Science.gov

Sample records for factor nsf sorting

  1. N-Ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor (NSF) Inhibition Prevents Vascular Instability following Gram-Positive Pulmonary Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Linge, Helena M.; Ochani, Kanta; Lin, Ke; Miller, Edmund J.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), remains a significant source of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Pneumonia and sepsis are leading causes of ARDS, the pathophysiology of which includes increased pulmonary microvascular permeability and hemodynamic instability resulting in organ dysfunction. We hypothesized that N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor (NSF) regulates exocytosis of inflammatory mediators, such as Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and cytoskeletal stability by modulating myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation. Therefore, we challenged pulmonary cells, in vivo and in vitro, with Gram Positive bacterial cell wall components, lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN) and examined the effects of NSF inhibition. Methods Mice were pre-treated with an inhibitor of NSF, TAT-NSF700 (to prevent Ang-2 release). After 30min, LTA and PGN (or saline alone) were instilled intratracheally. Pulse oximetry was assessed in awake mice prior to, and 6 hour post instillation. Post mortem, tissues were collected for studies of inflammation and Ang-2. In vitro, pulmonary endothelial cells were assessed for their responses to LTA and PGN. Results Pulmonary challenge induced signs of airspace and systemic inflammation such as changes in neutrophil counts and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and tissue Ang-2 concentration, and decreased physiological parameters including oxygen saturation and pulse distention. TAT-NSF700 pre-treatment reduced LTA-PGN induced changes in lung tissue Ang-2, oxygen saturation and pulse distention. In vitro, LTA-PGN induced a rapid (<2 min) release of Ang-2, which was significantly attenuated by TAT-NSF700 or anti TLR2 antibody. Furthermore, TAT-NSF700 reduced LTA-PGN-induced MLC phosphorylation at low concentrations of 1–10 nM. Conclusions TAT-NSF700 decreased Ang-2 release, improved oxygen saturation and pulse distention following pulmonary challenge by inhibiting MLC phosphorylation, an

  2. Processive ATP-driven Substrate Disassembly by the N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF) Molecular Machine*♦

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Daniel J.; Jung, Jaemyeong; Vivona, Sandro; Fenn, Timothy D.; Brunger, Axel T.; Bryant, Zev

    2013-01-01

    SNARE proteins promote membrane fusion by forming a four-stranded parallel helical bundle that brings the membranes into close proximity. Post-fusion, the complex is disassembled by an AAA+ ATPase called N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). We present evidence that NSF uses a processive unwinding mechanism to disassemble SNARE proteins. Using a real-time disassembly assay based on fluorescence dequenching, we correlate NSF-driven disassembly rates with the SNARE-activated ATPase activity of NSF. Neuronal SNAREs activate the ATPase rate of NSF by ∼26-fold. One SNARE complex takes an average of ∼5 s to disassemble in a process that consumes ∼50 ATP. Investigations of substrate requirements show that NSF is capable of disassembling a truncated SNARE substrate consisting of only the core SNARE domain, but not an unrelated four-stranded coiled-coil. NSF can also disassemble an engineered double-length SNARE complex, suggesting a processive unwinding mechanism. We further investigated processivity using single-turnover experiments, which show that SNAREs can be unwound in a single encounter with NSF. We propose a processive helicase-like mechanism for NSF in which ∼1 residue is unwound for every hydrolyzed ATP molecule. PMID:23775070

  3. NSF appointment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Richard S. Nicholson as assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for mathematical and physical sciences. Nicholson has been acting deputy director and staff director of NSF since 1983.A research chemist by training, Nicholson was an associate professor of chemistry at Michigan State University before joining NSF in 1970. He served in a number of capacities at NSF, including executive director of the National Science Board commission on precollege education in mathematics, science, and technology, deputy assistant director for the mathematical and physical sciences, and senior planning officer for mathematical and physical sciences. The nomination is subject to Senate confirmation.

  4. NSF Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has announced that 650 fellowships will be awarded next spring for advanced study in science, mathematics, and engineering, including interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary areas. The fellowships are available to citizens and nationals of the United States and will be awarded on the basis of merit for full-time study. Fellowships are available in three categories, including 540 graduate fellowships, 60 minority graduate fellowships, and 50 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) postdoctoral fellowships.The graduate fellowships include a stipend of $11,000 for a 12-month tenure and a cost of-education allowance of up to $6,000 per year to be provided to the educational institution in lieu of tuition and fee charges. These fellowships are renewable for up to 3 years, depending on availability of NSF funds. Application deadline is November 21. Fellowships will be awarded mid-March 1985. For more information and applications, contact the Fellowship Office, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418 (telephone: 202-334-2872).

  5. NSF Commits to Supercomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldrop, M. Mitchell

    1985-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has allocated at least $200 million over the next five years to support four new supercomputer centers. Issues and trends related to this NSF initiative are examined. (JN)

  6. NSF Continental Lithosphere Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayhew, Michael; MacGregor, Ian

    For several months the Continental Lithosphere Program (CL) of the National Science Foundation has been subject to a major review. The process was stimulated by a series of budget setbacks over the past few years. Although Presidential budget requests have been very favorable for the Division of Earth Sciences (EAR), and there has been strong support within the National Science Foundation and Congress, actual appropriations by Congress have been disappointing.In each year the final allocation to EAR has been affected by external factors beyond the control of the Foundation. In the four fiscal years from 1986 through 1989 the factors include reductions tied to the Gramm-Rudman deficit reduction measures, congressional reaction to the October 1987 stock market crash, and two years of protection for the Ocean Sciences part of the NSF budget that was paid for from the budgets of the Atmospheric and Earth Sciences divisions.

  7. Nominations for NSF, NSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    President Ronald Reagan plans to nominate William J. Merrell, Jr., to be assistant director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO), according to an announcement by NSF. The President also has announced his intention to nominate Craig C. Black and Charles L. Hosier to the National Science Board (NSB), NSF said. The president's nominations are subject to Senate confirmation.

  8. NSF Director to resign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Edward A. Knapp, director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) since late 1982, will resign his post later this year to return to research at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. President Ronald Reagan has announced his intention to nominate Erich Bloch, vice president for technical personnel development at the IBM Corp., as Knapp's successor.Following formal nomination by President Reagan, the Senate must confirm Bloch as NSF director. If Bloch is confirmed, he is likely to bring to NSF the greater emphasis on engineering that the agency has sought in response to requests from Congress and the engineering community during the last year.

  9. A conserved membrane attachment site in alpha-SNAP facilitates N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF)-driven SNARE complex disassembly.

    PubMed

    Winter, Ulrike; Chen, Xiong; Fasshauer, Dirk

    2009-11-13

    The ATPase NSF (N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) and its SNAP (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein) cofactor constitute the ubiquitous enzymatic machinery responsible for recycling of the SNARE (SNAP receptor) membrane fusion machinery. The enzyme uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to dissociate the constituents of the SNARE complex, which is formed during the fusion of a transport vesicle with the acceptor membrane. However, it is still unclear how NSF and the SNAP adaptor work together to take the tight SNARE bundle apart. SNAPs have been reported to attach to membranes independently from SNARE complex binding. We have investigated how efficient the disassembly of soluble and membrane-bound substrates are, comparing the two. We found that SNAPs support disassembly of membrane-bound SNARE complexes much more efficiently. Moreover, we identified a putative, conserved membrane attachment site in an extended loop within the N-terminal domain of alpha-SNAP. Mutation of two highly conserved, exposed phenylalanine residues on the extended loop prevent SNAPs from facilitating disassembly of membrane-bound SNARE complexes. This implies that the disassembly machinery is adapted to attack membrane-bound SNARE complexes, probably in their relaxed cis-configuration.

  10. NSF fellowships available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications are available for National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowships and Minority Graduate Fellowships for 1986-1987. These fellowships include an annual stipend of $11,100 and a cost of education allowance of $6000 per year. The education allowance is provided to each fellow's educational institution in lieu of all tuition and fees. These fellowships are renewable for up to 3 years, depending on the availability of NSF funds.

  11. NSF Fellowships available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applications are available for National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Fellowships and Minority Graduate Fellowships for 1987-1988. These fellowships provide an annual stipend of $11,100 and a cost-of-education allowance of $6000 per year. The education allowance is provided to each fellow's educational institution in lieu of all tuition and fees. These fellowships are renewable for up to 3 years, depending on the availability of NSF funds.

  12. UBE4B Protein Couples Ubiquitination and Sorting Machineries to Enable Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Degradation*

    PubMed Central

    Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie; Gireud, Monica; Yan, Qing; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Meza, Denisse; Waymire, Jack C.; Zage, Peter E.; Bean, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The signaling of plasma membrane proteins is tuned by internalization and sorting in the endocytic pathway prior to recycling or degradation in lysosomes. Ubiquitin modification allows recognition and association of cargo with endosomally associated protein complexes, enabling sorting of proteins to be degraded from those to be recycled. The mechanism that provides coordination between the cellular machineries that mediate ubiquitination and endosomal sorting is unknown. We report that the ubiquitin ligase UBE4B is recruited to endosomes in response to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by binding to Hrs, a key component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) 0. We identify the EGFR as a substrate for UBE4B, establish UBE4B as a regulator of EGFR degradation, and describe a mechanism by which UBE4B regulates endosomal sorting, affecting cellular levels of the EGFR and its downstream signaling. We propose a model in which the coordinated action of UBE4B, ESCRT-0, and the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8 enable the endosomal sorting and lysosomal degradation of the EGFR. PMID:24344129

  13. NSF Graduate Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    1984-04-01

    Of the 540 college students offered fellowships by the National Science Foundation (NSF) this year for graduate study in 1984-1985 in the natural and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering, 34 plan to pursue graduate studies in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. In addition, of the 60 NSF Minority Graduate Fellowships awarded this year, 2 were offered to students who plan graduate studies in the earth, ocean, and space sciences.Each fellowship, awarded for 3 years of graduate study, provides a stipend of $8,100 per year for full-time graduate study. An annual cost-of-education allowance of $4,900 is provided by NSF in lieu of all tuition and fees to the institution selected by each fellow for graduate study. The fellowships may be used over 5 years to permit students to incorporate teaching or research assistantships into their education during periods in which they are not receiving their fellowship stipends.

  14. NSF graduate awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Of the 450 college students offered fellowships by the National Science Foundation (NSF) this year for graduate study in 1983-1984 in the natural and social sciences, mathematics, and engineering, 40 plan to pursue graduate studies in earth, ocean, or space sciences. None of the 50 science students awarded NSF minority graduate fellowship awards plans to study in the geophysics-related sciences.Each fellowship, awarded for 3 years of graduate study, provides a stipend of $6,900 per year for full-time graduate study. An annual cost-of-education allowance of $4,000 is provided by NSF in lieu of all tuition and fees to the institution selected by each fellow for graduate study. The fellowships may be used over 5 years to permit students to incorporate teaching or research assistantships into their education during periods in which they are not receiving their fellowship stipends.

  15. Protected programs at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Many scientists and science administrators say they are disturbed by the fact that Congress “protected” funding for some National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in the fiscal year (FY) 1987 budget at a cost to other NSF programs. Especially disturbing to some was the notion that the earmarking reportedly occurred as a result of special interest lobbying efforts by their fellow scientists. The favored programs, and those that were cut back to compensate for them, were mostly related to geophysics. The protection of these programs is likely to have some impact on the size and number of grants awarded in some other areas.

  16. Congress trims NSF budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    The last-minute spending bill adopted by Congress just before its 1987 holiday recess provides $1,717 billion for the National Science Foundation (NSF) for fiscal year (FY) 1988. The approved figure is more than 9% lower than the request in President Reagan's budget plan. In addition, wording in the House version of the bill that mandated protection of ocean science and women and minorities programs did not appear in the final product that was approved by Congress and signed into law.In absolute terms, NSF's budget will be 6% more than in 1987, far less than expected by the agency and the White House, which had proposed a doubling of NSF's budget over the next several years. The Research and Related Activities section of the budget, out of which comes the bulk of NSF's support of basic research, was funded at $1,453 billion, $200 million less than its $1,653 billion request, and the Antarctic Research section received $124.8 million of $143 million in the President's budget. Science Education, on the other hand, was budgeted for $139.2 million, $25 million more than requested.

  17. NSF 1990 Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R.

    The National Science Foundation has released its Fiscal Year 1990 Current Plan, making expected cuts in some of the activities it supports. These cuts come on the heels of the reduction of grant and cooperative agreement increments by 2% from their originally committed amounts.NSF started with the budget request for FY 1990, subtracted the amounts cut by Congress, Gramm-Rudman-Hollings sequestration, and the across-the-board reductions for the war on drugs, and then calculated an overall funding increase of 8% over FY 1989. Funding for research and related activities was “particularly hard hit,” NSF said, and will increase by only 5%. The increase is 6% when the amount for academic research facilities is included. (That amount would have been lower had not money been reallocated into academic research facilities that was to have been used to build 10-12 new science and technology centers.)

  18. Massey to leave NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    National Science Foundation Director Walter E. Massey has been recommended for appointment to the position of senior vice president for academic affairs and provost for the entire University of California system. The recommendation, which was announced on January 27, came from UC President Jack W. Peltason and will be acted upon by UC's Board of Regents. Massey has accepted the position, and it is expected that he will leave NSF early in February.Massey said that he was honored to receive the nomination and had not planned to leave his current position. “It's such a fantastic opportunity to be part of the leadership of the greatest public university in the world.…It's an opportunity that I cannot pass up,” he commented. Massey was named to a 6-year term as NSF director by former President George Bush in March 1991.

  19. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative - Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) - aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  20. NSF announces diversity programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruesi, Liz

    2016-04-01

    The US National Science Foundation (NSF) has initiated a new funding programme that will create schemes to increase diversity in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). The initiative – Inclusion across the Nation of Communities of Learners of Underrepresented Discoverers in Engineering and Science (INCLUDES) – aims to increase the participation of women, those with a low socioeconomic status, people with disabilities and those from minority racial backgrounds.

  1. Sort computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    1988-01-01

    Sorting has long been used to organize data in preparation for further computation, but sort computation allows some types of computation to be performed during the sort. Sort aggregation and sort distribution are the two basic forms of sort computation. Sort aggregation generates an accumulative or aggregate result for each group of records and places this result in one of the records. An aggregate operation can be any operation that is both associative and commutative, i.e., any operation whose result does not depend on the order of the operands or the order in which the operations are performed. Sort distribution copies the value from a field of a specific record in a group into that field in every record of that group.

  2. NSF Graduate School Grants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation is offering graduate research grants for study leading to masters and doctoral degrees in the mathematical, physical, biological, engineering, and social sciences, as well as in the history and philosophy of science. These grants also support work toward some research-based degrees in science education. The grants can be held for 3 years and come with a $12,300 annual stipend. NSF will pay a $6000 cost-of-education allowance to the grant recipient's school in lieu of tuition fees. In some cases, $1000 international research travel allowance is also available.

  3. New directions at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Albert B.

    1995-10-01

    The mission and scope of the National Science Foundation (NSF) and lightwave technology will be very briefly discussed. The focus of the presentation will be directed toward changes in research support that are taking place and the opportunities we have for aiming our research to meet the challenges and needs that face the nation. In the USA it is very clear that defense oriented research is downsizing and is being redirected into economy driven aresas, such as manufacturing, business, and industry. For those researchers who are willing to move into these areas and find a niche, the rewards may be very great. Industrial research partners should also seize these opportunities to enhance their resources in an otherwise bleak future for industrial support of basic research in lightwave technology and many other reserach disciplines. These activities of bringing together industry and academia will have the value added benefit of providing increased job opportunities for students. An outline of some of these opportunities and incentives will be presented. On the international front, there has never been a better time for the encouragement of joint research and collaboration across borders. The economic potential for involvement in Eastern Europe and Asia are enormous. Agencies like ourselves are open to help support of visiting scientist/engineer exchange, international conferences and forums and support of innovative ideas to help further enhance economic developemnt of the world and hence the quality of life. The presence of the Russian delegation here at these SPIE meetings in in part the result of NSF support. Concomitant with these changes is a growing interest in education. Academia is gradually realizing that education includes training for students to acquire jobs and hence we complete the cycle of the importance of interacting with industry. At the NSF a major new initiative is being introduced in Optical Science and Engineering (OSE). This effort has been

  4. NSF wants GOFS proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), with the National Aeronautics and Space, Administration (NASA), continues to support the planning and implementation of the U.S. Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS). GOFS is expected to be fully implemented during the 1990s.The purpose of GOFS is to identify and quantify the physical, chemical, and biological processes controlling biogeochemical cycling in the ocean, and their interactions with the global atmosphere. The goal is to understand the processes governing the production and fate of biogenic materials in the sea well enough to predict their influences on and responses to perturbations on a global scale. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), the planned international initiative under the auspices of the Scientific Committee on Ocean Research (SCOR), is a key element of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP).

  5. Political Winds Still Buffeting NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the current status of the Bauman amendment that would have all National Science Foundation (NSF) grants subjected to prior Congressional approval on a monthly basis and discusses possible developments that may arise from pressure by conservative political organizations to make NSF funding more responsive to Congressional review. (GS)

  6. NSF budget for fiscal 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Congress recently passed its first authorization bill for the National Science Foundation (NSF) since fiscal year (FY) 1981. As part of specifying how NSF should spend its money, the bill (H.R. 1210) directs NSF to conduct biannual assessments of universities' needs for research facilities, as called for in the proposed University Research Facilities Revitalization Act (H.R. 2823) (Eos, September 17, 1985, p. 660).The NSF appropriation was of another bill (H.R. 3038) that provided more than $50 billion for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and for 17 independent agencies. The appropriation bill calls for NSF to receive $45.6 million less for research and related activities than the budget request, $5 million less than the request for the U.S. Antarctic Program, but $5 million more than the request for science and engineering education (see Table 1).

  7. NSF Director Bloch Stresses Effectiveness and Efficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1985-01-01

    The text of an interview with Erich Bloch, National Science Foundation (NSF) director, is provided. Among the topics/issues explored are NSF's role in policy research, mission and goals of NSF, establishment of NSF Engineering Research Centers, and national security issues involving access to supercomputers in universities that NSF is funding. (JN)

  8. Astrophysicist nominated to head NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2013-09-01

    US president Barack Obama has nominated astrophysicist France Córdova as the next director of the National Science Foundation (NSF) - the country's biggest funder of basic research with an annual budget of 7bn.

  9. Knapp confirmed as NSF Director

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward A. Knapp was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote on April 15 as the director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Senate vote followed a confirmation hearing by the Senate Labor and Human Resources Committee. Knapp, who was nominated by President Reagan to head the foundation in November, had been assistant director for NSF's mathematical and physical sciences (MPS) directorate since July 1982.Allegations that he has been politicizing NSF have beleaguered Knapp since he asked for resignations or firm commitments to leave from three NSF top administrators in December (two of these administrators had been planning to leave, though no resignation dates had been set). Knapp assured the Senate committee during the April 13 confirmation hearings that he made the decision to ask for the resignations and that, although he had discussed his plan with Office of Science and Technology Policy officials, they did not request that certain people be removed in exchange for particular increases in the NSF budget. Knapp consistently has defended himself against the allegations by saying that he wants his own team at the agency.

  10. Scripps museum receives NSF grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography has been awarded a $500,000 grant from the National Science Foundation for a 37,000-square-foot museum exhibition on ocean sciences entitled “Exploring the Blue Planet.” The exhibition will be installed in the Scripps Hall of Oceanography of the new Stephen Birch Aquarium-Museum. The facility is under construction at the University of California, San Diego, and is scheduled to open in fall 1992.NSF is providing approximately half of the funds required for “Exploring the Blue Planet,” which is designed to help visitors explore the many fields of oceanography. “This NSF grant will fund interactive exhibits and changing displays featuring the latest Scripps research that will allow children and adults to experience science as an approachable, creative process that can be used to understand the changing world,” said Luther Williams, NSF Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources.

  11. Sorting choanoflagellates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, Veronica I.; Miño, Gaston L.; Sparacino, Javier; Banchio, Adolfo J.; Condat, Carlos A.; Koehl, Mimi A. R.; King, Nicole; Stocker, Roman

    2015-03-01

    In freshwater environments, as well as in oceans, environmental conditions are in constant fluctuation. Some heterotrophic plankton must adapt their swimming behavior in order to survive under these conditions. In the case of the choanoflagellate, the closest animal ancestor, the ability to forage for food is given not only by its single flagellum, but also by its differentiation between fast and slow swimmers. The understanding of how these cells with different strategies to swim search for food can give us a better insight into how eukaryotes respond to different stimuli. In this work, we have designed a microfluidic device that sorts choanoflagellates by their speed. The optimal geometry was found by a numerical model using the experimentally determined motilities of each swimmer type.

  12. House cuts NASA, NSF budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The House passed its version of the Fiscal Year 1990 spending bill July 20, voting less money than requested for NASA, NSF, and other independent agencies. An appropriation of $1.6 billion was approved for the space station despite an effort to cut funding for the project on the House floor.With a voice vote the House approved a Veterans Affairs-Housing and Urban Development- Independent Agencies subcommittee (VAHUDIA) package totaling $65.1 billion, nearly $2.5 billion more than requested in President Bush's budget. NSF received $1.99 billion in the bill, $150 million less than requested, and NASA $12.26 billion, more than a billion less than the President asked for. The Department of Housing and Urban Development ($2.23 billion more than requested) and the Department of Veteran's Affairs ($908 million more than requested) were the big winners in the bill.

  13. NSF directors asked to resign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edward A. Knapp, the Reagan administration's appointee to replace former NSF Director John Slaughter, who left the post to become chancellor o f the University of Maryland, has asked for, and received, the resignation of Deputy Director Donald N. Langenberg. Knapp has also requested the resignations of Assistant Directors Francis S. Johnson (astronomical, atmosphere, earth, and ocean sciences) and Eloise E. Clark (biological, behavioral, and social sciences). This leaves only one post at the top management levels o f NSF: the assistant director for mathematics and physical sciences—a post held, until Slaughter's resignation, by Knapp. The new director is the only one of the former top managers remaining; no assistant directors have yet been named.

  14. NSF and NASA budgets increased

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    Research budgets of several of the federal government agencies were increased significantly over the Reagan administration's requests in the House of Representative's appropriations bill H.R. 4034. These budgets had been removed from the Reagan administration's omnibus reconciliation bill, and thus there were worries expressed that certain research funding could be in jeopardy. The rationale was that because the requests were voted on individually on the floor of the House, many sections of the budgets would be subjected to extra scrutiny, which would lead to more cuts.The National Science Foundation (NSF) budget request had been cut and reordered by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) by making sharp reductions in programs of the social sciences and in programs of science and engineering education. There were fears that these programs would be reinstated to the original request level, at the expense of the budgets of other research activities. These fears materialized, but only momentarily. Efforts to cut the research activities by the House Appropriations Committee were soundly defeated. The budget was supported, with additional increases to provide for the education programs, by a high margin, which included most Republican and Democratic members of the House of Representatives. The overall NSF budget, as passed, has a total appropriation of $1103.5 million, compared with the Administration's request of $1033.5 million (the Fiscal Year 1981 appropriation for the NSF was $1022.4 million). The House approved budget included increases of $44.9 million in research and $25.1 million in science and engineering education. Included in the research budget increase were recommendations by the House Appropriations Committee for support of the social sciences and for the international affairs programs. Also included in the recommendations was support of interdisciplinary research programs that cut across the directorates of the NSF.

  15. Research Funding Set for NSF, NASA, EPA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Funds (1983) for National Science Foundation (NSF), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research programs include $1,092,200,000 (NSF), $5.5 billion (NASA), and $119 million (EPA). NSF's science education activities were raised to $30 million in spite of the Administration's plan to phase…

  16. Subcommittee on science reviews NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    With most attention focused on the appropriations legislation funding the National Science Foundation next year, less notice has been given to the agency's reauthorization legislation. During the last few months, the House Subcommittee on Science has held two hearings on this legislation to solicit views about the agency.Nine witnesses testified at a May 20 hearing. They were asked to address six questions, including some dealing with the balance between curiosity-driven research and strategic research, and between research and education activities. Views were also solicited on the modernization of academic research facilities, inadequately funded fields, international involvement in NSF-supported research, and academic block grants.

  17. NSF plans for 1991 eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation plans to support observations related to the total eclipse of the Sun in July 1991. The proposal deadline for logistics or science support is March 30, 1990.We are considering establishing a base camp in Baja, California. Costs of transportation for team members and their equipment from their home institution and logistics support at the camp (food, shelter, power, etc.) would be provided. Arrangements for import-export of equipment to and from the United States-Mexico would be handled by a contractor supported by NSF.

  18. Derivation of sorting programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varghese, Joseph; Loganantharaj, Rasiah

    1990-01-01

    Program synthesis for critical applications has become a viable alternative to program verification. Nested resolution and its extension are used to synthesize a set of sorting programs from their first order logic specifications. A set of sorting programs, such as, naive sort, merge sort, and insertion sort, were successfully synthesized starting from the same set of specifications.

  19. Factors affecting carcass value and profitability in early-weaned Simmental steers: II. Days on feed endpoints and sorting strategies.

    PubMed

    Pyatt, N A; Berger, L L; Faulkner, D B; Walker, P M; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2005-12-01

    In a 4-yr study, early-weaned Simmental steers (n = 192) of known genetics were individually fed to determine EPD, performance, and carcass measurements explaining variation in carcass value and profitability across incremental days on feed (DOF) when sorted by HCW, calculated yield grade (YG), or at their highest profit endpoint (BEST). Steers were weaned at 88.0 +/- 1.1 d of age, pen-fed a high-concentrate diet for 84.5 +/- 0.4 d, individually fed for 249.7 +/- 0.7 d, and slaughtered at 423.3 +/- 1.4 d of age. Carcass weight, YG, and marbling score (MS) were predicted using real-time ultrasound throughout the finishing period to calculate carcass value and profitability at 90, 60, 30 d preslaughter and under three individual sorting strategies. Sorting strategies included marketing the 25 and 50% heaviest HCW, the highest YG at d 60 and 30, or the remaining 25% at 0-d endpoints. Independent variables were year, weaning weight EPD, yearling weight EPD, marbling EPD, DMI, ADG, HCW, YG, and MS. Profit was quadratic in response to increased DOF; the greatest economic return was noted on d 30 (pre-slaughter). Final weight, DMI, HCW, MS, and YG increased (linear; P < 0.001) with additional DOF, and ADG and G:F decreased (linear; P < 0.001). Total cost of gain was quadratic (P < 0.001), and incremental cost of gain rose at an increasing rate (quadratic; P < 0.001) with increased DOF. With increasing DOF, HCW importance decreased from 58 to 21%; MS was variable, ranging from 18 to 23%; and YG and DMI were minor contributors to profit variation. Among sorting strategies, final BW and HCW were greater for BEST, whereas other measurements were similar. Sorting individuals by HCW, YG, or at BEST increased profitability 3.70 dollars, 2.52 dollars, or 30.65 dollars over the optimal group DOF endpoint (d 30). Retrospective analyses illustrated that sorting does not need to pinpoint each animal's profit optimum to result in economic gains; rather, increasing HCW and decreasing

  20. Three αSNAP and 10 ATP Molecules Are Used in SNARE Complex Disassembly by N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive Factor (NSF)*

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Niket; Colbert, Karen N.; Enos, Michael D.; Herschlag, Daniel; Weis, William I.

    2015-01-01

    The fusion of intracellular membranes is driven by the formation of a highly stable four-helix bundle of SNARE proteins embedded in the vesicle and target membranes. N-Ethylmaleimide sensitive factor recycles SNAREs after fusion by binding to the SNARE complex through an adaptor protein, αSNAP, and using the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble the complex. Although only a single molecule of αSNAP binds to a soluble form of the SNARE complex, we find that three molecules of αSNAP are used for SNARE complex disassembly. We describe an engineered αSNAP trimer that supports more efficient SNARE complex disassembly than monomeric αSNAP. Using the trimerized αSNAP, we find that N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor hydrolyzes 10 ATP molecules on average to disassemble a single SNARE complex. PMID:25492864

  1. Geochemistry of Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous deposits in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan: implication of factor analysis to sorting effects and provenance signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Tohru

    2004-10-01

    One of the intractable problems in provenance analysis is the hydraulic sorting effect and resultant mineralogical heterogeneity in coarse- and fine-grained sediments which conceals provenance characteristics. The present study uses factor analysis to address geochemical responses to the sorting effect and provenance of Late Mesozoic sediments in the Nagato Basin, SW Japan. Factor analysis has proven useful for comprehending geochemical gradients between coarse- and fine-grained sediments. In the present example, compositional differences are based on varying proportions of quartz, plagioclase, chrome spinel, authigenic minerals and phyllosilicates. The contrasting behaviors of these minerals during the depositional stage resulted in the systematic fractionation of SiO 2/Al 2O 3, Na 2O/K 2O and Cr/Ba. Sandstones and mudstones exhibit an array of compositions in SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O and SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagrams, the ranges of which reflect compositional variations due to the sorting effect. Sediments of different provenance exhibit distinctive mineral arrays and can be discriminated simply by reading the gradients of the continua. Therefore, this kind of data management concurrently quantifies the sorting effect and allows an estimation of the original source material. The SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Na 2O/K 2O diagram is particularly useful for scrutinizing igneous and mature continental provenances, while the SiO 2/Al 2O 3-Cr/Ba diagram ascertains contributions from mafic sources. This investigative approach delineates a systematic provenance transition within the Nagato Basin: a serpentinite melange provenance in the early Early Jurassic, a magmatic arc in the late Early to middle Middle Jurassic and a continental interior in the latest Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous. The provenance changed by the direct input of mature continental material into the Nagato Basin, which resulted from dissection of the volcanic arc.

  2. Aqueous and Micelle-bound Structural Characterization of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Juxtamembrane Domain Containing Basolateral Sorting Motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Hobert, Michael E.; He, Cheng; Carlin, Cathleen R.; Soennichsen, Frank D.

    2004-06-01

    The EGF receptor is the prototype for four highly related receptors constituting the ErbB family. The EGF receptor is normally targeted to the basolateral membrane in polarized epithelial cells, where it relays information from underlying tissues. Two basolateral sorting signals have been mapped to the cytoplasmic juxtamembrane region of the receptor, a dominant signal comprised of a polyproline core (667-PXXP) and a preceding basic residue (Arg662), and a consensus leucine-based signal (658-LL) responsible for residual sorting when the 667-PXXP signal is absent or defective. The goal of this study was to define the structure of these signals, and gain some insights into how these structures might be regulated by cellular microenvironment. Structural information was acquired for two peptides corresponding to EGF receptor residues Arg645 and Ala674 in aqueous solution or in the presence of membrane-mimicking dodecylphosphocholine micelles, using a variety of NMR and CD spectroscopic methods. Chemical shift data indicate that the 667-PXXP signal does not bind to the micelles and is in random coil state in both aqueous solution and a micellar environment, raising the possibility that 667-PXXP switches to an ordered structure during interaction with the basolateral sorting machinery. In contrast, the adjacent region including 658-LL does bind to micelles mediated by a highly positively charged region located between Arg645 and Arg656. The micelle-bound region also includes Thr654, a known substrate for PKC. This suggests a distinct mode of regulation for this signal involving membrane association and/or phosphorylation.

  3. Opportunities for Funding at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafafi, Zakya H.

    2009-03-01

    lead to a better quality of life and improved economic development for people all over the world will also be given. As science is becoming increasingly global, DMR is particularly interested in preparing students to be agile thinkers in this universal environment and in forging collaborations and cooperation among scientists and engineers around the world. Free movement of knowledge without any obstacles can only be achieved through a more coordinated approach for international collaboration. Following the presentation there will be a question-and-answer period. For additional information, visit the DMR Web page at www.nsf.gov/materials

  4. Sorting nexin 6, a novel SNX, interacts with the transforming growth factor-beta family of receptor serine-threonine kinases.

    PubMed

    Parks, W T; Frank, D B; Huff, C; Renfrew Haft, C; Martin, J; Meng, X; de Caestecker, M P; McNally, J G; Reddi, A; Taylor, S I; Roberts, A B; Wang, T; Lechleider, R J

    2001-06-01

    Sorting nexins (SNX) comprise a family of proteins with homology to several yeast proteins, including Vps5p and Mvp1p, that are required for the sorting of proteins to the yeast vacuole. Human SNX1, -2, and -4 have been proposed to play a role in receptor trafficking and have been shown to bind to several receptor tyrosine kinases, including receptors for epidermal growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and insulin as well as the long form of the leptin receptor, a glycoprotein 130-associated receptor. We now describe a novel member of this family, SNX6, which interacts with members of the transforming growth factor-beta family of receptor serine-threonine kinases. These receptors belong to two classes: type II receptors that bind ligand, and type I receptors that are subsequently recruited to transduce the signal. Of the type II receptors, SNX6 was found to interact strongly with ActRIIB and more moderately with wild type and kinase-defective mutants of TbetaRII. Of the type I receptors, SNX6 was found to interact only with inactivated TbetaRI. SNXs 1-4 also interacted with the transforming growth factor-beta receptor family, showing different receptor preferences. Conversely, SNX6 behaved similarly to the other SNX proteins in its interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. Strong heteromeric interactions were also seen among SNX1, -2, -4, and -6, suggesting the formation in vivo of oligomeric complexes. These findings are the first evidence for the association of the SNX family of molecules with receptor serine-threonine kinases.

  5. NSF's role in Antarctic environment scrutinized

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    In the last few years, the National Science Foundation has come under criticism by environmental groups for inadequate stewardship in the U.S. Antarctic Program's environmental issues. Since 1978, NSF was given full responsibility, by Executive Order, for budgeting and managing the entire U.S. national program in Antarctica, including logistics support. NSF has also been responsible for the compliance of the U.S. Antarctic Program with environmental protection measures agreed to by the Antarctic Treaty nations. Specifically under fire by environmentalists have been NSF's maintenance of a land-fill, open-air burning of solid waste, and the removal of toxic substances. According to Peter E. Wilkniss, director of the Division of Polar Programs at NSF, open burning is no longer taking place and will not be allowed in the future.

  6. NSF Plans Help with Big Computer Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John

    1984-01-01

    Describes a National Science Foundation (NSF) initiative designed to broaden access to advanced computing facilities for university researchers not eligible to tap into federally subsidized networks. Rationale for and issues related to the initiative are also considered. (JN)

  7. Applications available for NSF, NATO Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    About 810 fellowships will be awarded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) next spring, including 685 NSF Graduate Fellowships, 75 NSF Minority Graduate Fellowships, and about 50 NATO Postdoctoral Fellowships. Competition for the fellowships is open to citizens and nationals of the United States; applications are now available.NSF Graduate Fellowships are awarded for study leading to a master's or doctoral degree at any nonprofit U.S. or foreign institution of higher education offering advanced degrees in science or engineering. New Fellows will receive a stipend of $12,300 for 12 months of tenure, and a cost-of-education allowance of up to $6000 per year, in lieu of tuition and fee charges, will be provided to the institution chosen by the Fellow.

  8. NSF reauthorization bill sails through house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Authorization Act of 1994, HR 3254, soared through the House in early May by a vote of 396-22, but awaits further action by the House appropriators and the Senate.For fiscal year 1995, the bill authorizes $3.15 billion or an overall funding hike of 5% for NSF, which is about $50 million less than President Clinton's request.

  9. Demonstration of differential quantitative requirements for NSF among multiple vesicle fusion pathways of GLUT4 using a dominant-negative ATPase-deficient NSF

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xiaoli; Matsumoto, Hideko; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Al-Hasani, Hadi; St-Denis, Jean-Francois; Whiteheart, Sidney W.; Cushman, Samuel W. . E-mail: sam_cushman@nih.gov

    2005-07-22

    In this study, we investigated the relative participation of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) in vivo in a complex multistep vesicle trafficking system, the translocation response of GLUT4 to insulin in rat adipose cells. Transfections of rat adipose cells demonstrate that over-expression of wild-type NSF has no effect on total, or basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface expression of HA-tagged GLUT4. In contrast, a dominant-negative NSF (NSF-D1EQ) can be expressed at a low enough level that it has little effect on total HA-GLUT4, but does reduce both basal and insulin-stimulated cell-surface HA-GLUT4 by {approx}50% without affecting the GLUT4 fold-translocation response to insulin. However, high expression levels of NSF-D1EQ decrease total HA-GLUT4. The inhibitory effect of NSF-D1EQ on cell-surface HA-GLUT4 is reversed when endocytosis is inhibited by co-expression of a dominant-negative dynamin (dynamin-K44A). Moreover, NSF-D1EQ does not affect cell-surface levels of constitutively recycling GLUT1 and TfR, suggesting a predominant effect of low-level NSF-D1EQ on the trafficking of GLUT4 from the endocytic recycling compared to the intracellular GLUT4-specific compartment. Thus, our data demonstrate that the multiple fusion steps in GLUT4 trafficking have differential quantitative requirements for NSF activity. This indicates that the rates of plasma and intracellular membrane fusion reactions vary, leading to differential needs for the turnover of the SNARE proteins.

  10. NSF's Career-Life Balance Initiative and the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajhar, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2011, the National Science Foundation (NSF) began the Career-Life Balance Initiative to support graduate students, postdoctoral students, and early-career researchers in STEM fields. NSF is focusing first on its most prestigious programs for early-career scientists---the CAREER program and the postdoctoral programs, including the NSF Astronomy and Astrophysics Postdoctoral Fellowships (AAPF)---where career-life balance opportunities can help retain a significant fraction of early career talent. Subject to budget constraints, NSF plans to further integrate and enhance career-life balance opportunities over time through other programs, like the Graduate Research Fellowships Program and ADVANCE, and subsequently through the broader portfolio of NSF activities. In addition, to comply with Title IX, NSF has regulations to ensure that educational programs that receive NSF funds are free of gender discrimination and harassment. A primary goal of this presentation is to put facts about NSF into the hands of students, faculty, staff, administrators and other policy makers to benefit the advancement of career-life balance in the astronomical community. The presentation focus areas will (1) address common misconceptions about NSF rules regarding parental leave; (2) discuss benefits already available through the AAPF program, Graduate Research Fellowships, and other programs; and (3) listen to community concerns and issues to bring these back to the foundation for consideration. Did you know that NSF allows paid parental leave under many circumstances? For example, the AAPF program currently allows two months of paid parental leave during the fellow's tenure. What are the rules for NSF Graduate Research Fellowships? Come to the session and find out; the answers to such questions might surprise you.

  11. A novel Sec18p/NSF-dependent complex required for Golgi-to-endosome transport in yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Burd, C G; Peterson, M; Cowles, C R; Emr, S D

    1997-01-01

    The vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates localization of proteins from the trans-Golgi to the vacuole via a prevacuolar endosome compartment. Mutations in class D vacuolar protein-sorting (vps) genes affect vesicle-mediated Golgi-to-endosome transport and result in secretion of vacuolar proteins. Temperature-sensitive-for-function (tsf) and dominant negative mutations in PEP12, encoding a putative SNARE vesicle receptor on the endosome, and tsf mutations in VAC1, a gene implicated in vacuole inheritance and vacuolar protein sorting, were constructed and used to demonstrate that Pep12p and Vac1p are components of the VPS pathway. The sequence of Vac1p contains two putative zinc-binding RING motifs, a zinc finger motif, and a coiled-coil motif. Site-directed mutations in the carboxyl-terminal RING motif strongly affected vacuolar protein sorting. Vac1p was found to be tightly associated with membranes as a monomer and in a large SDS-resistant complex. By using Pep12p affinity chromatography, we found that Vac1p, Vps45p (SEC1 family member), and Sec18p (yeast N-ethyl maleimide-sensitive factor, NSF) bind Pep12p. Consistent with a functional role for this complex in vacuolar protein sorting, double pep12tsfvac1tsf and pep12tsf vps45tsf mutants exhibited synthetic Vps- phenotypes, the tsf phenotype of the vac1tsf mutant was rescued by overexpression of VPS45 or PEP12, overexpression of a dominant pep12 allele in a sec18-1 strain resulted in a severe synthetic growth defect that was rescued by deletion of PEP12 or VAC1, and subcellular fractionation of vac1 delta cells revealed a striking change in the fractionation of Pep12p and Vps21p, a rab family GTPase required for vacuolar protein sorting. The functions of Pep12p, Vps45p, and Vps21p indicate that key aspects of Golgi-to-endosome trafficking are similar to other vesicle-mediated transport steps, although the role of Vac1p suggests that there are also novel components of the VPS

  12. NSF cuts likely, says House panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    At key congressional hearings held recently on the National Science Foundation's budget for fiscal year 1993, the bottom line was clear: the agency should not expect the 18% increase it has requested.The chair of the House VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Subcommitee, Bob Traxler (D.-Mich.), indicated his support for NSF, but added that his subcommittee “lives and dies by its 602(b) allocation.” This is the amount with which the subcommittee funds programs under its jurisdiction, including veterans' health care and housing support. Traxler said the administration had “shortchanged” some activities to provide the NSF increase, and that money would have to be returned to other programs. Throughout the hearings, Traxler spoke of a possible 4-6% increase for NSF in fiscal 1993, less than one-third the amount requested.

