; Tinkey, Peggy T; Mitchell, Jennifer; Lee, Ju-Seog; Amin, Hesham M; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) encompass a wide range of illnesses, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and viral hepatitis. Deterioration of liver capacity, with subsequent progression into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), ultimately leads to a further decrease in the hepatic reserve. The Child–Turcotte–Pugh scoring system is the standard tool for assessing underlying liver reserve capacity in routine practice and in clinical trials of CLD and HCC. In this review, we highlight the clinical significance of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and the growth hormone (GH) signaling pathway in HCC. IGF-I could be a marker for liver reserve capacity in CLDs and HCC in clinical practice. This approach could improve the risk assessment and stratifications of patients on the basis of their underlying liver reserve, either before active treatment in routine practice or before they are enrolled in clinical trials. PMID:27508202

  13. Epigenetic regulation of insulin-like growth factor axis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway is an important pathway in the process of hepatocarcinogenesis, and the IGF network is clearly dysregulated in many cancers and developmental abnormalities. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), only a minority of patients are eligible for curative treatments, such as tumor resection or liver transplant. Unfortunately, there is a high recurrence of HCC after surgical tumor removal. Recent research efforts have focused on targeting IGF axis members in an attempt to find therapeutic options for many health problems. In this review, we shed lights on the regulation of members of the IGF axis, mainly by microRNAs in HCC. MicroRNAs in HCC attempt to halt the aberrant expression of the IGF network, and a single microRNA can have multiple downstream targets in one or more signaling pathways. Targeting microRNAs is a relatively new approach for identifying an efficient radical cure for HCC. PMID:26973407

  14. Bile duct invasion can be an independent prognostic factor in early stage hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ye-Rang; Kim, Hyeyoung; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), bile duct invasion occurs far more rarely than vascular invasion and is not well characterized. In addition, the pathologic finding of bile duct invasion is not considered an independent prognostic factor for HCC following surgery. In this study, we determined the characteristics of HCC with bile duct invasion, and assessed the clinical significance of bile duct invasion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 363 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCC at Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) from January 2009 to December 2011. Preoperative, operative, and pathological data were collected. The risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. Subsequently, the patients were divided into 2 groups according to disease stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer/International Union Against Cancer 7th edition): early stage (T1 and 2) and advanced stage (T3 and 4) group; and risk factors in the sub-groups were analyzed. Results Among 363 patients, 13 showed bile duct invasion on pathology. Patients with bile duct invasion had higher preoperative total bilirubin levels, greater microvascular invasion, and a higher death rate than those without bile duct invasion. In multivariate analysis, bile duct invasion was not an independent prognostic factor for survival for the entire cohort, but, was an independent prognostic factor for early stage. Conclusions Bile duct invasion accompanied microvascular invasion in most cases, and could be used as an independent prognostic factor for survival especially in early stage HCC (T1 and T2). PMID:26693236

  15. Piperlongumine selectively kills hepatocellular carcinoma cells and preferentially inhibits their invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Ju Mei; Xiong, Xin Xin; Qiu, Xin Yao; Pan, Feng; Liu, Di; Lan, Shu Jue; Jin, Si; Yu, Shang Bin; Chen, Xiao Qian

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are highly malignant and aggressive tumors lack of effective therapeutic drugs. Piperlongumine (PL), a natural product isolated from longer pepper plants, is recently identified as a potent cytotoxic compound highly selective to cancer cells. Here, we reported that PL specifically suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion via endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway. PL selectively killed HCC cells but not normal hepatocytes with an IC50 of 10-20 μM while PL at much lower concentrations only suppressed HCC cell migration/invasion. PL selectively elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HCC cells, which activated or up-regulated downstream PERK/Ire 1α/Grp78, p38/JNK/Erk and CHOP subsequently. Administration of antioxidants completely abolished PL's effects on cell death and migration/invasion. However, pharmacological inhibition of ER stress-responses or MAPKs signaling pathways with corresponding specific inhibitors only reversed PL's effect on cell migration/invasion but not on cell death. Consistently, knocking-down of CHOP by RNA interference only reversed PL-suppressed HCC cell migration. Finally, PL significantly suppressed HCC development and activated the ER-MAPKs-CHOP signaling pathway in HCC xenografts in vivo. Taken together, PL selectively killed HCC cells and preferentially inhibited HCC cell migration/invasion via ROS-ER-MAPKs-CHOP axis, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy for the highly malignant and aggressive HCC clinically. PMID:25788268

  16. Metformin inhibits hepatocellular glucose, lipid and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways by transcriptionally suppressing steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2)

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Andre; Bozickovic, Olivera; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Mellgren, Gunnar; Sagen, Jørn V.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the anti-diabetic drug metformin to inhibit anabolic processes including gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis is partly attributable to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The p160 steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and drives expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc). Here, we uncovered a role for SRC-2 in the metabolic reprogramming imposed by metformin. In FaO cells, metformin dose-dependently reduced mRNA expression of SRC-2. Microarray analysis of metformin-treated cells revealed an overrepresentation of downregulated genes involved in biosynthesis of lipids and cholesterol. Several metformin-regulated genes including fatty acid synthase (FASN) were validated as transcriptional targets of SRC-2 with promoters characterized by sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein (SREBP) recognition sequences. Transactivation assays of the FASN promoter confirmed that SRC-2 is a coactivator of SREBP-1. By suppressing SRC-2 at the transcriptional level, metformin impeded recruitment of SRC-2 and RNA polymerase II to the G6Pc promoter and to SREs of mutual SRC-2/SREBP-1 target gene promoters. Hepatocellular fat accretion was reduced by metformin or knock-down of both SRC-2 and SREBP-1. Accordingly we propose that metformin inhibits glucose and lipid biosynthesis partly by downregulating SRC-2 gene expression. PMID:26548416

  17. Metformin inhibits hepatocellular glucose, lipid and cholesterol biosynthetic pathways by transcriptionally suppressing steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2).

    PubMed

    Madsen, Andre; Bozickovic, Olivera; Bjune, Jan-Inge; Mellgren, Gunnar; Sagen, Jørn V

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the anti-diabetic drug metformin to inhibit anabolic processes including gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis is partly attributable to activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. The p160 steroid receptor coactivator 2 (SRC-2) is a key regulator of cellular metabolism and drives expression of the gluconeogenic enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc). Here, we uncovered a role for SRC-2 in the metabolic reprogramming imposed by metformin. In FaO cells, metformin dose-dependently reduced mRNA expression of SRC-2. Microarray analysis of metformin-treated cells revealed an overrepresentation of downregulated genes involved in biosynthesis of lipids and cholesterol. Several metformin-regulated genes including fatty acid synthase (FASN) were validated as transcriptional targets of SRC-2 with promoters characterized by sterol regulatory element (SRE) binding protein (SREBP) recognition sequences. Transactivation assays of the FASN promoter confirmed that SRC-2 is a coactivator of SREBP-1. By suppressing SRC-2 at the transcriptional level, metformin impeded recruitment of SRC-2 and RNA polymerase II to the G6Pc promoter and to SREs of mutual SRC-2/SREBP-1 target gene promoters. Hepatocellular fat accretion was reduced by metformin or knock-down of both SRC-2 and SREBP-1. Accordingly we propose that metformin inhibits glucose and lipid biosynthesis partly by downregulating SRC-2 gene expression. PMID:26548416

  18. PI-88 inhibits postoperative recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma via disrupting the surge of heparanase after liver resection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Bo-Yi; Wang, Zheng; Hu, Jie; Liu, Wei-Feng; Shen, Zao-Zhuo; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Lei; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian

    2016-03-01

    Phosphomannopentaose sulfate (PI-88), an effective inhibitor of heparanase (HPSE), exhibited anti-recurrence and anti-metastasis activity in preliminary clinical trials of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to reveal the mechanism by which PI-88 inhibits recurrence and intrahepatic metastasis. A tissue microarray containing samples from 352 HCC patients was used to determine HPSE expression. We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect plasma levels of HPSE in 40 HCC patients. We also used quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemical staining to assess HPSE expression of HCC cell lines and tissues. The in vitro effects of PI-88 were examined by cell proliferation and migration assays. In vivo PI-88 activity was assessed using murine orthotopic HCC models. Intratumoral HPSE was an independent prognostic marker for postsurgical overall survival (P = 0.001) and time to recurrence (P < 0.001) of HCC patients with hepatectomy. Elevated levels of HPSE were detected both in postsurgical plasma of HCC patients and an orthotopic mouse model after hepatectomy. PI-88 inhibited tumor recurrence and metastasis after liver resection in the mouse model. In vitro expression of HPSE was up-regulated by overexpression of early growth response 1 (EGR1), which is induced after hepatectomy. Up-regulation of HPSE enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to PI-88 and the inhibitive effect of PI-88 on cell proliferation and migration. Our data show that PI-88 effectively inhibits postoperative recurrence and intrahepatic metastasis of HCC, providing an experimental basis for the clinical application of PI-88 in HCC patients who have undergone hepatectomy.

  19. Clinicopathological risk factors for recurrence within one year after initial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Michihiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Komeda, Koji; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Takeshita, Atsushi; Shibayama, Yuro; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows a high rate of recurrence after hepatectomy; predictive factors for early recurrence would help determine optimal therapeutic and management strategies. Among 163 patients with HCC undergoing hepatectomy with curative intent, 46 patients developed recurrence within 1 year. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively analyzed to identify predictive parameters for early recurrence. Survival rates in cases of recurrence within 1 year were worse than those of no recurrence within 1 year or recurrence after 1 year. Protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist II (PIVKA-II) greater than 150, positive fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (L3-AFP), and deviancy from Milan criteria (MC) on preoperative imaging were associated with high risk of early recurrence and total number of these three risk factors predicted the survival. With multivariate analysis, (1) preoperatively, positive factors of two or more among three items of PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and deviancy from MC; (2) and postoperatively, pathological cancer spread (microscopic vascular invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis) both represented risks for early recurrence. A combination of three preoperative factors, PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and MC status, in conjunction with the postoperative factor of cancer spread status represents a significant indicator for recurrence within 1 year. Improving the prognosis of patients with HCC would depend on how to adequately treat those at high risk of early recurrence.

  20. Predictive Factor of Local Recurrence after Balloon-Occluded TACE with Miriplatin (MPT) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Toru; Abe, Satoshi; Inoue, Ryousuke; Sugano, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yuhsuke; Iwanaga, Akito; Seki, Keiichi; Honma, Terasu; Nemoto, Takeo; Takeda, Keiko; Yoshida, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Miriplatin (MPT) is a novel platinum complex used in TACE that shows promise for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, rapid washout has been reported in some cases. Therefore, various methods of administration with MPT have been attempted to increase its therapeutic efficacy. One hopeful method is balloon-occluded TACE (B-TACE), but the therapeutic efficacy of B-TACE with MPT has not been evaluated. Aim To investigate the treatment outcomes and factors involved in local recurrence after B-TACE with MPT in HCC. Methods This study included 51 patients (55 nodules) with HCC lesions equal or less than 5 cm in diameter who underwent B-TACE with MPT between January 2012 and June 2013. Local recurrence after B-TACE with MPT and factors associated with local recurrence were evaluated. Results The overall local recurrence rate was 11.1% at 6 months and 26.2% at 12 months. The local recurrence rate did differ significantly depending on CT values immediately after B-TACE with MPT. Multivariate analysis also showed that the CT value after B-TACE with MPT was the only factor related to local recurrence after B-TACE. Conclusions B-TACE with MPT achieves relatively good local control of HCC. The plain CT value immediately after B-TACE with MPT is a predictive factor for local recurrence. In patients with unsatisfactory CT values, locoregional therapy or additional treatment is required. PMID:25047920

  1. BAG3 elevation inhibits cell proliferation via direct interaction with G6PD in hepatocellular carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Kong, De-Hui; Li, Si; Du, Zhen-Xian; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Bao-Qin; Li, Chao; Zong, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Hua-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Bcl-2 associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) contains multiple protein-binding motifs to mediate potential interactions with chaperons and/or other proteins, which is possibly ascribed to the multifaceted functions assigned to BAG3. The current study demonstrated that BAG3 directly interacted with glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). BAG3 suppressed the PPP flux, de novo DNA synthesis and cell growth in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The growth defect of HCCs with forced BAG3 expression can be rescued by enforced G6PD expression. However, BAG3 elevation did not cause a reduction in cellular NADPH concentrations, another main product of G6PD. In addition, supplement of nucleosides alone was sufficient to recover the growth defect mediated by BAG3 elevation. Collectively, the current study established a tumor suppressor-like function of BAG3 via direct interaction with G6PD in HCCs at the cellular level. PMID:26621836

  2. Farnesoid X receptor associates with β-catenin and inhibits its activity in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xijun; Zhang, Xingwang; Ji, Lingling; Gu, Jianxin; Zhou, Meiling; Chen, She

    2015-01-01

    The association between the temporal activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the spontaneous hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) knockout mice is not well understood. We found that Huh7 cells depleted with FXR by RNAi showed enhanced cell growth, migration and invasion in vitro and accelerated tumor xenografts formation in nude mice. And these phenotypes were attenuated by simultaneous knockdown of β-catenin with RNAi. Furthermore, we identified that FXR could bind with β-Catenin through AF1 domain, and disrupt the assembly of the core β-Catenin/TCF4 complex. Activation of FXR attenuated the DNA-binding activity of β-Catenin/TCF4, and subsequently, its targeting gene-cyclin D1 expression. Importantly, FXR expression was markedly reduced in human HCC, an event which correlated with aberrant activation of β-Catenin. These data identified FXR as a negative regulator of HCC development through direct suppression of Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:25650661

  3. Diosmetin inhibits the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells by downregulating the expression levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9

    PubMed Central

    LIU, JIE; WEN, XIAOJUN; LIU, BIN; ZHANG, QINGYU; ZHANG, JINGJING; MIAO, HUILAI; ZHU, RUNZHI

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most malignant types of tumor worldwide with a high rate of mortality. Diosmetin (DIOS) exhibits various activities, including anticancer activities. However, the role of DIOS in the metastasis of HCC, and its underlying molecular mechanism, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the antimetastatic effects of DIOS were investigated in SK-HEP-1 and MHcc97H HCC cell lines. Cell proliferation, wound healing, motility, invasion and adhesion capacities were examined to evaluate the inhibitory effect of DIOS on the metastasis of HCC cells. Cell viability was detected using an MTT assay in order to verify the inhibitory effect of DIOS on the proliferation of HCC cells. Cell migration was assessed using would healing and motility assays in order to verify the inhibitory effect of DIOS on the migration of HCC cells. Cell invasion and adhesion assays were performed in order to verify the inhibitory effect of DIOS on the invasion and adhesion of HCC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9, proteins of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 MAPK) and protein kinase C-δ were detected in order to verify the potential molecular mechanisms of DIOS in the inhibition of the metastasis of HCC cells. DIOS was observed to inhibit the metastasis of SK-HEP-1 and MHcc97H cells by downregulating the expression of MMP-2/9 via the PKC/MAPK/MMP pathways. DIOS also inhibited the migration and invasion of the HCC cells, and may serve as a potential candidate agent for the prevention of HCC metastasis. PMID:26847170

  4. Long non-coding RNA AOC4P suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis by enhancing vimentin degradation and inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong-Hong; Lin, Yong-Shiang; Chen, Ying; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Huang, Yen-lin; Hsieh, Tsung-Han; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Hsueh, Chuen; Chen, Tse-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate diverse cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and cancer progression. However, the function of lncRNAs in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. We performed a comprehensive microarray analysis of lncRNA expression in human HCC samples. After validation in 108 HCC specimens, we identified a differentially expressed novel tumor suppressive lncRNA termed amine oxidase, copper containing 4, pseudogene (AOC4P). The level of AOC4P expression was significantly downregulated in 68% of HCC samples and negatively correlated with advanced clinical stage, capsule invasion and vessel invasion. Low AOC4P expression correlated with poor prognostic outcomes, serving as an independent prognostic factor for HCC. In vitro functional assays indicated that AOC4P overexpression significantly reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion by inhibiting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). RNA immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AOC4P binds to vimentin and promotes its degradation. Animal model experiments confirmed the ability of AOC4P to suppress tumor growth and metastasis. Taken together, our findings suggest that AOC4P lncRNA acts as an HCC tumor suppressor by enhancing vimentin degradation and suppressing the EMT. By clarifying the mechanisms underlying HCC progression, these findings promote the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HCC. PMID:26160837

  5. [Plasma Biomarkers as Predictive Factors for Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Sorafenib].

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Kazue; Watanabe, Manabu; Ikehara, Takashi; Matsukiyo, Yasushi; Kogame, Michio; Shinohara, Mie; Kikuchi, Yoshinori; Igarashi, Yoshinori; Sumino, Yasukiyo

    2016-07-01

    We examined plasma biomarkers as predictive factors for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma(ad-HCC)patients treated with sorafenib. We analyzed a-fetoprotein(AFP), AFP-L3, des-g-carboxy prothrombin(DCP), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio(NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio(PLR), and vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)before sorafenib therapy, and changes in AFP-L3, NLR, PLR, and VEGF 1 month after sorafenib therapy in 16 patients. High AFP-L3(hazard ratio: 1.058, 95%CI: 1.019-1.098, p=0.003)and high NLR(hazard ratio: 1.475, 95%CI: 1.045-2.082, p=0.027)were significantly associated with poor prognosis in ad-HCC patients treated with sorafenib. There were no significant differences in changes in AFP-L3, NLR, PLR, and VEGF 1 month after sorafenib therapy. We suggest that AFP-L3 and NLR levels before sorafenib therapy in patients with ad-HCC are an important predictive factor for the therapeutic effect of sorafenib and patient survival. PMID:27431630

  6. Factors for early tumor recurrence of single small hepatocellular carcinoma after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hsien-Chung; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lin, Chi-Pin; Lo, Gin-Ho; Lin, Chiun-Ku; Hsu, Ping-I; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lo, Ching-Chu; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the factors affecting the early tumor recurrence within one year in cirrhotic patients having a single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after complete tumor necrosis by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy. METHODS: Thirty patients with a single small HCC received RFA therapy by a RFA 2000 generator with LeVeen needle. Tri-phase computerized tomogram was followed every 2 to 3 mo after RFA. The clinical effects and tumor recurrence were recorded. RESULTS: The initial complete tumor necrosis rate was 86.7%. Twenty-two patients were followed for more than one year. The local and overall recurrence rates were 13.6% and 36.4%, 33.3% and 56.2%, 46.6% and 56.2% at 12, 24 and 30 mo, respectively. No major complication or procedure-related mortality was found. The risk factors for early local tumor recurrence within one year were larger tumor size, poor pathologic differentiation of tumor cells and advanced tumor staging. The age of patients with new tumor formation within one year was relatively younger (55.1±8.3 vs 66.7±10.8, P = 0.029). CONCLUSION: Large tumor size, poor pathologic differentiation of tumor cells and advanced tumor staging are the risk factors for early local tumor recurrence within one year, and young age is the positive predictor for new tumor formation within one year. PMID:15770718

  7. Effect of superoxide and inflammatory factor on aflatoxin B1 triggered hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Huimin; Li, Hongtao; Zhou, Xiaolin; Peng, Chen; Tan, Honghu; Wang, Minxin

    2016-01-01

    Presently, there have been a lot of documents confirmed that aflatoxin B1 could promote the incident rate of hepato-cellular carcinoma, but the specific mechanism is not completely clear. Some evidences showed that it might relate to oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction. So the rat hepato-cellular carcinoma model was applied in this study for being discussed. Aflatoxin B1 was applied for inducing the rats to produce hepato-cellular carcinoma model to evaluate the expression of histopathology and glutathione transferase. At the same time, we also detected the expression of antioxidase, pro-inflammatory cytokine, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and etc in rat hepato-cellular carcinoma tissues. The histo-pathological results showed that the necrosis of liver cells could be observed after being induced by Aflatoxin B1 for 4 weeks. We could observe obvious hepato-cellular carcinoma in 10th week. The level of reactive oxygen species in liver cancer rose obviously, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes reduced. At the same time, the expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNFα, IL-1α, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and etc all increased significantly. In conclusion, the histological characteristics of hepato-cellular carcinoma could be induced by aflatoxin B1, and the progression of hepato-cellular carcinoma related closely to inflammatory reaction. PMID:27725881

  8. Dual mechanism of vascular endothelial growth factor upregulation by hypoxia in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    von Marschall, Z; Cramer, T; Hocker, M; Finkenzeller, G; Wiedenmann, B; Rosewicz, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in regulation of tumour associated angiogenesis. In the current study we analysed expression of VEGF and its receptors in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the molecular mechanisms of VEGF regulation by hypoxia.
METHODS—VEGF, kinase domain region (KDR)/fetal liver kinase 1 (flk-1), and flt-1 expression were examined by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation in 15 human HCC tissues. Expression of VEGF and regulation by hypoxia were assessed in three human HCC cell lines using a quantitative competitive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, and a series of 5' deletion reporter gene constructs of the human VEGF promoter in transient transfection assays.
RESULTS—We observed over expression of VEGF mRNA and protein in HCC compared with cirrhosis or normal liver. Expression of VEGF in tumour cells was strongly increased in areas directly adjacent to necrotic/hypoxic regions. Both VEGF receptors were detected in vascular endothelia of HCC while only KDR/flk-1 receptors were detected in endothelial cells of cirrhotic livers. Expression of VEGF was observed in all human HCC cell lines examined. Hypoxia (1% oxygen) resulted in profound upregulation of VEGF mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, hypoxia treatment resulted in a doubling of VEGF mRNA stability. Deletion analysis of the human VEGF 5' flanking region −2018 and +50 demonstrated induction of VEGF promoter activity under hypoxic conditions which was significantly decreased following deletion of the region −1286 and −789 suggesting a substantial contribution of the −975 putative hypoxia inducible factor 1 binding site to hypoxia mediated transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene.
CONCLUSION—These data suggest hypoxia as a central stimulus of angiogenesis in human HCC through upregulation of VEGF gene expression by at least two distinct molecular mechanisms: activation of

  9. Activating JAK1 mutation may predict the sensitivity of JAK-STAT inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuqun; Luo, Chonglin; Gu, Qingyang; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Guan; Sun, Hongye; Qian, Ziliang; Tan, Yexiong; Qin, Yuxin; Shen, Yuhong; Xu, Xiaowei; Chen, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chung; Wang, Hongyang; Mao, Mao; Fang, Douglas D

    2016-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancers worldwide. However, current therapeutic approaches for this epidemic disease are limited, and its 5-year survival rate hasn't been improved in the past decades. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have become an excellent in vivo system for understanding of disease biology and drug discovery. In order to identify new therapeutic targets for HCC, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on more than 60 HCC PDX models. Among them, four models exhibited protein-altering mutations in JAK1 (Janus Kinase 1) gene. To explore the transforming capability, these mutations were then introduced into HEK293FT and Ba/F3 cells. The results demonstrated that JAK1S703I mutation was able to activate JAK-STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway and drive cell proliferation in the absence of cytokine stimulation in vitro. Furthermore,the sensitivity to the treatment of a JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was observed in JAK1S703I mutant PDX model, but not in other non-activating mutant or wild type models. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed that phosphorylation of STAT3 in the Ruxolitinib-treated tumor tissues was significantly suppressed. Collectively, our results suggested that JAK1S703I is an activating mutation for JAK-STAT signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo, and JAK-STAT pathway might represent a new therapeutic approach for HCC treatment. Monotherapy using a more potent and specific JAK1 inhibitor and combinatory therapy should be further explored in JAK1 mutant PDX models. PMID:26701727

  10. Activating JAK1 mutation may predict the sensitivity of JAK-STAT inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuqun; Luo, Chonglin; Gu, Qingyang; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Guan; Sun, Hongye; Qian, Ziliang; Tan, Yexiong; Qin, Yuxin; Shen, Yuhong; Xu, Xiaowei; Chen, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chung; Wang, Hongyang; Mao, Mao; Fang, Douglas D

    2016-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancers worldwide. However, current therapeutic approaches for this epidemic disease are limited, and its 5-year survival rate hasn't been improved in the past decades. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have become an excellent in vivo system for understanding of disease biology and drug discovery. In order to identify new therapeutic targets for HCC, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on more than 60 HCC PDX models. Among them, four models exhibited protein-altering mutations in JAK1 (Janus Kinase 1) gene. To explore the transforming capability, these mutations were then introduced into HEK293FT and Ba/F3 cells. The results demonstrated that JAK1S703I mutation was able to activate JAK-STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway and drive cell proliferation in the absence of cytokine stimulation in vitro. Furthermore,the sensitivity to the treatment of a JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was observed in JAK1S703I mutant PDX model, but not in other non-activating mutant or wild type models. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed that phosphorylation of STAT3 in the Ruxolitinib-treated tumor tissues was significantly suppressed. Collectively, our results suggested that JAK1S703I is an activating mutation for JAK-STAT signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo, and JAK-STAT pathway might represent a new therapeutic approach for HCC treatment. Monotherapy using a more potent and specific JAK1 inhibitor and combinatory therapy should be further explored in JAK1 mutant PDX models.

  11. Activating JAK1 mutation may predict the sensitivity of JAK-STAT inhibition in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuqun; Luo, Chonglin; Gu, Qingyang; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Guan; Sun, Hongye; Qian, Ziliang; Tan, Yexiong; Qin, Yuxin; Shen, Yuhong; Xu, Xiaowei; Chen, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chung; Wang, Hongyang; Mao, Mao; Fang, Douglas D.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancers worldwide. However, current therapeutic approaches for this epidemic disease are limited, and its 5-year survival rate hasn't been improved in the past decades. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor models have become an excellent in vivo system for understanding of disease biology and drug discovery. In order to identify new therapeutic targets for HCC, whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed on more than 60 HCC PDX models. Among them, four models exhibited protein-altering mutations in JAK1 (Janus Kinase 1) gene. To explore the transforming capability, these mutations were then introduced into HEK293FT and Ba/F3 cells. The results demonstrated that JAK1S703I mutation was able to activate JAK-STAT (Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription) signaling pathway and drive cell proliferation in the absence of cytokine stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, the sensitivity to the treatment of a JAK1/2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, was observed in JAK1S703I mutant PDX model, but not in other non-activating mutant or wild type models. Pharmacodynamic analysis showed that phosphorylation of STAT3 in the Ruxolitinib-treated tumor tissues was significantly suppressed. Collectively, our results suggested that JAK1S703I is an activating mutation for JAK-STAT signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo, and JAK-STAT pathway might represent a new therapeutic approach for HCC treatment. Monotherapy using a more potent and specific JAK1 inhibitor and combinatory therapy should be further explored in JAK1 mutant PDX models. PMID:26701727

  12. Systemic Delivery of MicroRNA-101 Potently Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma In Vivo by Repressing Multiple Targets

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Liao, Yi-Ji; Cai, Mu-Yan; Liu, Tian-Hao; Chen, Shu-Peng; Wu, Pei-Hong; Wu, Long; Bian, Xiu-Wu; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Xie, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Targeted therapy based on adjustment of microRNA (miRNA)s activity takes great promise due to the ability of these small RNAs to modulate cellular behavior. However, the efficacy of miR-101 replacement therapy to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In the current study, we first observed that plasma levels of miR-101 were significantly lower in distant metastatic HCC patients than in HCCs without distant metastasis, and down-regulation of plasma miR-101 predicted a worse disease-free survival (DFS, P<0.05). In an animal model of HCC, we demonstrated that systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 abrogated HCC growth in the liver, intrahepatic metastasis and distant metastasis to the lung and to the mediastinum, resulting in a dramatic suppression of HCC development and metastasis in mice without toxicity and extending life expectancy. Furthermore, enforced overexpression of miR-101 in HCC cells not only decreased EZH2, COX2 and STMN1, but also directly down-regulated a novel target ROCK2, inhibited Rho/Rac GTPase activation, and blocked HCC cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and angiogenesis, inducing a strong abrogation of HCC tumorigenesis and aggressiveness both in vitro and in vivo. These results provide proof-of-concept support for systemic delivery of lentivirus-mediated miR-101 as a powerful anti-HCC therapeutic modality by repressing multiple molecular targets. PMID:25693145

  13. Meloxicam combined with sorafenib synergistically inhibits tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells via ER stress-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jingtao; Xiu, Peng; Dong, Xiaofeng; Wang, Fuhai; Wei, Honglong; Wang, Xin; Xu, Zongzhen; Liu, Feng; Li, Tao; Wang, Yong; Li, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Sorafenib (SOR) is a promising treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the precise mechanisms of toxicity and drug resistance have not been fully explored and new strategies are urgently needed for HCC therapy. Meloxicam (MEL) is a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor which elicits antitumor effects in human HCC cells. In the present study, we investigated the interaction between MEL and SOR in human SMMC‑7721 cells and the role endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress exerts in the combination of SOR with MEL treatment-induced cytotoxicity. Our results revealed that the combination treatment synergistically inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis. Furthermore, the combination treatment enhanced ER stress-related molecules which involved in SMMC-7721 cell apoptosis. GRP78 knockdown by siRNA or co-treatment with MG132 significantly increased this combination treatment-induced apoptosis. In addition, we found that the combination treatment suppressed tumor growth by way of activation of ER stress in in vivo models. We concluded that the combination of SOR with MEL treatment-induced ER stress, and eventually apoptosis in human SMMC-7721 cells. Knockdown of GRP78 using siRNA or proteosome inhibitor enhanced the cytotoxicity of the combination of SOR with MEL-treatment in SMMC-7721 cells. These findings provided a new potential treatment strategy against HCC.

  14. PARP14 promotes the Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting JNK1-dependent PKM2 phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Iansante, Valeria; Choy, Pui Man; Fung, Sze Wai; Liu, Ying; Chai, Jian-Guo; Dyson, Julian; Del Rio, Alberto; D'Santos, Clive; Williams, Roger; Chokshi, Shilpa; Anders, Robert A; Bubici, Concetta; Papa, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Most tumour cells use aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) to support anabolic growth and evade apoptosis. Intriguingly, the molecular mechanisms that link the Warburg effect with the suppression of apoptosis are not well understood. In this study, using loss-of-function studies in vitro and in vivo, we show that the anti-apoptotic protein poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)14 promotes aerobic glycolysis in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by maintaining low activity of the pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), a key regulator of the Warburg effect. Notably, PARP14 is highly expressed in HCC primary tumours and associated with poor patient prognosis. Mechanistically, PARP14 inhibits the pro-apoptotic kinase JNK1, which results in the activation of PKM2 through phosphorylation of Thr365. Moreover, targeting PARP14 enhances the sensitization of HCC cells to anti-HCC agents. Our findings indicate that the PARP14-JNK1-PKM2 regulatory axis is an important determinant for the Warburg effect in tumour cells and provide a mechanistic link between apoptosis and metabolism. PMID:26258887

  15. Ras-related associated with diabetes gene acts as a suppressor and inhibits Warburg effect in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yingcai; Xie, Minjie; Zhang, Linshi; Zhou, Xiaohu; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen; Wang, Weilin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rapidly becoming one of the most prevalent cancers worldwide and is a prominent source of mortality. Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD), one of the first members of the 35–39 kDa class of novel Ras-related GTPases, is linked to several types of cancer, although its function in HCC remains unclear. In this study, we observed that RRAD was downregulated in HCC compared with adjacent normal tissues. This change was associated with a poor prognosis. Furthermore, knockdown of RRAD in SK-Hep-1 cells facilitated cell proliferation, accelerated the G1/S transition during the cell cycle, induced cell migration, and reduced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of RRAD in Huh7 cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, we demonstrated that RRAD induced cell proliferation through regulation of the cell cycle by downregulating cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. RRAD induced tumor cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. In addition, we confirmed that knockdown of RRAD promoted aerobic glycolysis by upregulating glucose transporter 1, whereas overexpression of RRAD inhibited aerobic glycolysis. In conclusion, RRAD plays a pivotal role as a potential tumor suppressor in HCC. An improved understanding of the roles of RRAD in tumor metabolism may provide insights into its potential as a novel molecular target in HCC therapy. PMID:27418837

  16. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. PMID:27617250

  17. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  18. Berberine suppresses Id-1 expression and inhibits the growth and development of lung metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi Man; Cheung, Kenneth Chat Pan; Cheung, Yuk Chun; Man, Kwan; Lui, Vivian Wai-Yan; Tsao, Sai Wah; Feng, Yibin

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an invasive cancer with a high rate of recurrence and metastasis. Agents with anti-proliferative as well as anti-metastatic activity will be ideal for effective treatment. Here, we demonstrated that berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, harbored potent anti-metastatic and anti-proliferative activities in vivo. Using an orthotopic model of HCC (MHCC-97L), which spontaneously develops lung metastases (one of the most common sites of HCC metastasis), we found that berberine treatment (10mg/kg/2days) significantly reduced lung metastasis from the liver tumors by ~85% (quantitated by bioluminescence emitted from lung metastases). Histological examination also confirmed the reduced incidence and number of lung metastases in berberine-treated mice. Furthermore, berberine effectively suppressed extra-tumor invasion of the primary HCC implant into the surrounding normal liver tissue, illustrating its potent anti-metastatic action in vivo. Consistent with previous reports in other cancer, berberine's anti-tumor activity was accompanied by suppression of cellular proliferation, invasiveness and HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. Strikingly, further mechanistic investigation revealed that berberine exerted profound inhibitory effect on the expression of Id-1, which is a key regulator for HCC development and metastasis. Berberine could suppress the transcription level of Id-1 through inhibiting its promotor activity. Specific downregulation of Id-1 by knocking down its RNA transcripts in HCC cells inhibited cellular growth, invasion and VEGF secretion, demonstrating the functional relevance of Id-1 downregulation induced by berberine. Lastly, berberine's anti-proliferative and anti-invasive activities could be partially rescued by Id-1 overexpression in HCC models, revealing a novel anti-cancer/anti-invasive mechanism of berberine via Id-1 suppression.

  19. miR-29c targets TNFAIP3, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yan; Fan, Chun-Guang; Xu, Fei-Fei; Sun, Wen-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Gang; Jia, Ji-Hui

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} miR-29c was significantly downregulated in HBV-related HCC. {yields} TNFAIP3 was found to be inversely correlated with miR-29c levels and identified as a target of miR-29c. {yields} Overexpression of miR-29c suppressed TNFAIP3. {yields} miR-29c inhibited HBV DNA replication, cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that microRNA-29c (miR-29c) is involved in a variety of biological processes including carcinogenesis. Here, we report that miR-29c was significantly downregulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines as well as in clinical tissues compared with their corresponding controls. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced protein 3 (TNFAIP3), a key regulator in inflammation and immunity, was found to be inversely correlated with miR-29c levels and was identified as a target of miR-29c. Overexpression of miR-29c in HepG2.2.15 cells effectively suppressed TNFAIP3 expression and HBV DNA replication as well as inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. We conclude that miR-29c may play an important role as a tumor suppressive microRNA in the development and progression of HBV-related HCC by targeting TNFAIP3. Thus miR-29c and TNFAIP3 represent key diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of HBV infection.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-α attenuates starvation-induced apoptosis through upregulation of ferritin heavy chain in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor microenviroment is characteristic of inflammation, ischemia and starvation of nutrient. TNF-α, which is an extraordinarily pleiotropic cytokine, could be an endogenous tumor promoter in some tumor types. The basic objective of this study was to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the cell viability and apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells under serum starvation, and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. Methods For this purpose, five different concentrations of TNF-α and two different serum settings (serum-cultured and serum-deprived) were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on the cell viability and apoptosis of Hep3B and SMMC-7721 cells. Results TNF-α (10 ng/ml) attenuated serum starvation-induced apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and autophagy conferred this process. BAY11-7082, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB, reversed the suppression of serum starvation-induced apoptosis by TNF-α. Moreover, TNF-α-induced NF-κB transactivation was suppressed by autophagy inhibitor 3-MA. In addition, TNF-α up-regulated Ferritin heavy chain (FHC) transiently by NF-κB activation and FHC levels were correlated with the TNF-α-induced protection against serum starvation-mediated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Furthermore, FHC-mediated inhibition of apoptosis depended on suppressing ROS accumulation. Conclusions Our findings suggested that autophagy conferred the TNF-α protection against serum starvation-mediated apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells, the mechanism involved with the activation of the TNF-α/ NF-κB /FHC signaling pathway. PMID:24066693

  1. Viral Factors Induce Hedgehog Pathway Activation in Humans with Viral Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Thiago de Almeida; Witek, Rafal P.; Syn, Wing-Kin; Choi, Steve S.; Bradrick, Shelton; Karaca, Gamze F; Agboola, Kolade M.; Jung, Youngmi; Omenetti, Alessia; Moylan, Cynthia A.; Yang, Liu; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Jhaveri, Ravi; Shah, Vijay H.; Pereira, Fausto E.; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2010-01-01

    Hh pathway activation promotes many processes that occur during fibrogenic liver repair. Whether the Hh pathway modulates the outcomes of virally-mediated liver injury has never been examined. Gene-profiling studies of human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) demonstrate Hh pathway activation in HCCs related to chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Because most HCC develop in cirrhotic livers, we hypothesized that Hh pathway activation occurs during fibrogenic repair of liver damage due to chronic viral hepatitis, and that Hh-responsive cells mediate disease progression and hepatocarciongenesis in chronic viral hepatitis. Immunohistochemistry and qRTPCR analysis were used to analyze Hh pathway activation and identify Hh-responsive cell types in liver biopsies from 45 patients with chronic HBV or HCV. Hh signaling was then manipulated in cultured liver cells to directly assess the impact of Hh activity in relevant cell types. We found increased hepatic expression of Hh ligands in all patients with chronic viral hepatitis, and demonstrated that infection with HCV stimulated cultured hepatocytes to produce Hh ligands. The major cell populations that expanded during cirrhosis and HCC (i.e., liver myofibroblasts, activated endothelial cells, and progenitors expressing markers of tumor stem/initiating cells) were Hh-responsive, and higher levels of Hh pathway activity associated with cirrhosis and HCC. Inhibiting pathway activity in Hh-responsive target cells reduced fibrogenesis, angiogenesis, and growth. Conclusions HBV/HCV infection increases hepatocyte production of Hh ligands and expands types of Hh-responsive cells that promote liver fibrosis and cancer. PMID:20697376

  2. Molecular imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts with epidermal growth factor receptor targeted affibody probes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Xiaoyang; Qi, Shibo; Liu, Hongguang; Jiang, Han; Hoppmann, Susan; Cao, Qizhen; Chua, Mei-Sze; So, Samuel K; Cheng, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive and lethal cancer. It is typically asymptomatic at the early stage, with only 10%-20% of HCC patients being diagnosed early enough for appropriate surgical treatment. The delayed diagnosis of HCC is associated with limited treatment options and much lower survival rates. Therefore, the early and accurate detection of HCC is crucial to improve its currently dismal prognosis. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been reported to be involved in HCC tumorigenesis and to represent an attractive target for HCC imaging and therapy. In this study, an affibody molecule, Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907, targeting the extracellular domain of EGFR, was used for the first time to assess its potential to detect HCC xenografts. By evaluating radio- or fluorescent-labeled Ac-Cys-ZEGFR:1907 as a probe for positron emission tomography (PET) or optical imaging of HCC, subcutaneous EGFR-positive HCC xenografts were found to be successfully imaged by the PET probe. Thus, affibody-based PET imaging of EGFR provides a promising approach for detecting HCC in vivo. PMID:23710458

  3. Upregulation of heat shock factor 1 transcription activity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Shulian; Ma, Wanli; Fei, Teng; Lou, Qiang; Zhang, Yaqin; Cui, Xiukun; Qin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Guangchao; Dong, Zheng; Ma, Yuanfang; Song, Zhengshun; Hu, Yanzhong

    2014-11-01

    Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is associated with tissue‑specific tumorigenesis in a number of mouse models, and has been used a as prognostic marker of cancer types, including breast and prostatic cancer. However, its role in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well understood. Using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical staining, it was identified that HSF1 and its serine (S) 326 phosphorylation, a biomarker of HSF1 activation, are significantly upregulated in human HCC tissues and HCC cell lines compared with their normal counterparts. Cohort analyses indicated that upregulation of the expression of HSF1 and its phospho‑S326 is significantly correlated with HCC progression, invasion and patient survival prognosis (P<0.001); however, not in the presence of a hepatitis B virus infection and the expression of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen. Knockdown of HSF1 with shRNA induced the protein expression of tumor suppressor retinoblastoma protein, resulting in attenuated plc/prf5 cell growth and colony formation in vitro. Taken together, these data markedly support that HSF1 is a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Affect Disparities in Access to Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Linda L.; Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Albright, Cheryl L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The incidence/death rate of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is increasing in America, and it is unclear if access to care contributes to this increase. Design/Patients. 575 HCC cases were reviewed for demographics, education, and tumor size. Main Outcome Measures. Endpoints to determine access to HCC care included whether an eligible patient underwent liver transplantation. Results. Transplant patients versus those not transplanted were younger (55.7 versus 61.8 yrs, P < 0.001), males (89.3% versus 74.4%, P = 0.013), and having completed high school (10.1% versus 1.2%, P = 0.016). There were differences in transplant by ethnicity, insurance, and occupation. Transplant patients with HCC had higher median income via census classification ($54,383 versus $49,383, P = 0.046) and self-reported income ($48,948 versus $38,800, P = 0.002). Differences in access may be related to exclusion criteria for liver transplant, as Pacific Islanders were more likely to have tumor size larger than 5 cm compared to Whites and have BMI > 35 (20.7%) compared to Whites (6.4%) and Asians (4.7%). Conclusions. Ethnic differences in access to transplant are associated with socioeconomic status and factors that can disqualify patients (advanced disease/morbid obesity). Efforts to overcome educational barriers and screening for HCC could improve access to transplant. PMID:23304446

  5. HBV is a risk factor for poor patient prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhonghu; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Peng; Xiao, Senlin; Wu, Guo; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Hui; Han, Xiuguo; Wang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists regarding pathological factors affecting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC). Their postoperative clinical behaviors and the exact HBV Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) thresholds that distinguish good and poor prognoses are unknown. This study aimed to compare clinicopathological, pre- and postoperative clinical factors and overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between HBV-HCC patients and nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C HCC (NBC-HCC) patients to determine the optimal prognostic HBV DNA threshold. Data from 1440 patients with HBV-HCC and NBC-HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed. Liver function in the HBV-HCC group was significantly worse than in the NBC-HCC group. Compared with NBC-HCC patients, HBV-HCC patients had significantly more vascular invasion and advanced HCC. The HBV-HCC patients also had significantly worse liver function and more complications. Further survival analysis showed significantly lower overall and RFS rates and a higher early recurrence rate in the HBV-HCC group. Univariate analysis indicated that HBV was a risk factor for overall and RFS. Finally, X-tile analysis revealed that the optimal HBV DNA cutoff points for predicting RFS and overall survival in HCC patients were 10,100 and 12,800 IU/mL, respectively. After hepatectomy for HCC, HBV-HCC patients had more complications and a worse prognosis than NBC-HCC patients. Antiviral therapy should be considered before hepatectomy in patients with high (more than approximately 104 IU/mL) HBV DNA levels. PMID:27495026

  6. p53-induced microRNA-1246 inhibits the cell growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting NFIB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan; Cao, Li-Ye; Cheng, Shu-Jie; Zhang, Ai-Min; Jin, Xiao-Shi; Li, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, miR-1246 has been identified as a transcriptional target of p53 in Down syndrome and may provide a new p53-miR-1246-DYRK1A-NFAT pathway in cancer. The present study aimed to explore the role of miR-1246 in the tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that wild-type p53 regulated the expression of miR-1246 in HCC cell lines, and alteration of miR-1246 modulated cell proliferation, colony formation ability and apoptosis. The nuclear factor I/B (NFIB), an oncogene, was identified as a direct target gene of miR-1246 using a fluorescent reporter assay. Overexpression of NFIB abolished the regulation of cell apoptosis caused by miR-1246 in HepG2 cells. This finding suggests that miR-1246 is regulated by p53 and suppresses the growth of human HCC by targeting NFIB. Here, we propose a new p53-miR-1246-NFIB pathway in HCC. PMID:25591821

  7. Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas with Central Bile Duct Invasion: Safety, Prognosis, and Predictive Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Jin Wook; Cho, Yun Ku; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the safety and effectiveness of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of patients who have hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) with central bile duct invasion.Materials and MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. Fifty-three patients, initially treated with TACE for HCCs with central bile duct invasion from January 1999 to September 2012, were included. Clinical, laboratory, and survival data were reviewed. Complications and hospitalization length were evaluated using the χ{sup 2} test, Fisher’s exact test, and logistic regression analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazard model.ResultsSeven patients experienced TACE-related major complications (severe post-embolization syndrome in 3, non-fatal sepsis in 3, and secondary bacterial peritonitis in 1). The overall major complication rate was 13.2 %, but there were no permanent adverse sequelae or deaths within 30 days. Serum total bilirubin ≥3.0 mg/dL was the only significant risk factor for long hospitalization [hazard ratio (HR) = 4.341, p = .022]. The median survival was 12.2 months. Extrahepatic metastasis (HR = 6.145, p < .001), international normalized ratio (PT-INR) ≥1.20 (HR = 4.564, p < .001), vascular invasion (HR = 3.484, p = .001), and intermediate tumor enhancement (HR = 2.417, p = .019) were significantly associated with shorter survival.ConclusionTACE can be a safe and effective treatment for patients who have HCCs with central bile duct invasion. In particular, long-term survival can be expected if patients have strongly enhancing tumors without poor prognostic factors such as extrahepatic metastasis, PT-INR prolongation, and vascular invasion.

  8. Epidemiologic risk factors of hepatocellular carcinoma in a rural region of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chu-Wei; Tsodikov, Alexander; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A.; Ramadan, Mohamed; Al-Gamal, Dina; Schiefelbein, Emily L.; Thummalapally, Priyanka; Dey, Subhojit; Ismail, Kadry

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem worldwide, including Egypt. In the recent past, HCC has become the second most prevalent cancer among men in Egypt. Since HCC has not been well studied in the rural population of Egypt, this case–control study was conducted to investigate the epidemiologic risk factors of HCC in the predominantly rural region of Gharbiah, Egypt. Methods A total of 150 cases and 150 controls matched to cases on age (±5 years) and sex were recruited from the Gharbiah Cancer Society and Tanta Cancer Center. Exposure data were collected by an interviewer-administered standardized questionnaire about epidemiologic, occupational, medical and family history of HCC. Conditional logistic regression was utilized to calculate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The effect modification of HCC risk between viral infection and environmental risk factors was also assessed. Results Being an industrial worker was an independent risk for developing HCC (OR 3.54, 95% CI 1.18, 10.63) after adjusting for viral infection, schistosomiasis and tobacco smoking. High relative risk of HCC was observed among HCV-infected individuals who were farmers (OR 9.60, 95% CI 3.72, 24.76), industrial workers (OR 12.90, 95% CI 4.33, 38.43) or active smokers (OR 5.95, 95% CI 2.20, 16.08). Conclusion Occupational exposure may play an important role in the development of HCC. Farming, industrial exposures and cigarette smoking may increase the risk of HCC among HCV-seropositive individuals. Future research focusing on mechanisms of occupational exposures among HCV patients in this population is needed. PMID:21286338

  9. Obstructive Jaundice in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Response after Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage and Prognostic Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon Woo; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Park, Seong Ho; Ko, Young Hwan; Yoon, Chang Jin; Yeon, Kyung-Mo

    2002-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) in patients with obstructive jaundice caused by biliary involvement of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and to determine the prognostic factors. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 22 consecutive patients (M:F = 20:2, mean age 52.8 years).Inclusion criteria were the patient having obstructive jaundice caused by HCC that invaded the bile ducts and having at least 4 weeks of follow-up data after the PTBD. We defined 'good response' and 'poor response' as whether the level of total bilirubin decreased more than 50% in 4 weeks or not. Total bilirubin level (T-bil),Child-Pugh score and the location of biliary obstruction for the two groups were compared. In addition, the interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the degree of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the primary tumor were compared. Results: Of the 22 patients, 13 (59.1%) showed good response. T-bil was significantly lower in the good response group than in the poor (14.2 {+-} 6 mg/dlvs 25.9 {+-} 13.8 mg/dl, p = .017). In the five patients with T-bil <10 mg/dl, four (80%) showed good response,while in nine patients with T-bil > 20 mg/dl, only three (33%)showed good response. Although statistically not significant, patients with Child score <10 showed better results [good response rate of 66.7% (12/18)] than patients with Child score ?10 [good response rate of 25% (1/4)]. Involvement of secondary confluence of the bile duct also served as a poor prognostic factor (p =0.235). The interval between clinical onset of jaundice and PTBD, the presence of parenchymal atrophy and the size of the tumor did not show significant effect. Conclusion: Early and effective biliary drainage might be necessary in this group of patients with limited hepatic function.

  10. Ethyl pyruvate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ping; Dai, Weiqi; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Shen, Miao; Chen, Kan; Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Chengfen; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Rong; Zhang, Huawei; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Guo, Chuan-Yong Xu, Ling

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Ethyl pyruvate inhibits liver cancer. • Promotes apoptosis. • Decreased the expression of HMGB1, p-Akt. - Abstract: Ethyl pyruvate (EP) was recently identified as a stable lipophilic derivative of pyruvic acid with significant antineoplastic activities. The high mobility group box-B1 (HMGB1)–receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) and the protein kinase B (Akt) pathways play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and development of many malignant tumors. We tried to observe the effects of ethyl pyruvate on liver cancer growth and explored its effects in hepatocellular carcinoma model. In this study, three hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were treated with ethyl pyruvate. An MTT colorimetric assay was used to assess the effects of EP on cell proliferation. Flow cytometry and TUNEL assays were used to analyze apoptosis. Real-time PCR, Western blotting and immunofluorescence demonstrated ethyl pyruvate reduced the HMGB1–RAGE and AKT pathways. The results of hepatoma orthotopic tumor model verified the antitumor effects of ethyl pyruvate in vivo. EP could induce apoptosis and slow the growth of liver cancer. Moreover, EP decreased the expression of HMGB1, RAGE, p-AKT and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP9) and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ethyl pyruvate induces apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in G phase in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, plays a critical role in the treatment of cancer.

  11. Prognostic and Therapeutic Values of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Jianmin; Hu, Xuemei; Liu, Shanshan; He, Baojun

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) causes many deaths worldwide every year, especially in Asia. It is characterized by high malignancy, recurrence, and short survival time. Inflammation is closely related to the initiation and development of HCC. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), an essential inflammatory mediator, has been studied as a potential therapy target in many cancers. However, its potential role in HCC diagnosis and therapy is still unclear. Material/Methods In our study, we detected the TNF-α expression in both human HCC tumor tissue and HCC cell lines HepG2 and HuH7. Then, we detected the effect of anti-TNF-α treatment and it synergistic function with 5-FU in an HCC xenograft mouse model and in HCC cell lines. Results Survival analysis and Cox regression analysis based on 97 HCC patients indicated that a high level of TNF-α is an independent predictor of poor survival in HCC patients. Anti-TNF-α treatment by infliximab synergizes with Fluorouracil (5-FU) by promoting apoptosis of HCC tumor cells through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) effects. Conclusions Based on these data, we conclude that anti-TNF-α treatment could be a good way to increase the effect of classic chemotherapy of HCC patients, especially for the patients who have modest response to classic chemotherapy, such as 5-FU. TNF-α could also be used as a biomarker to help in early diagnosis of HCC. PMID:27739418

  12. Gastroduodenal Complications After Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Endoscopic Findings and Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Chon, Young Eun; Seong, Jinsil; Kim, Beom Kyung; Cha, Jihye; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Chon, Chae Yoon; Shin, Sung Kwan; Kim, Do Young

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) is useful in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but little is known about radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications following therapy. To determine risk factors, we investigated the prevalence and patterns of gastroduodenal complications following CCRT using endoscopy. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 123 patients treated with CCRT for unresectable HCC between January 1998 and December 2005. Radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were defined as radiation gastritis/duodenitis, radiation gastric/duodenal ulcer, or other gastroduodenal toxicity associated with radiation, based on Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE 3.0). Serious gastroduodenal complications were defined as events occurring within 12 months from completion of CCRT, those requiring prompt therapeutic intervention, or symptoms equivalent to Grade 3 or 4 radiation-related gastroduodenal toxicity, including nausea or vomiting, based on CTCAE 3.0. Results: A month after completion of CCRT, 65 (52.8%) patients displayed endoscopic evidence of radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications. Radiation gastric and duodenal ulcers were found in 32 (26.0%) and 20 (16.3%) patients, respectively; radiation gastritis and duodenitis were found in 50 (40.7%) and 42 (34.1%) patients, respectively. Radiation-related bleeding was observed in 13 patients (10.6%). Serious gastroduodenal complications occurred in 18 patients (14.6%) and were significantly more frequent in patients with liver cirrhosis than in those without cirrhosis (p = 0.043). There were no radiation-related deaths. Conclusions: Endoscopically detectable radiation-induced gastroduodenal complications were common in HCC following CCRT. Although serious complications were uncommon, the frequency was higher in patients with liver cirrhosis; thus, these patients should be closely monitored when receiving CCRT.

  13. Hepatitis B virus X protein inhibits p53 sequence-specific DNA binding, transcriptional activity, and association with transcription factor ERCC3.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X W; Forrester, K; Yeh, H; Feitelson, M A; Gu, J R; Harris, C C

    1994-01-01

    Chronic active hepatitis caused by infection with hepatitis B virus, a DNA virus, is a major risk factor for human hepatocellular carcinoma. Since the oncogenicity of several DNA viruses is dependent on the interaction of their viral oncoproteins with cellular tumor-suppressor gene products, we investigated the interaction between hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) and human wild-type p53 protein. HBX complexes with the wild-type p53 protein and inhibits its sequence-specific DNA binding in vitro. HBX expression also inhibits p53-mediated transcriptional activation in vivo and the in vitro association of p53 and ERCC3, a general transcription factor involved in nucleotide excision repair. Therefore, HBX may affect a wide range of p53 functions and contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Images PMID:8134379

  14. Mechanistic study on growth suppression and apoptosis induction by targeting hepatoma-derived growth factor in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tsun Yee; Tang, Wan Yee; Tsang, Wing Pui; Co, Ngai Na; Kong, Siu Kai; Kwok, Tim Tak

    2009-01-01

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) is frequently overexpressed in human cancer. The growth factor was previously demonstrated to be a survival factor as knock-down of HDGF suppresses the growth and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells through the Bad-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, inactivation of Bad cannot completely repress the apoptosis induced upon HDGF knock-down, indicating the presence of other unidentified pathways. In the present study, HDGF knock-down was shown to trigger the Fas-mediated extrinsic apoptotic pathway in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells through NF-kappaB signaling pathway. Increases in Fas expression and fas promoter activity were detected upon HDGF knock-down by Western blot analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Knock-down of fas inhibited HDGF knock-down effect on apoptosis induction and growth suppression as revealed by annexin V binding assay and soft agar assay. Down-regulation of IkappaBalpha was also observed upon HDGF knock-down. Overexpression of IkappaBalpha by transient transfection or inhibition of NF-kappaB by BAY11-7082 suppressed HDGF knock-down effect on fas promoter activation, Fas up-regulation, apoptosis induction and growth suppression. Furthermore, the interaction of Fas-mediated extrinsic and Bad-mediated intrinsic apoptotic pathways was demonstrated as a stronger inhibition on apoptosis induction and growth suppression upon HDGF knock-down was observed when both pathways were inactivated. The results therefore suggested that, through both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, HDGF may function as a survival factor and be a potential target for cancer therapy.

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor interacts with HBx and inhibits its apoptotic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Shimeng; Lin Ruxian; Zhou Zhe; Wen Siyuan; Lin Li; Chen Suhong; Shan Yajun; Cong Yuwen; Wang Shengqi . E-mail: sqwang@nic.bmi.ac.cn

    2006-04-07

    HBx, a transcriptional transactivating protein of hepatitis B virus (HBV), is required for viral infection and has been implicated in virus-mediated liver oncogenesis. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. We used the yeast two-hybrid system to identify that HBx interacts with MIF directly. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is implicated in the regulation of inflammation, cell growth, and even tumor formation. The interaction between HBx and MIF was verified with co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull-down, and cellular colocalization. The expression of MIF was up-regulated in HBV particle producing cell 2.2.15 compared with HepG2 cell. Both HBx and MIF cause HepG2 cell G /G{sub 1} phase arrest, proliferation inhibition, and apoptosis. However, MIF can counteract the apoptotic effect of HBx. These results may provide evidence to explain the link between HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. microRNA-497 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting YAP1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhaoxiang; Xian, Yao; Lin, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancers by targeting mRNAs for degradation and/or translational repression. miR-497 has been proposed as a tumor suppressive miRNA and its deregulation is observed in human cancers. However, the prognostic value of miR-497 and its underlying molecular pathways involved in the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly investigated. In the present study, we found that the mean level of miR-497 in HCC tissues was lower than that in adjacent nontumor tissues. Clinical data indicated that low expression of miR-497 was prominently associated with adverse prognostic features of HCC including high serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, large tumor size, high Edmondson-Steiner grading and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, miR-497 was an independent prognostic factor for indicating both 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-497 reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) was identified as a direct target of miR-497 in HCC. An inverse correlation between YAP1 and miR-497 expression was observed in HCC tissues. Notably, YAP1 knockdown abrogated the effects of miR-497 deletion on HCC cells with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In conclusion, we report that miR-497 is a potent prognostic indicator and may suppress tumor growth of HCC by targeting YAP1. PMID:27239437

  17. The copper chelator trientine has an antiangiogenic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly through inhibition of interleukin-8 production.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Michihisa; Nakajima, Tomoki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Takashima, Hidetaka; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Katagishi, Tatsuo; Okanoue, Takeshi; Kagawa, Keizo

    2002-12-10

    Recent studies have revealed that copper is an important cofactor for several angiogenic agents. We examined the antiangiogenic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the copper chelator trientine, especially focusing on the relationship between copper and interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent angiogenic factor produced by hepatoma cells. HuH-7 hepatoma cells were transplanted into nude mice and the growth of xenograft tumors was compared to and without administration of trientine. Using the resected tumor, microvessel density, apoptotic potential and proliferative activity were analyzed histologically and IL-8 mRNA was semiquantified by RT-PCR. In addition, HuH-7 cells were cultured in control medium, medium supplemented with copper, medium supplemented with trientine and medium supplemented with both copper and trientine. Human IL-8 levels were measured in the supernatants by ELISA. Using the extracts from cultured cells, IL-8 mRNA was semiquantified by RT-PCR. Trientine suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors significantly. Histologically, apoptotic potential was increased significantly and microvessel density, decreased. The production of IL-8 from the tumor was suppressed by trientine. In vitro, IL-8 production by HuH-7 cells in copper-containing medium was significantly greater than that in copper-free medium, and this effect was weakened when trientine was added. However, no significant change was apparent when trientine was added to the medium alone. In conclusion, the chelating effect of trientine prevented copper from functioning as a cofactor in angiogenesis, which resulted in reduced IL-8 production from HuH-7 cells.

  18. Lycopene Enriched Tomato Extract Inhibits Hypoxia, Angiogenesis, and Metastatic Markers in early Stage N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Nisha; Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Targeting altered pathways during initial stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is viewed as an effective and promising strategy to control this disease. Present study investigated the potential effect of lycopene-enriched tomato extract (LycT) on hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1α, HOX, VEGF, CD31, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)expression during initial stages of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced HCC. Female Balb/c mice (8-10 wk) were assigned to 4 groups: control, NDEA (200 mg NDEA i.p./kg body weight, cumulative), LycT (5 mg lycopene orally/kg body weight; 3 times a week), and LycT + NDEA. LycT treatment began 2 wk before NDEA administration and continued until the end of the 10 wk study. The onset of HCC by NDEA was associated with significant alteration in serum biochemical markers [alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), and alkaline phosphatases (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, A/G ratio, and bilirubin] and in liver histopathology. LycT treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. LycT treatment to NDEA mice also led to significant reduction in protein levels of AFP, HIF-1α, VEGF, CD31, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in comparison with NDEA group alone. These parameters are important biomarkers of hypoxia, angiogenesis, and metastasis, which reflect the advanced disease stage. The study provides evidence that prophylactic dietary supplementation with LycT may counteract HCC progression and/or protect against disease onset. PMID:26474105

  19. Changing pattern of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its risk factors in Egypt: possibilities for prevention.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Wagida A; Khaled, Hussein M; Amra, Hassan A; El-Nezami, Hani; Loffredo, Christopher A

    2008-01-01

    The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been increasing in Egypt with a doubling in the incidence rate in the past 10 years. This has been attributed to several biological (e.g. hepatitis B and C virus infection) and environmental factors (e.g. aflatoxin, AF). Other factors such as cigarette smoking, occupational exposure to chemicals such as pesticides, and endemic infections in the community, such as schistosomiasis, may have additional roles in the etiology or progression of the disease. Estimates of the burden of cancer caused by these factors provide an opportunity for prevention. Previously, there was strong evidence that hepatitis B virus (HBV) was the major cause of HCC in Egypt, but more recently HCV has become the predominant factor associated with the more recent epidemic of HCC. It has been well documented that Egypt has one of the highest prevalence rates of HCV infection in the world. The natural history of HCV infection and disease progression, however, are influenced by additional factors such as duration of infection, age at infection, sex, co-infection with HBV, the level of HCV viraemia and its genotype. The role of exposure to aflatoxins and development of HCC in Egypt was historically less clear. Nevertheless, recent food sampling surveys and population-based studies indicated that exposure to aflatoxins in Egypt may have been underestimated in the past. Recent results indicated that both local and imported samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, 17.5% and 20%, respectively), with concentrations ranging from 3 to 25 microg/kg. The level of AFB1 was dependent on the area of collection as well as the season of the year. In a population-based study, the level and frequency of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a major metabolite of aflatoxin B1 excreted in breast milk) was assessed as a biomarker of maternal exposure. The samples were collected from a selected group of 388 Egyptian lactating mothers during May-September 2003. Non-working status

  20. MicroRNA-548a-5p promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting Tg737

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ge; Wang, Ting; Huang, Qi-Ke; Pu, Meng; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zhuo-Chao; Ling, Rui; Tao, Kai-Shan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether Tg737 is regulated by microRNA-548a-5p (miR-548a-5p), and correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation and apoptosis. METHODS: Assays of loss of function of Tg737 were performed by the colony formation assay, CCK assay and cell cycle assay in HCC cell lines. The interaction between miR-548a-5p and its downstream target, Tg737, was evaluated by a dual-luciferase reporter assay and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Tg737 was then up-regulated in HCC cells to evaluate its effect on miR-548a-5p regulation. HepG2 cells stably overexpressing miR-548a-5p or miR-control were also subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to evaluate the effect of miR-548a-5p up-regulation on in vivo tumor growth. As the final step, the effect of miR-548a-5p on the apoptosis induced by cisplatin was evaluated by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Down-regulation of Tg737, which is a target gene of miR-548a-5p, accelerated HCC cell proliferation, and miR-548a-5p promoted HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Like the down-regulation of Tg737, overexpression of miR-548a-5p in HCC cell lines promoted cell proliferation, increased colony forming ability and hampered cell apoptosis. In addition, miR-548a-5p overexpression increased HCC cell growth in vivo. MiR-548a-5p down-regulated Tg737 expression through direct contact with its 3’ untranslated region (UTR), and miR-548a-5p expression was negatively correlated with Tg737 levels in HCC specimens. Restoring Tg737 (without the 3’UTR) significantly hampered miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation, and rescued the miR-548a-5p induced cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. CONCLUSION: MiR-548a-5p negatively regulates the tumor inhibitor gene Tg737 and promotes tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo, indicating its potential as a novel therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:27340352

  1. Solanine-induced reactive oxygen species inhibit the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells

    PubMed Central

    MENG, XUE-QIN; ZHANG, WEI; ZHANG, FENG; YIN, SHENG-YONG; XIE, HAI-YANG; ZHOU, LIN; ZHENG, SHU-SEN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of solanine on promoting human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the molecular mechanisms leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Solanine was administered to HepG2 cells in vitro. A selection of probes targeting various cellular localizations of ROS were used to detect ROS expression using flow cytometry. The expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, including apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) and thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP-2), and proliferation-associated proteins, including histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), were detected using western blotting. The percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis was measured using an Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide assay, and cell morphology was examined using Wright's stain followed by inverted microscopy analysis. ROS detection probes 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 identified that abundant ROS, including hydroxyl radical (OH−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), were produced in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells (P<0.05). Superoxide anion specific probes dihydroethidium and MitoSOX™ demonstrated that there were no significant alterations in the HepG2 cells following solanine treatment compared with the control cells (P>0.05). Western blotting results revealed that solanine upregulated the expression levels of ASK1 and TBP-2 and enhanced their kinase activities, whereas solanine decreased the expression level of the proliferation-associated protein, HDAC1. The cell apoptotic rate was significantly increased (P<0.0001) in the solanine-treated HepG2 cells compared with the control cells. (P<0.05). Overall, the study indicated that solanine induces HepG2 cells to produce ROS, mainly OH− and H2O2, in a mitochondria-dependent and -independent manner. In addition, solanine stimulates the expression

  2. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mohamed Magdi El-Sadek Ali; Atta, Hazem Mahmoud; Gad, Magdy Abdel-Mawgoud; Rashed, Laila Ahmad; Said, Ebada M; Hassanien, Sharaf El-Sayed Ali; Kaseb, Ahmed O

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several angiogenic factors are involved in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a hypervascular tumor. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a primary driving force for angiogenesis, and its overexpression has been reported in HCC. However, the significance of plasma and tissue VEGF levels in HCC in Egyptian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is understudied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of VEGF (measured in plasma and liver tissue) in patients with hepatitis C virus-related HCC and to assess its significance in the diagnosis and prognosis of HCC. Materials and methods A total of 90 subjects were studied. Among 90 subjects, 60 with CHC were examined and were subdivided into two groups: 30 patients with CHC-related HCC (HCC group) and 30 patients with CHC without HCC (non-HCC group). Thirty apparently healthy subjects served as the control group. VEGF was estimated in plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its expression in liver tissue was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. VEGF expression level and its relationship to tumor parameters, patients’ liver function profile, and patients’ clinical parameters were also investigated. Results Plasma VEGF levels in the HCC group were significantly higher than those of the non-HCC group, and both groups had significantly higher plasma VEGF levels than did the control group. Liver tissue VEGF expression was significantly higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group and positively correlated with plasma VEGF in the HCC group. The plasma VEGF levels were positively correlated with patients’ age, aspartate aminotransferase levels, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the number of hepatic focal lesions in the HCC group. However, plasma VEGF levels were not significantly correlated with the Child-Pugh score, alanine aminotransferase levels, the size of focal lesions

  3. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 transcription factor promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kolhe, Ravindra; Black, Stephen M; Keller, Jonathan R; Mivechi, Nahid F; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2016-01-01

    Reprograming of metabolism is one of the central hallmarks of cancer. The majority of cancer cells depend on high rates of glycolysis and glutaminolysis for their growth and survival. A number of oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been connected to the regulation of altered glucose and glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. For example, the oncogene c-Myc plays vital roles in cancer cell metabolic adaptation by directly regulating various genes that participate in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate determination. Overexpression of Id1 causes intestinal adenomas and thymic lymphomas in mice, suggesting that Id1 could function as an oncogene. Despite it being an oncogene, whether Id1 plays any prominent role in cancer cell metabolic reprograming is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Id1 is strongly expressed in human and mouse liver tumors and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, whereas its expression is very low or undetectable in normal liver tissues. In HCC cells, Id1 expression is regulated by the MAPK/ERK pathway at the transcriptional level. Knockdown of Id1 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, suggesting that Id1 promotes a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. At the molecular level, Id1 mediates its metabolic effects by regulating the expression levels of c-Myc. Knockdown of Id1 resulted in down-regulation (∼75%) of c-Myc, whereas overexpression of Id1 strongly induced (3-fold) c-Myc levels. Interestingly, knockdown of c-Myc resulted in down-regulation (∼60%) of Id1, suggesting a positive feedback-loop regulatory mechanism between Id1 and c-Myc. Under anaerobic conditions, both Id1 and c-Myc are down-regulated (50-70%), and overexpression of oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) or its downstream target Mxi1 resulted in a significant reduction

  4. Tumor progression locus 2 ablation suppressed hepatocellular carcinoma development by inhibiting hepatic inflammation and steatosis in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a serine threonine kinase, functions as a critical regulator of inflammatory pathways and mediates oncogenic events. The potential role of Tpl2 in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development remains unkn...

  5. Combretastatin A-1 phosphate, a microtubule inhibitor, acts on both hepatocellular carcinoma cells and tumor-associated macrophages by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jie; Wang, Duowei; Wang, Zhuo; Tian, Wei; Li, Xianjing; Duan, Jingjing; Wang, Yun; Yang, Hongbao; You, Linjun; Cheng, Yan; Bian, Jinsong; Chen, Zhen; Yang, Yong

    2016-09-28

    Combretastatin A-1 phosphate (CA1P) is a microtubule polymerization inhibitor that binds to the colchicine-binding site of tubulin. We demonstrated that CA1P has outstanding anti-cancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in vitro and in vivo. As determined by fluorescence staining and western blots (WBs), CA1P induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and apoptosis in HepG2 cells with a down-regulation of Mcl-1. Additional studies indicated that CA1P induced microtubule depolymerization-mediated AKT inactivation, which resulted in GSK-3β activation, Wnt/β-Catenin pathway inhibition, and Mcl-1 down-regulation. The induction of HepG2 cell apoptosis by CA1P was prevented by a GSK-3β-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry studies on hepatocellular carcinoma mouse models showed that CA1P had activity against tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). CA1P induced TAM apoptosis in vitro through the same mechanism observed with HepG2 cells, and it eliminated TAMs in the tumor microenvironment (TME) in vivo. In TME, the expression of TGF-β and TNF-α was also altered. The adoptive transfer of macrophages partly rescued the growth of tumor inhibited by CA1P. These findings indicate that CA1P has great potential to impact both cancer cells and the microenvironment, and our results should accelerate the application of CA1P for HCC therapy in clinic. PMID:27349166

  6. Increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iavarone, M; Lampertico, P; Iannuzzi, F; Manenti, E; Donato, M F; Arosio, E; Bertolini, F; Primignani, M; Sangiovanni, A; Colombo, M

    2007-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in both development and progression of several epithelial tumours, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. Assessment of liver and blood levels of VEGF may provide further insights on angiogenesis in HCC. Tissue mRNA of VEGF-165, VEGF-189 and their receptor KDR was assessed by a semi-quantitative retro-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and expressed as target transcript/beta-actin ratio, in 29 patients with HCC, 26 with cirrhosis and 15 with chronic hepatitis. VEGF-165 was also measured by ELISA in plasma samples obtained from both hepatic and femoral veins in additional 58 patients, including 15 with HCC. The liver expression of mRNA of VEGF-165, VEGF-189 and KDR was higher in HCC than in chronic liver diseases (1.54 +/- 0.89 vs 0.62 +/- 0.47, P < 0.0001; 1.09 +/- 0.65 vs 0.64 +/- 0.54, P = 0.003; 1.30 +/- 1.09 vs 0.69 +/- 0.72, P = 0.014). VEGF-165 was higher in HCC tissue than in extra-tumoural tissues (1.44 +/- 0.31 vs 1.03 +/- 0.21, P = 0.0009) and in the cirrhotic tissue of HCC patients than in HCC-free cirrhosis (1.03 +/- 0.23 vs 0.45 +/- 0.45, P = 0.0002). Tissue VEGF-189 mRNA inversely correlated with tumour size and degree of tumour cell proliferation. The hepatic and femoral vein levels of VEGF-165 protein were significantly higher in HCC patients than in cirrhotic patients (66.7 +/- 57.1 vs 24.2 +/- 16.4 pg/mL, P = 0.0001 and 37.1 +/- 42.2 vs 13.5 +/- 9.6 pg/mL, P = 0.001). There was a gradient of VEGF-165 between hepatic and femoral veins in both HCC and cirrhosis. In conclusion, VEGF appears to be involved in the development of HCC and it could be a predictor of HCC development in patients with cirrhosis. PMID:17244253

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 stabilizes transcription factor Gli2 and enhances the activity of Hedgehog signaling in hepatocellular cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengwei; Xu, Liyao; Zhang, Junyan; Lu, Quqin; Luo, Shiwen; Xu, Linlin

    2016-03-18

    The Gli transcription factors are primary transcriptional regulators that mediate the activation of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Recent studies have revealed that Gli proteins are also regulated transcriptionally and post-translationally through noncanonical mechanisms, independent of Hh signaling. However, the precise mechanisms involved in the regulation of Gli proteins remain unclear. Using a differential mass-spectrometry approach, we found that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) is associated with transcription factor Gli2. Overexpression of ALDH1A1 increased Gli2 protein levels; in contrast, ALDH1A1 depletion facilitated Gli2 degradation. In addition, Gli2 mRNA expression was not affected by ectopic expression of ALDH1A1, indicating the role of ALDH1A1 in the stabilization of Gli2. Further investigation showed that ALDH1A1 prolonged the stability of Gli2 protein in a catalytic-independent manner. Finally, we showed that overexpression of ALDH1A1 activated the Hh signaling pathway and promoted cell growth, migration and invasion in hepatocellular cancer cells. Together, these results illustrate regulatory roles of ALDH1A1 in the activation of the Hh signaling pathway and highlight a novel mechanism for the aberrant activation of the Hh signaling pathway in hepatocellular cancer cells. PMID:26896768

  8. Hepatitis B and C virus infection as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma in Chinese: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J F; Jeng, J E; Ho, M S; Chang, W Y; Lin, Z Y; Tsai, J H

    1994-03-01

    To assess whether hepatitis B and C virus infection were risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen and e antigen (HBsAg and HBeAg) were tested in 150 HCC patients. Another 150 case-control pairs matched individually by sex and age were also enrolled. Univariate analysis demonstrated that both the anti-HCV and the carrier status of HBsAg and HBeAg were significantly associated with HCC. Multi-variate analysis revealed that both anti-HCV and HBsAg were risk factors for HCC. The population-attributable risk was estimated as 14.2% for anti-HCV alone, 59.4% for HBsAg alone and 8.0% for both anti-HCV and HBsAg in Taiwan. In conclusion, both hepatitis B and C virus infection are independent risk factors for HCC in Chinese in southern Taiwan.

  9. Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells Exhibited Enhanced Migration Capacity towards Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Comparison with Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Role for Autocrine Motility Factor Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Aquino, Jorge B.; Malvicini, Mariana; Bolontrade, Marcela; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Garcia, Mariana G.; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, the incidence and mortality associated with HCC are increasing. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as carrier of therapeutic genes is emerging as a promising option. Different sources of MSCs are being studied for cell therapy and bone marrow-derived cells are the most extensively explored; however, birth associated-tissues represent a very promising source. The aim of this work was to compare the in vitro and in vivo migration capacity between bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) towards HCC. We observed that HUCPVCs presented higher in vitro and in vivo migration towards factors released by HCC. The expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF) receptor, genes related with the availability of the receptor on the cell surface (caveolin-1 and -2) and metalloproteinase 3, induced by the receptor activation and important for cell migration, was increased in HUCPVCs. The chemotactic response towards recombinant AMF was increased in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSCs, and its inhibition in the conditioned medium from HCC induced higher decrease in HUCPVC migration than in BM-MSC. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs could be a useful cellular source to deliver therapeutic genes to HCC. PMID:25147818

  10. Human umbilical cord perivascular cells exhibited enhanced migration capacity towards hepatocellular carcinoma in comparison with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: a role for autocrine motility factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Juan; Fiore, Esteban; Aquino, Jorge B; Malvicini, Mariana; Rizzo, Manglio; Peixoto, Estanislao; Alaniz, Laura; Piccioni, Flavia; Bolontrade, Marcela; Podhajcer, Osvaldo; Garcia, Mariana G; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Unfortunately, the incidence and mortality associated with HCC are increasing. Therefore, new therapeutic strategies are urgently needed and the use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) as carrier of therapeutic genes is emerging as a promising option. Different sources of MSCs are being studied for cell therapy and bone marrow-derived cells are the most extensively explored; however, birth associated-tissues represent a very promising source. The aim of this work was to compare the in vitro and in vivo migration capacity between bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) and human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) towards HCC. We observed that HUCPVCs presented higher in vitro and in vivo migration towards factors released by HCC. The expression of autocrine motility factor (AMF) receptor, genes related with the availability of the receptor on the cell surface (caveolin-1 and -2) and metalloproteinase 3, induced by the receptor activation and important for cell migration, was increased in HUCPVCs. The chemotactic response towards recombinant AMF was increased in HUCPVCs compared to BM-MSCs, and its inhibition in the conditioned medium from HCC induced higher decrease in HUCPVC migration than in BM-MSC. Our results indicate that HUCPVCs could be a useful cellular source to deliver therapeutic genes to HCC.

  11. Ruthenium Complexes Induce HepG2 Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Apoptosis and Inhibit Cell Migration and Invasion through Regulation of the Nrf2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yiyu; Shen, Ting; Yang, Hua; Gu, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium (Ru) complexes are currently the focus of substantial interest because of their potential application as chemotherapeutic agents with broad anticancer activities. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities and mechanisms of two Ru complexes—2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru1) and 5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine Ru(II) carbonyl (Ru2)—against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. These Ru complexes effectively inhibited the cellular growth of three human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, with IC50 values ranging from 2.7–7.3 μM. In contrast, the complexes exhibited lower toxicity towards L02 human liver normal cells with IC50 values of 20.4 and 24.8 μM, respectively. Moreover, Ru2 significantly inhibited HepG2 cell migration and invasion, and these effects were dose-dependent. The mechanistic studies demonstrated that Ru2 induced HCC cell apoptosis, as evidenced by DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation, which was predominately triggered via caspase family member activation. Furthermore, HCC cell treatment significantly decreased the expression levels of Nrf2 and its downstream effectors, NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO1). Ru2 also exhibited potent in vivo anticancer efficacy in a tumor-bearing nude mouse model, as demonstrated by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition on tumor growth. The results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of Ru complexes against HCC via Nrf2 pathway regulation. PMID:27213353

  12. Total alkaloids of Rubus aleaefolius Poir inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro via activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Chen, Xuzheng; Lin, Wei; Wu, Guangwen; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Rubus aleaefolius Poir total alkaloids (TARAP) against hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms mediating its biological activity. Nude mice were implanted with HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and fed with vehicle (physiological saline) or 3 g/kg/d dose of TARAP, 5 days per week, for 21 days. The in vivo efficacy of TARAP against tumor growth was investigated by evaluating its effect on tumor volume and tumor weight in mice with HCC xenografts and its adverse effect was determined by measuring the body weight gain. The in vitro effect of TARAP on the viability of HepG2 cells was determined by MTT assay. HepG2 cell morphology was observed via phase-contrast microscopy. Apoptosis in tumor tissues or in HepG2 cells was analyzed by TUNEL assay or FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI, respectively. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells was determined via JC-1 staining followed by FACS analysis. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HepG2 cells was examined by a colorimetric assay. The mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in tumor tissues were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. TARAP reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on the body weight gain in HCC mice. TARAP decreased the viability of HepG2 cells and induced cell morphological changes in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, TARAP induced apoptosis both in tumor tissues and in HepG2 cells. Moreover, TARAP treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells, as well as the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, administration of TARAP increased the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HCC mouse tumors, at both transcriptional and translational levels. TARAP inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth both in vivo and in vitro probably through the activation of mitochondrial

  13. Total alkaloids of Rubus aleaefolius Poir inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro via activation of mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Chen, Xuzheng; Lin, Wei; Wu, Guangwen; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Rubus aleaefolius Poir total alkaloids (TARAP) against hepatocellular carcinoma growth in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate the possible molecular mechanisms mediating its biological activity. Nude mice were implanted with HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and fed with vehicle (physiological saline) or 3 g/kg/d dose of TARAP, 5 days per week, for 21 days. The in vivo efficacy of TARAP against tumor growth was investigated by evaluating its effect on tumor volume and tumor weight in mice with HCC xenografts and its adverse effect was determined by measuring the body weight gain. The in vitro effect of TARAP on the viability of HepG2 cells was determined by MTT assay. HepG2 cell morphology was observed via phase-contrast microscopy. Apoptosis in tumor tissues or in HepG2 cells was analyzed by TUNEL assay or FACS analysis with Annexin V/PI, respectively. The loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells was determined via JC-1 staining followed by FACS analysis. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 in HepG2 cells was examined by a colorimetric assay. The mRNA and protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in tumor tissues were measured by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. TARAP reduced tumor volume and tumor weight, but had no effect on the body weight gain in HCC mice. TARAP decreased the viability of HepG2 cells and induced cell morphological changes in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, TARAP induced apoptosis both in tumor tissues and in HepG2 cells. Moreover, TARAP treatment resulted in the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells, as well as the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Furthermore, administration of TARAP increased the pro-apoptotic Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HCC mouse tumors, at both transcriptional and translational levels. TARAP inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth both in vivo and in vitro probably through the activation of mitochondrial

  14. Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 3α in hepatocellular carcinoma and its association with other hypoxia-inducible factors

    PubMed Central

    LIU, PING; FANG, XIEFAN; SONG, YANG; JIANG, JIAN-XIN; HE, QIAN-JIN; LIU, XIANG-JIE

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-3α in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not yet fully understood. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the association between HIF-3α expression and the clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of HCC patients. In addition, we investigated the association between HIF-3α expression and the expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in tumor tissues. The protein levels of HIF-3α were determined using immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin sections of 126 paired HCC and peritumoral tissues. PLC/PRF/5 cells, a human HCC cell line, were transfected with HIF-1α and HIF-2α vectors and HIF-3α mRNA and protein expression was detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of HIF-3α was upregulated in 46.0% (58/126) and downregulated in 42.9% (54/126) of tumor tissues, respectively, when compared to peritumoral tissues. HIF-3α protein expression was not associated with peripheral blood vessel invasion, overall survival, or disease-free survival in HCC patients (P>0.05). In HCC tissues, the levels of HIF-3α protein were positively correlated with HIF-2α, but not with HIF-1α expression in HCC tissues. HIF-3α was upregulated in PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B cells overexpressed with HIF-1α or HIF-2α. The hypoxic microenvironment of liver cancer did not lead to elevated HIF-3α protein expression, indicating that HIF-3α is regulated differently from HIF-1α in vivo. The correlation between HIF-3α and HIF-2α expression at the cellular and tissue levels indicated that HIF-3α may be a target gene of HIF-2α. The hypoxic microenvironment did not lead to elevation of HIF-3α protein expression in liver cancer; thus, HIF-3α may be a target gene of HIF-2α. PMID:27284334

  15. Inhibition of phospholipid methylation by a cytosolic factor.

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Chiva, V; Mato, J M

    1984-01-01

    Rat liver cytosol contains a heat-stable factor which inhibits phospholipid methylation by rat liver microsomes. The effect of this factor on lipid methylation was dose- and pH-dependent. This factor has an Mr of approx. 3200 as estimated by gel filtration. It could not be extracted by chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), and its action was inhibited by incubation with subtilisin. PMID:6712636

  16. The Repressive Effect of miR-148a on TGF beta-SMADs Signal Pathway Is Involved in the Glabridin-Induced Inhibition of the Cancer Stem Cells-Like Properties in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Fei; Mu, Juan; Wang, Xingxing; Ye, Xianqing; Si, Lu; Ning, Shilong; Li, Zhong; Li, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Current standard practices for treatment of HCC are less than satisfactory because of cancer stem cells (CSCs)-mediated post-surgical recurrence. For this reason, targeting the CSCs or the cancer cells with CSCs-like properties has become a new approach for the treatment of HCC. GLA exhibits anti-tumor effects in that it attenuates the proliferation, migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of human cancer cells. However, the functions of GLA in the regulation of CSCs-like properties in HCC cells, and the molecular mechanisms underlying in remain obscure. Here we found that GLA attenuated the CSCs-like properties by the microRNA-148a (miR-148a)-mediated inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)/SMAD2 signal pathway in HCC cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7, and MHCC97H). Indeed, GLA inhibited the activations/expressions of both TGFβ-induced and the endogenous SMAD2. Further, GLA improved the expression of miR-148a in a dose/time-dependent manner. MiR-148a, which targeted the SMAD2-3′UTR, decreased the expression and function of SMAD2. Knockdown of miR-148a abolished the GLA-induced inhibition of TGF-β/SMAD2 signal pathway and the CSCs-like properties in HCC cells. Our study found a novel mechanism that GLA inhibits the CSCs-like properties of HCC cells by miR-148a-mediated inhibition of TGF-β/SMAD2 signal pathway, which may help to identify potential targets for the therapies of HCC. PMID:24806207

  17. Contemporary management of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma: diagnosis, treatment, outcome, prognostic factors, and recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kassahun, Woubet Tefera

    2016-05-23

    Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a malignant liver tumor which is thought to be a variant of conventional hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It accounts for a small proportion of HCC cases and occurs in a distinctly different group of patients which are young and usually not in the setting of chronic liver disease. The diagnosis of FL-HCC requires the integration of clinical information, imaging studies, and histology. In terms of the treatment options, the only potentially curative treatment option for patients who have resectable disease is surgery either liver resection (LR) or liver transplantation (LT). When performed in a context of aggressive therapy, long-term outcomes after surgery, particularly liver resection for FL-HCC, were favorable. The clinical outcome of patients with unresectable disease is suboptimal with median survival of less than 12 months. The aim of this review is to update the available evidence on diagnosis, treatment options, outcome predictors, and recent developments of patients with this rare disease and to provide a summarized overview of the available literature.

  18. Novel Synthetic Biscoumarins Target Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Vitro and in Vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Keerthy, Hosadurga Kumar; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Fuchs, Julian E.; Rangappa, Shobith; Sundaram, Mahalingam S.; Li, Feng; Girish, Kesturu S.; Sethi, Gautam; Basappa; Bender, Andreas; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal Subbegowda

    2014-01-01

    TNF is a pleotropic cytokine known to be involved in the progression of several pro-inflammatory disorders. Many therapeutic agents have been designed to counteract the effect of TNF in rheumatoid arthritis as well as a number of cancers. In the present study we have synthesized and evaluated the anti-cancer activity of novel biscoumarins in vitro and in vivo. Among new compounds, BIHC was found to be the most cytotoxic agent against the HepG2 cell line while exhibiting less toxicity toward normal hepatocytes. Furthermore, BIHC inhibited the proliferation of various hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Subsequently, using in silico target prediction, BIHC was predicted as a TNF blocker. Experimental validation was able to confirm this hypothesis, where BIHC could significantly inhibit the recombinant mouse TNF-α binding to its antibody with an IC50 of 16.5 μm. Furthermore, in silico docking suggested a binding mode of BIHC similar to a ligand known to disrupt the native, trimeric structure of TNF, and also validated with molecular dynamics simulations. Moreover, we have demonstrated the down-regulation of p65 phosphorylation and other NF-κB-regulated gene products upon BIHC treatment, and on the phenotypic level the compound shows inhibition of CXCL12-induced invasion of HepG2 cells. Also, we demonstrate that BIHC inhibits infiltration of macrophages to the peritoneal cavity and suppresses the activity of TNF-α in vivo in mice primed with thioglycollate broth and lipopolysaccharide. We comprehensively validated the TNF-α inhibitory efficacy of BIHC in an inflammatory bowel disease mice model. PMID:25231984

  19. In vivo fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft using near-infrared labeled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) peptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z.; Zhou, Q.; Zhou, J.; Duan, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Minimally-invasive surgery of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be limited by poor tumor visualization with white light. We demonstrate systemic administration of a Cy5.5-labeled peptide specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to target HCC in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We attached a compact imaging module to the proximal end of a medical laparoscope to collect near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance images concurrently at 15 frames/sec. We measured a mean target-to-background ratio of 2.99 ± 0.22 from 13 surgically exposed subcutaneous human HCC tumors in vivo in 5 mice. This integrated imaging methodology is promising to guide laparoscopic resection of HCC.

  20. In vivo fluorescence imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft using near-infrared labeled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) peptide

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z.; Zhou, Q.; Zhou, J.; Duan, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, T. D.

    2016-01-01

    Minimally-invasive surgery of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be limited by poor tumor visualization with white light. We demonstrate systemic administration of a Cy5.5-labeled peptide specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to target HCC in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. We attached a compact imaging module to the proximal end of a medical laparoscope to collect near-infrared fluorescence and reflectance images concurrently at 15 frames/sec. We measured a mean target-to-background ratio of 2.99 ± 0.22 from 13 surgically exposed subcutaneous human HCC tumors in vivo in 5 mice. This integrated imaging methodology is promising to guide laparoscopic resection of HCC. PMID:27699089

  1. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children.

  2. Behavioural inhibition: is it a risk factor for anxiety?

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Hong, Melanie; Fox, Nathan A

    2011-06-01

    Behavioural inhibition is a stable temperamental trait that is identifiable during infancy and toddlerhood and is characterized by fearful reactivity to novelty. Children identified as behaviourally inhibited have been shown to be at increased risk for developing anxiety disorders such as social phobia. The current review addresses the link between behavioural inhibition and the risk for developing anxiety disorders. Research suggests that this risk may be modulated by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Extrinsic factors include particular parental beliefs, parenting styles, and childrearing contexts. Intrinsic factors include executive function capacities such as attention bias, attention shifting, inhibitory control, and self-monitoring. In the present paper we review the contribution of these factors to the development of anxiety in behaviourally inhibited children. PMID:21923226

  3. Beyond Behavioral Inhibition: Etiological Factors in Childhood Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manassis, Katharina; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Webb, Alicia; Albano, Anne Marie

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical models of childhood anxiety have emphasized temperamental vulnerability, principally behavioral inhibition, and its interaction with various environmental factors promoting anxiety (for example, overprotective parenting, insecure attachment, life stress). Although clearly establishing the importance of both nature and nurture in…

  4. Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by adenovirus-mediated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase COOH-27 terminal polypeptide in mice

    PubMed Central

    HE, LEI; GONG, HAN-XIAN; LI, XIANG-PEN; WANG, YI-DONG; LI, YI; HUANG, JUN-JIAN; XIE, DAN; KUNG, HSIANG-FU; PENG, YING

    2013-01-01

    A 27-kDa C-terminal fragment of human telomerase reverse transcriptase, hTERTC27, has previously been reported to inhibit the growth and tumorigenicity of HeLa human cervical cancer cells and U87-MG human glioblastoma multiforme cells. However, the antitumor effects of hTERTC27 in hepatoma and its underlying mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, the therapeutic effect of hTERTC27, mediated by recombinant adenovirus, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was explored in vitro and in vivo to investigate the possible mechanisms. The results indicated that recombinant adenovirus carrying hTERTC27 (rAdv-hTERTC27) effectively inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis of the Hepa 1–6 HCC cells. Dendritic cells transduced with rAdv-hTERTC27 were highly effective at inducing antigen-specific T cell proliferation and increasing the activated cytotoxicity of T cells against Hepa 1–6 cells. HCC was inhibited significantly when a single dose of 5×107 pfu rAdv-hTERTC27 was administered intravenously. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that rAdv-hTERTC27 may serve as a reagent for intravenous administration when combined with telomerase-based gene therapy and immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:24137404

  5. Ergosterol peroxide activates Foxo3-mediated cell death signaling by inhibiting AKT and c-Myc in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangmin; Wu, Qingping; Bu, Ming; Hu, Liming; Du, William W; Jiao, Chunwei; Pan, Honghui; Sdiri, Mouna; Wu, Nan; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B

    2016-06-01

    Sterols are the important active ingredients of fungal secondary metabolites to induce death of tumor cells. In our previous study, we found that ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol), purified from Ganoderma lucidum, induced human cancer cell death. Since the amount of purified ergosterol peroxide is not sufficient to perform in vivo experiments or apply clinically, we developed an approach to synthesize ergosterol peroxide chemically. After confirming the production of ergosterol peroxide, we examined the biological functions of the synthetic ergosterol peroxide. The results showed that ergosterol peroxide induced cell death and inhibited cell migration, cell cycle progression, and colony growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We further examined the mechanism associated with this effect and found that treatment with ergosterol peroxide increased the expression of Foxo3 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells. The upstream signal proteins pAKT and c-Myc, which can inhibit Foxo3 functions, were clearly decreased in HepG2 cells treated with ergosterol peroxide. The levels of Puma and Bax, pro-apoptotic proteins, were effectively enhanced. Our results suggest that ergosterol peroxide stimulated Foxo3 activity by inhibiting pAKT and c-Myc and activating pro-apoptotic protein Puma and Bax to induce cancer cell death. PMID:27058618

  6. Lentiviral-Mediated Short Hairpin RNA Knockdown of MTDH Inhibits Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis by Regulating the PTEN/AKT Pathway in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Fang; Ou, Qin; Dai, Hang; Liu, Chang-An

    2015-01-01

    The activation of oncogenes and the loss of tumor suppressor genes are believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Metaherin (MTDH), also called astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1), is frequently amplified in a variety of cancers, but the roles of MTDH with regard to growth and apoptosis in HCC have not yet been studied. In the present study, we first analyzed the expression of MTDH in HCC samples. We found that MTDH protein levels are higher in most HCC cancerous tissues compared with their matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. Additionally, the MTDH mRNA was also higher in HCC tissues compared to their matched adjacent non-tumor tissues. Knockdown of the endogenous MTDH using small interfering RNA further showed that deficiency of MTDH suppressed cell growth and caused apoptosis in HCC cells. Knockdown MTDH promoted PTEN and p53 expression in HCC cells and inhibited AKT phosphorylation. Knockdown MTDH also inhibited tumor growth in vivo. All these results indicated that MTDH protein levels in most HCC tissues are higher than non-tumor tissues, and knockdown of MTDH inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cells through the activation of PTEN. Therefore, MTDH might be an effective targeted therapy gene for HCC. PMID:26287185

  7. Ergosterol peroxide activates Foxo3-mediated cell death signaling by inhibiting AKT and c-Myc in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liming; Du, William W.; Jiao, Chunwei; Pan, Honghui; Sdiri, Mouna; Wu, Nan; Xie, Yizhen; Yang, Burton B.