  13. NSF program gives research experience to undergrads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Daniel W.

    Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) is a new National Science Foundation (NSF) program designed to attract talented undergraduates into research careers in science, engineering, and mathematics. The program is intended to provide active research experience to students while they are still in their undergraduate years. There are two categories of support under this program: REU Sites and REU Supplements. The supplement, as the name implies, is to supplement existing NSF grants to permit an investigator to hire an undergraduate assistant. Here, I will report o n the REU site award made to the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for summer 1987.

  14. Sorting to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; McPherson, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    The world of higher education is a world of sorting, selecting, and ranking--on both sides of the market. Colleges select students to recruit and then to admit; students choose where to apply and which offer to accept. The sorting process that gets the most attention is in the higher reaches of the market, where it is not too much to say that…

  15. NSF Establishes First Four National Supercomputer Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1985-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded support for supercomputer centers at Cornell University, Princeton University, University of California (San Diego), and University of Illinois. These centers are to be the nucleus of a national academic network for use by scientists and engineers throughout the United States. (DH)

  16. Receptor-Mediated Uptake and Intracellular Sorting of Multivalent Lipid Nanoparticles Against the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and the Human EGFR 2 (HER2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, David Tu

    In the area of receptor-targeted lipid nanoparticles for drug delivery, efficiency has been mainly focused on cell-specificity, endocytosis, and subsequently effects on bioactivity such as cell growth inhibition. Aspects of targeted liposomal uptake and intracellular sorting are not well defined. This dissertation assessed a series of ligands as targeted functional groups against HER2 and EGFR for liposomal drug delivery. Receptor-mediated uptake, both mono-targeted and dual-targeted to multiple receptors of different ligand valence, and the intracellular sorting of lipid nanoparticles were investigated to improve the delivery of drugs to cancer cells. Lipid nanoparticles were functionalized through a new sequential micelle transfer---conjugation method, while the micelle transfer method was extended to growth factors. Through a combination of both techniques, anti-HER2 and anti-EGFR dual-targeted immunoliposomes with different combinations of ligand valence were developed for comparative studies. With the array of lipid nanoparticles, the uptake and cytotoxicity of lipid nanoparticles in relationship to ligand valence, both mono-targeting and dual-targeting, were evaluated on a small panel of breast cancer cell lines that express HER2 and EGFR of varying levels. Comparable uptake ratios of ligand to expressed receptor and apparent cooperativity were observed. For cell lines that express both receptors, additive dose-uptake effects were also observed with dual-targeted immunoliposomes, which translated to marginal improvements in cell growth inhibition with doxorubicin delivery. Colocalization analysis revealed that ligand-conjugated lipid nanoparticles settle to endosomal compartments similar to their attached ligands. Pathway transregulation and pathway saturation were also observed to affect trafficking. In the end, liposomes routed to the recycling endosomes were never observed to traffic beyond the endosomes nor to be exocytose like recycled ligands. Based on

  17. Sorting large files on a backend multiprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, M.; Bitton, D.; Wilkinson, W.K.

    1988-07-01

    A fundamental measure of processing power in a database management system is the performance of the sort utility it provides. When sorting a large data file on a serial computer, performance is limited by factors involving processor speed, memory capacity, and I/O bandwidth. In this paper, the authors investigate the feasibility and efficiency of a parallel sort-merge algorithm through implementation on the JASMIN prototype, a backend multiprocessor built around a fast packet bus. The authors describe the design and implementation of a parallel sort utility. They then present and analyze the results of measurements corresponding to a range of file sizes and processor configurations. Their results show that using current, off-the-shelf technology coupled with a streamlined distributed operating system, three- and five-microprocessor configurations provide a very cost-effective sort of large files. The three-processor configuration sorts a 100 Mbyte file in 1 h, which compares well to commercial sort packages available on high-performance mainframes. In additional experiments, the authors investigate a model to tune their sort software and scale their results to higher processor and network capabilities.

  18. Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Back to Health Library Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the common ... simple preventive measures, you can help reduce your sneezing, coughing and general stuffiness, according to Pamela A. ...

  19. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Induces Genes Associated with Inflammation and Gliosis in the Retina: A Gene Profiling Study of Flow-Sorted, Müller Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, V. Joseph; Brooks, Matthew; Swaroop, Anand; Sarthy, Vijay P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family, has been implicated in the development, differentiation and survival of retinal neurons. The mechanisms of CNTF action as well as its cellular targets in the retina are poorly understood. It has been postulated that some of the biological effects of CNTF are mediated through its action via retinal glial cells; however, molecular changes in retinal glia induced by CNTF have not been elucidated. We have, therefore, examined gene expression dynamics of purified Müller (glial) cells exposed to CNTF in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings Müller cells were flow-sorted from mgfap-egfp transgenic mice one or three days after intravitreal injection of CNTF. Microarray analysis using RNA from purified Müller cells showed differential expression of almost 1,000 transcripts with two- to seventeen-fold change in response to CNTF. A comparison of transcriptional profiles from Müller cells at one or three days after CNTF treatment showed an increase in the number of transcribed genes as well as a change in the expression pattern. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis showed that the differentially regulated genes belong to distinct functional types such as cytokines, growth factors, G-protein coupled receptors, transporters and ion channels. Interestingly, many genes induced by CNTF were also highly expressed in reactive Müller cells from mice with inherited or experimentally induced retinal degeneration. Further analysis of gene profiles revealed 20–30% overlap in the transcription pattern among Müller cells, astrocytes and the RPE. Conclusions/Significance Our studies provide novel molecular insights into biological functions of Müller glial cells in mediating cytokine response. We suggest that CNTF remodels the gene expression profile of Müller cells leading to induction of networks associated with transcription, cell cycle regulation and inflammatory response. CNTF also appears to

  20. Critical time for NSF, NASA funding bills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard

    Although the new fiscal year does not start until October, the next few weeks will be critical in determining the amount of money which the National Science Foundation and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration receive. Scientists who want to communicate their views to key representatives and senators about these agencies should do so now.Every year Congress must pass new funding, or appropriations, legislation. Both NSF and NASA funding come under the jurisdiction of the House and Senate appropriations subcommittees for the Veterans Administration, Department of Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies. These two subcommittees have already heard from NSF officials, and will wrap-up official NASA testimony this week. Several days of hearings from public witnesses are also scheduled.

  1. Clinton seeks additional funds for NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    A $207 million fiscal year 1993 supplemental appropriation for the National Science Foundation has been proposed by President Clinton for strategic research and core research programs. The funds would increase the agency's 1993 budget to $2.04 billion, a 14% increase over the fiscal 1992 budget. The request is part of a $16.3 billion supplemental bill awaiting action by Congress that would also create 500,000 new jobs.On February 23, NSF Director Walter E. Massey testified before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Veterans Affairs, HUD, and Independent Agencies to support the supplement. “NSF's activities contribute to improving the nation's productivity by generating new knowledge and investing in the future by training the current and next generation of scientists and engineers,” he said.

  2. NSF Award EPSCoR Grants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Board, the policymaking body of the National Science Foundation (NSF), has approved the awarding of grants totalling $23.5 million to eight governmental jurisdictions to improve the quality of U.S. science and engineering research. The jurisdictions are Alabama, Kentucky, Nevada, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Puerto Rico, Vermont, and Wyoming. Grants will total between $2.5 and $3 million over 5 years for each jurisdiction.The grants are being made under NSF's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). The program is designed to improve the quality of science and engineering, to increase the number of scientists and engineers that are able to compete successfully for federal grants, and to improve the research environment in the participating jurisdictions and institutions.

  3. AGU acts on NSF Page Charge Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fast action by Headquarters alerted AGU members to a proposed change to the National Science Foundation's page charge policy that would weaken the ability of scientific societies to serve the scientific community.If adopted, NSF's new policy, announced in the Federal Register December 18, would remove the prohibition against allowing page charges to commercially produced journals. The proposal for the change was supposedly put forth to obtain a reaction from the scientific community.

  4. Status of NSF's polar programs office raised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Walter Massey, Director of the National Science Foundation, announced on January 13 that he has elevated the status of the Division of Polar Programs (DPP). It is now the Office of Polar Programs and, organizationally, part of the Office of the Director. Effective immediately, the newly created office began reporting to NSF's deputy director. Massey is also reactivating the Board's Committee on Polar Programs to provide NSF with continuing policy guidance and advice.In announcing the program's move, Massey said that NSF's Antarctic and Arctic activities have grown increasingly prominent in recent years as international attention has focused on research programs, environmental concerns, law enforcement, and other issues in both polar regions. “With the increased responsibility we have been given [in the polar regions] comes increased accountability,” Massey said. “I believe that heightening the stewardship for polar programs is an important way to help ensure that we meet the expectations and needs of the polar research communities and others,” he added.

  5. Manual and Automated Document Retrieval at the NSF Web Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wink, Donald J.

    1998-05-01

    Last month, I discussed the general structure of educational materials at the NSF Web site, and now we can focus on important components for the chemical education community. First among these components is the documentation that NSF provides on the history and the current status of NSF-supported education initiatives, which is the topic for this month.

  6. The NSF Science Education Controversy: Issues, Events, Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Karen B.

    Discussion of National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of precollege science education revolves around the controversy of whether NSF should fund "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS). NSF had funded MACOS' curriculum development, implementation, and postevaluation during 1963-1975. The controversy began in March 1975 when U.S. Congressman John Conlan…

  7. Dielectrophoretic sorting of membrane protein nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Bahige G; Chao, Tzu-Chiao; Kupitz, Christopher; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2013-10-22

    Structure elucidation of large membrane protein complexes is still a considerable challenge, yet is a key factor in drug development and disease combat. Femtosecond nanocrystallography is an emerging technique with which structural information of membrane proteins is obtained without the need to grow large crystals, thus overcoming the experimental riddle faced in traditional crystallography methods. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a microfluidic device capable of sorting membrane protein crystals based on size using dielectrophoresis. We demonstrate the excellent sorting power of this new approach with numerical simulations of selected submicrometer beads in excellent agreement with experimental observations. Crystals from batch crystallization broths of the huge membrane protein complex photosystem I were sorted without further treatment, resulting in a high degree of monodispersity and crystallinity in the ~100 nm size range. Microfluidic integration, continuous sorting, and nanometer-sized crystal fractions make this method ideal for direct coupling to femtosecond nanocrystallography.

  8. Sorting Sloppy Sonic

    PubMed Central

    Little, Shawn C.; Gregor, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the classic picture of morphogen-mediated patterning, cells acquire the correct spatial arrangement of specified fates by reading a precisely distributed gradient of morphogen. Xiong et al. now provide evidence for an alternate strategy—cells of the zebrafish neural tube actively sort to their correct positions following disordered specification by Sonic hedgehog. PMID:23622235

  9. NSF to receive 10% funding increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    Work is almost complete on the fiscal year 1994 funding bill for the National Science Foundation. On October 1, Conference Committee Chairs Louis Stokes (D-Ohio) and Barbara Mikulski (D-Md.) and their colleagues completed work on the final version of HR2491, the VA, HUD, Independent Agencies Appropriations Bill. The House and Senate will soon give their final approval to the conference report for HR2491, after which it will lack only the president's signature. NSF's overall budget increase of 10%, raising total funding to %3,005.3 million, is the highest increase among all departments and agencies. Last year's increase in NSF funding was 6.3%.Funding for research and related activities will increase 7% to $1,986 million, a compromise between the 10% House increase and the 4% Senate figure. Last year's bill cut research funding. Education and human resources funding will increase 17% to $569.6 million. This is $13.5 million above the Clinton administration's request. Last year's increase for education and human resources was 4.7%.

  10. The NSF PAARE Projects at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    We review our progress over the past 7.5 years and the path forward under the NSF program "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)". Our first project, "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)" was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort which we finished on September 30, 2015. We will summarize the results of those years and look at our way forward under a second PAARE award made in August 2014 (POCA II). Our partnership under the second PAARE award includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. Our recent work on variable and peculiar stars, work with the Kepler Observatory and our educational products in cosmology for non-STEM majors will be presented as well as our success with undergraduate and graduate students. We will also discuss how we are sharing resources with Clemson through distance learning and undergraduate research projects. Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  11. Report on the Partnership for Excellence in Teacher Education: An NSF Funded Project (NSF DUE-9343612).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Sally; Tchoshanov, Mourat; Della-Piana, Connie Kubo; Pacheco, Arturo; Brady, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Reports on the Partnership for Excellence in Teacher Education (PETE), an NSF-funded project to promote reform in mathematics and science teacher preparation that features the redesign of teacher preparation to reflect current research on learning and teaching. Concludes that new tools of technology have the potential for enhancing education but…

  12. Lipoprotein sorting in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Suguru; Tokuda, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are synthesized as precursors in the cytoplasm and processed into mature forms on the cytoplasmic membrane. A lipid moiety attached to the N terminus anchors these proteins to the membrane surface. Many bacteria are predicted to express more than 100 lipoproteins, which play diverse functions on the cell surface. The Lol system, composed of five proteins, catalyzes the localization of Escherichia coli lipoproteins to the outer membrane. Some lipoproteins play vital roles in the sorting of other lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and β-barrel proteins to the outer membrane. On the basis of results from biochemical, genetic, and structural studies, we discuss the biogenesis of lipoproteins in bacteria, their importance in cellular functions, and the molecular mechanisms underlying efficient sorting of hydrophobic lipoproteins to the outer membrane through the hydrophilic periplasm. PMID:21663440

  13. Event shape sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopečná, Renata; Tomášik, Boris

    2016-04-01

    We propose a novel method for sorting events of multiparticle production according to the azimuthal anisotropy of their momentum distribution. Although the method is quite general, we advocate its use in analysis of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions where a large number of hadrons is produced. The advantage of our method is that it can automatically sort out samples of events with histograms that indicate similar distributions of hadrons. It takes into account the whole measured histograms with all orders of anisotropy instead of a specific observable ( e.g., v_2 , v_3 , q_2 . It can be used for more exclusive experimental studies of flow anisotropies which are then more easily compared to theoretical calculations. It may also be useful in the construction of mixed-events background for correlation studies as it allows to select events with similar momentum distribution.

  14. Sorting quantum systems efficiently.

    PubMed

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) - which direct photons according to their polarization - and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  15. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation.

  16. Sorting quantum systems efficiently

    PubMed Central

    Ionicioiu, Radu

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the state of a quantum system is a fundamental process in quantum mechanics and plays an essential role in quantum information and quantum technologies. One method to measure a quantum observable is to sort the system in different spatial modes according to the measured value, followed by single-particle detectors on each mode. Examples of quantum sorters are polarizing beam-splitters (PBS) – which direct photons according to their polarization – and Stern-Gerlach devices. Here we propose a general scheme to sort a quantum system according to the value of any d-dimensional degree of freedom, such as spin, orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength etc. Our scheme is universal, works at the single-particle level and has a theoretical efficiency of 100%. As an application we design an efficient OAM sorter consisting of a single multi-path interferometer which is suitable for a photonic chip implementation. PMID:27142705

  17. NSF section remains in competitiveness bill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Valerie

    The House Space, Science and Technology Committee held mark-ups to consider amendments to HR820, the National Competitiveness Act of 1993 on April 21 and 22. Subtitle B to the bill lays out a role for the National Science Foundation that is perceived by some Earth scientists as shifting the agency's mission from supporting basic research to manufacturing technology and competitiveness (see Eos, April 13). During the mark-up, Roscoe Bartlett (R-Md.) introduced an amendment to strike the entire NSF section, saying that “manufacturing is not a proper function of basic research institutions.” He also mentioned that President Clinton did not have any money in his budget for this initiative.

  18. Chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  19. A Sequence of Sorting Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, David R.; Litwiller, Bonnie H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes eight increasingly sophisticated and efficient sorting algorithms including linear insertion, binary insertion, shellsort, bubble exchange, shakersort, quick sort, straight selection, and tree selection. Provides challenges for the reader and the student to program these efficiently. (JM)

  20. 2001 BUDGET: NSF and NASA Score Last-Minute Victories.

    PubMed

    Lawler, A; Mervis, J

    2000-10-27

    Congress last week gave both NASA and the National Science Foundation (NSF) significant hikes for 2001: NSF got $4.42 billion, a $522 million boost over this year that nearly matched NSF's 17% request, and NASA received $14.3 billion, nearly twice the White House's request for a 3% boost-but with hundreds of millions of dollars in earmarks added on. PMID:17780498

  1. Sorting out Ideas about Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillen, Amy F.; Malik, LuAnn

    2013-01-01

    Card sorting has the potential to provide opportunities for exploration of a variety of topics and levels. In a card-sorting task, each participant is presented with a set of cards--each of which depicts a relationship--and is asked to sort the cards into categories that make sense to him or her. The concept of function is critical to…

  2. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  3. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  4. The NSF Condensed Matter Physics Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Paul

    The Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) program in the NSF Division of Materials Research (DMR) supports experimental, as well as combined experiment and theory projects investigating the fundamental physics behind phenomena exhibited by condensed matter systems. CMP is the largest Individual Investigator Award program in DMR and supports a broad portfolio of research spanning both hard and soft condensed matter. Representative research areas include: 1) phenomena at the nano- to macro-scale including: transport, magnetic, and optical phenomena; classical and quantum phase transitions; localization; electronic, magnetic, and lattice structure or excitations; superconductivity; topological insulators; and nonlinear dynamics. 2) low-temperature physics: quantum fluids and solids; 1D & 2D electron systems. 3) soft condensed matter: partially ordered fluids, granular and colloid physics, liquid crystals, and 4) understanding the fundamental physics of new states of matter as well as the physical behavior of condensed matter under extreme conditions e.g., low temperatures, high pressures, and high magnetic fields. In this talk I will review the current CMP portfolio and discuss future funding trends for the program. I will also describe recent activities in the program aimed at addressing the challenges facing current and future principal investigators.

  5. 78 FR 716 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, DOE. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC). DATES... advice and guidance on a continuing basis to the Department of Energy and the National Science...

  6. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  7. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215... an NSF contract is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to... Secretary of State or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with...

  8. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities 2515.215-70 NSF... is for scientific activities which are determined by the NSF contracting officer to be “necessary to... or Secretary of Defense, specific scientific activities in connection with matters relating...

  9. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  10. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  11. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  12. NSF Director Continues to Steer Agency on Technological Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the first years of Erich Bloch's command of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Describes his past associations with science and technology and his ability to lead in these areas. Indicates that he has committed the NSF to a technological course and has changed the character of the foundation. (MVL)

  13. News Focus: NSF Director Erich Bloch Discusses Foundation's Problems, Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Relates the comments offered in an interview with Erich Bloch, the National Science Foundation (NSF) Director. Discusses issues related to NSF and its funding, engineering research centers, involvement with industry, concern for science education, computer centers, and its affiliation with the social sciences. (ML)

  14. Challenges and Opportunities for Engineering Education: An NSF Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suh, Nam P.

    1985-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) believes three areas of engineering education require attention: (1) lack of qualified faculty; (2) updating and maintaining instructional instrumentation, equipment, and facilities; and (3) inability to transmit knowledge of some engineering disciplines to students. NSF approaches to solving these problems…

  15. 75 FR 71425 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory... nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions of the following:...

  16. 78 FR 69658 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    .../NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda will include discussions...

  17. Global geosciences to be new focus at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    With the start of the 1987 fiscal year (FY) on October 1, 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSF) officially began conducting—with the explicit blessings of Congress—the United States' first large-scale funded program for multidisciplinary cooperative global studies, an effort NSF calls “Global Geosciences.” The agency's budget commits about $35 million to global geosciences, which is the full amount that NSF originally requested from Congress in February 1986 (Eos, February 25, 1986, p.95). The $35 million represents an impressive increase of $18 million over the $17 million in the FY 1986 budget that NSF considers itself to have spent for global studies. “To propose an increase for global geosciences within an environment of shrinking budgets illustrates the level of commitment NSF attaches to this effort,” the agency's director, Erich Bloch, said earlier this year.

  18. Cellular Functions of NSF: Not Just SNAPs and SNAREs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Chunxia; Slevin, John T.; Whiteheart, Sidney W.

    2007-01-01

    NSF is an AAA protein, broadly required for intracellular membrane fusion. NSF functions as a SNARE chaperone which binds, through SNAPs, to SNARE complexes and utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to disassemble them thus facilitating SNARE recycling. While this is a major function of NSF, it does seem to interact with other proteins, such as the AMPA receptor subunit, GluR2, and β2-AR and is thought to affect their trafficking patterns. New data suggest that NSF may be regulated by transient post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and nitrosylation. These new aspects of NSF function as well as its role in SNARE complex dynamics will be discussed. PMID:17397838

  19. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  20. Teleoperated robotic sorting system

    DOEpatents

    Roos, Charles E.; Sommer, Jr., Edward J.; Parrish, Robert H.; Russell, James R.

    2008-06-24

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for classifying materials utilizing a computerized touch sensitive screen or other computerized pointing device for operator identification and electronic marking of spatial coordinates of materials to be extracted. An operator positioned at a computerized touch sensitive screen views electronic images of the mixture of materials to be sorted as they are conveyed past a sensor array which transmits sequences of images of the mixture either directly or through a computer to the touch sensitive display screen. The operator manually "touches" objects displayed on the screen to be extracted from the mixture thereby registering the spatial coordinates of the objects within the computer. The computer then tracks the registered objects as they are conveyed and directs automated devices including mechanical means such as air jets, robotic arms, or other mechanical diverters to extract the registered objects.

  1. Cyberinfrastructure for the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, J. A.; Vernon, F. L.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A.; Krueger, I.; Schofield, O.; Glenn, S.; Peach, C.; Nayak, A.

    2007-12-01

    The Internet today is vastly different than the Internet that we knew even five years ago and the changes that will be evident five years from now, when the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) prototype has been installed, are nearly unpredictable. Much of this progress is based on the exponential growth in capabilities of consumer electronics and information technology; the reality of this exponential behavior is rarely appreciated. For example, the number of transistors on a square cm of silicon will continue to double every 18 months, the density of disk storage will double every year, and network bandwidth will double every eight months. Today's desktop 2TB RAID will be 64TB and the 10Gbps Regional Scale Network fiber optical connection will be running at 1.8Tbps. The same exponential behavior characterizes the future of genome sequencing. The first two sequences of composites of individuals' genes cost tens of millions of dollars in 2001. Dr. Craig Venter just published a more accurate complete human genome (his own) at a cost on the order of 100,000. The J. Craig Venter Institute has provided support for the X Prize for Genomics offering 10M to the first successful sequencing of a human genome for $1,000. It's anticipated that the prize will be won within five years. Major advances in technology that are broadly viewed as disruptive or revolutionary rather than evolutionary will often depend upon the exploitation of exponential expansions in capability. Applications of these ideas to the OOI will be discussed. Specifically, the agile ability to scale cyberinfrastructure commensurate with the exponential growth of sensors, networks and computational capability and demand will be described.

  2. A Highly Polymorphic Copy Number Variant in the NSF Gene is Associated with Cocaine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cabana-Domínguez, Judit; Roncero, Carlos; Grau-López, Lara; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Barral, Carmen; Abad, Alfonso C.; Erikson, Galina; Wineinger, Nathan E.; Torrico, Bàrbara; Arenas, Concepció; Casas, Miquel; Ribasés, Marta; Cormand, Bru; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate cocaine’s effects, dependence and relapse, being the components of the neurotransmitter release machinery good candidates for the disorder. Previously, we identified a risk haplotype for cocaine dependence in the NSF gene, encoding the protein N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor essential for synaptic vesicle turnover. Here we examined the possible contribution to cocaine dependence of a large copy number variant (CNV) that encompasses part of the NSF gene. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample (359 cases and 356 controls) and identified an association between cocaine dependence and the CNV (P = 0.013), that was confirmed in the replication sample (508 cases and 569 controls, P = 7.1e-03) and in a pooled analysis (P = 1.8e-04), with an over-representation of low number of copies in cases. Subsequently, we studied the functional impact of the CNV on gene expression and found that the levels of two NSF transcripts were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) along with the number of copies of the CNV. These results, together with a previous study from our group, support the role of NSF in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence. PMID:27498889

  3. A Highly Polymorphic Copy Number Variant in the NSF Gene is Associated with Cocaine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Cabana-Domínguez, Judit; Roncero, Carlos; Grau-López, Lara; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Barral, Carmen; Abad, Alfonso C; Erikson, Galina; Wineinger, Nathan E; Torrico, Bàrbara; Arenas, Concepció; Casas, Miquel; Ribasés, Marta; Cormand, Bru; Fernàndez-Castillo, Noèlia

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine dependence is a complex psychiatric disorder involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several neurotransmitter systems mediate cocaine's effects, dependence and relapse, being the components of the neurotransmitter release machinery good candidates for the disorder. Previously, we identified a risk haplotype for cocaine dependence in the NSF gene, encoding the protein N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor essential for synaptic vesicle turnover. Here we examined the possible contribution to cocaine dependence of a large copy number variant (CNV) that encompasses part of the NSF gene. We performed a case-control association study in a discovery sample (359 cases and 356 controls) and identified an association between cocaine dependence and the CNV (P = 0.013), that was confirmed in the replication sample (508 cases and 569 controls, P = 7.1e-03) and in a pooled analysis (P = 1.8e-04), with an over-representation of low number of copies in cases. Subsequently, we studied the functional impact of the CNV on gene expression and found that the levels of two NSF transcripts were significantly increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) along with the number of copies of the CNV. These results, together with a previous study from our group, support the role of NSF in the susceptibility to cocaine dependence. PMID:27498889

  4. NSF Support for Physics at the Undergraduate Level: A View from Inside

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, Duncan

    2015-03-01

    NSF has supported a wide range of projects in physics that involve undergraduate students. These projects include NSF research grants in which undergraduates participate; Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) centers and supplements; and education grants that range from upper-division labs that may include research, to curriculum development for upper- and lower-level courses and labs, to courses for non-majors, to Physics Education Research (PER). The NSF Divisions of Physics, Materials Research, and Astronomy provide most of the disciplinary research support, with some from other parts of NSF. I recently retired as the permanent physicist in NSF's Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE), which supports the education grants. I was responsible for a majority of DUE's physics grants and was involved with others overseen by a series of physics rotators. There I worked in programs entitled Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement (ILI); Course and Curriculum Development (CCD); Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI); Transforming Undergraduate STEM Education (TUES); and Improving Undergraduate STEM Education (IUSE). NSF support has enabled physics Principal Investigators to change and improve substantially the way physics is taught and the way students learn physics. The most important changes are increased undergraduate participation in physics research; more teaching using interactive engagement methods in classes; and growth of PER as a legitimate field of physics research as well as outcomes from PER that guide physics teaching. In turn these have led, along with other factors, to students who are better-prepared for graduate school and work, and to increases in the number of undergraduate physics majors. In addition, students in disciplines that physics directly supports, notably engineering and chemistry, and increasingly biology, are better and more broadly prepared to use their physics education in these fields. I will describe NSF

  5. ESO and NSF Sign Agreement on ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    Green Light for World's Most Powerful Radio Observatory On February 25, 2003, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Science Foundation (NSF) are signing a historic agreement to construct and operate the world's largest and most powerful radio telescope, operating at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength. The Director General of ESO, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, and the Director of the NSF, Dr. Rita Colwell, act for their respective organizations. Known as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), the future facility will encompass sixty-four interconnected 12-meter antennae at a unique, high-altitude site at Chajnantor in the Atacama region of northern Chile. ALMA is a joint project between Europe and North America. In Europe, ESO is leading on behalf of its ten member countries and Spain. In North America, the NSF also acts for the National Research Council of Canada and executes the project through the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) operated by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI). The conclusion of the ESO-NSF Agreement now gives the final green light for the ALMA project. The total cost of approximately 650 million Euro (or US Dollars) is shared equally between the two partners. Dr. Cesarsky is excited: "This agreement signifies the start of a great project of contemporary astronomy and astrophysics. Representing Europe, and in collaboration with many laboratories and institutes on this continent, we together look forward towards wonderful research projects. With ALMA we may learn how the earliest galaxies in the Universe really looked like, to mention but one of the many eagerly awaited opportunities with this marvellous facility". "With this agreement, we usher in a new age of research in astronomy" says Dr. Colwell. "By working together in this truly global partnership, the international astronomy community will be able to ensure the research capabilities needed to meet the long-term demands of our scientific enterprise, and

  6. ERDA and NSF Gain in Fiscal 1977 Budget Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Provides a breakdown of topics of support covered in the 1977 fiscal year proposed budgets for the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). (CP)

  7. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  8. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  9. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by... sufficient to ensure that the meteorites will be properly collected, handled, documented, and curated....

  10. To sort or not to sort: the impact of spike-sorting on neural decoding performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorova, Sonia; Sadtler, Patrick; Batista, Aaron; Chase, Steven; Ventura, Valérie

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for restoring motor ability to paralyzed patients. Spiking-based BCIs have successfully been used in clinical trials to control multi-degree-of-freedom robotic devices. Current implementations of these devices require a lengthy spike-sorting step, which is an obstacle to moving this technology from the lab to the clinic. A viable alternative is to avoid spike-sorting, treating all threshold crossings of the voltage waveform on an electrode as coming from one putative neuron. It is not known, however, how much decoding information might be lost by ignoring spike identity. Approach. We present a full analysis of the effects of spike-sorting schemes on decoding performance. Specifically, we compare how well two common decoders, the optimal linear estimator and the Kalman filter, reconstruct the arm movements of non-human primates performing reaching tasks, when receiving input from various sorting schemes. The schemes we tested included: using threshold crossings without spike-sorting; expert-sorting discarding the noise; expert-sorting, including the noise as if it were another neuron; and automatic spike-sorting using waveform features. We also decoded from a joint statistical model for the waveforms and tuning curves, which does not involve an explicit spike-sorting step. Main results. Discarding the threshold crossings that cannot be assigned to neurons degrades decoding: no spikes should be discarded. Decoding based on spike-sorted units outperforms decoding based on electrodes voltage crossings: spike-sorting is useful. The four waveform based spike-sorting methods tested here yield similar decoding efficiencies: a fast and simple method is competitive. Decoding using the joint waveform and tuning model shows promise but is not consistently superior. Significance. Our results indicate that simple automated spike-sorting performs as well as the more computationally or manually intensive

  11. Multiphase ferrofluid flows for micro-particle sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ran; Wang, Cheng

    2015-11-01

    Utilizing negative magnetophoresis, ferrofluids have demonstrated great potential for sorting nonmagnetic micro-particles by size. Most of the existing techniques use single phase ferrofluids by pushing micro-particles to channel walls; the sorting speed is thus hindered. We demonstrate a novel sorting strategy by co-flowing a ferrofluid and a non-magnetic fluid in microchannels. Due to the magnetic force, the particles migrate across the ferrofluid stream at size-dependent velocities as they travel downstream. The laminar interface between the two fluids functions as a virtual boundary to accumulate particles, resulting in effective separation of particles. A stable and sharp interface is important to the success of this sorting technique. We investigate several factors that affect sorting efficiency, including magnetic field, susceptibility difference of the fluids, flow velocity, and channel geometry.

  12. Congressional hearing reviews NSF major research and facilities projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-03-01

    An 8 March congressional hearing about the U.S. National Science Foundation's Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (NSF MREFC) account focused on fiscal management and accountability of projects in that account and reviewed concerns raised by NSF's Office of Inspector General (OIG). NSF established the MREFC account in 1995 to better plan and manage investments in major equipment and facilities projects, which can cost from tens of millions to hundreds of millions of dollars, and the foundation has funded 17 MREFC projects since then. The Obama administration's proposed fiscal year (FY) 2013 budget includes funding for four MREFC projects: Advanced Laser Gravitational-Wave Observatory (AdvLIGO), Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), National Ecological Observatory (NEON), and Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). The hearing, held by a subcommittee of the House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, reviewed management oversight throughout the life cycles of MREFC projects and concerns raised in recent OIG reports about the use of budget contingency funds. NSF's February 2012 manual called "Risk management guide for large facilities" states that cost contingency is "that portion of the project budget required to cover `known unknowns,'" such as planning and estimating errors and omissions, minor labor or material price fluctuations, and design developments and changes within the project scope. Committee members acknowledged measures that NSF has made to improve the MREFC oversight process, but they also urged the agency to continue to take steps to ensure better project management.

  13. Microspherical photonics: Sorting resonant photonic atoms by using light

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, Alexey V.; Astratov, Vasily N.

    2014-09-22

    A method of sorting microspheres by resonant light forces in vacuum, air, or liquid is proposed. Based on a two-dimensional model, it is shown that the sorting can be realized by allowing spherical particles to traverse a focused beam. Under resonance with the whispering gallery modes, the particles acquire significant velocity along the beam direction. This opens a unique way of large-volume sorting of nearly identical photonic atoms with 1/Q accuracy, where Q is the resonance quality factor. This is an enabling technology for developing super-low-loss coupled-cavity structures and devices.

  14. Parallel mergs sort using comparison matrices. I

    SciTech Connect

    Romm, Y.E.

    1995-05-01

    The topics discussed in this paper are connected with internal merge sorting by a key (in short, M-sorting or M-sort). Originally developed by von Neumann, this is one of the first sorting methods. It still remains one of the fastest, involving Nlog{sub 2}N comparisons. The purpose of our article is to demonstrate the use of comparison matrices (CMs) for merging in M-sort. While preserving the known advantages of the sequential implementation of M-sort. CMs ensure more efficient use of main memory (one of the known weaknesses of M-sort is its large memory requirements) and effective parallelizability.

  15. All sorts of options for food product sorting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most food products undergo significant processing before arrival at the grocery store or local market. A major component of this processing includes sorting the product according to quality attributes such as size, color, sweetness, and ripeness. In addition, removal of defects or contaminants is a ...

  16. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm. PMID:22992923

  17. Sex-sorting sperm using flow cytometry/cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Garner, Duane L; Evans, K Michael; Seidel, George E

    2013-01-01

    The sex of mammalian offspring can be predetermined by flow sorting relatively pure living populations of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm. This method is based on precise staining of the DNA of sperm with the nucleic acid-specific fluorophore, Hoechst 33342, to differentiate between the subpopulations of X- and Y-sperm. The fluorescently stained sperm are then sex-sorted using a specialized high speed sorter, MoFlo(®) SX XDP, and collected into biologically supportive media prior to reconcentration and cryopreservation in numbers adequate for use with artificial insemination for some species or for in vitro fertilization. Sperm sorting can provide subpopulations of X- or Y-bearing bovine sperm at rates in the 8,000 sperm/s range while maintaining; a purity of 90% such that it has been applied to cattle on a commercial basis. The sex of offspring has been predetermined in a wide variety of mammalian species including cattle, swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, deer, elk, dolphins, water buffalo as well as in humans using flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-sperm.

  18. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  19. A Guide to NSF Science/Engineering Resources Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    The Division of Science Resources Studies (SRS) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) designs and conducts surveys and supports other data collection activities. This document is a guide to the recurring portions of the SRS data bases, including information on survey design, sample size, and data content. The abstracts found in this guide…

  20. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 674.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by expedition organizers pursuant to § 674.5(b) shall be furnished to the National Science Foundation's...

  1. 45 CFR 674.6 - Submission of information to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 674.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC METEORITES § 674.6 Submission of information to NSF. A copy of the written procedures developed by expedition organizers pursuant to § 674.5(b) shall be furnished to the National Science Foundation's...

  2. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....7002 Section 2527.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  3. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....7002 Section 2527.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981,...

  4. 78 FR 62609 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... consultation with the Committee Management Secretariat, General Services Administration, notice is hereby given... within the field of basic nuclear science research. Additionally, the renewal of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee has been determined to be essential to conduct business of the Department...

  5. Bill sets NSF on path to double its budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The US. National Science Foundation (NSF) is one step closer to having its budget more than doubled over the next five years, thanks to legislation approved 14 November by both houses of Congress.President George W. Bush is expected to sign the bill into law.

  6. Summary Report of the NSF/EPA WATERS Network Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) organized a workshop to support The WATer and Environmental Research Systems (WATERS) Network project. The WATERS Network is a new joint initiative of the environmental engineering and hydrol...

  7. 78 FR 12044 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda:...

  8. 75 FR 6651 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  9. 78 FR 56870 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory. Committee (NSAC... and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear...

  10. 76 FR 8359 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research. Tentative Agenda: Agenda...

  11. 76 FR 31945 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic nuclear science research....

  12. 77 FR 51791 - DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... Nuclear Science Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC... Energy and the National Science Foundation on scientific priorities within the field of basic...

  13. NSF Anticipates Pushing Boundaries on Open-Access Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), in carrying out the Obama administration's new push for greater public access to research published in scientific journals, will consider exclusivity periods shorter than the 12-month standard in the White House directive, as well as trade-offs involving data-sharing and considerations of publishers'…

  14. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NSF negotiation authorities. 2515.215-70 Section 2515.215-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities...

  15. 48 CFR 2515.215-70 - NSF negotiation authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NSF negotiation authorities. 2515.215-70 Section 2515.215-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Negotiation Authorities...

  16. Hybrid optical and acoustic force based sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Mahoney, Paul; Brodie, Graham W.; Wang, Han; Demore, Christine E. M.; Cochran, Sandy; Spalding, Gabriel C.; MacDonald, Michael P.

    2014-09-01

    We report the combined use of optical sorting and acoustic levitation to give particle sorting. Differing sizes of microparticles are sorted optically both with and without the aid of acoustic levitation, and the results compared to show that the use of acoustic trapping can increase sorting efficiency. The use of a transparent ultrasonic transducer is also shown to streamline the integration of optics and acoustics. We also demonstrate the balance of optical radiation pressure and acoustic levitation to achieve vertical sorting.

  17. NSF-Sponsored Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. D.; Chandler, C. L.; Copley, N.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Glover, D. M.; Groman, R. C.; Wiebe, P. H.; Work, T. T.; Biological; Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office

    2010-12-01

    Ocean biogeochemistry and marine ecosystem research projects are inherently interdisciplinary and benefit from improved access to well-documented data. Improved data sharing practices are important to the continued exploration of research themes that are a central focus of the ocean science community and are essential to interdisciplinary and international collaborations that address complex, global research themes. In 2006, the National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences (NSF OCE) funded the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to serve the data management requirements of scientific investigators funded by the National Science Foundation’s Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections. BCO-DMO staff members work with investigators to manage marine biogeochemical, ecological, and oceanographic data and information developed in the course of scientific research. These valuable data sets are documented, stored, disseminated, and protected over short and intermediate time frames. One of the goals of the BCO-DMO is to facilitate regional, national, and international data and information exchange through improved data discovery, access, display, downloading, and interoperability. In May 2010, NSF released a statement to the effect that in October 2010, it is planning to require that all proposals include a data management plan in the form of a two-page supplementary document. The data management plan would be an element of the merit review process. NSF has long been committed to making data from NSF-funded research publicly available and the new policy will strengthen this commitment. BCO-DMO is poised to assist in creating the data management plans and in ultimately serving the data and information resulting from NSF OCE funded research. We will present an overview of the data management system capabilities including: geospatial and text-based data discovery and access systems; recent enhancements to data search tools; data

  18. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  19. Sorted.

    PubMed

    Towers, S

    1997-04-01

    Each year in Accident and Emergency an increasing number of young people present with acute problems related to social drugs. These problems range from mild symptoms to life-threatening conditions, many of which can be extremely difficult and time consuming for staff to manage. It has become apparent that as with sex the experimental age for taking drugs is getting younger as youths are now far more 'streetwise' than their predecessors. This is one of the main reasons for this paper being written; it is imperative that staff are equipped with the appropriate knowledge to deal with the challenge and are educated about the problems associated with current drug trends. This potentially improves the quality of care and, in turn, good communication improves relationships. Ecstasy is once again becoming increasingly popular within mainstream clubs, as recently highlighted in the media, and with it reappear its problems. This article discusses the historical aspects of Ecstasy and aims to educate staff about its use and effects and provides health promotion advice for those who are involved in the care of people who take Ecstasy.

  20. Improved Access to NSF Funded Ocean Research Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Gegg, S. R.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Data from NSF-funded, hypothesis-driven research comprise an essential part of the research results upon which we base our knowledge and improved understanding of the impacts of climate change. Initially funded in 2006, the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works with marine scientists to ensure that data from NSF-funded ocean research programs are fully documented and freely available for future use. BCO-DMO works in partnership with information technology professionals, other marine data repositories and national data archive centers to ensure long-term preservation of these valuable environmental research data. Data contributed to BCO-DMO by the original investigators are enhanced with sufficient discipline-specific documentation and published in a variety of standards-compliant forms designed to enable discovery and support accurate re-use.