    2016-01-01

    Sterols are the important active ingredients of fungal secondary metabolites to induce death of tumor cells. In our previous study, we found that ergosterol peroxide (5α, 8α-epidioxiergosta-6, 22-dien-3β-ol), purified from Ganoderma lucidum, induced human cancer cell death. Since the amount of purified ergosterol peroxide is not sufficient to perform in vivo experiments or apply clinically, we developed an approach to synthesize ergosterol peroxide chemically. After confirming the production of ergosterol peroxide, we examined the biological functions of the synthetic ergosterol peroxide. The results showed that ergosterol peroxide induced cell death and inhibited cell migration, cell cycle progression, and colony growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We further examined the mechanism associated with this effect and found that treatment with ergosterol peroxide increased the expression of Foxo3 mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells. The upstream signal proteins pAKT and c-Myc, which can inhibit Foxo3 functions, were clearly decreased in HepG2 cells treated with ergosterol peroxide. The levels of Puma and Bax, pro-apoptotic proteins, were effectively enhanced. Our results suggest that ergosterol peroxide stimulated Foxo3 activity by inhibiting pAKT and c-Myc and activating pro-apoptotic protein Puma and Bax to induce cancer cell death. PMID:27058618

  8. Factors influencing the inhibition of protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Brockhoff, Marielle; Hau, Jean-Christophe; Fontana, Patrizia; Zimmermann, Catherine; Pover, Alain De; Erdmann, Dirk; Chène, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    The protein kinase field is a very active research area in the pharmaceutical industry and many activities are ongoing to identify inhibitors of these proteins. The design of new chemical entities with improved pharmacological properties requires a deeper understanding of the factors that modulate inhibitor-kinase interactions. In this report, we studied the effect of two of these factors--the magnesium ion cofactor and the protein substrate--on inhibitors of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor. Our results show that the concentration of magnesium ion influences the potency of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) competitive inhibitors, suggesting an explanation for the observation that such compounds retain their nanomolar potency in cells despite the presence of millimolar levels of ATP. We also showed that the peptidic substrate affects the potency of these inhibitors in a different manner, suggesting that the influence of this substrate on compound potency should be taken into consideration during drug discovery.

  9. Focal Gains of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Molecular Classification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Derek Y.; Villanueva, Augusto; Hoshida, Yujin; Peix, Judit; Newell, Philippa; Minguez, Beatriz; LeBlanc, Amanda C.; Donovan, Diana J.; Thung, Swan N.; Sole, Manel; Tovar, Victoria; Alsinet, Clara; Ramos, Alex H.; Barretina, Jordi; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron; Waxman, Samuel; Bruix, Jordi; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Ligon, Azra H.; Najfeld, Vesna; Friedman, Scott L.; Sellers, William R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Llovet, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) represent the third-leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. The vast majority of cases arise in the context of chronic liver injury due to hepatitis B virus or hepatitis C virus infection. In order to identify genetic mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis, we characterized copy number alterations and gene expression profiles from the same set of tumors associated with hepatitis C virus. Most tumors harbored 1q gain, 8q gain or 8p loss, with occasional alterations in 13 additional chromosome arms. In addition to amplifications at 11q13 in 6 of 103 tumors, 4 tumors harbored focal gains at 6p21 incorporating VEGFA. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on an independent validation set of 210 tumors found 6p21 high-level gains in 14 tumors, as well as 2 tumors with 6p21 amplifications. Strikingly, this locus overlapped with copy gains in 4 of 371 lung adenocarcinomas. Overexpression of VEGFA via 6p21 gain in hepatocellular carcinomas suggested a novel, cell-nonautonomous mechanism of oncogene activation. Hierarchical clustering of gene expression among 91 of these tumors identified 5 classes, including ‘CTNNB1’, ‘proliferation’, ‘interferon-related’, and a novel class defined by polysomy of chromosome 7. These class labels were further supported by molecular data: mutations in CTNNB1 were enriched in the ‘CTNNB1’ class, while IGF1R and RPS6 phosphorylation were enriched in the ‘proliferation’ class. The enrichment of signaling pathway alterations in gene expression classes provides insights on HCC pathogenesis. Furthermore, the prevalence of VEGFA high-level gains in multiple tumor types suggests indications for clinical trials of anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:18701503

  10. Prognostic factors in patients with recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma treated with salvage liver transplantation: a single-center study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Baojie; Que, Weitao; Wang, Chunguang; Fan, Junwei; Peng, Zhihai; Zhong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Although salvage liver transplantation (LT) has been widely adopted as a treatment for recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), candidate selection criteria have not been established. This single-center study aimed to identify risk factors associated with HCC recurrence and survival following salvage LT. The study included 74 patients treated with salvage LT between October 2001 and February 2013. The median follow-up was 37.2 months after LT. There were 29 cases of HCC recurrence and 31 deaths following LT. Microvascular invasion at the time of liver resection, a time interval to post-LR HCC recurrence of ≤ 12months, an alpha-fetoprotein level at LT greater than 200 ng/mL, and having undergone LT outside of the UCSF criteria were independent risk factors for HCC recurrence after salvage LT. Patients with no more than one risk factor had a 5-year recurrence-free survival rate of 71.2% compared to 15.9% in patients with two or more risk factors. These findings suggest that to avoid post-LT HCC recurrence and a dismal prognosis, patients with no more than one risk factor for recurrence should be given priority for salvage LT. These criteria may improve the outcomes of patients treated with salvage LT and facilitate the effective use of limited organ supplies. PMID:27145461

  11. Phosphorylated Heat Shock Protein 20 (HSPB6) Regulates Transforming Growth Factor-α-Induced Migration and Invasion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Toyoda, Hidenori; Nagasawa, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Eisuke; Chiba, Naokazu; Okuda, Seiji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Kaneoka, Yuji; Kumada, Takashi; Kozawa, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major malignancies in the world. Small heat shock proteins (HSPs) are reported to play an important role in the regulation of a variety of cancer cell functions, and the functions of small HSPs are regulated by post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation. We previously reported that protein levels of a small HSP, HSP20 (HSPB6), decrease in vascular invasion positive HCC compared with those in the negative vascular invasion. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether HSP20 is implicated in HCC cell migration and the invasion using human HCC-derived HuH7 cells. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-α-induced migration and invasion were suppressed in the wild-type-HSP20 overexpressed cells in which phosphorylated HSP20 was detected. Phospho-mimic-HSP20 overexpression reduced the migration and invasion compared with unphosphorylated HSP20 overexpression. Dibutyryl cAMP, which enhanced the phosphorylation of wild-type-HSP20, significantly reduced the TGF-α-induced cell migration of wild-type HSP20 overexpressed cells. The TGF-α-induced cell migration was inhibited by SP600125, a c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) inhibitor. In phospho-mimic-HSP20 overexpressed HuH7 cells, TGF-α-stimulated JNK phosphorylation was suppressed compared with the unphosphorylated HSP20 overexpressed cells. Moreover, the level of phospho-HSP20 protein in human HCC tissues was significantly correlated with tumor invasion. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that phosphorylated HSP20 inhibits TGF-α-induced HCC cell migration and invasion via suppression of the JNK signaling pathway. PMID:27046040

  12. 15-PGDH inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma growth through 15-keto-PGE2/PPARγ-mediated activation of p21WAF1/Cip1.

    PubMed

    Lu, D; Han, C; Wu, T

    2014-02-27

    15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is a key enzyme in prostaglandin (PG) metabolism. This study provides important evidence for inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) growth by 15-PGDH through the 15-keto-prostaglandin E2 (15-keto-PGE2)/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)/p21(WAF1/Cip1) signaling pathway. Forced overexpression of 15-PGDH inhibited HCC cell growth in vitro, whereas knockdown of 15-PGDH enhanced tumor growth parameters. In a tumor xenograft model in severe combined immunodeficiency mice, inoculation of human HCC cells (Huh7) with overexpression of 15-PGDH led to significant inhibition of tumor growth, whereas knockdown of 15-PGDH enhanced tumor growth. In a separate tumor xenograft model in which mouse HCC cells (Hepa1-6) were inoculated into syngeneic C57BL/6 mice, intratumoral injection of adenovirus vector expressing 15-PGDH (pAd-15-PGDH) significantly inhibited xenograft tumor growth. The antitumor effect of 15-PGDH is mediated through its enzymatic product, 15-keto-PGE2, which serves as an endogenous PPARγ ligand. Activation of PPARγ by 15-PGDH-derived 15-keto-PGE2 enhanced the association of PPARγ with the p21(WAF1/Cip1) promoter and increased p21 expression and association with cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), CDK4 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Depletion of p21 by short hairpin RNA reversed 15-PGDH-induced inhibition of HCC cell growth; overexpression of p21 prevented 15-PGDH knockdown-induced tumor cell growth. These results show a key 15-PGDH/15-keto-PGE2-mediated activation of PPARγ and p21(WAF1/Cip1) signaling cascade that regulates hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression.

  13. Investigation of scaling and inhibition mechanisms and the influencing factors in static and dynamic inhibition tests

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, M.D.; Jamieson, E.; Hammonds, P.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results of some recent laboratory study on barium sulfate scale inhibition in oilfield brines and investigation of several factors potentially effecting scale inhibition efficiency. In addition to well known mechanisms of scale nucleation inhibition and crystal growth retardation, dispersion/anti-conglomeration appears to be a significant inhibition mechanism associated with some scale inhibitors, which may play an important role in a dynamic flowing system. The contamination of a brine by an organic chelating agent such as EDTA or citric acid did not, in this study, show any significant effect on the barium sulfate inhibition efficiency of any of the three generically different scale inhibitors included. Experiments show that, in a properly enclosed system, the pH of an oilfield brine even with hydrogen bicarbonate presence can be sufficiently buffered with acetic acid. These new results are believed to be useful in evaluating/selecting scale inhibitors and improving barium sulfate scale inhibition test methods.

  14. Vanadium limits the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and inhibits early DNA damage during diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular preneoplasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Tridib; Chatterjee, Amrita; Dhachinamoorthi, Duraisami; Srivastawa, Sunil; Panayappan, Lakshmanan; Chatterjee, Malay

    2006-10-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that vanadium stabilizes xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant status and suppresses DNA-protein crosslinks during chemically-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. In the present study, we have further investigated the in vivo antitumor potential of this micronutrient by determining the effect of 0.5 ppm vanadium in drinking water on biomarkers for the early stages of hepatocarcinogenesis; the biomarkers included gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)-positive foci and glycogen-storage foci, in situ expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and genotoxic DNA damage assessed by the alkaline Comet assay. Histomorphometry also was assessed during the study. Hepatocarcinogenesis was induced by treating 4-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats with a single, necrogenic, intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 200 mg/kg body weight diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Compared to the carcinogen control, vanadium administration over the 32 weeks of the experiment reduced the relative liver weight by 30%, the incidence of nodules by 69.34%, the total number and multiplicity of nodules by 80.77%, and remodeled the hepatocellular premalignant architecture towards a normal phenotype. Moreover, long-term vanadium treatment reduced the development of GGT foci by 76.2% (P < 0.001), decreased periodic acid-Schiff's reactivity by 59.49% (P < 0.01), and decreased PCNA expression, with the concomitant reduction in PCNA immunolabeling index by 93.36% (P < 0.001). Finally, vanadium inhibited early DNA damage (DNA strand-breaks) in DEN-treated rat hepatocytes as expressed in the Comet assay by a 60.04% reduction in the length:width value of DNA mass (P < 0.01) and a 51.54% reduction in the tail length of the DNA comets (P < 0.001). Our results indicate that continuous supplementation with 0.5 ppm vanadium suppresses hepatocellular neoplastic transformation in rats. PMID:16878318

  15. Effects of TGF-beta signalling inhibition with galunisertib (LY2157299) in hepatocellular carcinoma models and in ex vivo whole tumor tissue samples from patients

    PubMed Central

    Serova, Maria; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Santos, Célia Dos; Albuquerque, Miguel; Paradis, Valerie; Neuzillet, Cindy; Benhadji, Karim A.; Raymond, Eric; Faivre, Sandrine; de Gramont, Armand

    2015-01-01

    Galunisertib (LY2157299) is a selective ATP-mimetic inhibitor of TGF-β receptor (TβR)-I activation currently under clinical investigation in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Our study explored the effects of galunisertib in vitro in HCC cell lines and ex vivo on patient samples. Galunisertib was evaluated in HepG2, Hep3B, Huh7, JHH6 and SK-HEP1 cells as well as in SK-HEP1-derived cells tolerant to sorafenib (SK-Sora) and sunitinib (SK-Suni). Exogenous stimulation of all HCC cell lines with TGF-β yielded downstream activation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3 that was potently inhibited with galunisertib treatment at micromolar concentrations. Despite limited antiproliferative effects, galunisertib yielded potent anti-invasive properties. Tumor slices from 13 patients with HCC surgically resected were exposed ex vivo to 1 μM and 10 μM galunisertib, 5 μM sorafenib or a combination of both drugs for 48 hours. Galunisertib but not sorafenib decreased p-Smad2/3 downstream TGF-β signaling. Immunohistochemistry analysis of galunisertib and sorafenib-exposed samples showed a significant decrease of the proliferative marker Ki67 and increase of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In combination, galunisertib potentiated the effect of sorafenib efficiently by inhibiting proliferation and increasing apoptosis. Our data suggest that galunisertib may be active in patients with HCC and could potentiate the effects of sorafenib. PMID:26057634

  16. miR-502 inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma through suppressing phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Suling; Li, Fang; Chai, Haiyun; Tao, Xin; Wang, Haili; Ji, Aifang

    2015-08-21

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in carcinogenesis and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-502 significantly inhibits HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. G1/S cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of HCC cells were induced by miR-502. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma (PIK3CG) was identified as a direct downstream target of miR-502 in HCC cells. Notably, overexpression of PIK3CG reversed the inhibitory effects of miR-502 in HCC cells. Our findings suggest that miR-502 functions as a tumor suppressor in HCC via inhibition of PI3KCG, supporting its utility as a promising therapeutic gene target for this tumor type. - Highlights: • miR-502 suppresses HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. • miR-502 regulates cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. • PIK3CG is a direct target of miR-502. • miR-502 and PIK3CG expression patterns are inversely correlated in HCC tissues.

  17. Fucoidan Elevates MicroRNA-29b to Regulate DNMT3B-MTSS1 Axis and Inhibit EMT in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ming-De; Yao, Chih-Jung; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Hwang, Pai-An; Chuang, Shuang-En; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2015-10-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that fucoidan exhibits anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in many types of cancer cells including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exploring its effect on microRNA expression, we found that fucoidan markedly upregulated miR-29b of human HCC cells. The induction of miR-29b was accompanied with suppression of its downstream target DNMT3B in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of luciferase activity of DNMT3B 3'-UTR reporter by fucoidan was as markedly as that by miR-29b mimic, indicating that fucoidan induced miR-29b to suppress DNMT3B. Accordingly, the mRNA and protein levels of MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1), a target silenced by DNMT3B, were increased after fucoidan treatment. Furthermore, fucoidan also down-regulated TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling of HCC cells. All these effects leaded to the inhibition of EMT (increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin) and prevention of extracellular matrix degradation (increased TIMP-1 and decreased MMP2, 9), by which the invasion activity of HCC cells was diminished. Our results demonstrate the profound effect of fucoidan not only on the regulation of miR-29b-DNMT3B-MTSS1 axis but also on the inhibition of TGF-β signaling in HCC cells, suggesting the potential of using fucoidan as integrative therapeutics against invasion and metastasis of HCC.

  18. In vitro and in vivo study of epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced apoptosis in aerobic glycolytic hepatocellular carcinoma cells involving inhibition of phosphofructokinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sainan; Wu, Liwei; Feng, Jiao; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Xu, Shizan; Cheng, Keran; Zhou, Yuqing; Zhou, Shunfeng; Kong, Rui; Chen, Kan; Wang, Fan; Xia, Yujing; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Dai, Weiqi; Guo, Chuanyong

    2016-01-01

    Glycolysis, as an altered cancer cell-intrinsic metabolism, is an essential hallmark of cancer. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) is a metabolic sensor in the glycolytic pathway, and restricting the substrate availability for this enzyme has been researched extensively as a target for chemotherapy. In the present study, we investigated that the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an active component of green tea, on inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis by promoting a metabolic shift away from glycolysis in aerobic glycolytic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. EGCG modulated the oligomeric structure of PFK, potentially leading to metabolic stress associated apoptosis and suggesting that EGCG acts by directly suppressing PFK activity. A PFK activity inhibitor enhanced the effect, while the allosteric activator reversed EGCG-induced HCC cell death. PFK siRNA knockdown-induced apoptosis was not reversed by the activator. EGCG enhanced the effect of sorafenib on cell growth inhibition in both aerobic glycolytic HCC cells and in a xenograft mouse model. The present study suggests a potential role for EGCG as an adjuvant in cancer therapy, which merits further investigation at the clinical level. PMID:27349173

  19. Inhibition of adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to basement membrane components by receptor competition with RGD- or YIGSR-containing synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Ping; Huang, Qi-Ping; Qin, Jian; Xiao, Guo-Hui; Cai, Shao-Xi

    2003-01-01

    A micropipette technique was used to investigate the effects of four synthetic peptides, YIGSR, CDPGYIGSR, RGDS and GRGDTP, on the adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells onto type IV collagen/laminin/fibronectin coated surfaces. Adhesion of HCC cells to laminin was found to be YIGSR- or CDPGYIGSR-dependent while that to fibronectin and type IV collagen was RGDS- or GRGDTP-dependent. The reduction in adhesion strengths of HCC cells was slight to moderate (up to 55%), and was dependent on the peptide concentration. The decrease in adhesion strengths was reversed by an increase in ligand coating concentration and was compromised by prolonged interaction of the cells with the surfaces. These results suggested that the inhibition was due to competitive retardation rather than to a blockade of adhesion strengthening. A simple asymptotic function was adopted to fit the correlation between the mean of cell adhesion strengths and peptide concentration within defined concentration ranges. Regression analysis showed that cell adhesion strengths appeared to approach a plateau with increasing concentration of the inhibitory peptides, which was not always uniform over the entire concentration range tested. Further reduction in adhesion strengths was observed at higher peptide concentrations. It is suggested that the constants obtained by fitting over a low peptide concentration range might be kinetically representative of the inhibition during early events of adhesion or attachment.

  20. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  1. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC. PMID:25200250

  2. Transcription factor LSF (TFCP2) inhibits melanoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yuji; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Tanaka, Asami; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Inoue, Yuji; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Kyoya, Mikiko; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Tamihiro; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Kato, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Late SV40 factor 3 (LSF), a transcription factor, contributes to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, decreased expression level of LSF in skin melanoma compared to that in benign melanocytic tumors and nevi in mice and humans was found in this study. Anchorage-dependent and -independent growth of melanoma cells was suppressed by LSF overexpression through an increased percentage of G1 phase cells and an increased p21CIP1 expression level in vitro and in vivo. Anchorage-dependent growth in LSF-overexpressed melanoma cells was promoted by depletion of LSF in the LSF-overexpressed cells. Integrated results of our EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of LSF within a 150-bp upstream region of the transcription start site of p21CIP1 in melanoma cells. Taken together, our results suggest potential roles of LSF as a growth regulator through control of the transcription of p21CIP1 in melanocytes and melanoma cells as well as a biomarker for nevus. PMID:26506241

  3. Sirtuin 6 promotes transforming growth factor-β1/H2O2/HOCl-mediated enhancement of hepatocellular carcinoma cell tumorigenicity by suppressing cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xin-Xia; Luo, Jing; Liu, Mei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Zhen-Zhen; Xia, Yu-Jia; Tu, Wei; Li, Pei-Yuan; Feng, Zuo-Hua; Tian, De-An

    2015-05-01

    Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) can function as a tumor suppressor by suppressing aerobic glycolysis and apoptosis resistance. However, the negative effect of SIRT6 on cellular senescence implies that it may also have the potential to promote tumor development. Here we report that the upregulation of SIRT6 expression was required for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and H2O2/HOCl reactive oxygen species (ROS) to promote the tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Transforming growth factor-β1/H2O2/HOCl could upregulate SIRT6 expression in HCC cells by inducing the sustained activation of ERK and Smad pathways. Sirtuin 6 in turn abrogated the inducing effect of TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl on cellular senescence of HCC cells, and was required for the ERK pathway to efficiently suppress the expression of p16 and p21. Sirtuin 6 altered the effect of Smad and p38 MAPK pathways on cellular senescence, and contributed to the inhibitory effect of the ERK pathway on cellular senescence. However, SIRT6 was inefficient in antagonizing the promoting effect of TGF-β1/H2O2 HOCl on aerobic glycolysis and anoikis resistance. Intriguingly, if SIRT6 expression was inhibited, the promoting effect of TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl on aerobic glycolysis and anoikis resistance was not sufficient to enhance the tumorigenicity of HCC cells. Suppressing the upregulation of SIRT6 enabled TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl to induce cellular senescence, thereby abrogating the enhancement of HCC cell tumorigenicity by TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl. These results suggest that SIRT6 is required for TGF-β1/H2O2/HOCl to enhance the tumorigenicity of HCC cells, and that targeting the ERK pathway to suppress the upregulation of SIRT6 might be a potential approach in comprehensive strategies for the therapy of HCC.

  4. Glypican-3 is a prognostic factor and an immunotherapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haruyama, Yukihiro; Kataoka, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a cell surface oncofetal proteoglycan that is anchored by glycosylphosphatidylinositol. Whereas GPC3 is abundant in fetal liver, its expression is hardly detectable in adult liver. Importantly, GPC3 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and several immunohistochemical studies reported that overexpression predicts a poorer prognosis for HCC patients. Therefore, GPC3 would serve as a useful molecular marker for HCC diagnosis and also as a target for therapeutic intervention in HCC. Indeed, some immunotherapy protocols targeting GPC3 are under investigations; those include humanized anti-GPC3 cytotoxic antibody, peptide vaccine and immunotoxin therapies. When considering the clinical requirements for GPC3-targeting therapy, companion diagnostics to select the appropriate HCC patients are critical, and both immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections and measurement of serum GPC3 level have been suggested for this purpose. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the clinical implication of GPC3 detection and targeting in the management of patients with HCC. PMID:26755876

  5. Overexpression of gankyrin in mouse hepatocytes induces hemangioma by suppressing factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (FIH-1) and activating hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Higashitsuji, Hiroaki; Higashitsuji, Hisako; Itoh, Katsuhiko; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Koike, Kazuhiko; Hirota, Kiichi; Fukumoto, Manabu; Fujita, Jun

    2013-03-01

    Gankyrin (also called p28 or PSMD10) is an oncoprotein commonly overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas. It consists of 7 ankyrin repeats and interacts with multiple proteins including Rb, Cdk4, MDM2 and NF-κB. To assess the oncogenic activity in vivo, we produced transgenic mice that overexpress gankyrin specifically in the hepatocytes. Unexpectedly, 5 of 7 F2 transgenic mice overexpressing hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX) promoter-driven gankyrin, and one of 3 founder mice overexpressing serum amyloid P component (SAP) promoter-driven gankyrin developed hepatic vascular neoplasms (hemangioma/hemangiosarcomas) whereas none of the wild-type mice did. Endothelial overgrowth was more frequent in the livers of diethylnitrosamine-treated transgenic mice than wild-type mice. Mouse hepatoma Hepa1-6 cells overexpressing gankyrin formed tumors with more vascularity than parental Hepa1-6 cells in the transplanted mouse skin. We found that gankyrin binds to and sequester factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (FIH-1), which results in decreased interaction between FIH-1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and increased activity of HIF-1 to promote VEGF production. The effects of gankyrin were more prominent under 3% O2 than 1% or 20% O2 conditions. Thus, the present study clarified, at least partly, mechanisms of vascular tumorigenesis, and suggests that gankyrin might play a physiological role in hypoxic responses besides its roles as an oncoprotein. PMID:23376718

  6. [Hepatocellular carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Colombo, Massimo; Sangiovanni, Angelo

    2016-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer death and the first in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Chronic infection with hepatitis B and C, alcohol, smoking, exposure to aflatoxin and metabolic syndrome, associated with diabetes and obesity are the main etiological factors. Regardless of etiology, patients with cirrhosis stand as the category at higher risk of developing HCC, and indeed are the target of surveillance programs aimed to the early diagnosis of HCC, the only chance to reduce HCC-related mortality. This notwithstanding, International Scientific Societies have issued recommendations for the management of HCC, a significant number of patients are treated outside guidelines, due to several reasons. Among queries still unsolved, the impact of biological characterization of HCC, along with the biological profiling of patients at risk of developing HCC represent main challenges for the future. Treatment personalization and multimodal treatment being further challenges. This chapter summarizes the recommendations for surveillance, diagnosis and treatment of HCC and focus on future directions. PMID:27571469

  7. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation and Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Rate and Risk Factors for Local Recurrence

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Tomonori Ishimaru, Hideki; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Uetani, Masataka; Matsuoka, Yohjiro; Daikoku, Manabu; Honda, Sumihisa; Koshiishi, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Toshifumi

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To analyze local recurrence-free rates and risk factors for recurrence following percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods. One hundred and nine nodules treated by RFA and 173 nodules treated by TACE were included. Hypovascular nodules were excluded from this study. Overall local recurrence-free rates of each treatment group were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. The independent risk factors of local recurrence and the hazard ratios were analyzed using Cox's proportional-hazards regression model. Based on the results of multivariate analyses, we classified HCC nodules into four subgroups: central nodules {<=}2 cm or >2 cm and peripheral nodules {<=}2 cm or >2 cm. The local recurrence-free rates of these subgroups for each treatment were also calculated. Results. The overall local recurrence-free rate was significantly higher in the RFA group than in the TACE group (p = 0.013). The 24-month local recurrence-free rates in the RFA and TACE groups were 60.0% and 48.9%, respectively. In the RFA group, the only significant risk factor for recurrence was tumor size >2 cm in greatest dimension. In the TACE group, a central location was the only significant risk factor for recurrence. In central nodules that were {<=}2 cm, the local recurrence-free rate was significantly higher in the RFA group than in the TACE group (p < 0.001). In the remaining three groups, there was no significant difference in local recurrence-free rate between the two treatment methods. Conclusion. A tumor diameter of >2 cm was the only independent risk factor for local recurrence in RFA treatment, and a central location was the only independent risk factor in TACE treatment. Central lesions measuring {<=}2 cm should be treated by RFA.

  8. Transcriptional regulation of basic fibroblast growth factor gene by p53 in human glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ueba, T; Nosaka, T; Takahashi, J A; Shibata, F; Florkiewicz, R Z; Vogelstein, B; Oda, Y; Kikuchi, H; Hatanaka, M

    1994-01-01

    Mutations of the p53 gene are found in various human cancers. The frequency of its mutation is reported to increase during tumor progression in most tumors. In human gliomas, mutations of the p53 gene are found in about one-third of the malignant forms and in few of the benign ones, indicating their possible involvement in tumor progression. On the other hand, we have recently shown that basic fibroblast growth factor (basic FGF) plays a crucial role in tumor progression as an autocrine growth factor in tissues of human gliomas. Therefore, we hypothesized that p53 might regulate the promoter activity of the basic FGF gene, which has several GC boxes and no typical TATA box. In this study, cotransfection assays using human glioblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells and establishment of stable cell lines expressing mutant-type p53 were performed. The basic FGF gene promoter was demonstrated to be regulated by p53 at the transcriptional level and its basal core promoter was found to be responsive to p53. Expression of endogenous basic FGF was also demonstrated to be activated by mutant type p53. Wild-type p53 repressed gene expression of the basic FGF and its mutant activated it in vitro, implying one of the possible pathways in tumor progression. Images PMID:8090761

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway polymorphisms and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjia; Ma, Xiao-Pin; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhang, Pengyin; Ding, Dong-Lin; Huang, Hui-Xing; Saiyin, Hexi Ge; Chen, Tao-Yang; Lu, Pei-Xin; Wang, Neng-Jin; Yu, Hongjie; Sun, Jielin; Zheng, S Lilly; Yu, Long; Xu, Jianfeng; Jiang, De-Ke

    2015-01-01

    The EGFR signaling pathway is important in the control of vital processes in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including cell survival, cell cycle progression, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In the current study, we aim to assess if genetic variants in the genes of the EGFR signaling pathway are associated with the prognosis of HCC. We genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four core genes (EGF, EGFR, VEGF, and VEGFR2) by using DNA from blood samples of 363 HCC patients with surgical resection. The associations between genotypes and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs) were estimated for the multivariate survival analyses by Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for age, gender, family history, HBsAg and AFP. We found that five SNPs in the VEGFR2 gene were significantly associated with clinical outcomes of HCC patients. Among them, four SNPs (rs7692791, rs2305948, rs13109660, rs6838752) were associated with OS (p=0.035, 0.038, 0.029 and 0.028, respectively), and two SNPs (rs7692791 and rs2034965) were associated with DFS (p=0.039 and 0.017, respectively). Particularly, rs7692791 TT genotype was associated with both reduced OS (p=0.037) and DFS (p=0.043). However, only one SNP rs2034965 with the AA genotype was shown to be an independent effect on DFS (p=0.009) in the multivariate analysis. None of the other 31 polymorphisms or 9 haplotypes attained from the four genes was significantly associated with OS or DFS. Our results illustrated the potential use of VEGFR2 polymorphisms as prognostic markers for HCC patients. PMID:25628948

  10. MRP3 as a novel resistance factor for sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tomonari, Tetsu; Takeishi, Shunsaku; Taniguchi, Tatsuya; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Fujimoto, Shota; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to sorafenib is unknown and no useful predictive biomarker for sorafenib treatment has been reported. Accordingly, we established sorafenib-resistant HCC cells and investigated the underlying mechanism of resistance to sorafenib. Sorafenib-resistant cell lines were established from the HCC cell line PLC/PRF5 by cultivation under continuous exposure to increasing concentration of sorafenib. The IC50 values of the 2 resistant clones PLC/PRF5-R1 and PLC-PRF5-R2 were 9.2±0.47 μM (1.8-fold) and 25±5.1 μM (4.6-fold) respectively, which were significantly higher than that of parental PLC/PRF5 cells (5.4±0.17 μM) (p < 0.01 respectively), as determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis of signal transduction-related proteins showed no significant differences in expression of AKT/pAKT, mTOR/pmTOR, or ERK/pERK between the 2 resistant clones versus parent cells, suggesting no activation of an alternative signal transduction pathway. Likewise, when expression of membrane transporter proteins was determined, there were no significant differences in expression levels of BSEP, MDR1, MRP2, BCRP, MRP4 and OCT1 between resistant clones and parent cells. However, the expression levels of MRP3 in the 2 resistant clones were significantly higher than that of parent cells. When MRP3 gene was knocked down by siRNA in PLC-PRF5-R2 cells, the sensitivity of the cells to sorafenib was restored. In the analysis of gene mutation, there was no mutation in the activation segment of Raf1 kinase in the resistant clones. Our data clearly demonstrate that the efflux transporter MRP3 plays an important role in resistance to sorafenib in HCC cells. PMID:26769852

  11. Inhibition of AQP1 Hampers Osteosarcoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Mediated by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Nardelli, Anna; Fontanella, Raffaela; Zannetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The complex cross-talk between tumor cells and their surrounding stromal environment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Among several cell types that constitute the tumor stroma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) selectively migrate toward the tumor microenvironment and contribute to the active formation of tumor-associated stroma. Therefore, here we elucidate the involvement of BM-MSCs to promote osteosarcoma (OS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells migration and invasion and deepening the role of specific pathways. We analyzed the function of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water channel known to promote metastasis and neoangiogenes. AQP1 protein levels were analyzed in OS (U2OS) and HCC (SNU-398) cells exposed to conditioned medium from BM-MSCs. Tumor cell migration and invasion in response to BM-MSC conditioned medium were evaluated through a wound healing assay and Boyden chamber, respectively. The results showed that the AQP1 level was increased in both tumor cell lines after treatment with BM-MSC conditioned medium. Moreover, BM-MSCs-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion were hampered after treatment with AQP1 inhibitor. These data suggest that the recruitment of human BM-MSCs into the tumor microenvironment might cause OS and HCC cell migration and invasion through involvement of AQP1. PMID:27409610

  12. Downregulation of VANGL1 Inhibits Cellular Invasion Rather than Cell Motility in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Without Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Toylu, Asli; Atabey, Nese; Sercan, Zeynep; Sakizli, Meral

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The Wnt planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway is one of the Wnt pathways which plays a critical role in cell proliferation and fate. The VANGL1 protein is one of Wnt-PCP pathway components. It is known that Wnt-PCP pathway has major roles in cell motility but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression through invasion and metastasis needs to be clarified. Methods: We silenced VANGL1 gene expression in the HepG2 HCC cell line by stable transfection with a vector containing siRNA template for VANGL1 and investigated the change in cell invasion and motility. Results: Transfected cells with the siRNA template showed significantly suppressed invasive capacity when compared to controls although cellular motility was only slightly affected. Conclusion: Our study showed a basal role for VANGL1 with respect to the invasive capacity of HCC cells. This suggests that the Wnt-PCP pathway may play a role in progression of HCC through cellular invasion but further studies are needed to clarify its role in cell motility. PMID:25874746

  13. Boron inhibits the proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, molybdenum containing proteins and ameliorates oxidative stress in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Hina; Ali, Shakir

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy and the main cause of mortality in patients with chronic liver diseases. This study reports the inhibitory effect of boron on HCC induced in rats by administering thioacetamide (TAA) (0.03%) in drinking water for 400days. Boron (4mg/kg body weight) was administered orally after induction of carcinoma. Treatment was continued for 122days, and cell proliferation, histology and biochemistry of treated and control group of rats were studied. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, which increased in rats exposed to carcinogen, significantly decreased after boron treatment. PCNA index decreased from 80 in HCC rats to 32 after boron treatment. In the control group, it was 20. Boron caused a dose-dependent decrease in carcinogen-induced [(3)H]-thymidine uptake by the rat hepatocyte. It could partially reverse the activity of selected biochemical indicators of hepatic damage, oxidative stress, selenium and serum retinol, which are depleted in liver cancer, and improved overall health of animal. The study implicates the elevated levels of mammalian molybdenum Fe-S containing flavin hydroxylases, which increase the free radical production and oxidative stress, consequently causing increased hepatic cell proliferation in HCC, and reports boron to ameliorate these changes in liver cancer.

  14. Inhibition of AQP1 Hampers Osteosarcoma and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression Mediated by Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pelagalli, Alessandra; Nardelli, Anna; Fontanella, Raffaela; Zannetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The complex cross-talk between tumor cells and their surrounding stromal environment plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer. Among several cell types that constitute the tumor stroma, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) selectively migrate toward the tumor microenvironment and contribute to the active formation of tumor-associated stroma. Therefore, here we elucidate the involvement of BM-MSCs to promote osteosarcoma (OS) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells migration and invasion and deepening the role of specific pathways. We analyzed the function of aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a water channel known to promote metastasis and neoangiogenes. AQP1 protein levels were analyzed in OS (U2OS) and HCC (SNU-398) cells exposed to conditioned medium from BM-MSCs. Tumor cell migration and invasion in response to BM-MSC conditioned medium were evaluated through a wound healing assay and Boyden chamber, respectively. The results showed that the AQP1 level was increased in both tumor cell lines after treatment with BM-MSC conditioned medium. Moreover, BM-MSCs-mediated tumor cell migration and invasion were hampered after treatment with AQP1 inhibitor. These data suggest that the recruitment of human BM-MSCs into the tumor microenvironment might cause OS and HCC cell migration and invasion through involvement of AQP1. PMID:27409610

  15. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor expressed in non-cancer tissues provides predictive powers for recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Furuya, Shinji; Hara, Michio; Hirayama, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Yuuki; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hosomura, Naohiro; Sun, Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery. METHODS Expression of M-CSF, distribution of M2 macrophages (MΦs), and angiogenesis were assessed in the liver, including tumors and peritumoral liver tissues. The prognostic power of these factors was assessed. Mouse isolated hepatic MΦs or monocytes were cultured with media containing M-CSF. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in media was assessed. Furthermore, the role of the M-CSF-matured hepatic MΦs on proliferation of the vascular endothelial cell (VEC) was investigated. RESULTS A strong correlation between the expressions of M-CSF and CD163 was observed in the peritumoral area. Also, groups with high density of M-CSF, CD163 or CD31 showed a significantly shorter time to recurrence (TTR) than low density groups. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of M-CSF or hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area as the most crucial factor responsible for shorter TTR. Moreover, the expression of M-CSF and hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area had better predictable power of overall survival. Values of VEGF in culture media were significantly greater in the hepatic MΦs compared with the monocytes. Proliferation of the VEC was greatest in the cells co-cultured with hepatic MΦs when M-CSF was present in media. CONCLUSION M-CSF increases hepatocarcinogenesis, most likely by enhancing an angiogenic factor derived from hepatic MΦ and could be a useful target for therapy against HCC.

  16. INHIBITION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY DICLOFENAC SODIUM.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hisham A

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a major problem. Targeting virulence factors is an alternative option to avoid the emergence of resistance to antibiotics. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of diclofenac sodium on the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa was investigated. The virulence factors included protease, haemolysin, pyocyanin and pyoverdin, in addition to pathogenic behaviors such as swimming and twitching motilities and biofilm formation. Diclofenac sodium showed significant inhibition of virulence factors as compared to the control. Diclofenac sodium decreased twitching and swimming motilities by 29.27% and 45.36%, respectively. The percentage of inhibition of pyocyanin by diclofenac sodium was 42.32%. On the other hand, pyoverdin was inhibited to a lesser extent (36.72%). Diclofenac sodium reduced protease by 52.58% and biofilm formation by 58.37%. Moreover, haemolytic activity in the presence of diclofenac sodium was 15.64% as compared to the control (100% haemolytic activity). The inhibitory activities may be due to inhibition of quorum sensing that regulates the expression of virulence factors. This study suggests the potential for the use of diclofenac sodium as an anti-virulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections.

  17. INHIBITION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY DICLOFENAC SODIUM.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hisham A

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a major problem. Targeting virulence factors is an alternative option to avoid the emergence of resistance to antibiotics. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of diclofenac sodium on the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa was investigated. The virulence factors included protease, haemolysin, pyocyanin and pyoverdin, in addition to pathogenic behaviors such as swimming and twitching motilities and biofilm formation. Diclofenac sodium showed significant inhibition of virulence factors as compared to the control. Diclofenac sodium decreased twitching and swimming motilities by 29.27% and 45.36%, respectively. The percentage of inhibition of pyocyanin by diclofenac sodium was 42.32%. On the other hand, pyoverdin was inhibited to a lesser extent (36.72%). Diclofenac sodium reduced protease by 52.58% and biofilm formation by 58.37%. Moreover, haemolytic activity in the presence of diclofenac sodium was 15.64% as compared to the control (100% haemolytic activity). The inhibitory activities may be due to inhibition of quorum sensing that regulates the expression of virulence factors. This study suggests the potential for the use of diclofenac sodium as an anti-virulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. PMID:27328521

  18. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  19. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Llovet, Josep M; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Pikarsky, Eli; Sangro, Bruno; Schwartz, Myron; Sherman, Morris; Gores, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches. PMID:27158749

  20. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 regulates the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via pathways involving reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Rong; Lv, Ya-Su; Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Cai, Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-04-26

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) has been identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Research has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules in cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms linking eIF5A2 and ROS are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ROS on the eIF5A2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Western hybridization, siRNA transfection, transwell migration assays, wound-healing assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used. The protein levels of eIF5A2 in tumor and adjacent tissue samples from 90 HCC patients with detailed clinical, pathological, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated. Overexpression of eIF5A2 was found in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent tissues. We found that eIF5A2 overexpression in HCC was associated with reduced overall survival. Knockdown of eIF5A2 and intracellular reduction of ROS significantly suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. Interestingly, N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) suppressed the intracellular ROS levels. After blocking the EMT, administration of GC7 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not reduce cell migration further. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that inhibition of eIF5A2 alters progression of the EMT to decrease the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells via ROS-related pathways. PMID:27028999

  1. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 regulates the migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via pathways involving reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yue-Xiao; Wang, Yan-Fang; Chen, Xiao-Ling; Zheng, Xiao-Xiao; Xie, Shang-Zhi; Cai, Ying; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A2 (eIF5A2) has been identified as a critical gene in tumor metastasis. Research has suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) serve as signaling molecules in cancer cell proliferation and migration. However, the mechanisms linking eIF5A2 and ROS are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of ROS on the eIF5A2-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and migration in six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines. Western hybridization, siRNA transfection, transwell migration assays, wound-healing assays, and immunofluorescence analysis were used. The protein levels of eIF5A2 in tumor and adjacent tissue samples from 90 HCC patients with detailed clinical, pathological, and clinical follow-up data were evaluated. Overexpression of eIF5A2 was found in cancerous tissues compared with adjacent tissues. We found that eIF5A2 overexpression in HCC was associated with reduced overall survival. Knockdown of eIF5A2 and intracellular reduction of ROS significantly suppressed the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells. Interestingly, N1-guanyl-1, 7-diaminoheptane (GC7) suppressed the intracellular ROS levels. After blocking the EMT, administration of GC7 or N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not reduce cell migration further. Based on the experimental data, we concluded that inhibition of eIF5A2 alters progression of the EMT to decrease the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells via ROS-related pathways. PMID:27028999

  2. miR-663 overexpression induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis via transforming growth factor beta 1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yawei; Liu, Jiatao; Fan, Lulu; Wang, Fang; Yu, Hanqing; Wei, Wei; Sun, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    microRNAs are commonly dysregulated in a number of human cancers, for example, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the precise mechanism of dysregulation has not been extensively studied. Although previous studies have indicated that HCC cells are resistant to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis, little is known about the relationship between microRNAs and ER stress-mediated apoptosis resistance. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time that the expression level of miR-663 was significantly upregulated in HCC cells co-incubated with tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, as measured by a microRNA-chromatin immunoprecipitation microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; however, the effect of miR-663 on HCC cell apoptosis remains unknown. To investigate the potential involvement of miR-663 in HCC, HepG2 cells were transfected with mimics or inhibitors of miR-663. Consequently, we identified that downregulation of miR-663 suppressed HCC cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis under ER stress. Target gene analysis further predicted that the effects of miR-663 on HCC cells were mediated by directly targeting transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFB1). Interestingly, the expression levels of TGFB1 changed inversely after downregulation or upregulation of miR-663 by inhibitors or mimics of miR-663 in HepG2 cells. Additionally, TGFB1 knockdown inhibited apoptosis in HepG2 cells. In sum, our study identifies a role for miR-663 as a critical regulator of ER stress-mediated apoptosis resistance in HCC cells via TGFB1. Accordingly, therapies aimed at the miR-663/TGFB1 axis might represent a hopeful strategy to overcome apoptosis resistance in HCC. PMID:27073326

  3. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53(+/-)), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r (2) = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  4. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance.

  5. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  6. Identification of T-cell factor-4 isoforms that contribute to the malignant phenotype of hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Koga, Hironori; Rosenberg, Stephen A.; Nambotin, Sarah B.; Carroll, John J.; Wands, Jack R.; Kim, Miran

    2011-04-15

    The Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway is frequently activated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Downstream signaling events involving the Wnt/{beta}-catenin cascade occur through T-cell factor (TCF) proteins. The human TCF-4 gene is composed of 17 exons with multiple alternative splicing sites. However, the role of different TCF-4 isoforms in the pathogenesis of HCC is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize TCF-4 isoforms in HCC. We identified 14 novel TCF-4 isoforms from four HCC cell lines. Functional analysis following transfection and expression in HCC cells revealed distinct effects on the phenotype. The TCF-4J isoform expression produced striking features of malignant transformation characterized by high cell proliferation rate, migration and colony formation even though its transcriptional activity was low. In contrast, the TCF-4K isoform displayed low TCF transcriptional activity; cell proliferation rate and colony formation were reduced as well. Interestingly, TCF-4J and TCF-4K differed by only five amino acids (the SxxSS motif). Thus, these studies suggest that conserved splicing motifs may have a major influence on the transcriptional activity and functional properties of TCF-4 isoforms and alter the characteristics of the malignant phenotype.

  7. Enhanced myeloid differentiation factor 88 promotes tumor metastasis via induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jia, R-J; Cao, L; Zhang, L; Jing, W; Chen, R; Zhu, M-H; Guo, S-W; Wu, G-B; Fan, X-Y; Wang, H; Zhang, Y-Y; Zhou, X-Y; Zhao, J; Guo, Y-J

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative resection. Therefore, it is critical to understand the mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis in HCC. We have previously shown that elevated expression of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) may promote tumor growth and metastasis in HCC. In this study, we reported that enhanced expression of MyD88 promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties and tumor-initiating capabilities in HCC cells. MyD88 was found to be able to interact with p85, a regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K), independent of TLR/IL-1R-mediated response and caused PI3-K/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) activation, which resulted in subsequent phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and stabilization of Snail, a critical EMT mediator. Consistently, we observed a significant correlation between MyD88 expression and p-Akt levels in a cohort of HCC patients, and found that the combination of these two parameters have better prognostic value for HCC patients. Taken together, these results suggest that elevated MyD88 may facilitate HCC metastasis by promoting EMT properties and tumor-initiating capabilities via PI3-K/Akt pathway.

  8. Predictive Factors of Downstaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Beyond the Milan Criteria Treated with Intra-arterial Therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Bova, Valentina; Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Vizzini, Giovanni Battista; Luca, Angelo

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to analyze the clinical results in patients suitable for liver transplantation with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who exceeded Milan criteria, which underwent intra-arterial therapies (IAT), to determine predictive factors of successful downstaging. A total of 277 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and HCC were treated by IAT (transarterial oily chemoembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial embolization) in a single center. Eighty patients exceed the Milan criteria. Patients with infiltrative HCC, hypovascular HCC, and portal vein thrombosis were excluded, with a final study population of 48 patients. Tumor response to IAT was evaluated with CT and/or MRI according to modified RECIST criteria. Successful downstaging was defined as a reduction in the number and size of viable tumors to within the Milan criteria, and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <100 ng/mL, for at least 6 months. Nineteen patients (39 %) had their tumors successfully downstaged; 29 patients (61 %) did not. Multivariate analysis showed that AFP level <100 ng/mL and 3-year calculated survival probability using the Metroticket calculator were the only independent predictors of successful downstaging (p < 0.023 and p < 0.049 respectively). Biological characteristics of HCC as AFP levels <100 ng/mL and high 3-year calculated survival probability may predict a good response to downstage after IAT.

  9. Is the vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA expression in resectable hepatocellular carcinoma of prognostic value after resection ?

    PubMed Central

    Jeng, Kuo-Shyang; Sheen, I-Shyan; Wang, Yi-Ching; Gu, Shu-Ling; Chu, Chien-Ming; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Wang, Po-Chuan; Chang, Wen-Hsing; Wang, Horng-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study whether vascular endothelial growth factor messenger RNA (VEGF mRNA) in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues obtained after curative resection has a prognostic value. METHODS: Using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assay, VEGF mRNA was determined prospectively in liver tissues of 50 controls and in HCC tissues of 50 consecutive patients undergoing curative resection for HCC. RESULTS: Among the isoforms of VEGF mRNA, VEGF165 and VEGF121 were expressed. By multivariate analysis, a higher level of VEGF165 in HCC tissue correlated with a significant risk of HCC recurrence (P = 0.038) and significantly with recurrence-related mortality (P = 0.045); while VEGF121 did not. Other significant predictors of HCC recurrence included cellular dedifferentiation (P = 0.033), an absent or incomplete capsule (P = 0.020), vascular permeation (P = 0.018), and daughter nodules (P = 0.006). The other significant variables of recurrence related mortality consisted of vascular permeation (P = 0.045), and cellular dedifferentiation (P = 0.053). The level of VEGF mRNA in HCC tissues, however, did not significantly correlate with tumor size, cellular differentiation, capsule, daughter nodules, vascular permeation, necrosis and hemorrhage of tumors. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF mRNA, especially isoform VEGF165, in HCC tissues, may play a significant and independant role in the prediction of postoperative recurrence of HCC. PMID:14991937

  10. Phosphorylated AKT inhibits the apoptosis induced by DRAM-mediated mitophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma by preventing the translocation of DRAM to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Shi, Y; Guo, X H; Ouyang, Y B; Wang, S S; Liu, D J; Wang, A N; Li, N; Chen, D X

    2014-01-01

    Increasing autophagy is beneficial for curing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM) was recently reported to induce apoptosis by mediating autophagy. However, the effects of DRAM-mediated autophagy on apoptosis in HCC cells remain unclear. In this study, normal hepatocytes (7702) and HCC cell lines (HepG2, Hep3B and Huh7) were starved for 48 h. Starvation induced apoptosis and autophagy in all cell lines. We determined that starvation also induced DRAM expression and DRAM-mediated autophagy in both normal hepatocytes and HCC cells. However, DRAM-mediated autophagy was involved in apoptosis in normal hepatocytes but not in HCC cells, suggesting that DRAM-mediated autophagy fails to induce apoptosis in hepatoma in response to starvation. Immunoblot and immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that DRAM translocated to mitochondria and induced mitophagy, which led to apoptosis in 7702 cells. In HCC cells, starvation also activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which blocks the translocation of DRAM to mitochondria through the binding of p-AKT to DRAM in the cytoplasm. Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT pathway rescued DRAM translocation to mitochondria; subsequently, mitochondrial DRAM induced apoptosis in HCC cells by mediating mitophagy. Our findings open new avenues for the investigation of the mechanisms of DRAM-mediated autophagy and suggest that promoting DRAM-mediated autophagy together with PI3K/AKT inhibition might be more effective for autophagy-based therapy in hepatoma. PMID:24556693

  11. MicroRNA-452 promotes stem-like cells of hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting Sox7 involving Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiyun; Liu, Jimin; Yang, Zhe; Wu, Limin; Xie, Haiyang; Jiang, Chaozhe; Lin, Binyi; Chen, Tianchi; Xing, Chunyang; Liu, Zhikun; Song, Penghong; Yin, Shengyong; Zheng, Shusen; Zhou, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The decrease of microRNA-452 (miR-452) in gliomas promoted stem-like features and tumorigenesis. However, the role of miR-452, especially in regulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains ambiguous. We enriched stem-like HCC cells by serial passages of hepatospheres with chemotherapeutic agents. Stem-like characteristics including the capabilities of chemo-resistance, stemness-related gene expression profiling, self-renewal, tumorigenicity and metastasis formation were detected. MiR-452 was markedly increased in the chemo-resistant hepatospheres and human HCC tissues. and the overexpression of miR-452 in HCC patients predicted poor overall survival. MiR-452 significantly promoted stem-like characteristics in vitro and in vivo. Further, Sox7 was identified as the direct target of miR-452, which could physically bind with β-catenin and TCF4 in the nucleus and then inhibit the activity of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, the combined chemotherapy of doxorubicin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) showed dramatically efficiency in suppressing HCC metastasis. These data suggested that miR-452 promoted stem-like traits of HCC, which might be a potential therapeutic target for HCC. The combination of doxorubicin and ATRA might be a promising therapy in HCC management. PMID:27058905

  12. MicroRNA-379-5p inhibits tumor invasion and metastasis by targeting FAK/AKT signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Song; Li, Hua-Shu; Huang, Jiong-Qiang; Dong, Shi-Hao; Huang, Zhi-Jie; Yi, Wei; Zhan, Gao-Fang; Feng, Ju-Tao; Sun, Jian-Cong; Huang, Xiao-Hui

    2016-05-28

    Some microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, the roles and mechanisms of several miRNAs in HCC remain poorly understood. Here, we report that miR-379-5p, which is down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, is associated with advanced TNM stage and metastasis in HCC. The ectopic overexpression of miR-379-5p inhibited HCC cell migration, invasion, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, miR-379 knockdown increased migration, invasion and EMT in HCC cells. Moreover, miR-379-5p exerted this function by directly targeting focal adhesion kinase (FAK) 3'-UTR and repressing FAK expression, thus leading to suppression of AKT signaling. Furthermore, the tumor suppressive effects of miR-379-5p in HCC cells were reversed by activating AKT signaling or restoring FAK expression. In clinical samples of HCC, miR-379-5p negatively correlated with FAK, which was up-regulated in HCC. Taken together, our findings highlight the important role of miR-379-5p in regulating the EMT and metastasis of HCC by targeting FAK/AKT signaling, suggesting that miR-379-5p may represent a novel potential therapeutic target and prognostic marker for HCC. PMID:26944318

  13. Astaxanthin Inhibits Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells via Inhibition of Nf-Κb P65 and Wnt/Β-Catenin in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Dai, Weiqi; Xia, Yujing; Chen, Kan; Li, Sainan; Liu, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jianrong; Lu, Wenxia; Zhou, Yuqing; Yin, Qin; Abudumijiti, Huerxidan; Chen, Rongxia; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fan; Lu, Jie; Zhou, Yingqun; Guo, Chuanyong

    2015-10-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a malignant tumor that can cause systemic invasion; however, the exact etiology and molecular mechanism are unknown. Astaxanthin (ASX), a powerful antioxidant, has efficient anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and other activities, and has great research prospects in cancer therapy. We selected the human hepatoma cell lines, LM3 and SMMC-7721, to study the anti-tumor effect and related mechanisms of ASX. The cell lines were treated with different concentrations of ASX, and its solvent DMSO as a control, for different time periods and the results were determined using CCK8, qRT-PCR, WB, apoptotic staining, and flow cytometry. ASX induced significant apoptosis of HCC cells, and its effect may have been caused by NF-κB p65 and Wnt/β-catenin down-regulation via negative activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK. Antitumor research on ASX has provided us with a potential therapy for patients with hepatomas. PMID:26404320

  14. Inhibition of Hageman factor, plasma thromboplastin antecedent, thrombin and other clotting factors by phenylglyoxal hydrate (38500).

    PubMed

    Radnoff, O D; Saito, H

    1975-01-01

    Exposure of purified Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) to phenylglyoxal hydrate (PHG), an agent reacting with arginine residues in protein, inhibited its coagulant properties upon subsequent exposure of negatively charged agents. Once HF had been exposed to kaolin or ellagic acid, however, subsequent addition of PHG was much less inhibitory. PHG had no effect upon the ability of HF to bind to negatively charged surfaces. PGH also inhibited preparations of activated PTA (Factor XI) and thrombin, and, when incubated with plasma, reduced the titer of coagulable fibrinogen, PTA Christmas factor (Factor IX), antihemophilic factor (Factor VIII), Factor VII, Stuart factor (Factor X), proaccelerin (Factor V) and prothrombin (Factor II), and to a lesser degres, HF.

  15. Small peptides blocking inhibition of factor Xa and tissue factor-factor VIIa by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI).

    PubMed

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M Christella L G D; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-17

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nM). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nM) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nM). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  16. Small Peptides Blocking Inhibition of Factor Xa and Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa by Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI)*

    PubMed Central

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M. Christella L. G. D.; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nm). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nm) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nm). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  17. miR-187-3p inhibits the metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting S100A4.

    PubMed

    Dou, Changwei; Liu, Zhikui; Xu, Meng; Jia, Yuli; Wang, Yufeng; Li, Qing; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Xin; Tu, Kangsheng; Liu, Qingguang

    2016-10-28

    miR-187-3p, a novel cancer-related microRNA, was previously reported to play promoting or suppressive roles in different malignancies. However, the expression level, biological function, and underlying mechanisms of miR-187-3p in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. This study demonstrated that miR-187-3p was significantly down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines, and was associated with advanced TNM stage and metastasis in HCC. Functional studies confirmed that miR-187-3p could inhibit the metastasis of HCC both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we proved that miR-187-3p could prevent the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Mechanically, S100A4 was a direct downstream target of miR-187-3p, and mediated the functional influence of miR-187-3p in HCC. Furthermore, miR-187-3p and S100A4 expression was evidently correlated with adverse clinical features and poor prognosis of HCC. Lastly, we showed that hypoxia was responsible for the significantly decreased level of miR-187-3p in HCC, and miR-187-3p was involved in the promoting effects of hypoxia on the metastasis and EMT of HCC cells. Taken together, miR-187-3p inhibits the metastasis and EMT in HCC by targeting S100A4. miR-187-3p can serve as a prognostic indicator and a promising therapeutic target for HCC patients.

  18. Fucoidan Elevates MicroRNA-29b to Regulate DNMT3B-MTSS1 Axis and Inhibit EMT in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ming-De; Yao, Chih-Jung; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Hwang, Pai-An; Chuang, Shuang-En; Whang-Peng, Jacqueline; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has revealed that fucoidan exhibits anti-tumor activities by arresting cell cycle and inducing apoptosis in many types of cancer cells including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exploring its effect on microRNA expression, we found that fucoidan markedly upregulated miR-29b of human HCC cells. The induction of miR-29b was accompanied with suppression of its downstream target DNMT3B in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of luciferase activity of DNMT3B 3′-UTR reporter by fucoidan was as markedly as that by miR-29b mimic, indicating that fucoidan induced miR-29b to suppress DNMT3B. Accordingly, the mRNA and protein levels of MTSS1 (metastasis suppressor 1), a target silenced by DNMT3B, were increased after fucoidan treatment. Furthermore, fucoidan also down-regulated TGF-β receptor and Smad signaling of HCC cells. All these effects leaded to the inhibition of EMT (increased E-cadherin and decreased N-cadherin) and prevention of extracellular matrix degradation (increased TIMP-1 and decreased MMP2, 9), by which the invasion activity of HCC cells was diminished. Our results demonstrate the profound effect of fucoidan not only on the regulation of miR-29b-DNMT3B-MTSS1 axis but also on the inhibition of TGF-β signaling in HCC cells, suggesting the potential of using fucoidan as integrative therapeutics against invasion and metastasis of HCC. PMID:26404322

  19. Microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünal, Emre; İdilman, İlkay Sedakat; Akata, Deniz; Özmen, Mustafa Nasuh; Karçaaltıncaba, Muşturay

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular invasion is a crucial histopathologic prognostic factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. We reviewed the literature and aimed to draw attention to clinicopathologic and imaging findings that may predict the presence of microvascular invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma. Imaging findings suggesting microvascular invasion are disruption of capsule, irregular tumor margin, peritumoral enhancement, multifocal tumor, increased tumor size, and increased glucose metabolism on positron emission tomography-computed tomography. In the presence of typical findings, microvascular invasion may be predicted. PMID:26782155

  20. Reproductive factors, exogenous hormone use and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among US women: results from the Liver Cancer Pooling Project

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, K A; Sahasrabuddhe, V V; Campbell, P T; Graubard, B I; Chen, J; Schwartz, L M; Petrick, J L; Alavanja, M C; Andreotti, G; Boggs, D A; Buring, J E; Chan, A T; Freedman, N D; Gapstur, S M; Hollenbeck, A R; Hou, L; King, L Y; Koshiol, J; Linet, M; Palmer, J R; Poynter, J N; Purdue, M; Robien, K; Schairer, C; Sesso, H D; Sigurdson, A; Wactawski-Wende, J; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurs less commonly among women than men in almost all regions of the world. The disparity in risk is particularly notable prior to menopause suggesting that hormonal exposures during reproductive life may be protective. Exogenous oestrogenic exposures such as oral contraceptives (OCs), however, have been reported to increase risk, suggesting that estrogens may be hepatocarcinogenic. To examine the effects of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones on risk, we conducted a prospective analysis among a large group of US women. Methods: In the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium of US-based cohort studies, data from 799 500 women in 11 cohorts were pooled and harmonised. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of reproductive factors and exogenous hormones with HCC (n=248). Results: Bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a significantly increased risk of HCC (HR=2.67, 95% CI=1.22–5.85), which did not appear to be related to a shorter duration of exposure to endogenous hormones or to menopausal hormone therapy use. There was no association between OC use and HCC (HR=1.12, 95% CI=0.82–1.55). Nor were there associations with parity, age at first birth, age at natural menopause, or duration of fertility. Conclusions: The current study suggests that bilateral oophorectomy increases the risk of HCC but the explanation for the association is unclear. There was no association between OC use and HCC risk. Examination of endogenous hormone levels in relation to HCC may help to clarify the findings of the current study. PMID:25742475

  1. Increasing matrix stiffness upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cells mediated by integrin β1.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yinying; Xie, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhiming; Hu, Chao; Zheng, Qiongdan; Wang, Yaohui; Chen, Rongxin; Xue, Tongchun; Chen, Jie; Gao, Dongmei; Wu, Weizhong; Ren, Zhenggang; Cui, Jiefeng

    2014-02-14

    Matrix stiffness as a novel regulation factor involves in modulating the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) invasion or metastasis. However, the mechanism by which matrix stiffness modulates HCC angiogenesis remains unknown. Here, using buffalo rat HCC models with different liver matrix stiffness backgrounds and an in vitro cell culture system of mechanically tunable Collagen1 (COL1)-coated polyacrylamide gel, we investigated the effects of different matrix stiffness levels on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in HCC cells and explored its regulatory mechanism for controlling HCC angiogenesis. Tissue microarray analysis showed that the expression levels of VEGF and CD31 were gradually upregulated in tumor tissues with increasing COL1 and lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression, indicating a positive correlation between tumor angiogenesis and matrix rigidity. The expression of VEGF and the phosphorylation levels of PI3K and Akt were all upregulated in HCC cells on high-stiffness gel than on low-stiffness gel. Meanwhile, alteration of intergrin β1 expression was found to be the most distinctive, implying that it might mediate the response of HCC cells to matrix stiffness simulation. After integrin β1 was blocked in HCC cells using specific monoclonal antibody, the expression of VEGF and the phosphorylation levels of PI3K and Akt at different culture times were accordingly suppressed and downregulated in the treatment group as compared with those in the control group. All data suggested that the extracellular matrix stiffness stimulation signal was transduced into HCC cells via integrin β1, and this signal activated the PI3K/Akt pathway and upregulated VEGF expression. This study unveils a new paradigm in which matrix stiffness as initiators to modulate HCC angiogenesis.

  2. Prognostic factors in patients with hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma undergoing nucleoside analog antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    NISHIKAWA, HIROKI; NISHIJIMA, NORIHIRO; ARIMOTO, AKIRA; INUZUKA, TADASHI; KITA, RYUICHI; KIMURA, TORU; OSAKI, YUKIO

    2013-01-01

    In the present era of entecavir (ETV) use for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), the prognostic factors in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prognostic factors in patients with HBV-related HCC treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy. A total of 74 HBV-related HCC patients treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy were analyzed. Predictive factors associated with overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were examined using univariate and multivariate analysis. Our study population included 49 males and 25 females with a median age of 62 years. The median observation period was 3.4 years (range, 0.2–11.5 years). The 1-, 3- and 5-year cumulative OS rates were 100, 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively. The corresponding RFS rates were 82.8, 52.1 and 25.6%, respectively. In this study, 73 patients (98.6%) achieved an HBV DNA level of <400 copies/ml during the follow-up period. No viral breakthrough hepatitis, as defined by 1 log increase from nadir, was observed during ETV therapy. According to multivariate analysis, only hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity was significantly associated with OS [hazard ratio (HR), 0.058; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.005–0.645; P=0.020)], whereas HCC stage (HR, 0.359; 95% CI, 0.150–0.859; P=0.021), HBeAg positivity (HR, 0.202; 95% CI, 0.088–0.463; P<0.001) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase ≥50 IU/l (HR, 0.340; 95% CI, 0.152–0.760; P=0.009) were significant predictive factors linked to RFS. In conclusion, HBeAg positivity was significantly associated with OS and RFS in HBV-related HCC patients treated with ETV who underwent curative therapy. In such patients, close observation is required, even after curative therapy for HCC. PMID:24179497

  3. Risk Factors and Post-Resection Independent Predictive Score for the Recurrence of Hepatitis B-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Ronnie Tung-Ping; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak; Chui, Ada Hang-Wai; Seto, Wai-Kay; Fung, James Yan-Yue; Chan, Albert Chi-Yan; Yuen, John Chi-Hang; Tiu, Randal; Choi, Olivia; Lai, Ching-Lung; Yuen, Man-Fung

    2016-01-01

    Background Independent risk factors associated with hepatitis B (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after resection remains unknown. An accurate risk score for HCC recurrence is lacking. Methods We prospectively followed up 200 patients who underwent liver resection for HBV-related HCC for at least 2 years. Demographic, biochemical, tumor, virological and anti-viral treatment factors were analyzed to identify independent risk factors associated with recurrence after resection and a risk score for HCC recurrence formulated. Results Two hundred patients (80% male) who underwent liver resection for HBV-related HCC were recruited. The median time of recurrence was 184 weeks (IQR 52–207 weeks) for the entire cohort and 100 patients (50%) developed HCC recurrence. Stepwise Cox regression analysis identified that one-month post resection HBV DNA >20,000 IU/mL (p = 0.019; relative risk (RR) 1.67; 95% confidence interval (C.I.): 1.09–2.57), the presence of lymphovascular permeation (p<0.001; RR 2.69; 95% C.I.: 1.75–4.12), microsatellite lesions (p<0.001; RR 2.86; 95% C.I.: 1.82–4.51), and AFP >100ng/mL before resection (p = 0.021; RR 1.63; 95% C.I.: 1.08–2.47) were independently associated with HCC recurrence. Antiviral treatment before resection (p = 0.024; RR 0.1; 95% C.I.: 0.01–0.74) was independently associated with reduced risk of HCC recurrence. A post-resection independent predictive score (PRIPS) was derived and validated with sensitivity of 75.3% and 60.6% and specificity of 55.7% and 79.2%, to predict the 1- and 3-year risks for the HCC recurrence respectively with the hazard ratio of 2.71 (95% C.I.: 2.12–3.48; p<0.001). The AUC for the 1- and 3-year prediction were 0.675 (95% C.I.: 0.6–0.78) and 0.746 (95% C.I.: 0.69–0.82) respectively. Conclusion Several tumor, virological and biochemical factors were associated with a higher cumulative risk of HCC recurrence after resection. PRIPS was derived for more accurate risk assessment

  4. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma as first-line treatment: long term outcomes and prognostic factors in 221 patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Chi, Jia-Chang; Ding, Min; Zhang, Yuan; Tang, Xiao-Yin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed at evaluating the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of microwave ablation (MWA) as a first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 221 consecutive patients receiving MWA in our center between October 11, 2010 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled. Technique effectiveness was evaluated one month post-ablation. Initial complete ablation (CA1(st)) was gained in 201 (90.95%) patients, secondary CA (CA2(nd)) in 8 (3.62%) patients and the remaining 12 (5.43%) patients suffered from incomplete ablation (IA2(nd)) after two sessions of MWA. Patients with tumor size >5 cm were less likely to gain CA1(st). Procedure-related complications were recorded and no procedure-related death occurred. 22 (10.4%) complications occurred with 8 (3.8%) being major ones. Tumor characteristics (size, number, location) do not significantly influence complication rates. After a median follow-up of 41.0 (ranging 25.0-63.5) months, the median RFS and OS was 14.0 months (95% CI: 9.254-18.746) and 41.0 months (95% CI: 33.741-48.259) respectively. Multivariate analysis identified two significant prognosticators (levels of alpha fetal protein [AFP] and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) of RFS and five significant prognosticators (tumor number, tumor size, AFP, GGT and recurrence type) of OS. In conclusion, MWA provides high technique effectiveness rate and is well tolerated in patients with HCC as a first-line treatment. PMID:27620527

  5. Microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma as first-line treatment: long term outcomes and prognostic factors in 221 patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Lu, Xiao-Jie; Chi, Jia-Chang; Ding, Min; Zhang, Yuan; Tang, Xiao-Yin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Zhai, Bo

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed at evaluating the long-term outcomes and prognostic factors of microwave ablation (MWA) as a first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). 221 consecutive patients receiving MWA in our center between October 11, 2010 and December 31, 2013 were enrolled. Technique effectiveness was evaluated one month post-ablation. Initial complete ablation (CA1st) was gained in 201 (90.95%) patients, secondary CA (CA2nd) in 8 (3.62%) patients and the remaining 12 (5.43%) patients suffered from incomplete ablation (IA2nd) after two sessions of MWA. Patients with tumor size >5 cm were less likely to gain CA1st. Procedure-related complications were recorded and no procedure-related death occurred. 22 (10.4%) complications occurred with 8 (3.8%) being major ones. Tumor characteristics (size, number, location) do not significantly influence complication rates. After a median follow-up of 41.0 (ranging 25.0–63.5) months, the median RFS and OS was 14.0 months (95% CI: 9.254–18.746) and 41.0 months (95% CI: 33.741–48.259) respectively. Multivariate analysis identified two significant prognosticators (levels of alpha fetal protein [AFP] and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase [GGT]) of RFS and five significant prognosticators (tumor number, tumor size, AFP, GGT and recurrence type) of OS. In conclusion, MWA provides high technique effectiveness rate and is well tolerated in patients with HCC as a first-line treatment. PMID:27620527

  6. Loss of Runt-related transcription factor 3 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Junro; Shiraha, Hidenori; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Sawahara, Hiroaki; Uchida, Daisuke; Nagahara, Teruya; Iwamuro, Masaya; Morimoto, Hiroki; Takeuchi, Yasuto; Kuwaki, Kenji; Onishi, Hideki; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Takaki, Akinobu; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Yagi, Takahito; Yamamoto, Kazuhide; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) is known to function as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and other types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its role has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the role of RUNX3 in HCC. We used the human HCC cell lines Hep3B, Huh7 and HLF; RUNX3 cDNA was introduced into Hep3B and Huh7 cells, which were negative for endogenous RUNX3 expression, and RUNX3 siRNA was transfected into HLF cells, which were positive for endogenous RUNX3. We analyzed the expression of RUNX3 and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) by immunoblotting. MTT assays were used to determine the effects of RUNX3 expression on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) sensitivity. Finally, 23 HCC specimens resected from patients with HCC at Okayama University Hospital were analyzed, and correlations among immunohistochemical expression of RUNX3 protein and MRP protein were evaluated in these specimens. Exogenous RUNX3 expression reduced the expression of MRP1, MRP2, MRP3 and MRP5 in the RUNX3-negative cells, whereas knockdown of RUNX3 in the HLF cells stimulated the expression of these MRPs. An inverse correlation between RUNX3 and MRP expression was observed in the HCC tissues. Importantly, loss of RUNX3 expression contributed to 5-FU and CDDP resistance by inducing MRP expression. These data have important implications in the study of chemotherapy resistance in HCC. PMID:26985715

  7. A polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin in combination with sorafenib synergistically inhibits tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic model of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bo; Sun, Ding; Sun, Chao; Sun, Yun-Fan; Sun, Hai-Xiang; Zhu, Qing-Feng; Yang, Xin-Rong; Gao, Ya-Bo; Tang, Wei-Guo; Fan, Jia; Maitra, Anirban; Anders, Robert A; Xu, Yang

    2015-12-25

    Curcumin, a yellow polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of turmeric root (Curcuma longa) has potent anti-cancer properties in many types of tumors with ability to reverse multidrug resistance of cancer cells. However, widespread clinical application of this agent in cancer and other diseases has been limited due to its poor aqueous solubility. The recent findings of polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NFC) have shown the potential for circumventing the problem of poor solubility, however evidences for NFC's anti-cancer and reverse multidrug resistance properties are lacking. Here we provide models of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common form of primary liver cancer, in vitro and in vivo to evaluate the efficacy of NFC alone and in combination with sorafenib, a kinase inhibitor approved for treatment of HCC. Results showed that NFC not only inhibited the proliferation and invasion of HCC cell lines in vitro, but also drastically suppressed primary tumor growth and lung metastases in vivo. Moreover, in combination with sorafenib, NFC induced HCC cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Mechanistically, NFC and sorafenib synergistically down-regulated the expression of MMP9 via NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased the population of CD133-positive HCC cells, which have been reported as cancer initiating cells in HCC. Taken together, NanoCurcumin provides an opportunity to expand the clinical repertoire of this agent. Additional studies utilizing a combination of NanoCurcumin and sorafenib in HCC are needed for further clinical development. PMID:26482853

  8. Interplay between microRNA-17-5p, insulin-like growth factor-II through binding protein-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Habashy, Danira Ashraf; El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Fawzy, Injie Omar; Hosny, Karim Adel; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of microRNA on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and hence on insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) bioavailability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Bioinformatic analysis was performed using microrna.org, DIANA lab and Segal lab softwares. Total RNA was extracted from 23 HCC and 10 healthy liver tissues using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit. microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) expression was mimicked and antagonized in HuH-7 cell lines using HiPerFect Transfection Reagent, then total RNA was extracted using Biozol reagent then reverse transcribed into cDNA followed by quantification of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 expression using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the binding of miR-17-5p to the 3’UTR of IGFBP-3. Free IGF-II protein was measured in transfected HuH-7 cells using IGF-II ELISA kit. RESULTS Bioinformatic analysis revealed IGFBP-3 as a potential target for miR-17-5p. Screening of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 revealed a moderate negative correlation in HCC patients, where miR-17-5p was extensively underexpressed in HCC tissues (P = 0.0012), while IGFBP-3 showed significant upregulation in the same set of patients (P = 0.0041) compared to healthy donors. Forcing miR-17-5p expression in HuH-7 cell lines showed a significant downregulation of IGFBP-3 mRNA expression (P = 0.0267) and a significant increase in free IGF-II protein (P = 0.0339) compared to mock untransfected cells using unpaired t-test. Luciferase assay validated IGFBP-3 as a direct target of miR-17-5p; luciferase activity was inhibited by 27.5% in cells co-transfected with miR-17-5p mimics and the construct harboring the wild-type binding region 2 of IGFBP-3 compared to cells transfected with this construct alone (P = 0.0474). CONCLUSION These data suggest that regulating IGF-II bioavailability and hence HCC progression can be achieved through targeting IGFBP-3 via manipulating the expression of mi

  9. Interplay between microRNA-17-5p, insulin-like growth factor-II through binding protein-3 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Habashy, Danira Ashraf; El Tayebi, Hend Mohamed; Fawzy, Injie Omar; Hosny, Karim Adel; Esmat, Gamal; Abdelaziz, Ahmed Ihab

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of microRNA on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and hence on insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) bioavailability in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS Bioinformatic analysis was performed using microrna.org, DIANA lab and Segal lab softwares. Total RNA was extracted from 23 HCC and 10 healthy liver tissues using mirVana miRNA Isolation Kit. microRNA-17-5p (miR-17-5p) expression was mimicked and antagonized in HuH-7 cell lines using HiPerFect Transfection Reagent, then total RNA was extracted using Biozol reagent then reverse transcribed into cDNA followed by quantification of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 expression using TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR. Luciferase reporter assay was performed to validate the binding of miR-17-5p to the 3’UTR of IGFBP-3. Free IGF-II protein was measured in transfected HuH-7 cells using IGF-II ELISA kit. RESULTS Bioinformatic analysis revealed IGFBP-3 as a potential target for miR-17-5p. Screening of miR-17-5p and IGFBP-3 revealed a moderate negative correlation in HCC patients, where miR-17-5p was extensively underexpressed in HCC tissues (P = 0.0012), while IGFBP-3 showed significant upregulation in the same set of patients (P = 0.0041) compared to healthy donors. Forcing miR-17-5p expression in HuH-7 cell lines showed a significant downregulation of IGFBP-3 mRNA expression (P = 0.0267) and a significant increase in free IGF-II protein (P = 0.0339) compared to mock untransfected cells using unpaired t-test. Luciferase assay validated IGFBP-3 as a direct target of miR-17-5p; luciferase activity was inhibited by 27.5% in cells co-transfected with miR-17-5p mimics and the construct harboring the wild-type binding region 2 of IGFBP-3 compared to cells transfected with this construct alone (P = 0.0474). CONCLUSION These data suggest that regulating IGF-II bioavailability and hence HCC progression can be achieved through targeting IGFBP-3 via manipulating the expression of miRNAs.

  10. Presentation of hepatocellular antigens

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, Arash; Crispe, Ian Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The liver is an organ in which antigen-specific T-cell responses manifest a bias toward immune tolerance. This is clearly seen in the rejection of allogeneic liver transplants, and multiple other phenomena suggest that this effect is more general. These include tolerance toward antigens introduced via the portal vein, immune failure to several hepatotropic viruses, the lack of natural liver-stage immunity to malaria parasites, and the frequent metastasis of cancers to the liver. Here we review the mechanisms by which T cells engage with hepatocellular antigens, the context in which such encounters occur, and the mechanisms that act to suppress a full T-cell response. While many mechanisms play a role, we will argue that two important processes are the constraints on the cross-presentation of hepatocellular antigens, and the induction of negative feedback inhibition driven by interferons. The constant exposure of the liver to microbial products from the intestine may drive innate immunity, rendering the local environment unfavorable for specific T-cell responses through this mechanism. Nevertheless, tolerance toward hepatocellular antigens is not monolithic and under specific circumstances allows both effective immunity and immunopathology. PMID:26924525

  11. Clinical Presentation, Risk Factors, and Treatment Modalities of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Single Tertiary Care Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    AlZunaitan, Mohammed; Al Ghobain, Mohammed; Al Muaikeel, Mohamed; Al Olayan, Ashwaq; Azzumeea, Fahad; AlAlwan, Abduljaleel; AlGhamdi, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the risk factors, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and outcomes in Saudi patients with HCC and propose points for early detection of the disease. Methods. Patients were stratified according to underlying risk factors for the development of HCC. Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) was used for cancer staging. Treatment was classified into surgical resection/liver transplantation; locoregional ablation therapy; transarterial embolization; systemic chemotherapy; and best supportive care. Results. A total of 235 patients were included. Males had higher tumor size and incidence of portal vein thrombosis. Viral hepatitis was a risk factor in 75.7%. The most common BCLC stages were B (34.5%) and A (33.6%), and the most common radiological presentation was a single nodule of less than 5 cm. Metastases were present in 13.2%. Overall, 77 patients (32.8%) underwent a potentially curative treatment as the initial therapy. The most commonly utilized treatment modality was chemoembolization with 113 sessions in 71 patients. The overall median survival was 15.97 ± 27.18 months. Conclusion. HCC in Saudi Arabia is associated with high prevalence of HCV. Potentially curative therapies were underutilized in our patients. Cancer stage BCLC-B was the most frequent (34.5%) followed by BCLC-A (33.6%). The overall median survival was shorter than other studies. PMID:27525001

  12. Pegylated recombinant human arginase (rhArg-peg5,000mw) inhibits the in vitro and in vivo proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma through arginine depletion.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Paul Ning-Man; Lam, Tin-Lun; Lam, Wai-Man; Tsui, Sam-Mui; Cheng, Anthony Wai-Ming; Lo, Wai-Hung; Leung, Yun-Chung

    2007-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is believed to be auxotrophic for arginine through the lack of expression of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS). The successful use of the arginine-depleting enzyme arginine deiminase (ADI) to treat ASS-deficient tumors has opened up new possibilities for effective cancer therapy. Nevertheless, many ASS-positive HCC cell lines are found to be resistant to ADI treatment, although most require arginine for proliferation. Thus far, an arginine-depleting enzyme for killing ASS-positive tumors has not been reported. Here, we provide direct evidence that recombinant human arginase (rhArg) inhibits ASS-positive HCCs. All the five human HCC cell lines we used were sensitive to rhArg but ADI had virtually no effect on these cells. They all expressed ASS, but not ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC), the enzyme that converts ornithine, the product of degradation of arginine with rhArg, to citrulline, which is converted back to arginine via ASS. Transfection of HCC cells with OTC resulted in resistance to rhArg. Thus, OTC expression alone may be sufficient to induce rhArg resistance in ASS-positive HCC cells. This surprising correlation between the lack of OTC expression and sensitivity of ASS-positive HCC cells shows that OTC-deficient HCCs are sensitive to rhArg-mediated arginine depletion. Therefore, pretreatment tumor gene expression profiling of ASS and OTC could aid in predicting tumor response to arginine depletion with arginine-depleting enzymes. We have also shown that the rhArg native enzyme and the pegylated rhArg (rhArg-peg(5,000mw)) gave similar anticancer efficacy in vitro. Furthermore, the growth of the OTC-deficient Hep3B tumor cells (ASS-positive and ADI-resistant) in mice was inhibited by treatment with rhArg-peg(5,000mw), which is active alone and is synergistic in combination with 5-fluorouracil. Thus, our data suggest that rhArg-peg(5,000mw) is a novel agent for effective cancer therapy.

  13. Factors determining long-term outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria: liver transplantation versus locoregional therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Hee; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Kyunga; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) satisfying the Milan criteria are candidates for liver transplantation (LT), but locoregional therapies could be another options for them. A total of 1859 treatment-naïve HCC patients fulfilling the Milan criteria were analyzed. Survival tree analysis was performed to generate survival nodes with similar survival risks in 1729 non-LT group, and compared with the survival of 130 patients who received LT. Among patients who did not receive LT, survival tree analysis classified patients into 6 nodes according to Child-Pugh (CP) score, serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) levels, tumor size, and age, with different mortality risks (5-year survival rate of 87.3%, 77.5%, 65.8%, 64.7%, 44.0%, and 28.7% for nodes 1–6, respectively; P < 0.001). The overall survival of patients in nodes 1 (CP score 5 with AFP levels <5 ng/mL) and 2 (CP score 5 with maximal tumor size <2.5 cm) were comparable with that of patients who received LT (both P > 0.05), but the survival rates of patients in nodes 3 to 6 were worse than that of LT (P < 0.05 for all). In each survival node, survival differed slightly according to initial treatment modality for patients who did not receive LT. For patients who received LT, tumor stage at the time of LT was associated with long-term outcome. Certain groups of non-LT patients showed survival rates that were similar to the survival rates of LT patients. CP score, AFP levels, tumor size, and age were baseline factors that can help estimate the long-term outcomes of non-LT treatment. In addition, tumor stage at the time of LT and specific initial treatment modality in non-LT patients affected the long-term outcomes. These factors can help estimate the long-term outcomes of HCC patients diagnosed within the Milan criteria. PMID:27583916

  14. Effects of Epothilone A in Combination with the Antidiabetic Drugs Metformin and Sitagliptin in HepG2 Human Hepatocellular Cancer Cells: Role of Transcriptional Factors NF-κB and p53.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Aneta; Sliwinska, Agnieszka; Kasznicki, Jacek; Drzewoski, Jozef; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients are at increased risk of many forms of malignancies, especially of the pancreas, colon and hepatocellular cancer. Unfortunately, little is known of the possible interaction between antidiabetic drugs and anticancer agents. The present study investigates the influence of metformin (MET) and sitagliptin (SITA) on the in vitro anticancer activity of the microtubule depolymerization inhibitor agent epothilone A (EpoA). Hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) viability and apoptosis were determined by the MTT test and by double staining with PO-PRO-1 and 7-aminoactinomycin D, respectively, after treatment with EpoA, metformin or sitagliptin. The levels of nuclear factor NF-κB and p53 were evaluated in the presence and absence of inhibitors. While EpoA and MET inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation, SITA did not. EpoA and SITA induced higher p53 levels than MET. All tested drugs increased the level of NF-κB. Only MET enhanced the proapoptotic effect of EpoA. The EpoA+MET combination evoked the highest cytotoxic effect on HepG2 cells and led to apoptosis independent of p53, decreasing the level of NF-κB. These findings support the link between NF-κB and p53 in the modulation of apoptotic effects in HepG2 cells treated by EpoA. Our studies indicate that the combination of EpoA and MET applied in subtoxic doses has a stronger cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells than each of the compounds alone. The therapeutic advantages of the combination of EpoA with MET may be valuable in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM) and liver cancer. PMID:27039825

  15. Allosteric Inhibition of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Revealed by Ibudilast

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.; Crichlow, G; Vermeire, J; Leng, L; Du, X; Hodsdon, M; Bucala, R; Cappello, M; Gross, M; et al.

    2010-01-01

    AV411 (ibudilast; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine) is an antiinflammatory drug that was initially developed for the treatment of bronchial asthma but which also has been used for cerebrovascular and ocular indications. It is a nonselective inhibitor of various phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and has varied antiinflammatory activity. More recently, AV411 has been studied as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of neuropathic pain and opioid withdrawal through its actions on glial cells. As described herein, the PDE inhibitor AV411 and its PDE-inhibition-compromised analog AV1013 inhibit the catalytic and chemotactic functions of the proinflammatory protein, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Enzymatic analysis indicates that these compounds are noncompetitive inhibitors of the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) tautomerase activity of MIF and an allosteric binding site of AV411 and AV1013 is detected by NMR. The allosteric inhibition mechanism is further elucidated by X-ray crystallography based on the MIF/AV1013 binary and MIF/AV1013/HPP ternary complexes. In addition, our antibody experiments directed against MIF receptors indicate that CXCR2 is the major receptor for MIF-mediated chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  16. Allosteric inhibition of macrophage migration inhibitory factor revealed by ibudilast

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsang; Crichlow, Gregg V.; Vermeire, Jon J.; Leng, Lin; Du, Xin; Hodsdon, Michael E.; Bucala, Richard; Cappello, Michael; Gross, Matt; Gaeta, Federico; Johnson, Kirk; Lolis, Elias J.

    2010-01-01

    AV411 (ibudilast; 3-isobutyryl-2-isopropylpyrazolo-[1,5-a]pyridine) is an antiinflammatory drug that was initially developed for the treatment of bronchial asthma but which also has been used for cerebrovascular and ocular indications. It is a nonselective inhibitor of various phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and has varied antiinflammatory activity. More recently, AV411 has been studied as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of neuropathic pain and opioid withdrawal through its actions on glial cells. As described herein, the PDE inhibitor AV411 and its PDE-inhibition-compromised analog AV1013 inhibit the catalytic and chemotactic functions of the proinflammatory protein, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF). Enzymatic analysis indicates that these compounds are noncompetitive inhibitors of the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPP) tautomerase activity of MIF and an allosteric binding site of AV411 and AV1013 is detected by NMR. The allosteric inhibition mechanism is further elucidated by X-ray crystallography based on the MIF/AV1013 binary and MIF/AV1013/HPP ternary complexes. In addition, our antibody experiments directed against MIF receptors indicate that CXCR2 is the major receptor for MIF-mediated chemotaxis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. PMID:20534506

  17. Myelin inhibits oligodendroglial maturation and regulates oligodendrocytic transcription factor expression.

    PubMed

    Plemel, Jason R; Manesh, Sohrab B; Sparling, Joseph S; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2013-09-01

    Myelin loss is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) and promoting central nervous system myelin repair has become a major therapeutic target. Despite the presence of oligodendrocytes precursors cells (OPCs) in chronic lesions of MS, remyelination often fails. The mechanism underlying this failure of remyelination remains unknown, but it is hypothesized that environmental cues act to inhibit the maturation/differentiation of oligodendroglia, preventing remyelination. The rate of CNS remyelination is correlated to the speed of phagocytosis of myelin debris, which is present following demyelination and trauma. Thus, myelin debris could inhibit CNS remyelination. Here, we demonstrate that OPCs cultured on myelin were robustly inhibited in their maturation, as characterized by the decreased expression of immature and mature oligodendrocytes markers, the impaired production of myelin gene products, as well as their stalled morphological complexity relative to OPCs cultured on a control substrate. OPCs in contact with myelin stopped proliferating and decreased the expression of OPC markers to a comparable degree as cells grown on a control substrate. The expression of two transcription factors known to prevent OPC differentiation and maturation were increased in cells that were in contact with myelin: inhibitor of differentiation family (ID) members 2 and 4. Overexpression of ID2 and ID4 in OPCs was previously reported to decrease the percentage of cells expressing mature oligodendrocyte markers. However, knockdown of ID2 and/or ID4 in OPCs did not increase oligodendroglial maturation on or off of myelin, suggesting that contact with myelin regulates additional regulatory elements.

  18. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 as a Predictive Factor for Progression of Illness in Chronic Liver Diseases and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ratnasari, Neneng; Nurdjanah, Siti; Sadewa, Ahmad Hamim; Hakimi, Mohammad; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is generally induced in the process of necro-inflammation and regeneration in chronic liver diseases (CLD). Whereas VEGF is a major humoral factor in relation to neo-vascularization, the receptor, VEGFR-2, is located in hepatocytes and sinusoid endothelial cells. The aim in this study is to investigate the significance of soluble form of VEGFR-2 (sVEGFR-2) in various CLDs. A cross sectional study was conducted from 2010 to 2013 at Dr. Sardjito Hospital Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 149 patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), liver cirrhosis (LC) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enrolled in this study. sVEGFR-2 serum was examined using Quantikine®HS kit human immunoassay. Data were analyses by STATA (P value <0.05). The median of sVEGFR-2 was decreased according to the disease progression (LC: 7014.95 pg/mL; CH: 8805.15 pg/mL; healthy subject: 9785.2 pg/mL). However, sVEGFR-2 in HCC (8043.73 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that in LC (P= 0.0059). Based on AUROC analyses, the clinical cut-off point of sVEGFR-2 with >80% sensitivity was used (CH-LC ≤7236.7, LC-HCC ≥7215). The odds ratio (OR) LC to HCC was 5.87 and CH to LC was 4.63. The significant correlations were showed significantly between sVEGFR-2 with MELD and ALT in LC, and with APRI and FIB-4 in CH. In conclusion, the serum sVEGFR-2 could be used as a predictive factor progressing CH to LC, but not HCC.

  19. Antisense oligonucleotide for tissue factor inhibits hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kadotani, Yayoi; Ushigome, Hidetaka; Akioka, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Masahiko; Ohmori, Yoshihiro; Yaoi, Takeshi; Fushiki, Shinji; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshimura, Norio

    2002-09-27

    Tissue factor (TF) is an initiation factor for blood coagulation and its expression is induced on endothelial cells during inflammatory or immune responses. We designed an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-1/TF) for rat TF and studied its effect on hepatic ischemic reperfusion injury. AS-1/TF was delivered intravenously to Lewis rats. After 10 h, hepatic artery and portal vein were partially clamped. Livers were reperfused after 180 min and harvested. TF expression was studied using immunohistochemical staining. One of 10 rats survived in a 5-day survival rate and TF was strongly stained on endothelial cells in non-treatment group. However, by treatment with AS-1/TF, six of seven survived and TF staining was significantly reduced. Furthermore, we observed that fluorescein-labeled AS-1/TF was absorbed into endothelial cells. These results suggest that AS-1/TF can strongly suppress the expression of TF and thereby inhibit ischemic reperfusion injury to the rat liver. PMID:12270110

  20. Inhibition of enterovirus 71 entry by transcription factor XBP1

    SciTech Connect

    Jheng, Jia-Rong; Lin, Chiou-Yan; Horng, Jim-Tong; Lau, Kean Seng

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRE1 was activated but no XBP1 splicing was detected during enterovirus 71 infection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XBP1 was subject to translational shutoff by enterovirus 71-induced eIF4G cleavage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The uptake of UV-irradiated virus was decreased in XBP1-overexpressing cells. -- Abstract: Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) plays an important role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), or unfolded protein, stress response by activating its downstream transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1). We demonstrated previously that enterovirus 71 (EV71) upregulated XBP1 mRNA levels but did not activate spliced XBP1 (XBP1s) mRNA or its downstream target genes, EDEM and chaperones. In this study, we investigated further this regulatory mechanism and found that IRE1 was phosphorylated and activated after EV71 infection, whereas its downstream XBP1s protein level decreased. We also found that XBP1s was not cleaved directly by 2A{sup pro}, but that cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G by the EV71 2A{sup pro} protein may contribute to the decrease in XBP1s expression. Knockdown of XBP1 increased viral protein expression, and the synthesis of EV71 viral protein and the production of EV71 viral particles were inhibited in XBP1-overexpressing RD cells. When incubated with replication-deficient and UV-irradiated EV71, XBP1-overexpressing RD cells exhibited reduced viral RNA levels, suggesting that the inhibition of XBP1s by viral infection may underlie viral entry, which is required for viral replication. Our findings are the first indication of the ability of XBP1 to inhibit viral entry, possibly via its transcriptional activity in regulating molecules in the endocytic machinery.

  1. c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor favors transforming growth factor-β to antagonize hepatitis B virus X protein-induced cell growth promotion in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    WU, YAN-HUI; AI, XI; LIU, FU-YAO; LIANG, HUI-FANG; ZHANG, BI-XIANG; CHEN, XIAO-PING

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces cell growth arrest in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) minimizes the tumor suppression of TGF-β signaling in early chronic hepatitis B. However, how to reverse the oncogenic effect of HBx and sustain the tumor-suppressive action of TGF-β has yet to be investigated. The present study examined the effect of TGF-β and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor on cell growth in HCC cells with forced expression of HBx. It was found that HBx promoted cell growth via activation of the JNK/pSMAD3L pathway and inhibition of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI)/pSMAD3C pathway. pSMAD3L/SMAD4 and pSMAD3C/SMAD4 complexes antagonized each other to regulate c-Myc expression. In the absence of HBx, TGF-β induced cell growth arrest through activation of the TβRI/pSMAD3C pathway in well-differentiated HCC cells. In the presence of HBx, TGF-β had no effect on cell growth. JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly reversed the oncogenic action of HBx and favored TGF-β to regain the ability to inhibit the cell growth in HBx-expressing well-differentiated HCC cells. In conclusion, targeting JNK signaling favors TGF-β to block HBx-induced cell growth promotion in well-differentiated HCC cells. As an adjunct to anti-viral therapy, the combination of TGF-β and inhibition of JNK signaling is a potential therapy for HBV-infected HCC. PMID:26648552

  2. c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor favors transforming growth factor-β to antagonize hepatitis B virus X protein-induced cell growth promotion in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Hui; Ai, Xi; Liu, Fu-Yao; Liang, Hui-Fang; Zhang, Bi-Xiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induces cell growth arrest in well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) minimizes the tumor suppression of TGF-β signaling in early chronic hepatitis B. However, how to reverse the oncogenic effect of HBx and sustain the tumor-suppressive action of TGF-β has yet to be investigated. The present study examined the effect of TGF-β and a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor on cell growth in HCC cells with forced expression of HBx. It was found that HBx promoted cell growth via activation of the JNK/pSMAD3L pathway and inhibition of the transforming growth factor-beta type I receptor (TβRI)/pSMAD3C pathway. pSMAD3L/SMAD4 and pSMAD3C/SMAD4 complexes antagonized each other to regulate c-Myc expression. In the absence of HBx, TGF-β induced cell growth arrest through activation of the TβRI/pSMAD3C pathway in well-differentiated HCC cells. In the presence of HBx, TGF-β had no effect on cell growth. JNK inhibitor SP600125 significantly reversed the oncogenic action of HBx and favored TGF-β to regain the ability to inhibit the cell growth in HBx-expressing well-differentiated HCC cells. In conclusion, targeting JNK signaling favors TGF-β to block HBx-induced cell growth promotion in well-differentiated HCC cells. As an adjunct to anti-viral therapy, the combination of TGF-β and inhibition of JNK signaling is a potential therapy for HBV-infected HCC.

  3. Tissue-Specific Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus Inhibits the Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Athymic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Lu, Ronghua; Chang, Judy C.; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1997-12-01

    About 70% of hepatocellular carcinomas are known to express α -fetoprotein, which is normally expressed in fetal but not in adult livers. To induce herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase expression in these cancer cells, we constructed an adeno-associated viral vector containing the HSV-TK gene under the control of the α -fetoprotein enhancer and albumin promoter. We previously demonstrated in vitro that although this vector can transduce a variety of human cells, only transduced AFP and albumin-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were sensitive to killing by ganciclovir (GCV). In the present study, we explored the effect of this vector on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo. Subcutaneous tumors generated in nude mice by implanting hepatocellular carcinoma cells previously transduced with this vector shrank dramatically after treatment with GCV. Bystander effect was also observed on the tumors generated by mixing transduced and untransduced cells. To test whether the tumor cells can be transduced by the virus in vivo, we injected the recombinant adeno-associated virus into tumors generated by untransduced hepatocarcinoma cell line. Tumor growth were retarded after treatment with GCV. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo transduction of tumor cell with rAAV.