  1. Report: NSF Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) have been announced and are listed below. The ILI program provides matching funds in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 for purchasing equipment for laboratory improvement. Since the recipient institution must provide matching funds equaling or exceeding the NSF award, the supported projects range in cost from 10,000 to over 200,000. The 311 chemistry proposals requesting 13 million constituted 21% of the total number of proposals submitted to the ILI program. A total of 3.9 million was awarded in support of 110 projects in chemistry. The instruments requested most frequently were high field NMRs, GC/MS instruments, computers for data analysis, and FT-IRs; next most commonly requested were UV-vis spectrophotometers, followed by HPLCs, lasers, computers for molecular modeling, AAs, and GCs. In addition, one award was made this year in chemistry within the Leadership in Laboratory Development category. The next deadline for submission of ILI proposals is November 14, 1997. Guidelines for the preparation of proposals are found in the DUE Program Announcement (NSF 96-10), which may be obtained by calling (703) 306-1666 or by e-mail: undergrad@nsf.gov. Other information about DUE programs and activities and abstracts of the funded proposals can be found on the DUE Home Page at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. We thank Sandra D. Nelson, Science Education Analyst in DUE, for assistance in data gathering.

  2. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts. PMID:18638144

  3. Sorting of solid radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, J.; Pecival, I.; Hejtman, J.; Wildman, J.; Cechak, T.

    1993-12-31

    In the nuclear power plants solid radioactive wastes are produced during regular operation and during small repairs. It is necessary to sort them into the highly contaminated wastes for which a special procedure for storage is necessary and waste that is not radioactive and can be stored in the environment under specific regulations. The aim of the project was to propose and to construct equipment, which is able to sort the waste with a high degree of reliability and to distinguish highly contaminated wastes from wastes which are less dangerous to the environment. The sensitivity of the detection system was tested by a mathematical model. The radioactive wastes from the primary part of the nuclear power plant can have three composition types. Details of the composition of the radioisotopes mixture are presented.

  4. Sorting fluorescent nanocrystals with DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gerion, Daniele; Parak, Wolfgang J.; Williams, Shara C.; Zanchet, Daniela; Micheel, Christine M.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2001-12-10

    Semiconductor nanocrystals with narrow and tunable fluorescence are covalently linked to oligonucleotides. These biocompounds retain the properties of both nanocrystals and DNA. Therefore, different sequences of DNA can be coded with nanocrystals and still preserve their ability to hybridize to their complements. We report the case where four different sequences of DNA are linked to four nanocrystal samples having different colors of emission in the range of 530-640 nm. When the DNA-nanocrystal conjugates are mixed together, it is possible to sort each type of nanoparticle using hybridization on a defined micrometer -size surface containing the complementary oligonucleotide. Detection of sorting requires only a single excitation source and an epifluorescence microscope. The possibility of directing fluorescent nanocrystals towards specific biological targets and detecting them, combined with their superior photo-stability compared to organic dyes, opens the way to improved biolabeling experiments, such as gene mapping on a nanometer scale or multicolor microarray analysis.

  5. Congressional geohazards showcase presented by NSF and AGU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, Kristan

    2011-10-01

    On Wednesday, 7 September 2011, two weeks after the magnitude 5.8 earthquake in Mineral, Va., and a week after Hurricane Irene struck the U.S. East Coast, AGU cosponsored a showcase of National Science Foundation (NSF)—funded hazards research in recognition of National Preparedness Month. This annual event highlights NSF—funded hazards research from all over the United States, with more than 30 exhibitors demonstrating the latest research and technology on hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, volcanoes, tsunamis, and oil spills, as well as emergency and social responses to these events. The event took place at the Hart Senate Office Building, where many members of Congress and their staff could attend and discuss the importance of hazards research with the researchers and NSF staff. Sen. Bill Nelson (D-Fla.) kicked off with a panel of speakers, which included remarks by Mary Voytek, a member of the AGU Board of Directors, and Subra Suresh, director of NSF. Expert presentations were also given on hazard prediction, human safety, and social response. Following the event, Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-Nev.) hosted a small event to meet directly with a few of the exhibitors to discuss the importance of investment in scientific research and development.

  6. NSF funding opportunities in the behavioral and cognitive sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Philip

    2003-04-01

    This presentation will provide a brief overview of existing and emerging funding opportunities at the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Division of Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences (BCS) at the NSF supports research to develop and advance scientific knowledge focusing on human cognition, language, social behavior and culture, as well as research on the interactions between human societies and the physical environment. BCS programs consider proposals that fall squarely within disciplines, but they also encourage and support interdisciplinary projects, which are evaluated through joint review among Programs in BCS, as well as a joint review with programs in other Divisions, and NSF-wide multi-disciplinary panels, as appropriate. All programs in BCS consider proposals for research projects, conferences, and workshops. Some programs also consider proposals for doctoral dissertation improvement assistance, the acquisition of specialized research and computing equipment, group international travel, and large-scale data collection. BCS participates in special initiatives and competitions on a number of topics, including cognitive neuroscience, children's research, human origins, and the development of infrastructure to improve data resources, data archives, collaboratories, and centers.

  7. Former NSF assistant director Killeen reflects on geosciences and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    “This is prime time for the geosciences,” Tim Killeen, former assistant director for geosciences at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF GEO), told Eos during a recent exclusive interview. Killeen, who served at NSF from July 2008 until his term expired in June 2012, oversaw a number of new initiatives and an expansion of the geoscience directorate's annual funding portfolio from $752 million to about $880 million. NSF announced on 7 November that Roger Wakimoto, director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, will start as the new geosciences assistant director in February 2013 (see related article, this page, and Eos, 93(47), 475, doi:10.1029/ 2012EO470004). During the broad-ranging interview, Killeen reflected on the importance of the geosciences and their relationship to society. Killeen has been president of the Research Foundation for the State University of New York (RFSUNY) and SUNY vice chancellor for research since 9 July. He took the helm of RFSUNY after some personnel there “took advantage of lax oversight to cheat taxpayers,” according to New York State comptroller Thomas DiNapoli. Killeen, who was AGU president from 2006 to 2008, is responsible for the supervision and operation of RFSUNY, which supports about $1 billion in research at SUNY, an institution with 64 campuses and nearly 470,000 students.

  8. Dissimilarity Measures for Unconstrained Sorting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Michael L.

    1975-01-01

    Three dissimilarity measures for the unconstrained sorting task are investigated. All three are metrics, but differ in the kind of compensation which they make for differences in the sizes of cells within sortings. Empirical tests of the measures are done with sorting data for occupations names and the names of behaviors, using multidimensional…

  9. Word Sorts for General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2015-01-01

    Word sorts are standard practice for aiding children in acquiring skills in English language arts. When included in the general music classroom, word sorts may aid students in acquiring a working knowledge of music vocabulary. The author shares a word sort activity drawn from vocabulary in John Lithgow's children's book "Never Play…

  10. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn...

  11. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. 689.5 Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of alleged misconduct will promptly...

  12. Supporting Geoscientists in Partnerships for K-12 Education at NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinen, M.

    2001-12-01

    NSF Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) education activities have evolved over the last decade based on advice from a broad segment of the geosciences community. These activities gained momentum when a Geosciences Education Working Group (GEWG, 1996) recognized the shift from traditional priorities that emphasized only research, to those that support education in geosciences as well. The GEWG report embraced this increased emphasis on education as a component of NSF's role in assuring the long-term health of the geosciences and endorsed the principle that research and education should be well integrated. While many geosciences education activities are funded by the Education and Human Resources Directorate (EHR) of NSF, the GEWG report highlighted the need to have more active participation by research geoscientists in K-12 education activities, and the need to train them to be able to do so. While some roles in education are clearly best left to educational professionals (e.g. large-scale systemic reform projects, pedagogical development at the K-12 level, and many teacher enhancement projects), activities such as undergraduate research, technology advancement, curriculum content development and informal science are ones in which GEO should actively seek to collaborate with programs in EHR. The GEO education program has expanded over the last decade. Our first education activity, Awards to Facilitate Geoscience Education (AFGE), was very successful in attracting some of the leading researchers in geosciences. This program evolved to become the Geoscience Education Program. An important program funded by GEO that developed from community activity is the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). This program grew out of a joint EHR/GEO award and a series of community workshops. The program will establish an Internet portal for geoscience curricular materials and other teacher resources that will enable further collaboration between the research and education

  13. Viability and DNA fragmentation in differently sorted boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    De Ambrogi, M; Spinaci, M; Galeati, G; Tamanini, C

    2006-11-01

    Sperm cell defense against DNA damage relies on two factors: the tight packaging of chromatin, based on condensation and substitution of histones with protamines, and the antioxidant agents present in seminal plasma. These defenses are extremely important as mature sperm is unable to repair DNA damage and even if a successful fertilization occurs, embryo undergoes apoptosis at the time of genomic activation. Sex-sorting exposes spermatozoa to stress sources such as high pressure, laser beam and electrical charge. The aim of this work was to determine how sorting procedures affect viability and DNA integrity in boar spermatozoa, by using the newly developed Sperm-Sus-Halomax. Four sperm populations were considered: CONTROL (no treatment), REAL (sex-sorted semen), BULK (semen sorted without sex separation) and NO LASER (semen only exposed to the high pressure, but including also cells normally discarded from sex-sorting). A significantly (P=0.019) lower viability in NO LASER (64.71%) than in CONTROL (78.6%) and REAL (80.5%) groups was found; this was accompanied by a significantly (P=0.001) higher DNA fragmentation index (DFI) in NO LASER group (6.86%) respect to CONTROL (3.30%) and REAL (3.42%) groups. BULK group did not show any difference in viability or DFI as compared to the other groups. In conclusion, we may believe that sex-sorting procedure as a whole does not affect either viability or DFI and that shear mechanical forces are a relevant source of DNA damage for sorted semen. PMID:16814375

  14. A Pictorial Description of Cole's Parallel Merge Sort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerup, Torben

    A largely pictorial description is given of a variant of an ingenious parallel sorting algorithm due to Richard Cole. The new description strives to achieve greater simplicity by exploiting symmetries that were not explicit in the original exposition and that can be conveyed nicely with pictures. Not paying attention to constant factors allows an additional slight simplification of the algorithm.

  15. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

  16. NSF Geosciences Initiatives and Plans Reviewed at Advisory Committee Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-10-01

    In its semiannual meeting on 6-7 October, the U.S. National Science Foundation's (NSF) Advisory Committee for Geosciences (GEO) reviewed GEO initiatives, programs, and plans, including the GEO directorate's fast and significant response to support research related to various aspects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico through Rapid Response Research (RAPID) awards and other measures. An undercurrent during the meeting was concern about workload stress among GEO staff. Assistant director of geosciences Tim Killeen noted that the proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2011, which began on 1 October, would increase directorate funding 7.4% over FY 2010, if the budget is approved by Congress. A continuing resolution in Congress maintains FY 2010 funding levels until at least 3 December. Killeen said NSF's budget request for FY 2012 has been submitted to the White House Office of Management and Budget, adding that although he cannot discuss details of that budget yet, GEO Vision, a long­range strategy document for the directorate released in October 2009, “is reflected in our thinking going forward.”

  17. Six NSF-NATO postdocs go to geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six Earth scientists will study in the United Kingdom, Norway, and Italy on postdoctoral fellowships administered by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as part of a program sponsored by the North American Treaty Organization (NATO). In all, 57 NSF-NATO postdoctoral fellowships in science were awarded in March 1988 for study abroad for up to 12 months.The six students that received fellowships for study in geosciences are Henry N. (Spike) Berry (University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Oslo, Norway; Marcus I. Bursik (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.), to study geology at Cambridge University, Cambridge, U.K.; Mary S. Hubbard (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.), to study geology at the University of Leicester, Leicester, U. K.); Paul R. Lundgren (Northwestern University, Chicago, III.), to study geophysics at the National Institute of Geophysics, Rome; James Webster (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Va.), to study experiment petrology at the University of Edinburgh, U.K.; and Joseph R. Pawlik (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), to study biological oceanography at the Marine Science Laboratories, Menai Bridge, U.K.

  18. Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multi-parametric flow cytometry.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking of cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor as fragile dinoflagellates, such a...

  19. Neonatal Intensive-Care Unit Graduates Show Persistent Difficulties in an Intradimensional Shift Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittler, Phyllis M.; Brooks, Patricia J.; Rossi, Vanessa; Karmel, Bernard Z.; Gardner, Judith M.; Flory, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal intensive-care unit (NICU) graduates, a group at risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, performed an intradimensional shift card sort at 34, 42, 51, and 60 months to assess executive function and to examine effects of individual risk factors. In the "silly" game, children sorted cards…

  20. Application of visible spectroscopy in waste sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, Philippe; Bourely, Antoine

    2011-10-01

    Today, waste recycling, (bottles, papers...), is a mechanical operation: the waste are crushed, fused and agglomerated in order to obtain new manufactured products (e.g. new bottles, clothes ...). The plastics recycling is the main application in the color sorting process. The colorless plastics recovered are more valuable than the colored plastics. Other emergent applications are in the paper sorting, where the main goal is to sort dyed paper from white papers. Up to now, Pellenc Selective Technologies has manufactured color sorting machines based on RGB cameras. Three dimensions (red, green and blue) are no longer sufficient to detect low quantities of dye in the considered waste. In order to increase the efficiency of the color detection, a new sorting machine, based on visible spectroscopy, has been developed. This paper presents the principles of the two approaches and their difference in terms of sorting performance, making visible spectroscopy a clear winner.

  1. Flow sorting of microorganisms for molecular analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, G; Fuchs, B; Spring, S; Beisker, W; Amann, R

    1997-01-01

    Not only classical cultivation-based methods but also the new molecular approaches may result in incomplete and selective information on the natural diversity of microbial communities. Flow sorting of microorganisms from environmental samples allows the deliberate selection of cell populations of interest from highly diverse systems for molecular analysis. Several cellular parameters that can be measured by flow cytometry are useful as sort criteria. Here, we report sorting of bacteria from activated sludge, lake water, and lake sediment according to differences in light scattering, DNA content, and/or affiliation to certain phylogenetic groups as assessed by fluorescein-labeled, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Microscopy of the sorted cells showed that populations of originally low abundance could be strongly enriched by flow sorting (up to 280-fold), depending on the original abundance of the cells of interest and the type of sample sorted. The purity of the cells of interest could be further increased by repeated sorting, but this increase was limited by cell aggregation in the case of activated-sludge samples. It was possible to amplify almost full-length 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fragments from sorted microbial cells by PCR, even after fixation with paraformaldehyde and in situ hybridization. Dot blot hybridization and sequencing demonstrated that most of the amplified rDNA originated from those cells that had been selected for by flow sorting. Comparative analysis of 16S rDNA sequences revealed previously unknown species of magnetotactic or activated-sludge bacteria. PMID:9361408

  2. Focal defects in single-celled tubes mutant for Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3, GCKIII or NSF2

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yanjun; Eng, Melissa; Ghabrial, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Tubes of differing cellular architecture connect into networks. In the Drosophila tracheal system, two tube types connect within single cells (terminal cells); however, the genes that mediate this interconnection are unknown. Here we characterize two genes that are essential for this process: lotus, required for maintaining a connection between the tubes, and wheezy, required to prevent local tube dilation. We find that lotus encodes N-ethylmaleimide Sensitive Factor 2 (NSF2), while wheezy encodes Germinal Center Kinase III (GCKIII). GCKIIIs are effectors of Cerebral Cavernous Malformation 3 (CCM3), a protein mutated in vascular disease. Depletion of CCM3 by RNA interference phenocopies wheezy; thus, CCM3 and GCKIII, which prevent capillary dilation in humans, prevent tube dilation in Drosophila trachea. Ectopic junctional and apical proteins are present in wheezy terminal cells, and we show that tube dilation is suppressed by reduction of NSF2, of the apical determinant Crumbs, or of septate junction protein Varicose. PMID:23763949

  3. NSF FY1982 update: Support for basic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    When the Appropriation Committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate meet in conference this month, discussion of the Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) sections of the National Science Foundation (NSF) will be limited. Both the House and the Senate committees made some slight increases to the Office of Management and Budget requests, and the program by program agreement between the two was unusual.The House appropriation bill, H.R. 4034, provides $70 million over the administration request of $1033.5 million. Of the increase, $44.9 million was added in the area of research and related activities and $25.1 million for science and engineering education.

  4. New NSF S&T program targets technical education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    A new National Science Foundation venture is to provide an alternative path to skilled jobs in the science and technology fields for students who do not plan to attend 4-year college. The Advanced Technological Education Program (ATE), an outgrowth of the agency's expanded role in education, was announced at a news conference in Washington, D.C., on September 2 by NSF's Assistant Director for Education and Human Resources, Luther Williams.“The program responds to the national need for a well-educated technical workforce,” Williams said, adding that “there is a growing recognition that if we want to improve the quality of our workforce, we have to pay attention to the quality of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education at 2-year institutions.”

  5. Past and Future: NSF PAARE at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, Sean D.; Cash, Jennifer; Hartmann, Dieter; Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Ho, Shirley; Howell, Steve B.; King, Jeremy R.; Leising, Mark D.; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Smith, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    We review our progress to date and the path forward under the NSF program 'Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)'. Our project 'A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)' was a part of the 2008 PAARE cohort and in August 2014 we received a second award (POCA II) to continue for another three years. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory as well as individual investigators at NASA Ames and Carnegie Mellon University. We present our recent publications which include educational courseware in cosmology, a study of long-period variables using Kepler and spectroscopic variability of peculiar stars. Our graduate student successes include support for two females who have completed their Ph.Ds. in astronomy plus two additional students from underrepresented groups who have received their M.S. degrees in astronomy but are continuing their doctoral work in related fields. At SC State we have graduated 3 physics majors with the astronomy option with five more in the pipeline and review the challenges and obstacles faced along the way. We discuss our strategic plan for POCA II, which is based on lessons learned under POCA and moves us forward to the follow-on period when our efforts will be sustained by other resources.Our support includes NSF awards AST-0750814 and AST-1358913 to South Carolina State University as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under awards NNX11AB82G and NNX13AC24G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  6. NSF ADVANCE: Institutional Transformation to Achieve Faculty Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, E. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF ADVANCE initiative is designed to enhance gender equity in academic science and engineering faculty. One of its components - Institutional Transformation - has the goal of establishing strategies and policies that will revolutionize institutional climate so that diverse faculty flourish. The University of Texas at El Paso is one of 19 institutions to currently hold a 5-year grant under the Institutional Transformation program. This poster presentation highlights practices from the participating institutions. Two general aspects of the program are: 1) co-principal investigators are a blend of administrators and active researchers. This blend ensures a bottom-up, top-down approach to presenting gender equity to faculty. 2) Many of the investigators have diversity as their research focus, which is intended to result in rigorous, peer-reviewed dissemination of institutional results. Specific effors for all institutions relate to recruitment, retention, and advancement of female faculty and, by establishing equitable conditions, to improvement of the workplace for all faculty. To aid recruitment, institutions have committed faculty involved in the search process, including training of search committees in diversity strategies and interaction with candidates. A close working relationship with the campus EO officer is essential. Retention strategies center on mentoring, monetary support for research, and policy implementation. Policies focus on work-family balance. Advancement of females to important administrative and non-administrative leadership roles is the third focus. Workshops and seminars on leadership skills are common in the various institutions. Finally, a central theme of the program is that, in addition to specific strategies, institutions must articulate diversity as a core value and reflect on the means to actualize this value. More information on the NSF ADVANCE program, including links to the Institutional Transformation grantees, may be found on

  7. Geoscience Workforce Development at UNAVCO: Leveraging the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global economic development demands that the United States remain competitive in the STEM fields, and developing a forward-looking and well-trained geoscience workforce is imperative. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the geosciences will experience a growth of 19% by 2016. Fifty percent of the current geoscience workforce is within 10-15 years of retirement, and as a result, the U.S. is facing a gap between the supply of prepared geoscientists and the demand for well-trained labor. Barring aggressive intervention, the imbalance in the geoscience workforce will continue to grow, leaving the increased demand unmet. UNAVCO, Inc. is well situated to prepare undergraduate students for placement in geoscience technical positions and advanced graduate study. UNAVCO is a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences and in addition UNAVCO manages the NSF Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) facility. The GAGE facility supports many facets of geoscience research including instrumentation and infrastructure, data analysis, cyberinfrastructure, and broader impacts. UNAVCO supports the Research Experiences in the Solid Earth Sciences for Students (RESESS), an NSF-funded multiyear geoscience research internship, community support, and professional development program. The primary goal of the RESESS program is to increase the number of historically underrepresented students entering graduate school in the geosciences. RESESS has met with high success in the first 9 years of the program, as more than 75% of RESESS alumni are currently in Master's and PhD programs across the U.S. Building upon the successes of RESESS, UNAVCO is launching a comprehensive workforce development program that will network underrepresented groups in the geosciences to research and opportunities throughout the geosciences. This presentation will focus on the successes of the RESESS program and plans to expand on this success with broader

  8. Design and realization of sort manipulator of crystal-angle sort machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ming-shun; Chen, Shu-ping; Guan, Shou-ping; Zhang, Yao-wei

    2005-12-01

    It is a current tendency of development in automation technology to replace manpower with manipulators in working places where dangerous, harmful, heavy or repetitive work is involved. The sort manipulator is installed in a crystal-angle sort machine to take the place of manpower, and engaged in unloading and sorting work. It is the outcome of combing together mechanism, electric transmission, and pneumatic element and micro-controller control. The step motor makes the sort manipulator operate precisely. The pneumatic elements make the sort manipulator be cleverer. Micro-controller's software bestows some simple artificial intelligence on the sort manipulator, so that it can precisely repeat its unloading and sorting work. The combination of manipulator's zero position and step motor counting control puts an end to accumulating error in long time operation. A sort manipulator's design in the practice engineering has been proved to be correct and reliable.

  9. Association of the fusion protein NSF with clathrin-coated vesicle membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Steel, G J; Tagaya, M; Woodman, P G

    1996-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) is a component of intracellular transport reactions. In order to understand the role of NSF during the fusion of endocytic transport vesicles with the endosome, we have investigated the binding of NSF to purified clathrin-coated vesicle components. First, we have examined whether detergent-solubilized coated vesicle membranes will support formation of NSF-containing 'fusion complexes'. Our results show that these membranes are substantially enriched in components capable of driving formation of these complexes, when compared with membranes from other sources. Secondly, we have analysed coated vesicle preparations for their NSF content. Coated vesicle preparations contain significant amounts of NSF. This was shown to be associated with coated vesicles rather than contaminating membranes by a number of criteria, and was found to be bound in an ATP-independent manner. These findings are discussed in the light of current models for vesicle fusion. Images PMID:8631296

  10. Kuder Interest Card Sort: Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.; Lucas, Charles

    The Kuder Interest Card Sort (KICS) is presented as an interest exploration process prepared to assist psychologists, vocational counselors or career advisors in assessment of vocational preferences when a detailed interest-inventory is unnecessary. The card sort concept and rationale, physical and content format, administering procedure, and uses…

  11. NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-11-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its

  12. An Unsupervised Online Spike-Sorting Framework.

    PubMed

    Knieling, Simeon; Sridharan, Kousik S; Belardinelli, Paolo; Naros, Georgios; Weiss, Daniel; Mormann, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular neuronal microelectrode recordings can include action potentials from multiple neurons. To separate spikes from different neurons, they can be sorted according to their shape, a procedure referred to as spike-sorting. Several algorithms have been reported to solve this task. However, when clustering outcomes are unsatisfactory, most of them are difficult to adjust to achieve the desired results. We present an online spike-sorting framework that uses feature normalization and weighting to maximize the distinctiveness between different spike shapes. Furthermore, multiple criteria are applied to either facilitate or prevent cluster fusion, thereby enabling experimenters to fine-tune the sorting process. We compare our method to established unsupervised offline (Wave_Clus (WC)) and online (OSort (OS)) algorithms by examining their performance in sorting various test datasets using two different scoring systems (AMI and the Adamos metric). Furthermore, we evaluate sorting capabilities on intra-operative recordings using established quality metrics. Compared to WC and OS, our algorithm achieved comparable or higher scores on average and produced more convincing sorting results for intra-operative datasets. Thus, the presented framework is suitable for both online and offline analysis and could substantially improve the quality of microelectrode-based data evaluation for research and clinical application.

  13. The Q sort theory and technique.

    PubMed

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice.

  14. An improved infrared technique for sorting pecans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graeve, Thorsten; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Lamonica, John A., Jr.

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of pecan spectral reflectances. It describes an experiment for measuring the contrast between several components of raw pecan product to be sorted. An analysis of the experimental data reveals high contrast ratios in the infrared spectrum, suggesting a potential improvement in sorting efficiency when separating pecan meat from shells. It is believed that this technique has the potential to dramatically improve the efficiency of current sorting machinery, and to reduce the cost of processing pecans for the consumer market.

  15. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  16. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  17. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  18. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... clearly spelled out in the proposal. (c) In accordance with 5 CFR 5301.103(a)(1), an NSF employee may not... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many...

  19. 45 CFR 650.14 - Request for conveyance of title to NSF.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Request for conveyance of title to NSF. 650.14 Section 650.14 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.14 Request for conveyance of title to NSF. (a) The procedures established by...

  20. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many scientists... must inform the NSF in writing before the employee's employment begins. Work under the award may...

  1. 75 FR 63450 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    .../NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of...

  2. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of... regulation. (c) If OIG determines that alleged research misconduct involves potential civil or...

  3. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 689.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of... regulation. (c) If OIG determines that alleged research misconduct involves potential civil or...

  4. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of... time proceed with its own inquiry. (e) If OIG proceeds with its own inquiry it will normally complete the inquiry no more than 90 days after initiating it. (f) On the basis of what it learns from...

  5. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF... teaching careers to spend a year or two at NSF and then return to research and teaching, usually at...

  6. 45 CFR 680.11 - Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.11 Staff involvement with NSF proposals and awards. (a)(1) Many scientists, engineers, and educators interrupt active research and teaching careers to spend a year or two at NSF...

  7. Automated multi-parametric sorting of micron-sized particles via multi-trap laser tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaputa, Daniel S.

    The capabilities of laser tweezers have rapidly expanded since the first demonstration by Ashkin and co-workers in 1970 of the ability to trap particles using optical energy. Laser tweezers have been used to measure piconewton forces in many biological and material science application, sort bacteria, measure DNA bond strength, and even perform microsurgery. The laser tweezers system developed for this dissertation foreshadows the next generation of laser tweezer systems that provide automated particle sorted based upon multiple criteria. Many laser tweezer sorting applications today entail the operator sorting cells from a bulk sample, one by one. This dissertation demonstrates the technologies of pattern recognition and image processing that allow for an entire microscope slide to be sorted without any operator intervention. We already live in an automated world where the cars we drive are built by machines instead of humans. The technology is there, and the only factors limiting the advancements of fully automated biological instrumentation is the lack of developers with the appropriate knowledge sets. This dissertation introduces the concept of sorting particles via a multi-parametric approach where several parameters such as size, fluorescence, and Raman spectra are used as sorting criteria. Since the advent of laser tweezers, several groups have demonstrated the ability to sort cells and other particle by size, or by fluorescence, or by any other parameter, but to our knowledge there does not exist a laser tweezer sorting system that can sort particles based upon multiple parameters. Sorting via a single parameter can be a severe limitation as the method lacks the robustness and class specificity that exists when sorting based upon multiple parameters. Simply put, it makes more sense to determine the worth of a baseball card by considering it's condition as well as it's age, rather then solely upon its condition. By adding another parameter such as the name of

  8. Geophysical science in the 1996 Budget: NSF gets qualified good news

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Clinton Administration is seeking a 3% hike for the National Science Foundation (NSF) in FY 1996. NSF Director Neal Lane characterized the $3.36 billion request as “good news in tight times.” The request, which represents the smallest increase proposed by any recent president, would essentially keep funding flat in real dollars.However, money within the NSF budget for research and related activities would see a roughly 8% or $174 million increase. Within this $2.45 billion account, NSF is also giving a high priority to supporting individuals and small research groups. This increase would be offset by cuts in education and research facility construction. In the geosciences, NSF estimates that the funding rate for competitive awards would be frozen at about 35% in FY 1996. Both the median and average annuated award size would increase by about 4% to $65,000 and $87,500, respectively.

  9. Intuitive, Image-Based Cell Sorting Using Opto-fluidic Cell Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, J. R.; Voldman, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a microfluidic cell sorting device which augments microscopy with the capability to perform facile image-based cell sorting. This combination enables intuitive, complex phenotype sorting based on spatio-temporal fluorescence or cell morphology. The microfluidic device contains a microwell array that can be passively loaded with mammalian cells via sedimentation and can be subsequently inspected with microscopy. After inspection, we use the scattering force from a focused infrared laser to levitate cells of interest from their wells into a flow field for collection. First, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on whole-cell fluorescence, which could enable sorting based on temporal whole-cell fluorescence behavior. Second, we demonstrate image-based sorting predicated on fluorescence localization (nuclear vs. whole-cell fluorescence), highlighting the capability of our approach to sort based on imaged sub-cellular events, such as localized protein expression or translocation events. We achieve post-sort purities up to 89%, and up to 155-fold enrichment of target cells. Optical manipulation literature and a direct cell viability assay suggest that cells remain viable after using our technique. The architecture is highly scalable and supports over 10,000 individually addressable trap sites. Our approach enables sorting of significant populations based on sub-cellular spatio-temporal information, which is difficult or impossible with existing widespread sorting technologies. PMID:18004819

  10. 13. SANDSORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SAND-SORTING BUILDING, THIRD FLOOR, VIBRATING SCREENS FOR SAND SORTING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Mill "C" Complex, Sand-Sorting Building, South of Dee Bennet Road, near Illinois River, Ottawa, La Salle County, IL

  11. Visual ergonomics interventions in mail sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, H; Hansson, G-Å; Dahlqvist, C; Eklund, J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed between 2004 and 2011 at mail sorting facilities in Sweden. During this time, different interventions were performed. The first was a lighting intervention that had a positive impact on the postal workers, especially those with eyestrain. A new lighting system also improved the illuminance and gave better light distribution. The second intervention involved new personal spectacles for the postal workers who needed them and this had a positive effect on eyestrain. The third intervention involved a specific type of sorting spectacles for the postal workers who already used progressive lenses privately. The reading distances that the postal workers had while sorting the mail was inverted to the distances in their regular progressive lenses. The new sorting spectacles had a positive effect on head postures and on muscular activity. PMID:22317243

  12. Glycosaminoglycans: Sorting determinants in intracellular protein traffic.

    PubMed

    Mihov, Deyan; Spiess, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Intracellular transport of proteins to their appropriate destinations is crucial for the maintenance of cellular integrity and function. Sorting information is contained either directly in the amino acid sequence or in a protein's post-translational modifications. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are characteristic modifications of proteoglycans. GAGs are long unbranched polysaccharide chains with unique structural and functional properties also contributing to protein sorting in various ways. By deletion or insertion of GAG attachment sites it has been shown that GAGs affect polarized sorting in epithelial cells, targeting to and storage in secretory granules, and endocytosis. Most recently, the role of GAGs as signals for rapid trans-Golgi-to-cell surface transport, dominant over the cytosolic sorting motifs in the core protein, was demonstrated. Here, we provide an overview on existing data on the roles of GAGs on protein and proteoglycan trafficking.

  13. Automatic spike sorting using tuning information.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Valérie

    2009-09-01

    Current spike sorting methods focus on clustering neurons' characteristic spike waveforms. The resulting spike-sorted data are typically used to estimate how covariates of interest modulate the firing rates of neurons. However, when these covariates do modulate the firing rates, they provide information about spikes' identities, which thus far have been ignored for the purpose of spike sorting. This letter describes a novel approach to spike sorting, which incorporates both waveform information and tuning information obtained from the modulation of firing rates. Because it efficiently uses all the available information, this spike sorter yields lower spike misclassification rates than traditional automatic spike sorters. This theoretical result is verified empirically on several examples. The proposed method does not require additional assumptions; only its implementation is different. It essentially consists of performing spike sorting and tuning estimation simultaneously rather than sequentially, as is currently done. We used an expectation-maximization maximum likelihood algorithm to implement the new spike sorter. We present the general form of this algorithm and provide a detailed implementable version under the assumptions that neurons are independent and spike according to Poisson processes. Finally, we uncover a systematic flaw of spike sorting based on waveform information only.

  14. NSF Internships in Public Science Education: Sensing the Radio Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, L.; Boltuch, D.; Fultz, C.; Buck, S.; Smith, T.; Harris, R.; Moffett, D.; LaFratta, M.; Walsh, L.; Castelaz, M. W.

    2005-12-01

    The intent of the "Sensing the Radio Sky" project is to teach high school students the concepts and relevance of radio astronomy through presentations in STARLAB portable planetariums. The two year project began in the summer of 2004. A total of twelve interns and four faculty mentors from Furman University and UNCA have participated at the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute to develop the Radio Sky project. The project united physics and multimedia majors and allowed these students to apply their knowledge of different disciplines to a common goal. One component of the project is the development and production of a cylinder to be displayed in portable STARLAB planetariums. The cylinder gives a thorough view of the Milky Way and of several other celestial sources in radio wavelengths, yet these images are difficult to perceive without prior knowledge of radio astronomy. Consequently, the Radio Sky team created a multimedia presentation to accompany the cylinder. This multimedia component contains six informative lessons on radio astronomy assembled by the physics interns and numerous illustrations and animations created by the multimedia interns. The cylinder and multimedia components complement each other and provide a unique, thorough, and highly intelligible perspective on radio astronomy. The project is near completion and the final draft will be sent to Learning Technologies, Inc., for marketing to owners of STARLAB planetariums throughout the world. The development of the Radio Sky project has also provided a template for potential similar projects that examine our universe in different wavelengths, such as gamma ray, x-ray, and infrared. We acknowledge support from the NSF Internship in Public Science Education Program grant number 0324729.

  15. NSF scientific and funding priorities in Earth sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speidel, David H.; MacGregor, Ian D.

    The Earth Science Division (EAR) of the National Science Foundation provides about two-thirds of the funding for basic geological scientific research at academic institutions in the United States. This funding is provided through three budget units: Earth Science Project Support, which funds individual researchers; Instrumentation and Facilities, for the support of research equipment for individual investigators and larger facilities for shared use; and Continental Lithosphere, for the support of large multidisciplinary and multiinstitutional studies of the continental lithosphere.The latter two programs, established in 1984, open opportunities for new styles of research not previously available through the programs for individual investigators. From 1980 to 1988, the EAR budget increased from $25.98 million to $51.29 million, allowing the number of awards per year during that period to double. Over the same period, applications more than doubled, leading to a decline in the success rate from over 40% to less than 30%. Similarly, average award size increased but at a rate less than inflation. Congressional appropriations for EAR have been significantly less than the amounts requested in the President's budget r8—Hi-⅞ for NSF in the last 4 fiscal years, thus stalling the ability of the division to increase both the success rate and the amounts of individual grants and to move forward with a fully diversified research agenda. In 1986 the Advisory Committee for Earth Sciences (ACES), the official external advisor to the EAR scientific staff, reexamined this diversified agenda and began to develop a set of long-range scientific and fiscal priorities.

  16. CAISE: A NSF Resource Center for Informal Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickow, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Informal science education (ISE) is playing an increasingly important role in how and where the public engages with science. A growing body of research is showing that people learn the majority of their science knowledge outside of school (Falk & Dierking, 2010). The ISE field includes a wide variety of sources, including the internet, TV programs, magazines, hobby clubs and museums. These experiences touch large numbers of people throughout their lifetimes. If you would like to share your research with the public, ISE can be an effective conduit for meaningful science communication. However, because the ISE field is so diverse, it can be overwhelming with its multiple entry points. If you already are part of an ISE initiative, knowing how to access the most useful resources easily can also be daunting. CAISE, the Center for Advancement of Informal Science Education, is a resource center for the ISE field funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). CAISE can help connect you to the knowledge and people of ISE, through its website, products and in-person convenings. The proposed CAISE presentation will outline the diversity of the field and concisely present data that will make the case for the impact of ISE. We will focus on examples of successful programs that connect science with the public and that bring together AAS's science research community with practitioners and researchers within ISE. Pathways to various ISE resources in the form of current CAISE initiatives will be described as well. The presentation will include an interview section in which a CAISE staff member will ask questions of a scientist involved in an ISE initiative in order to detail one example of how ISE can be a valuable tool for engaging the public in science. Time for audience Q&A also will be included in the session.

  17. Commensal bacteria direct selective cargo sorting to promote symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Pan, Ying; Yan, Ruiqing; Zeng, Benhua; Wang, Haifang; Zhang, Xinwen; Li, Wenxia; Wei, Hong; Liu, Zhihua

    2015-09-01

    Mucosal immunity protects a host from intestinal inflammation and infection and is profoundly influenced by symbiotic bacteria. Here we report that in mice symbiotic bacteria directed selective cargo sorting in Paneth cells to promote symbiosis through Nod2, a cytosolic bacterial sensor, and the multifunctional protein kinase LRRK2, both encoded by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-associated genes. Commensals recruited Nod2 onto lysozyme-containing dense core vesicles (DCVs), which was required for DCV localization of LRRK2 and a small GTPase, Rab2a. Deficiency of Nod2, LRRK2 or Rab2a or depletion of commensals resulted in lysosomal degradation of lysozyme. Thus, commensal bacteria and host factors orchestrate the lysozyme-sorting process to protect the host from enteric infection, implicating Paneth cell dysfunction in IBD pathogenesis.

  18. Brokering technologies to realize the hydrology scenario in NSF BCube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boldrini, Enrico; Easton, Zachary; Fuka, Daniel; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In the National Science Foundation (NSF) BCube project an international team composed of cyber infrastructure experts, geoscientists, social scientists and educators are working together to explore the use of brokering technologies, initially focusing on four domains: hydrology, oceans, polar, and weather. In the hydrology domain, environmental models are fundamental to understand the behaviour of hydrological systems. A specific model usually requires datasets coming from different disciplines for its initialization (e.g. elevation models from Earth observation, weather data from Atmospheric sciences, etc.). Scientific datasets are usually available on heterogeneous publishing services, such as inventory and access services (e.g. OGC Web Coverage Service, THREDDS Data Server, etc.). Indeed, datasets are published according to different protocols, moreover they usually come in different formats, resolutions, Coordinate Reference Systems (CRSs): in short different grid environments depending on the original data and the publishing service processing capabilities. Scientists can thus be impeded by the burden of discovery, access and normalize the desired datasets to the grid environment required by the model. These technological tasks of course divert scientists from their main, scientific goals. The use of GI-axe brokering framework has been experimented in a hydrology scenario where scientists needed to compare a particular hydrological model with two different input datasets (digital elevation models): - the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) dataset, v.2. - the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) dataset, v.3. These datasets were published by means of Hyrax Server technology, which can provide NetCDF files at their original resolution and CRS. Scientists had their model running on ArcGIS, so the main goal was to import the datasets using the available ArcPy library and have EPSG:4326 with the same resolution grid as the

  19. The NSF-RCN Urban Heat Island Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twine, T. E.; Snyder, P. K.; Hamilton, P.; Shepherd, M.; Stone, B., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    In much of the world cities are warming at twice the rate of outlying rural areas. The frequency of urban heat waves is projected to increase with climate change through the 21st century. Addressing the economic, environmental, and human costs of urban heat islands requires a better understanding of their behavior from many disciplinary perspectives. The goal of this four-year Urban Heat Island Network is to (1) bring together scientists studying the causes and impacts of urban warming, (2) advance multidisciplinary understanding of urban heat islands, (3) examine how they can be ameliorated through engineering and design practices, and (4) share these new insights with a wide array of stakeholders responsible for managing urban warming to reduce their health, economic, and environmental impacts. The NSF-RCN Urban Heat Island Network involves atmospheric scientists, engineers, architects, landscape designers, urban planners, public health experts, and education and outreach experts, who will share knowledge, evaluate research directions, and communicate knowledge and research recommendations to the larger research community as well as stakeholders engaged in developing strategies to adapt to and mitigate urban warming. The first Urban Climate Institute was held in Saint Paul, MN in July 2013 and focused on the characteristics of urban heat islands. Scientists engaged with local practitioners to improve communication pathways surrounding issues of understanding, adapting to, and mitigating urban warming. The second Urban Climate Institute was held in Atlanta, Georgia in July 2014 and focused on urban warming and public health. The third Urban Climate Institute was held in Athens, GA in July 2015 and focused on urban warming and the role of the built environment. Scientists and practitioners discussed strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Evaluation experts at the Science Museum of Minnesota have extensively evaluated the Institutes to inform other research

  20. Effect of Wildfire on Sediment Sorting in a Steep Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, J. L.; Chin, A.; O'Hirok, L.; Storesund, R.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire is an external forcing factor in the landscape. In chaparral environments, wildfire initiates transport of well-sorted fine sediment through dry-ravel processes on hillslopes and facilitates delivery of sediment to stream channels. In turn, this periodic post-fire sediment influx governs sorting of channel-bed material during subsequent floods that mobilize and transport the sediment downstream. We investigated the effects of the May 2013 Springs Wildfire in the Santa Monica Mountains in semi-arid southern California with field measurements and terrestrial LiDAR scanning. Before the fire, sediment sorting within the heterogeneous bed material present in Big Sycamore Creek was controlled by organized step-pool bedforms. Boulders formed steps with relatively finer cobbles, gravel, and sand filling the pools. Before the fire, the grain size distribution present in the substrate between boulder steps was relatively coarse (D84 = 250 mm), in contrast to that in the influx of sediment contributed by post-fire dry-ravel processes deposited at channel margins (D84 = 8 mm). Flow shear stress during one small flood in 2014 (post-fire) was adequate to mobilize fine dry ravel- related sediment. Transport capacity was sufficient to mobilize and transport this sediment within a study reach; however, it was not adequate to flush the fine material downstream. Shear stress required to mobilize sediment contributed by dry ravel was substantially less than that required to transport the substrate material present before the wildfire. The small flood deposited fine sediment (D84 = 16 mm) as flow lost capacity. Resulting deposition buried bedforms, changing the step-pool profile to a plane bed. The relatively poorly sorted, coarse, rough bed changed to a well sorted, fine, smooth, bed. These changes have implications for sediment transport dynamics and aquatic ecology. In steep, semi-arid, chaparral fluvial systems, sediment derived from dry-ravel processes influences the

  1. Battling the GPA Bias: Selecting NSF-REU Participants for Transformative Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M.; Kim, C. S.; Osborn, J.