  4. Sunitinib (SUTENT, SU11248) suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis in xenograft models of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Huynh, H; Ngo, V C; Choo, S P; Poon, D; Koong, H N; Thng, C H; Toh, H C; Zheng, L; Ong, L C; Jin, Y; Song, I C; Chang, A P C; Ong, H S; Chung, A Y F; Chow, P K H; Soo, K C

    2009-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third deadliest primary neoplasm. Since HCC is a particularly vascular solid tumor, we determined the antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of sunitinib malate, a potent inhibitor of two receptors involved in angiogenesis - vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR). In the present study, we reported that treatment of HepG2 and SK-Hep-1 cells with sunitinib led to growth inhibition and apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion. Sunitinib inhibited phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 at Tyr951 and PDGFR-beta at Tyr1021 both in vitro and in vivo. Sunitinib also suppressed tumor growth of five patient-derived xenografts. Sunitinib-induced tumor growth inhibition was associated with increased apoptosis, reduced microvessel density and inhibition of cell proliferation. This study provides a strong rationale for further clinical investigation of sunitinib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. A Novel Factor Xa-Inhibiting Peptide from Centipedes Venom.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Shao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Ming, Xin; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Centipedes have been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years in China. Centipede venoms consist of many biochemical peptides and proteins. Factor Xa (FXa) is a serine endopeptidase that plays the key role in blood coagulation, and has been used as a new target for anti-thrombotic drug development. A novel FXa inhibitor, a natural peptide with the sequence of Thr-Asn-Gly-Tyr-Thr (TNGYT), was isolated from the venom of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using a combination of size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular weight of the TNGYT peptide was 554.3 Da measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence of TNGYT was determined by Edman degradation. TNGYT inhibited the activity of FXa in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 41.14 mg/ml. It prolonged the partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. It also significantly prolonged whole blood clotting time and bleeding time in mice. This is the first report that an FXa inhibiting peptide was isolated from centipedes venom. PMID:24273471

  6. Celecoxib inhibits Helicobacter pylori colonization-related factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Wei-Hong; Li, Jiang; Liu, Fang-Xun

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization-related factors and its mechanism. METHODS: After co-incubation with celecoxib, morphology of H. pylori strain 26695 was observed under a transmission electron microscope. Flagella motility was assessed by stab agar motility test. Adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of mRNA expression in flagellar genes (flaA, flaB), urease genes (ureA, ureB) and adhesin genes (babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ) were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Separation and non-integrity of bacterial cell wall, rarefaction and asymmetry of cytoplasm, and even lysis of H. pylori were observed in the presence of celecoxib. When H. pylori strains were incubated in the presence of celecoxib, their flagellar motility and adherence to AGS cells were inhibited. The expression of ureA, ureB, babA, sabA, alpA, alpB, hpaA, hopZ was up-regulated while the expression of flaA, flaB was down-regulated in the presence of celecoxib. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib inhibits flagellar motility and adherence of H. pylori to AGS cells, and destructs their normal structure in vitro. PMID:20143463

  7. Piperlongumine inhibits lung tumor growth via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Son, Dong Ju; Gu, Sun Mi; Woo, Ju Rang; Ham, Young Wan; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Wun Jae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Piperlongumine has anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer cell lines via various signaling pathways. But there has been no study regarding the mechanisms of PL on the lung cancer yet. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of PL on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showed that PL induced apoptotic cell death and suppressed the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in a concentration dependent manner (0–15 μM) in NSCLC cells. Docking model and pull down assay showed that PL directly binds to the DNA binding site of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 subunit, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that PL binds to p50 concentration-dependently. Moreover, co-treatment of PL with NF-κB inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or p50 siRNA (100 nM) augmented PL-induced inhibitory effect on cell growth and activation of Fas and DR4. Notably, co-treatment of PL with p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) partially abolished PL-induced cell growth inhibition and decreased the enhanced expression of Fas and DR4. In xenograft mice model, PL (2.5–5 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth of NSCLC dose-dependently. Therefore, these results indicated that PL could inhibit lung cancer cell growth via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27198178

  8. p27{sup Kip1} inhibits tissue factor expression

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenstein, Alexander; Akhmedov, Alexander; Camici, Giovanni G.; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Tanner, Felix C.

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •p27{sup Kip1}regulates the expression of tissue factor at the transcriptional level. •This inhibitory effect of p27{sup Kip1} is independently of its cell regulatory action. •The current study provides new insights into a pleiotrophic function of p27{sup Kip1}. -- Abstract: Background: The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27{sup Kip1} regulates cell proliferation and thus inhibits atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling. Expression of tissue factor (TF), the key initator of the coagulation cascade, is associated with atherosclerosis. Yet, it has not been studied whether p27{sup Kip1} influences the expression of TF. Methods and results: p27{sup Kip1} overexpression in human aortic endothelial cells was achieved by adenoviral transfection. Cells were rendered quiescent for 24 h in 0.5% fetal-calf serum. After stimulation with TNF-α (5 ng/ml), TF protein expression and activity was significantly reduced (n = 4; P < 0.001) in cells transfected with p27{sup Kip1}. In line with this, p27{sup Kip1} overexpression reduced cytokine-induced TF mRNA expression (n = 4; P < 0.01) and TF promotor activity (n = 4; P < 0.05). In contrast, activation of the MAP kinases p38, ERK and JNK was not affected by p27{sup Kip1} overexpression. Conclusion: This in vitro study suggests that p27{sup Kip1} inhibits TF expression at the transcriptional level. These data indicate an interaction between p27{sup Kip1} and TF in important pathological alterations such as atherosclerosis and vascular remodeling.

  9. MicroRNA-23a downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yihe; Liang, Zhihai; Du, Qiang; Yang, Muqing; Geller, David A

    2016-08-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene induced by interferon-γ (IFNγ) and plays an important role in the cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC tumors evade death in part by downregulating IRF-1 expression, yet the molecular mechanisms accounting for IRF-1 suppression in HCC have not yet been characterized. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-23a (miR-23a) can suppress apoptosis by targeting IRF-1. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-23a promotes HCC growth by downregulating IRF-1. For the in vivo studies, 7 cases of resected HCC and adjacent liver samples were analyzed. For the in vitro studies, IRF-1 mRNA and protein were examined in HepG2 and Huh-7 HCC cells after IFNγ stimulation by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. To determine the role of miR-23a in regulating IRF-1, HepG2 cells were transfected with an miR-23a mimic or inhibitor, and IRF-1 expression was examined. Binding of miR-23a was assessed by cloning the 528-bp human IRF-1 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) into luciferase reporter plasmid pMIR-IRF-1-3'UTR. The results showed that IRF-1 mRNA expression was downregulated in the human HCC tumor tissues compared to that in the adjacent background liver tissues. IFNγ-induced IRF-1 protein was less in the HepG2 tumor cells compared to that in the primary human hepatocytes. miR-23a expression was inversely correlated with IRF-1, and addition of the miR-23a inhibitor increased basal IRF-1 mRNA and protein. Likewise, the miR-23a mimic downregulated IFNγ-induced IRF-1 protein expression, while the miR-23a inhibitor increased IRF-1. Furthermore, the miR-23a mimic repressed IRF-1-3'UTR reporter activity, while the miR-23a inhibitor increased the reporter activity. These results demonstrated that IRF-1 expression is downregulated in human HCC tumors compared to that noted in the background liver. miR-23a downregulates the expression of IRF-1 in HCC cells, and the IRF-1 3'UTR has an miR‑23a binding

  10. MicroRNA-23a downregulates the expression of interferon regulatory factor-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yihe; Liang, Zhihai; Du, Qiang; Yang, Muqing; Geller, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a tumor-suppressor gene induced by interferon-γ (IFNγ) and plays an important role in the cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC tumors evade death in part by downregulating IRF-1 expression, yet the molecular mechanisms accounting for IRF-1 suppression in HCC have not yet been characterized. Previous studies have shown that microRNA-23a (miR-23a) can suppress apoptosis by targeting IRF-1. Therefore, we hypothesized that miR-23a promotes HCC growth by down-regulating IRF-1. For the in vivo studies, 7 cases of resected HCC and adjacent liver samples were analyzed. For the in vitro studies, IRF-1 mRNA and protein were examined in HepG2 and Huh-7 HCC cells after IFNγ stimulation by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. To determine the role of miR-23a in regulating IRF-1, HepG2 cells were transfected with an miR-23a mimic or inhibitor, and IRF-1 expression was examined. Binding of miR-23a was assessed by cloning the 528-bp human IRF-1 3′-untranslated region (3′UTR) into luciferase reporter plasmid pMIR-IRF-1-3′UTR. The results showed that IRF-1 mRNA expression was down-regulated in the human HCC tumor tissues compared to that in the adjacent background liver tissues. IFNγ-induced IRF-1 protein was less in the HepG2 tumor cells compared to that in the primary human hepatocytes. miR-23a expression was inversely correlated with IRF-1, and addition of the miR-23a inhibitor increased basal IRF-1 mRNA and protein. Likewise, the miR-23a mimic downregulated IFNγ-induced IRF-1 protein expression, while the miR-23a inhibitor increased IRF-1. Furthermore, the miR-23a mimic repressed IRF-1-3′UTR reporter activity, while the miR-23a inhibitor increased the reporter activity. These results demonstrated that IRF-1 expression is downregulated in human HCC tumors compared to that noted in the background liver. miR-23a downregulates the expression of IRF-1 in HCC cells, and the IRF-1 3′UTR has an miR-23a

  11. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Buendia, Marie-Annick; Neuveut, Christine

    2015-02-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a widespread human pathogen that causes liver inflammation, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recent sequencing technologies have refined our knowledge of the genomic landscape and pathogenesis of HCC, but the mechanisms by which HBV exerts its oncogenic role remain controversial. In a prevailing view, inflammation, liver damage, and regeneration may foster the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic defects leading to cancer onset. However, a more direct and specific contribution of the virus is supported by clinical and biological observations. Among genetically heterogeneous HCCs, HBV-related tumors display high genomic instability, which may be attributed to the ability of HBV to integrate its DNA into the host cell genome, provoking chromosomal alterations and insertional mutagenesis of cancer genes. The viral transactivator HBx may also participate in transformation by deregulating diverse cellular machineries. A better understanding of the complex mechanisms linking HBV to HCC will improve prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25646384

  12. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  13. Decorin: A Growth Factor Antagonist for Tumor Growth Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, Tero A. H.; Prince, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Decorin (DCN) is the best characterized member of the extracellular small leucine-rich proteoglycan family present in connective tissues, typically in association with or “decorating” collagen fibrils. It has substantial interest to clinical medicine owing to its antifibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Studies on DCN knockout mice have established that a lack of DCN is permissive for tumor development and it is regarded as a tumor suppressor gene. A reduced expression or a total disappearance of DCN has been reported to take place in various forms of human cancers during tumor progression. Furthermore, when used as a therapeutic molecule, DCN has been shown to inhibit tumor progression and metastases in experimental cancer models. DCN affects the biology of various types of cancer by targeting a number of crucial signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis. The active sites for the neutralization of different growth factors all reside in different parts of the DCN molecule. An emerging concept that multiple proteases, especially those produced by inflammatory cells, are capable of cleaving DCN suggests that native DCN could be inactivated in a number of pathological inflammatory conditions. In this paper, we review the role of DCN in cancer. PMID:26697491

  14. Rationale for clinical trials of coagulation: reactive drugs in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, Leo R; Hommann, Merten; Kaufmann, Roland

    2004-09-01

    Evidence for the regulation of cancer growth by components of the blood coagulation mechanism provides abundant opportunity for the development of novel hypotheses for the experimental treatment of malignancy. Information available on the heterogeneity in mechanisms of interaction between various cancer cell types, and procoagulant and fibrinolytic pathways, platelets, glycosaminoglycan-regulated growth factors and cell-adhesion molecules indicates that insightful clinical trial design may allow targeting of individual cancer cell types with agents capable of intercepting mechanisms of growth control that are relevant to specific tumor types. This paper reviews the evidence that the common anticoagulant, heparin, inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma tumor dissemination in experimental animals. Clinical trials of heparin performed to date have shown increased tumor response rates and survival in other tumor types. Expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator by hepatocellular carcinoma cells enhances tumor cell proliferation, motility, invasiveness and metastatic dissemination. Inhibition of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator/plasmin system by protease inhibitors such as aprotinin (Trasylol, Bayer) have shown improvement in the clinical course of certain tumor types. These data suggest that drugs that are well-known in the field of vascular medicine may find a role in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, a common tumor type that has resisted containment by other means. PMID:15350179

  15. Heparin inhibits the intrinsic tenase complex by interacting with an exosite on factor IXa.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, John P; Kobbervig, Catherine E; Kirkpatrick, Heidi M

    2003-09-30

    The specific molecular target for direct heparin inhibition of factor X activation by intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) was investigated. Comparison of size-fractionated oligosaccharides demonstrated that an octasaccharide was sufficient to inhibit intrinsic tenase. Substitution of soluble dihexanoic phosphatidylserine (C6PS) for phospholipid (PL) vesicles demonstrated that inhibition by low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) was independent of factor IXa-factor VIIIa membrane assembly. LMWH also inhibited factor X activation by the factor IXa-PL complex via a distinct mechanism that required longer oligosaccharides and was independent of substrate concentrations. The apparent affinity of LMWH for the factor IXa-PL complex was higher in the absence of factor VIIIa, suggesting that the cofactor adversely affected the interaction of heparin with factor IXa-phospholipid. LMWH did not interact directly with the active site, as it failed to inhibit chromogenic substrate cleavage by the factor IXa-PL complex. LMWH induced a modest decrease in factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity [K(D(app))] on PL vesicles that did not account for the inhibition. In contrast, LMWH caused a substantial reduction in factor IXa-factor VIIIa affinity in the presence of C6PS that fully accounted for the inhibition. Factor IXa bound LMWH with significantly higher affinity than factor X by competition solution affinity analysis, and the K(D(app)) for the factor IXa-LMWH complex agreed with the K(I) for inhibition of the factor IXa-PL complex by LMWH. Thus, LMWH binds to an exosite on factor IXa that antagonizes cofactor activity without disrupting factor IXa-factor VIIIa assembly on the PL surface. This exosite may contribute to the clinical efficacy of heparin and represents a novel target for antithrombotic therapy.

  16. A negative elongation factor for human RNA polymerase II inhibits the anti-arrest transcript-cleavage factor TFIIS

    PubMed Central

    Palangat, Murali; Renner, Dan B.; Price, David H.; Landick, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Formation of productive transcription complexes after promoter escape by RNA polymerase II is a major event in eukaryotic gene regulation. Both negative and positive factors control this step. The principal negative elongation factor (NELF) contains four polypeptides and requires for activity the two-polypeptide 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribobenzimidazole-sensitivity inducing factor (DSIF). DSIF/NELF inhibits early transcript elongation until it is counteracted by the positive elongation factor P-TEFb. We report a previously undescribed activity of DSIF/NELF, namely inhibition of the transcript cleavage factor TFIIS. These two activities of DSIF/NELF appear to be mechanistically distinct. Inhibition of nucleotide addition requires ≥18 nt of nascent RNA, whereas inhibition of TFIIS occurs at all transcript lengths. Because TFIIS promotes escape from promoter-proximal pauses by stimulating cleavage of back-tracked nascent RNA, TFIIS inhibition may help DSIF/NELF negatively regulate productive transcription. PMID:16214896

  17. Inhibition of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze on Microcystis aeruginosa and isolation of the inhibition factors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yaping; Wang, Jin; Yu, Yang; Su, Wen; Kong, Fanxiang

    2013-07-01

    Low concentration of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) was shown to inhibit the growth of the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The inhibition efficiency was 40% at 0.1 g dry tea/L and 90% at 0.2 g/L after a 12-day culture. All varieties of tea used in the test could inhibit Microcystis growth, in which the inhibitory effect of green tea was greater than that of black tea. Antialgal allelochemicals were isolated from tea by solvent extraction, gel-chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Two algal-inhibition compounds were identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin-3-gallate respectively. These are the main polyphenols in tea that have inhibitory effects on the growth of cyanobacteria. The combined effect of these polyphenols makes tea a promising source of algicide to inhibit the growth of algal blooms.

  18. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    PubMed Central

    Cotrim, Helma P.; Oliveira, Claudia P.; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio M.; Alvares-da-Silva, Mario R.; Nabuco, Leticia; Parise, Edison Roberto; Ivantes, Claúdia; Martinelli, Ana LC; Galizzi-Filho, João; Carrilho, Flair J.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day) and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases' 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul). The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3), in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and

  19. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  20. Prophylactic Administration of Fucoidan Represses Cancer Metastasis by Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-01-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs. PMID:25854641

  1. Prophylactic administration of fucoidan represses cancer metastasis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Lewis tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Han; Chan, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Ya-Huang; Wang, Hang; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Li, Tsung-Lin; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer

    2015-04-01

    Fucoidan, a heparin-like sulfated polysaccharide, is rich in brown algae. It has a wide assortment of protective activities against cancer, for example, induction of hepatocellular carcinoma senescence, induction of human breast and colon carcinoma apoptosis, and impediment of lung cancer cells migration and invasion. However, the anti-metastatic mechanism that fucoidan exploits remains elusive. In this report, we explored the effects of fucoidan on cachectic symptoms, tumor development, lung carcinoma cell spreading and proliferation, as well as expression of metastasis-associated proteins in the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells-inoculated mice model. We discovered that administration of fucoidan has prophylactic effects on mitigation of cachectic body weight loss and improvement of lung masses in tumor-inoculated mice. These desired effects are attributed to inhibition of LLC spreading and proliferation in lung tissues. Fucoidan also down-regulates expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Moreover, the tumor-bearing mice supplemented with fucoidan indeed benefit from an ensemble of the chemo-phylacticity. The fact is that fucoidan significantly decreases viability, migration, invasion, and MMPs activities of LLC cells. In summary, fucoidan is suitable to act as a chemo-preventative agent for minimizing cachectic symptoms as well as inhibiting lung carcinoma metastasis through down-regulating metastatic factors VEGF and MMPs.

  2. Impact Factors for Microinvasion in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Possible Application to the Definition of Clinical Tumor Volume

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Minhua; Ji Yuan; Zeng Zhaochong; Tang Zhaoyou; Fan Jia; Zhou Jian; Zeng Mengsu; Bi Aihong; Tan Yunshan

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the degree of invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) microscopically that will provide a potential application for gross tumor volume to clinical tumor volume (GTV-to-CTV) expansion. Methods and Materials: From January 2002 to January 2006, 149 HCC patients were selected from those who had undergone surgical resection. Pathology slides and clinical data of all patients were reviewed, including platelet counts, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, degree of liver cirrhosis, tumor size, capsular status, portal vein invasion, TNM stage, and histologic tumor grade. The distance between the tumor margin (or fibrous capsule) and the invasive lesions was measured by senior pathologists. Results: Of these 149 patients, 79 (53.0%) patients presented with tumor microinvasion between 0.5 and 4 mm. This degree of microinvasion was inversely correlated with lower platelet counts and positively correlated with higher AFP levels, larger tumor sizes, portal vein invasion, and advanced TNM stage. Microinvasion distances less than or equal to 2 mm were found in 96.1% of patients (74/77) with tumor dimensions less than or equal to 5 cm and in 94.5% of patients (85/90) with AFP levels less than 400 mug/l. Conclusions: Based on our study findings, GTV-to-CTV expansions of 4 mm for HCC are required to conceal the gross tumor and any microscopic disease with 100% accuracy. Tumor size and AFP levels are the simplest indicators for determining the GTV-to-CTV distance for HCC.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okuda, K

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in many countries as a result of an increase in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection since World War II. The epidemiology of HCC varies with the global region. There have been conflicting observations from different parts of the world concerning the frequency of HCC in patients who in the distant past had post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. The genetic basis of hepatocarcinogenesis is still poorly understood. In hepatitis B virus (HVB) associated HCC, codon 249 mutation in the p 53 gene seems more related to exposure to aflatoxin B1 than to hepatocarcinogenesis itself. HCC that occurs in children in high HBV endemic regions could be associated with germ-line mutations, but little information is available; not much is known about chemical hepatocarcinogens in the environment other than aflatoxins. The X gene of HBV seems to play an important role in HBV-associated hepatocarcinogenesis. There are preliminary observations on the molecular mechanism of HCV-associated HCC, such as HCV core protein inducing HCC in transgenic mice and the NS3 genome transforming NIH 3T3 cells. Pathological distinction between preneoplastic and very early transformed lesions still depends on classical morphology, and a more genetically oriented differential diagnosis is required. Clinical diagnosis based on modern imaging has improved greatly, but is still unsatisfactory in the differential diagnosis of preneoplastic and early transformed nodules, because the vasculature changes that occur within the nodule are not accurately discerned with the current imaging. Use of sensitive des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) assay, and lectin affinity chromatography separating HCC specific subspecies of AFP molecules with a more practical biochemical technique will further improve diagnosis. Early diagnosis and transplantation are the best treatment at the moment, but transplantation is not widely available because of the donor shortage. Despite

  4. HGF, MET, and matrix-related proteases in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar variant, cirrhotic and normal liver.

    PubMed

    Schoedel, Karen E; Tyner, Valerie Zajac; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Michalopoulos, George K; Mars, Wendy M

    2003-01-01

    Fibrolamellar variant is an uncommon subcategory of hepatocellular carcinoma with a better prognostic outcome. Proteinases and growth factors that are involved in the remodeling of extracellular matrix may influence the behavior of cancers. To determine whether these factors contribute to the distinct etiologies of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma and traditional hepatocellular carcinoma, we assayed hepatocyte growth factor, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, and two hepatocyte growth factor activators, hepatocyte growth factor activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator, in hepatocellular carcinoma, fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhotic liver and normal liver. In addition, we examined the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, the type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor, plasmin, fibrinogen, and the type IV matrix metalloproteinases. Eighteen hepatocellular carcinomas and 11 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas were obtained as paraffin embedded sections from the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology. Frozen tissues from a subset of cases (9 hepatocellular carcinomas, 4 fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinomas, 12 cirrhotic livers and 2 normal livers) were also available for analysis. Antibodies against urokinase-type plasminogen activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, hepatocyte growth factor and hepatocyte growth factor receptor were used to analyze immunoperoxidase stained slides from the paraffin blocks. Western blot analyses using antibodies against hepatocyte growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor receptor, phosphotyrosine, hepatocyte growth factor activator, urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, fibrinogen and plasmin were performed on membrane-enriched fractions from the frozen tissue, as was collagen zymography for matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. The most notable findings are as

  5. Allosteric Inhibition of Factor XIIIa. Non-Saccharide Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics, but Not Glycosaminoglycans, Exhibit Promising Inhibition Profile.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Rami A; Karuturi, Rajesh; Lee, Michael; Afosah, Daniel K; Desai, Umesh R

    2016-01-01

    Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the last step in the coagulation process. Orthostery is the only approach that has been exploited to design FXIIIa inhibitors. Yet, allosteric inhibition of FXIIIa is a paradigm that may offer a key advantage of controlled inhibition over orthosteric inhibition. Such an approach is likely to lead to novel FXIIIa inhibitors that do not carry bleeding risks. We reasoned that targeting a collection of basic amino acid residues distant from FXIIIa's active site by using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or non-saccharide GAG mimetics (NSGMs) would lead to the discovery of the first allosteric FXIIIa inhibitors. We tested a library of 22 variably sulfated GAGs and NSGMs against human FXIIIa to discover promising hits. Interestingly, although some GAGs bound to FXIIIa better than NSGMs, no GAG displayed any inhibition. An undecasulfated quercetin analog was found to inhibit FXIIIa with reasonable potency (efficacy of 98%). Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Fluorescence studies confirmed close correspondence between binding affinity and inhibition potency, as expected for an allosteric process. The inhibitor was reversible and at least 9-fold- and 26-fold selective over two GAG-binding proteins factor Xa (efficacy of 71%) and thrombin, respectively, and at least 27-fold selective over a cysteine protease papain. The inhibitor also inhibited the FXIIIa-mediated polymerization of fibrin in vitro. Overall, our work presents the proof-of-principle that FXIIIa can be allosterically modulated by sulfated non-saccharide agents much smaller than GAGs, which should enable the design of selective and safe anticoagulants. PMID:27467511

  6. Allosteric Inhibition of Factor XIIIa. Non-Saccharide Glycosaminoglycan Mimetics, but Not Glycosaminoglycans, Exhibit Promising Inhibition Profile

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Rami A.; Karuturi, Rajesh; Lee, Michael; Afosah, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Factor XIIIa (FXIIIa) is a transglutaminase that catalyzes the last step in the coagulation process. Orthostery is the only approach that has been exploited to design FXIIIa inhibitors. Yet, allosteric inhibition of FXIIIa is a paradigm that may offer a key advantage of controlled inhibition over orthosteric inhibition. Such an approach is likely to lead to novel FXIIIa inhibitors that do not carry bleeding risks. We reasoned that targeting a collection of basic amino acid residues distant from FXIIIa’s active site by using sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or non-saccharide GAG mimetics (NSGMs) would lead to the discovery of the first allosteric FXIIIa inhibitors. We tested a library of 22 variably sulfated GAGs and NSGMs against human FXIIIa to discover promising hits. Interestingly, although some GAGs bound to FXIIIa better than NSGMs, no GAG displayed any inhibition. An undecasulfated quercetin analog was found to inhibit FXIIIa with reasonable potency (efficacy of 98%). Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies revealed an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Fluorescence studies confirmed close correspondence between binding affinity and inhibition potency, as expected for an allosteric process. The inhibitor was reversible and at least 9-fold- and 26-fold selective over two GAG-binding proteins factor Xa (efficacy of 71%) and thrombin, respectively, and at least 27-fold selective over a cysteine protease papain. The inhibitor also inhibited the FXIIIa-mediated polymerization of fibrin in vitro. Overall, our work presents the proof-of-principle that FXIIIa can be allosterically modulated by sulfated non-saccharide agents much smaller than GAGs, which should enable the design of selective and safe anticoagulants. PMID:27467511

  7. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor via upregulation of von Hippel-Lindau protein induces “angiogenic switch off” in a hepatoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hideki; Nakamura, Toru; Koga, Hironori; Izaguirre-Carbonell, Jesus; Kamisuki, Shinji; Sugawara, Fumio; Abe, Mitsuhiko; Iwabata, Kazuki; Ikezono, Yu; Sakaue, Takahiko; Masuda, Atsutaka; Yano, Hirohisa; Ohta, Keisuke; Nakano, Masahito; Shimose, Shigeo; Shirono, Tomotake; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    “Angiogenic switch off” is one of the ideal therapeutic concepts in the treatment of cancer. However, the specific molecules which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in tumor have not been identified yet. In this study, we focused on von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and investigated the effects of sulfoquinovosyl-acylpropanediol (SQAP), a novel synthetic sulfoglycolipid, for HCC. We examined mutation ratio of VHL gene in HCC using 30 HCC samples and we treated the HCC-implanted mice with SQAP. Thirty clinical samples showed no VHL genetic mutation in HCC. SQAP significantly inhibited tumor growth by inhibiting angiogenesis in a hepatoma mouse model. SQAP induced tumor “angiogenic switch off” by decreasing hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, 2α protein via pVHL upregulation. pVHL upregulation decreased HIFα protein levels through different multiple mechanisms: (i) increasing pVHL-dependent HIFα protein degradation; (ii) decreasing HIFα synthesis with decrease of NF-κB expression; and (iii) decrease of tumor hypoxia by vascular normalization. We confirmed these antitumor effects of SQAP by the loss-of-function experiments. We found that SQAP directly bound to and inhibited transglutaminase 2. This study provides evidence that upregulation of tumor pVHL is a promising target, which can induce “angiogenic switch off” in HCC. PMID:27119112

  8. Inhibition of heat-shock protein 90 sensitizes liver cancer stem-like cells to magnetic hyperthermia and enhances anti-tumor effect on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Tang, Qiusha; Miao, Fengqin; An, Yanli; Li, Mengfei; Han, Yong; Wang, Xihui; Wang, Juan; Liu, Peidang; Chen, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the thermoresistance and expression of heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) in magnetic hyperthermia-treated human liver cancer stem-like cells (LCSCs) and the effects of a heat-shock protein HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxgeldanamycin (17-AAG) on hepatocellular carcinoma-burdened nude mice. Methods CD90+ LCSCs were isolated by magnetic-activated cell sorting from BEL-7404. Spheroid formation, proliferation, differentiation, drug resistance, and tumor formation assays were performed to identify stem cell characteristics. CD90-targeted thermosensitive magnetoliposomes (TMs)-encapsulated 17-AAG (CD90@17-AAG/TMs) was prepared by reverse-phase evaporation and its characteristics were studied. Heat tolerance in CD90+ LCSCs and the effect of CD90@17-AAG/TMs-mediated heat sensitivity were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results CD90+ LCSCs showed significant stem cell-like properties. The 17-AAG/TMs were successfully prepared and were spherical in shape with an average size of 128.9±7.7 nm. When exposed to magnetic hyperthermia, HSP90 was up-regulated in CD90+ LCSCs. CD90@17-AAG/TMs inhibited the activity of HSP90 and increased the sensitivity of CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia. Conclusion The inhibition of HSP90 could sensitize CD90+ LCSCs to magnetic hyperthermia and enhance its anti-tumor effects in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26677324

  9. Nutrition and Hepatocellular Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Schulz, Christian; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) significantly contributes to the global burden of cancer. Liver cancer is the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death with HCC representing more than 90% of primary liver cancers. The majority of patients are not only affected by the malignant disease but do also suffer from chronic liver disease. Therefore, several factors impact on the prognosis of patients with HCC, including tumor-related factors, liver function and patient-related factors such as performance status and other comorbidities. The nutritional status is of high significance for the patients' performance status, the tolerance of tumor-targeting therapy and the prognosis of cancer of any type and is specially referenced in HCC. This overview is on current concepts on the role of nutritional factors in hepatocarcinogenesis and the role of nutrition in patients affected by HCC. Summary Nutritional status and composition of diet are relevant factors related to the risk of HCC. They also have an important role concerning the prognosis of patients with HCC. Besides risk factors, several macro- and micronutrient components have been found to be inversely correlated with the risk of HCC. To prevent disease progression to liver cirrhosis or HCC in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, it is crucial to optimize the metabolic state Key Message and Practical Implication Evidence from well-designed prospective interventional trials with the aim to reduce the HCC incidence or to prolong survival in patients with HCC based on nutritional modification is still to be generated. PMID:27403413

  10. Featured Article: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α dependent nuclear entry of factor inhibiting HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Ke; Ding, Xue-qin; Lin, Chen

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity in the nucleus is related to factor inhibiting HIF-1 (FIH-1). FIH-1 hydrolyzes asparagine at the C-terminal of HIF-1α, preventing the interaction between HIF-1α and its associated cofactors, and leading to suppressed activation of HIF-1. FIH-1 is a cytosolic protein and its entry to the nucleus has to be coordinated with HIF-1α. The present study was undertaken to examine the correlation between HIF-1α and FIH-1 in their nuclear entry. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with dimethyloxalylglycine at a final concentration of 100 µM for 4 h, resulting in an accumulation of HIF-1α and an increase of FIH-1 in the nucleus as determined by Western blot analysis. Pretreatment of the cells with copper (Cu) chelator tetraethylenepentamine at 50 µM in cultures for 24 h reduced both HIF-1α protein levels and the HIF-1α entry to the nucleus, along with decreased FIH-1 protein levels in the nucleus but no changes in the total FIH-1 protein levels in the cells. These effects were prevented by simultaneous addition of 50 µM CuSO4 with tetraethylenepentamine. Gene-silencing of HIF-1α significantly inhibited FIH-1 entry to the nucleus, but did not affect the total protein levels of FIH-1 in the cells. This work demonstrates that the nuclear entry of FIH-1 depends on HIF-1α. Cu deficiency caused a decrease of HIF-1α, leading to suppression of FIH-1 entry to the nucleus. PMID:25687434

  11. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    PubMed

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients.

  12. Disruption of transforming growth factor-beta signaling through beta-spectrin ELF leads to hepatocellular cancer through cyclin D1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kitisin, K; Ganesan, N; Tang, Y; Jogunoori, W; Volpe, E A; Kim, S S; Katuri, V; Kallakury, B; Pishvaian, M; Albanese, C; Mendelson, J; Zasloff, M; Rashid, A; Fishbein, T; Evans, S R T; Sidawy, A; Reddy, E P; Mishra, B; Johnson, L B; Shetty, K; Mishra, L

    2007-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling members, TGF-beta receptor type II (TBRII), Smad2, Smad4 and Smad adaptor, embryonic liver fodrin (ELF), are prominent tumor suppressors in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we show that 40% of elf(+/-) mice spontaneously develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC) with markedly increased cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4), c-Myc and MDM2 expression. Reduced ELF but not TBRII, or Smad4 was observed in 8 of 9 human HCCs (P<0.017). ELF and TBRII are also markedly decreased in human HCC cell lines SNU-398 and SNU-475. Restoration of ELF and TBRII in SNU-398 cells markedly decreases cyclin D1 as well as hyperphosphorylated-retinoblastoma (hyperphosphorylated-pRb). Thus, we show that TGF-beta signaling and Smad adaptor ELF suppress human hepatocarcinogenesis, potentially through cyclin D1 deregulation. Loss of ELF could serve as a primary event in progression toward a fully transformed phenotype and could hold promise for new therapeutic approaches in human HCCs.

  13. Hepatocyte growth factor induces Mcl-1 in primary human hepatocytes and inhibits CD95-mediated apoptosis via Akt.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Bergkamen, Henning; Brenner, Dirk; Krueger, Andreas; Suess, Dorothee; Fas, Stefanie C; Frey, Christian R; Dax, Andreas; Zink, Dorothea; Büchler, Peter; Müller, Martina; Krammer, Peter H

    2004-03-01

    CD95 (APO-1/Fas)-mediated apoptosis of hepatocytes plays a central role in the pathophysiology of various human liver diseases. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was shown to exert antiapoptotic functions in rodent hepatocytes. We previously showed that primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are a valuable tool for the investigation of apoptotic processes in liver cells. In this study, we analyzed the influence of HGF on CD95-mediated apoptosis of PHH and its molecular determinants. HGF significantly inhibited CD95-mediated apoptosis of PHH as well as cleavage of caspase-8 and poly (ADP-ribose)polymerase. HGF transcriptionally induced the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1). In contrary, HGF did not alter the expression levels of Bcl-2 or Bcl-x(L). HGF activated survival pathways such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase/ERK and the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway. Notably, HGF triggered serine(727)--but not tyrosine(705)--phosphorylation of STAT3. Pretreatment of PHH with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 as well as adenoviral transduction of dominant negative Akt1 prevented HGF-mediated Mcl-1 induction and reversed the antiapoptotic effects of HGF. In conclusion, HGF confers survival of PHH by activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. PI3K/Akt activation by HGF results in the induction of antiapoptotic proteins such as Mcl-1. Thus, application of HGF may be a therapeutic approach to prevent CD95-mediated hepatocellular damage in human liver diseases. PMID:14999683

  14. Targeting Notch1 inhibits invasion and angiogenesis of human breast cancer cells via inhibition Nuclear Factor-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Su, Chuanfu; Shan, Yuqing; Yang, Shouxiang; Ma, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Notch-1, a type-1 transmembrane protein, plays critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies, including breast cancer; however, the precise mechanism by which Notch-1 causes tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis remain unclear. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are critically involved in the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we investigated whether targeting Notch-1 could be mechanistically associated with the down-regulation of NF-κB, IL-8, VEGF, and MMP-9, resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis of breast cancer cells. Our data showed that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation of NF-κB activity and inhibits the expression of its target genes, such as IL-8, VEGF and MMP-9. We also found that down-regulation of Notch-1 decreased cell invasion, and vice versa Consistent with these results, we also found that the down-regulation of Notch-1 not only decreased MMP-9 mRNA and its protein expression but also inhibited MMP-9 active form. Moreover, conditioned medium from Notch-1 siRNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed reduced levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Notch-1 cDNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed increased levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, promoted the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that Notch-1 overexpression leads to the promotion of angiogenesis.We therefore concluded that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation NF-κB and its target genes (IL-8, MMP-9 and VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis.

  15. Targeting Notch1 inhibits invasion and angiogenesis of human breast cancer cells via inhibition Nuclear Factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Su, Chuanfu; Shan, Yuqing; Yang, Shouxiang; Ma, Guifeng

    2016-01-01

    Notch-1, a type-1 transmembrane protein, plays critical roles in the pathogenesis and progression of human malignancies, including breast cancer; however, the precise mechanism by which Notch-1 causes tumor cell invasion and angiogenesis remain unclear. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are critically involved in the processes of tumor cell invasion and metastasis, we investigated whether targeting Notch-1 could be mechanistically associated with the down-regulation of NF-κB, IL-8, VEGF, and MMP-9, resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis of breast cancer cells. Our data showed that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation of NF-κB activity and inhibits the expression of its target genes, such as IL-8, VEGF and MMP-9. We also found that down-regulation of Notch-1 decreased cell invasion, and vice versa Consistent with these results, we also found that the down-regulation of Notch-1 not only decreased MMP-9 mRNA and its protein expression but also inhibited MMP-9 active form. Moreover, conditioned medium from Notch-1 siRNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed reduced levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, inhibited the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, conditioned medium from Notch-1 cDNA-transfected breast cancer cells showed increased levels of IL-8 and VEGF and, in turn, promoted the tube formation of HUVECs, suggesting that Notch-1 overexpression leads to the promotion of angiogenesis.We therefore concluded that down-regulation of Notch-1 leads to the inactivation NF-κB and its target genes (IL-8, MMP-9 and VEGF), resulting in the inhibition of invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:27398151

  16. Preoperative γ-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is an independent prognostic factor for HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma after curative hepatic resection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wan-Li; Zheng, Xing-Long; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Ying; Hao, Jie; Tang, Gang; Li, Ou; Xiang, Jun-Xi; Wu, Zheng; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis is associated with the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after treatment. The γ-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio (GPR) is reported to predict significant liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive value of preoperative GPR on the recurrence and survival of patients with HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy.A retrospective review of demographics, medical records, and prognosis of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related HCC was performed. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, and the log-rank test was used to analyze differences in recurrence and survival. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used for significance of prognostic factor.A total of 357 patients with HBV-related HCC were included in this analysis. The preoperative GPR was associated with recurrence and survival rates, independent of HCC progression or tumor marker levels, in a multivariate analysis. OS was higher in patients with a GPR <0.84 versus ≥084 (5-year survival rates 58.6% vs. 38.5%; P < 0.001). DFS was also worse in patients with a GPR ≥0.84 than in those with GPR <0.84 (5-year recurrence rates 42.8% vs. 22.8%; P < 0.001).GPR score of ≥0.84 represents a major risk factor for the poor prognosis for HBV-related HCC after hepatic resection, and GPR served as an independent predictive factor for HBV-related HCC OS. PMID:27399101

  17. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G/A polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Roba M.; Esmail, Ahmed A.; Elwakil, Reda; Gurgis, Adel A.; Nasr, Mahmoud I.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine in generating an immune response against infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The functions of TNF-α may be altered by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its gene structure. We hypothesized that SNPs in TNF-α may be important in determining the outcome of an HCV infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of the polymorphism -308G/A, which is located in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene, in the progression of HCV infection in Egyptian patients using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The distribution of this polymorphism and its impact on the serum level of TNF-α was compared between 90 HCV-infected patients [45 with HCV-induced cirrhosis and 45 with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and 45 healthy Egyptian volunteers without any history of liver disease. Our results showed that at the TNF-α -308 position, the G/G allele was most common (78.5%) in the study population, with the G/A and A/A alleles occurring less frequently (13.3% and 8.1%, respectively). Frequencies of G/G, G/A, and A/A genotypes were 87%, 7%, and 6% in patients with liver cirrhosis and were 94%, 4%, and 2% in patients with HCC, respectively. Serum levels of TNF-α were significantly higher in HCV-infected patients than in healthy controls, indicating that the TNF-α -308 polymorphism does not influence the production of TNF-α. The serum level of TNF-α was positively correlated with HCV infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TNF-α -308 polymorphism may not be a host genetic factor associated with the severity of HCV infection, but may be an independent risk factor for HCC. PMID:22200181

  18. Krüppel-Like Factor 4, a Tumor Suppressor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Reverts Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition by Suppressing Slug Expression

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Chen; Lewis, Brian C.; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that plays an important role in differentiation and pathogenesis. KLF4 has been suggested to act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in different tumor types. However, the role of KLF4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that forced expression of Klf4 in murine HCC cell lines reduced anchorage-independent growth in soft agar as well as cell migration and invasion activities in vitro. Ectopic Klf4 expression impaired subcutaneous tumor growth and lung colonization in vivo. By contrast, Klf4 knockdown enhanced HCC cell migration. Interestingly, ectopic expression of Klf4 changed the morphology of murine HCC cells to a more epithelial phenotype. Associated with this, we found that expression of Slug, a critical epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcription factor, was significantly down-regulated in Klf4-expressing cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays showed that Klf4 is able to bind and repress the activity of the Slug promoter. Furthermore, ectopic Slug expression partially reverts the Klf4-mediated phenotypes. Consistent with a role as a tumor suppressor in HCC, analysis of the public microarray databases from Oncomine revealed reduced KLF4 expression in human HCC tissues in comparison with normal liver tissues in 3 out of 4 data sets. By quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we found reduced KLF4 mRNA in 50% of HCC tissues. Importantly, an inverse correlation between the expression of KLF4 and SLUG was found in HCC tissues. Our data suggest that KLF4 acts as a tumor suppressor in HCC cells, in part by suppressing SLUG transcription. PMID:22937066

  19. HBV is a risk factor for poor patient prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghu; Zhao, Xin; Jiang, Peng; Xiao, Senlin; Wu, Guo; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Hui; Han, Xiuguo; Wang, Shuguang; Li, Xiaowu

    2016-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding pathological factors affecting the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-HCC). Their postoperative clinical behaviors and the exact HBV Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) thresholds that distinguish good and poor prognoses are unknown. This study aimed to compare clinicopathological, pre- and postoperative clinical factors and overall and recurrence-free survival (RFS) between HBV-HCC patients and nonhepatitis B and nonhepatitis C HCC (NBC-HCC) patients to determine the optimal prognostic HBV DNA threshold.Data from 1440 patients with HBV-HCC and NBC-HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy were retrospectively analyzed.Liver function in the HBV-HCC group was significantly worse than in the NBC-HCC group. Compared with NBC-HCC patients, HBV-HCC patients had significantly more vascular invasion and advanced HCC. The HBV-HCC patients also had significantly worse liver function and more complications. Further survival analysis showed significantly lower overall and RFS rates and a higher early recurrence rate in the HBV-HCC group. Univariate analysis indicated that HBV was a risk factor for overall and RFS. Finally, X-tile analysis revealed that the optimal HBV DNA cutoff points for predicting RFS and overall survival in HCC patients were 10,100 and 12,800 IU/mL, respectively.After hepatectomy for HCC, HBV-HCC patients had more complications and a worse prognosis than NBC-HCC patients. Antiviral therapy should be considered before hepatectomy in patients with high (more than approximately 10 IU/mL) HBV DNA levels.

  20. Fucoidan protects hepatocytes from apoptosis and inhibits invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by up-regulating p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuri; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Minjong; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Chung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Fucoidan is a traditional Chinese medicine suggested to possess anti-tumor effects. In this study the anti-metastatic effects of fucoidan were investigated in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Huh-7 and SNU-761) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in vivo using a distant liver metastasis model involving injection of MH134 cells into spleen via the portal vein. Its ability to protect hepatocytes against bile acid (BA)-induced apoptosis was investigated in primary hepatocytes. Fucoidan was found to suppress the invasion of HCC cells through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43 and partly, under normoxic conditions, through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent VMP-1 expression. It also significantly decreased liver metastasis in vivo. As regards its hepatoprotective effect, fucoidan decreased BA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis as shown by the attenuation of caspase-8, and -7 cleavages and suppression of the mobilization of caspase-8 and Fas associated death domain (FADD) into the death-inducing signaling complex. In summary, fucoidan displays inhibitory effects on proliferation of HCC cells and protective effects on hepatocytes. The results suggest fucoidan is a potent suppressor of tumor invasion with hepatoprotective effects. PMID:26713269

  1. Fucoidan protects hepatocytes from apoptosis and inhibits invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma by up-regulating p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuri; Yoon, Jung-Hwan; Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Minjong; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Chung Yong

    2015-11-01

    Fucoidan is a traditional Chinese medicine suggested to possess anti-tumor effects. In this study the anti-metastatic effects of fucoidan were investigated in vitro in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (Huh-7 and SNU-761) under normoxic and hypoxic conditions and in vivo using a distant liver metastasis model involving injection of MH134 cells into spleen via the portal vein. Its ability to protect hepatocytes against bile acid (BA)-induced apoptosis was investigated in primary hepatocytes. Fucoidan was found to suppress the invasion of HCC cells through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent NDRG-1/CAP43 and partly, under normoxic conditions, through up-regulation of p42/44 MAPK-dependent VMP-1 expression. It also significantly decreased liver metastasis in vivo. As regards its hepatoprotective effect, fucoidan decreased BA-induced hepatocyte apoptosis as shown by the attenuation of caspase-8, and -7 cleavages and suppression of the mobilization of caspase-8 and Fas associated death domain (FADD) into the death-inducing signaling complex. In summary, fucoidan displays inhibitory effects on proliferation of HCC cells and protective effects on hepatocytes. The results suggest fucoidan is a potent suppressor of tumor invasion with hepatoprotective effects.

  2. Pentoxifylline inhibits hypoxia-induced upregulation of tumor cell tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Meyer, T; Warnes, G; Amaya, M; Malik, Z; Biggerstaff, J P; Siddiqui, F A; Sherman, P; Francis, J L

    1998-10-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the membrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation, is constitutively expressed by many tumor cells and is implicated in peri-tumor fibrin deposition and hypercoagulability in cancer. Upregulation of tumor TF correlates with enhanced metastatic potential. Furthermore, TF has been colocalized with VEGF in breast cancer, specially at sites of early angiogenesis. There are no data on the effect of hypoxia on tumor cell TF expression. Since hypoxia is known to stimulate VEGF production, we studied whether this also induces tumor cell TF expression. Confluent monolayers of A375 melanoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and A549 lung carcinoma were cultured in either 95% air, 5% CO2 (normoxic) or 95% N2, 5% CO2 (hypoxic; 25-30 mmHg) for 24 h. Procoagulant activity (PCA) was measured by amidolytic and clotting assays, surface TF antigen by flow cytometry, early apoptosis by annexin V binding and VEGF levels in culture supernatants by ELISA. Hypoxia significantly increased tumor cell PCA in all three cell lines tested and TF antigen on A375 cells was increased four-fold (P <0.05). Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in PCA as well as VEGF release in all three cell lines tested. In A375 cells, PTX significantly inhibited TF antigen expression by both normoxic and hypoxic cells. Hypoxia induced a slight (5%) but not significant, increase in early apoptosis. Intravenous injection of hypoxic A375 cells into nude rats produced more pronounced thrombocytopenia (n = 5, P <0.01) and more lung metastases (n = 3, P <0.05) compared to normoxic cells. We conclude that hypoxia increases TF expression by malignant cells which enhances tumor cell-platelet binding and hematogenous metastasis. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of TF appears to parallel that of VEGF, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  3. Pentoxifylline inhibits hypoxia-induced upregulation of tumor cell tissue factor and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Amirkhosravi, A; Meyer, T; Warnes, G; Amaya, M; Malik, Z; Biggerstaff, J P; Siddiqui, F A; Sherman, P; Francis, J L

    1998-10-01

    Tissue factor (TF), the membrane glycoprotein that initiates blood coagulation, is constitutively expressed by many tumor cells and is implicated in peri-tumor fibrin deposition and hypercoagulability in cancer. Upregulation of tumor TF correlates with enhanced metastatic potential. Furthermore, TF has been colocalized with VEGF in breast cancer, specially at sites of early angiogenesis. There are no data on the effect of hypoxia on tumor cell TF expression. Since hypoxia is known to stimulate VEGF production, we studied whether this also induces tumor cell TF expression. Confluent monolayers of A375 melanoma, MCF-7 breast carcinoma and A549 lung carcinoma were cultured in either 95% air, 5% CO2 (normoxic) or 95% N2, 5% CO2 (hypoxic; 25-30 mmHg) for 24 h. Procoagulant activity (PCA) was measured by amidolytic and clotting assays, surface TF antigen by flow cytometry, early apoptosis by annexin V binding and VEGF levels in culture supernatants by ELISA. Hypoxia significantly increased tumor cell PCA in all three cell lines tested and TF antigen on A375 cells was increased four-fold (P <0.05). Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative, significantly inhibited the hypoxia-induced increase in PCA as well as VEGF release in all three cell lines tested. In A375 cells, PTX significantly inhibited TF antigen expression by both normoxic and hypoxic cells. Hypoxia induced a slight (5%) but not significant, increase in early apoptosis. Intravenous injection of hypoxic A375 cells into nude rats produced more pronounced thrombocytopenia (n = 5, P <0.01) and more lung metastases (n = 3, P <0.05) compared to normoxic cells. We conclude that hypoxia increases TF expression by malignant cells which enhances tumor cell-platelet binding and hematogenous metastasis. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of TF appears to parallel that of VEGF, although the mechanism remains unclear. PMID:9798977

  4. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hai Po H; Kerschen, Edward J; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R; Fernández, José A; Camire, Rodney M; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H; Weiler, Hartmut

    2015-11-19

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage-specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection.