    2014-12-01

    Student grade point average (GPA) is one of the most common metrics used to select REU participants, with >85% of NSF-funded research participants nationally having an average GPA at or above 3.0 (Russell, 2004). Yet, as efforts are made to expand and diversify the pool of undergraduates participating in research experiences, privileging candidates with GPAs above 3.0 may exclude promising STEM students who can most benefit from a research experience, including community college students and recent transfer students from community colleges. Myriad factors that impinge on student GPAs are salient in the literature, including (1) early academic failure related to pre-college under-preparation (Feldman, 1993); (2) transfer shock (Molinaro, 2014; Diaz, 1992); (3) employment (DeSimone, 2008); (4) limited social support for academic pursuits (Cheng, Ickes, & Verhofstadt, 2012); (5) food insecurity (Maroto, 2013); and inadequate advising (Pascarella & Terenzini, 2005). A discussion of these factors with examples from student transcripts and an overview of a scoring rubric that minimizes GPA bias and can assist PIs with an alternate approach to participant selection will be included in this session.

  2. External sorting: I/O analysis and parallel processing techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, S.C.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with sorting of data that are much too large to fit in main memory or external sorting. The author focuses on two aspects of external sorting: I/O analysis and parallel processing techniques. Storage device models are defined and applied to analyze the I/O complexities of multi-way merge sort and tag sort (or key sort). It is shown that using higher-merge order, through, reduces the number of merge passes, causes excessive random I/O accesses and degrades the overall I/O performance of multi-way merge sort. Techniques are developed for producing long runs in merge sort and for rearranging the records in tag sort after their ranks are determined. A lower bound for the I/O access time or rearranging the records in tag sort is derived. Two methods are explored for implementing distribution sort on parallel computers. The first method, multi-pass distribution sort, determines the bucket ranges with one read pass over the input file, and uses subsequent passes to distribute the data into buckets and sort them. The distribution and sorting of the buckets are processed in parallel using a two-stage pipeline. The second method, one-pass distribution sort, coalesces the bucket partition, bucket distribution, and sort-bucket phases all together so that the input file needs to be processed only once.

  3. The Q sort theory and technique.

    PubMed

    Nyatanga, L

    1989-10-01

    This paper is based on the author's experience of using the Q sort technique with BA Social Sciences (BASS) students, and the community psychiatric nursing (CPN, ENB No 811 course). The paper focuses on two main issues: 1. The theoretical assumptions underpinning the Q Sort technique. Carl Rogers' self theory and some of the values of humanistic psychology are summarised. 2. The actual technique procedure and meaning of results are highlighted. As the Q Sort technique is potentially useful in a variety of sittings some of which are listed in this paper, the emphasis has deliberately been placed in understanding the theoretical underpinning and the operationalisation (sensitive interpretation) of the theory to practice. PMID:2811828

  4. Administration's Proposed NSF Budget Includes a 5.5% Increase for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-04-01

    The fiscal year (FY) 2014 proposed federal budget for the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is $7.63 billion, 7.3% above the FY 2012 actual amount. NSF acting director Cora Marrett said the budget reflects the administration's recognition of NSF and the importance of funding basic research. "We are pleased about where we stand and hope that Congress will be just as pleased with the budget proposal and will help move things forward," she said during a meeting of the NSF Advisory Committee for Geosciences on 11 April. Budget comparisons are to FY 2012 because the 2013 appropriations were enacted at the end of March, less than 2 weeks before President Barack Obama sent the proposed budget to Congress.

  5. Neurally expressed Drosophila genes encoding homologs of the NSF and SNAP secretory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, R W; Pallanck, L; Ganetzky, B

    1994-01-01

    Several lines of investigation have now converged to indicate that the neurotransmitter release apparatus is formed by assembly of cytosolic proteins with proteins of the synaptic vesicle and presynaptic terminal membranes. We are undertaking a genetic approach in Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the functions of two types of cytosolic proteins thought to function in this complex: N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs). We have identified Drosophila homologs of the vertebrate and yeast NSF and SNAP genes. Both Drosophila genes encode polypeptides that closely resemble their vertebrate counterparts and are expressed in the nervous system; neither appears to be in a family of closely related Drosophila genes. These results indicate that the Drosophila NSF and SNAP genes are excellent candidates for mutational analysis of neurotransmitter release. Images PMID:8202553

  6. Microscale synthesis and characterization of polystyrene: NSF-POLYED scholars project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaal, Karen S.; Wu, Chang-Ning

    1994-01-01

    Polystyrene is a familiar polymer with many commercial uses. Its applications range from the clear, high index of refraction, brittle plastic used to form audio cassette and CD cases to the foamed material used in insulated drink cups and packaging material. Polystyrene constitutes 11 percent of the plastics used in packaging with only High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) contributing a larger share: so much polystyrene is used today, it is one of six common plastics that manufacturers have assigned an identification code. The code helps recycling efforts. Polystyrene's code is (PS code 6). During the summer and fall of 1992 several new polymeric experiments were developed by the NSF POLYED Scholars for introduction into the chemistry core curriculum. In this presentation, one such project will be discussed. This laboratory project is recommended for a first or second year laboratory course allowing the introduction of polymeric science to undergraduates at the earliest opportunity. The reliability of the experiments which make up this project and the recognition factor of polystyrene, a material we come in contact with everyday, makes the synthesis and characterization of polystyrene a good choice for the introduction of polymerization to undergraduates. This laboratory project appeals to the varied interests of students enrolled in the typical first year chemistry course and becomes an ideal way to introduce polymers to a wide variety of science and engineering students.

  7. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  8. Microwave Conductivity of Sorted CNT Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Bulmer, John S.; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M.; Blamire, M. G.; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications. PMID:24446019

  9. Integration through a Card-Sort Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kris; Ricca, Bernard P.

    2015-01-01

    Learning to compute integrals via the various techniques of integration (e.g., integration by parts, partial fractions, etc.) is difficult for many students. Here, we look at how students in a college level Calculus II course develop the ability to categorize integrals and the difficulties they encounter using a card sort-resort activity. Analysis…

  10. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology. PMID:27708337

  11. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  12. Microwave conductivity of sorted CNT assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bulmer, John S; Martens, Jon; Kurzepa, Lukasz; Gizewski, Tomasz; Egilmez, M; Blamire, M G; Yahya, Noorhana; Koziol, Krzysztof K K

    2014-01-21

    Recent progress with tailored growth and post-process sorting enables carbon nanotube (CNT) assemblies with predominantly metallic or semi-conducting concentrations. Cryogenic and microwave measurements performed here show transport dimensionality and overall order increasing with increasing metallic concentration, even in atmospheric doping conditions. By 120 GHz, the conductivity of predominantly semi-conducting assemblies grew to 400% its DC value at an increasing growth rate, while other concentrations a growth rate that tapered off. A generalized Drude model fits to the different frequency dependent behaviors and yields useful quality control parameters such as plasma frequency, mean free path, and degree of localization. As one of the first demonstrations of waveguides fabricated from this material, sorted CNTs from both as-made and post-process sources were inserted into sections of practical micro-strip. With both sources, sorted CNT micro-strip increasingly outperformed the unsorted with increasing frequency-- illustrating that sorted CNT assemblies will be important for high frequency applications.

  13. Sorting cells by their dynamical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Ewan; Holm, Stefan H.; Zhang, Zunmin; Beech, Jason P.; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O.; Fedosov, Dmitry A.; Gompper, Gerhard

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in cell sorting aim at the development of novel methods that are sensitive to various mechanical properties of cells. Microfluidic technologies have a great potential for cell sorting; however, the design of many micro-devices is based on theories developed for rigid spherical particles with size as a separation parameter. Clearly, most bioparticles are non-spherical and deformable and therefore exhibit a much more intricate behavior in fluid flow than rigid spheres. Here, we demonstrate the use of cells’ mechanical and dynamical properties as biomarkers for separation by employing a combination of mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations and microfluidic experiments. The dynamic behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) within deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) devices is investigated for different device geometries and viscosity contrasts between the intra-cellular fluid and suspending medium. We find that the viscosity contrast and associated cell dynamics clearly determine the RBC trajectory through a DLD device. Simulation results compare well to experiments and provide new insights into the physical mechanisms which govern the sorting of non-spherical and deformable cells in DLD devices. Finally, we discuss the implications of cell dynamics for sorting schemes based on properties other than cell size, such as mechanics and morphology.

  14. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Timothy G.; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  15. PhySortR: a fast, flexible tool for sorting phylogenetic trees in R.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Timothy G; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Ragan, Mark A; Chan, Cheong Xin

    2016-01-01

    A frequent bottleneck in interpreting phylogenomic output is the need to screen often thousands of trees for features of interest, particularly robust clades of specific taxa, as evidence of monophyletic relationship and/or reticulated evolution. Here we present PhySortR, a fast, flexible R package for classifying phylogenetic trees. Unlike existing utilities, PhySortR allows for identification of both exclusive and non-exclusive clades uniting the target taxa based on tip labels (i.e., leaves) on a tree, with customisable options to assess clades within the context of the whole tree. Using simulated and empirical datasets, we demonstrate the potential and scalability of PhySortR in analysis of thousands of phylogenetic trees without a priori assumption of tree-rooting, and in yielding readily interpretable trees that unambiguously satisfy the query. PhySortR is a command-line tool that is freely available and easily automatable. PMID:27190724

  16. Differential expression of axon-sorting molecules in mouse olfactory sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Naoki; Nakashima, Ai; Hoshina, Naosuke; Ikegaya, Yuji; Takeuchi, Haruki

    2016-08-01

    In the mouse olfactory system, the axons of olfactory sensory neurons that express the same type of odorant receptor (OR) converge to a specific set of glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB). It is widely accepted that expressed OR molecules instruct glomerular segregation by regulating the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Although the relationship between the expression of axon-sorting molecules and OR types has been analyzed in detail, those between the expressions of axon-sorting molecules remain to be elucidated. Here we collected the expression profiles of four axon-sorting molecules from a large number of glomeruli in the OB. These molecules demonstrated position-independent mosaic expressions, but their patterns were not identical in the OB. Comparing their expressions identified positive and negative correlations between several pairs of genes even though they showed various expressions. Furthermore, the principal component analysis revealed that the factor loadings in the principal component 1, which explain the largest amount of variation, were most likely to reflect the degree of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel dependence on the expression of axon-sorting molecules. Thus, neural activity generated through the CNG channel is a major component in the generation of a wide variety of expressions of axon-sorting molecules in glomerular segregation.

  17. Information sharing and sorting in a community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Manna, S. S.; Mukherjee, Animesh

    2013-06-01

    We present the results of a detailed numerical study of a model for the sharing and sorting of information in a community consisting of a large number of agents. The information gathering takes place in a sequence of mutual bipartite interactions where randomly selected pairs of agents communicate with each other to enhance their knowledge and sort out the common information. Although our model is less restricted compared to the well-established naming game, the numerical results strongly indicate that the whole set of exponents characterizing this model are different from those of the naming game and they assume nontrivial values. Finally, it appears that in analogy to the emergence of clusters in the phenomenon of percolation, one can define clusters of agents here having the same information. We have studied in detail the growth of the largest cluster in this article and performed its finite-size scaling analysis.

  18. A mower detector to judge soil sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Bramlitt, E.T.; Johnson, N.R.

    1995-12-31

    Thermo Nuclear Services (TNS) has developed a mower detector as an inexpensive and fast means for deciding potential value of soil sorting for cleanup. It is a shielded detector box on wheels pushed over the ground (as a person mows grass) at 30 ft/min with gamma-ray counts recorded every 0.25 sec. It mirror images detection by the TNS transportable sorter system which conveys soil at 30 ft/min and toggles a gate to send soil on separate paths based on counts. The mower detector shows if contamination is variable and suitable for sorting, and by unique calibration sources, it indicates detection sensitivity. The mower detector has been used to characterize some soil at Department of Energy sites in New Jersey and South Carolina.

  19. Fluorescence-Activated Nucleolus Sorting in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Boyer-Clavel, Myriam; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Nucleolar isolation allows exhaustive characterization of the nucleolar content. Centrifugation-based protocols are not adapted to isolation of nucleoli directly from a plant tissue because of copurification of cellular debris. We describe here a method that allows the purification of nucleoli using fluorescent-activated cell sorting from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. This approach requires the expression of a specific nucleolar protein such as fibrillarin fused to green fluorescent protein in planta. PMID:27576720

  20. Exploiting osmosis for blood cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Estrada, Rosendo; Kumar, Srikanth Suresh; Bhavanam, Kranthi Kumar; Raj, Vinay; Raj, Ashok; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2011-06-01

    Blood is a valuable tissue containing cellular populations rich in information regarding the immediate immune and inflammatory status of the body. Blood leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) provide an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Blood samples need to be processed to deplete contaminating erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) and sorted into different WBC sub-populations prior to analysis. This is typically accomplished using immuno-affinity protocols which result in undesirable activation. An alternative is size based sorting which by itself is unsuitable for WBCs sorting due to size overlap between different sub-populations. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the possibility of using controlled osmotic exposure to deplete and/or create a differential size increase between WBC populations. Using a new microfluidic cell docking platform, the response of RBCs and WBCs to deionized (DI) water was evaluated. Time lapse microscopy confirms depletion of RBCs within 15 s and creation of > 3 μm size difference between lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. A flow through microfluidic device was also used to expose different WBCs to DI water for 30, 60 and 90 s to quantify cell loss and activation. Results confirm preservation of ~100% of monocytes, granulocytes and loss of ~30% of lymphocytes (mostly CD3+/CD4+) with minimal activation. These results indicate feasibility of this approach for monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte (sub-populations) isolation based on size. PMID:21279444

  1. Exploiting osmosis for blood cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Parichehreh, Vahidreza; Estrada, Rosendo; Kumar, Srikanth Suresh; Bhavanam, Kranthi Kumar; Raj, Vinay; Raj, Ashok; Sethu, Palaniappan

    2011-06-01

    Blood is a valuable tissue containing cellular populations rich in information regarding the immediate immune and inflammatory status of the body. Blood leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs) provide an ideal sample to monitor systemic changes and understand molecular signaling mechanisms in disease processes. Blood samples need to be processed to deplete contaminating erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs) and sorted into different WBC sub-populations prior to analysis. This is typically accomplished using immuno-affinity protocols which result in undesirable activation. An alternative is size based sorting which by itself is unsuitable for WBCs sorting due to size overlap between different sub-populations. To overcome this limitation, we investigated the possibility of using controlled osmotic exposure to deplete and/or create a differential size increase between WBC populations. Using a new microfluidic cell docking platform, the response of RBCs and WBCs to deionized (DI) water was evaluated. Time lapse microscopy confirms depletion of RBCs within 15 s and creation of > 3 μm size difference between lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes. A flow through microfluidic device was also used to expose different WBCs to DI water for 30, 60 and 90 s to quantify cell loss and activation. Results confirm preservation of ~100% of monocytes, granulocytes and loss of ~30% of lymphocytes (mostly CD3+/CD4+) with minimal activation. These results indicate feasibility of this approach for monocyte, granulocyte and lymphocyte (sub-populations) isolation based on size.

  2. Genomic sorting with length-weighted reversals.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Ron Y; Skiena, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Current algorithmic studies of genome rearrangement ignore the length of reversals (or inversions); rather, they only count their number. We introduce a new cost model in which the lengths of the reversed sequences play a role, allowing more flexibility in accounting for mutation phenomena. Our focus is on sorting unsigned (unoriented) permutations by reversals; since this problem remains difficult (NP-hard) in our new model, the best we can hope for are approximation results. We propose an efficient, novel algorithm that takes (a monotonic function f of) length into account as an optimization criterion and study its properties. Our results include an upper bound of O(fn lg2n) for any additive cost measure f on the cost of sorting any n-element permutation, and a guaranteed approximation ratio of O(lg2n) times optimal for sorting a given permutation. Our work poses some interesting questions to both biologists and computer scientists and suggests some new bioinformatic insights that are currently being studied. PMID:14571379

  3. The NSF/RANN FY 1975 program for geothermal resources research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The specific goal of the NSF geothermal program is the rapid development by industry of the nation's geothermal resources that can be demonstrated to be commercially, environmentally and socially acceptable as alternate energy sources. NSF, as the lead agency for the federal geothermal energy research program, is expediting a program which encompasses the objectives necessary for significant utilization. These include: acceleration of exploration and assessment methods to identify commercial geothermal resources; development of innovative and improved technology to achieve economic feasibility; evaluation of policy options to resolve environmental, legal, and institutional problems; and support of experimental research facilities for each type of geothermal resource. Specific projects in each of these four objective areas are part of the NSF program for fiscal year 1975.

  4. Systolic s/sup 2/-way merge sort is optimal

    SciTech Connect

    Schmeck, H.; Schroder, H.; Starke, C.

    1989-07-01

    The time complexity of Thompson and Kun's s/sup 2/-way merge sort is analyzed and shown to be asymptotically optimal with respect to the recently improved lower bound on sorting on a mesh-connected n x n array. Furthermore, new lower bounds for systolic sorting are derived. A systolic version of s/sup 2/-way merge sort is systematically constructed and shown to be asymptotically optimal as well.

  5. An ultrasensitive sorting mechanism for EGF Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Glenewinkel, Hannah; Vacheva, Ivayla; Hoeller, Daniela; Dikic, Ivan; Eils, Roland

    2008-01-01

    Background The Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor has been shown to internalize via clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) in a ligand concentration dependent manner. From a modeling point of view, this resembles an ultrasensitive response, which is the ability of signaling networks to suppress a response for low input values and to increase to a pre-defined level for inputs exceeding a certain threshold. Several mechanisms to generate this behaviour have been described theoretically, the underlying assumptions of which, however, have not been experimentally demonstrated for the EGF receptor internalization network. Results Here, we present a mathematical model of receptor sorting into alternative pathways that explains the EGF-concentration dependent response of CIE. The described mechanism involves a saturation effect of the dominant clathrin-dependent endocytosis pathway and implies distinct steady-states into which the system is forced for low vs high EGF stimulations. The model is minimal since no experimentally unjustified reactions or parameter assumptions are imposed. We demonstrate the robustness of the sorting effect for large parameter variations and give an analytic derivation for alternative steady-states that are reached. Further, we describe extensibility of the model to more than two pathways which might play a role in contexts other than receptor internalization. Conclusion Our main result is that a scenario where different endocytosis routes consume the same form of receptor corroborates the observation of a clear-cut, stimulus dependent sorting. This is especially important since a receptor modification discriminating between the pathways has not been found experimentally. The model is not restricted to EGF receptor internalization and might account for ultrasensitivity in other cellular contexts. PMID:18394191

  6. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  7. Categorizing Variations of Student-Implemented Sorting Algorithms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Korhonen, Ari; Malmi, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined freshmen students' sorting algorithm implementations in data structures and algorithms' course in two phases: at the beginning of the course before the students received any instruction on sorting algorithms, and after taking a lecture on sorting algorithms. The analysis revealed that many students have insufficient…

  8. Sex-sorting sperm by flow cytometry in pigs: issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Roca, J; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Vazquez, J L; Martínez, E A

    2009-01-01

    Several hundred thousand offspring of preselected sex of various species have been born since sperm sexing technology based on flow cytometric sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm and DNA was first demonstrated in 1989. The advantages derived from application of sexing technology to commercial dairy cattle production have been demonstrated worldwide. Utilizing sex-sorting technology for pig production systems offers many similar advantages. However, several factors currently limit implementation of sexing technology in pigs. Anatomical and physiological features inherent to the female pig, together with the relatively low sperm output of a flow sorter, are the main limitations to widespread use of this technology in pig production systems. This review analyzes the factors that limit the efficiency of sperm sorting technology for commercial swine production. In addition, this review discusses recent innovations in technical instrumentation and applied reproductive techniques that may help to overcome some of these limitations. PMID:18977521

  9. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the

  10. Airborne microorganisms associated with packaging glass sorting facilities.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Marta Jorge de Vasconcelos; Veiga, José Miguel; Fernandes, Paulo; Ramos, Carla; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Velho, Maria Manuela Lemos Vaz; Guerreiro, Joana Santos

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, efforts have been undertaken to reduce the volume of residual waste through sorting and recycling. The waste management and recycling sector is thriving and the number of workers there is increasing. In this context, prior knowledge of the risks to which workers may be exposed is of crucial importance, and preventive measures need to be put in place to accurately identify and quantify those risks. This study aimed to assess occupational risk of exposure to biological agents (viable bacteria and fungi) in a Portuguese waste packaging glass sorting plant. Air samples were collected from selected locations in waste sorting cabins (critical area, CA), administrative services (noncritical area, NCA) and outdoors (control point, CP). Duplicate air samples were collected through an impaction method. The investigation was carried out over an 8-mo period with two collection periods, autumn/winter (AW) and spring/summer (SS), in order to access the influence of any seasonal variation. In the 36 air samples collected, 319 bacterial and 196 mold identifications were performed. Air samples revealed existence of high environmental contamination by bacteria (1.6 × 10(4) colony forming units [cfu]/m(3)) and fungi (1.5 × 10(4) cfu/m(3)). The predominant bacterial genus was Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) with values ranging from 29.6 to 60% of the total count of bacteria. Genera Bacillus, Micrococcus, and Staphylococcus (coagulase negative) were also present at all sampling sites, regardless of the season. However, the counts of these genera, in the CA, were higher in warmer seasons. The genus Penicillium was the most frequent genus present with an approximate value of 95% of total fungal count in the CA. Seasonal variation was a significant factor for total bacteria and fungi, except for NCA versus CP. Overall, the highest levels of bacterial and fungal species (10(4) cfu/m(3)) were found in the waste sorting cabin (CA). These results highlight the

  11. Sorting it Out: Pile Sorting as a Mixed Methodology for Exploring Barriers to Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Byron J.; Perdue, David G.; Cully, Angel; Cully, Lance; Greiner, K. Allen; Choi, Won S.; Daley, Christine Makosy

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a mixed methodology for analyzing pile sorting data. We created a list of 14 barriers to colon cancer screening and recruited 18, 13, and 14 participants from three American Indian (AI) communities to perform pile sorting. Quantitative data were analyzed by cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling. Differences across sites were compared using permutation bootstrapping. Qualitative data collected during sorting were compiled by AI staff members who determined names for the clusters found in quantitative analysis. Results showed 5 clusters of barriers in each site although barriers in the clusters varied slightly across sites. Simulation demonstrated type I error rates around the nominal 0.05 level whereas power depended on the numbers of clusters, and between and within cluster variability. PMID:25143659

  12. Thermal conductivity of chirality-sorted carbon nanotube networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Feifei; Llinas, Juan P.; Li, Zuanyi; Estrada, David; Pop, Eric

    2016-03-01

    The thermal properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are of significant interest, yet their dependence on SWNT chirality has been, until now, not explored experimentally. Here, we used electrical heating and infrared thermal imaging to simultaneously study thermal and electrical transport in chirality-sorted SWNT networks. We examined solution processed 90% semiconducting, 90% metallic, purified unsorted (66% semiconducting), and as-grown HiPco SWNT films. The thermal conductivities of these films range from 80 to 370 W m-1 K-1 but are not controlled by chirality, instead being dependent on the morphology (i.e., mass and junction density, quasi-alignment) of the networks. The upper range of the thermal conductivities measured is comparable to that of the best metals (Cu and Ag), but with over an order of magnitude lower mass density. This study reveals important factors controlling the thermal properties of light-weight chirality-sorted SWNT films, for potential thermal and thermoelectric applications.

  13. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood. PMID:21194917

  14. Online sorting of recovered wood waste by automated XRF-technology: part II. Sorting efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hasan, A Rasem; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Townsend, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Sorting of waste wood is an important process practiced at recycling facilities in order to detect and divert contaminants from recycled wood products. Contaminants of concern include arsenic, chromium and copper found in chemically preserved wood. The objective of this research was to evaluate the sorting efficiencies of both treated and untreated parts of the wood waste stream, and metal (As, Cr and Cu) mass recoveries by the use of automated X-ray fluorescence (XRF) systems. A full-scale system was used for experimentation. This unit consisted of an XRF-detection chamber mounted on the top of a conveyor and a pneumatic slide-way diverter which sorted wood into presumed treated and presumed untreated piles. A randomized block design was used to evaluate the operational conveyance parameters of the system, including wood feed rate and conveyor belt speed. Results indicated that online sorting efficiencies of waste wood by XRF technology were high based on number and weight of pieces (70-87% and 75-92% for treated wood and 66-97% and 68-96% for untreated wood, respectively). These sorting efficiencies achieved mass recovery for metals of 81-99% for As, 75-95% for Cu and 82-99% of Cr. The incorrect sorting of wood was attributed almost equally to deficiencies in the detection and conveyance/diversion systems. Even with its deficiencies, the system was capable of producing a recyclable portion that met residential soil quality levels established for Florida, for an infeed that contained 5% of treated wood.

  15. Insect's intestinal organ for symbiont sorting.

    PubMed

    Ohbayashi, Tsubasa; Takeshita, Kazutaka; Kitagawa, Wataru; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Meng, Xian-Ying; Tago, Kanako; Hori, Tomoyuki; Hayatsu, Masahito; Asano, Kozo; Kamagata, Yoichi; Lee, Bok Luel; Fukatsu, Takema; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo

    2015-09-15

    Symbiosis has significantly contributed to organismal adaptation and diversification. For establishment and maintenance of such host-symbiont associations, host organisms must have evolved mechanisms for selective incorporation, accommodation, and maintenance of their specific microbial partners. Here we report the discovery of a previously unrecognized type of animal organ for symbiont sorting. In the bean bug Riptortus pedestris, the posterior midgut is morphologically differentiated for harboring specific symbiotic bacteria of a beneficial nature. The sorting organ lies in the middle of the intestine as a constricted region, which partitions the midgut into an anterior nonsymbiotic region and a posterior symbiotic region. Oral administration of GFP-labeled Burkholderia symbionts to nymphal stinkbugs showed that the symbionts pass through the constricted region and colonize the posterior midgut. However, administration of food colorings revealed that food fluid enters neither the constricted region nor the posterior midgut, indicating selective symbiont passage at the constricted region and functional isolation of the posterior midgut for symbiosis. Coadministration of the GFP-labeled symbiont and red fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli unveiled selective passage of the symbiont and blockage of E. coli at the constricted region, demonstrating the organ's ability to discriminate the specific bacterial symbiont from nonsymbiotic bacteria. Transposon mutagenesis and screening revealed that symbiont mutants in flagella-related genes fail to pass through the constricted region, highlighting that both host's control and symbiont's motility are involved in the sorting process. The blocking of food flow at the constricted region is conserved among diverse stinkbug groups, suggesting the evolutionary origin of the intestinal organ in their common ancestor. PMID:26324935

  16. Lateral chirality-sorting optical forces.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Amaury; Mueller, J P Balthasar; Capasso, Federico

    2015-10-27

    The transverse component of the spin angular momentum of evanescent waves gives rise to lateral optical forces on chiral particles, which have the unusual property of acting in a direction in which there is neither a field gradient nor wave propagation. Because their direction and strength depends on the chiral polarizability of the particle, they act as chirality-sorting and may offer a mechanism for passive chirality spectroscopy. The absolute strength of the forces also substantially exceeds that of other recently predicted sideways optical forces. PMID:26453555

  17. Regolith migration and sorting on asteroid Itokawa.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Hideaki; Yano, Hajime; Scheeres, Daniel J; Abe, Shinsuke; Barnouin-Jha, Olivier; Cheng, Andrew F; Demura, Hirohide; Gaskell, Robert W; Hirata, Naru; Ishiguro, Masateru; Michikami, Tatsuhiro; Nakamura, Akiko M; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Saito, Jun; Sasaki, Sho

    2007-05-18

    High-resolution images of the surface of asteroid Itokawa from the Hayabusa mission reveal it to be covered with unconsolidated millimeter-sized and larger gravels. Locations and morphologic characteristics of this gravel indicate that Itokawa has experienced considerable vibrations, which have triggered global-scale granular processes in its dry, vacuum, microgravity environment. These processes likely include granular convection, landslide-like granular migrations, and particle sorting, resulting in the segregation of the fine gravels into areas of potential lows. Granular processes become major resurfacing processes because of Itokawa's small size, implying that they can occur on other small asteroids should those have regolith. PMID:17446355

  18. NSF-NSDL GREEN Project: A Digital Library Partnership of Academia, Government, and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolo, Laura M.; Tewary, Vinod K.; Shreve, Gregory M.; Powell, Adam C., IV; Zeng, Marcia L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the GREEN digital library, part of the NSF (National Science Foundation) NSDL (National Science Digital Library), as a collaboration of materials developed with government agencies, universities, and industry to build a collection of digital resources in the area of Green's functions, used for modeling mechanical and thermal responses of…

  19. Bold Dreams and Big Questions: The Future of Astronomy in the 21st and NSF's Role

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    This is a special time in astronomy: Astronomers know much about the Universe, but understand much less. Profound questions can be formulated and the tools are at hand to answer them. I will discuss my vision of this future as well as NSF's role in realizing the bold dreams and answering the big questions.

  20. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  1. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  2. The NSF Learning and Intelligent Systems Research Initiative: Implications for Educational Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabelli, Nora H.; Kelly, Anthony E.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of the National Science Foundation (NSF) Learning and Intelligent Systems (LIS) program is to focus research attention on the learning aspects of cognition, neuroscience, information technologies, and related disciplines. Goal-oriented descriptions of the three Collaborative Research on Learning Technology Centers funded under LIS are…

  3. NSF/DARPA/NASA Digital Libraries Initiative: A Program Manager's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Stephen M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the National Science Foundation (NSF)/United States Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)/National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) Research in Digital Libraries Initiative (DLI). Highlights include benefits of digital libraries; the Federal High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCC); and program…

  4. The 1983-1984 NSF Chautauqua-Type Short Course Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitler, William R.; Ogletree, Owen, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    National Science Foundation (NSF) Chautauqua-type short courses offer undergraduate science teachers the opportunity to absorbe new ideas from highly respected scholars. A complete list of courses, course directors, locations, dates, and registration fees for the 1983-84 program is provided. Subject areas include: instructional composting, cells…

  5. 45 CFR 680.12 - One-year NSF post-employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 680.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION RULES OF PRACTICE AND STATUTORY CONFLICT-OF-INTEREST EXEMPTIONS Rules of Practice for the National Science Foundation § 680.12 One-year NSF post-employment...

  6. 5 CFR 5301.104 - Participation in NSF-supported conferences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in NSF-supported conferences. 5301.104 Section 5301.104 Administrative Personnel NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 5301.104 Participation...

  7. Differences in Math and Science Understanding between NSF GK-12 Participant Groups: A Year Long Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; She, Xiaobo; Morrison, Darrellee Clem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, interdisciplinary environments were created in NSF institutes and classrooms with graduate fellows and teachers. Using a mixed methodology, we examined how experiential learning influenced participants' mathematical/scientific actions and compared differences in mathematics/science efficacy and content understanding between…

  8. 77 FR 64799 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP...., Bethesda, MD 20814. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  9. 78 FR 14087 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel: Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    .... Corrections In the Federal Register of February 21, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013- 04064, on page 12043, please make... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel: Correction AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION...) published a notice of open meeting for the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel to be held on March...

  10. 78 FR 69839 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy; SC-25/ Germantown Building,...

  11. 78 FR 12043 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory... Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy Physics Advisory Panel; U.S. Department of Energy;...

  12. 77 FR 33449 - DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

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    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

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    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... High Energy Physics Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Science. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the DOE/NSF High Energy Physics Advisory...., Washington, DC 20037. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Kogut, Executive Secretary; High Energy...

  19. Teacher Preparation and NSF Collaboratives for Excellence in Teacher Preparation. FY 96 Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR) is responsible for providing national leadership and support for improving the quality of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SME&T) education from kindergarten through graduate school. The ultimate goal is to achieve excellence in the…

  20. NSF in a Changing World: The National Science Foundation's Strategic Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) role as a leader and steward of the Nation's science and engineering enterprise faces new tests--promoting new approaches to research, education, and workforce training that reach all Americans; responding to the increased importance of science and engineering in many aspects of daily life; modernizing the…

  1. Development of a Consensus Standard for School Equipment: NSF/NSSEA 380

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitner, Ashlee

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the school supplies and equipment industry has investigated methods to ensure product safety and compliance across all its product categories. In early 2010, NSF International and the National School Supply and Equipment Association (NSSEA) came together to develop quality standards for products and equipment designed for use in…

  2. Understanding the Role of Partnership Configuration in the NSF MSP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Math and Science Partnership Program (MSP) promotes the development, implementation, and sustainability of exemplary partnerships to produce high-quality math and science education at all K-12 levels. The MSP Program anticipates that the partnerships will be instrumental in improving student achievement,…

  3. Leveraging the NSF Broader-Impacts Criterion for Change in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Robert D.; Pfund, Christine; Gillian-Daniel, Don

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to move, if not balance, the scales of activity toward increasing scientific capability across a diverse national population, U.S. federal funding agencies are purposefully linking research funding to broad national impact. Among United States federal agencies, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has led the way in the integration…

  4. Evaluation of NSF's International Research Fellowship Program: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda; Whittaker, Karla

    2012-01-01

    Among the National Science Foundation's (NSF) postdoctoral programs, the International Research Fellowship Program (IRFP) is unique in its emphasis on providing postdoctoral fellows with international research experiences. Established in 1992, IRFP provides financial support to postdoctoral scientists for a research experience abroad lasting…

  5. 45 CFR 681.6 - When may NSF issue a complaint?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When may NSF issue a complaint? 681.6 Section 681.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Procedures Leading to Issuance of A Complaint § 681.6...

  6. NSF's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Subsidizing Academic Research or State Budgets?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yonghong

    2009-01-01

    This cross-state empirical study focuses on the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR) and examines its impact on the academic research and development (R&D) expenditures financed by state governments. Based on a panel of 50 states during 1979-2006, the empirical results indicate that…

  7. Innovating and Evaluating Science Education: NSF Evaluation Forums 1992-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westat, Inc., Rockville, MD.

    This document contains papers from a series of Evaluation Forums of the National Science Foundation. The titles are: "Education Program Evaluation at NSF: What Difference Does It Make?" (D. E. Chubin); "Interagency Efforts to Review and Evaluate Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Programs Through the Federal Coordinating Council on Science and…

  8. Linking the GLOBE Program With NASA and NSF Large-Scale Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filmer, P. E.

    2005-12-01

    NASA and the NSF, the sponsoring Federal agencies for the GLOBE Program, are seeking the participation of science teams who are working at the cutting edge of Earth systems science in large integrated Earth systems science programs. Connecting the GLOBE concept and structure with NASA and NSF's leading Earth systems science programs will give GLOBE schools and students access to top scientists, and expose them to programs that have been designated as scientific priorities. Students, teachers, parents, and their communities will be able to see how scientists of many disciplines work together to learn about the Earth system. The GLOBE solicitation released by the NSF targets partnerships between GLOBE and NSF/NASA-funded integrated Earth systems science programs. This presentation will focus on the goals and requirements of the NSF solicitation. Proponents will be expected to provide ways for the GLOBE community to interact with a group of scientists from their science programs as part of a wider joint Earth systems science educational strategy (the sponsoring agencies', GLOBE's, and the proposing programs'). Teams proposing to this solicitation must demonstrate: - A focus on direct connections with major NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs and/or NASA Earth-Sun research programs that are related to Earth systems science; - A demonstrable benefit to GLOBE and to NSF Geosciences and/or Polar Programs or NASA Earth-Sun education goals (providing access to program researchers and data, working with GLOBE in setting up campaigns where possible, using tested GLOBE or non-GLOBE protocols to the greatest extent possible, actively participating in the wider GLOBE community including schools, among other goals); - An international component; - How the existing educational efforts of the large science program will coordinate with GLOBE; - An Earth systems science education focus, rather than a GLOBE protocol-support focus; - A rigorous evaluation and assessment component

  9. Development and construct validation of the Hand Function Sort.

    PubMed

    Matheson, L N; Kaskutas, V K; Mada, D

    2001-06-01

    The construct validity of the Hand Function Sort (HFS) was investigated in 126 adults of working age (65% male) with medical impairments. Principal components factor analysis identified one major factor and two minor factors, which was consistent with the findings of a subsequent Harris Image Analysis. A Kaiser Image Analysis identified seven factors, partitioning the first global factor. Construct validity also was studied. HFS scores of subjects who had impairment of the dominant upper extremity were compared with subjects whose dominant upper extremities were not impaired. Significant differences were found between groups for total scores and in categories of tasks for which hand dominance was likely to be important. Conversely, there were no significant differences with tasks for which hand dominance was not important. HFS scores were compared with grip strength, which accounted for significant variance in the total HFS score. When categories of tasks were considered, substantial variance in the factors for which grip strength was important was accounted for by grip strength. For tasks in which grip strength was not likely to be important, variance accounted for by grip strength was negligible.

  10. Downstream Sediment Sorting as a Fractionation Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paola, C.; Fedele, J. J.

    2007-12-01

    Downstream size segregation in net depositional systems can be thought of as a fractination process in which a well mixed, heterogeneous input is unmixed based on its relative mobility. Although we are accustomed to thinking of the segregation process as hydraulically driven and rather complex, we argue that at large time and length scales size segregation can be substantially simplified. The main controls are the downstream distribution of sediment extraction, which is typically controlled externally (e.g. by subsidence) and the size distribution of the sediment supply. Hydraulics plays a secondary role because of the tendency for river channels to self organize to a shape that maintains a limited range of dimensionless shear stress on the channel bed. The end result of this line of reasoning is a simple method for calculating downstream size segregation in depositional systems that is in good agreement with the limited data available. In terms of local dynamics, we introduce evidence that topographic roughness plays an important role. This is not explicitly incorporated in our analysis, and the best ways to characterize roughness for this purpose are yet to be determined. Finally, to estimate the importance of abrasion effects at large scales, we re-introduce a dimensionless parameter to describe the relative importance of abrasion, which sorts material by durability, and selective transport, which sorts by transportability.

  11. Developing Automated Methods of Waste Sorting

    SciTech Connect

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2002-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) analyzed the need complex-wide for remote and automated technologies as they relate to the treatment and disposal of mixed wastes. This analysis revealed that several DOE sites need the capability to open drums containing waste, visually inspect and sort the contents, and finally repackage the containers that are acceptable at a waste disposal facility such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Conditioning contaminated waste so that it is compatible with the WIPP criteria for storage is an arduous task whether the waste is contact handled (waste having radioactivity levels below 200 mrem/hr) or remote handled. Currently, WIPP non-compliant items are removed from the waste stream manually, at a rate of about one 55-gallon drum per day. Issues relating to contamination-based health hazards as well as repetitive motion health hazards are steering industry towards a more user-friendly, method of conditioning or sorting waste.

  12. Performance of multiprocessors and parallel algorithms: Quick-sort, a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Performance of parallel algorithms on multiprocessors has been traditionally analyzed by looking at either the algorithm or the architecture of the multiprocessor system. However, it is important to study the combined effect of both these factors in order to evaluate and predict performance. A different methodology based on approximate trace-driven simulation is adopted in this thesis to study the performance of a class of non-numerical algorithms. Performance of parallel quick-sort and parallel quick-merge sort is investigated in order to demonstrate the methodology as well as develop an understanding of the limitations imposed by a cache-based single bus environment on achievable speedup. A wide range of issues including the effect of cache parameters, coherency protocol, scheduling mechanisms and technology effects are discussed in the context of performance of the two versions of parallel quick-sort.