  5. Mitogenic insulin receptor-A is overexpressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma due to EGFR-mediated dysregulation of RNA splicing factors.

    PubMed

    Chettouh, Hamza; Fartoux, Laetitia; Aoudjehane, Lynda; Wendum, Dominique; Clapéron, Audrey; Chrétien, Yves; Rey, Colette; Scatton, Olivier; Soubrane, Olivier; Conti, Filomena; Praz, Françoise; Housset, Chantal; Rosmorduc, Olivier; Desbois-Mouthon, Christèle

    2013-07-01

    Insulin receptor (IR) exists as two isoforms resulting from the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA. IR-B promotes the metabolic effects of insulin, whereas IR-A rather signals proliferative effects. IR-B is predominantly expressed in the adult liver. Here, we show that the alternative splicing of IR pre-mRNA is dysregulated in a panel of 85 human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while being normal in adjacent nontumor liver tissue. An IR-B to IR-A switch is frequently observed in HCC tumors regardless of tumor etiology. Using pharmacologic and siRNA approaches, we show that the autocrine or paracrine activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR)/mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway increases the IR-A:IR-B ratio in HCC cell lines, but not in normal hepatocytes, by upregulating the expression of the splicing factors CUGBP1, hnRNPH, hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2B1, and SF2/ASF. In HCC tumors, there is a significant correlation between the expression of IR-A and that of splicing factors. Dysregulation of IR pre-mRNA splicing was confirmed in a chemically induced model of HCC in rat but not in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy. This study identifies a mechanism responsible for the generation of mitogenic IR-A and provides a novel interplay between IR and EGFR pathways in HCC. Increased expression of IR-A during neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes could mediate some of the adverse effects of hyperinsulinemia on HCC.

  6. Is exposure to Agent Orange a risk factor for hepatocellular cancer?—A single-center retrospective study in the U.S. veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Hazratjee, Nyla; Opris, Dan; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Markert, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 15% to 35% of those with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) related cirrhosis will develop hepatocellular cancer (HCC). With this burden increasing across the globe, identification of risk factors for HCC has become imperative. Exposure to Agent Orange has been implicated as a possible risk factor for liver cancer in a study from the Republic of Korea. However, there has been no study in U.S. veterans with CHC and cirrhosis that has evaluated exposure to Agent Orange as a risk factor for HCC. We conducted a retrospective study of U.S. military veterans diagnosed with CHC and cirrhosis over a period of 14 years to evaluate potential risk factors for HCC including exposure to Agent Orange. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 390 patients with confirmed CHC-related cirrhosis between 2000 and 2013 and identified patients with HCC. We compared demographic, laboratory, and other clinical characteristics of patients with and without HCC. Results The mean age of the cohort was 51 years (SD =7.5), with the majority being male (98.5%). Seventy-nine of 390 (20.2%) patients developed HCC, diagnosed on average 8 (SD =4.8) years after diagnosis of CHC. Nearly half (49.4%) were Childs A, 40.5% were Childs B, and 10.1% were Childs C. HCC patients were more likely to be African American than non-HCC patients (40.5% vs. 25.4%, P=0.009) and to be addicted to alcohol (86.1% vs. 74.3%, P=0.027). A trend toward significance was seen in the HCC group for exposure to Agent Orange (16.5% vs. 10.0%, P=0.10) and smoking addiction (88.6% vs. 80.7%, P=0.10). Consequently, race, alcohol addiction, Agent Orange exposure, and smoking addiction were included in the multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis. Alcohol addiction [odds ratio (OR) =2.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–4.43] and African American race (OR =2.07; 95% CI, 1.22–3.51) were found to be the only two definitive independent risk factors for HCC in our sample. Conclusions African American race and

  7. Poisson indicator and Fano factor for probing dynamic disorder in single-molecule enzyme inhibition kinetics.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Srabanti

    2014-09-01

    We consider a generic stochastic model to describe the kinetics of single-molecule enzyme inhibition reactions in which the turnover events correspond to conversion of substrate into a product by a single enzyme molecule in the presence of an inhibitor. We observe that slow fluctuations between the active and inhibited state of the enzyme or the enzyme substrate complex can induce dynamic disorder, which is manifested in the measurement of the Poisson indicator and the Fano factor as functions of substrate concentrations for different inhibition reactions. For a single enzyme molecule inhibited by the product, we derive a single-molecule Michaelis-Menten equation for the reaction rate, which shows a dependence on the substrate concentration similar to the ensemble enzymatic catalysis rate as obtained from bulk experimental results. The measurement of Fano factor is shown to be able to discriminate reactions following different inhibition mechanisms and also extract kinetic rates.

  8. Role in nude mice of interferon and natural killer cells in inhibiting the tumorigenicity of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells infected with hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    Shouval, Daniel; Rager-Zisman, Bracha; Quan, Phuc; Shafritz, David A.; Bloom, Barry R.; Reid, Lola M.

    1983-01-01

    The human hepatoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, which is persistently infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), has integrated HBV-DNA, secretes HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), and does not grow readily in congenitally athymic (nu/nu) mice. The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain whether the low tumorigenicity of this cell line was governed by a host immune response and/or was related to expression of HBsAg. Subcutaneous injection of 4-5 X 106 cells into BALB/c nude mice produced localized encapsulated tumors with morphologic features of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 25% of the animals within 29-40 d. No tumor growth was observed at lower cell inocula. In contrast, SK-HEP-1, an HBV-negative human hepatoma cell line, produced tumors at 1-5 X 106 cells inocula in 66% of the animals. Immunosuppression of mice with antilymphocyte serum (ALS) or irradiation increased tumor incidence in mice inoculated with 1 X 106 PLC/PRF/5 cells to almost 100% and produced local invasiveness. Immunosuppression also reduced the latency, i.e., time to tumor appearance, and increased mean tumor weight. These results suggest that tumorigenicity was limited by the host immune response. The nature of the response was delineated by treating nude mice challenged with tumor cells with sheep anti-mouse interferon globulin (anti-IFN). When 2 X 106 cells were injected, tumor growth occurred in 75% of anti-IFN-treated mice, whereas controls injected with the same number of cells, but not receiving anti-IFN, failed to develop tumors. The tumors in the anti-IFN-treated mice were highly invasive and the latency period until tumor appearance was reduced to 3-5 d. An inverse correlation was found between susceptibility of the hepatoma cells to natural killer (NK) activity in vitro and resistance to tumor growth in vivo. In vitro cytotoxicity for PLC/PRF/5 cells was eliminated by anti-NK 1.1 and complement, establishing the effector cell as an NK cell. NK cell activity 14 d after inoculation of

  9. Imatinib mesylate inhibits platelet derived growth factor stimulated proliferation of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, Charlotta; Joutsiniemi, Saima; Lindstedt, Ken A.; Juutilainen, Timo; Kovanen, Petri T.; Eklund, Kari K. . E-mail: kari.eklund@hus.fi

    2006-08-18

    Synovial fibroblast is the key cell type in the growth of the pathological synovial tissue in arthritis. Here, we show that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a potent mitogen for synovial fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Inhibition of PDGF-receptor signalling by imatinib mesylate (1 {mu}M) completely abrogated the PDGF-stimulated proliferation and inhibited approximately 70% of serum-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts. Similar extent of inhibition was observed when PDGF was neutralized with anti-PDGF antibodies, suggesting that imatinib mesylate does not inhibit pathways other than those mediated by PDGF-receptors. No signs of apoptosis were detected in synovial fibroblasts cultured in the presence of imatinib. These results suggest that imatinib mesylate specifically inhibits PDGF-stimulated proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, and that inhibition of PDGF-receptors could represent a feasible target for novel antirheumatic therapies.

  10. Psychological Factors that Promote and Inhibit Pathological Gambling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morasco, Benjamin J.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Ledgerwood, David M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative data regarding psychological factors that may affect gambling behavior among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Participants (n = 84) diagnosed with pathological gambling were treated in a clinical trial examining the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Qualitative data were collected from…

  11. Identification of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a Glycine N-Methyltransferase Enhancer by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Rajni; Yen, Chia-Hung; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lin, Ying-Chi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression is vastly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). High rates of GNMT knockout mice developed HCC, while overexpression of GNMT prevented aflatoxin-induced carcinogenicity and inhibited liver cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we aimed for the identification of a GNMT inducer for HCC therapy. We established a GNMT promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay as a drug screening platform. Screening of 324 pure compounds and 480 crude extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs resulted in the identification of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (PL) extract and the active component 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (PGG) as a GNMT inducer. Purified PL extract and PGG induced GNMT mRNA and protein expression in Huh7 human hepatoma cells and in xenograft tumors. PGG and PL extract had potent anti-HCC effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PGG treatment induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells. Moreover, PGG treatment sensitized Huh7 cells to sorafenib treatment. Therefore, these results indicated that identifying a GNMT enhancer using the GNMT promoter-based assay might be a useful approach to find drugs for HCC. These data also suggested that PGG has therapeutic potential for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27153064

  12. Identification of 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a Glycine N-Methyltransferase Enhancer by High-Throughput Screening of Natural Products Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kant, Rajni; Yen, Chia-Hung; Lu, Chung-Kuang; Lin, Ying-Chi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chen, Yi-Ming Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) expression is vastly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). High rates of GNMT knockout mice developed HCC, while overexpression of GNMT prevented aflatoxin-induced carcinogenicity and inhibited liver cancer cell proliferation. Therefore, in this study, we aimed for the identification of a GNMT inducer for HCC therapy. We established a GNMT promoter-driven luciferase reporter assay as a drug screening platform. Screening of 324 pure compounds and 480 crude extracts from Chinese medicinal herbs resulted in the identification of Paeonia lactiflora Pall (PL) extract and the active component 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (PGG) as a GNMT inducer. Purified PL extract and PGG induced GNMT mRNA and protein expression in Huh7 human hepatoma cells and in xenograft tumors. PGG and PL extract had potent anti-HCC effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, PGG treatment induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells. Moreover, PGG treatment sensitized Huh7 cells to sorafenib treatment. Therefore, these results indicated that identifying a GNMT enhancer using the GNMT promoter-based assay might be a useful approach to find drugs for HCC. These data also suggested that PGG has therapeutic potential for the treatment of HCC. PMID:27153064

  13. Involvement of the transcription factor FoxM1 in contact inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, Dagmar; Al-Butmeh, Firas; Linz, Berenike; Dietrich, Cornelia

    2012-10-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcription factor FoxM1 is downregulated upon contact inhibition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in FoxM1 levels occurs very likely due to inhibition of ERK activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The decrease in FoxM1 is not sufficient, but required for contact inhibition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We propose a new model of contact inhibition involving pRB/E2F and FoxM1. -- Abstract: Contact inhibition is a crucial mechanism regulating proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Although it is generally accepted that contact inhibition plays a pivotal role in maintaining tissue homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms of contact inhibition are still not fully understood. FoxM1 is known as a proliferation-associated transcription factor and is upregulated in many cancer types. Vice versa, anti-proliferative signals, such as TGF-{beta} and differentiation signals decrease FoxM1 expression. Here we investigated the role of FoxM1 in contact inhibition in fibroblasts. We show that protein expression of FoxM1 is severely and rapidly downregulated upon contact inhibition, probably by inhibition of ERK activity, which then leads to decreased expression of cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1. Vice versa, ectopic expression of FoxM1 prevents the decrease in cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1 and causes a two-fold increase in saturation density indicating loss of contact inhibition. Hence, we show that downregulation of FoxM1 is required for contact inhibition by regulating expression of cyclin A and polo-like kinase 1.

  14. Apelin: an antithrombotic factor that inhibits platelet function.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frédéric; Khatib, Abdel-Majid; Lopez, Jose Javier; Vatier, Camille; Turpin, Sabrina; Muscat, Adeline; Soulet, Fabienne; Aries, Anne; Jardin, Isaac; Bobe, Régis; Stepanian, Alain; de Prost, Dominique; Dray, Cédric; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Valet, Philippe; Feve, Bruno; Siegfried, Geraldine

    2016-02-18

    Apelin peptide and its receptor APJ are directly implicated in various physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular homeostasis to immune signaling. Here, we show that apelin is a key player in hemostasis with an ability to inhibit thrombin- and collagen-mediated platelet activation. Mice lacking apelin displayed a shorter bleeding time and a prothrombotic profile. Their platelets exhibited increased adhesion and a reduced occlusion time in venules, and displayed a higher aggregation rate after their activation by thrombin compared with wild-type platelets. Consequently, human and mouse platelets express apelin and its receptor APJ. Apelin directly interferes with thrombin-mediated signaling pathways and platelet activation, secretion, and aggregation, but not with ADP and thromboxane A2-mediated pathways. IV apelin administration induced excessive bleeding and prevented thrombosis in mice. Taken together, these findings suggest that apelin and/or APJ agonists could potentially be useful adducts in antiplatelet therapies and may provide a promising perspective for patients who continue to display adverse thrombotic events with current antiplatelet therapies.

  15. Eukaryotic elongation factor-1α 2 knockdown inhibits hepatocarcinogenesis by suppressing PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Fu-Nan; Huang, Yi; Chen, Dun-Yan; Li, Feng; Wu, Yan-An; Wu, Wen-Bing; Huang, Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the impact of eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha 2 (eEF1A2) on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion, and determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: eEF1A2 levels were detected in 62 HCC tissue samples and paired pericarcinomatous specimens, and the human HCC cell lines SK-HEP-1, HepG2 and BEF-7402, by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry. Experimental groups included eEF1A2 silencing in BEL-7402 cells with lentivirus eEF1A2-shRNA (KD group) and eEF1A2 overexpression in SK-HEP-1 cells with eEF1A2 plasmid (OE group). Non-transfected cells (control group) and lentivirus-based empty vector transfected cells (NC group) were considered control groups. Cell proliferation (MTT and colony formation assays), apoptosis (Annexin V-APC assay), cell cycle (DNA ploidy assay), and migration and invasion (Transwell assays) were assessed. Protein levels of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling effectors were evaluated by Western blot. RESULTS: eEF1A2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in HCC cancer tissue samples than in paired pericarcinomatous and normal specimens. SK-HEP-1 cells showed lower eEF1A2 mRNA levels; HepG2 and BEL-7402 cells showed higher eEF1A2 mRNA levels, with BEL-7402 cells displaying the highest amount. Efficient eEF1A2 silencing resulted in reduced cell proliferation, migration and invasion, increased apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. The PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway was notably inhibited. Inversely, eEF1A2 overexpression resulted in promoted cell proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSION: eEF1A2, highly expressed in HCC, is a potential oncogene. Its silencing significantly decreases HCC tumorigenesis, likely by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling. PMID:27122673

  16. The role of factor inhibiting HIF (FIH-1) in inhibiting HIF-1 transcriptional activity in glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Wang, Enfeng; Zhang, Chunyang; Polavaram, Navatha; Liu, Fengming; Wu, Gang; Schroeder, Mark A; Lau, Julie S; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Jiang, Shi-Wen; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Datta, Kaustubh; Li, Jinping

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) accounts for about 38% of primary brain tumors in the United States. GBM is characterized by extensive angiogenesis induced by vascular growth factors and cytokines. The transcription of these growth factors and cytokines is regulated by the Hypoxia-Inducible-Factor-1(HIF-1), which is a key regulator mediating the cellular response to hypoxia. It is known that Factor Inhibiting HIF-1, or FIH-1, is also involved in the cellular response to hypoxia and has the capability to physically interact with HIF-1 and block its transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions. Delineation of the regulatory role of FIH-1 will help us to better understand the molecular mechanism responsible for tumor growth and progression and may lead to the design of new therapies targeting cellular pathways in response to hypoxia. Previous studies have shown that the chromosomal region of 10q24 containing the FIH-1 gene is often deleted in GBM, suggesting a role for the FIH-1 in GBM tumorigenesis and progression. In the current study, we found that FIH-1 is able to inhibit HIF-mediated transcription of GLUT1 and VEGF-A, even under hypoxic conditions in human glioblastoma cells. FIH-1 has been found to be more potent in inhibiting HIF function than PTEN. This observation points to the possibility that deletion of 10q23-24 and loss or decreased expression of FIH-1 gene may lead to a constitutive activation of HIF-1 activity, an alteration of HIF-1 targets such as GLUT-1 and VEGF-A, and may contribute to the survival of cancer cells in hypoxia and the development of hypervascularization observed in GBM. Therefore FIH-1 can be potential therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM patients with poor prognosis.

  17. Incidence of and factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma among hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus coinfected patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    García-García, José A; Romero-Gómez, Manuel; Girón-González, José A; Rivera-Irigoin, Robin; Torre-Cisneros, Julián; Montero, José L; González-Serrano, Mercedes; Andrade, Raúl J; Aguilar-Guisado, Manuela; Grilo, Israel; Martín-Vivaldi, Javier; Salmerón, Javier; Caballero-Granado, Francisco J; Macías, Juan; Vergara-López, Salvador; Pineda, Juan A

    2006-12-01

    We compared the incidence of and factors associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among hepatitis C virus (HCV)-monoinfected subjects and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/HCV-coinfected individuals, both with decompensated cirrhosis. In a retrospective study, a cohort of 180 individuals with HIV coinfection and 1037 HCV-monoinfected patients with decompensated HCV-related cirrhosis from eight centres in Spain were analyzed. HCC was found in 234 (23%) HCV-monoinfected subjects and in four (2%) HIV-coinfected subjects (p<0.001). At the time of the first hepatic decompensation, 188 (17%) and 4 (2%) (p<0.001) patients in the former and in the latter group, respectively, showed HCC. Fifty-four (11%) patients without HCC at baseline developed such a disease during follow-up. There were no incident cases among the HIV-coinfected population. The density of incidence (95% IC) of HCC in HIV/HCV-coinfected and HCV-monoinfected patients was 0 (0-1.70) and 3.31 (2.70-4.64) cases per 100 person-years (p<0.001), respectively. Lack of HIV infection [adjusted odds risk (AOR) (95% IC)=16.7 (3.9-71.1)] and high alanine aminotransferase levels [AOR (95% IC)=2.5 (1.1-5)] were the only two independent predictors of the emergence of HCC. In the group of patients in whom the date of HCV infection could be estimated, the time elapsed until HCC diagnosis was shorter among HIV-coinfected subjects. The incidence of HCC in patients with HCV-related cirrhosis after the first hepatic decompensation is lower in HIV-coinfected patients. This is probably due to the fact that HIV infection shortens the survival of HCV-coinfected patients with end-stage liver disease to such an extent that HCC not had a chance to emerge.

  18. Diagnostic Value of Serum Level of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor IIα in Egyptian Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Shawky A; Elsaaid, Nehal H; Mohamed, Nagwa A; Abutaleb, Osama M

    2014-01-01

    Background: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unfavorable and needs serum markers that could detect it early to start therapy at a potentially curable phase. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the value of serum soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-IIα (sTNFR-IIα) in diagnosis of HCC in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Patients and Methods: The study was performed on 110 subjects who were classified into five groups. Group I included 20 patients with chronic noncirrhotic HCV infection and persistently normal transaminases for ≥6 months. Group II included 20 patients with chronic noncirrhotic HCV infection and elevated transaminases. Group III included 20 patients with Chronic HCV infection and liver cirrhosis. Group IV included 20 patients with chronic HCV infection with liver cirrhosis and HCC. Group V included 30 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Medical history was taken from all participants and they underwent clinical examination and abdominal ultrasonography. in addition, the following laboratory tests were requested: liver function tests, complete blood count, HBsAg, anti-HCVAb, HCV-RNA by qualitative PCR, and serum levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and sTNFR-IIα. Results: The serum level of sTNFR-IIα was significantly higher in patients with HCC in comparison to the other groups. A positive correlation was found between the serum levels of sTNFR-IIα and AST and ALT in patients of group-II. Diagnosis of HCC among patients with HCV infection and cirrhosis could be ascertained when sTNFR-IIα is assessed at a cutoff value of ≥ 250 pg/mL. Conclusions: Serum sTNFR-IIα could be used as a potential serum marker in diagnosing HCC among patients with HCV infection. PMID:25386197

  19. Impact of epidermal growth factor single-nucleotide polymorphism on recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshiya, Shohei; Fujimoto, Yukiko; Bekki, Yuki; Konishi, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Yo-Ichi; Ikegami, Toru; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Shirabe, Ken; Oda, Yoshinao; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) gene single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is associated with an increased risk of hepatic tumors. The study aimed to elucidate the impact of EGF SNP and EGF receptor (EGFR) expression on the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatectomy. To examine the impact of EGF SNP and EGFR on recurrent HCC, we retrospectively analyzed 141 HCC patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection who underwent curative hepatectomy. The EGF *61 GG allele was present in 69 patients (48.9%), AG in 56 (39.7%) and AA in 16 (11.4%). The AA group had a significantly lower rate of intrahepatic metastasis (0% vs 16.5%, P = 0.02), lower serum EGF concentration (26.3 ± 15.9 pg/mL vs 43.4 ± 30.5 pg/mL, P = 0.02) and lower proportion of early recurrence (≤2 years; 28.6% vs 71.2%, P = 0.03) than the AG/GG group. The AA group had significantly higher recurrence-free survival than the AG/GG group (P = 0.04), but there was no significant difference in overall survival between these two groups (P = 0.97). High versus low EGFR expression analyzed by immunohistochemical staining in cancer cells was not significantly associated with overall survival (P = 0.37) or recurrence-free survival (P = 0.39). Therefore, EGF *61 AA was associated with a lower risk of recurrence after curative hepatectomy for HCC in patients with hepatitis C virus infection than other genotypes, but EGFR expression in cancer cells was not significantly associated with prognosis.

  20. Elevated hepatocyte growth factor expression as an autocrine c-Met activation mechanism in acquired resistance to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Firtina Karagonlar, Zeynep; Koc, Dogukan; Iscan, Evin; Erdal, Esra; Atabey, Neşe

    2016-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Limitations in HCC treatment result due to poor prognosis and resistance against traditional radiotherapy and chemotherapies. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the only FDA approved drug available for advanced HCC patients, and development of second-line treatment options for patients who cannot tolerate or develop resistance to sorafenib is an urgent medical need. In this study, we established sorafenib-resistant cells from Huh7 and Mahlavu cell lines by long-term sorafenib exposure. Sorafenib-resistant HCC cells acquired spindle-shape morphology, upregulated mesenchymal markers, and showed significant increase in both migration and invasion abilities compared to their parental counterparts. Moreover, after long-term sorafenib treatment, HCC cells showed induction of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) synthesis and secretion along with increased levels of c-Met kinase and its active phosphorylated form, indicating autocrine activation of HGF/c-Met signaling. Importantly, the combined treatment of the resistant cells with c-Met kinase inhibitor SU11274 and HGF neutralizing antibody significantly reversed the increased invasion ability of the cells. The combined treatment also significantly augmented sorafenib-induced apoptosis, suggesting restoration of sorafenib sensitivity. These results describe, for the first time, compensatory upregulation of HGF synthesis leading to autocrine activation of HGF/c-Met signaling as a novel cellular strategy in the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Therefore, we suggest that combinatorial therapeutic strategies with HGF and c-Met inhibitors comprise promising candidates for overcoming sorafenib resistance. PMID:26790028

  1. Overexpression of Bmi-1 contributes to the invasion and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑2, MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor via the PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolei; Yang, Zhaoxu; Song, Wenjie; Zhou, Liang; Li, Qingjun; Tao, Kaishan; Zhou, Jingshi; Wang, Xing; Zheng, Zhigang; You, Nan; Dou, Kefeng; Li, Haimin

    2013-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumours and it carries a poor prognosis due to a high rate of recurrence or metastasis after surgery. Bmi-1 plays a significant role in the growth and metastasis of many solid tumours. However, the exact mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion and metastasis, especially in HCC, are not yet known. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the expression of Bmi-1 in HCC samples and its relationship with clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic value, we also investigated related mechanisms underlying Bmi-1-mediated cell invasion in HCC. Our results showed that Bmi-1 is upregulated in HCC tissues compared to matched non-cancer liver tissues; and its expression is positively associated with tumour size, metastasis, venous invasion and AJCC TNM stage, respectively; multivariate analysis showed that high expression of Bmi-1 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. In addition, the shRNA-mediated inhibition of Bmi-1 reduced the invasiveness of two HCC cell lines in vitro by upregulating phosphatase and the tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression, inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling pathway and downregulating the expression and activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These data demonstrate that Bmi-1 plays a vital role in HCC invasion and that Bmi-1 is a potential therapeutic target for HCC.

  2. Inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and motility by fibroblasts is both contact and soluble factor dependent

    PubMed Central

    Alkasalias, Twana; Flaberg, Emilie; Kashuba, Vladimir; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pavlova, Tatiana; Savchenko, Andrii; Szekely, Laszlo; Klein, George; Guven, Hayrettin

    2014-01-01

    Normal human and murine fibroblasts can inhibit proliferation of tumor cells when cocultured in vitro. The inhibitory capacity varies depending on the donor and the site of origin of the fibroblast. We showed previously that effective inhibition requires formation of a morphologically intact fibroblast monolayer before seeding of the tumor cells. Here we show that inhibition is extended to motility of tumor cells and we dissect the factors responsible for these inhibitory functions. We find that inhibition is due to two different sets of molecules: (i) the extracellular matrix (ECM) and other surface proteins of the fibroblasts, which are responsible for contact-dependent inhibition of tumor cell proliferation; and (ii) soluble factors secreted by fibroblasts when confronted with tumor cells (confronted conditioned media, CCM) contribute to inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and motility. However, conditioned media (CM) obtained from fibroblasts alone (nonconfronted conditioned media, NCM) did not inhibit tumor cell proliferation and motility. In addition, quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) data show up-regulation of proinflammatory genes. Moreover, comparison of CCM and NCM with an antibody array for 507 different soluble human proteins revealed differential expression of growth differentiation factor 15, dickkopf-related protein 1, endothelial-monocyte-activating polypeptide II, ectodysplasin A2, Galectin-3, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2, Nidogen1, urokinase, and matrix metalloproteinase 3. PMID:25404301

  3. Cold-water extracts of Grifola frondosa and its purified active fraction inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hung; Chang, Ching-Yao; Lee, Kuan-Rong; Lin, Hui-Ju; Lin, Wu-Chou; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Wan, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Mushrooms are used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. Grifola frondosa (GF) is an edible mushroom indigenous to many Asian countries with a large fruiting body characterized by overlapping caps. In particular, GF is known for its anti-tumor activity, which has been targeted by scientific and clinical research. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the cold-water extract of GF (GFW) and its active fraction (GFW-GF) on autophagy and apoptosis, and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo Our results revealed that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and stimulated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, thereby inducing autophagy. We also demonstrated that GFW and GFW-GF inhibited proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in Hep3B hepatoma cells. GFW and GFW-GF markedly arrested cells in S phase and promoted cleavage of caspase-3 and -9. In addition, GFW and GFW-GF decreased the expression levels of the anti-apoptotic proteins protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. We also found that GFW significantly inhibited tumor growth in nude mice implanted with Hep3B cells. Our work demonstrates that GF and its active fraction inhibit hepatoma growth by inducing autophagy and apoptosis. PMID:27013543

  4. Social Support as a Factor Inhibiting Teenage Risk-Taking: Views of Students, Parents and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott-Chapman, Joan; Denholm, Carey; Wyld, Colin

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study conducted in Tasmania, Australia, of teenage risk-taking across 26 potentially harmful risk activities has examined a range of factors that encourage or inhibit risk-taking. Among these factors, the degree of social and professional support the teenage students say they would access for personal, study or health problems has…

  5. O-GlcNAc inhibits interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Kihong; Chang, Hyo-Ihl

    2009-03-13

    The novel protein modification, O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), plays an important role in various aspects of cell regulation. Although most of nuclear transcription regulatory factors are modified by O-GlcNAc, O-GlcNAc effects on transcription remain largely undefined yet. In this study, we show that O-GlcNAc inhibits a physical interaction between Sp1 and Elf-1 transcription factors, and negatively regulates transcription of placenta and embryonic expression oncofetal protein gene (Pem). These findings suggest that O-GlcNAc inhibits Sp1-mediated gene transcription possibly by interrupting Sp1 interaction with its cooperative factor.

  6. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Transforming Growth Factor-beta1 in HCV-Induced Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    El-Bassiouny, Azza E.I.; Zoheiry, Mona M.K.; Nosseir, Mona M.F.; El-Ahwany, Eman G.; Ibrahim, Raafat A.; El-Bassiouni, Nora E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) were modulated in a variety of viral infections, but there is a paucity of data about their role in the pathologic process of cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The material of the current study included 50 cases of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis, 30 cases of CHC with cirrhosis, and 30 cases of HCC with HCV admitted to the Gastroenterology and Hepatology Department of Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Giza, Egypt. Fifteen wedge liver biopsies, taken during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, were included in the study as normal controls. Laboratory investigations, serologic markers for viral hepatitis, and serum alpha fetoprotein levels (alpha-FP) were done for all cases of the study. Immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies against both factors revealed weak to faint immunoreactivity to COX-2 and TGF-beta1 in normal hepatic tissue (< 30% and < 50% of the cells, respectively). COX-2 expression was upregulated in patients with CHC with and without cirrhosis, yet 80% of positively stained cirrhotic cases showed marked staining intensity. Higher COX-2 expression was observed in well-differentiated HCC cases (80%) with marked staining intensity (75%) compared with advanced HCC tumors (P < .001). TGF-beta1 was expressed in the hepatocytes of all cases of CHC with and without cirrhosis as well as in 67% of HCC cases. Extensive cytoplasmic expression was detected in 52%, 93.3%, and 46.6% of CHC patients without cirrhosis, patients with cirrhosis, and patients with HCC, respectively. A positive correlation was observed between hepatic expression of COX-2 and TGF-beta1 (r = 0.67, P < .05); however, no correlation was detected between the latter and grade of HCC differentiation (r = 0.33, P > .05). Conclusion These findings may suggest that TGF-beta1 plays a role in hepatic cell damage following HCV infection thus stressing

  7. Matrine induces caspase-independent program cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma through bid-mediated nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Xu, Minying; Gao, Ya; Deng, Zhigang; Cao, Hanwei; Zhang, Wenqing; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Bing; Song, Gang; Zhan, Yanyan; Hu, Tianhui

    2014-03-16

    Matrine, a clinical drug in China, has been used to treat viral hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia and skin inflammations. Matrine also exhibits chemotherapeutic potential through its ability to trigger cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms involved are still largely unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the major determinant for the cell death induced by matrine in human hepatocellular carcinoma. We use human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenograft in nude mice as models to study the action of matrine in hepatocellular cancers. We found that caspase-dependent and -independent Program Cell Death (PCD) occurred in matrine-treated HepG2 cells, accompanied by the decreasing of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and the increasing ROS production. Further studies showed that AIF released from the mitochondria to the nucleus, and silencing of AIF reduced the caspase-independent PCD induced by matrine. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation, and the subsequent cell death as well, was prevented by Bid inhibitor BI-6C9, Bid-targeted siRNA and ROS scavenger Tiron. In the in vivo study, matrine significantly attenuated tumor growth with AIF release from mitochondria into nucleus in nude mice. These data imply that matrine potently induce caspase-independent PCD in HepG2 cells through Bid-mediated AIF translocation.

  8. Coagulation factor Xa inhibition: biological background and rationale.

    PubMed

    Leadley, R J

    2001-06-01

    Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the world. Surprisingly, these diseases are treated by relatively antiquated drugs. However, due to our improved understanding of the underlying pathology of these diseases, and a number of technological advances in tools for drug discovery and chemical optimization, an exciting new wave of antithrombotic compounds is beginning to emerge in clinical trials. These agents, referred to as direct coagulation factor Xa inhibitors, appear to provide an enhanced risk-benefit margin compared to conventional therapy. Preclinical and early clinical data gathered over the past few years suggests that direct fXa inhibitors will provide the necessary advancements in efficacy, safety, and ease of use required to displace conventional therapy. Whether or not these agents will succeed will be determined as this class of agents advances through clinical trials in the near future. This review describes some of the key studies that sparked an interest in fXa as a therapeutic target, highlighting the findings that provided important rationale for continuing the development of potent and selective direct fXa inhibitors.

  9. Selective inhibition of the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 by Zn(II).

    PubMed

    Na, Yu-Ran; Woo, Dustin J; Choo, Hyunah; Chung, Hak Suk; Yang, Eun Gyeong

    2015-07-01

    We report herein that Zn(II) selectively inhibits the hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase PHD3 over PHD2, and does not compete with Fe(II). Independent of the oligomer formation induced by Zn(II), inhibition of the activity of PHD3 by Zn(II) involves Cys42 and Cys52 residues distantly located from the active site. PMID:26051901

  10. Factors determining long-term outcomes of hepatocellular carcinoma within the Milan criteria: liver transplantation versus locoregional therapy: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hee; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Gyu-Seong; Kim, Jong Man; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Joh, Jae-Won; Kim, Ki Yeon; Kim, Kyunga; Paik, Yong-Han; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon

    2016-08-01

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) satisfying the Milan criteria are candidates for liver transplantation (LT), but locoregional therapies could be another options for them.A total of 1859 treatment-naïve HCC patients fulfilling the Milan criteria were analyzed. Survival tree analysis was performed to generate survival nodes with similar survival risks in 1729 non-LT group, and compared with the survival of 130 patients who received LT.Among patients who did not receive LT, survival tree analysis classified patients into 6 nodes according to Child-Pugh (CP) score, serum alphafetoprotein (AFP) levels, tumor size, and age, with different mortality risks (5-year survival rate of 87.3%, 77.5%, 65.8%, 64.7%, 44.0%, and 28.7% for nodes 1-6, respectively; P < 0.001). The overall survival of patients in nodes 1 (CP score 5 with AFP levels <5 ng/mL) and 2 (CP score 5 with maximal tumor size <2.5 cm) were comparable with that of patients who received LT (both P > 0.05), but the survival rates of patients in nodes 3 to 6 were worse than that of LT (P < 0.05 for all). In each survival node, survival differed slightly according to initial treatment modality for patients who did not receive LT. For patients who received LT, tumor stage at the time of LT was associated with long-term outcome.Certain groups of non-LT patients showed survival rates that were similar to the survival rates of LT patients. CP score, AFP levels, tumor size, and age were baseline factors that can help estimate the long-term outcomes of non-LT treatment. In addition, tumor stage at the time of LT and specific initial treatment modality in non-LT patients affected the long-term outcomes. These factors can help estimate the long-term outcomes of HCC patients diagnosed within the Milan criteria. PMID:27583916

  11. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 2J2 by tanshinone IIA induces apoptotic cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yu Jin; Kim, Joong Sun; Hwang, Geun Hye; Wu, Zhexue; Han, Ho Jae; Park, Soo Hyun; Chang, Woochul; Kim, Lark Kyun; Lee, You-Mie; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Lee, Min Young

    2015-10-01

    Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) is highly expressed in human tumors and carcinoma cell lines, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human cancers. The aim of this study was to identify a compound that could inhibit the activity of CYP2J2, and to examine its anticancer activity. To identify CYP2J2 inhibitors, 10 terpenoids obtained from plants were screened using astemizole as a CYP2J2 probe substrate in human liver microsomes (HLMs). Of these, tanshinone IIA dose-dependently and non-competitively inhibited CYP2J2-mediated astemizole O-demethylation activity. Tanshinone IIA significantly decreased viability of human hepatoma HepG2 cells and SiHa cervical cancer cells; however, it was not cytotoxic against mouse hepatocytes. Furthermore, treatment of cells with tanshinone IIA significantly increased apoptotic cell death rate, as shown by the increase in Annexin V-stained cell populations, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax)/B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) ratio, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) cleavage in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that tanshinone IIA significantly decreased HepG2 cell-based tumor growth in nude mice in a dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, the tanshinone IIA-induced apoptotic cell death rate was significantly attenuated by enhanced up-regulation of CYP2J2 expression. Thus, our data strongly suggest that tanshinone IIA exerts its anticancer effect by inhibiting CYP2J2 activity. PMID:26209360

  12. Hepatocellular carcinoma: a review

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Julius; Victor, David; Asham, Emad H; Burroughs, Sherilyn Gordon; Boktour, Maha; Saharia, Ashish; Li, Xian; Ghobrial, R Mark; Monsour, Howard P

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In the United States, HCC is the ninth leading cause of cancer deaths. Despite advances in prevention techniques, screening, and new technologies in both diagnosis and treatment, incidence and mortality continue to rise. Cirrhosis remains the most important risk factor for the development of HCC regardless of etiology. Hepatitis B and C are independent risk factors for the development of cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption remains an important additional risk factor in the United States as alcohol abuse is five times higher than hepatitis C. Diagnosis is confirmed without pathologic confirmation. Screening includes both radiologic tests, such as ultrasound, computerized tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, and serological markers such as α-fetoprotein at 6-month intervals. Multiple treatment modalities exist; however, only orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or surgical resection is curative. OLT is available for patients who meet or are downstaged into the Milan or University of San Francisco criteria. Additional treatment modalities include transarterial chemoembolization, radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation, percutaneous ethanol injection, cryoablation, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, and molecularly targeted therapies. Selection of a treatment modality is based on tumor size, location, extrahepatic spread, and underlying liver function. HCC is an aggressive cancer that occurs in the setting of cirrhosis and commonly presents in advanced stages. HCC can be prevented if there are appropriate measures taken, including hepatitis B virus vaccination, universal screening of blood products, use of safe injection practices, treatment and education of alcoholics and intravenous drug users, and initiation of antiviral therapy. Continued improvement in both surgical and nonsurgical approaches has demonstrated

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatitis B surface protein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yong-Wei; Yang, Feng-Cai; Lu, Hui-Qiong; Zhang, Jiong-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The tumorigenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely studied. HBV envelope proteins are important for the structure and life cycle of HBV, and these proteins are useful for judging the natural disease course and guiding treatment. Truncated and mutated preS/S are produced by integrated viral sequences that are defective for replication. The preS/S mutants are considered “precursor lesions” of HCC. Different preS/S mutants induce various mechanisms of tumorigenesis, such as transactivation of transcription factors and an immune inflammatory response, thereby contributing to HCC. The preS2 mutants and type II “Ground Glass” hepatocytes represent novel biomarkers of HBV-associated HCC. The preS mutants may induce the unfolded protein response and endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent and stress-independent pathways. Treatments to inhibit hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and damage secondary to HBsAg or the preS/S mutants include antivirals and antioxidants, such as silymarin, resveratrol, and glycyrrhizin acid. Methods for the prevention and treatment of HCC should be comprehensive. PMID:26877602

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells express 25(OH)D-1α-hydroxylase and are able to convert 25(OH)D to 1α,25(OH)₂D, leading to the 25(OH)D-induced growth inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kun-Chun; Yen, Cho-Li; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsu, Jun-Te; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Wang, Shang-Yu; Sun, Chi-Chin; Kittaka, Atsushi; Chen, Tai C; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Hsu, Shu-Yuan; Juang, Horng-Heng

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most diagnosed liver cancer without effective treatments available for advanced HCC. Vitamin D is getting popular due to its anti-cancer characteristics. However, the clinical application of 1α,25(OH)2D, the active form of vitamin, is hampered by its hypercalcemia side effect. 1α,25(OH)2D is converted from 25(OH)D, the index of serum vitamin D status, by CYP27B1, which is originally found in kidneys but recently detected in non-renal tissues. 25(OH)D has been shown to repress some cancers expressing CYP27B1 due to the local conversion of 25(OH)D to 1α,25(OH)2D, which works in a intra-, auto-, or paracrine manner and thus minimizes the risk of hypercalcemia. In this study, we found CYP27B1 expression in human hepatocyte, HCC, and HepG2 cells. As we treated HepG2 cells with 25(OH)D, the 1α,25(OH)2D target gene CYP24A1 expression was increased and was further upregulated as CYP27B1 transfection or downregulated as CYP27B1 knockdown. Other 1α,25(OH)2D target genes in HepG2 cells, p21 and p27 were also stimulated by 25(OH)D after CYP27B1 transfection. Further, 25(OH)D could inhibit HepG2 cells growth, which was potentiated by CYP27B1 transfection. Collectively, we showed for the first time that HCC expressed CYP27B1 and was able to covert 25(OH)D to 1α,25(OH)2D in vitro, thus responsive to 25(OH)D treatment. Our data justifies the application of 25(OH)D and CYP27B1 gene transfection therapy in further HCC treatment studies.

  15. Between School Factors and Teacher Factors: What Inhibits Malaysian Science Teachers from Using ICT?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku

    2014-01-01

    Despite the Malaysian government's efforts to increase the use of ICT in school, teachers' uptake of the technology remains slow and dismal. In this study, teachers' perceptions of the barriers that inhibited their use of ICT in the science classroom were explored. One hundred and fifty-one (N = 151) science teachers from selected secondary…

  16. Inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling promotes epiblast formation in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Sabitri; Heindryckx, Björn; Van der Jeught, Margot; Neupane, Jitesh; O'Leary, Thomas; Lierman, Sylvie; De Vos, Winnok H; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Deroo, Tom; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-02-15

    Early lineage segregation in preimplantation embryos and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are both regulated by specific signaling pathways. Small molecules have been shown to modulate these signaling pathways. We examined the influence of several small molecules and growth factors on second-lineage segregation of the inner cell mass toward hypoblast and epiblast lineage during mouse embryonic preimplantation development. We found that the second-lineage segregation is influenced by activation or inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)β pathway. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway from the two-cell, four-cell, and morula stages onward up to the blastocyst stage significantly increased the epiblast cell proliferation. The epiblast formed in the embryos in which TGFβ signaling was inhibited was fully functional as demonstrated by the potential of these epiblast cells to give rise to pluripotent ESCs. Conversely, activating the TGFβ pathway reduced epiblast formation. Inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 pathway and activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling reduced the formation of both epiblast and hypoblast cells. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway and of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway did not influence the second-lineage segregation in mouse embryos. The simultaneous inhibition of three pathways--TGFβ, GSK3β, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)--significantly enhanced the proliferation of epiblast cells than that caused by inhibition of either TGFβ pathway alone or by combined inhibition of the GSK3β and FGF/Erk pathways only.

  17. Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Promotes Epiblast Formation in Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Ghimire, Sabitri; Heindryckx, Björn; Van der Jeught, Margot; Neupane, Jitesh; O'Leary, Thomas; Lierman, Sylvie; De Vos, Winnok H.; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Deroo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Early lineage segregation in preimplantation embryos and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are both regulated by specific signaling pathways. Small molecules have been shown to modulate these signaling pathways. We examined the influence of several small molecules and growth factors on second-lineage segregation of the inner cell mass toward hypoblast and epiblast lineage during mouse embryonic preimplantation development. We found that the second-lineage segregation is influenced by activation or inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)β pathway. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway from the two-cell, four-cell, and morula stages onward up to the blastocyst stage significantly increased the epiblast cell proliferation. The epiblast formed in the embryos in which TGFβ signaling was inhibited was fully functional as demonstrated by the potential of these epiblast cells to give rise to pluripotent ESCs. Conversely, activating the TGFβ pathway reduced epiblast formation. Inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 pathway and activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling reduced the formation of both epiblast and hypoblast cells. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway and of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway did not influence the second-lineage segregation in mouse embryos. The simultaneous inhibition of three pathways—TGFβ, GSK3β, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)—significantly enhanced the proliferation of epiblast cells than that caused by inhibition of either TGFβ pathway alone or by combined inhibition of the GSK3β and FGF/Erk pathways only. PMID:25245024

  18. MiR-34a inhibits colon cancer proliferation and metastasis by inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor α.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunyan; Wang, Yulin; Lu, Shuming; Zhang, Zhuqing; Meng, Hua; Liang, Lina; Zhang, Yan; Song, Bo

    2015-11-01

    The microRNA (miRNA), miR‑34a is significant in colon cancer progression. In the present study, the role of miR‑34a in colon cancer cell proliferation and metastasis was investigated. It was found that the expression of miR‑34a in colon cancer tissues and cell lines was lower when compared with that of normal tissues and cells. Further research demonstrated that miR‑34a inhibited cell proliferation, induced G1 phase arrest, and suppressed metastasis and epithelial mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Bioinformatic prediction indicated that platelet‑derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) was a potential target gene of miR‑34a and a luciferase assay identified that PDGFRA was a novel direct target gene of miR‑34a. In addition, assays of western blot analyses and quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction confirmed that miR‑34a decreased PDGFRA mRNA expression and protein levels in colon cancer cells. Assessment of cellular function indicated that miR‑34a inhibited colon cancer progression via PDGFRA. These findings demonstrate that miR‑34a may act as a negative regulator in colon cancer by targeting PDGFRA.

  19. Stromal inhibition of prostatic epithelial cell proliferation not mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, A.; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, A. J.; Klaij, I. A.; Romijn, J. C.; Schröder, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The paracrine influence of prostatic stroma on the proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells was investigated. Stromal cells from the human prostate have previously been shown to inhibit anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent growth of the prostatic tumour epithelial cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Antiproliferative activity, mediated by a diffusible factor in the stromal cell conditioned medium, was found to be produced specifically by prostatic stromal cells. In the present study the characteristics of this factor were examined. It is demonstrated that prostate stroma-derived inhibiting factor is an acid- and heat-labile, dithiothreitol-sensitive protein. Although some similarities with type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta)-like inhibitors are apparent, evidence is presented that the factor is not identical to TGF-beta or to the TGF-beta-like factors activin and inhibin. Absence of TGF-beta activity was shown by the lack of inhibitory response of the TGF-beta-sensitive mink lung cell line CCL-64 to prostate stromal cell conditioned medium and to concentrated, partially purified preparations of the inhibitor. Furthermore, neutralising antibodies against TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 did not cause a decline in the level of PC-3 growth inhibition caused by partially purified inhibitor. Using Northern blot analyses, we excluded the involvement of inhibin or activin. It is concluded that the prostate stroma-derived factor may be a novel growth inhibitor different from any of the currently described inhibiting factors. Images Figure 5 PMID:7543773

  20. Astrocyte elevated gene-1 regulates hepatocellular carcinoma development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Byoung Kwon; Emdad, Luni; Su, Zao-zhong; Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai D.; Mills, Alan Scott; Waxman, Samuel; Fisher, Robert A.; Llovet, Josep M.; Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly aggressive vascular cancer characterized by diverse etiology, activation of multiple signal transduction pathways, and various gene mutations. Here, we have determined a specific role for astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG1) in HCC pathogenesis. Expression of AEG1 was extremely low in human hepatocytes, but its levels were significantly increased in human HCC. Stable overexpression of AEG1 converted nontumorigenic human HCC cells into highly aggressive vascular tumors, and inhibition of AEG1 abrogated tumorigenesis by aggressive HCC cells in a xenograft model of nude mice. In human HCC, AEG1 overexpression was associated with elevated copy numbers. Microarray analysis revealed that AEG1 modulated the expression of genes associated with invasion, metastasis, chemoresistance, angiogenesis, and senescence. AEG1 also was found to activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling via ERK42/44 activation and upregulated lymphoid-enhancing factor 1/T cell factor 1 (LEF1/TCF1), the ultimate executor of the Wnt pathway, important for HCC progression. Inhibition studies further demonstrated that activation of Wnt signaling played a key role in mediating AEG1 function. AEG1 also activated the NF-κB pathway, which may play a role in the chronic inflammatory changes preceding HCC development. These data indicate that AEG1 plays a central role in regulating diverse aspects of HCC pathogenesis. Targeted inhibition of AEG1 might lead to the shutdown of key elemental characteristics of HCC and could lead to an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC. PMID:19221438

  1. Faculty as Mentors in Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work: Motivating and Inhibiting Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Vicki L.; Pifer, Meghan J.; Lunsford, Laura G.; Greer, Jane; Ihas, Dijana

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we sought to contribute to research about the high-impact practice of undergraduate research from the understudied faculty perspective. We relied on focus group data from faculty members (N = 41) across five institutions to better understand the supporting and inhibiting factors that contribute to faculty members' engagement in…

  2. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma and industrial epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Braillon, Alain; Dubois, Gérard

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, the burden of the non viral causes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually underestimated. Clearly industrial goods, tobacco, alcohol and processed foods are the agents of new epidemics in modern times which far outscore the burden of infectious agents on morbidity and mortality. Smoking, a dose-related contributing factor for HCC, receives too little attention in clinical practice. In France, tobacco, hepatitis B and C virus and alcohol are the main risk factors for HCC mortality (33%, 31% and 26%, respectively). In developing countries, where tobacco consumption is dramatically increasing, this epidemic may soon surpass hepatitis B. Obesity and diabetes are the contributing factors too. The role of industrial processed foods in the increase of the prevalence of obesity and diabetes cannot be ignored. PMID:21734811

  4. Changing epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asia.

    PubMed

    Goh, George Boon-Bee; Chang, Pik-Eu; Tan, Chee-Kiat

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major problem in Asia because of the presence of multiple risk factors in the region such as endemicity of hepatitis B and significant contamination of foodstuff by aflatoxin in some areas. Another risk factor for HCC, chronic hepatitis C infection, in Asia is most significant in Japan, the only Asian country with more HCV than HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. As these risk factors can and are being modified by measures such as universal hepatitis B immunisation, successful treatment of HCV infections, reduction and improved surveillance of aflatoxin contamination of foodstuff, it is not surprising that the epidemiology of HCC in Asia is changing. All these are offset by the rising importance of NAFLD and NASH as chronic liver diseases and risk factors for HCC which contributes to the changing epidemiology of HCC in Asia.

  5. Chemical inhibition of RNA viruses reveals REDD1 as a host defense factor.

    PubMed

    Mata, Miguel A; Satterly, Neal; Versteeg, Gijs A; Frantz, Doug; Wei, Shuguang; Williams, Noelle; Schmolke, Mirco; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Brugarolas, James; Forst, Christian V; White, Michael A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Roth, Michael G; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2011-10-01

    A chemical genetics approach was taken to identify inhibitors of NS1, a major influenza A virus virulence factor that inhibits host gene expression. A high-throughput screen of 200,000 synthetic compounds identified small molecules that reversed NS1-mediated inhibition of host gene expression. A counterscreen for suppression of influenza virus cytotoxicity identified naphthalimides that inhibited replication of influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The mechanism of action occurs through activation of REDD1 expression and concomitant inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via TSC1-TSC2 complex. The antiviral activity of naphthalimides was abolished in REDD1(-/-) cells. Inhibition of REDD1 expression by viruses resulted in activation of the mTORC1 pathway. REDD1(-/-) cells prematurely upregulated viral proteins via mTORC1 activation and were permissive to virus replication. In contrast, cells conditionally expressing high concentrations of REDD1 downregulated the amount of viral protein. Thus, REDD1 is a new host defense factor, and chemical activation of REDD1 expression represents a potent antiviral intervention strategy.

  6. Chemical inhibition of RNA viruses reveals REDD1 as a host defense factor.

    PubMed

    Mata, Miguel A; Satterly, Neal; Versteeg, Gijs A; Frantz, Doug; Wei, Shuguang; Williams, Noelle; Schmolke, Mirco; Peña-Llopis, Samuel; Brugarolas, James; Forst, Christian V; White, Michael A; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Roth, Michael G; Fontoura, Beatriz M A

    2011-10-01

    A chemical genetics approach was taken to identify inhibitors of NS1, a major influenza A virus virulence factor that inhibits host gene expression. A high-throughput screen of 200,000 synthetic compounds identified small molecules that reversed NS1-mediated inhibition of host gene expression. A counterscreen for suppression of influenza virus cytotoxicity identified naphthalimides that inhibited replication of influenza virus and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). The mechanism of action occurs through activation of REDD1 expression and concomitant inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via TSC1-TSC2 complex. The antiviral activity of naphthalimides was abolished in REDD1(-/-) cells. Inhibition of REDD1 expression by viruses resulted in activation of the mTORC1 pathway. REDD1(-/-) cells prematurely upregulated viral proteins via mTORC1 activation and were permissive to virus replication. In contrast, cells conditionally expressing high concentrations of REDD1 downregulated the amount of viral protein. Thus, REDD1 is a new host defense factor, and chemical activation of REDD1 expression represents a potent antiviral intervention strategy. PMID:21909097

  7. Inhibition of human factor VIIIa by anti-A2 subunit antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Lollar, P; Parker, E T; Curtis, J E; Helgerson, S L; Hoyer, L W; Scott, M E; Scandella, D

    1994-01-01

    Human inhibitory alloantibodies and autoantibodies to Factor VIII (FVIII) are usually directed toward the A2 and/or C2 domains of the FVIII molecule. Anti-C2 antibodies block the binding of FVIII to phospholipid, but the mechanism of action of anti-A2 antibodies is not known. We investigated the properties of a patient autoantibody, RC, and a monoclonal antibody, 413, that bind to the region which contains the epitopes of all anti-A2 alloantibodies or autoantibodies studied to date. mAb 413 and RC were noncompetitive inhibitors of a model intrinsic Factor X activation complex (intrinsic FXase) consisting of Factor IXa, activated FVIII (FVIIIa), and synthetic phospholipid vesicles, since they decreased the Vmax of intrinsic FXase by > 95% at saturating concentrations without altering the Km. This indicates that RC and mAb 413 either block the binding of FVIIIa to FIXa or phospholipid or interfere with the catalytic function of fully assembled intrinsic FXase, but they do not inhibit the binding of the substrate Factor X. mAb 413 did not inhibit the increase in fluorescence anisotropy that results from the binding of Factor VIIIa to fluorescein-5-maleimidyl-D-phenylalanyl-prolyl-arginyl-FIXa (Fl-M-FPR-FIXa) on phospholipid vesicles in the absence of Factor X, indicating it does not inhibit assembly of intrinsic FXase. Addition of Factor X to Fl-M-FPR-FIXa, FVIIIa, and phospholipid vesicles produced a further increase in fluorescence anisotropy and a decrease in fluorescence intensity. This effect was blocked completely by mAb 413. We conclude that anti-A2 antibodies inhibit FVIIIa function by blocking the conversion of intrinsic FXase/FX complex to the transition state, rather than by interfering with formation of the ground state Michaelis complex. PMID:8200986

  8. Hepatocellular adenoma: An update.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Adarsh; Elaffandi, Ahmed; Khalaf, Hatem

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are rare benign liver tumors. Recent technological advancements have helped in the early identification of such lesions. However, precise diagnosis of hepatocellular incidentalomas remains challenging. Studies at the molecular level have provided new insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of these lesions. These in turn have raised questions over their existing management modalities. However, the rarity of the tumor still restricts the quality of evidence available for current recommendations and guidelines. This article provides a comprehensive review on the etiology, molecular biology, patho-physiology, clinical manifestations, and complications associated with HCA. It also elaborates on the genetic advancements, existing diagnostic tools and current guidelines for management for such lesions.

  9. Elongation factor 2 kinase promotes cell survival by inhibiting protein synthesis without inducing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Claire E.J.; Wang, Xuemin; Xie, Jianling; Pickford, Jo; Barron, John; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Versele, Matthias; Proud, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K) inhibits the elongation stage of protein synthesis by phosphorylating its only known substrate, eEF2. eEF2K is tightly regulated by nutrient-sensitive signalling pathways. For example, it is inhibited by signalling through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). It is therefore activated under conditions of nutrient deficiency. Here we show that inhibiting eEF2K or knocking down its expression renders cancer cells sensitive to death under nutrient-starved conditions, and that this is rescued by compounds that block protein synthesis. This implies that eEF2K protects nutrient-deprived cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. Cells in which signalling through mTORC1 is highly active are very sensitive to nutrient withdrawal. Inhibiting mTORC1 protects them. Our data reveal that eEF2K makes a substantial contribution to the cytoprotective effect of mTORC1 inhibition. eEF2K is also reported to promote another potentially cytoprotective process, autophagy. We have used several approaches to test whether inhibition or loss of eEF2K affects autophagy under a variety of conditions. We find no evidence that eEF2K is involved in the activation of autophagy in the cell types we have studied. We conclude that eEF2K protects cancer cells against nutrient starvation by inhibiting protein synthesis rather than by activating autophagy. PMID:26795954

  10. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates domain-specific inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Bloodgood, Brenda L.; Sharma, Nikhil; Browne, Heidi Adlman; Trepman, Alissa Z.; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    A heterogeneous population of inhibitory neurons controls the flow of information through a neural circuit1–3. Inhibitory synapses that form on pyramidal neuron dendrites modulate the summation of excitatory synaptic potentials4–6 and prevent the generation of dendritic calcium spikes7,8. Precisely timed somatic inhibition limits both the number of action potentials and the time window during which firing can occur8,9. The activity-dependent transcription factor NPAS4 regulates inhibitory synapse number and function in cell culture10, but how this transcription factor affects the inhibitory inputs that form on distinct domains of a neuron in vivo was unclear. Here we show that in the mouse hippocampus behaviourally driven expression of NPAS4 coordinates the redistribution of inhibitory synapses made onto a CA1 pyramidal neuron, simultaneously increasing inhibitory synapse number on the cell body while decreasing the number of inhibitory synapses on the apical dendrites. This rearrangement of inhibition is mediated in part by the NPAS4 target gene brain derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf), which specifically regulates somatic, and not dendritic, inhibition. These findings indicate that sensory stimuli, by inducing NPAS4 and its target genes, differentially control spatial features of neuronal inhibition in a way that restricts the output of the neuron while creating a dendritic environment that is permissive for plasticity. PMID:24201284

  11. Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate inhibits plasma thrombin generation via targeting of the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite.

    PubMed

    Buyue, Yang; Sheehan, John P

    2009-10-01

    Depolymerized holothurian glycosaminoglycan (DHG) is a fucosylated chondroitin sulfate with antithrombin-independent antithrombotic properties. Heparin cofactor II (HCII)-dependent and -independent mechanisms for DHG inhibition of plasma thrombin generation were evaluated. When thrombin generation was initiated with 0.2 pM tissue factor (TF), the half maximal effective concentration (EC(50)) for DHG inhibition was identical in mock- or HCII-depleted plasma, suggesting a serpin-independent mechanism. In the presence of excess TF, the EC(50) for DHG was increased 13- to 27-fold, suggesting inhibition was dependent on intrinsic tenase (factor IXa-factor VIIIa) components. In factor VIII-deficient plasma supplemented with 700 pM factor VIII or VIIIa, and factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with plasma-derived factor IX or 100 pM factor IXa, the EC(50) for DHG was similar. Thus, cofactor and zymogen activation did not contribute to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation. Factor IX-deficient plasma supplemented with mutant factor IX(a) proteins demonstrated resistance to DHG inhibition of thrombin generation [factor IX(a) R233A > R170A > WT] that inversely correlated with protease-heparin affinity. These results replicate the effect of these mutations with purified intrinsic tenase components, and establish the factor IXa heparin-binding exosite as the relevant molecular target for inhibition by DHG. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated intrinsic tenase inhibition is a novel antithrombotic mechanism with physiologic and therapeutic applications.

  12. Kruppel-like factor-9 (KLF9) inhibits glioblastoma stemness through global transcription repression and integrin α6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ying, Mingyao; Tilghman, Jessica; Wei, Yingying; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ji, Hongkai; Laterra, John

    2014-11-21

    It is increasingly important to understand the molecular basis for the plasticity of neoplastic cells and their capacity to transition between differentiated and stemlike phenotypes. Kruppel-like factor-9 (KLF9), a member of the large KLF transcription factor family, has emerged as a regulator of oncogenesis, cell differentiation, and neural development; however, the molecular basis for the diverse contextual functions of KLF9 remains unclear. This study focused on the functions of KLF9 in human glioblastoma stemlike cells. We established for the first time a genome-wide map of KLF9-regulated targets in human glioblastoma stemlike cells and show that KLF9 functions as a transcriptional repressor and thereby regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in oncogenesis and stem cell regulation. A detailed analysis of one such pathway, integrin signaling, showed that the capacity of KLF9 to inhibit glioblastoma cell stemness and tumorigenicity requires ITGA6 repression. These findings enhance our understanding of the transcriptional networks underlying cancer cell stemness and differentiation and identify KLF9-regulated molecular targets applicable to cancer therapeutics.

  13. Kruppel-like Factor-9 (KLF9) Inhibits Glioblastoma Stemness through Global Transcription Repression and Integrin α6 Inhibition*

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Mingyao; Tilghman, Jessica; Wei, Yingying; Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Ji, Hongkai; Laterra, John

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand the molecular basis for the plasticity of neoplastic cells and their capacity to transition between differentiated and stemlike phenotypes. Kruppel-like factor-9 (KLF9), a member of the large KLF transcription factor family, has emerged as a regulator of oncogenesis, cell differentiation, and neural development; however, the molecular basis for the diverse contextual functions of KLF9 remains unclear. This study focused on the functions of KLF9 in human glioblastoma stemlike cells. We established for the first time a genome-wide map of KLF9-regulated targets in human glioblastoma stemlike cells and show that KLF9 functions as a transcriptional repressor and thereby regulates multiple signaling pathways involved in oncogenesis and stem cell regulation. A detailed analysis of one such pathway, integrin signaling, showed that the capacity of KLF9 to inhibit glioblastoma cell stemness and tumorigenicity requires ITGA6 repression. These findings enhance our understanding of the transcriptional networks underlying cancer cell stemness and differentiation and identify KLF9-regulated molecular targets applicable to cancer therapeutics. PMID:25288800

  14. MiR-125a TNF receptor-associated factor 6 to inhibit osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Li-Juan; Liao, Lan; Yang, Li; Li, Yu; Jiang, Tie-Jian

    2014-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. In the present study, we found that miR-125a was dramatically down-regulated during macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) induced osteoclastogenesis of circulating CD14+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Overexpression of miR-125a in CD14+ PBMCs inhibited osteoclastogenesis, while inhibition of miR-125a promoted osteoclastogenesis. TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), a transduction factor for RANKL/RANK/NFATc1 signal, was confirmed to be a target of miR-125a. EMSA and ChIP assays confirmed that NFATc1 bound to the promoter of the miR-125a. Overexpression of NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transcription, and block of NFATc1 expression attenuated RANKL-regulated miR-125a transcription. Here, we reported that miR-125a played a biological function in osteoclastogenesis through a novel TRAF6/ NFATc1/miR-125a regulatory feedback loop. It suggests that regulation of miR-125a expression may be a potential strategy for ameliorating metabolic disease. - Highlights: • MiR-125a was significantly down-regulated in osteoclastogenesis of CD14+ PBMCs. • MiR-125a inhibited osteoclast differentiation by targeting TRAF6. • NFATc1 inhibited miR-125a transciption by binding to the promoter of miR-125a. • TRAF6/NFATc1 and miR-125a form a regulatory feedback loop in osteoclastogenesis.

  15. Intracellular signaling and hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Iakova, Polina; Timchenko, Lubov; Timchenko, Nikolai A

    2011-02-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer related death in the world. The recent development of new techniques for the investigations of global change in the gene expression, signaling pathways and wide genome binding has provided novel information for the mechanisms underlying liver cancer progression. Although these studies identified gene expression signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma, the early steps of the development of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) are not well understood. The development of HCC is a multistep process which includes the progressive alterations of gene expression leading to the increased proliferation and to liver cancer. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification of the key steps of the development of HCC with the focus on early events of carcinogenesis and on the role of translational and epigenetic alterations in the development of HCC. Quiescent stage of the liver is supported by several tumor suppressor proteins including p53, Rb and C/EBPα. Studies with chemical models of liver carcinogenesis and with human HCC have shown that the elevation of gankyrin is responsible for the elimination of these three proteins at early steps of carcinogenesis. Later stages of progression of the liver cancer are associated with alterations in many signaling pathways including translation which leads to epigenetic silencing/activation of many genes. Particularly, recent reports suggest a critical role of histone deacetylase 1, HDAC1, in the development of HCC through the interactions with transcription factors such as C/EBP family proteins. PMID:20850540

  16. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, inhibits leiomyoma cell proliferation through the nuclear factor κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Bin; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun; Cho, Yeon Jean; Han, Myoungseok

    2014-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, decreases the in vitro proliferation of leiomyoma cells if the inflammatory pathway is blocked. Menstruation is an inflammation of uterus that produces cytokines and prostanoids, but the inflammatory mechanism underlying the growth of leiomyoma remains unexplained. Using in vitro cultures of leiomyoma cells obtained from 5 patients who underwent hysterectomy, cell proliferation, inflammatory signaling, transcription factors, growth factors, and extracellular matrix were examined by (4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yi)-2,5-diphenyltetraxolium bromide assay, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Prostaglandin E2 was used to induce menstruation-like condition in the cells. We found that celecoxib inhibited COX-2 through the expression of nuclear factor κB in the cells. Celcoxib also decreased the gene expression of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, collagen A, fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor β. In conclusion, the present study indicated that celecoxib could inhibit leiomyoma cell proliferation through blocking the inflammatory pathway that is probably one of the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis.

  17. [Hepatocellular Carcinoma: therapeutic options 2015].

    PubMed

    Schultheiß, Michael; Bettinger, Dominik; Neeff, Hannes P; Brunner, Thomas B; Thimme, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a common neoplasm, is rising and the prognosis is poor. Many factors have to be taken into account when deciding on the best mode of therapy, like tumor size and number, liver function, sequelae of portal hypertension or other comorbidities. These factors are reflected in the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) classification. Resection, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and liver transplantation can be seen as curative therapies for the early and localized HCC. For the intermediate state of the HCC, there are other therapeutic modalities in therapy available: transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT, rarer occasions), off label: stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). At the moment, Sorafenib is the only option in treating advanced stages of HCC. Alternative treatment strategies, like e.g. immunological therapies, are being investigated. PMID:26182255

  18. The M358R variant of α(1)-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(2) M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. PMID:26797521

  19. Nitric oxide reversibly inhibits the epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, C; Gómez, C; Martín-Nieto, J; De Frutos, T; Jiménez, A; Villalobo, A

    1997-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated that NO inhibits the proliferation of different cell types, the mechanisms of its anti-mitotic action are not well understood. In this work we have studied the possible interaction of NO with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), using transfected fibroblasts which overexpress the human EGFR. The NO donors S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), 1,1-diethyl-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazine (DEA-NO) and N-¿4-[1-(3-aminopropyl)-2-hydroxy-2-nitrosohydrazino]butyl¿propane -1, 3-diamine (DETA-NO) inhibited DNA synthesis of fibroblasts growing in the presence of fetal calf serum, epidermal growth factor (EGF) or EGF plus insulin, as assessed by [methyl-3H]thymidine incorporation. Neither 8-bromo-cGMP nor the cGMP-phosphodiesterase inhibitor zaprinast mimicked this effect, suggesting that NO is unlikely to inhibit cell proliferation via a cGMP-dependent pathway. SNAP, DEA-NO and DETA-NO also inhibited the transphosphorylation of the EGFR and its tyrosine kinase activity toward the exogenous substrate poly-l-(Glu-Tyr), as measured in permeabilized cells using [gamma-32P]ATP as phosphate donor. In contrast, 3-[morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride] (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite-forming compound, did not significantly inhibit either DNA synthesis or the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGFR tyrosine kinase was prevented by haemoglobin, an NO scavenger, but not by superoxide dismutase, and was reversed by dithiothreitol. The binding of EGF to its receptor was unaffected by DEA-NO. The inhibitory action of DEA-NO on the EGF-dependent transphosphorylation of the receptor was also demonstrated in intact cells by immunoblot analysis using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody. Taken together, these results suggest that NO, but not peroxynitrite, inhibits in a reversible manner the EGFR tyrosine kinase activity by S-nitrosylation of the receptor. PMID:9291107

  20. Modulation of contact system proteases by glycosaminoglycans. Selective enhancement of the inhibition of factor XIa.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; Eldering, E; Citarella, F; de Ruig, C P; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E

    1996-05-31

    We investigated the influence of dextran sulfate, heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate on the inhibition of FXIa (where FXIa is activated factor XI, for example), FXIIa, and kallikrein by C1 inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III. The second-order rate constants for the inhibition of FXIa by C1 inhibitor, alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha2-antiplasmin, and antithrombin III, in the absence of glycosaminoglycans, were 1.8, 0.1, 0.43, and 0.32 x 10(3) M-1 s-1, respectively. The rate constants of the inactivation of FXIa by C1 inhibitor and by antithrombin III increased up to 117-fold in the presence of glycosaminoglycans. These data predicted that considering the plasma concentration of the inhibitors, C1 inhibitor would be the main inhibitor of FXIa in plasma in the presence of glycosaminoglycans. Results of experiments in which the formation of complexes between serine protease inhibitors and FXIa was studied in plasma agreed with this prediction. Glycosaminoglycans did not enhance the inhibition of alpha-FXIIa, beta-FXIIa, or kallikrein by C1 inhibitor. Thus, physiological glycosaminoglycans selectively enhance inhibition of FXIa without affecting the activity of FXIIa and kallikrein, suggesting that glycosaminoglycans may modulate the biological effects of contact activation, by inhibiting intrinsic coagulation without affecting the fibrinolytic potential of FXIIa/kallikrein.

  1. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Inhibits Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling, Growth, and Survival in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gary E.; Chesler, Louis; Liu, Dandan; Gable, Karissa; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldenberg, David D.; Youngren, Jack F.; Goldfine, Ira D.; Weiss, William A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Rosenthal, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric malignancy that metastasizes to the liver, bone, and other organs. Children with metastatic disease have a less than 50% chance of survival with current treatments. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate neuroblastoma growth, survival, and motility, and are expressed by neuroblastoma cells and the tissues they invade. Thus, therapies that disrupt the effects of IGFs on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis may slow disease progression. We show that NVP-AEW541, a specific inhibitor of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), potently inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vitro. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a phenolic compound isolated from the creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), has anti-tumor properties against a number of malignancies, has been shown to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of the IGF-IR in breast cancer cells, and is currently in Phase I trials for prostate cancer. In the present study in neuroblastoma, NDGA inhibits IGF-I-mediated activation of the IGF-IR and disrupts activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways induced by IGF-I. NDGA inhibits growth of neuroblastoma cells and induces apoptosis at higher doses, causing IGF-I-resistant activation of caspase-3 and a large increase in the fraction of sub-G0 cells. In addition, NDGA inhibits the growth of xenografted human neuroblastoma tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that NDGA may be useful in the treatment of neuroblastoma and may function in part via disruption of IGF-IR signaling. PMID:17486636

  2. Bundling of actin filaments by elongation factor 1 alpha inhibits polymerization at filament ends

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) is an abundant protein that binds aminoacyl-tRNA and ribosomes in a GTP-dependent manner. EF1 alpha also interacts with the cytoskeleton by binding and bundling actin filaments and microtubules. In this report, the effect of purified EF1 alpha on actin polymerization and depolymerization is examined. At molar ratios present in the cytosol, EF1 alpha significantly blocks both polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments and increases the final extent of actin polymer, while at high molar ratios to actin, EF1 alpha nucleates actin polymerization. Although EF1 alpha binds actin monomer, this monomer-binding activity does not explain the effects of EF1 alpha on actin polymerization at physiological molar ratios. The mechanism for the inhibition of polymerization is related to the actin-bundling activity of EF1 alpha. Both ends of the actin filament are inhibited for polymerization and both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are affected by pH within the same physiological range; at high pH both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are reduced. Additionally, it is seen that the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to EF1 alpha releases EF1 alpha's inhibiting effect on actin polymerization. These data demonstrate that EF1 alpha can alter the assembly of F-actin, a filamentous scaffold on which non- membrane-associated protein translation may be occurring in vivo. PMID:8947553

  3. Activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 is inhibited by the influenza A virus NS1 protein.

    PubMed

    Talon, J; Horvath, C M; Polley, R; Basler, C F; Muster, T; Palese, P; García-Sastre, A

    2000-09-01

    We present a novel mechanism by which viruses may inhibit the alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) cascade. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding protein NS1 of influenza virus is shown to prevent the potent antiviral interferon response by inhibiting the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3), a key regulator of IFN-alpha/beta gene expression. IRF-3 activation and, as a consequence, IFN-beta mRNA induction are inhibited in wild-type (PR8) influenza virus-infected cells but not in cells infected with an isogenic virus lacking the NS1 gene (delNS1 virus). Furthermore, NS1 is shown to be a general inhibitor of the interferon signaling pathway. Inhibition of IRF-3 activation can be achieved by the expression of wild-type NS1 in trans, not only in delNS1 virus-infected cells but also in cells infected with a heterologous RNA virus (Newcastle disease virus). We propose that inhibition of IRF-3 activation by a dsRNA binding protein significantly contributes to the virulence of influenza A viruses and possibly to that of other viruses.

  4. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid inhibits insulin-like growth factor signaling, growth, and survival in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gary E; Chesler, Louis; Liu, Dandan; Gable, Karissa; Maddux, Betty A; Goldenberg, David D; Youngren, Jack F; Goldfine, Ira D; Weiss, William A; Matthay, Katherine K; Rosenthal, Stephen M

    2007-12-15

    Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric malignancy that metastasizes to the liver, bone, and other organs. Children with metastatic disease have a less than 50% chance of survival with current treatments. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate neuroblastoma growth, survival, and motility, and are expressed by neuroblastoma cells and the tissues they invade. Thus, therapies that disrupt the effects of IGFs on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis may slow disease progression. We show that NVP-AEW541, a specific inhibitor of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), potently inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vitro. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a phenolic compound isolated from the creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), has anti-tumor properties against a number of malignancies, has been shown to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of the IGF-IR in breast cancer cells, and is currently in Phase I trials for prostate cancer. In the present study in neuroblastoma, NDGA inhibits IGF-I-mediated activation of the IGF-IR and disrupts activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways induced by IGF-I. NDGA inhibits growth of neuroblastoma cells and induces apoptosis at higher doses, causing IGF-I-resistant activation of caspase-3 and a large increase in the fraction of sub-G0 cells. In addition, NDGA inhibits the growth of xenografted human neuroblastoma tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that NDGA may be useful in the treatment of neuroblastoma and may function in part via disruption of IGF-IR signaling.

  5. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiyuan; Feldman, Nicole E; Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T; Strand, Matthew J; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R; Kinney, William H; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Voelker, Dennis R; Ordway, Diane J; Chan, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

  6. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiyuan; Feldman, Nicole E; Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T; Strand, Matthew J; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R; Kinney, William H; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Voelker, Dennis R; Ordway, Diane J; Chan, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  7. Inhibition of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Activation Decreases Survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chmura, Kathryn; Ovrutsky, Alida R.; Su, Wen-Lin; Griffin, Laura; Pyeon, Dohun; McGibney, Mischa T.; Strand, Matthew J.; Numata, Mari; Murakami, Seiji; Gaido, Loretta; Honda, Jennifer R.; Kinney, William H.; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E.; Voelker, Dennis R.; Ordway, Diane J.; Chan, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase) or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23634218

  8. Estrogen-induced apoptosis by inhibition of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1.

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, G A; Orkin, S H

    1996-01-01

    Steroid hormones regulate diverse biological functions, including programmed cell death (apoptosis). Although steroid receptors have been studied extensively, relatively little is known regarding the cellular targets through which apoptosis is triggered. We show here that the ligand-activated estrogen receptor (ER) induces apoptosis in an erythroid cell line by binding to, and consequently inhibiting the activity of, GATA-1, an erythroid transcription factor essential for the survival and maturation of erythroid precursor cells. GATA-1 inhibition is reflected in the downregulation of presumptive GATA-1 target genes. Constitutive overexpression of a GATA-binding protein resistant to the effects of the ER partially rescues ER-induced apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis by a mutant ER defective in binding to the estrogen response element but active in GATA-1 inhibition suggests that ER-mediated inhibition of GATA-1 is direct and does not require estrogen response element-dependent transcriptional activation. Thus, a lineage-restricted transcription factor, such as GATA-1, constitutes one cellular target through which steroid hormones may control apoptosis. As GATA-binding proteins are evolutionarily conserved, we speculate that members of the steroid receptor family may exert some of their diverse biological functions in different cellular contexts through interference with the function of GATA-binding proteins. PMID:8657144

  9. Future therapeutic directions for factor Xa inhibition in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Turpie, Alexander G G

    2003-11-15

    The targeted mechanism of factor Xa inhibition has been studied extensively, initially as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the orthopedic surgical setting. Future therapeutic directions for selective factor Xa inhibition in the management of other thrombotic diseases are discussed. Thromboembolic diseases can occur in the venous or arterial sides of the circulatory system. Factor Xa inhibition is a targeted approach to anticoagulation that resulted from significant advances in our understanding of the coagulation cascade. The factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux has been studied extensively in the orthopedic surgical setting for the prophylaxis of VTE. Current investigations that are under way or completed evaluate the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the management of various thrombotic diseases. The future development of fondaparinux resides primarily in three therapeutic areas: prevention of VTE, treatment of VTE, and treatment of acute coronary syndromes. For the prevention of VTE, fondaparinux has been studied as extended prophylaxis following hip fracture surgery (PENTHIFRA Plus), for use in high-risk abdominal surgical patients (PEGASUS and APOLLO), and for use in medical patients (ARTEMIS). Studies evaluating fondaparinux for the treatment of VTE are part of the large MATISSE clinical program (MATISSE DVT and MATISSE PE). Fondaparinux was investigated in phase 2 studies for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, including acute ST-segment myocardial infarction (PENTALYSE) and unstable angina (PENTUA). Encouraging data from these trials are the basis for phase 3 programs in this area (MICHELANGELO). The orthopedic prophylactic and nonorthopedic clinical programs for fondaparinux in the management of thrombosis support the concept that targeted inhibition of coagulation is an effective advance in antithrombotic therapy. PMID:14650863

  10. Gliotoxin potentiates osteoblast differentiation by inhibiting nuclear factor-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    WANG, GUANGYE; ZHANG, XIAOHAI; YU, BAOQING; REN, KE

    2015-01-01

    The differentiation of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells to mature osteoblasts is crucial for the maintenance of the adult skeleton. In rheumatic arthritis, osteoblast differentiation is impaired by the overproduction of cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. It has been demonstrated that TNF-α is able to inhibit osteoblast differentiation through the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling. As a result of the critical role of TNF-α and NF-κB in the pathogenesis of bone-loss associated diseases, these factors are regarded as key targets for the development of therapeutic agents. In the current study, the role of the NF-κB inhibitor gliotoxin (GTX) in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation was evaluated. The non-toxic GTX doses were determined to be ≤3 μg/ml. It was revealed that GTX was able to block TNF-α-induced inhibition of osteoblast differentiation, as indicated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and ALP staining assays, as well as the expression levels of osteoblast-associated genes Col I, Ocn, Bsp, Runx2, Osx and ATF4. Additionally, it was identified that gliotoxin directly promoted bone morphoge-netic protein-2-induced osteoblast differentiation. GTX was found to inhibit the accumulation of NF-κB protein p65 in the nucleus and reduce NF-κB transcriptional activity, suggesting that GTX potentiated osteoblast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling. PMID:25816130

  11. The effect of Mn(II) on the autoinducing growth inhibition factor in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui-Yu; Wong, Tit-Yee; Kuo, Jimmy; Liu, Jong-Kang

    2014-10-01

    Decreases in cell division at the stationary phase in bacterial cultures are often due to the depletion of nutrients and/or accumulation of toxic waste products. Yet, during the stationary phase, the highly radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans undergoes new rounds of cell division when Mn(II) is added to the medium in a phenomenon known as manganese-induced cell division (MnCD). When cells were cultured in medium without Mn(II)-enrichment, a heat-resistant, proteinase K-resistant factor (or factors) with a molecular mass less than 10 kD accumulated in the spent medium. Inclusion of the concentrated spent medium in fresh medium could inhibit the growth of D. radiodurans significantly, and the degree of inhibition was dose dependent. However, the relative stimulatory effect of MnCD was also dose dependent-the higher the inhibition, the stronger was the MnCD response. Previous studies have shown that nutrients were not limiting and deinococcal cells would continue metabolizing its nutrients at stationary phase. Cells became more sensitive to radiation when nutrients in the medium eventually became depleted. We speculated that D. radiodurans might produce this factor in the medium to control its population density. The reduction in cell population would conserve the nutrients that in turn might enhance the survival of the species.

  12. High glucose induced nuclear factor kappa B mediated inhibition of endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hamuro, Masao; Polan, Jodie; Natarajan, Mohan; Mohan, Sumathy

    2002-06-01

    Delayed wound healing and accelerated atherosclerosis are common vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. Although elevated blood glucose level is the major contributing factor, mechanisms that mediate these complications are not clearly understood. In the present study, we have demonstrated that elevated glucose inhibits endothelial cell migration, thereby delaying wound healing. Our results clearly indicated that high glucose (10 or 30 mM) induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) inhibited endothelial cell migration (P<0.05). High glucose induced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity may mediate this inhibition of migration by regulating intracellular nitric oxide. In vitro wound healing model in human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were used to evaluate cell migration under the influence of high glucose. The migration inhibited by high glucose was restored by NF-kappaB inhibitors (including E3-4-methylphenyl sulfonyl-2-propenenitrile, N-tosyl-Lys-chloromethylketone (TLCK), or over-expression of inhibitor subunit of kappaB) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (N-methyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA); and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)). Furthermore, NF-kappaB inhibitors attenuated high glucose induced eNOS expression and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) production. Cytoskeletal immunofluorescence staining confirmed differences in actin distribution in HAEC incubated in high glucose in the presence or absence of NF-kappaB and NO inhibitors, explaining the differences observed in migration. In summary, our results for the first time suggest therapeutic strategies involving inhibition of NF-kappaB activation induced by high glucose, which may improve wound healing and help avoid some of the vascular complications of diabetes.

  13. In vitro inhibition of murine macrophage migration by Bordetella pertussis lymphocytosis-promoting factor.

    PubMed Central

    Meade, B D; Kind, P D; Ewell, J B; McGrath, P P; Manclark, C R

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocytosis promoting factor (LPF) of Bordetella pertussis is a protein toxin which may have a role in the pathogenesis of pertussis. Since macrophages have an important role in the control of respiratory infections, the in vitro effects of LPF on macrophages from C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice and on a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW264, were examined. LPF inhibited random migration of resident peritoneal macrophages as well as the chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and the cell line. Fifty percent inhibition of chemotaxis occurred at 0.2 to 0.3 ng of LPF per ml for the macrophages and at 1 to 2 ng of LPF per ml for the cell line. When LPF was either heated at 80 degrees C for 5 min or premixed with specific antibodies, it failed to inhibit migration. At 20 ng/ml, LPF inhibited chemotaxis by more than 80% and also decreased Fc-mediated phagocytosis by 25 to 35%. At this dose, LPF was not a chemoattractant for murine macrophages and did not reduce macrophage viability, adherence, or opsonized zymosan-stimulated superoxide release. When LPF-treated macrophages were added to tissue culture dishes and then examined microscopically after 4 h, the LPF-treated cells adhered but failed to spread and elongate as well as control macrophages. These data indicate that LPF specifically inhibits macrophage migration in vitro and suggest that a possible role for LPF in pathogenesis is to inhibit migration of macrophages to the site of B. pertussis infection. Images PMID:6088394

  14. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Shrimati; Sharma, Nitika; Ghosh, Kanjaksha

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of increasing mortality in elderly hemophilia population. Majority of the patients treated with virus non-inactivated factor concentrates prepared from large plasma pools prior to 1985 have been found to be infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major risk factor for HCC. A PubMed search of articles published until February 2015 was performed utilizing the keywords hemophilia, malignancy, neoplasm, cancer, mortality, ageing hemophilia, epidemiology, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cancer and the relevant articles were included. Contradictory reports are available in literature on the incidence of cancers in general in hemophilia population. Almost all the studies where the incidence of HCC or mortality due to HCC have been analyzed in hemophilia population show that a vast majority of these patients are HCV infected. The incidence of HCC though higher in hemophilic population is related to the higher incidence of HCV infection and not due to the hemophilia phenotype.

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma and African iron overload.

    PubMed Central

    Gangaidzo, I T; Gordeuk, V R

    1995-01-01

    Both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and iron overload are important health problems in Africa. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is recognised as a major risk factor for HCC, but iron overload in Africans has not been considered in pathogenesis. Up to half the patients with HCC in Africa do not have any recognised risk factors such as preceding chronic HBV infection, and other risk factors remain unidentified. HCC is an important complication of HLA-linked haemochromatosis, an iron loading disorder found in Europeans. It is proposed that African iron overload might also be a risk factor for HCC. PMID:8549953

  16. Molecular Pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Daniel Wai-Hung; Lo, Regina Cheuk-Lam; Chan, Lo-Kong; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multistep process involving the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations pinpointing different molecular and cellular events. The next-generation sequencing technology is facilitating the global and systematic evaluation of molecular landscapes in HCC. There is emerging evidence supporting the importance of cancer metabolism and tumor microenvironment in providing a favorable and supportive niche to expedite HCC development. Moreover, recent studies have identified distinct surface markers of cancer stem cell (CSC) in HCC, and they also put forward the profound involvement of altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications in CSCs, in addition to the concomitant drug resistance and metastasis. Taken together, multiple key genetic and non-genetic factors, as well as liver CSCs, result in the development and progression of HCC. PMID:27781201

  17. Heat shock inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue factor activity in human whole blood

    PubMed Central

    Sucker, Christoph; Zacharowski, Kai; Thielmann, Matthias; Hartmann, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Background During gram-negative sepsis, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces tissue factor expression on monocytes. The resulting disseminated intravascular coagulation leads to tissue ischemia and worsens the prognosis of septic patients. There are indications, that fever reduces the mortality of sepsis, the effect on tissue factor activity on monocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether heat shock modulates LPS-induced tissue factor activity in human blood. Methods Whole blood samples and leukocyte suspensions, respectively, from healthy probands (n = 12) were incubated with LPS for 2 hours under heat shock conditions (43°C) or control conditions (37°C), respectively. Subsequent to further 3 hours of incubation at 37°C the clotting time, a measure of tissue factor expression, was determined. Cell integrity was verified by trypan blue exclusion test and FACS analysis. Results Incubation of whole blood samples with LPS for 5 hours at normothermia resulted in a significant shortening of clotting time from 357 ± 108 sec to 82 ± 8 sec compared to samples incubated without LPS (n = 12; p < 0.05). This LPS effect was mediated by tissue factor, as inhibition with active site-inhibited factor VIIa (ASIS) abolished the effect of LPS on clotting time. Blockade of protein synthesis using cycloheximide demonstrated that LPS exerted its procoagulatory effect via an induction of tissue factor expression. Upon heat shock treatment, the LPS effect was blunted: clotting times were 312 ± 66 s in absence of LPS and 277 ± 65 s in presence of LPS (n = 8; p > 0.05). Similarly, heat shock treatment of leukocyte suspensions abolished the LPS-induced tissue factor activity. Clotting time was 73 ± 31 s, when cells were treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) under normothermic conditions, and 301 ± 118 s, when treated with LPS (100 ng/mL) and heat shock (n = 8, p < 0.05). Control experiments excluded cell damage as a potential cause of the observed heat shock effect. Conclusion Heat

  18. Allicin inhibits lymphangiogenesis through suppressing activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weicang; Du, Zheyuan; Nimiya, Yoshiki; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Kim, Daeyoung; Zhang, Guodong

    2016-03-01

    Allicin, the most abundant organosulfur compound in freshly crushed garlic tissues, has been shown to have various health-promoting effects, including anticancer actions. A better understanding of the effects and mechanisms of allicin on tumorigenesis could facilitate development of allicin or garlic products for cancer prevention. Here we found that allicin inhibited lymphangiogenesis, which is a critical cellular process implicated in tumor metastasis. In primary human lymphatic endothelial cells, allicin at 10 μM inhibited capillary-like tube formation and cell migration, and it suppressed phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and focal adhesion kinase. Using a Matrigel plug assay in mice, addition of 10 μg allicin in Matrigel plug inhibited 40-50% of vascular endothelial growth factor-C-induced infiltration of lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes. S-Allylmercaptoglutathione, a major cellular metabolite of allicin, had no effect on lymphangiogenic responses in lymphatic endothelial cells. Together, these results demonstrate the antilymphangiogenic effect of allicin in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a novel mechanism for the health-promoting effects of garlic compounds. PMID:26895668

  19. Hepatocellular adenoma: An update

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Adarsh; Elaffandi, Ahmed; Khalaf, Hatem

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular adenomas (HCA) are rare benign liver tumors. Recent technological advancements have helped in the early identification of such lesions. However, precise diagnosis of hepatocellular incidentalomas remains challenging. Studies at the molecular level have provided new insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of these lesions. These in turn have raised questions over their existing management modalities. However, the rarity of the tumor still restricts the quality of evidence available for current recommendations and guidelines. This article provides a comprehensive review on the etiology, molecular biology, patho-physiology, clinical manifestations, and complications associated with HCA. It also elaborates on the genetic advancements, existing diagnostic tools and current guidelines for management for such lesions. PMID:26557953

  20. Actinomycin D specifically inhibits the interaction between transcription factor Sp1 and its binding site.

    PubMed

    Czyz, M; Gniazdowski, M

    1998-01-01

    The mode of action of many anticancer drugs involves DNA interactions. We here examine the ability of actinomycin D to alter the specific binding of transcription factors Spl and NFkappaB to their DNA sequences. Employing an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, it is shown that actinomycin D inhibits complex formation between nuclear proteins present in the extracts from stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells and the Sp1-binding site. Actinomycin D is also able to induce disruption of preformed DNA-protein complexes, pointing to the importance of an equilibrium of three components: actinomycin D, protein and DNA for drug action. The effect of actinomycin D is sequence-specific, since no inhibition is observed for interaction of nuclear proteins with the NFkappaB binding site. The results support the view that DNA-binding drugs displaying high sequence-selectivity can exhibit distinct effects on the interaction between DNA and different DNA-binding proteins. PMID:9701497

  1. BET bromodomain inhibition suppresses the functional output of hematopoietic transcription factors in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Jae-Seok; Mercan, Fatih; Rivera, Keith; Pappin, Darryl J.; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) protein BRD4 is a validated drug target in leukemia, yet its regulatory function in this disease is not well understood. Here, we show that BRD4 chromatin occupancy in acute myeloid leukemia closely correlates with the hematopoietic transcription factors (TFs) PU.1, FLI1, ERG, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, and MYB at nucleosome-depleted enhancer and promoter regions. We provide evidence that these TFs, in conjunction with the lysine acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP, facilitate BRD4 recruitment to their occupied sites to promote transcriptional activation. Chemical inhibition of BET bromodomains was found to suppress the functional output each hematopoietic TF, thereby interfering with essential lineage-specific transcriptional circuits in this disease. These findings reveal a chromatin-based signaling cascade comprised of hematopoietic TFs, p300/CBP, and BRD4 that supports leukemia maintenance and is suppressed by BET bromodomain inhibition. PMID:25982114

  2. Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B): Monoclonal antibody inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2.

    PubMed

    Spratlin, Jennifer

    2011-04-01

    Angiogenesis, a well-recognized characteristic of malignancy, has been exploited more than any other pathway targeted by biologic anti-neoplastic therapies. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is the critical receptor involved in malignant angiogenesis with its activation inducing a number of other cellular modifications resulting in tumor growth and metastases. Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B; ImClone Systems Corporation, Branchburg, NJ) is a fully human monoclonal antibody developed to specifically inhibit VEGFR-2. Ramucirumab is currently being investigated in multiple clinical trials across a variety of tumor types. Herein, angiogenesis inhibition in cancer is reviewed and up-to-date information on the clinical development of ramucirumab is presented.

  3. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α−/− cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α−/− cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α−/− cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration). PMID:27065079

  4. TALENs-directed knockout of the full-length transcription factor Nrf1α that represses malignant behaviour of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yonggang; Qiu, Lu; Lü, Fenglin; Ru, Xufang; Li, Shaojun; Xiang, Yuancai; Yu, Siwang; Zhang, Yiguo

    2016-01-01

    The full-length Nrf1α is processed into distinct isoforms, which together regulate genes essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and organ integrity, and liver-specific loss of Nrf1 in mice results in spontaneous hepatoma. Herein, we report that the human constitutive Nrf1α, rather than smaller Nrf1β/γ, expression is attenuated or abolished in the case of low-differentiated high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas. Therefore, Nrf1α is of importance in the physio-pathological origin and development, but its specific pathobiological function(s) remains elusive. To address this, TALENs-directed knockout of Nrf1α, but not Nrf1β/γ, is created in the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells. The resulting Nrf1α(-/-) cells are elongated, with slender spindle-shapes and enlarged gaps between cells observed under scanning electron microscope. When compared with wild-type controls, the invasive and migratory abilities of Nrf1α(-/-) cells are increased significantly, along with the cell-cycle G2-M arrest and S-phase reduction, as accompanied by suppressed apoptosis. Despite a modest increase in the soft-agar colony formation of Nrf1α(-/-) cells, its loss-of-function markedly promotes malgrowth of the subcutaneous carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with hepatic metastasis. Together with molecular expression results, we thus suppose requirement of Nrf1α (and major derivates) for gene regulatory mechanisms repressing cancer cell process (e.g. EMT) and malignant behaviour (e.g. migration).