  13. Problem-solving deficits in alcoholics: evidence from the California Card Sorting Test.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Nixon, S J; Moreland, V J

    1993-11-01

    In an attempt to clarify the nature of the problem-solving deficits exhibited by chronic alcoholics, the California Card Sorting Test (CCST) and other measures of abstraction and problem solving were administered to 23 alcoholics and 16 nonalcoholic controls, equated for age, education and vocabulary. On the CCST, the alcoholics exhibited three types of deficits which appeared to be relatively independent. First, the alcoholics generated and identified fewer correct concepts than controls, although they executed concepts normally when cued by the examiner. Second, the alcoholics made more perseverative sorting responses and perseverative verbal explanations for their sorting behavior than did controls. Third, alcoholics provided less complete verbal explanations of the concepts that they correctly generated or identified. The differential importance of these factors on various measures of problem solving may help to explain the varied patterns of inefficient problem solving exhibited by alcoholics.

  14. Corner Sort for Pareto-Based Many-Objective Optimization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Handing; Yao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Nondominated sorting plays an important role in Pareto-based multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs). When faced with many-objective optimization problems multiobjective optimization problems (MOPs) with more than three objectives, the number of comparisons needed in nondominated sorting becomes very large. In view of this, a new corner sort is proposed in this paper. Corner sort first adopts a fast and simple method to obtain a nondominated solution from the corner solutions, and then uses the nondominated solution to ignore the solutions dominated by it to save comparisons. Obtaining the nondominated solutions requires much fewer objective comparisons in corner sort. In order to evaluate its performance, several state-of-the-art nondominated sorts are compared with our corner sort on three kinds of artificial solution sets of MOPs and the solution sets generated from MOEAs on benchmark problems. On one hand, the experiments on artificial solution sets show the performance on the solution sets with different distributions. On the other hand, the experiments on the solution sets generated from MOEAs show the influence that different sorts bring to MOEAs. The results show that corner sort performs well, especially on many-objective optimization problems. Corner sort uses fewer comparisons than others.

  15. Unravelling the pivotal role of Alix in MVB sorting and silencing of the activated EGFR.

    PubMed

    Sun, Sheng; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Wei; Gallick, Gary E; Kuang, Jian

    2015-03-15

    Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-III-mediated membrane invagination and scission are a critical step in multivesicular body (MVB) sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors, and generally thought to be required for degradation of these receptors in lysosomes. The adaptor protein Alix is critically involved in multiple ESCRT-III-mediated, membrane-remodelling processes in mammalian cells. However, Alix knockdown does not inhibit degradation of the activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in mammalian cell lines, leading to a widely held notion that Alix is not critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that, despite its non-essential role in degradation of the activated EGFR, Alix plays a critical role in its MVB sorting and silencing Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation of mammalian cell lines induces Alix's interaction with the ubiquitinated EGFR via the Alix V domain, and increases Alix's association with membrane-bound charged multivesicular body protein 4 (CHMP4) via the Alix Bro1 domain. Under both continuous and pulse-chase EGF stimulation conditions, inhibition of Alix's interaction with membrane-bound CHMP4, inhibition of Alix dimerization through the V domain or Alix knockdown dramatically inhibits MVB sorting of the activated EGFR and promotes sustained activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)1/2. Under the continuous EGF stimulation conditions, these cell treatments also retard degradation of the activated EGFR. These findings indicate that Alix is critically involved in MVB sorting of ubiquitinated membrane receptors in mammalian cells.

  16. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  17. Fluorescence activated cell sorting of plant protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Bargmann, Bastiaan O R; Birnbaum, Kenneth D

    2010-02-18

    High-resolution, cell type-specific analysis of gene expression greatly enhances understanding of developmental regulation and responses to environmental stimuli in any multicellular organism. In situ hybridization and reporter gene visualization can to a limited extent be used to this end but for high resolution quantitative RT-PCR or high-throughput transcriptome-wide analysis the isolation of RNA from particular cell types is requisite. Cellular dissociation of tissue expressing a fluorescent protein marker in a specific cell type and subsequent Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) makes it possible to collect sufficient amounts of material for RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis/amplification and microarray analysis. An extensive set of cell type-specific fluorescent reporter lines is available to the plant research community. In this case, two marker lines of the Arabidopsis thaliana root are used: P(SCR;)::GFP (endodermis and quiescent center) and P(WOX5;)::GFP (quiescent center). Large numbers (thousands) of seedlings are grown hydroponically or on agar plates and harvested to obtain enough root material for further analysis. Cellular dissociation of plant material is achieved by enzymatic digestion of the cell wall. This procedure makes use of high osmolarity-induced plasmolysis and commercially available cellulases, pectinases and hemicellulases to release protoplasts into solution. FACS of GFP-positive cells makes use of the visualization of the green versus the red emission spectra of protoplasts excited by a 488 nm laser. GFP-positive protoplasts can be distinguished by their increased ratio of green to red emission. Protoplasts are typically sorted directly into RNA extraction buffer and stored for further processing at a later time. This technique is revealed to be straightforward and practicable. Furthermore, it is shown that it can be used without difficulty to isolate sufficient numbers of cells for transcriptome analysis, even for very scarce

  18. Improving the efficiency of insemination with sex-sorted spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, J M; Parrilla, I; Gil, M A; Cuello, C; Caballero, I; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Martínez, E A

    2008-10-01

    The sorting of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry is nowadays one of the most apt assisted-reproduction technologies in livestock production. Potential economic and biological benefits, as well as those related to easier management of herds, have been reported arising out of the application of this technique, especially in cattle. Yet, the sex-sorting procedure induces damage to spermatozoa, affecting their function and fertilizing ability. Different species present varying degrees of susceptibility to damage from the sorting process and each has its own requirements for sex-sorted insemination procedures. Thus, several new protocols and strategies have been designed for the handling of sorted spermatozoa, with the main objective of optimizing their fertilizing ability and the consequent application of flow-cytometric sex-sorting technology. This article reviews current advances in this technology, pointing out the components to be improved before this technology may be widely applied in different domestic species. PMID:18803751

  19. Concurrent droplet charging and sorting by electrostatic actuation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Louge, Romain; Oh, Kwang W

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a droplet-based microfluidic device for concurrent droplet charging and sorting by electrostatic actuation. Water-in-oil droplets can be charged on generation by synchronized electrostatic actuation. Then, simultaneously, the precharged droplets can be electrostatically steered into any designated laminar streamline, thus they can be sorted into one of multiple sorting channels one by one in a controlled fashion. In this paper, we studied the size dependence of the water droplets under various relative flow rates of water and oil. We demonstrated the concurrent charging and sorting of up to 600 dropletss by synchronized electrostatic actuation. Finally, we investigated optimized voltages for stable droplet charging and sorting. This is an essential enabling technology for fast, robust, and multiplexed sorting of microdroplets, and for the droplet-based microfluidic systems.

  20. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-03

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  1. Passive chip-based droplet sorting

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham P; Hatch, Andrew C; Fisher, Jeffrey S

    2015-11-05

    An apparatus for passive sorting of microdroplets including a main flow channel, a flow stream of microdroplets in the main flow channel wherein the microdroplets have substantially the same diameter and wherein the flow stream of microdroplets includes first microdroplets having a first degree of stiffness and second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness wherein the second degree of stiffness is different than the first degree of stiffness. A second flow channel is connected to the main flow channel for the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness. A separator separates the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness from the first microdroplets and directs the second microdroplets having a second degree of stiffness into the second flow channel.

  2. Fast Intersection Algorithms for Sorted Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Salinger, Alejandro

    This paper presents and analyzes a simple intersection algorithm for sorted sequences that is fast on average. It is related to the multiple searching problem and to merging. We present the worst and average case analysis, showing that in the former, the complexity nicely adapts to the smallest list size. In the latter case, it performs less comparisons than the total number of elements on both inputs, n and m, when n = αm (α> 1), achieving O(m log(n/m)) complexity. The algorithm is motivated by its application to fast query processing in Web search engines, where large intersections, or differences, must be performed fast. In this case we experimentally show that the algorithm is faster than previous solutions.

  3. Solution structure of human sorting nexin 22.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Zhao, Kate Qin; Newman, Carrie L Loushin; Vinarov, Dmitriy A; Markley, John L

    2007-05-01

    The sorting nexins (SNXs) constitute a large group of PX domain-containing proteins that play critical roles in protein trafficking. We report here the solution structure of human sorting nexin 22 (SNX22). Although SNX22 has <30% sequence identity with any PX domain protein of known structure, it was found to contain the alpha/beta fold and compact structural core characteristic of PX domains. Analysis of the backbone dynamics of SNX22 by NMR relaxation measurements revealed that the two walls of the ligand binding cleft undergo internal motions: on the picosecond timescale for the beta1/beta2 loop and on the micro- to millisecond timescale for the loop between the polyproline motif and helix alpha2. Regions of the SNX22 structure that differ from those of other PX domains include the loop connecting strands beta1 and beta2 and the loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2, which appear to be more mobile than corresponding loops in other known structures. The interaction of dibutanoyl-phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P) with SNX22 was investigated by an NMR titration experiment, which identified the binding site in a basic cleft and indicated that ligand binding leads only to a local structural rearrangement as has been found with other PX domains. Because motions in the loops are damped out when dibutanoyl-PtdIns(3)P binds, entropic effects could contribute to the lower affinity of SNX22 for this ligand compared to other PX domains. PMID:17400918

  4. Learning sorting algorithms through visualization construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Ibrahim; Andrews-Larson, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Recent increased interest in computational thinking poses an important question to researchers: What are the best ways to teach fundamental computing concepts to students? Visualization is suggested as one way of supporting student learning. This mixed-method study aimed to (i) examine the effect of instruction in which students constructed visualizations on students' programming achievement and students' attitudes toward computer programming, and (ii) explore how this kind of instruction supports students' learning according to their self-reported experiences in the course. The study was conducted with 58 pre-service teachers who were enrolled in their second programming class. They expect to teach information technology and computing-related courses at the primary and secondary levels. An embedded experimental model was utilized as a research design. Students in the experimental group were given instruction that required students to construct visualizations related to sorting, whereas students in the control group viewed pre-made visualizations. After the instructional intervention, eight students from each group were selected for semi-structured interviews. The results showed that the intervention based on visualization construction resulted in significantly better acquisition of sorting concepts. However, there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to students' attitudes toward computer programming. Qualitative data analysis indicated that students in the experimental group constructed necessary abstractions through their engagement in visualization construction activities. The authors of this study argue that the students' active engagement in the visualization construction activities explains only one side of students' success. The other side can be explained through the instructional approach, constructionism in this case, used to design instruction. The conclusions and implications of this study can be used by researchers and

  5. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  6. Extension of the sorting instructions for household plastic packaging and changes in exposure to bioaerosols at materials recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Déportes, I Z; Facon, B; Fromont, E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess how extending the sorting instructions for plastic packaging would affect the exposure of workers working at materials recovery facility (MRF) to dust, endotoxins, fungi and bacteria, taking into consideration other factors that could have an influence on this exposure. Personal sampling was carried out at four MRFs during six sampling campaigns at each facility, both in sorting rooms and when the workers were involved in "mobile tasks" away from the rooms. The data was analysed by describing the extension of sorting instructions both using a qualitative variable (after vs before) and using data for the pots and trays recycling stream, including or excluding plastic film. Overall, before the extension of the sorting guidelines, the geometric mean of personal exposure levels in sorting rooms was 0.3mg/m(3) for dust, 27.7 EU/m(3) for endotoxins, 13,000 CFU/m(3) for fungi and 1800 CFU/m(3) for bacteria. When workers were involved in mobile tasks away from the rooms, these averages were 0.5mg/m(3), 25.7 EU/m(3), 28,000 CFU/m(3) and 5100 CFU/m(3) respectively.The application by households of instructions to include pots, trays and film with other recyclable plastic packaging led to an increase in exposure to endotoxins, fungi and bacteria at MRFs. For an increase of 0.5 kg per inhabitant per year in the pots, trays and film recycling stream, exposure in sorting rooms rose by a factor of 1.4-2.2, depending on the biological agent. Exposure during mobile tasks increased by a factor of 3.0-3.6. The age of the waste amplified the effect of the extension of sorting instructions on exposure to fungi, bacteria and endotoxins. Factors that had a significant influence on the exposure of workers to dust and/or bioaerosols included the presence of paper, newspapers and magazines in the sorted waste, the order in which incoming waste was treated and the quality of the ventilation system in the sorting rooms. The levels of exposure observed in

  7. Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of the Wisconsin Card Sort

    PubMed Central

    Godinez, Detre A.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Miyake, Akira; Hewitt, John K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study assessed the factor structure and etiology of traditional perseverative and nonperseverative errors, and six narrowly defined errors that occur during the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). A computer-administered version of the WCST, designed to maximize the variance in a nonclinical sample, was used. Phenotypic factor analysis and twin models were used to examine the structure and genetic and environmental etiology in 191 monozygotic and 165 dizygotic adolescent twin pairs. Factor analysis did not support the traditional division of errors into perseverative and nonperseverative errors. Heritability of individual indices was small to moderate (a2 = .10 – .42), with varying significance. Estimates of shared environment (c2 = .00 – .14) were not significant. The best fitting multivariate genetic model had one genetic factor, with specific variance and covariance due to nonshared environmental influences. These results suggest that there are common underlying genetic influences on WCST indices, along with index-specific environmental variance that does not correspond to the traditional division between perseverative and nonperseverative errors. PMID:21952792

  8. 34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF VIVIANNA WORKS ORE SORTING AND CRUSHING PLATFORM LOOKING EAST, NORTHEAST. NOTICE RAIL TIES EMBEDDED IN CONCRETE. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  9. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  10. NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Initiative (FWI): Synthesis as Coordination of Thought to Discover Emergent System Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorosmarty, C. J.; Hinzman, L. D.; Pundsack, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    The NSF-ARCSS program is undergoing a purposeful move toward system-wide and synthetic thinking. As part of this broader agenda, the NSF-ARCSS Freshwater Initiative (FWI) is embarking on its own synthesis. FWI synthesis has been organized around two fundamental approaches. The first avenue is a consolidation of existing quantitative information for constructing a comprehensive freshwater budget linking fluxes and stocks through the climate / terrestrial system, oceans, and sea-ice. The second avenue involves linkages of observational studies of paleo, historic, and contemporary water systems and simulation models of their behavior. These efforts represent both inductive and deductive approaches, and the FWI uses an operational definition of synthesis as a coordination of thought to discover emergent system properties to detect and understand Arctic water cycle change. This discussion will focus on recent results of analysis with acknowledgement of input from a broad set of FWI researchers.

  11. Advancing Capabilities for Understanding the Earth System Through Intelligent Systems, the NSF Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Y.; Zanzerkia, E. E.; Munoz-Avila, H.

    2015-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) Directorate for Geosciences (GEO) and Directorate for Computer and Information Science (CISE) acknowledge the significant scientific challenges required to understand the fundamental processes of the Earth system, within the atmospheric and geospace, Earth, ocean and polar sciences, and across those boundaries. A broad view of the opportunities and directions for GEO are described in the report "Dynamic Earth: GEO imperative and Frontiers 2015-2020." Many of the aspects of geosciences research, highlighted both in this document and other community grand challenges, pose novel problems for researchers in intelligent systems. Geosciences research will require solutions for data-intensive science, advanced computational capabilities, and transformative concepts for visualizing, using, analyzing and understanding geo phenomena and data. Opportunities for the scientific community to engage in addressing these challenges are available and being developed through NSF's portfolio of investments and activities. The NSF-wide initiative, Cyberinfrastructure Framework for 21st Century Science and Engineering (CIF21), looks to accelerate research and education through new capabilities in data, computation, software and other aspects of cyberinfrastructure. EarthCube, a joint program between GEO and the Advanced Cyberinfrastructure Division, aims to create a well-connected and facile environment to share data and knowledge in an open, transparent, and inclusive manner, thus accelerating our ability to understand and predict the Earth system. EarthCube's mission opens an opportunity for collaborative research on novel information systems enhancing and supporting geosciences research efforts. NSF encourages true, collaborative partnerships between scientists in computer sciences and the geosciences to meet these challenges.

  12. Córdova to Be Nominated as New Head of NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-08-01

    President Barack Obama announced on 31 July that he intends to nominate France Anne Córdova to become the next director of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Córdova was president of Purdue University from 2007 to 2012 and has been a professor of physics and astronomy there. Previously, Córdova was chancellor of the University of California, Riverside from 1996 to 2002.

  13. HydroShare: Applying professional software engineering to a new NSF-funded large software project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idaszak, R.; Tarboton, D. G.; Ames, D.; Saleem Arrigo, J. A.; Band, L. E.; Bedig, A.; Castronova, A. M.; Christopherson, L.; Coposky, J.; Couch, A.; Dash, P.; Gan, T.; Goodall, J.; Gustafson, K.; Heard, J.; Hooper, R. P.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Jackson, S.; Johnson, H.; Maidment, D. R.; Mbewe, P.; Merwade, V.; Miles, B.; Reeder, S.; Russell, T.; Song, C.; Taylor, A.; Thakur, S.; Valentine, D. W.; Whiteaker, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    HydroShare is an online, collaborative system being developed for sharing hydrologic data and models as part of the NSF's Software Infrastructure for Sustained Innovation (SI2) program (NSF collaborative award numbers 1148453 and 1148090). HydroShare involves a large software development effort requiring cooperative research and distributed software development between domain scientists, professional software engineers (here 'professional' denotes previous commercial experience in the application of modern software engineering), and university software developers. HydroShare expands upon the data sharing capabilities of the Hydrologic Information System of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc. (CUAHSI) by broadening the classes of data accommodated, expanding capability to include the sharing of models and model components, and taking advantage of emerging social media functionality to enhance information about and collaboration around hydrologic data and models. With a goal of enabling better science concomitant with improved sustainable software practices, we will describe our approach, experiences, and lessons learned thus-far in applying professional software engineering to a large NSF-funded software project from the project's onset.

  14. Building Bridges Between EPO Professionals Across Scientific Disciplines: Partnerships with NSF Centers (First Steps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D.; Black, K.; Schultz, S.

    2010-08-01

    NASA, NSF and other funding organizations support science education and outreach to achieve their broader impact goals. Organizations like ASP and the NSF Research Centers Educators Network (NRCEN) are building networks of education and public outreach (EPO) professionals to enhance programmatic success in reaching these goals. As the professionals who provide these programs to the various scientific communities, we are often the key connectors between investigators at cutting-edge research centers, the education world and the public. However, our profession does not have strong ties for sharing best practices across the different scientific disciplines. To develop those ties, we need to identify our common interests and build on them by sharing lessons learned and best practices. We will use the technique of concept mapping to develop a schematic of how each of us addresses our broader impact goals and discuss the common and divergent features. We will also present the education and outreach logic model that was recently developed by the 27 Education Directors of NSF-funded Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC). Building on this information, we will collaboratively develop a list of key areas of similar interest between ASP and NRCEN EPO professionals.

  15. The Role of EPO Professionals in Communicating and Teaching the Science of NASA and NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D.; Swilley, S.; Andrews, J.

    2008-06-01

    NSF and NASA have similar Education and Public Outreach (EPO) requirements and each endorses an important community of outreach professionals to facilitate broader impact goals. EPO professionals hold a critical role in the national quest for a scientifically and technologically literate population, and are often key connectors between investigators conducting cutting-edge research at NASA and NSF centers, pre-college educators and the public. Each owns unique perspectives on how to translate science and engineering research into effective research-based programs. NASA and NSF center EPO professionals could share lessons learned and best practices to promote efficient and effective education program development and implementation that includes leading scientists and engineers. Both groups could explore collaboration opportunities between the Astronomical Society of the Pacific and the National Science Foundation Research Center Educators Network to build on specific strengths and similarities. Through collaboration, each group can better promote recognition of this emerging field and profession. Working together, collaborators will enhance existing expertise, improve job performance, promote standards for this emerging profession, and achieve well-deserved recognition. Collaboration will improve individual ability to meet the higher standards of accountability to which each group is held and improve efforts in this new, flat world.

  16. An Analysis of NSF Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, R.; Patino, L. C.; Rom, E. L.; Adams, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) supports U.S. institutions so that they can provide undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at many different institutions. Participants also gain a better understanding of pathways for research careers. In 2013 a new system for annual report data collection was implemented by the National Science Foundation for all awards, including REU Sites. As a result, REU Site Directors must ask students to self-report data using the NSF Fastlane system. NSF has been collecting this data for several years and information is now available about the effectiveness of this new data collection system. Information on the GEO REU Site student demographics from 2014 will be presented and compared to data from previous years. Results show low participation rates by REU students in the data submission process. Many students who do participate skip questions or chose not to provide answers to the questions. Methods for increasing student participation in the data collection process will be discussed and suggestions for other ways to improve data collection as a community will be presented. Accurate information on student demographics for GEO REU Site programs are important because these students often go on to graduate programs and are the future role models for a diverse workforce.

  17. VIP21/caveolin, glycosphingolipid clusters and the sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zurzolo, C; van't Hof, W; van Meer, G; Rodriguez-Boulan, E

    1994-01-01

    We studied the role of the association between glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins and glycosphingolipid (GSL) clusters in apical targeting using gD1-DAF, a GPI-anchored protein that is differentially sorted by three epithelial cell lines. Differently from MDCK cells, where both gD1-DAF and glucosylceramide (GlcCer) are sorted to the apical membrane, in MDCK Concanavalin A-resistant cells (MDCK-ConAr) gD1-DAF was mis-sorted to both surfaces, but GlcCer was still targeted to the apical surface. In both MDCK and MDCK-ConAr cells, gD1-DAF became associated with TX-100-insoluble GSL clusters during transport to the cell surface. In dramatic contrast with MDCK cells, the Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cell line targeted both gD1-DAF and GlcCer basolaterally. The targeting differences for GSLs in FRT and MDCK cells cannot be accounted for by a differential ability to form clusters because, in spite of major differences in the GSL composition, both cell lines assembled GSLs into TX-100-insoluble complexes with identical isopycnic densities. Surprisingly, in FRT cells, gD1-DAF did not form clusters with GSLs and, therefore, remained completely soluble. This clustering defect in FRT cells correlated with the lack of expression of VIP21/caveolin, a protein localized to both the plasma membrane caveolae and the trans Golgi network. This suggests that VIP21/caveolin may have an important role in recruiting GPI-anchored proteins into GSL complexes necessary for their apical sorting. However, since MDCK-ConAr cells expressed caveolin and clustered GPI-anchored proteins normally, yet mis-sorted them, our results also indicate that clustering and caveolin are not sufficient for apical targeting, and that additional factors are required for the accurate apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins. Images PMID:8306971

  18. An analytical comparison of the information in sorted and non-sorted cosine-tuned spike activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, D. S.; Tiesinga, P. H. E.; Henriquez, C. S.; Wolf, P. D.

    2007-09-01

    Spike sorting is a technologically expensive component of the signal processing chain required to interpret population spike activity acquired in a neuromotor prosthesis. No systematic analysis of the value of spike sorting has been carried out, and little is known about the effects of spike sorting error on the ability of a brain-machine interface (BMI) to decode intended motor commands. We developed a theoretical framework to examine the effects of spike processing on the information available to a BMI decoder. We computed the mutual information in neural activity in a simplified model of directional cosine tuning to compare the effects of pooling activity from up to four neurons to the effects of sorting with varying amounts of spike error. The results showed that information in a small population of cosine-tuned neurons is maximized when the responses are sorted and there is diverse tuning of units, but information was affected little when pooling units with similar preferred directions. Spike error had adverse effects on information, such that non-sorted population activity had 79-92% of the information in its sorted counterpart for reasonable amounts of detection and sorting error and for units with moderate differences in preferred direction. This quantification of information loss associated with pooling units and with spike detection and sorting error will help to guide the engineering decisions in designing a BMI spike processing system.

  19. Sorting, Education and Inequality. NBER Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Raquel

    This paper examines the literature in the growing field of education and inequality that is concerned with how individuals sort, and the consequences of this knowledge for the accumulation of human capital, equity, efficiency, and welfare. It argues that how individuals sort across neighborhoods, schools, and households (spouses) can have…

  20. The PreferenSort: A Holistic Instrument for Career Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amit, Adi; Sagiv, Lilach

    2013-01-01

    We present the PreferenSort, a career counseling instrument that derives counselees' vocational interests from their preferences among occupational titles. The PreferenSort allows for a holistic decision process, while taking into account the full complexity of occupations and encouraging deliberation about one's preferences and…

  1. Surface free energy activated high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinru; Zhang, Qian; Yan, Tao; Jiang, Zeyi; Zhang, Xinxin; Zuo, Yi Y

    2014-09-16

    Cell sorting is an important screening process in microbiology, biotechnology, and clinical research. Existing methods are mainly based on single-cell analysis as in flow cytometric and microfluidic cell sorters. Here we report a label-free bulk method for sorting cells by differentiating their characteristic surface free energies (SFEs). We demonstrated the feasibility of this method by sorting model binary cell mixtures of various bacterial species, including Pseudomonas putida KT2440, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028, and Escherichia coli DH5α. This method can effectively separate 10(10) bacterial cells within 30 min. Individual bacterial species can be sorted with up to 96% efficiency, and the cell viability ratio can be as high as 99%. In addition to its capacity of sorting evenly mixed bacterial cells, we demonstrated the feasibility of this method in selecting and enriching cells of minor populations in the mixture (presenting at only 1% in quantity) to a purity as high as 99%. This SFE-activated method may be used as a stand-alone method for quickly sorting a large quantity of bacterial cells or as a prescreening tool for microbial discrimination. Given its advantages of label-free, high-throughput, low cost, and simplicity, this SFE-activated cell sorting method has potential in various applications of sorting cells and abiotic particles. PMID:25184988

  2. The Use of Binary Search Trees in External Distribution Sorting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, David; Lynch, Michael F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests new method of external distribution called tree partitioning that involves use of binary tree to split incoming file into successively smaller partitions for internal sorting. Number of disc accesses during a tree-partitioning sort were calculated in simulation using files extracted from British National Bibliography catalog files. (19…

  3. Disentangling Dimensions in the Dimensional Change Card-Sorting Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target…

  4. Supramolecular fibres: Self-sorting shows its true colours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Emily R.; Adams, Dave J.

    2016-08-01

    Self-sorting events in supramolecular assembly lead to complex systems that are attractive for the design of functional materials, but have remained difficult to understand and control. Now, the growth of self-sorted supramolecular nanofibres has been elucidated by direct imaging through real-time in situ confocal microscopy.

  5. "Sort of" in British Women's and Men's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Hanna; Watson, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This paper (Note 1) examines the form sort of in British men and women's speech, and investigates whether there is a gender difference in the use of this form. We do so through corpus analysis of the British National Corpus (BNC). We contend there is no quantitative difference in the use of sort of in men and women's speech. Contrary to general…

  6. A FORTRAN Computer Program for Q Sort Calculations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, William R.

    1978-01-01

    The Q Sort method is a rank order procedure. A FORTRAN program is described which calculates a total value for any group of cases for the items in the Q Sort, and rank orders the items according to this composite value. (Author/JKS)

  7. Microfluidic-chip platform for cell sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sarul; Balyan, Prerna; Akhtar, J.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Cell sorting and separation are considered to be very crucial preparatory steps for numerous clinical diagnostics and therapeutics applications in cell biology research arena. Label free cell separation techniques acceptance rate has been increased to multifold by various research groups. Size based cell separation method focuses on the intrinsic properties of the cell which not only avoids clogging issues associated with mechanical and centrifugation filtration methods but also reduces the overall cost for the process. Consequentially flow based cell separation method for continuous flow has attracted the attention of millions. Due to the realization of structures close to particle size in micro dimensions, the microfluidic devices offer precise and rapid particle manipulation which ultimately leads to an extraordinary cell separation results. The proposed microfluidic device is fabricated to separate polystyrene beads of size 1 µm, 5 µm, 10 µm and 20 µm. The actual dimensions of blood corpuscles were kept in mind while deciding the particle size of polystyrene beads which are used as a model particles for study.

  8. Cell sorting using efficient light shaping approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañas, Andrew; Palima, Darwin; Villangca, Mark; Glückstad, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    Early detection of diseases can save lives. Hence, there is emphasis in sorting rare disease-indicating cells within small dilute quantities such as in the confines of lab-on-a-chip devices. In our work, we use optical forces to isolate red blood cells detected by machine vision. This approach is gentler, less invasive and more economical compared to conventional FACS systems. As cells are less responsive to plastic or glass beads commonly used in the optical manipulation literature, and since laser safety would be an issue in clinical use, we develop efficient approaches in utilizing lasers and light modulation devices. The Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method that can be used for efficiently illuminating spatial light modulators or creating well-defined contiguous optical traps is supplemented by diffractive techniques capable of integrating the available light and creating 2D or 3D beam distributions aimed at the positions of the detected cells. Furthermore, the beam shaping freedom provided by GPC can allow optimizations in the beam's propagation and its interaction with the catapulted cells.

  9. Nanoplasmonic lenses for bacteria sorting (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiangchao; Yanik, Ahmet A.

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate that patches of two dimensional arrays of circular plasmonic nanoholes patterned on gold-titanium thin film enables subwavelength focusing of visible light in far field region. Efficient coupling of the light with the excited surface plasmon at metal dielectric interface results in strong light transmission. As a result, surface plasmon plays an important role in the far field focusing behavior of the nanohole-aperture patches device. Furthermore, the focal length of the focused beam was found to be predominantly dependent on the overall size of the patch, which is in good agreement with that calculated by Rayleigh-Sommerfield integral formula. The focused light beam can be utilized to separate bio-particles in the dynamic range from 0.1 μm to 1 μm through mainly overcoming the drag force induced by fluid flow. In our proposed model, focused light generated by our plasmonic lenses will push the larger bio-particles in size back to the source of fluid flow and allow the smaller particles to move towards the central aperture of the patch. Such a new kind of plasmonic lenses open up possibility of sorting bacterium-like particles with plasmonic nanolenses, and also represent a promising tool in the field of virology.

  10. Optical Science and Engineering. New Directions and Opportunities in Research and Education. NSF Workshop (Arlington, VA, May 23-24, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) workshop on Optical Science and Engineering was organized to examine approaches NSF could use to identify opportunities in optical science, engineering, and education that meet both the mission of NSF and its broader national goals. The workshop participants identified opportunities where optical science and…

  11. Cloning of Plasmodium falciparum by single-cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Miao, Jun; Li, Xiaolian; Cui, Liwang

    2010-10-01

    Malaria parasite cloning is traditionally carried out mainly by using the limiting dilution method, which is laborious, imprecise, and unable to distinguish multiply-infected RBCs. In this study, we used a parasite engineered to express green fluorescent protein (GFP) to evaluate a single-cell sorting method for rapidly cloning Plasmodium falciparum. By dividing a two-dimensional scattergram from a cell sorter into 17 gates, we determined the parameters for isolating singly-infected erythrocytes and sorted them into individual cultures. Pre-gating of the engineered parasites for GFP allowed the isolation of almost 100% GFP-positive clones. Compared with the limiting dilution method, the number of parasite clones obtained by single-cell sorting was much higher. Molecular analyses showed that parasite isolates obtained by single-cell sorting were highly homogenous. This highly efficient single-cell sorting method should prove very useful for cloning both P. falciparum laboratory populations from genetic manipulation experiments and clinical samples.

  12. Regular expression order-sorted unification and matching

    PubMed Central

    Kutsia, Temur; Marin, Mircea

    2015-01-01

    We extend order-sorted unification by permitting regular expression sorts for variables and in the domains of function symbols. The obtained signature corresponds to a finite bottom-up unranked tree automaton. We prove that regular expression order-sorted (REOS) unification is of type infinitary and decidable. The unification problem presented by us generalizes some known problems, such as, e.g., order-sorted unification for ranked terms, sequence unification, and word unification with regular constraints. Decidability of REOS unification implies that sequence unification with regular hedge language constraints is decidable, generalizing the decidability result of word unification with regular constraints to terms. A sort weakening algorithm helps to construct a minimal complete set of REOS unifiers from the solutions of sequence unification problems. Moreover, we design a complete algorithm for REOS matching, and show that this problem is NP-complete and the corresponding counting problem is #P-complete. PMID:26523088

  13. Microfluidic EmbryoSort technology: towards in flow analysis, sorting and dispensing of individual vertebrate embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Nurul M.; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2013-12-01

    The demand to reduce the numbers of laboratory animals has facilitated the emergence of surrogate models such as tests performed on zebrafish (Danio rerio) or African clawed frog's (Xenopus levis) eggs, embryos and larvae. Those two model organisms are becoming increasingly popular replacements to current adult animal testing in toxicology, ecotoxicology and also in drug discovery. Zebrafish eggs and embryos are particularly attractive for toxicological analysis due their size (diameter 1.6 mm), optical transparency, large numbers generated per fish and very straightforward husbandry. The current bottleneck in using zebrafish embryos for screening purposes is, however, a tedious manual evaluation to confirm the fertilization status and subsequent dispensing of single developing embryos to multitier plates to perform toxicity analysis. Manual procedures associated with sorting hundreds of embryos are very monotonous and as such prone to significant analytical errors due to operator's fatigue. In this work, we present a proofof- concept design of a continuous flow embryo sorter capable of analyzing, sorting and dispensing objects ranging in size from 1.5 - 2.5 mm. The prototypes were fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) transparent thermoplastic using infrared laser micromachining. The application of additive manufacturing processes to prototype Lab-on-a-Chip sorters using both fused deposition manufacturing (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) were also explored. The operation of the device was based on a revolving receptacle capable of receiving, holding and positioning single fish embryos for both interrogation and subsequent sorting. The actuation of the revolving receptacle was performed using a DC motor and/or microservo motor. The system was designed to separate between fertilized (LIVE) and non-fertilized (DEAD) eggs, based on optical transparency using infrared (IR) emitters and receivers.

  14. Label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Song, Jihwan; Song, Minsun; Kang, Taewook; Kim, Dongchoul; Lee, Luke P

    2014-11-01

    The selective cell separation is a critical step in fundamental life sciences, translational medicine, biotechnology, and energy harvesting. Conventional cell separation methods are fluorescent activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting based on fluorescent probes and magnetic particles on cell surfaces. Label-free cell separation methods such as Raman-activated cell sorting, electro-physiologically activated cell sorting, dielectric-activated cell sorting, or inertial microfluidic cell sorting are, however, limited when separating cells of the same kind or cells with similar sizes and dielectric properties, as well as similar electrophysiological phenotypes. Here we report a label-free density difference amplification-based cell sorting (dDACS) without using any external optical, magnetic, electrical forces, or fluidic activations. The conceptual microfluidic design consists of an inlet, hydraulic jump cavity, and multiple outlets. Incoming particles experience gravity, buoyancy, and drag forces in the separation chamber. The height and distance that each particle can reach in the chamber are different and depend on its density, thus allowing for the separation of particles into multiple outlets. The separation behavior of the particles, based on the ratio of the channel heights of the inlet and chamber and Reynolds number has been systematically studied. Numerical simulation reveals that the difference between the heights of only lighter particles with densities close to that of water increases with increasing the ratio of the channel heights, while decreasing Reynolds number can amplify the difference in the heights between the particles considered irrespective of their densities. PMID:25553185

  15. Proceedings of the Fifth NASA/NSF/DOD Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, M. (Editor); Man, G. K. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Fifth Annual Workshop on Aerospace Computational Control was one in a series of workshops sponsored by NASA, NSF, and the DOD. The purpose of these workshops is to address computational issues in the analysis, design, and testing of flexible multibody control systems for aerospace applications. The intention in holding these workshops is to bring together users, researchers, and developers of computational tools in aerospace systems (spacecraft, space robotics, aerospace transportation vehicles, etc.) for the purpose of exchanging ideas on the state of the art in computational tools and techniques.

  16. President's Budget Proposal Favors NSF, Though Congress Could Push for Reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) is one of the winners in the Obama administration's proposed budget for fiscal year (FY) 2012, which begins on 1 October, with a proposed funding level of $7.767 billion; this would be an increase of 13% above the congressionally enacted FY 2010 budget level. However, the administration's proposed budget is just a starting point for discussions. Congress has approved a 2-week budget continuing resolution (CR) for the current fiscal year, 2011. A longer-term CR passed by the House of Representatives (HR 1) could dramatically cut this year's funding for some federal agencies and also affect budget discussions for FY 2012.

  17. Hydrodynamic and label-free sorting of circulating tumor cells from whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geislinger, Thomas M.; Stamp, Melanie E. M.; Wixforth, Achim; Franke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate continuous, passive, and label-free sorting of different in vitro cancer cell lines (MV3, MCF7, and HEPG2) as model systems for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from undiluted whole blood employing the non-inertial lift effect as driving force. This purely viscous, repulsive cell-wall interaction is sensitive to cell size and deformability differences and yields highly efficient cell separation and high enrichment factors. We show that the performance of the device is robust over a large range of blood cell concentrations and flow rates as well as for the different cell lines. The collected samples usually contain more than 90% of the initially injected CTCs and exhibit average enrichment factors of more than 20 for sorting from whole blood samples.

  18. Homotypic vacuole fusion requires Sec17p (yeast alpha-SNAP) and Sec18p (yeast NSF).

    PubMed Central

    Haas, A; Wickner, W

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, vacuoles are inherited by the formation of tubular and vesicular structures from the mother vacuole, the directed projection of these structures into the bud and the homotypic fusion of these vesicles. We have previously exploited a cell-free inheritance assay to show that the fusion step of vacuole inheritance requires cytosol, ATP and the GTPase Ypt7p. Here we demonstrate, using affinity-purified antibodies and purified recombinant proteins, a requirement for Sec17p (yeast alpha-SNAP) and Sec18p (yeast NSF) in homotypic vacuole fusion in vitro. Thus, Sec17p and Sec18p, which are typically involved in heterotypic transport steps, can also be involved in homotypic organelle fusion. We further show that vacuole-to-vacuole fusion is stimulated by certain fatty acyl-coenzyme A compounds in a Sec18p-dependent fashion. Finally, our data suggest the presence of a cytosolic factor which activates vacuole membrane-bound Sec18p. Images PMID:8670830

  19. On-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Oh, Kwang W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports a droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting. This device combines two independent modules: one is a hydrodynamic flow focusing structure to generate water-in-oil droplets, and the other is the two paired-electrodes for charging and sorting of the droplets. Depending on the polarity on charging electrodes, water-in-oil droplets can be electrostatically charged positively or negatively, followed by automatic real-time electric sorting. This approach will be useful when preformed droplets, with a positive, a negative, or with no charge, need to be manipulated for further on-chip droplet manipulation. PMID:21772936

  20. On-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Byungwook; Lee, Kangsun; Panchapakesan, Rajagopal; Oh, Kwang W

    2011-06-01

    This study reports a droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand electrostatic droplet charging and sorting. This device combines two independent modules: one is a hydrodynamic flow focusing structure to generate water-in-oil droplets, and the other is the two paired-electrodes for charging and sorting of the droplets. Depending on the polarity on charging electrodes, water-in-oil droplets can be electrostatically charged positively or negatively, followed by automatic real-time electric sorting. This approach will be useful when preformed droplets, with a positive, a negative, or with no charge, need to be manipulated for further on-chip droplet manipulation.

  1. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, John K.; Hargett, Charles W.; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: “readers” prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; “social-auditory learners” prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and “visual learners” prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  2. Exploring student preferences with a Q-sort: the development of an individualized renal physiology curriculum.