  5. Diabetes-induced activation of nuclear transcriptional factor in the retina, and its inhibition by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, Renu A; Koppolu, Prashant; Chakrabarti, Subrata; Chen, Shali

    2003-11-01

    Oxidative stress is increased in the retina in diabetes, and long-term administration of antioxidants inhibits the development of retinopathy in diabetic rats. The purpose of this study is to determine how diabetes affects the activation of a redox-sensitive nuclear transcriptional factor in the retina, NF-kappaB, and its inhibition by antioxidants. Alloxan diabetic rats were assigned to receive standard diet or the diet supplemented with multiple antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, Trolox, dl alpha-tocopherol acetate, N-acetyl cysteine, beta-carotene, and selenium for up to 14 months. NF-kappaB activation, oxidative stress and nitric oxides were measured in the retina at 2, 8 and 14 months of diabetes. Retinal NF-kappaB was activated by about 60% at two months after induction of diabetes, remained activated for up to 14 months of diabetes, and the duration of diabetes had no effect on the intensity of NF-kappaB activation. Similarly, oxidative stress and nitric oxides were elevated by over 50% in the retina of rats diabetic for 14 months, and nitrotyrosine levels were elevated by over two folds. Administration of the antioxidants to the rats for the entire duration of diabetes inhibited activation of NF-kappaB and elevations in oxidative stress, nitric oxides and nitrotyrosine formation without ameliorating the severity of hyperglycemia. These in vivo results were confirmed by in vitro studies showing that high glucose activates NF-kappaB and elevates NO and lipid peroxides in both retinal endothelial cells and pericytes that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Thus, the results suggest that the activation of retinal NF-KB in diabetes is an early event in the development of retinopathy, and it remains active when the retinal capillary cell death is accelerating, and histopathology is developing. Beneficial effects of antioxidants on the development of diabetic retinopathy might involve inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and its downstream pathways in the retina.

  6. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  7. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis.

  8. Atrial natriuretic factor inhibits mitogen-induced growth in aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Baldini, P M; De Vito, P; Fraziano, M; Mattioli, P; Luly, P; Di Nardo, P

    2002-10-01

    Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) is a polypeptide able to affect cardiovascular homeostasis exhibiting diuretic, natriuretic, and vasorelaxant activities. ANF shows antimitogenic effects in different cell types acting through R(2) receptor. Excessive proliferation of smooth muscle cells is a common phenomenon in diseases such as atherosclerosis, but the role of growth factors in the mechanism which modulate this process has yet to be clarified. The potential antimitogenic role of ANF on the cell growth induced by growth factors appears very intriguing. Aim of the present study was to investigate the possible involvement of ANF on rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) cells proliferation induced by known mitogens and the mechanism involved. Our data show that ANF, at physiological concentration range, inhibits RASM cell proliferation induced by known mitogens such as PDGF and insulin, and the effect seems to be elicited through the modulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) production and MAP kinases involvement.

  9. Environmental Exposures and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Infection with hepatitis B and/or hepatitis C virus is a well-established risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is now clear that certain occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors also play a role in cancer development. Among these factors are smoking, alcohol consumption, workplace exposure to vinyl chloride, and exposure to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxins. There is also evidence that several other chemical and infectious agents have a role in inducing HCC in humans. Epidemiologic studies and the use of biomarkers have provided essential data to demonstrate the importance of some of these factors in human risk, while animal studies have suggested that other chemicals may also play a role. Although immunization against hepatitis B virus infection remains the primary method of preventing HCC in regions of the world where this virus is a primary etiologic agent, there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C virus. Thus, limiting exposure to other known risk factors remains an important mechanism in preventing HCC. PMID:26357611

  10. Selective inhibition of the prothrombinase complex: factor Va alters macromolecular recognition of a tick anticoagulant peptide mutant by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Betz, A; Vlasuk, G P; Bergum, P W; Krishnaswamy, S

    1997-01-01

    The prothrombinase complex assembles through reversible interactions between the protease, factor Xa, the cofactor, factor Va, and acidic phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. Changes in macromolecular recognition by factor Xa which may result from its interaction with factor Va in the prothrombinase complex have been probed using a recombinant derivative of tick anticoagulant peptide where Arg3 has been replaced with Ala (R3A-TAP). In contrast to the wild type inhibitor, R3A-TAP was a weak competitive inhibitor of factor Xa (Ki = 794 nM). The inhibition of the prothrombinase complex by R3A-TAP was characterized by slow, tight-binding kinetics with an increased affinity of approximately 4000-fold (Ki* = 0.195 nM) relative to that of solution-phase factor Xa. Stopped-flow measurements using p-aminobenzamidine (PAB) demonstrated that the reaction between solution-phase factor Xa and R3A-TAP could be adequately described by a single reversible step with rate constants that were consistent with equilibrium binding measurements. The rate-limiting bimolecular combination of R3A-TAP and factor Xa was competitive with PAB binding of the protease. In contrast, the reaction of R3A-TAP with prothrombinase measured using PAB yielded biphasic stopped-flow traces, indicating a multistep pathway for the reaction of the inhibitor with the enzyme complex. The kinetic measurements were consistent with the initial formation of a ternary complex between R3A-TAP, prothrombinase, and PAB followed by two unimolecular steps which lead to PAB dissociation from the enzyme. In this case, prior occupation of the active site by PAB had no effect on the bimolecular reaction between R3A-TAP and prothrombinase. Thus, the interaction of factor Xa with factor Va on the membrane surface alters recognition of R3A-TAP by the protease, leading to changes in the thermodynamics as well as in the observed kinetic mechanism for the reaction. Therefore, a single amino acid substitution in

  11. A microfluidic-based genetic screen to identify microbial virulence factors that inhibit dendritic cell migration.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Laura M; Xu, Hui; Carden, Sarah E; Fisher, Samantha; Reyes, Monique; Heilshorn, Sarah C; Monack, Denise M

    2014-04-01

    Microbial pathogens are able to modulate host cells and evade the immune system by multiple mechanisms. For example, Salmonella injects effector proteins into host cells and evades the host immune system in part by inhibiting dendritic cell (DC) migration. The identification of microbial factors that modulate normal host functions should lead to the development of new classes of therapeutics that target these pathways. Current screening methods to identify either host or pathogen genes involved in modulating migration towards a chemical signal are limited because they do not employ stable, precisely controlled chemical gradients. Here, we develop a positive selection microfluidic-based genetic screen that allows us to identify Salmonella virulence factors that manipulate DC migration within stable, linear chemokine gradients. Our screen identified 7 Salmonella effectors (SseF, SifA, SspH2, SlrP, PipB2, SpiC and SseI) that inhibit DC chemotaxis toward CCL19. This method is widely applicable for identifying novel microbial factors that influence normal host cell chemotaxis as well as revealing new mammalian genes involved in directed cell migration.

  12. RNA helicase A activity is inhibited by oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Schneider, Jeffrey A.; Sajwan, Kamal; Graham, Garrett T.; Griffin, Brittany; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Youbi, Sarah E.; Kallarakal, Abraham; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Casey, John L.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases impact RNA structure and metabolism from transcription through translation, in part through protein interactions with transcription factors. However, there is limited knowledge on the role of transcription factor influence upon helicase activity. RNA helicase A (RHA) is a DExH-box RNA helicase that plays multiple roles in cellular biology, some functions requiring its activity as a helicase while others as a protein scaffold. The oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1 requires RHA to enable Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogenesis and growth; a small molecule, YK-4-279 disrupts this complex in cells. Our current study investigates the effect of EWS-FLI1 upon RHA helicase activity. We found that EWS-FLI1 reduces RHA helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting intrinsic ATPase activity; however, the RHA kinetics indicated a complex model. Using separated enantiomers, only (S)-YK-4-279 reverses the EWS-FLI1 inhibition of RHA helicase activity. We report a novel RNA binding property of EWS-FLI1 leading us to discover that YK-4-279 inhibition of RHA binding to EWS-FLI1 altered the RNA binding profile of both proteins. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 modulates RHA helicase activity causing changes in overall transcriptome processing. These findings could lead to both enhanced understanding of oncogenesis and provide targets for therapy. PMID:25564528

  13. Inhibition of myocardin-related transcription factor/serum response factor signaling decreases lung fibrosis and promotes mesenchymal cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sisson, Thomas H; Ajayi, Iyabode O; Subbotina, Natalya; Dodi, Amos E; Rodansky, Eva S; Chibucos, Lauren N; Kim, Kevin K; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G; White, Eric S; Zhou, Yong; Higgins, Peter D R; Larsen, Scott D; Neubig, Richard R; Horowitz, Jeffrey C

    2015-04-01

    Myofibroblasts are crucial to the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. Their formation of stress fibers results in the release of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor (SRF). MRTF-A (Mkl1)-deficient mice are protected from lung fibrosis. We hypothesized that the SRF/MRTF pathway inhibitor CCG-203971 would modulate myofibroblast function in vitro and limit lung fibrosis in vivo. Normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung fibroblasts were treated with/without CCG-203971 (N-[4-chlorophenyl]-1-[3-(2-furanyl)benzoyl]-3-piperidine carboxamide) and/or Fas-activating antibody in the presence/absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and apoptosis was assessed. In vivo studies examined the effect of therapeutically administered CCG-203971 on lung fibrosis in two distinct murine models of fibrosis induced by bleomycin or targeted type II alveolar epithelial injury. In vitro, CCG-203971 prevented nuclear localization of MRTF-A; increased the apoptotic susceptibility of normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis fibroblasts; blocked TGF-β1-induced myofibroblast differentiation; and inhibited TGF-β1-induced expression of fibronectin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. TGF-β1 did not protect fibroblasts or myofibroblasts from apoptosis in the presence of CCG-203971. In vivo, CCG-203971 significantly reduced lung collagen content in both murine models while decreasing alveolar plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and promoting myofibroblast apoptosis. These data support a central role of the SRF/MRTF pathway in the pathobiology of lung fibrosis and suggest that its inhibition can help resolve lung fibrosis by promoting fibroblast apoptosis.

  14. Inhibition of Myocardin-Related Transcription Factor/Serum Response Factor Signaling Decreases Lung Fibrosis and Promotes Mesenchymal Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sisson, Thomas H.; Ajayi, Iyabode O.; Subbotina, Natalya; Dodi, Amos E.; Rodansky, Eva S.; Chibucos, Lauren N.; Kim, Kevin K.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; White, Eric S.; Zhou, Yong; Higgins, Peter D.R.; Larsen, Scott D.; Neubig, Richard R.; Horowitz, Jeffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Myofibroblasts are crucial to the pathogenesis of tissue fibrosis. Their formation of stress fibers results in the release of myocardin-related transcription factor (MRTF), a transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor (SRF). MRTF-A (Mkl1)-deficient mice are protected from lung fibrosis. We hypothesized that the SRF/MRTF pathway inhibitor CCG-203971 would modulate myofibroblast function in vitro and limit lung fibrosis in vivo. Normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis lung fibroblasts were treated with/without CCG-203971 (N-[4-chlorophenyl]-1-[3-(2-furanyl)benzoyl]-3-piperidine carboxamide) and/or Fas-activating antibody in the presence/absence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and apoptosis was assessed. In vivo studies examined the effect of therapeutically administered CCG-203971 on lung fibrosis in two distinct murine models of fibrosis induced by bleomycin or targeted type II alveolar epithelial injury. In vitro, CCG-203971 prevented nuclear localization of MRTF-A; increased the apoptotic susceptibility of normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis fibroblasts; blocked TGF-β1–induced myofibroblast differentiation; and inhibited TGF-β1–induced expression of fibronectin, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. TGF-β1 did not protect fibroblasts or myofibroblasts from apoptosis in the presence of CCG-203971. In vivo, CCG-203971 significantly reduced lung collagen content in both murine models while decreasing alveolar plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and promoting myofibroblast apoptosis. These data support a central role of the SRF/MRTF pathway in the pathobiology of lung fibrosis and suggest that its inhibition can help resolve lung fibrosis by promoting fibroblast apoptosis. PMID:25681733

  15. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy.

  16. Chemical Inhibition of Kynureninase Reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing and Virulence Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Stephen H; Bonocora, Richard P; Wade, Joseph T; Musah, Rabi Ann; Cady, Nathaniel C

    2016-04-15

    The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes multiple quorum sensing (QS) pathways to coordinate an arsenal of virulence factors. We previously identified several cysteine-based compounds inspired by natural products from the plant Petiveria alliacea which are capable of antagonizing multiple QS circuits as well as reducing P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. To understand the global effects of such compounds on virulence factor production and elucidate their mechanism of action, RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis was performed on P. aeruginosa PAO1 exposed to S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, the most potent inhibitor from the prior study. Exposure to this inhibitor down-regulated expression of several QS-regulated virulence operons (e.g., phenazine biosynthesis, type VI secretion systems). Interestingly, many genes that were differentially regulated pertain to the related metabolic pathways that yield precursors of pyochelin, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, phenazines, and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS). Activation of the MexT-regulon was also indicated, including the multidrug efflux pump encoded by mexEF-oprN, which has previously been shown to inhibit QS and pathogenicity. Deeper investigation of the metabolites involved in these systems revealed that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide has structural similarity to kynurenine, a precursor of anthranilate, which is critical for P. aeruginosa virulence. By supplementing exogenous anthranilate, the QS-inhibitory effect was reversed. Finally, it was shown that S-phenyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide competitively inhibits P. aeruginosa kynureninase (KynU) activity in vitro and reduces PQS production in vivo. The kynurenine pathway has been implicated in P. aeruginosa QS and virulence factor expression; however, this is the first study to show that targeted inhibition of KynU affects P. aeruginosa gene expression and QS, suggesting a potential antivirulence strategy. PMID:26785289

  17. Regulation of COX-2 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by hypoxia-inducible factor-1α is associated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients post TACE surgery

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, MINGSHENG; WANG, LONG; CHEN, JUNWEI; BAI, MINGJUN; ZHOU, CHUREN; LIU, SUJUAN; LIN, QU

    2016-01-01

    Currently, it is not entirely clear whether hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is involved in the regulation of COX-2 expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and whether these events affect the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE). In this report the relationship between HIF-1α and COX-2 protein expression, EMT in tumor specimens from HCC patients after TACE surgery and the clinical significance of HIF-1α and COX-2 expression were analyzed using statistical approaches. HepG2 cells treated with CoCl2 was employed as a hypoxia cell model in vitro to study hypoxia-induced HIF-1α, COX-2 expression, and EMT alteration. The results showed that HIF-1α and COX-2 protein expression increased in HCC tissues after TACE surgery. Moreover, there was positive correlation between upregulation of HIF-1α and COX-2. Elevated expression of HIF-1α increased both Snail and Vimentin protein expression, while it reduced E-cadherin protein expression. It was further verified that hypoxia enhanced protein expression of HIF-1α and COX-2 in HepG2 cells treated with CoCl2. Upregulation of HIF-1α and COX-2, together with EMT alteration resulted in increased migration and invasion of HepG2 cells under hypoxia. In conclusion, TACE surgery results in aggravated hypoxia status, leading to increased HIF-1α protein expression in HCC tissue. To adapt to hypoxic environment, HIF-1α stimulates COX-2 protein expression and promotes EMT process in hepatocellular cancer cells, which enhances HCC invasion and metastasis, and might contribute to poor prognosis in HCC patients post TACE treatment. PMID:26984380

  18. Allosteric inhibition of factor XIa. Sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics as promising anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Al-Horani, Rami A; Gailani, David; Desai, Umesh R

    2015-08-01

    Recent development of sulfated non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics, especially sulfated pentagalloyl glucopyranoside (SPGG), as potent inhibitors of factor XIa (FXIa) (J. Med. Chem. 2013; 56:867-878 and J. Med. Chem. 2014; 57:4805-4818) has led to a strong possibility of developing a new line of factor XIa-based anticoagulants. In fact, SPGG represents the first synthetic, small molecule inhibitor that appears to bind in site remote from the active site. Considering that allosteric inhibition of FXIa is a new mechanism for developing a distinct line of anticoagulants, we have studied SPGG's interaction with FXIa with a goal of evaluating its pre-clinical relevance. Comparative inhibition studies with several glycosaminoglycans revealed the importance of SPGG's non-saccharide backbone. SPGG did not affect the activity of plasma kallikrein, activated protein C and factor XIIIa suggesting that SPGG-based anticoagulation is unlikely to affect other pathways connected with coagulation factors. SPGG's effect on APTT of citrated human plasma was also not dependent on antithrombin or heparin cofactor II. Interestingly, SPGG's anticoagulant potential was diminished by serum albumin as well as factor XI, while it could be reversed by protamine or polybrene, which implies possible avenues for developing antidote strategy. Studies with FXIa mutants indicated that SPGG engages Lys529, Arg530 and Arg532, but not Arg250, Lys252, Lys253 and Lys255. Finally, SPGG competes with unfractionated heparin, but not with polyphosphates and/or glycoprotein Ibα, for binding to FXIa. These studies enhance understanding on the first allosteric inhibitor of FXIa and highlight its value as a promising anticoagulant. PMID:25935648

  19. Granzyme B Inhibits Vaccinia Virus Production through Proteolytic Cleavage of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 4 Gamma 3

    PubMed Central

    Marcet-Palacios, Marcelo; Duggan, Brenda Lee; Shostak, Irene; Barry, Michele; Geskes, Tracy; Wilkins, John A.; Yanagiya, Akiko; Sonenberg, Nahum; Bleackley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) are the major killer of virus-infected cells. Granzyme B (GrB) from CTLs induces apoptosis in target cells by cleavage and activation of substrates like caspase-3 and Bid. However, while undergoing apoptosis, cells are still capable of producing infectious viruses unless a mechanism exists to specifically inhibit viral production. Using proteomic approaches, we identified a novel GrB target that plays a major role in protein synthesis: eukaryotic initiation factor 4 gamma 3 (eIF4G3). We hypothesized a novel role for GrB in translation of viral proteins by targeting eIF4G3, and showed that GrB cleaves eIF4G3 specifically at the IESD1408S sequence. Both GrB and human CTL treatment resulted in degradation of eIF4G3 and reduced rates of translation. When Jurkat cells infected with vaccinia virus were treated with GrB, there was a halt in viral protein synthesis and a decrease in production of infectious new virions. The GrB-induced inhibition of viral translation was independent of the activation of caspases, as inhibition of protein synthesis still occurred with addition of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. This demonstrated for the first time that GrB prevents the production of infectious vaccinia virus by targeting the host translational machinery. PMID:22194691

  20. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase ameliorates collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Christina D; Akama-Garren, Elliot H; Stein, Emily A; Petralia, Jacob D; Ruiz, Pedro J; Edalati, Abdolhossein; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Robinson, William H

    2012-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune synovitis characterized by the formation of pannus and the destruction of cartilage and bone in the synovial joints. Although immune cells, which infiltrate the pannus and promote inflammation, play a prominent role in the pathogenesis of RA, other cell types also contribute. Proliferation of synovial fibroblasts, for example, underlies the formation of the pannus, while proliferation of endothelial cells results in neovascularization, which supports the growth of the pannus by supplying it with nutrients and oxygen. The synovial fibroblasts also promote inflammation in the synovium by producing cytokines and chemokines. Finally, osteoclasts cause the destruction of bone. In this study, we show that erlotinib, an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), reduces the severity of established collagen-induced arthritis, a mouse model of RA, and that it does so by targeting synovial fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and osteoclasts. Erlotinib-induced attenuation of autoimmune arthritis was associated with a reduction in number of osteoclasts and blood vessels, and erlotinib inhibited the formation of murine osteoclasts and the proliferation of human endothelial cells in vitro. Erlotinib also inhibited the proliferation and cytokine production of human synovial fibroblasts in vitro. Moreover, EGFR was highly expressed and activated in the synovium of mice with collagen-induced arthritis and patients with RA. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR plays a central role in the pathogenesis of RA and that EGFR inhibition may provide benefits in the treatment of RA.

  1. Tumour necrosis factorinhibition can stabilize disease in progressive vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Webb, K C; Tung, R; Winterfield, L S; Gottlieb, A B; Eby, J M; Henning, S W; Le Poole, I C

    2015-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a proinflammatory cytokine central to many autoimmune diseases, has been implicated in the depigmentation process in vitiligo. We review its role in vitiligo by exploring its pro- and anti-inflammatory properties and examine the effects of blocking its actions with TNF-α antagonist therapeutics in reports available in the literature. We found that TNF-α inhibition halts disease progression in patients with progressive vitiligo but that, paradoxically, treatment can be associated with de novo vitiligo development in some patients when used for other autoimmune conditions, particularly when using adalimumab and infliximab. These studies reinforce the importance of stating appropriate outcomes measures, as most pilot trials propose to measure repigmentation, whereas halting depigmentation is commonly overlooked as a measure of success. We conclude that TNF-α inhibition has proven useful for patients with progressive vitiligo, where TNF-α inhibition is able to quash cytotoxic T-cell-mediated melanocyte destruction. However, a lingering concern for initiating de novo disease will likely prevent more widespread application of TNF inhibitors to treat vitiligo.

  2. A novel compound, NP-184, inhibits the vascular endothelial growth factor induced angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Ting; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Chung, Ching-Hu; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2010-03-25

    Angiogenesis is observed in many diseases, such as tumor progression, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis; it is a process that involves proliferation, migration, differentiation and tube formation of endothelial cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in angiogenesis by induction of these endothelial functions. Thus, inhibition of these critical angiogenic steps is a practical therapeutic strategy for those diseases. NP-184 is a substituted benzimidazole analogue which exhibits a potent anti-thrombotic activity. In this report, NP-184 inhibited the viability of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a concentration-dependent manner, and caused cell apoptosis as examined by cell-cycle analysis and Annexin V staining with flow cytometry. NP-184 also concentration-dependently inhibited the HUVEC migration, tube formation on Matrigel, and rat aortic ring sprouting stimulated by VEGF. Regarding the intracellular signal transduction, NP-184 concentration-dependently interfered with the activation of AKT, ERK and the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. In vivo study showed that NP-184 dose-dependently reduced angiogenesis in Matrigel plug assay. These results indicate that NP-184 is a potential candidate for developing the treatment of angiogenesis related-diseases. PMID:20067787

  3. The nuclear factor κB inhibitor (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene inhibits firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Vetter, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Photinus pyralis (firefly) luciferase is widely used as a reporter system to monitor alterations in gene promoter and/or signalling pathway activities in vitro. The enzyme catalyses the formation of oxyluciferin from D-luciferin in an ATP-consuming reaction involving photon emission. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the luciferase-inhibiting potential of (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, which is known as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway that is used to modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway in vitro. Results show that (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene effectively inhibits firefly luciferase activity in cell lysates and living cells in a non-competitive manner with respect to the luciferase substrates D-luciferin and ATP. By contrast, the compound has no effect on Renilla and Gaussia luciferases. The mechanism of firefly luciferase inhibition by (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, as well as its potency is comparable to its structure analogue resveratrol. The in vitro use of trans-stilbenes such as (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene or resveratrol compromises firefly luciferase reporter assays as well as ATP/luciferase-based cell viability assays.

  4. CHANGES IN PLASMA MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE AND BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR AFTER CHEMOTHERAPY IN PREMENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad Faisal; Merhi, Zaher O; Ahmed, Safaa; Kuzbari, Oumar; Seifer, David B.; Minkoff, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Eight premenopausal women with cancer had blood drawn for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) before and three months after receiving chemotherapy. Unlike MIS, BDNF levels were not reduced following chemotherapy. PMID:21075370

  5. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  6. Platelet Surface-Associated Activation and Secretion-Mediated Inhibition of Coagulation Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Artemenko, Elena O.; Podoplelova, Nadezhda A.; Sveshnikova, Anastasia N.; Demina, Irina A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation factor XII (fXII) is important for arterial thrombosis, but its physiological activation mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we elucidated the role of platelets and platelet-derived material in fXII activation. FXII activation was only observed upon potent platelet stimulation (with thrombin, collagen-related peptide, or calcium ionophore, but not ADP) accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure and was localised to the platelet surface. Platelets from three patients with grey platelet syndrome did not activate fXII, which suggests that platelet-associated fXII-activating material might be released from α-granules. FXII was preferentially bound by phosphotidylserine-positive platelets and annexin V abrogated platelet-dependent fXII activation; however, artificial phosphotidylserine/phosphatidylcholine microvesicles did not support fXII activation under the conditions herein. Confocal microscopy using DAPI as a poly-phosphate marker did not reveal poly-phosphates associated with an activated platelet surface. Experimental data for fXII activation indicates an auto-inhibition mechanism (ki/ka = 180 molecules/platelet). Unlike surface-associated fXII activation, platelet secretion inhibited activated fXII (fXIIa), particularly due to a released C1-inhibitor. Platelet surface-associated fXIIa formation triggered contact pathway-dependent clotting in recalcified plasma. Computer modelling suggests that fXIIa inactivation was greatly decreased in thrombi under high blood flow due to inhibitor washout. Combined, the surface-associated fXII activation and its inhibition in solution herein may be regarded as a flow-sensitive regulator that can shift the balance between surface-associated clotting and plasma-dependent inhibition, which may explain the role of fXII at high shear and why fXII is important for thrombosis but negligible in haemostasis. PMID:25688860

  7. Clarifying the factors that undermine behavioral inhibition system functioning in psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R; Wallace, John F; MacCoon, Donal G; Curtin, John J; Newman, Joseph P

    2010-10-01

    Psychopathic individuals are generally unresponsive to motivational and emotional cues that facilitate behavioral regulation. A putative mechanism for this deficiency is Gray’s (1981) behavioral inhibition system (BIS). To evaluate the association between psychopathy and BIS functioning, we administered a laboratory-based assessment of BIS functioning to a group of psychopathic offenders assessed with the Psychopathy Checklist–Revised (PCL–R; Hare, 2003). In addition, we tested the hypothesis that the effects of working memory load on BIS functioning would interact differentially with the PCL–R factors. Replicating previous results, psychopathic offenders were less sensitive to BIS-related cues than controls. As predicted, working memory load interacted with Factor 2 (antisocial/impulsive), with higher scores predicting weaker BIS functioning under high-load though not low-load conditions. Results suggest new insights concerning the relationship among working memory, reward sensitivity, and BIS functioning in psychopathy.

  8. Recent advances in the structural molecular biology of Ets transcription factors: interactions, interfaces and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Christopher D O; Newman, Joseph A; Gileadi, Opher

    2014-02-01

    The Ets family of eukaryotic transcription factors is based around the conserved Ets DNA-binding domain. Although their DNA-binding selectivity is biochemically and structurally well characterized, structures of homodimeric and ternary complexes point to Ets domains functioning as versatile protein-interaction modules. In the present paper, we review the progress made over the last decade to elucidate the structural mechanisms involved in modulation of DNA binding and protein partner selection during dimerization. We see that Ets domains, although conserved around a core architecture, have evolved to utilize a variety of interaction surfaces and binding mechanisms, reflecting Ets domains as dynamic interfaces for both DNA and protein interaction. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in drug development for inhibition of Ets factors, and the roles structural biology can play in their future.

  9. E2F transcription factor 1 regulates cellular and organismal senescence by inhibiting Forkhead box O transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Peng, Shengyi; Tao, Li; Ruan, Haihe; Yang, Yanglu; Li, Tie-Mei; Adams, Ursula; Meng, Songshu; Bi, Xiaolin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2014-12-01

    E2F1 and FOXO3 are two transcription factors that have been shown to participate in cellular senescence. Previous report reveals that E2F1 enhanced cellular senescence in human fibroblast cells, while FOXO transcription factors play against senescence by regulation reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins. However, their functional interplay has been unclear. Here we use E2F1 knock-out murine Embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), knockdown RNAi constructs, and ectopic expression of E2F1 to show that it functions by negatively regulating FOXO3. E2F1 attenuates FOXO3-mediated expression of MnSOD and Catalase without affecting FOXO3 protein stability, subcellular localization, or phosphorylation by Akt. We mapped the interaction between E2F1 and FOXO3 to a region including the DNA binding domain of E2F1 and the C-terminal transcription-activation domain of FOXO3. We propose that E2F1 inhibits FOXO3-dependent transcription by directly binding FOXO3 in the nucleus and preventing activation of its target genes. Moreover, knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans E2F1 ortholog efl-1 significantly extends lifespan in a manner that requires the activity of the C. elegans FOXO gene daf-16. We conclude that there is an evolutionarily conserved signaling connection between E2F1 and FOXO3, which regulates cellular senescence and aging by regulating the activity of FOXO3. We speculate that drugs and/or therapies that inhibit this physical interaction might be good candidates for reducing cellular senescence and increasing longevity.

  10. E2F transcription factor 1 regulates cellular and organismal senescence by inhibiting Forkhead box O transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qi; Peng, Shengyi; Tao, Li; Ruan, Haihe; Yang, Yanglu; Li, Tie-Mei; Adams, Ursula; Meng, Songshu; Bi, Xiaolin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2014-12-01

    E2F1 and FOXO3 are two transcription factors that have been shown to participate in cellular senescence. Previous report reveals that E2F1 enhanced cellular senescence in human fibroblast cells, while FOXO transcription factors play against senescence by regulation reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins. However, their functional interplay has been unclear. Here we use E2F1 knock-out murine Embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), knockdown RNAi constructs, and ectopic expression of E2F1 to show that it functions by negatively regulating FOXO3. E2F1 attenuates FOXO3-mediated expression of MnSOD and Catalase without affecting FOXO3 protein stability, subcellular localization, or phosphorylation by Akt. We mapped the interaction between E2F1 and FOXO3 to a region including the DNA binding domain of E2F1 and the C-terminal transcription-activation domain of FOXO3. We propose that E2F1 inhibits FOXO3-dependent transcription by directly binding FOXO3 in the nucleus and preventing activation of its target genes. Moreover, knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans E2F1 ortholog efl-1 significantly extends lifespan in a manner that requires the activity of the C. elegans FOXO gene daf-16. We conclude that there is an evolutionarily conserved signaling connection between E2F1 and FOXO3, which regulates cellular senescence and aging by regulating the activity of FOXO3. We speculate that drugs and/or therapies that inhibit this physical interaction might be good candidates for reducing cellular senescence and increasing longevity. PMID:25344604

  11. E2F Transcription Factor 1 Regulates Cellular and Organismal Senescence by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qi; Peng, Shengyi; Tao, Li; Ruan, Haihe; Yang, Yanglu; Li, Tie-Mei; Adams, Ursula; Meng, Songshu; Bi, Xiaolin; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Yuan, Zengqiang

    2014-01-01

    E2F1 and FOXO3 are two transcription factors that have been shown to participate in cellular senescence. Previous report reveals that E2F1 enhanced cellular senescence in human fibroblast cells, while FOXO transcription factors play against senescence by regulation reactive oxygen species scavenging proteins. However, their functional interplay has been unclear. Here we use E2F1 knock-out murine Embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), knockdown RNAi constructs, and ectopic expression of E2F1 to show that it functions by negatively regulating FOXO3. E2F1 attenuates FOXO3-mediated expression of MnSOD and Catalase without affecting FOXO3 protein stability, subcellular localization, or phosphorylation by Akt. We mapped the interaction between E2F1 and FOXO3 to a region including the DNA binding domain of E2F1 and the C-terminal transcription-activation domain of FOXO3. We propose that E2F1 inhibits FOXO3-dependent transcription by directly binding FOXO3 in the nucleus and preventing activation of its target genes. Moreover, knockdown of the Caenorhabditis elegans E2F1 ortholog efl-1 significantly extends lifespan in a manner that requires the activity of the C. elegans FOXO gene daf-16. We conclude that there is an evolutionarily conserved signaling connection between E2F1 and FOXO3, which regulates cellular senescence and aging by regulating the activity of FOXO3. We speculate that drugs and/or therapies that inhibit this physical interaction might be good candidates for reducing cellular senescence and increasing longevity. PMID:25344604

  12. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibit repair of the porcine meniscus in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hennerbichler, Alfred; Moutos, Franklin T.; Hennerbichler, Diana; Weinberg, J. Brice; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Injury or removal of the knee meniscus leads to progressive joint degeneration, and current surgical therapies for meniscal tears seek to maximally preserve meniscal structure and function. However, the factors that influence intrinsic repair of the meniscus are not well understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the capacity of meniscus tissue to repair a simulated defect in vitro and to examine the effect of pro-inflammatory cytokines on this process. METHODS Cylindrical explants were harvested from the outer one-third of medial porcine menisci. To simulate a full-thickness defect, a central core was removed and reinserted immediately into the defect. Explants were cultured for 2, 4, or 6 weeks in serum-containing media in the presence or absence of interleukin-1 (IL-1) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and meniscal repair was investigated using mechanical testing and fluorescence confocal microscopy. RESULTS Meniscal lesions in untreated samples showed a significant capacity for intrinsic repair in vitro, with increasing cell accumulation and repair strength over time in culture. In the presence of IL-1 or TNF-alpha, no repair was observed despite the presence of abundant viable cells. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrates that the meniscus exhibits an intrinsic repair response in vitro. However, the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines completely inhibited repair. These findings suggest that increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-injury or under arthritic conditions may inhibit meniscal repair. Therefore, inhibition of these cytokines may provide a means of accelerating repair of damaged or injured menisci in vivo. PMID:17448702

  13. Potassium inhibits dietary salt-induced transforming growth factor-beta production.

    PubMed

    Ying, Wei-Zhong; Aaron, Kristal; Wang, Pei-Xuan; Sanders, Paul W

    2009-11-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate an untoward effect of excess dietary NaCl (salt) intake on cardiovascular function and life span. The endothelium in particular augments the production of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a fibrogenic growth factor, in response to excess dietary salt intake. This study explored the initiating mechanism that regulates salt-induced endothelial cell production of TGF-beta. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given diets containing different amounts of NaCl and potassium for 4 days. A bioassay for TGF-beta demonstrated increased (35.2%) amounts of active TGF-beta in the medium of aortic ring segments from rats on the high-salt diet compared with rats maintained on a 0.3% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel inhibited dietary salt-induced vascular production of TGF-beta but did not affect production of TGF-beta by ring segments from rats on the low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical and Western analyses demonstrated the alpha subunit of the calcium-activated potassium channel in endothelial cells. Increasing medium [K+] inhibited production of dietary salt-induced vascular production levels of total and active TGF-beta but did not alter TGF-beta production by aortic rings from rats on the 0.3% NaCl diet. Increasing dietary potassium content decreased urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the high-salt diet but did not change urinary active TGF-beta in animals receiving the low-salt diet. The findings demonstrated an interesting interaction between the dietary intake of potassium and excess NaCl and further showed the fundamental role of the endothelial calcium-activated potassium channel in the vascular response to excess salt intake.

  14. AZD5363 Inhibits Inflammatory Synergy between Interleukin-17 and Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Lambrechts, Mark; Qu, Yine; You, Zongbing

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, one-third of population is affected by obesity and almost 29 million people are suffering from type 2 diabetes. Obese people have elevated serum levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and interleukin-17 (IL-17). Insulin and IGF1 are known to enhance IL-17-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, which may contribute to the chronic inflammatory status observed in obese people. We have previously demonstrated that insulin/IGF1 signaling pathway crosstalks with IL-17-activated nuclear factor-κB pathway through inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity. However, it is unclear whether GSK3α also plays a role and whether this crosstalk can be manipulated by AZD5363, a novel pan-Akt inhibitor that has been shown to increase glycogen synthase kinase 3 activity through reducing phosphorylation of GSK3α and GSK3β. In this study, we investigated IL-17-induced expression of C-X-C motif ligand 1 (Cxcl1), C-C motif ligand 20 (Ccl20), and interleukin-6 (Il-6) in wild-type, GSK3α−/−, and GSK3β−/− mouse embryonic fibroblast cells as well as in mouse prostate tissues by real-time quantitative PCR. We examined the proteins involved in the signaling pathways by Western blot analysis. We found that insulin and IGF1 enhanced IL-17-induced expression of Cxcl1, Ccl20, and Il-6, which was associated with increased phosphorylation of GSK3α and GSK3β in the presence of insulin and IGF1. AZD5363 inhibited the synergy between IL-17 and insulin/IGF1 through reducing phosphorylation of GSK3α and GSK3β by inhibiting Akt function. These findings imply that the cooperative crosstalk of IL-17 and insulin/IGF1 in initiating inflammatory responses may be alleviated by AZD5363. PMID:25520943

  15. Memory extinction entails the inhibition of the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Emiliano; Romano, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    In contextual memories, an association between a positive or negative reinforcement and the contextual cues where the reinforcement occurs is formed. The re-exposure to the context without reinforcement can lead to memory extinction or reconsolidation, depending on the number of events or duration of a single event of context re-exposure. Extinction involves the temporary waning of the previously acquired conditioned response. The molecular processes underlying extinction and the mechanisms which determine if memory will reconsolidate or extinguish after retrieval are not well characterized, particularly the role of transcription factors and gene expression. Here we studied the participation of a transcription factor, NF-kappaB, in memory extinction. In the crab context-signal memory, the activation of NF-kappaB plays a critical role in consolidation and reconsolidation, memory processes that are well characterized in this model. The administration of a NF-kappaB inhibitor, sulfasalazine prior to extinction session impeded spontaneous recovery. Moreover, reinstatement experiments showed that the original memory was not affected and that NF-kappaB inhibition by sulfasalazine impaired spontaneous recovery strengthening the ongoing memory extinction process. Interestingly, in animals with fully consolidated memory, a brief re-exposure to the training context induced neuronal NF-kappaB activation and reconsolidation, while prolonged re-exposure induced NF-kappaB inhibition and memory extinction. These data constitutes a novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the switch between memory reconsolidation and extinction. Moreover, we propose the inhibition of NF-kappaB as the engaged mechanism underlying extinction, supporting a novel approach for the pharmacological enhancement of this memory process. The accurate description of the molecular mechanisms that support memory extinction is potentially useful for developing new strategies and drug candidates

  16. Acute Targeting of General Transcription Factor IIB Restricts Cardiac Hypertrophy via Selective Inhibition of Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Sayed, Danish; Yang, Zhi; He, Minzhen; Pfleger, Jessica M.; Abdellatif, Maha

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that specialized and housekeeping genes are differentially regulated via de novo recruitment and pause-release of RNA polymerase II (pol II), respectively, during cardiac hypertrophy. However, the significance of this finding remains to be examined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the mechanisms that differentially regulate these gene groups and exploit them for therapeutic targeting. Methods and Results Here we show that general transcription factor IIB (TFIIB) and cyclin-dependent kinase 9 are upregulated during hypertrophy, both targeted by miR-1, and play preferential roles in regulating those two groups of genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing reveals that TFIIB is constitutively bound to all paused, housekeeping, promoters, whereas, de novo recruitment of TFIIB and pol II is required for specialized genes that are induced during hypertrophy. We exploited this dichotomy to acutely inhibit induction of the latter set, which encompasses cardiomyopathy, immune reaction, and extracellular matrix genes, using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified antisense TFIIB oligonucleotide treatment. This resulted in suppression of all specialized genes, while sparing the housekeeping ones, and, thus, attenuated pathological hypertrophy. Conclusions The data for the first time reveal distinct general transcription factor IIB dynamics that regulate specialized vs. housekeeping genes during cardiac hypertrophy. Thus, by acutely targeting TFIIB we were able to selectively inhibit the former set of genes and ameliorate pressure overload hypertrophy. We also demonstrate the feasibility of acutely and reversibly targeting cardiac mRNA for therapeutic purposes using LNA-modified antisense oligonucleotides. PMID:25398966

  17. Interleukin 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibit Cardiac Myocyte β -adrenergic Responsiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, Tod; Chung, Mina K.; Pieper, Stephen J.; Lange, Louis G.; Schreiner, George F.

    1989-09-01

    Reversible congestive heart failure can accompany cardiac allograft rejection and inflammatory myocarditis, conditions associated with an immune cell infiltrate of the myocardium. To determine whether immune cell secretory products alter cardiac muscle metabolism without cytotoxicity, we cultured cardiac myocytes in the presence of culture supernatants from activated immune cells. We observed that these culture supernatants inhibit β -adrenergic agonist-mediated increases in cultured cardiac myocyte contractility and intracellular cAMP accumulation. The myocyte contractile response to increased extracellular Ca2+ concentration is unaltered by prior exposure to these culture supernatants, as is the increase in myocyte intracellular cAMP concentration in response to stimulation with forskolin, a direct adenyl cyclase activator. Inhibition occurs in the absence of alteration in β -adrenergic receptor density or ligand binding affinity. Suppressive activity is attributable to the macrophage-derived cytokines interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. Thus, these observations describe a role for defined cytokines in regulating the hormonal responsiveness and function of contractile cells. The effects of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor on intracellular cAMP accumulation may be a model for immune modulation of other cellular functions dependent upon cyclic nucleotide metabolism. The uncoupling of agonist-occupied receptors from adenyl cyclase suggests that β -receptor or guanine nucleotide binding protein function is altered by the direct or indirect action of cytokines on cardiac muscle cells.

  18. Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation via downregulating nuclear transcription factor-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jilong; Guo, Shoudong; Zhai, Lei; Yao, Shutong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Gu, Jue; Qin, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of niacin on vascular inflammatory lesions in vivo and in vitro as well as its lipid-regulating mechanism. In vivo study revealed that niacin downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in plasma, suppressed protein expression of CD68 and NF-κB p65 in arterial wall, and attenuated oxidative stress in guinea pigs that have been fed high fat diet. In vitro study further confirmed that niacin decreased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited NF-κB p65 and notch1 protein expression in oxLDL-stimulated HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, niacin attenuated oxLDL-induced apoptosis of HUVECs as well. In addition, niacin significantly lessened lipid deposition in arterial wall, increased HDL-C and apoA levels and decreased TG and non-HDL-C levels in plasma, and upregulated the mRNA amount of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase A1 in liver of guinea pigs. These data suggest for the first time that niacin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro via downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, niacin also modulates plasma lipid by upregulating the expression of factors involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport.

  19. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-dependent lung adenocarcinoma with a human monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Yongjun; Ren, Xiaodi; Smith, Craig; Guo, Qianxu; Malabunga, Maria; Guernah, Ilhem; Zhang, Yiwei; Shen, Juqun; Sun, Haijun; Chehab, Nabil; Loizos, Nick; Ludwig, Dale L.; Ornitz, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Activating mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) have been identified in multiple types of human cancer and in congenital birth defects. In human lung cancer, fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9), a high-affinity ligand for FGFR3, is overexpressed in 10% of primary resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens. Furthermore, in a mouse model where FGF9 can be induced in lung epithelial cells, epithelial proliferation and ensuing tumorigenesis is dependent on FGFR3. To develop new customized therapies for cancers that are dependent on FGFR3 activation, we have used this mouse model to evaluate a human monoclonal antibody (D11) with specificity for the extracellular ligand-binding domain of FGFR3, that recognizes both human and mouse forms of the receptor. Here, we show that D11 effectively inhibits signaling through FGFR3 in vitro, inhibits the growth of FGFR3-dependent FGF9-induced lung adenocarcinoma in mice, and reduces tumor-associated morbidity. Given the potency of FGF9 in this mouse model and the absolute requirement for signaling through FGFR3, this study validates the D11 antibody as a potentially useful and effective reagent for treating human cancers or other pathologies that are dependent on activation of FGFR3. PMID:27056048

  20. Niacin Inhibits Vascular Inflammation via Downregulating Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jilong; Guo, Shoudong; Zhai, Lei; Yao, Shutong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Gu, Jue; Qin, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of niacin on vascular inflammatory lesions in vivo and in vitro as well as its lipid-regulating mechanism. In vivo study revealed that niacin downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in plasma, suppressed protein expression of CD68 and NF-κB p65 in arterial wall, and attenuated oxidative stress in guinea pigs that have been fed high fat diet. In vitro study further confirmed that niacin decreased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited NF-κB p65 and notch1 protein expression in oxLDL-stimulated HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, niacin attenuated oxLDL-induced apoptosis of HUVECs as well. In addition, niacin significantly lessened lipid deposition in arterial wall, increased HDL-C and apoA levels and decreased TG and non-HDL-C levels in plasma, and upregulated the mRNA amount of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase A1 in liver of guinea pigs. These data suggest for the first time that niacin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro via downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, niacin also modulates plasma lipid by upregulating the expression of factors involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:24991087

  1. Long term survival of mice with hepatocellular carcinoma after pulse power ablation with nanosecond pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Zhuang, J; Kolb, J F; Schoenbach, K H; Beebe, S J

    2012-02-01

    Novel therapies are needed for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without recurrence in a single procedure. In this work we evaluated anti-neoplastic effects of a pulse power ablation (PPA) with nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs), a non-thermal, non-drug, local, regional method and investigated its molecular mechanisms for hepatocellular carcinoma tumor ablation in vivo. An ectopic tumor model was established using C57BL/6 mice with Hepa1-6 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Pulses with durations of 30 or 100 ns and fast rise times were delivered by a needle or ring electrode with different electric field strengths (33, 50 and 68 kV/cm), and 900 pulses in three treatment sessions (300 pulses each session) or a single 900 pulse treatment. Treated and control tumor volumes were monitored by ultrasound and apoptosis and angiogenesis markers were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Seventy five percent of primary hepatocellular carcinoma tumors were eradicated with 900 hundred pulses at 100 ns pulses at 68 kV/cm in a single treatment or in three treatment sessions without recurrence within 9 months. Using quantitative analysis, tumors in treated animals showed nsPEF-mediated nuclear condensation (3 h post-pulse), cell shrinkage (1 h), increases in active executioner caspases (caspase-3 > -7 > -6) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end-labeling (1 h) with decreases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression (7d) and micro-vessel density (14d). NsPEF ablation eliminated hepatocellular carcinoma tumors by targeting two therapeutic sites, apoptosis induction and inhibition of angiogenesis, both important cancer hallmarks. These data indicate that PPA with nsPEFs is not limited to treating skin cancers and provide a rationale for continuing to investigate pulse power ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma using other models in pre-clinical applications and ultimately in clinical trials. Based on present treatments for specific HCC stages, it

  2. Structure-Activity Relationship of Indole-Tethered Pyrimidine Derivatives that Concurrently Inhibit Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Other Angiokinases

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jiho; Yoo, Jakyung; Kwon, Ara; Kim, Doran; Nguyen, Hong Khanh; Lee, Bong-Yong; Suh, Wonhee; Min, Kyung Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents have been widely investigated in combination with standard chemotherapy or targeted cancer agents for better management of advanced cancers. Therapeutic agents that concurrently inhibit epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases could be useful alternatives to combination therapies for epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent cancers. Here, we report the synthesis of an indole derivative of pazopanib using a bioisosteric replacement strategy, which was designated MKP101. MKP101 inhibited not only the epidermal growth factor receptor with an IC50 value of 43 nM but also inhibited angiokinases as potently as pazopanib. In addition, MKP101 effectively inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial proliferation, tube formation, migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and proliferation of HCC827, an epidermal growth factor receptor-addicted cancer cell line. A docking model of MKP101 and the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor was generated to predict its binding mode, and validated by synthesizing and evaluating MKP101 derivatives. Additionally, a study of structure-activity relationships of indolylamino or indolyloxy pyrimidine analogues derived from MKP101 demonstrated that selectivity for epidermal growth factor receptor and other angiokinases, especially vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 depends on the position of substituents on pyrimidine and the type of link between pyrimidine and the indole moiety. We believe that this study could provide a basis for developing angiokinase inhibitors having high affinity for the epidermal growth factor receptor, from the pyrimidine scaffold. PMID:26401847

  3. Transportable, Chemical Genetic Methodology for the Small Molecule-Mediated Inhibition of Heat Shock Factor 1.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher L; Dewal, Mahender B; Nekongo, Emmanuel E; Santiago, Sebasthian; Lu, Nancy B; Levine, Stuart S; Shoulders, Matthew D

    2016-01-15

    Proteostasis in the cytosol is governed by the heat shock response. The master regulator of the heat shock response, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and key chaperones w