    PubMed

    Roberts, John K; Hargett, Charles W; Nagler, Alisa; Jakoi, Emma; Lehrich, Ruediger W

    2015-09-01

    Medical education reform is underway, but the optimal course for change has yet to be seen. While planning for the redesign of a renal physiology course at the Duke School of Medicine, the authors used a Q-sort survey to assess students' attitudes and learning preferences to inform curricular change. The authors invited first-year medical students at the Duke School of Medicine to take a Q-sort survey on the first day of renal physiology. Students prioritized statements related to their understanding of renal physiology, learning preferences, preferred course characteristics, perceived clinical relevance of renal physiology, and interest in nephrology as a career. By-person factor analysis was performed using the centroid method. Three dominant factors were strongly defined by learning preferences: "readers" prefer using notes, a textbook, and avoid lectures; "social-auditory learners" prefer attending lectures, interactivity, and working with peers; and "visual learners" prefer studying images, diagrams, and viewing materials online. A smaller, fourth factor represented a small group of students with a strong predisposition against renal physiology and nephrology. In conclusion, the Q-sort survey identified and then described in detail the dominant viewpoints of our students. Learning style preferences better classified first-year students rather than any of the other domains. A more individualized curriculum would simultaneously cater to the different types of learners in the classroom. PMID:26330030

  3. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M

    1995-05-19

    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal coliform bacteria and fungal spores have been reported. The concentrations are considered to be sufficiently high to cause adverse health effects. In addition, a high incidence of lower back injuries, probably due to heavy lifting during work, has been reported among workers at landfills and incineration plants. Workers involved in manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste, as well as workers at compost plants experience more or less frequent symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) (cough, chest-tightness, dyspnoea, influenza-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle ache, joint pain, fatigue and headache), gastrointestinal problems such as nausea and diarrhoea, irritation of the skin, eye and mucous membranes of the nose and upper airways, etc. In addition cases of severe occupational pulmonary diseases (asthma, alveolitis, bronchitis) have been reported. Manual sorting of unseparated domestic waste may be associated with exposures to large quantities of airborne bacteria and endotoxin. Several work functions in compost plants can result in very high exposure to

  4. Cold Weather Wind Turbines: A Joint NASA/NSF/DOE Effort in Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Bubenheim, David; Chiang, Erick; Goldman, Peter; Kohout, Lisa; Norton, Gary; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Renewable energy sources and their integration with other power sources to support remote communities is of interest for Mars applications as well as Earth communities. The National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been jointly supporting development of a 100 kW cold weather wind turbine through grants and SBIRs independently managed by each agency but coordinated by NASA. The NSF grant addressed issues associated with the South Pole application and a 3 kW direct drive unit is being tested there in anticipation of the 100 kW unit operation. The DOE-NREL contract focused on development of the 100 kW direct drive generator. The NASA SBIR focused on the development of the 100 kW direct drive wind turbine. The success of this effort has required coordination and team involvement of federal agencies and the industrial partners. Designs of the wind turbine and component performance testing results will be presented. Plans for field testing of wind turbines, based on this design, in village energy systems in Alaska and in energy production at the South Pole Station will be discussed. Also included will be a discussion of terrestrial and space use of hybrid energy systems, including renewable energy sources, such as the wind turbine, to support remote communities.

  5. A Look at HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, K.; Friesen, R.; Carlson, D.

    2002-12-01

    The High-Performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This overview presentation on HIAPER will begin with a brief discussion of the project history and an overview of the capabilities of the aircraft and the modifications to be made to the basic airframe. Next, a summary of the NSF-led HIAPER Community Instrumentation Workshop will be given. This workshop, which was held at NCAR from 4-6 November 2002, provided participants with a forum in which to discuss the types of environmental measurements that should be made with this new airborne platform and to exchange ideas regarding technologies and instrumentation design approaches that are available and should be applied to the development of instrumentation for the aircraft. The workshop findings will be summarized, and specific recommendations regarding the major research areas in which measurements from HIAPER are most needed will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion of possible instrumentation to be considered for deployment on the aircraft will be given.

  6. Regulatory Match Effects on a Modified Wisconsin Card Sort Task

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Filoteo, J. Vincent; Glass, Brian D.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2009-01-01

    The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST; Heaton, 1980) is commonly used to assess concept formation and set shifting. Cognitive research suggests that set shifting performance is enhanced by a match between a person’s regulatory focus (promotion focus: attempting to earn an entry into a cash drawing; prevention focus: attempting to avoid losing an entry into the drawing) and the task reward structure (gains: attempting to maximize points gained; losses: attempting to minimize points lost). A regulatory match results when attempting to earn an entry by maximizing points or attempting to avoid losing an entry by minimizing losses. We test the hypothesis that performance on a modified WCST is accentuated in younger, healthy participants when there is a match between the global performance incentive and the local task reward structure. As predicted, participants in a match showed better set shifting but equivalent initial concept formation when compared to participants in a mismatch. Further, relative to a baseline control group, mismatch participants were significantly worse at set shifting than were participants in a regulatory match. These results suggest that set shifting performance might be impacted by incentive and task reward factors in ways that have not been considered previously. PMID:20128935

  7. Using Sorting Networks for Skill Building and Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Robert; Wiest, Lynda R.

    2007-01-01

    Sorting networks, used in graph theory, have instructional value as a skill- building tool as well as an interesting exploration in discrete mathematics. Students can practice mathematics facts and develop reasoning and logic skills with this topic. (Contains 4 figures.)

  8. 23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. LOWER END OF HIDE CHUTE, BASEMENT LEVEL; NOTE SORTING TABLE AND HANDCART FOR MOVING HIDES - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Long-term persistence of sort strategy in free classification.

    PubMed

    Milton, Fraser; Wills, Andy J

    2009-02-01

    Two free classification experiments that investigate the persistence of sort strategy are reported. Participants tend to persist with their initial categorization type (family resemblance or unidimensional) for the remaining sorts, overriding the effects of otherwise influential stimulus properties. Sort type was found to persist even after a one-week delay. Stimulus-driven models of free classification (e.g., the SUSTAIN model, [Love, B. C., Medin, D. L., & Gureckis, T. M. (2004). SUSTAIN: A network model of category learning. Psychological Review, 111, 309-332]) cannot predict the sort type persistence effects we observe, but they are naturally accounted for by theories that posit strategic selection of a problem-solving strategy (e.g., Hypothesis theory, [Levine, M. (1971). Hypothesis theory and nonlearning despite ideal S-R-reinforcement contingencies. Psychological Review, 78, 130-140]).

  10. An FPGA-based platform for accelerated offline spike sorting.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sarah; Judy, Jack W; Marković, Dejan

    2013-04-30

    There is a push in electrophysiology experiments to record simultaneously from many channels (upwards of 64) over long time periods (many hours). Given the relatively high sampling rates (10-40 kHz) and resolutions (12-24 bits per sample), these experiments accumulate exorbitantly large amounts of data (e.g., 100 GB per experiment), which can be very time-consuming to process. Here, we present an FPGA-based spike-sorting platform that can increase the speed of offline spike sorting by at least 25 times, effectively reducing the time required to sort data from long experiments from several hours to just a few minutes. We attempted to preserve the flexibility of software by implementing several different algorithms in the design, and by providing user control over parameters such as spike detection thresholds. The results of sorting a published benchmark dataset using this hardware tool are shown to be comparable to those using similar software tools.

  11. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  12. [Sorting oleaginous yeast by using optical manipulation and Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Da; Chen, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jing; Liu, Jun-Xian; Wang, Gui-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Extensive research has been carried out in an effort to screen the oleaginous microorganisms. Here, Raman spectroscopy and laser tweezers were used to sort oleaginous yeast from mixed yeast cells. The preprocessing of subtracted background, 17 points S-G smoothing filter, polynomial fitting baseline correction and vector normalization were performed and the main features information of intracellular substances from the Raman spectroscopy of yeast cells was extracted by combining principal component analysis. Based on the distinguished composition of oleaginous yeast and non-oleaginous different yeast, a sorting model was established. The test yeast cell in optical trapping was distinguished real-time by the model referring to its Raman spectra. The cells distinguished as oleaginous yeast were collected by means of optical manipulation. The sorted oleaginous yeast cells were verified by microbial culture and Sudan black B test. The result illustrates that Raman spectroscopy combined with optical manipulation is an effective technique for sorting oleaginous yeast and other economic microorganisms.

  13. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms.

    PubMed

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-09-24

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell-cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos.

  14. Brazil Nuts on Eros: Size-Sorting of Asteroid Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; King, P. J.; Swift, M. R.; Merrifield, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that frequent cratering produces size- or compositionally-sorted asteroid regolith, affecting the structure, texture, and in extreme cases the shape of asteroids. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment. PMID:27191843

  16. The EARP Complex and Its Interactor EIPR-1 Are Required for Cargo Sorting to Dense-Core Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Topalidou, Irini; Cattin-Ortolá, Jérôme; Pappas, Andrea L; Cooper, Kirsten; Merrihew, Gennifer E; MacCoss, Michael J; Ailion, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The dense-core vesicle is a secretory organelle that mediates the regulated release of peptide hormones, growth factors, and biogenic amines. Dense-core vesicles originate from the trans-Golgi of neurons and neuroendocrine cells, but it is unclear how this specialized organelle is formed and acquires its specific cargos. To identify proteins that act in dense-core vesicle biogenesis, we performed a forward genetic screen in Caenorhabditis elegans for mutants defective in dense-core vesicle function. We previously reported the identification of two conserved proteins that interact with the small GTPase RAB-2 to control normal dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting. Here we identify several additional conserved factors important for dense-core vesicle cargo sorting: the WD40 domain protein EIPR-1 and the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex. By assaying behavior and the trafficking of dense-core vesicle cargos, we show that mutants that lack EIPR-1 or EARP have defects in dense-core vesicle cargo-sorting similar to those of mutants in the RAB-2 pathway. Genetic epistasis data indicate that RAB-2, EIPR-1 and EARP function in a common pathway. In addition, using a proteomic approach in rat insulinoma cells, we show that EIPR-1 physically interacts with the EARP complex. Our data suggest that EIPR-1 is a new interactor of the EARP complex and that dense-core vesicle cargo sorting depends on the EARP-dependent trafficking of cargo through an endosomal sorting compartment.

  17. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the ''sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  18. A virtual zero-time, monolithic systolic sorting array

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.; Bouldin, D.W.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN )

    1990-01-01

    A virtual zero-time monolithic sorting chip is described. The chip has a systolic array architecture and implements the sinking sort'' algorithm. The basic functional module of the systolic array is detailed and development techniques employed as well as functional simulation and results are presented. Lessons learned and educational significance of the development of this chip at a university are discussed. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  20. Design of mode-sorting asymmetric Y-junctions.

    PubMed

    Riesen, Nicolas; Love, John D

    2012-05-20

    The theory of mode-sorting in bimodal asymmetric Y-junctions is extended to multimode asymmetric Y-junctions with multiple output arms. This theory allows for the optimization of these mode-sorting planar structures. Asymmetric Y-junctions provide unique opportunities for spatial mode division multiplexing (MDM) of optical fiber. Spatial MDM is considered paramount to overcoming the bandwidth limitations of single-mode fiber. The design criteria presented in this paper facilitate their design.

  1. Tunable superomniphobic surfaces for sorting droplets by surface tension.

    PubMed

    Movafaghi, S; Wang, W; Metzger, A; Williams, D D; Williams, J D; Kota, A K

    2016-08-16

    We utilized tunable superomniphobic surfaces with flower-like TiO2 nanostructures to fabricate a simple device with precisely tailored surface energy domains that, for the first time, can sort droplets by surface tension. We envision that our methodology for droplet sorting will enable inexpensive and energy-efficient analytical devices for personalized point-of-care diagnostic platforms, lab-on-a-chip systems, biochemical assays and biosensors. PMID:27412084

  2. Sorting Out the Video Game Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespi, Pam

    1983-01-01

    This article looks at the controversy over video games; arguments for and against them are offered, along with a list of regulations in force around the country and nine important factors agencies should consider before leasing the machines. (JM)

  3. Molecular characterization of flow-sorted mammalian centromeres

    SciTech Connect

    Hamkalo, B.A.; Henschen, A.; Parseghian, M.H.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved experiments directed towards developing a molecular characterization of the centromere region of mammalian chromosomes. Attempts to purify this essential chromosomal locus by conventional methods have thus far been unsuccessful. However, preliminary data obtained in collaboration with the National Flow Cytometry Resource (NFCR) showed that it is possible to purify a chromosome fragment that is present in certain cultured mouse cell lines and has all the properties expected of an intact centromere region. To begin sorting this minichromosome for the identification of proteins preferentially associated with centromere regions, standard buffers utilized in chromosome sorting were evaluated for potential effects on maintenance of chromosomal proteins during sorting. The data indicate that the presence of several buffer constituents results in the extraction of all but a few chromosomal proteins. The subsequent use of a magnesium sulfate buffer resulted in the sorting of mouse chromosomes that do not suffer a significant loss of proteins. Several DNA stains were also evaluated for causing protein dissociation, but no significant losses were observed. Although flow-sorted chromosomes have been used extensively for DNA analysis and cloning, this is a pioneering effort by the NFCR, and its collaborators, to exploit chromosome sorting capabilities for the analysis of chromosomal proteins.

  4. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-11-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. cell sorting | microfluidics

  5. The analysis and synthesis of a parallel sorting engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, B.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a unique parallel sort-merge system suitable for implementation in VLSI. Two new sorting subsystems, a high performance VLSI sorter and a four-way merger, were also realized during the development process. In addition, the analysis of several existing parallel sorting architectures and algorithms was carried out. Algorithmic time complexity, VLSI processor performance, and chip area requirements for the existing sorting systems were evaluated. The rebound sorting algorithm was determined to be the most efficient among those considered. The rebound sorter algorithm was implemented in hardware as a systolic array with external expansion capability. The second phase of the research involved analyzing several parallel merge algorithms and their buffer management schemes. The dominant considerations for this phase of the research were the achievement of minimum VLSI chip area, design complexity, and logic delay. It was determined that the proposed merger architecture could be implemented in several ways. Selecting the appropriate microarchitecture for the merge, given the constraints of chip area and performance, was the major problem. The tradeoffs associated with this process are outlined. Finally, a pipelined sort-merge system was implemented in VLSI by combining a rebound sorter and a four-way merger on a single chip. The final chip size was 416 mils by 432 mils. Two micron CMOS technology was utilized in this chip realization. An overall throughput rate of 10M bytes/sec was achieved.

  6. [Free sorting task of speech disorders by expert and non-expert listeners].

    PubMed

    Woisard, V; Gaillard, P; Duez, D

    2012-01-01

    Understood the strategies underlying the perception of speech motor disorders (SMD) is useful for the management of people with this kind of disorders. Our hypothesis was that intelligibility of speech is a dramatic decision factor for the classification of speech production independently of the type of listeners. Two types of listeners: 15 experts (logopedists and phoniatricians), and 15 non experts (students in the field of heath care without any experience) participated at this study performing a free sorting task of 33 stimuli. The stimuli are a sentence readed by 13 control subjects and 20 subjects with a SMD of several kinds of etiologies. The methodology used for the analysis is the visualization of proximity trees by a sorting mathematical algorithm and the analysis of the free commentaries as a discourse. The results confirm that the degree of alteration of intelligibility is the main factor distributed in the sorts, but the reference to the "normality" is an other strong criteria and this notion is frequently associated with a description of the stimuli at a level of voice more than a level of speech. These results lead to a new hypothesis of a classification of perception of speech included a speech disorders, determined at an extremity by a comparison with a "prototype of normality" and at the other extremity by the characteristic of "intelligibility or understandibility" reinforcing some concepts of speech rehabilitation.

  7. Microfluidic electrical sorting of particles based on shape in a spiral microchannel

    PubMed Central

    DuBose, John; Lu, Xinyu; Patel, Saurin; Qian, Shizhi; Woo Joo, Sang; Xuan, Xiangchun

    2014-01-01

    Shape is an intrinsic marker of cell cycle, an important factor for identifying a bioparticle, and also a useful indicator of cell state for disease diagnostics. Therefore, shape can be a specific marker in label-free particle and cell separation for various chemical and biological applications. We demonstrate in this work a continuous-flow electrical sorting of spherical and peanut-shaped particles of similar volumes in an asymmetric double-spiral microchannel. It exploits curvature-induced dielectrophoresis to focus particles to a tight stream in the first spiral without any sheath flow and subsequently displace them to shape-dependent flow paths in the second spiral without any external force. We also develop a numerical model to simulate and understand this shape-based particle sorting in spiral microchannels. The predicted particle trajectories agree qualitatively with the experimental observation. PMID:24753722

  8. Particle shape-controlled sorting and transport behaviour of mixed siliciclastic/bioclastic sediments in a mesotidal lagoon, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemming, Burghard W.

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the effect of particle shape on the transport and deposition of mixed siliciclastic-bioclastic sediments in the lower mesotidal Langebaan Lagoon along the South Atlantic coast of South Africa. As the two sediment components have undergone mutual sorting for the last 7 ka, they can be expected to have reached a highest possible degree of hydraulic equivalence. A comparison of sieve and settling tube data shows that, with progressive coarsening of the size fractions, the mean diameters of individual sediment components increasingly depart from the spherical quartz standard, the experimental data demonstrating the hydraulic incompatibility of the sieve data. Overall, the spatial distribution patterns of textural parameters (mean settling diameter, sorting and skewness) of the siliciclastic and bioclastic sediment components are very similar. Bivariate plots between them reveal linear trends when averaged over small intervals. A systematic deviation is observed in sorting, the trend ranging from uniformity at poorer sorting levels to a progressively increasing lag of the bioclastic component relative to the siliciclastic one as overall sorting improves. The deviation amounts to 0.8 relative sorting units at the optimal sorting level. The small textural differences between the two components are considered to reflect the influence of particle shape, which prevents the bioclastic fraction from achieving complete textural equivalence with the siliciclastic one. This is also reflected in the inferred transport behaviour of the two shape components, the bioclastic fraction moving closer to the bed than the siliciclastic one because of the higher drag experienced by low shape factor particles. As a consequence, the bed-phase development of bioclastic sediments departs significantly from that of siliciclastic sediments. Systematic flume experiments, however, are currently still lacking.

  9. SoRT2: a tool for sorting genomes and reconstructing phylogenetic trees by reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yen-Lin; Huang, Chen-Cheng; Tang, Chuan Yi; Lu, Chin Lung

    2010-07-01

    SoRT(2) is a web server that allows the user to perform genome rearrangement analysis involving reversals, generalized transpositions and translocations (including fusions and fissions), and infer phylogenetic trees of genomes being considered based on their pairwise genome rearrangement distances. It takes as input two or more linear/circular multi-chromosomal gene (or synteny block) orders in FASTA-like format. When the input is two genomes, SoRT(2) will quickly calculate their rearrangement distance, as well as a corresponding optimal scenario by highlighting the genes involved in each rearrangement operation. In the case of multiple genomes, SoRT(2) will also construct phylogenetic trees of these genomes based on a matrix of their pairwise rearrangement distances using distance-based approaches, such as neighbor-joining (NJ), unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and Fitch-Margoliash (FM) methods. In addition, if the function of computing jackknife support values is selected, SoRT(2) will further perform the jackknife analysis to evaluate statistical reliability of the constructed NJ, UPGMA and FM trees. SoRT(2) is available online at http://bioalgorithm.life.nctu.edu.tw/SORT2/.

  10. Trade-Off between Effectiveness and Equity? An Analysis of Social Sorting between Classrooms and between Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Esteban, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes whether school social segregation, derived from policies and practices of both between-school student allocation and within-school streaming, is related to the effectiveness of the Italian education system. Hierarchical regression models are used to set out territorially aggregated factors of social sorting influencing…

  11. Proceedings: Joint DOE/NSF Workshop on flow of particulates and fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    These proceedings are the result of the Fifth DOR-NSF Workshop on fundamental research in the area of particulate two-phase flow and granular flow. The present collection of twenty contributions from universities and national laboratories is based on research projects sponsored by either the Department of Energy or the National Science Foundation. These papers illustrate some of the latest advances in theory, simulations, and experiments. The papers from the Workshop held September 29--October 1, 1993 have been separated into three basic areas: experiments, theory, and numerical simulations. A list of attendees at the workshop is included at the end of the proceedings. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Crossing Borders to Advance the Frontier: NSF's Role in International Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bement, Arden

    2006-04-01

    The globalization of today's science and engineering is unprecedented. Ideas and discoveries emerge around the world and are transmitted instantaneously. Skills and capabilities are moving to new venues. We can view this free flow of investment and intellectual capital not only as a challenge, but also as an opportunity to form partnerships that integrate our strengths with those of other cultures and economies. As a nation, we can seek additional ways to become a valued partner in the global arena. We can train scientists and engineers that are not only technically competent but also skilled in cross-disciplinary, multi-cultural collaborations. NSF is committed to building bridges across borders to pursue these goals and collaboratively advance the frontiers of science and engineering.

  13. Improving Science Teacher Preparation through the APS PhysTEC and NSF Noyce Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tasha; Tyler, Micheal; van Duzor, Andrea; Sabella, Mel

    2013-03-01

    Central to the recruitment of students into science teaching at a school like CSU, is a focus on the professional nature of teaching. The purpose of this focus is twofold: it serves to change student perceptions about teaching and it prepares students to become teachers who value continued professional development and value the science education research literature. The Noyce and PhysTEC programs at CSU place the professional nature of teaching front and center by involving students in education research projects, paid internships, attendance at conferences, and participation in a new Teacher Immersion Institute and a Science Education Journal Reading Class. This poster will focus on specific components of our teacher preparation program that were developed through these two programs. In addition we will describe how these new components provide students with diverse experiences in the teaching of science to students in the urban school district. Supported by the NSF Noyce Program (0833251) and the APS PhysTEC Program.

  14. Monitoring the consequences of decreased ozone protection: The NSF ultraviolet radiation monitoring network

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The effects of decreased protection from ultraviolet radiation are as troubling as the continuing depletion of stratospheric ozone. Evidence exists to clearly link ozone depletion to changes in the antarctic marine environment. Results of two 1992 papers are summarized here. Enhanced exposure to mid-range UV radiation was found to be affecting marine ecosystems with a recorded 6-12 percent reduction in primary productivity directly related to the ozone layer depletion. In another experiment, a model was developed indicating that the ozone hole could reduce near-surface photosynthesis by as much as 12-15 percent. The NSF UV monitoring system in place for these and other experiments uses a spectroradiometer, making hourly, high-resolution measurements of the distribution of UV surface irradiance.

  15. Preparing Scientists for Scientific Careers: Broader Impacts from an NSF CAREER Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosby, Alfred

    2008-03-01

    The scientific focus of my NSF CAREER Award is the impact of patterns, topographical and surface chemical in design, on the adhesion of soft polymer interfaces. Although this topic has provided a strong foundation for the mentoring and training of graduate students, the primary broader impacts of my award have focused on the development of ``soft'' skills in graduate and post-doctoral researchers in STEM disciplines. I have developed a course on ``Scientific and Engineering Management,'' which provides an open forum for students to explore the skills that, in many ways, define successful careers for many scientists. Topics include: leadership, proposal writing, group management, communication in diverse environments, and ethics. In this presentation, I highlight the primary phases of this program, how it meshes with scientific goals, and general statements about the mission of education outreach within STEM disciplines.

  16. Structural analysis of wind turbine rotors for NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spera, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary estimates are presented of vibratory loads and stresses in hingeless and teetering rotors for the proposed NSF-NASA Mod-0 wind power system. Preliminary blade design utilizes a tapered tubular aluminum spar which supports nonstructural aluminum ribs and skin and is joined to the rotor hub by a steel shank tube. Stresses in the shank of the blade are calculated for static, rated, and overload operating conditions. Blade vibrations were limited to the fundamental flapping modes, which were elastic cantilever bending for hingeless rotor blades and rigid-body rotation for teetering rotor blades. The MOSTAB-C computer code was used to calculate aerodynamic and mechanical loads. The teetering rotor has substantial advantages over the hingeless rotor with respect to shank stresses, fatigue life, and tower loading. The hingeless rotor analyzed does not appear to be structurally stable during overloads.

  17. A Five Year Summary of the NSF PAARE Project at SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J.; Hartmann, D.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the progress made over five years of “A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)”. This NSF-funded project is part of the “Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Graduate fellowships provided by POCA as well as recruitment efforts on the national level have resulted in enrolling a total of four underrepresented minorities into the Ph.D. program in astronomy at Clemson. One of these has completed her M.S. in astronomy, while the others continue on toward the doctorate. We summarize the success and challenges of recruiting students into the undergraduate physics major with astronomy option at SC State and the support POCA has provided for nearly two dozen of them. Our summer REU program under POCA includes underrepresented students from across the country conducting research at each of our three institutions. Their work can be found elsewhere at this conference (Hernandez et al., Kurgatt et al. and Pugh et al.) Examples are given of our inquiry-based, laboratory exercises and web- based activities related to cosmology that have been developed with PAARE funding. We discuss our ground-based photometric and spectroscopic study of RV Tauri and Semiregular variables as well as our successful Kepler Cycle 2 and Cycle 4 study of a dozen of these objects . Support for the POCA project is provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under award NNX11AB82G. Additional details can be found at: http://physics.scsu.edu/paare/

  18. Year 4 Of The NSF-funded PAARE Project At SC State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Donald K.; Brittain, S. D.; Cash, J. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Howell, S. B.; King, J. R.; Leising, M. D.; Mayo, E. A.; Mighell, K. J.; Smith, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We summarize the progress made through Year 4 of "A Partnership in Observational and Computational Astronomy (POCA)". This NSF-funded project is part of the "Partnerships in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE)" program. Our partnership includes South Carolina State University (a Historically Black College/University), Clemson University (a Ph.D. granting institution) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Fellowships provided by POCA as well as recruitment efforts on the national level have resulted in enrolling a total of four underrepresented minorities into the Ph.D. program in astronomy at Clemson. We report on the success and challenges to recruiting students into the undergraduate physics major with astronomy option at SC State. Our summer REU program under POCA includes underrepresented students from across the country conducting research at each of our three institutions. Examples are given of our inquiry-based, laboratory exercises and web- based activities related to cosmology that have been developed with PAARE funding. We discuss our ground-based photometric and spectroscopic study of RV Tauri and Semi-Regular variables which has been expanded to include successful Cycle 2 Kepler observations of a dozen of these objects reported elsewhere at this conference (see D.K. Walter, et.al.). Support for the POCA project is provided by the NSF PAARE program to South Carolina State University under award AST-0750814 as well as resources and support provided by Clemson University and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. Support for the Kepler observations is provided by NASA to South Carolina State University under award NNX11AB82G.

  19. The alternate AP-1 adaptor subunit Apm2 interacts with the Mil1 regulatory protein and confers differential cargo sorting

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Shawn T.; Burston, Helen E.; Bean, Björn D. M.; Raghuram, Nandini; Maldonado-Báez, Lymarie; Davey, Michael; Wendland, Beverly; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Heterotetrameric adaptor protein complexes are important mediators of cargo protein sorting in clathrin-coated vesicles. The cell type–specific expression of alternate μ chains creates distinct forms of AP-1 with altered cargo sorting, but how these subunits confer differential function is unclear. Whereas some studies suggest the μ subunits specify localization to different cellular compartments, others find that the two forms of AP-1 are present in the same vesicle but recognize different cargo. Yeast have two forms of AP-1, which differ only in the μ chain. Here we show that the variant μ chain Apm2 confers distinct cargo-sorting functions. Loss of Apm2, but not of Apm1, increases cell surface levels of the v-SNARE Snc1. However, Apm2 is unable to replace Apm1 in sorting Chs3, which requires a dileucine motif recognized by the γ/σ subunits common to both complexes. Apm2 and Apm1 colocalize at Golgi/early endosomes, suggesting that they do not associate with distinct compartments. We identified a novel, conserved regulatory protein that is required for Apm2-dependent sorting events. Mil1 is a predicted lipase that binds Apm2 but not Apm1 and contributes to its membrane recruitment. Interactions with specific regulatory factors may provide a general mechanism to diversify the functional repertoire of clathrin adaptor complexes. PMID:26658609

  20. A sorting system with automated gates permits individual operant experiments with mice from a social home cage.

    PubMed

    Winter, York; Schaefers, Andrea T U

    2011-03-30

    Behavioral experiments based on operant procedures can be time-consuming for small amounts of data. While individual testing and handling of animals can influence attention, emotion, and behavior, and interfere with experimental outcome, many operant protocols require individual testing. We developed an RFID-technology- and transponder-based sorting system that allows removing the human factor for longer-term experiments. Identity detectors and automated gates route mice individually from their social home cage to an adjacent operant compartment with 24/7 operation. CD1-mice learnt quickly to individually pass through the sorting system. At no time did more than a single mouse enter the operant compartment. After 3 days of adjusting to the sorting system, groups of 4 mice completed about 50 experimental trials per day in the operant compartment without experimenter intervention. The automated sorting system eliminates handling, isolation, and disturbance of the animals, eliminates experimenter-induced variability, saves experimenter time, and is financially economical. It makes possible a new approach for high-throughput experimentation, and is a viable tool for increasing quality and efficiency of many behavioral and neurobiological investigations. It can connect a social home cage, through individual sorting automation, to diverse setups including classical operant chambers, mazes, or arenas with video-based behavior classification. Such highly automated systems will permit efficient high-throughput screening even for transgenic animals with only subtle neurological or psychiatric symptoms where elaborate or longer-term protocols are required for behavioral diagnosis.

  1. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system. PMID:25817721

  2. Quantitative assessment of distance to collection point and improved sorting information on source separation of household waste.

    PubMed

    Rousta, Kamran; Bolton, Kim; Lundin, Magnus; Dahlén, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    The present study measures the participation of households in a source separation scheme and, in particular, if the household's application of the scheme improved after two interventions: (a) shorter distance to the drop-off point and (b) easy access to correct sorting information. The effect of these interventions was quantified and, as far as possible, isolated from other factors that can influence the recycling behaviour. The study was based on households located in an urban residential area in Sweden, where waste composition studies were performed before and after the interventions by manual sorting (pick analysis). Statistical analyses of the results indicated a significant decrease (28%) of packaging and newsprint in the residual waste after establishing a property close collection system (intervention (a)), as well as significant decrease (70%) of the miss-sorted fraction in bags intended for food waste after new information stickers were introduced (intervention (b)). Providing a property close collection system to collect more waste fractions as well as finding new communication channels for information about sorting can be used as tools to increase the source separation ratio. This contribution also highlights the need to evaluate the effects of different types of information and communication concerning sorting instructions in a property close collection system.

  3. Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-04-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) has been recently proposed for label-free phenotypic identification of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. However, the methods used for measuring the Raman spectra led to acquisition times of minutes per cell, which is prohibitive for rapid cell sorting applications. In this study we evaluated two measurement strategies that could reduce the measurement time by a factor of more than 100. We show that sampling individual cells with a laser beam focused to a line could eliminate the need of cell raster scanning and achieve high prediction accuracies (>95% specificity and >96% sensitivity) with acquisition times ~5 seconds per cell. However, the use of commercially-available higher power lasers could potentially lead to sorting speeds of ~10 cells per s. This would start to progress RMS to the field of cell sorting for applications such as enrichment and purification of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.

  4. Sex-sorted canine sperm cryopreservation: limits and procedural considerations.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Barbara; Zambelli, Daniele; Cunto, Marco; Iacono, Eleonora; Nasi, Ludovica; Giaretta, Elisa; Galeati, Giovanna; Bucci, Diego; Spinaci, Marcella

    2015-04-15

    The aim of this study was to define a protocol to store dog sperm before and after sorting to obtain an insemination dose sufficient to allow the conception by artificial insemination. Experiment 1 and 2 were performed to evaluate the more appropriate extender for preserving at room temperature dog sperm before and after sorting. Four extenders were tested: (1) Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC), (2) Tris-glucose-citrate (TGC), (3) modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium (mTALP), and (4) third fraction of the ejaculate (after centrifugation at 5000× g for 10 minutes; III FRAC). Experiment 3 and 4 were performed to evaluate the ability of dog semen to withstand sex sorting and freezing/thawing. Modified Tyrode's albumin lactate pyruvate medium was the best extender for canine sperm storage at room temperature (20 °C-25 °C) before (total motility: TFC, 8.3 ± 1.7; TGC, 50.0 ± 11.5; mTALP, 70.0 ± 0.1; III FRAC, 25.0 ± 1 0.4; P < 0.05) and after sorting (total motility: TFC, 7.3 ± 1.5; TGC, 10.3 ± 1.5; mTALP, 33.3 ± 6.7; III FRAC, 8.7 ± 5.8; P < 0.05), even if at 24-hour sorted sperm quality was impaired in all extenders tested herein. Sperm quality decreased after sorting (total motility: control, 92.5 ± 0.9; sorted, 52.9 ± 6.0; P < 0.05) and, especially, after freezing/thawing (total motility: frozen control, 25.7 ± 4.1; frozen sorted, 2.4 ± 1.2; P < 0.05). In conclusion, mTALP is an appropriate medium for canine sperm storage before and soon after sorting (hours), but a long storage period of sexed sperm at room temperature is not adequate. Cryopreservation greatly impaired sperm quality, and further studies are needed to optimize the freezing protocol for sexed dog sperm.

  5. Pure chromosome-specific PCR libraries from single sorted chromosomes.

    PubMed Central

    VanDevanter, D R; Choongkittaworn, N M; Dyer, K A; Aten, J; Otto, P; Behler, C; Bryant, E M; Rabinovitch, P S

    1994-01-01

    Chromosome-specific DNA libraries can be very useful in molecular and cytogenetic genome mapping studies. We have developed a rapid and simple method for the generation of chromosome-specific DNA sequences that relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of a single flow-sorted chromosome or chromosome fragment. Previously reported methods for the development of chromosome libraries require larger numbers of chromosomes, with preparation of pure chromosomes sorted by flow cytometry, generation of somatic cell hybrids containing targeted chromosomes, or a combination of both procedures. These procedures are labor intensive, especially when hybrid cell lines are not already available, and this has limited the generation of chromosome-specific DNA libraries from nonhuman species. In contrast, a single sorted chromosome is a pure source of DNA for library production even when flow cytometric resolution of chromosome populations is poor. Furthermore, any sorting cytometer may be used with this technique. Using this approach, we demonstrate the generation of PCR libraries suitable for both molecular and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies from individual baboon and canine chromosomes, separate human homologues, and a rearranged marker chromosome from a transformed cell line. PCR libraries specific to subchromosomal regions have also been produced by sorting a small chromosome fragment. This simple and rapid technique will allow generation of nonhuman linkage maps and probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization and the characterization of marker chromosomes from solid tumors. In addition, allele-specific libraries generated by this strategy may also be useful for mapping genetic diseases. Images PMID:8016078

  6. Mechanically robust microfluidics and bulk wave acoustics to sort microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauson, Erin R.; Gregory, Kelvin B.; Greve, David W.; Healy, Gregory P.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    Sorting microparticles (or cells, or bacteria) is significant for scientific, medical and industrial purposes. Research groups have used lithium niobate SAW devices to produce standing waves, and then to align microparticles at the node lines in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, silicone) microfluidic channels. The "tilted angle" (skewed) configuration is a recent breakthrough producing particle trajectories that cross multiple node lines, making it practical to sort particles. However, lithium niobate wafers and PDMS microfluidic channels are not mechanically robust. We demonstrate "tilted angle" microparticle sorting in novel devices that are robust, rapidly prototyped, and manufacturable. We form our microfluidic system in a rigid polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, acrylic) prism, sandwiched by lead-zirconium-titanate (PZT) wafers, operating in through-thickness mode with inertial backing, that produce standing bulk waves. The overall configuration is compact and mechanically robust, and actuating PZT wafers in through-thickness mode is highly efficient. Moving to this novel configuration introduced new acoustics questions involving internal reflections, but we show experimental images confirming the intended nodal geometry. Microparticles in "tilted angle" devices display undulating trajectories, where deviation from the straight path increases with particle diameter and with excitation voltage to create the mechanism by which particles are sorted. We show a simplified analytical model by which a "phase space" is constructed to characterize effective particle sorting, and we compare our experimental data to the predictions from that simplified model; precise correlation is not expected and is not observed, but the important physical trends from the model are paralleled in the measured particle trajectories.

  7. Marker-specific sorting of rare cells using dielectrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaoyuan; Bessette, Paul H.; Qian, Jiangrong; Meinhart, Carl D.; Daugherty, Patrick S.; Soh, Hyongsok T.

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques in high-speed cell sorting are limited by the inherent coupling among three competing parameters of performance: throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. Microfluidics provides an alternate strategy to decouple these parameters through the use of arrayed devices that operate in parallel. To efficiently isolate rare cells from complex mixtures, an electrokinetic sorting methodology was developed that exploits dielectrophoresis (DEP) in microfluidic channels. In this approach, the dielectrophoretic amplitude response of rare target cells is modulated by labeling cells with particles that differ in polarization response. Cell mixtures were interrogated in the DEP-activated cell sorter in a continuous-flow manner, wherein the electric fields were engineered to achieve efficient separation between the dielectrophoretically labeled and unlabeled cells. To demonstrate the efficiency of marker-specific cell separation, DEP-activated cell sorting (DACS) was applied for affinity-based enrichment of rare bacteria expressing a specific surface marker from an excess of nontarget bacteria that do not express this marker. Rare target cells were enriched by >200-fold in a single round of sorting at a single-channel throughput of 10,000 cells per second. DACS offers the potential for automated, surface marker-specific cell sorting in a disposable format that is capable of simultaneously achieving high throughput, purity, and rare cell recovery. PMID:16236724

  8. Viable infectious cell sorting in a BSL-3 facility.

    PubMed

    Perfetto, Stephen P; Ambrozak, David R; Roederer, Mario; Koup, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the increase in demand for high-speed cell sorting of viable infectious and now therapeutic cell samples, safety concerns for the protection of flow cytometer operators have increased. This chapter describes a quick, sensitive, and reproducible procedure to assure sample containment before sorting these samples. This procedure includes aerosol containment, physical barriers, environmental controls, and personal protection. An aerosol management system produces a negative pressure within the sort chamber where aerosols are vacuumed directly into a HEPA filter. Physical barriers include the manufacturer's standard plastic shield and panels. The flow cytometer is contained in a BSL-3 laboratory for maximum environmental control and the operator is protected using a respiratory system. Containment is measured using highly fluorescent Glo-Germ particles under the same conditions as the cell sort but with the sorter adjusted to produce large amounts of aerosols. These aerosols are collected by a vacuum air sampling system for 10 min in three locations onto a glass slide and examined microscopically. With this system in place, aerosol containment can be measured quickly and efficiently, therefore reducing the risk to the operator when sorting viable infectious cells. PMID:14976381

  9. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-01-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs. PMID:27476909

  10. Sorting centimetre-long single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Woo Jong; Chae, Sang Hoon; Vu, Quoc An; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-08-01

    While several approaches have been developed for sorting metallic (m) or semiconducting (s) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), the length of SWCNTs is limited within a micrometer, which restricts excellent electrical performances of SWCNTs for macro-scale applications. Here, we demonstrate a simple sorting method of centimetre-long aligned m- and s-SWCNTs. Ni particles were selectively and uniformly coated along the 1-cm-long m-SWCNTs by applying positive gate bias during electrochemical deposition with continuous electrolyte injection. To sort s-SWCNTs, the Ni coating was oxidized to form insulator outer for blocking of current flow through inner m-SWCNTs. Sorting of m-SWCNTs were demonstrated by selective etching of s-SWCNTs via oxygen plasma, while the protected m-SWCNTs by Ni coating remained intact. The series of source-drain pairs were patterned along the 1-cm-long sorted SWCNTs, which confirmed high on/off ratio of 104–108 for s-SWCNTs and nearly 1 for m-SWCNTs.

  11. Undergraduate Research as a Process for STEM Teaching and Learning Systemic Change: Lessons Learned from the Council on Undergraduate Research NSF CCLI and TUES Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambos, E. L.; Havholm, K. G.; Malachowski, M.; Osborn, J.; Karukstis, K.

    2013-12-01

    concerted efforts to affect policy, workload, tenure and promotion and resource issues, which are often core factors in any STEM education change process. Several systems are now connecting individual campus-based undergraduate research efforts more effectively, and tying undergraduate research to regional workforce and economic development programs. Many campus teams are moving their department and colleges toward curricular innovations that emphasize scaffolding undergraduate research throughout the undergraduate curriculum. An NSF EAGER/WIDER supplement to the CUR CCLI III award was received in October 2012 and expanded the scope of the project to include deeper study of the changes processes underway at each of the six systems and to tease out the factors that can either promote or retard expansion of undergraduate research as a teaching and learning paradigm. Lessons learned from one of the six systems, the University of Wisconsin, will be highlighted.

  12. Screening mammography benefit controversies: sorting the evidence.

    PubMed

    Feig, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Numerous clinical studies have confirmed that screening women age 40 years and older reduces breast cancer mortality by 30% to 50%. Several factors including faster breast cancer growth rates and lower breast cancer incidence among younger women, as well as shorter life expectancy and more comorbid conditions among older women, should also be considered in screening guidelines. Annual screening beginning at age 40 years and continuing with no upper age limit, as long as a woman has a life expectancy of at least 5 years and no significant comorbid conditions, is currently recommended.

  13. The Method of Sorting as a Data-Gathering Procedure in Multivariate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Seymour; Kim, Moonja Park

    1975-01-01

    Compares two basic variants of the sorting method: single-sort and multiple sort. The nature of individual differences in sorting, as well as sex differences, were also investigated. Stimulus materials were the 15 mutually exclusive kinship terms selected by Wallace and Atkins (1960). (RC)

  14. Assessment of Preschool Classroom Practices: Application of Q-Sort Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the application of Q-sort methodology to the development of the Preschool Classroom Practices (PCP) Q-sort. The PCP Q-sort was tested in a sample of 66 preschool teachers and assistants. Results demonstrated the existence of a 2-cluster structure within the Q-sort, comprised of Cognitive Development Activities and…

  15. REAL-WORLD SORTING OF RHIC SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.; JAIN,A.; PEGGS,S.; THOMPSON,P.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; WANDERER,P.

    1999-03-29

    During the seven-year construction of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), more than 1700 superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles, sextupoles, and multi-layer correctors have been constructed and installed. These magnets have been sorted at several production stages to optimize their performance and reliability. For arc magnets, priorities have been put first on quench performance and operational risk minimization, second on field transfer function and other first-order quantities, and finally on nonlinear field errors which were painstakingly optimized at design. For Interaction-Region (IR) magnets, sorting is applied to select the best possible combination of magnets for the low-{beta}* interaction points (IP). This paper summarizes the history of this real-world sorting process.

  16. Amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals by sampling

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for amplitude sorting of oscillatory burst signals is described in which the burst signal is detected to produce a burst envelope signal and an intermediate or midportion of such envelope signal is sampled to provide a sample pulse output. The height of the sample pulse is proportional to the amplitude of the envelope signal and to the maximum burst signal amplitude. The sample pulses are fed to a pulse height analyzer for sorting. The present invention is used in an acoustic emission testing system to convert the amplitude of the acoustic emission burst signals into sample pulse heights which are measured by a pulse height analyzer for sorting the pulses in groups according to their height in order to identify the material anomalies in the test material which emit the acoustic signals.

  17. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic. PMID:24695190

  18. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood.

  19. Development of magnetic chromatography to sort polydisperse nanoparticles in ferrofluids.

    PubMed

    Forge, Delphine; Gossuin, Yves; Roch, Alain; Laurent, Sophie; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N

    2010-01-01

    Whatever the strategy of synthesis, nanoparticles in magnetic fluids commonly feature a broad size distribution. However, the presence of several size populations in ferrofluids is often problematic because of the close relationship between the efficiency of the nanoparticles and their physicochemical properties. In this work, a magnetic size sorting procedure is developed in order to reduce this polydispersity, using the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanoparticles. This magnetic sorting with an adjustable magnetic field allows isolation of the small superparamagnetic particles as well as the larger particles. Magnetometry, nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion profiles and transmission electron microscopy were successfully used to check the efficiency of the magnetic sorting procedure, which was shown to work as a 'magnetic' chromatography.

  20. "Clothed in triple blues": sorting out the Italian blues.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Uusküla, Mari

    2014-04-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of color perception and cognition often feature versions of the "similarity sorting" procedure. By interpreting the assignment of two color samples to different groups as an indication that the dissimilarity between them exceeds some threshold, sorting data can be regarded as low-resolution similarity judgments. Here we analyze sorting data from speakers of Italian, Russian, and English, applying multidimensional scaling to delineate the boundaries between perceptual categories while highlighting differences between the three populations. Stimuli were 55 color swatches, predominantly from the blue region. Results suggest that at least two Italian words for "blue" are basic, a similar situation to Russian, in contrast to English where a single "blue" term is basic.

  1. On-Line Sorting Maturity of Cherry Tomato Bymachine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinglong; Yin, Xiaoping; Xu, Tongyu; Zhao, Jiewen

    The cherry tomatoes online sorting according to their maturity is an important procedure after harvest. This research proposed an automated cherry tomato grading system base on machine vision. Three images of different angles are obtained from each cherry tomato, allowing the inspection of approximately 90% of the fruit surface. 9 features were extracted from the one cherry tomato images. In order to distinguish into three grades (immature, half ripe and ripe), Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discrimination analysis (LDA) were used to analyze the features. The PCA results show that ripe cherry tomatoes are distinguished from immature and half ripe ones. 414 cherry tomatoes were tested by the online sorting system. The overall accuracy was up to 94.9%. Furthermore, the grading speed of the sorting line reaches 7 cherry tomatoes per second which meet the actual demand of many farms.

  2. Particle migration and sorting in microbubble streaming flows.

    PubMed

    Thameem, Raqeeb; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonic driving of semicylindrical microbubbles generates strong streaming flows that are robust over a wide range of driving frequencies. We show that in microchannels, these streaming flow patterns can be combined with Poiseuille flows to achieve two distinctive, highly tunable methods for size-sensitive sorting and trapping of particles much smaller than the bubble itself. This method allows higher throughput than typical passive sorting techniques, since it does not require the inclusion of device features on the order of the particle size. We propose a simple mechanism, based on channel and flow geometry, which reliably describes and predicts the sorting behavior observed in experiment. It is also shown that an asymptotic theory that incorporates the device geometry and superimposed channel flow accurately models key flow features such as peak speeds and particle trajectories, provided it is appropriately modified to account for 3D effects caused by the axial confinement of the bubble.

  3. Development of the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort.

    PubMed

    Berg, Christine; McCollum, Mary; Cho, Esther; Jason, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Emerging adulthood defines transition to employment, higher education, and domestic life. This study describes the development of an assessment of self-reported participation in a range of age-appropriate activities. Item selection was established from literature review, feedback from youth and professionals, the former Adolescent Activity Card Sort (AACS), and the original Activity Card Sort (ACS). Iterative item selection occurred with three separate samples of emerging adults and six professionals. Test-retest reliability was evaluated. The Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) consists of chores (11 items), leisure (13), social (10), health and fitness (9), work (10), education (8), and parenting (9). Test-retest reliability showed significant moderate to substantial Kappa agreement (.48-.85) for all domains except parenting (κ = .15). This preliminary study describes the development of the AYA-ACS to be used with individuals who encounter challenges when transitioning to young adulthood. PMID:27505902

  4. Building Global Capacity for Conducting Operational Research Using the SORT IT Model: Where and Who?

    PubMed Central

    Zachariah, Rony; Rust, Stefanie; Berger, Selma Dar; Guillerm, Nathalie; Bissell, Karen; Delaunois, Paul; Reid, Anthony J.; Kumar, Ajay M. V.; Olliaro, Piero L.; Reeder, John C.; Harries, Anthony D.; Ramsay, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Setting Research capacity is weakest in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) where operational research is highly relevant and needed. Structured Operational Research and Training Initiative (SORT IT) courses have been developed to train participants to conduct and publish operational research and influence policy and practice. Twenty courses were completed in Asia, Africa, Europe and the South Pacific between 2009 and 2014. Objectives In the 20 completed SORT IT courses, to assess where the research was conducted, who was trained, who became facilitators in subsequent courses and course outcomes. Design A cohort study of completed SORT IT courses Results There were 236 participants (41% female) including 64 nationalities who conducted research in 59 countries, mostly from Asia and Africa (mean course duration = 9.7 months). Most participants (68%) were from government health programs and non-governmental agencies. A total of 213(90%) participants completed all milestones successfully with 41(19%) becoming subsequent course facilitators, 88% of whom were from LMICs. Of 228 manuscripts submitted to scientific journals, 197(86%) were either published or in press; in 86%, the principal investigator (first author) was a LMIC national. Papers were published in 23 scientific journals (impact factor 0.5–4.4) and covered 21 disease categories (median publication time = 5.7 months). Published papers (186) had 94,794 cumulative article views/downloads. Article views/downloads for immediate open access articles were double those from closed access journals. Conclusion The SORT IT model has been effective in training personnel to produce relevant operational research in LMICs. It merits continued commitment and support for further scale-up and development. PMID:27505253

  5. Large-Volume Microfluidic Cell Sorting for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi; Wu, Lidan; Tay, Andy Kah Ping; Han, Jongyoon

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic cell-separation technologies have been studied for almost two decades, but the limited throughput has restricted their impact and range of application. Recent advances in microfluidics enable high-throughput cell sorting and separation, and this has led to various novel diagnostic and therapeutic applications that previously had been impossible to implement using microfluidics technologies. In this review, we focus on recent progress made in engineering large-volume microfluidic cell-sorting methods and the new applications enabled by them. PMID:26194427

  6. Seminal plasma effects on sex-sorting bovine sperm.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, C A; Graham, J K; Lenz, R W; Seidel, G E

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to determine which characteristics of bovine ejaculates affected efficacy of sex sorting bovine sperm by flow cytometry. The effects of first versus second ejaculates, seminal plasma content, addition of BSA, and seminal plasma from different bulls during staining were all studied, as was the effect of 8-hour storage with and without seminal plasma. Semen collected by artificial vagina was centrifuged at 1000 ×g for 15 minutes to separate sperm from seminal plasma; seminal plasma was clarified by 10 minutes of additional centrifugation at 2000 ×g. Sperm were rediluted to 160 × 10(6) sperm per mL with: Tyrode's medium plus albumin, lactate, and pyruvate (TALP) containing 0%, 5%, 10%, or 20% homologous seminal plasma, TALP containing 10% heterologous seminal plasma, or TALP containing 0.3% (control), 0.6%, or 1.2% BSA. After incubation with Hoechst 33342 for 45 minutes, an equal volume of TALP containing red food dye was added, and sperm were analyzed by flow cytometry/cell sorting to determine percent of live-oriented sperm, X sort rate, percent of membrane-impaired sperm, and split (degree of separation between X- and Y-bearing sperm populations). The percent of live-oriented sperm was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma (64%) than for sperm incubated with 5%, 10%, or 20% seminal plasma (60%, 59%, and 58%, respectively; P < 0.05). The X sort rate was higher for sperm incubated with 0% seminal plasma than sperm with 20% seminal plasma (4.26 vs. 3.61 × 10(3) sperm per second). When seminal plasma was exchanged between bull ejaculates, only one bull had seminal plasma that was detrimental to sperm, resulting in 31% membrane-impaired sperm compared with a range of 16% to 19% for seminal plasmas from other bulls (P < 0.05). The addition of BSA did not affect sort efficiency at the concentrations studied. Sperm from six bulls stored for 8 hours without seminal plasma had more membrane-impaired sperm (which were discarded) during

  7. Cell sorting is analogous to phase ordering in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beysens, D. A.; Forgacs, G.; Glazier, J. A.

    2000-08-01

    Morphogenetic processes, like sorting or spreading of tissues, characterize early embryonic development. An analogy between viscoelastic fluids and certain properties of embryonic tissues helps interpret these phenomena. The values of tissue-specific surface tensions are consistent with the equilibrium configurations that the Differential Adhesion Hypothesis predicts such tissues reach after sorting and spreading. Here we extend the fluid analogy to cellular kinetics. The same formalism applies to recent experiments on the kinetics of phase ordering in two-phase fluids. Our results provide biologically relevant information on the strength of binding between cell adhesion molecules under near-physiological conditions.

  8. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  9. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  10. Exploration of NSF-ATE Projects Approaches in the Integration of Technology and Engineering Education at the K-12 Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobel, Johannes; Mendoza Díaz, Noemi V.

    2012-01-01

    Access to post-secondary education, specifically in the technical, two-year institution area, is a topic of growing interest in the country. Funding agencies, such as NSF, via the Advanced Technological Education Program (ATE), are supporting initiatives and research aimed at increasing the number of technicians and engineers and improving…

  11. Master Teachers in Residence: Bringing a Classroom Perspective to Course Reform for NSF's Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Sarah; Neathery, Faye; Fholer, Gwen; Weger, Elayne; Voth, Bonnie; Townsend, Joyce; Campbell, DeAnn; Boedecker, Martha

    Master teachers can be influential in course revision. The Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC) teacher reform effort is a consortium of nine higher education institutions working with the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) reform effort to produce teachers better equipped for teaching science and mathematics. The reform emphasizes…

  12. Year-Long Peer Mentoring Activity to Enhance the Retention of Freshmen STEM Students in a NSF Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutright, Teresa J.; Evans, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The last year of a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded scholarship program was used to provide pseudo-formal peer mentoring activities to engineering, mathematics, and science undergraduates. A one-credit class was used to afford time for peer mentors and mentees to interact. During the fall semester, seniors augmented each week's topics with…

  13. Industrial Funding of Academic R&D Continues to Decline in FY 2004. Info Brief. NSF 06-315

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Britt, Ronda

    2006-01-01

    Industrial funding for research and development in academic science and engineering (S&E) dropped by 2.6 percent in FY 2004, the third consecutive year of declining support from this sector, according to data from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Survey of Research and Development Expenditures at Universities and Colleges (table 1). The…

  14. A Study of NSF Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP) Participants and Principal Investigators: 1984-1989. Volume I: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) supported more than 600 inservice teacher training programs between 1984 and 1989 under its Teacher Enhancement Program (TEP). Two studies were undertaken of TEP: the first was a survey of the 600 Principal Investigators (PIs) who had operated inservice teacher enhancement projects and the second, a survey of…

  15. Evaluation of NSF's Program of Grants and Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 1998, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched a program of Grants for Vertical Integration of Research and Education in the Mathematical Sciences (VIGRE). These grants were designed for institutions with PhD-granting departments in the mathematical sciences, for the purpose of developing high-quality education programs, at all levels,…

  16. Increasing Access for Economically Disadvantaged Students: The NSF/CSEM & S-STEM Programs at Louisiana State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Zakiya S.; Iyengar, Sitharama S.; Pang, Su-Seng; Warner, Isiah M.; Luces, Candace A.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing college degree attainment for students from disadvantaged backgrounds is a prominent component of numerous state and federal legislation focused on higher education. In 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) instituted the "Computer Science, Engineering, and Mathematics Scholarships" (CSEMS) program; this initiative was designed to…

  17. Strategic Research Partnerships: Proceedings from an NSF Workshop (Washington, D.C., October 13, 2000). Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowski, John E.; Link, Albert N.; Vonortas, Nicholas S.

    This document contains the proceedings from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Workshop on Strategic Research Partnerships. Papers include: (1) "Strategic Research Partnerships: Results of the Workshop" (Albert N. Link and Nicholas S. Vonortas); (2) "Strategic Research Partnerships: Evidence and Analysis" (Stephen Martin); (3) "Strategic…

  18. Annual Report of the National Science Foundation on Contract NSF-C414 Task III July 1966 through June 1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Chemical Society, Columbus, OH. Chemical Abstracts Service.

    This Annual Report describes in detail the work performed during the first year of Task III of Contract NSF-C414 and the present status of Task III work. The programs and achievements described constitute the first significant efforts to develop a user-oriented, cooperative program between major secondary scientific and technical information…

  19. A Patron for Pure Science. The National Science Foundation's Formative Years, 1945-57. NSF 82-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, J. Merton

    Provided in this book is a legislative and administrative history of the National Science Foundation (NSF) during its formative years (1945-57). The 15 chapter book is organized into three parts. Part 1 ("The Long Debate, 1945-50") narrates the legislative history of the Foundation's creation. Part 2 ("Beginning, 1950-54") discusses the…

  20. 77 FR 30330 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection for the NSF Graduate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Fellowship Program AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The... Reporting Requirements for the Graduate Research Fellowship Program. OMB Number: 3145-NEW. Expiration Date... collection. Abstract Proposed Project: The purpose of the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program is to...

  1. Wisconsin card sorting test: a new global score, with Italian norms, and its relationship with the Weigl sorting test.

    PubMed

    Laiacona, M; Inzaghi, M G; De Tanti, A; Capitani, E

    2000-10-01

    The Wisconsin card sorting test and the Weigl test are two neuropsychological tools widely used in clinical practice to assess frontal lobe functions. In this study we present norms useful for Italian subjects aged from 15 to 85 years, with 5-17 years of education. Concerning the Wisconsin card sorting test, a new measure of global efficiency (global score) is proposed as well as norms for some well known qualitative aspects of the performance, i.e. perseverative responses, failure to maintain the set and non-perseverative errors. In setting normative values, we followed a statistical methodology (equivalent scores) employed in Italy for other neuropsychological tests, in order to favour the possibility of comparison among these tests. A correlation study between the global score of the Wisconsin card sorting test and the score on the Weigl test was carried out and it emerges that some cognitive aspects are not overlapping in these two measures.

  2. Topographic control of sorted circle morphology on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Joana; Hauber, Ernst; Reiss, Dennis; Hiesinger, Harald; Johnsson, Andreas; van Gasselt, Stephan; Balme, Matt; Head, Jim; de Verra, Jean-Pierre; Steinbrügge, Gregor; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    Patterned ground is a typical phenomenon in polar, subpolar and alpine regions [1]. As it is commonly (but not necessarily!) related to freeze-thaw cycles, its presence on Mars could possibly point to locations and periods where and when liquid water existed in the recent past [2]. Sorted circles are a class of patterned ground that was tentatively identified in Elysium Planitia (Mars) [3], but this interpretation has been challenged on the basis of physical considerations [4]. Without direct access to potential patterned ground on Mars, the analysis of terrestrial analogues can inform the interpretation of Martian landforms. Svalbard (Norway) offers a wide variety of permafrost features that are morphologically analogous to Martian cold-climate landforms [5]. It hosts some of the best examples of sorted circles on Earth, which are located on the westernmost tip of Brøgger peninsula, on a broad strand flat that is characterized by a series of postglacial beach ridges [6]. Here we report on our analysis of sorted circle morphology (especially their plan-view shape, i.e. their "roundness" or ellipticity) and its correlation with local topography (slopes, curvature). Sorted circle morphology was determined from HRSC-AX images (for details on the flight campaign and image properties see ref [5]) and through field work. Topographic information comes from a 50 cm gridded DEM derived from HRSC-AX stereo images. We measured sorted circle morphology (ellipticity, azimuth of major axis) along a WNW-ESE traverse that runs from the inland towards the sea and is oriented perpendicular to the local beach ridge trend. Selected areas with homogeneous sorted circle appearance were visually mapped, and compared to the average slope, aspect, and the calculated topographic wetness index (TWI). Furthermore the whole traverse was classified into four different morphologies of the sorted patterned ground (sorted circles, sorted "ellipses", sorted nets and areas without patterned ground

  3. An Analysis of NSF Geosciences Research Experience for Undergraduate Site Programs from 2009 through 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rom, E. L.; Patino, L. C.; Weiler, S.; Sanchez, S. C.; Colon, Y.; Antell, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) provides U.S. undergraduate students from any college or university the opportunity to conduct research at a different institution and gain a better understanding of research career pathways. The Geosciences REU Sites foster research opportunities in areas closely aligned with geoscience programs, particularly those related to earth, atmospheric and ocean sciences. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the Geosciences REU Site programs run in 2009 through 2011. A survey requesting information on recruitment methods, student demographics, enrichment activities, and fields of research was sent to the Principal Investigators of each of the active REU Sites. Over 70% of the surveys were returned with the requested information from about 50 to 60 sites each year. The internet is the most widely used mechanism to recruit participants, with personal communication as the second most important recruiting tool. The admissions rate for REU Sites in Geosciences varies from less than 10% to 50%, with the majority of participants being rising seniors and juniors. Many of the participants come from non-PhD granting institutions. Among the participants, gender distribution varies by discipline, with ocean sciences having a large majority of women and earth sciences having a majority of men. Regarding ethnic diversity, the REU Sites reflect the difficulty of attracting diverse students into Geosciences as a discipline; a large majority of participants are Caucasian and Asian students. Furthermore, participants from minority-serving institutions and community colleges constitute a small percentage of those taking part in these research experiences. The enrichment activities are very similar across the REU Sites, and mimic activities common to the scientific community, including intellectual exchange of ideas (lab meetings, seminars, and professional meetings

  4. Calibration and Field Deployment of the NSF G-V VCSEL Hygrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Diao, M.; Hamm, C.; Zhang, Q.; Beaton, S. P.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cloud formation and dynamics have a significant influence on the Earth's radiative forcing budget, which illustrates the importance of clouds with respect to global climate. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the microscale processes dictating cloud formation is crucial for accurate computer modeling of global climate change. A critical tool for understanding these processes from an airborne platform is an instrument capable of measuring water vapor with both high accuracy and time, thus spatial, resolution. Our work focuses on an open-path, compact, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) absorption-based hygrometer, capable of 25 Hz temporal resolution, deployed on the NSF/NCAR Gulfstream-V aircraft platform. The open path nature of our instrument also helps to minimize sampling artifacts. We will discuss our efforts toward achieving within 5% accuracy over 5 orders of magnitude of water vapor concentrations. This involves an intercomparison of five independent calibration methods: ice surface saturators using an oil temperature bath, solvent slush baths (e.g. chloroform/LN2, water/ice), a research-grade frost point hygrometer, static pressure experiments, and Pt catalyzed hydrogen gas. This wide variety of available tools allows us to accurately constrain the calibrant water vapor concentrations both before and after the VCSEL hygrometer sampling chamber. For example, the mixing ratio as measured by research-grade frost point hygrometer after the VCSEL hygrometer agreed within 2% of the mixing ration expected from the water/ice bubbler source before the VCSEL over the temperature range -50°C to 20°C. Finally, due to the compact nature of our instrument, we are able to perform these calibrations simultaneously at the same temperatures (-80°C to 30°C) and pressures (150 mbar to 760 mbar) as sampled ambient air during a flight. This higher accuracy can significantly influence the science utilizing this data, which we will illustrate using

  5. The Q Sort Technique Applied to Nutrition Attitudes Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutnick, Mona R.

    1981-01-01

    Suggests the use of the Q Sort Technique to assess attitudes toward nutrition-related topics. Describes research utilizing this technique to assess junior high school students' (N=512) attitudes toward and knowledge of nutrition with and without nutrition instruction. (DS)

  6. Topological Index as a Sorting Device for Coding Chemical Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosoya, Haruo

    1972-01-01

    Although the topological index does not uniquely correspond to the individual structure of a graph, it roughly represents the topological nature of the graph. Examples are given for using the topological index as a first sorting device for coding and retrieving structures, especially of fused polycyclic systems. (14 references) (Author/NH)

  7. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  8. Disentangling dimensions in the dimensional change card-sorting task.

    PubMed

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target cards showing a blue cherry and a red banana. Typically, 3-year-olds have severe problems switching from sorting by one dimension (e.g. color) to sorting by the other dimension (e.g. shape). Three experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds showed that separating the two dimensions as properties of a single object, and having them characterize two different objects (e.g. by displaying an outline of a cherry next to a red filled circle on the card) improves performance considerably. Results are discussed in relation to a number of alternative explanations for 3-year-olds' difficulty with the DCCS task.

  9. Differential interaction forces govern bacterial sorting in early biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Oldewurtel, Enno R; Kouzel, Nadzeya; Dewenter, Lena; Henseler, Katja; Maier, Berenike

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms can generate micro-heterogeneity in terms of surface structures. However, little is known about the associated changes in the physics of cell–cell interaction and its impact on the architecture of biofilms. In this study, we used the type IV pilus of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to test whether variation of surface structures induces cell-sorting. We show that the rupture forces between pili are fine-tuned by post-translational modification. Bacterial sorting was dependent on pilus post-translational modification and pilus density. Active force generation was necessary for defined morphologies of mixed microcolonies. The observed morphotypes were in remarkable agreement with the differential strength of adhesion hypothesis proposing that a tug-of-war among surface structures of different cells governs cell sorting. We conclude that in early biofilms the density and rupture force of bacterial surface structures can trigger cell sorting based on similar physical principles as in developing embryos. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10811.001 PMID:26402455

  10. A Kinetic Self-Sorting Approach to Heterocircuit [3]Rotaxanes.

    PubMed

    Neal, Edward A; Goldup, Stephen M

    2016-09-26

    In this proof-of-concept study, an active-template coupling is used to demonstrate a novel kinetic self-sorting process. This process iteratively increases the yield of the target heterocircuit [3]rotaxane product at the expense of other threaded species. PMID:27600208

  11. Development of the Arab Heritage Activity Card Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Razan; AlHeresh, Rawan; Dahab, Sana Abu; Collins, Brittany; Fryer, Jasmine; Holm, Margo B.

    2011-01-01

    Participation is an indicator of healthy functioning and well-being, as emphasized by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (World Health Organization, 2001). The Activity Card Sort (ACS) is a valid and reliable assessment tool that measures participation. This study describes the process of developing the Arab…

  12. On-chip cell sorting via patterned magnetic traps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvank, Tom; Prikockis, Michael; Chen, Aaron; Miller, Brandon; Chalmers, Jeffrey; Sooryakumar, Ratnasingham

    2015-03-01

    Due to their importance in research for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, numerous schemes have been developed to sort rare cell populations, e.g., circulating tumor cells (CTCs), from a larger ensemble of cells. Here, we improve upon a previously developed microfluidic device (Lab Chip 13, 1172, (2013)) to increase throughput and sorting purity of magnetically labeled cells. The separation mechanism involves controlling magnetic forces by manipulating the magnetic domain structures of embedded permalloy microdisks with weak external fields. These forces move labeled cells from the input flow stream into an adjacent buffer flow stream. Such magnetically activated transfer separates the magnetic entities from their non-magnetic counterparts as the two flow streams split apart and move toward their respective outputs. Purity of the magnetic output is modulated by the withdrawal rate of the non-magnetic output relative to the inputs. A proof of concept shows that CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients can be sorted, recovered from the device, and confirmed as CTCs using separate immunofluorescence staining and analysis. With further optimizations, the channel could become a useful device for high purity final sorting of enriched patient cell samples.

  13. Sorting Recycled Trash: An Activity for Earth Day 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Harris, Harold H.

    2007-01-01

    Middle or high school students celebrate Earth Day on April 22, 2007 by participating in the activity to separate commingled recyclable trash to simulate sorting in a recycling center. Students would gain an appreciation for recyclable trash, after it is taken to a recycling center and learn about properties of recyclables.

  14. Sorting of household waste and thermal treatment of waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ferranti, M.P.; Ferrero, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The priorities in waste policy are implicit in the title of this book. The first goal is sorting and recycling of materials whenever possible. The second priority is for thermal treatment of any materials unsuitable for recovery. The different sessions dealt with the research carried out under cost-shared contracts in the various programme areas.

  15. Empirical Approach to Interpreting Card-Sorting Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Steven F.; Dougherty, Daniel P.; Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    Since it was first published 30 years ago, the seminal paper of Chi "et al." on expert and novice categorization of introductory problems led to a plethora of follow-up studies within and outside of the area of physics [Cogn. Sci. 5 121 (1981)]. These studies frequently encompass "card-sorting" exercises whereby the participants group problems.…

  16. Getting a "Decent Sort": Key Considerations when Planning for AMH

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canty, Adrienne Brown

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 and 2009, the Edmonton Public Library (EPL), where the author works as an information professional, completed a $6 million CDN (about $5.7 million) RFID conversion project with the installation of automated check-in and sorting equipment at six of its 17 service points. The sorters currently handle about 55% of EPL's system's total…

  17. Pseudorotaxanes with self-sorted sequence and stereochemical orientation.

    PubMed

    Talotta, Carmen; Gaeta, Carmine; Qi, Zhenhui; Schalley, Christoph A; Neri, Placido

    2013-07-15

    Partner preferences in pseudorotaxane formation were exploited to establish an integrative self-sorting system able to discriminate simultaneously at the sequence and stereochemical level (see picture). It was found that calix[6]arenes were threaded selectively with a preferred orientation onto bisammonium axles, even when the structural differences between the possible building blocks were small and located remote from the binding sites.

  18. Personal Wellness Card Sort: A Strategy for Promoting Relational Healing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Roscoe, Lauren J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personal Wellness Card Sort task is presented as a practical tool for mediating a therapeutic impasse when working with clients who have experienced a traumatic event. The authors describe how this activity can assist clients with viewing themselves in a holistic way, regaining disowned aspects of self and initiating movement toward connecting…

  19. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles.

    PubMed

    Franke, Felix; Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R P; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H J

    2015-10-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  20. Spike sorting of synchronous spikes from local neuron ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Pröpper, Robert; Alle, Henrik; Meier, Philipp; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Obermayer, Klaus; Munk, Matthias H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous spike discharge of cortical neurons is thought to be a fingerprint of neuronal cooperativity. Because neighboring neurons are more densely connected to one another than neurons that are located further apart, near-synchronous spike discharge can be expected to be prevalent and it might provide an important basis for cortical computations. Using microelectrodes to record local groups of neurons does not allow for the reliable separation of synchronous spikes from different cells, because available spike sorting algorithms cannot correctly resolve the temporally overlapping waveforms. We show that high spike sorting performance of in vivo recordings, including overlapping spikes, can be achieved with a recently developed filter-based template matching procedure. Using tetrodes with a three-dimensional structure, we demonstrate with simulated data and ground truth in vitro data, obtained by dual intracellular recording of two neurons located next to a tetrode, that the spike sorting of synchronous spikes can be as successful as the spike sorting of nonoverlapping spikes and that the spatial information provided by multielectrodes greatly reduces the error rates. We apply the method to tetrode recordings from the prefrontal cortex of behaving primates, and we show that overlapping spikes can be identified and assigned to individual neurons to study synchronous activity in local groups of neurons. PMID:26289473

  1. Autism and Attachment: The Attachment Q-Sort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutgers, Anna H.; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.

    2007-01-01

    Children with autism are able to show secure attachment behaviours to their parents/caregivers. Most studies on attachment in children with autism used a (modified) Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) to examine attachment security. An advantage of the Attachment Q-Sort (AQS) over the SSP is that it can be attuned to the secure-base behaviour of…

  2. Disentangling dimensions in the dimensional change card-sorting task.

    PubMed

    Kloo, Daniela; Perner, Josef

    2005-01-01

    The dimensional change card-sorting task (DCCS task) is frequently used to assess young children's executive abilities. However, the source of children's difficulty with this task is still under debate. In the standard DCCS task, children have to sort, for example, test cards with a red cherry or a blue banana into two boxes marked with target cards showing a blue cherry and a red banana. Typically, 3-year-olds have severe problems switching from sorting by one dimension (e.g. color) to sorting by the other dimension (e.g. shape). Three experiments with 3- to 4-year-olds showed that separating the two dimensions as properties of a single object, and having them characterize two different objects (e.g. by displaying an outline of a cherry next to a red filled circle on the card) improves performance considerably. Results are discussed in relation to a number of alternative explanations for 3-year-olds' difficulty with the DCCS task. PMID:15647066

  3. Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor molecular mimicry by a Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm effector.

    PubMed

    King, Nathan P; Newton, Patrice; Schuelein, Ralf; Brown, Darren L; Petru, Marketa; Zarsky, Vojtech; Dolezal, Pavel; Luo, Lin; Bugarcic, Andrea; Stanley, Amanda C; Murray, Rachael Z; Collins, Brett M; Teasdale, Rohan D; Hartland, Elizabeth L; Stow, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    Upon infection, Legionella pneumophila uses the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system to translocate effector proteins from the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) into the host cell cytoplasm. The effectors target a wide array of host cellular processes that aid LCV biogenesis, including the manipulation of membrane trafficking. In this study, we used a hidden Markov model screen to identify two novel, non-eukaryotic soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE) homologs: the bacterial Legionella SNARE effector A (LseA) and viral SNARE homolog A proteins. We characterized LseA as a Dot/Icm effector of L. pneumophila, which has close homology to the Qc-SNARE subfamily. The lseA gene was present in multiple sequenced L. pneumophila strains including Corby and was well distributed among L. pneumophila clinical and environmental isolates. Employing a variety of biochemical, cell biological and microbiological techniques, we found that farnesylated LseA localized to membranes associated with the Golgi complex in mammalian cells and LseA interacted with a subset of Qa-, Qb- and R-SNAREs in host cells. Our results suggested that LseA acts as a SNARE protein and has the potential to regulate or mediate membrane fusion events in Golgi-associated pathways.

  4. Beyond Earth: Weaving Science and Indigenous Culture - A 1-year NSF Planning Grant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Timothy; Guy, M.; Baker Big-Back, C.; Froelich, K.

    2011-01-01

    We present results of a 1-year NSF planning grant called Beyond Earth. The project is designed to engage Native American, urban, and rural families in science learning while piloting curriculum development and implementation that incorporates both Native and Western epistemologies. Physical, earth, and space science content is juxtaposed with indigenous culture, stories, language and epistemology in after-school programs and teacher training. Project partners include the Dakota Science Center, Fort Berthold Community College, and Sitting Bull College. The Native American tribes represented in this initiative illustrate partnerships between the Dakota, Lakota, Nakota, Hidatsa, Mandan, and Arikara. Over the past year the primary project deliverables include a culturally responsive curriculum Beyond Earth Moon Module, teacher training workshops, a project website. The curriculum module introduces students to the moon's appearance, phases, and positions in the sky using the Night Sky Planetarium Experience Station to explore core concepts underlying moon phases and eclipses using the interactive Nature Experience Station before engaging in the culminating Mission Challenge in which they apply their knowledge to problem solving situations and projects. The Native Science and Western Science activities developed, planetarium explorations created, and website toolkit utilizations are presented.

  5. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  6. Observing Infrasound and Atmospheric Pressure with the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F. L.; Hedlin, M. A.; Busby, R. W.; Woodward, R.

    2010-12-01

    We are creating a real-time infrasound array whose sensing elements are co-located with the 400 seismic stations in the USArray Transportable Array component of the NSF EarthScope program. This continuously sampled array, of an unprecedented scale, will provide opportunities for groundbreaking and interdisciplinary research in atmospheric acoustics, atmospheric science, and seismology. Such an array will sample mean (absolute) values and fluctuations of the surface air pressure with nominal 70 km station spacing, with a dynamic range of about 7 orders of magnitude, and with a sampling frequency of up to 40 Hz. All samples will be synchronized to UTC. This dense network of infrasound sensors will permit us to study the nature of long-range infrasound propagation from regional to continental distances, and study the sources of infrasound signals, using actual acoustic data, free of concerns about seismic-to-acoustic coupling. All new TA stations deployed starting this fall will have a Quanterra Environmental Processor with internal VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauge, Setra 278 absolute microbarometer, and NCPA Infrasound Microphone. We will present data from field tests and from the newly deployed instrumentation.

  7. First multipoint in situ observations of electron microbursts: Initial results from the NSF FIREBIRD II mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crew, Alexander B.; Spence, Harlan E.; Blake, J. Bernard; Klumpar, David M.; Larsen, Brian A.; O'Brien, T. Paul; Driscoll, Shane; Handley, Matthew; Legere, Jason; Longworth, Stephen; Mashburn, Keith; Mosleh, Ehson; Ryhajlo, Nicholas; Smith, Sonya; Springer, Larry; Widholm, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We present initial dual spacecraft observations that for the first time both constrain the spatial scale size and provide spectral properties at medium energies of electron microbursts. We explore individual microburst events that occurred on 2 February 2015 using simultaneous observations made by the twin CubeSats which comprise the National Science Foundation (NSF) Focused Investigations of Relativistic Electron Bursts: Intensity, Range, and Dynamics (FIREBIRD II). During these microburst events, the two identically instrumented FIREBIRD II CubeSats were separated by as little as 11 km while traversing electron precipitation regions in low-Earth orbit. These coincident microburst events map to size scales >120 km at the equator. Given the prevalence of coincident and noncoincident events we conclude that this is of the same order of magnitude as that of the spatial scale size of electron microburst, an unknown property that is critical for quantifying their overall role in radiation belt dynamics. Finally, we present measurements of electron microbursts showing that precipitation often occurs simultaneously across a broad energy range spanning 200 keV to 1 MeV, a new form of empirical evidence that provides additional insights into the physics of microburst generation mechanisms.

  8. Bringing Geoscientific Practices to Schools Through Guided Inquiry and the NSF-MSP-funded RITES Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Schifman, L. A.; Kortz, K. M.; Saul, K.; Veeger, A. I.; Murray, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Rhode Island Technology Enhanced Science (RITES) Project is in its fifth of five years of funding from the NSF Math Science Partnership Program. At this stage, RITES has exceptional engagement of school districts across Rhode Island and growing momentum with partners in schools (covering the demographic spectrum present in Rhode Island) to enhance science education state-wide. One RITES product that will endure is the wide use by teachers of a Rock Cycle focused guided inquiry module, of constructivist design, that corresponds well to both the Rhode Island Grade Span Expectations (GSE) and the Next Generation Science Standards (with probable nationwide implementation) released in May 2012. The Rock Cycle teaching module has been piloted and edited following use in middle and high school classrooms. In this presentation, we evaluate the implementation fidelity of this curricular module, integrating commentary by the design team (Kortz and Saul) with data from teacher interviews, teacher reports on class use, and focus groups during which teachers discuss successes and challenges pertinent to the Rock Cycle from classroom experiences. In this presentation, we pay particular attention to the skills developed through the Rock Cycle module that resonate with research-supported approaches, such as observation, evidence-based hypothesis resolution, diverse science communication strategies, etc., all of which are also necessary scientific research skills.

  9. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  10. Genetic mapping of paternal sorting of mitochondria in cucumber.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Claudia I; Yandell, Brian S; Havey, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Mitochondria are organelles that have their own DNA; serve as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; play important roles in stress responses, programmed cell death, and ageing; and in the vast majority of eukaryotes, are maternally transmitted. Strict maternal transmission of mitochondria makes it difficult to select for better-performing mitochondria, or against deleterious mutations in the mitochondrial DNA. Cucumber is a useful plant for organellar genetics because its mitochondria are paternally transmitted and it possesses one of the largest mitochondrial genomes among all eukaryotes. Recombination among repetitive motifs in the cucumber mitochondrial DNA produces rearrangements associated with strongly mosaic (MSC) phenotypes. We previously reported nuclear control of sorting among paternally transmitted mitochondrial DNAs. The goal of this project was to map paternal sorting of mitochondria as a step towards its eventual cloning. We crossed single plants from plant introduction (PI) 401734 and Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii and produced an F(2) family. A total of 425 F(2) plants were genotyped for molecular markers and testcrossed as the female with MSC16. Testcross families were scored for frequencies of wild-type versus MSC progenies. Discrete segregations for percent wild-type progenies were not observed and paternal sorting of mitochondria was therefore analyzed as a quantitative trait. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL; LOD >23) was mapped between two simple sequence repeats encompassing a 459-kb region on chromosome 3. Nuclear genes previously shown to affect the prevalence of mitochondrial DNAs (MSH1, OSB1, and RECA homologs) were not located near this major QTL on chromosome 3. Sequencing of this region from PI 401734, together with improved annotation of the cucumber genome, should result in the eventual cloning of paternal sorting of mitochondria and provide insights about nuclear control of organellar-DNA sorting.

  11. Defining linkages between the GSC and NSF's LTER program: how the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) relates to GCDML and other outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Inigo San; Sheldon, Wade; Schmidt, Tom; Servilla, Mark; Aguilar, Raul; Gries, Corinna; Gray, Tanya; Field, Dawn; Cole, James; Pan, Jerry Yun; Palanisamy, Giri; Henshaw, Donald; O'Brien, Margaret; Kinkel, Linda; McMahon, Katherine; Kottmann, Renzo; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Hobbie, John; Goldstein, Philip; Guralnick, Robert P; Brunt, James; Michener, William K

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) invited a representative of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) to its fifth workshop to present the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) metadata standard and its relationship to the Minimum Information about a Genome/Metagenome Sequence (MIGS/MIMS) and its implementation, the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). The LTER is one of the top National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in biology since 1980, representing diverse ecosystems and creating long-term, interdisciplinary research, synthesis of information, and theory. The adoption of EML as the LTER network standard has been key to build network synthesis architectures based on high-quality standardized metadata. EML is the NSF-recognized metadata standard for LTER, and EML is a criteria used to review the LTER program progress. At the workshop, a potential crosswalk between the GCDML and EML was explored. Also, collaboration between the LTER and GSC developers was proposed to join efforts toward a common metadata cataloging designer's tool. The community adoption success of a metadata standard depends, among other factors, on the tools and trainings developed to use the standard. LTER's experience in embracing EML may help GSC to achieve similar success. A possible collaboration between LTER and GSC to provide training opportunities for GCDML and the associated tools is being explored. Finally, LTER is investigating EML enhancements to better accommodate genomics data, possibly integrating the GCDML schema into EML. All these action items have been accepted by the LTER contingent, and further collaboration between the GSC and LTER is expected.

  12. Defining linkages between the GSC and NSF's LTER program: How the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) relates to GCDML and other outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Inigo, Gil San; Servilla, Mark; Brunt, James; Michener, William; Sheldon, Wade; Schmidt, Tom; Cole, James; Aguilar, Raul; Gries, Corinna; Gray, Tanya; Field, Dawn; Pan, Jerry Yun; Palanisamy, Giri; Henshaw, Donald; O'Brien, Margaret

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) invited a representative of the Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) to its fifth workshop to present the Ecological Metadata Language (EML) metadata standard and its relationship to the Minimum Information about a Genome/Metagenome Sequence (MIGS/MIMS) and its implementation, the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML). The LTER is one of the top National Science Foundation (NSF) programs in biology since 1980, representing diverse ecosystems and creating long-term, interdisciplinary research, synthesis of information, and theory. The adoption of EML as the LTER network standard has been key to build network synthesis architectures based on high-quality standardized metadata. EML is the NSF-recognized metadata standard for LTER, and EML is a criteria used to review the LTER program progress. At the workshop, a potential crosswalk between the GCDML and EML was explored. Also, collaboration between the LTER and GSC developers was proposed to join efforts toward a common metadata cataloging designer's tool. The community adoption success of a metadata standard depends, among other factors, on the tools and trainings developed to use the standard. LTER's experience in embracing EML may help GSC to achieve similar success. A possible collaboration between LTER and GSC to provide training opportunities for GCDML and the associated tools is being explored. Finally, LTER is investigating EML enhancements to better accommodate genomics data, possibly integrating the GCDML schema into EML. All these action items have been accepted by the LTER contingent, and further collaboration between the GSC and LTER is expected.

  13. Parallel sort with a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high perfomance computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary; Torres, Aaron; Poole, Stephen W.

    2016-01-26

    Improved sorting techniques are provided that perform a parallel sort using a ranged, partitioned key-value store in a high performance computing (HPC) environment. A plurality of input data files comprising unsorted key-value data in a partitioned key-value store are sorted. The partitioned key-value store comprises a range server for each of a plurality of ranges. Each input data file has an associated reader thread. Each reader thread reads the unsorted key-value data in the corresponding input data file and performs a local sort of the unsorted key-value data to generate sorted key-value data. A plurality of sorted, ranged subsets of each of the sorted key-value data are generated based on the plurality of ranges. Each sorted, ranged subset corresponds to a given one of the ranges and is provided to one of the range servers corresponding to the range of the sorted, ranged subset. Each range server sorts the received sorted, ranged subsets and provides a sorted range. A plurality of the sorted ranges are concatenated to obtain a globally sorted result.

  14. Check-All-That-Apply (CATA), Sorting, and Polarized Sensory Positioning (PSP) with Astringent Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Erin E.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple rapid sensory profiling techniques have been developed as more efficient alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis. Here, we compare the results of three rapid sensory profiling techniques – check-all-that-apply (CATA), sorting, and polarized sensory positioning (PSP) – using a diverse range of astringent stimuli. These rapid methods differ in their theoretical basis, implementation, and data analyses, and the relative advantages and limitations are largely unexplored. Additionally, we were interested in using these methods to compare varied astringent stimuli, as these compounds are difficult to characterize using traditional descriptive analysis due to high fatigue and potential carry-over. In the CATA experiment, subjects (n=41) were asked to rate the overall intensity of each stimulus as well as to endorse any relevant terms (from a list of 13) which characterized the sample. In the sorting experiment, subjects (n=30) assigned intensity-matched stimuli into groups 1-on-1 with the experimenter. In the PSP experiment, (n=41) subjects first sampled and took notes on three blind references (‘poles’) before rating each stimulus for its similarity to each of the 3 poles. Two-dimensional perceptual maps from correspondence analysis (CATA), multidimensional scaling (sorting), and multiple factor analysis (PSP) were remarkably similar, with normalized RV coefficients indicating significantly similar plots, regardless of method. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering of all data sets using Ward’s minimum variance as the linkage criteria showed the clusters of astringent stimuli were approximately based on the respective class of astringent agent. Based on the descriptive CATA data, it appears these differences may be due to the presence of side tastes such as bitterness and sourness, rather than astringent sub-qualities per se. Although all three methods are considered ‘rapid,’ our prior experience with sorting suggests it is best

  15. A sorting nexin 17-binding domain within the LRP1 cytoplasmic tail mediates receptor recycling through the basolateral sorting endosome.

    PubMed

    Farfán, Pamela; Lee, Jiyeon; Larios, Jorge; Sotelo, Pablo; Bu, Guojun; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2013-07-01

    Sorting nexin 17 (SNX17) is an adaptor protein present in early endosomal antigen 1 (EEA1)-positive sorting endosomes that promotes the efficient recycling of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) to the plasma membrane through recognition of the first NPxY motif in the cytoplasmic tail of this receptor. The interaction of LRP1 with SNX17 also regulates the basolateral recycling of the receptor from the basolateral sorting endosome (BSE). In contrast, megalin, which is apically distributed in polarized epithelial cells and localizes poorly to EEA1-positive sorting endosomes, does not interact with SNX17, despite containing three NPxY motifs, indicating that this motif is not sufficient for receptor recognition by SNX17. Here, we identified a cluster of 32 amino acids within the cytoplasmic domain of LRP1 that is both necessary and sufficient for SNX17 binding. To delineate the function of this SNX17-binding domain, we generated chimeric proteins in which the SNX17-binding domain was inserted into the cytoplasmic tail of megalin. This insertion mediated the binding of megalin to SNX17 and modified the cell surface expression and recycling of megalin in non-polarized cells. However, the polarized localization of chimeric megalin was not modified in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. These results provide evidence regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the specificity of SNX17-binding receptors and the restricted function of SNX17 in the BSE.

  16. Thiazyl Trifluoride (NSF3) Adducts and Imidodifluorosulfate (F2OSN-) Derivatives of Hg(OTeF5)2.

    PubMed

    DeBackere, John R; Mercier, Hélène P A; Schrobilgen, Gary J

    2015-10-19

    Reactions of Hg(OTeF5)2 with excess amounts of NSF3 at 0 °C result in the formation of NSF3 adducts having the compositions [Hg(OTeF5)2·N≡SF3]∞ (1), [Hg(OTeF5)2·2N≡SF3]2 (2), and Hg3(OTeF5)6·4N≡SF3 (3). When the reactions are carried out at room temperature, oxygen/fluorine metatheses occur yielding the F2OSN- derivatives [Hg(OTeF5)(N═SOF2)·N≡SF3]∞ (4) and [Hg3(OTeF5)5(N═SOF2)·2N≡SF3]2 (5). The proposed reaction pathway leading to F2OSN- group formation occurs by nucleophilic attack by a F5TeO- group at the sulfur(VI) atom of NSF3, followed by TeF6 elimination. Tellurium hexafluoride formation was confirmed by (19)F NMR spectroscopy. The NSF3 molecules are terminally N-coordinated to mercury, whereas the F2OSN- ligands are N-bridged to two mercury atoms. The compound series was characterized by low-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction and low-temperature Raman spectroscopy. Several structural motifs are observed within this structurally diverse series. These include the infinite chain structures of the related compounds, 1 and 4; 2, a dimeric structure which possesses an (HgO(μ))2 ring at its core; 3, a structure based on a cage comprised of a (HgO(μ))3 ring that is capped on each face by μ(3)-oxygen bridged F5TeO- groups; and 5, a dimeric structure possessing two distorted (Hg3O2N) rings that are formally derived from 3 by replacement of a F5TeO- group by a F2OSN- group in each ring. Quantum-chemical calculations were carried out to gain insight into the bonding of the μ(3)-oxygen bridged teflate groups observed in structure 3. Compounds 1-5 represent a novel class of neutral transition metal complexes with NSF3, providing the first examples of NSF3 coordination to mercury. Compounds 4 and 5 also provide the only examples of F2OSN- derivatives of mercury that have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction.

  17. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M.; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-08-19

    We report that the advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ~4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. Ultimately, this method will also

  18. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; et al

    2015-08-19

    We report that the advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles canmore » be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ~4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. Ultimately, this method

  19. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; Nelson, Garrett; James, Daniel; Calero, Guillermo; Wachter, Rebekka M.; Spence, John C. H.; Weierstall, Uwe; Fromme, Petra; Ros, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles can be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ∼4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. This method will also permit an analysis

  20. Intra- and interboar variability in flow cytometric sperm sex sorting.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Diego V; Parrilla, Inmaculada; Tarantini, Tatiana; Parlapan, Laura; Del Olmo, David; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    To improve the efficiency of porcine sperm sex sorting using flow cytometry, the aims of the present study were to determine the relevance of inter- and intraboar variability in sperm sortability and to evaluate the significance of ejaculate semen characteristics in such variability. In addition, the variability among boars in the ability of sex-sorted spermatozoa to survive liquid storage at 15 °C to 17 °C was also evaluated. In total, 132 ejaculates collected from 67 boars of different breeds that were housed at an artificial insemination center were used in three experiments. X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm were simultaneously separated according to the Beltsville sperm-sorting technology using a high-speed flow cytometer. In the first experiment, interboar variability in the ability of the ejaculated spermatozoa to undergo the flow-based sex-sorting procedure was observed; the ejaculates of nearly 15% of the boars (n = 67) did not exhibit well-defined X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa peaks in the histogram, and the ejaculate sperm concentration demonstrated good predictive value for explaining this variation, as indicated by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (0.88, P < 0.001). In the second experiment, a certain degree of intraboar variability was observed only in the boars that showed poor sperm sortability (measured according to the presence or not a well-defined split together with sperm sortability parameters) in the first ejaculate (n = 3). In contrast, boars classified as having good sperm sortability in the first ejaculate (n = 5) maintained this condition in five ejaculates collected over the subsequent 5 months. In the third experiment, sex-sorted spermatozoa from boars with good sperm sortability (n = 5) remained viable and motile (above 70% in all boars) after 48 hours of storage at 15 °C to 17 °C, which may facilitate the commercial application of sex-sorted spermatozoa in swine artificial insemination programs

  1. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  2. Sperm sorting procedure induces a redistribution of Hsp70 but not Hsp60 and Hsp90 in boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, Marcella; Volpe, Sara; Bernardini, Chiara; de Ambrogi, Marco; Tamanini, Carlo; Seren, Eraldo; Galeati, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Heat shock proteins, besides their protective function against stresses, have been recently indicated as key factors for sperm fertilizing ability. Since sexing sperm by high-speed flow-cytometry subjects them to different physical, mechanical, and chemical stresses, the present study was designed to verify, by immunofluorescence and Western blot, whether the sorting procedure induces any modification in the amount and cellular distribution of heat shock proteins 60, 70, and 90 (Hsp60, Hsp70, Hsp90). Immunolocalization and Western blot quantification of both Hsp60 and Hsp90 did not reveal differences between unsorted and sorted semen. On the contrary, a redistribution of Hsp70 immunoreactivity from the equatorial subsegment toward the equator of sperm cells was recorded after sorting; this relocation suggests capacitation-like changes of sperm membrane. This modification seems to be caused mainly by incubation with Hoechst 33342, while both passage of sperm through flow cytometer and laser beam represent only minor stimuli. A further Hsp70 redistribution seems to be due to the final steps of sperm sorting, charging, and deflection of drops, and to the dilution during collection. On the other hand, staining procedure and mechanical stress seem to be the factors most injurious to sperm viability. Moreover, Hsp70 relocation was deeply influenced by the storage method. In fact, storing sexed spermatozoa, after centrifugation, in a small volume in presence of seminal plasma induced a reversion of Hsp70 redistribution, while storage in the diluted catch fluid of collection tubes caused Hsp70 relocation in most sorted spermatozoa. PMID:16870948

  3. Sustaining professional development gains after the NSF-CCLI grant ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Dekens, P. S.; Dempsey, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    At San Francisco State University we aimed to transform our freshman-level courses in geology, oceanography, and meteorology using funding from a NSF-CCLI grant—"Creating an academic community to foster curiosity and discovery in introductory Geoscience classes" (2010-2012). In addition to creating a new laboratory space and new laboratory materials, we focused on the professional development of graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) and other departmental instructors. Previously, GTAs were given little support to gain teaching skills and present interesting labs, and there was little communication among the various instructors of the introductory courses. We aimed to change the tenor of the department by infusing discussions about effective teaching practices into the daily academic lives of faculty and GTAs and by creating institutional structures to ensure that innovations continued beyond the life of the NSF grant. We entitled this function of the department a Teaching and Learning Community (TLC). An essential element of the TLC, and the institutionalization of project activities, was to create a new graduate seminar course—"Our Dynamic Classroom"—that is offered every semester. This course was created to provide a mechanism for instructors to meet each week to discuss aspects of teaching pedagogy and to share classroom experiences. Each week a GTA or faculty member leads the discussion. Typical weekly topics include: what is inquiry-based learning, understanding students' misconceptions, teaching quantitative skills, what is the affective domain, improving students' writing skills. In response to participant feedback, the course now focuses more on the needs of specific instructors teaching specific courses. For example, in Spring 2012, seminar participants identified several issues GTAs were encountering, such as students failing to read instructions for labs before executing them, and some members of small collaborative groups not actively participating

  4. First Applications of DoD Iridium RUDICS in the NSF Polar Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentic, T.; Stehle, R.

    2008-12-01

    be deployed that better exploit the characteristics of the Iridium channel. In addition, the setup naturally scales to handle hundreds of remote devices, an important aspect for larger sensor networks. As part of the NSF's Arctic Research Support and Logistics Services, we have deployed RUDICS systems with three different research projects. These are the first NSF RUDICS deployments for projects using the Department of Defense Iridium gateway, which allows for unlimited connection time at a flat monthly rate for US government users. The first project is O-Buoy, an IPY-OASIS project for self-contained, autonomous observations of atmospheric chemical species in the polar marine boundary layer. The second project is collection of low-power instrument towers on Alaska's North Slope at Imnavait Creek, part of the Arctic Observation Network (AON). Lastly, the autonomous instrument platform at Ivotuk, Alaska, uses RUDICS to provide telemetry about the renewable energy systems. A set of real-time web displays allow researchers for each project to monitor their remote sites and access real-time data.

  5. Highlights and Challenges in Education, Outreach, and Undergraduate Mentoring from an NSF Hydrologic Sciences CAREER Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, T. S.

    2011-12-01

    A recent CAREER award (2009) has been used to facilitate environmentally-based outreach and education in local urban Los Angeles schools, primarily through an established NSF GK-12 program. Mini-weather stations, purchased through this CAREER award, were installed at two partner GK-12 schools, University High School (LAUSD) and Culver City Middle School (CCUSD). Each system contains an automated data logging system that record continuous observations of a range of variables (including precipitation, UV, temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction, dewpoint temperature and pressure). Observations are being downloaded and used by GK-12 Fellows and Teachers in curriculum development. In addition, the PI has worked with the GK-12 fellows in developing water-related inquiry lessons for both middle and high school science curriculum. Specific lessons facilitated during the initial stages of this CAREER award include urban ecosystems and satellite imagery, water quality, stream biota and ecosystem health, water treatment, urban climate and heat index, and soil chemistry testing. All lessons that have been implemented in the middle or high school classrooms are uploaded to the SEE-LA GK-12 website (http://measure.igpp.ucla.edu/GK12-SEE-LA/lessons.html). Examples of lesson development and integration in the classroom setting will be highlighted as well as tools required for sustainability of the projects. In addition to the K-12 outreach activities, the PI has engaged several undergraduates in independent research projects, working on various aspects of the primary research project. Highlights and lessons learned from outreach and mentoring activities will be presented.

  6. Volcanic Surface Deformation in Dominica From GPS Geodesy: Results From the 2007 NSF- REU Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R.; James, S.; Styron, R. H.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C.; Collier, X.; Fauria, K.; Feinstein, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    GPS measurements have been collected on the island of Dominica in the Lesser Antilles between 2001 and 2007, with five month-long campaigns completed in June of each year supported in part by a NSF REU Site award for the past two years. All GPS data were collected using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antenna, primarily choke rings. Three consecutive 24 hr observation days were normally obtained for each site. Precise station positions were estimated with GIPSY-OASISII using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files. All position estimates were updated to ITRF05 and a revised Caribbean Euler pole was used to place our observations in a CAR-fixed frame. Time series were created to determine the velocity of each station. Forward and inverse elastic half-space models with planar (i.e. dike) and Mogi (i.e. point) sources were investigated. Inverse modeling was completed using a downhill simplex method of function minimization. Selected site velocities were used to create appropriate models for specific regions of Dominica, which correspond to known centers of pre-historic volcanic or recent shallow, seismic activity. Because of the current distribution of GPS sites with robust velocity estimates, we limit our models to possible magmatic activity in the northern, proximal to the volcanic centers of Morne Diablotins and Morne aux Diables, and southern, proximal to volcanic centers of Soufriere and Morne Plat Pays, regions of the island. Surface deformation data from the northernmost sites may be fit with the development of a several km-long dike trending approximately northeast- southwest. Activity in the southern volcanic centers is best modeled by an expanding point source at approximately 1 km depth.

  7. Transforming Research in Oceanography through Education, Ethnography and Rapidly Evolving Technologies: An NSF-INSPIRE project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, C. R.; Croff Bell, K. L.; Pallant, A.; Mirmalek, Z.; Jasanoff, S.; Rajan, K.

    2014-12-01

    This paper will discuss a new NSF-INSPIRE project that brings together research conducted in the fields of Ocean Sciences, Education & Human Resources and Computer and Information Science & Engineering. Specifically, our objective is to investigate new methods by which telepresence can be used to conduct cutting edge research and provide authentic educational experiences to undergraduate students, remotely. We choose to conduct this research in an Oceanographic context for two reasons: first with the move toward smaller research ships in the national Oceanographic research fleet, we anticipate that access to berth space at sea will continue to be at a premium. Any component of traditional oceanographic research that can be ported to shore without loss of effectiveness would be of immediate benefit to the Ocean Sciences. Equally, however, we argue that any improvements to work place and/or education practices that we can identify while delivering research and education from the bottom of the deep ocean should be readily mappable to any other scientific or engineering activities that seek to make use of telepresence in less extreme remote environments. Work on our TREET project, to-date, has included recruitment of 6 early career scientists keen to take advantage of the research opportunity provided, together with two senior science mentors with experience using Telepresence and a cohort of undergraduate students at three of the ECS partner Universities, spanning 4 time zones across the continental US. Following a 12-week synchronous on-line seminar series taught in Spring-Summer 2014, the entire team joined together at the Inner Space Center in Sept-Oct 2014 to participate, virtually, in a cruise of research and exploration to the Kick'Em Jenny underwater volcano and adjacent cold seep sites, conducted by the Ocean Exploration Trust's ROV Hercules aboard the Exploration Vessel Nautilus. Our presentation will include preliminary results from that cruise.

  8. Key Concepts in Geomorphology - NSF supports community-based creation of a new style of textbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierman, P. R.; Montgomery, D. R.; Massey, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Using support from the National Science Foundation, we have created an all new textbook that differs from existing books and serves as a model for extensive community involvement and vetting at all stages from initial outlining through chapter development and revision to final review. The new textbook is designed to serve undergraduate students in first year courses about Earth Surface Processes, Physical Geography, and Quaternary Geology. The approach we employed to create this book could easily be adapted to creating books in other disciplines. The new textbook differs from existing books because it is shorter and focuses on the key concepts of the discipline rather than on specific derivations or place-based examples. A series of >200 electronic resources developed by community members as part of this project (http://serc.carleton.edu/vignettes) provide more detail and geographically specific case-studies that faculty and students need for place-or content-based teaching and learning. NSF support provided for extensive review to ensure accuracy and completeness. Each chapter was reviewed at least twice by two experts in the chapter's content area. Every chapter was also vetted by 8 to 10 generalist reviewers before extensive copyediting. The entire textbook was edited by two senior geomorphologists and a technical editor with expertise in geomorphology. The textbook has 14 chapters organized into four sections. Each chapter includes between 10 and 14 newly drafted, full-color figures designed specifically for novice learners. Between 20 and 30 annotated color photographs illustrate each of the chapters. At the end of each chapter, the Digging Deeper section presents an in depth look at the development of scientific thought on a problem relevant to the chapter along with a worked problem and a series of questions that allow students to test their mastery of the material.

  9. Internships and UNAVCO: Training the Future Geoscience Workforce Through the NSF GAGE Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, A. R.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.; Charlevoix, D. J.; Bartel, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities are uniquely positioned to both serve a broad, national audience and provide unique workforce experience to students and recent graduates. Intentional efforts dedicated to broadening participation in the future geoscience workforce at the NSF GAGE (Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope) Facility operated by UNAVCO, are designed to meet the needs of the next generation of students and professionals. As a university-governed consortium facilitating research and education in the geosciences, UNAVCO is well-situated to both prepare students for geoscience technical careers and advanced research positions. Since 1998, UNAVCO has offered over 165 student assistant or intern positions including engineering, data services, education and outreach, and business support. UNAVCO offers three formal programs: the UNAVCO Student Internship Program (USIP), Research Experiences in Solid Earth Science for Students (RESESS), and the Geo-Launchpad (GLP) internship program. Interns range from community college students up through graduate students and recent Masters graduates. USIP interns gain real-world work experience in a professional setting, collaborate with teams toward a common mission, and contribute their knowledge, skills, and abilities to the UNAVCO community. RESESS interns conduct authentic research with a scientist in the Front Range area as well as participate in a structured professional development series. GLP students are in their first 2 years of higher education and work alongside UNAVCO technical staff gaining valuable work experience and insight into the logistics of supporting scientific research. UNAVCO's efforts in preparing the next generation of scientists largely focuses on increasing diversity in the geosciences, whether continuing academic studies or moving into the workforce. To date, well over half of our interns and student assistants come from backgrounds historically underrepresented in the geosciences. Over 80% of former interns

  10. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  11. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  12. NSF-Sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education: outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, S.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored Summit on the Future of Undergraduate Geoscience Education made major progress toward developing a collective community vision for the geosciences. A broad spectrum of the geoscience education community, ~200 educators from research universities/four and two year colleges, focused on preparation of undergraduates for graduate school and future geoscience careers, pedagogy, use of technology, broadening participation/retention of underrepresented groups, and preparation of K-12 science teachers. Participants agreed that key concepts, competencies and skills learned throughout the curriculum were more important than specific courses. Concepts included understanding Earth as complex, dynamic system, deep time, evolution of life, natural resources, energy, hazards, hydrogeology, surface processes, Earth materials and structure, and climate change. Skills/competencies included ability to think spatially and temporally, reason inductively and deductively, make and use indirect observations, engage in complex open, coupled systems thinking, and work with uncertainty, non-uniqueness, and incompleteness, as well as critical thinking, problem solving, communication, and ability to think like a scientist and continue to learn. Successful ways of developing these include collaborative, integrative projects involving teams, interdisciplinary projects, fieldwork and research experiences, as well as flipped classrooms and integration and interactive use of technology, including visualization, simulation, modeling and analysis of real data. Wider adoption of proven, effective best practices is our communities' main pedagogical challenge, and we focused on identifying implementation barriers. Preparation of future teachers in introductory and general geoscience courses by incorporating Next Generation Science Standards and using other sciences/math to solve real world geoscience problems should help increase diversity and number of future geoscientists and

  13. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-08-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters.

  14. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms

    PubMed Central

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A.; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  15. What about inhibition in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test?

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Houssemand, Claude

    2011-05-01

    The commercially available Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) is one of the most commonly used tests for assessing executive functions within clinical settings. Importantly, however, it remains relatively unclear exactly what processes are assessed by the test. Conceptually, increased perseverative errors in sorting cards are usually related to deficient inhibition processes. Empirically, evidence supporting this conclusion is limited. In a sample of 38 healthy adults we addressed the question to what extent inhibition mechanisms assessed by the go/no-go and the stop-signal paradigm are related to WCST performances. Inhibition-related scores were found to predict non-perseverative errors better than perseverative errors. Consequently we conclude that the non-perseverative errors score reflects processes that are partly dependent on inhibition functions.

  16. Theoretical model for morphogenesis and cell sorting in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, T.; Inouye, K.

    1999-02-01

    The morphogenetic movement and cell sorting in cell aggregates from the mound stage to the migrating slug stage of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum were studied using a mathematical model. The model postulates that the motive force generated by the cells is in equilibrium with the internal pressure and mechanical resistance. The moving boundary problem derived from the force balance equation and the continuity equation has stationary solutions in which the aggregate takes the shape of a spheroid (or an ellipse in two-dimensional space) with the pacemaker at one of its foci, moving at a constant speed. Numerical calculations in two-dimensional space showed that an irregularly shaped aggregate changes its shape to become an ellipse as it moves. Cell aggregates consisting of two cell types differing in motive force exhibit cell sorting and become elongated, suggesting the importance of prestalk/prespore differentiation in the morphogenesis of Dictyostelium.

  17. Sorting and Manipulation of Magnetic Droplets in Continuous Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hetlani, Entesar; Hatt, Oliver J.; Vojtíšek, Martin; Tarn, Mark D.; Iles, Alexander; Pamme, Nicole

    2010-12-01

    We report the rapid on-chip generation and subsequent manipulation of magnetic droplets in continuous flow. Magnetic droplets were formed using aqueous-based ferrofluid as the dispersed phase and fluorocarbon oil as the continuous phase. Droplet manipulation was demonstrated with simple permanent magnets using two microfluidic platforms: (i) flow focusing droplet generation followed by their splitting into daughter droplets containing different amounts of magnetic nanoparticles, and (ii) droplet generation at a T-junction and their downstream deflection across a chamber for sorting based on the applied magnetic field and magnetite loading of the droplet. Both systems show great potential for performing a wide range of high throughput continuous flow processes including sample dilution, cell sorting and screening, and microparticle fabrication.

  18. Spatial sorting promotes the spread of maladaptive hybridization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowe, Winsor H.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Allendorf, Fred W.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive hybridization is causing loss of biodiversity worldwide. The spread of such introgression can occur even when hybrids have reduced Darwinian fitness, which decreases the frequency of hybrids due to low survival or reproduction through time. This paradox can be partially explained by spatial sorting, where genotypes associated with dispersal increase in frequency at the edge of expansion, fueling further expansion and allowing invasive hybrids to increase in frequency through space rather than time. Furthermore, because all progeny of a hybrid will be hybrids (i.e., will possess genes from both parental taxa), nonnative admixture in invaded populations can increase even when most hybrid progeny do not survive. Broader understanding of spatial sorting is needed to protect native biodiversity.

  19. Method and apparatus for electrostatically sorting biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1982-01-01

    An improved method of sorting biological cells in a conventional cell sorter apparatus includes generating a fluid jet containing cells to be sorted, measuring the distance between the centers of adjacent droplets in a zone thereof defined at the point where the fluid jet separates into descrete droplets, setting the distance between the center of a droplet in said separation zone and the position along said fluid jet at which the cell is optically sensed for specific characteristics to be an integral multiple of said center-to-center distance, and disabling a charger from electrically charging a specific droplet if a cell is detected by the optical sensor in a position wherein it will be in the neck area between droplets during droplet formation rather than within a predetermined distance from the droplet center.

  20. Self-organized sorting limits behavioral variability in swarms.

    PubMed

    Copenhagen, Katherine; Quint, David A; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Swarming is a phenomenon where collective motion arises from simple local interactions between typically identical individuals. Here, we investigate the effects of variability in behavior among the agents in finite swarms with both alignment and cohesive interactions. We show that swarming is abolished above a critical fraction of non-aligners who do not participate in alignment. In certain regimes, however, swarms above the critical threshold can dynamically reorganize and sort out excess non-aligners to maintain the average fraction close to the critical value. This persists even in swarms with a distribution of alignment interactions, suggesting a simple, robust and efficient mechanism that allows heterogeneously mixed populations to naturally regulate their composition and remain in a collective swarming state or even differentiate among behavioral phenotypes. We show that, for evolving swarms, this self-organized sorting behavior can couple to the evolutionary dynamics leading to new evolutionarily stable equilibrium populations set by the physical swarm parameters. PMID:27550316

  1. New optical configuration for flow cytometric sorting of aspherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, John C.; Schaare, Peter N.; Kuennemeyer, Rainer

    1997-05-01

    The orthogonal axes of illumination, flow, and detection in conventional sorting flow cytometers can limit accuracy or throughput when making fluorescence measurements on a spherical cells. A new radially symmetric optical configuration has been designed to overcome these problems. Both illumination and fluorescence collection are performed by a single optical element which encircles the sample stream flow axis. Unlike existing epi-illumination flow cytometer designs, these optics are compatible with electrostatic sorting. The resolution of this system is currently being evaluated for DNA chromosome content measurement with an ultimate goal of separation of X- and Y- chromosome-bearing mammalian spermatozoa. We describe the new optical configuration and present preliminary results of instrument performance. Comparison with a conventional orthogonal optical geometry is made using fluorescent microspheres, chicken red blood cells and chinchilla sperm.

  2. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    PubMed

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays. PMID:26606460

  3. Control of a brain-computer interface without spike sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, George W.; Chase, Steven M.; Whitford, Andrew; Schwartz, Andrew B.

    2009-10-01

    Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a cursor using neural activity recorded with silicon arrays of 96 microelectrodes implanted in the primary motor cortex. We have developed a method to extract movement information from the recorded single and multi-unit activity in the absence of spike sorting. By setting a single threshold across all channels and fitting the resultant events with a spline tuning function, a control signal was extracted from this population using a Bayesian particle-filter extraction algorithm. The animals achieved high-quality control comparable to the performance of decoding schemes based on sorted spikes. Our results suggest that even the simplest signal processing is sufficient for high-quality neuroprosthetic control.

  4. Proteoglycan-mediated axon degeneration corrects pretarget topographic sorting errors.

    PubMed

    Poulain, Fabienne E; Chien, Chi-Bin

    2013-04-10

    Proper arrangement of axonal projections into topographic maps is crucial for brain function, especially in sensory systems. An important mechanism for map formation is pretarget axon sorting, in which topographic ordering of axons appears in tracts before axons reach their target, but this process remains poorly understood. Here, we show that selective axon degeneration is used as a correction mechanism to eliminate missorted axons in the optic tract during retinotectal development in zebrafish. Retinal axons are not precisely ordered during initial pathfinding but become corrected later, with missorted axons selectively fragmenting and degenerating. We further show that heparan sulfate is required non-cell-autonomously to correct missorted axons and that restoring its synthesis at late stages in a deficient mutant is sufficient to restore topographic sorting. These findings uncover a function for developmental axon degeneration in ordering axonal projections and identify heparan sulfate as a key regulator of that process. PMID:23583107

  5. Armoring and vertical sorting in aeolian dune fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Narteau, Clément; Rozier, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Unlike ripples, there are only few numerical studies on grain-size segregation at the scale of dunes in aeolian environments. Here we use a cellular automaton model to analyze vertical sorting in granular mixtures under steady unidirectional flow conditions. We investigate the feedbacks between dune growth and the segregation mechanisms by varying the size of coarse grains and their proportion within the bed. We systematically observe the development of a horizontal layer of coarse grains at the top of which sorted bed forms may grow by amalgamation. The formation of such an armor layer controls the overall sediment transport and availability. The emergence of dunes and the transition from barchan to transverse dune fields depend only on the grain size distribution of the initial sediment layer. As confirmed by observation, this result indicates that armor layers should be present in most arid deserts, where they are likely to control dune morphodynamics.

  6. Cell wall sorting of lipoproteins in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Navarre, W W; Daefler, S; Schneewind, O

    1996-01-01

    Many surface proteins are thought to be anchored to the cell wall of gram-positive organisms via their C termini, while the N-terminal domains of these molecules are displayed on the bacterial surface. Cell wall anchoring of surface proteins in Staphylococcus aureus requires both an N-terminal leader peptide and a C-terminal cell wall sorting signal. By fusing the cell wall sorting of protein A to the C terminus of staphylococcal beta-lactamase, we demonstrate here that lipoproteins can also be anchored to the cell wall of S. aureus. The topology of cell wall-anchored beta-lactamase is reminiscent of that described for Braun's murein lipoprotein in that the N terminus of the polypeptide chain is membrane anchored whereas the C-terminal end is tethered to the bacterial cell wall. PMID:8550464

  7. Size-reduction and sorting behavior in sieve hammer mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schallnus, Harald

    Experiments were performed in a continuously operating sieve hammer mill to determine the duration of presence of the material to be ground in the size reduction machine. The test stand, analysis techniques, evaluation methods, and selection and production of samples are described. It is shown that the duration of presence of the material in the grinding space of the mill is approximately comparable to that in an ideal mixer. The type of sieve casing has an essential effect on the duration of presence. A combined model for the description of the size reduction and sorting behavior which allows the determination of the process coefficients (size reduction speed, sorting speed, mass transition coefficient) and their dependence on the different parameters, was developed.

  8. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadivar, Erfan; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet-droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios.

  9. Large area magnetic micropallet arrays for cell colony sorting.

    PubMed

    Cox-Muranami, Wesley A; Nelson, Edward L; Li, G P; Bachman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    A new micropallet array platform for adherent cell colony sorting has been developed. The platform consisted of thousands of square plastic pallets, 270 μm by 270 μm on each side, large enough to hold a single colony of cells. Each pallet included a magnetic core, allowing them to be collected with a magnet after being released using a microscope mounted laser system. The micropallets were patterned from 1002F epoxy resist and were fabricated on translucent, gold coated microscope slides. The gold layer was used as seed for electroplating the ferromagnetic cores within every individual pallet. The gold layer also facilitated the release of each micropallet during laser release. This array allows for individual observation, sorting and collection of isolated cell colonies for biological cell colony research. In addition to consistent release and recovery of individual colonies, we demonstrated stable biocompatibility and minimal loss in imaging quality compared to previously developed micropallet arrays.

  10. An algorithm to enumerate sorting reversals for signed permutations.

    PubMed

    Siepel, Adam C

    2003-01-01

    The rearrangement distance between single-chromosome genomes can be estimated as the minimum number of inversions required to transform the gene ordering observed in one into that observed in the other. This measure, known as "inversion distance," can be computed as the reversal distance between signed permutations. During the past decade, much progress has been made both on the problem of computing reversal distance and on the related problem of finding a minimum-length sequence of reversals, which is known as "sorting by reversals." For most problem instances, however, many minimum-length sequences of reversals exist, and in the absence of auxiliary information, no one is of greater value than the others. The problem of finding all minimum-length sequences of reversals is thus a natural generalization of sorting by reversals, yet it has received little attention. This problem reduces easily to the problem of finding all "sorting reversals" of one permutation with respect to another - that is, all reversals rho such that, if rho is applied to one permutation, then the reversal distance of that permutation from the other is decreased. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is derived to solve the problem of finding all sorting reversals, and experimental results are presented indicating that, while the new algorithm does not represent a significant improvement in asymptotic terms (it takes O(n(3)) time, for permutations of size n; the problem can now be solved by brute force in Theta(n(3)) time), it performs dramatically better in practice than the best known alternative. An implementation of the algorithm is available at www.cse.ucsc.edu/~acs.

  11. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  12. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  13. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and,more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars. try, 2001

  14. Gravity effects on sediment sorting: limitations of models developed on Earth for Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2015-04-01

    Most studies on surface processes on planetary bodies assume that the use of empirical models developed for Earth is possible if the mathematical equations include all the relevant factors, such as gravity, viscosity and the density of water and sediment. However, most models for sediment transport on Earth are at least semi-empirical, using coefficients to link observed sediment movement to controlling factors such as flow velocity, slope and channel dimensions. However, using roughness and drag coefficients, as well as parameters describing incipient motion of particles, observed on Earth on another planet, violates, strictly speaking, the boundary conditions set for their application by fluid dynamics because the coefficienst describe a flow condition, not a particle property. Reduced gravity affects the flow around a settling partcile or over the bed of a watercourse, therefore data and models from Earth do not apply to another planet. Comparing observations from reduced gravity experiments and model results obtained on Earth confirm the significance of this error, e.g. by underestimating settling velocities of sandy particles by 10 to 50% for Mars when using models from Earth. In this study, the relevance of this error is examined by simulating the sorting of sediment deposited from water flowing on Mars. The results indicate that sorting on Mars is less pronounced than models calibrated on Earth suggest. This has implications for the selection of landing sites and, more importantly, the identification of strata potentially bearing traces of past life during rover missions on Mars.

  15. Thermochemical Pretreatment for Anaerobic Digestion of Sorted Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, W.; Hongtao, W.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of alkaline hydrothermal pre-treatment for anaerobic digestion of mechanically-sorted municipal solid waste (MSW) and source-sorted waste was studied. Waste was hydrothermally pre-treated in dilute alkali solution. Hydrolysis product was incubated in 500 ml saline bottle to determine methane potential (MP) under mesospheric anaerobic conditions. Optimum reaction condition obtained in the study is 170 °C at the dose of 4 g NaOH/100 g solid for one hour. Soluble COD was 13936 mg/L and methane yield was 164 ml/g VS for 6 days incubation at optimum conditions. More than 50% biogas increase was achieved over the control, and methane conversion ratio on carbon basis was enhanced to 30.6%. The digestion period was less than 6 days when pre-treatment temperature was above 130 °C. The organic part of sorted waste is mainly constituted of kitchen garbage and leaf. Model kitchen garbage was completely liquidized at 130 °C for one hour and the methane yield was 276 ml/g VS. Addition of alkali enhance hydroxylation rate and methane yield slightly. The biogas potential of leaf could be observed by pre-treatment above 150 °C under alkaline condition.

  16. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  17. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  18. Scalable orbital-angular-momentum sorting without destroying photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fang-Xiang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-09-01

    Single photons with orbital angular momentum (OAM) have attracted substantial attention from researchers. A single photon can carry infinite OAM values theoretically. Thus, OAM photon states have been widely used in quantum information and fundamental quantum mechanics. Although there have been many methods for sorting quantum states with different OAM values, the nondestructive and efficient sorter of high-dimensional OAM remains a fundamental challenge. Here, we propose a scalable OAM sorter which can categorize different OAM states simultaneously, meanwhile, preserving both OAM and spin angular momentum. Fundamental elements of the sorter are composed of symmetric multiport beam splitters (BSs) and Dove prisms with cascading structure, which in principle can be flexibly and effectively combined to sort arbitrarily high-dimensional OAM photons. The scalable structures proposed here greatly reduce the number of BSs required for sorting high-dimensional OAM states. In view of the nondestructive and extensible features, the sorters can be used as fundamental devices not only for high-dimensional quantum information processing, but also for traditional optics.

  19. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing.

    PubMed

    Reda, Naglaa M; Tawfik, A; Marzok, Mohamed A; Khamis, Soheir M

    2015-11-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan.

  20. GRAIN SORTING IN COMETARY DUST FROM THE OUTER SOLAR NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Bradley, J. P.; Ishii, H. A.; Brownlee, D. E.; Kearsley, A. T.; Burchell, M. J.; Price, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Most young stars are surrounded by a disk of gas and dust. Close to the hot stars, amorphous dust grains from the parent molecular cloud are reprocessed into crystals that are then distributed throughout the accretion disk. In some disks, there is a reduction in crystalline grain size with heliocentric distance from the star. We investigated crystalline grain size distributions in chondritic porous (CP) interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) believed to be from small, icy bodies that accreted in outer regions of the solar nebula. The grains are Mg-rich silicates and Fe-rich sulfides, the two most abundant minerals in CP IDPs. We find that they are predominantly <0.25 {mu}m in radius with a mean grain size that varies from one CP IDP to another. We report a size-density relationship between the silicates and sulfides. A similar size-density relationship between much larger silicate and sulfide grains in meteorites from the asteroid belt is ascribed to aerodynamic sorting. Since the silicate and sulfide grains in CP IDPs are theoretically too small for aerodynamic sorting, their size-density relationship may be due to another process capable of sorting small grains.

  1. Differential vesicular sorting of AMPA and GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Liu, Bian; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Delannoy, Michael; Lin, Da-Ting; Wirtz, Denis; Huganir, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In mature neurons AMPA receptors cluster at excitatory synapses primarily on dendritic spines, whereas GABAA receptors cluster at inhibitory synapses mainly on the soma and dendritic shafts. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precise sorting of these receptors remain unclear. By directly studying the constitutive exocytic vesicles of AMPA and GABAA receptors in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that they are initially sorted into different vesicles in the Golgi apparatus and inserted into distinct domains of the plasma membrane. These insertions are dependent on distinct Rab GTPases and SNARE complexes. The insertion of AMPA receptors requires SNAP25–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes, whereas insertion of GABAA receptors relies on SNAP23–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes. These SNARE complexes affect surface targeting of AMPA or GABAA receptors and synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal vesicular sorting mechanisms controlling the constitutive exocytosis of AMPA and GABAA receptors, which are critical for the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory responses in neurons. PMID:26839408

  2. Quadrupole Magnetic Sorting of Porcine Islets of Langerhans

    PubMed Central

    Shenkman, Rustin M.; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.; Hering, Bernhard J.; Kirchhof, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. Inconsistent isolation, purification, and recovery of large numbers of high-quality islets remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Removing islets as soon as they are liberated from the pancreas during digestion and circumventing the need for density gradient purification is likely to result in substantially increased viable islet yields by minimizing exposure to proteolytic enzymes, reactive oxygen intermediates, and mechanical stress associated with centrifugation. This study capitalized on the hypervascularity of islets compared with acinar tissue to explore their preferential enrichment with magnetic beads to enable immediate separation in a magnetic field utilizing a quadrupole magnetic sorting. The results demonstrate that (1) preferential enrichment of porcine islets is achievable, but homogeneous bead distribution within the pancreas is difficult to achieve with current protocols; (2) greater than 70% of islets in the dissociated pancreatic tissue were recovered by quadrupole magnetic sorting, but their purity was low; and (3) infused islets purified by density gradients and subsequently passed through quadrupole magnetic sorting had similar potency as uninfused islets. These results demonstrate proof of concept and define the steps for implementation of this technology in pig and human islet isolation. PMID:19505179

  3. Color sorting algorithm based on K-means clustering algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, BaoFeng; Huang, Qian

    2009-11-01

    In the process of raisin production, there were a variety of color impurities, which needs be removed effectively. A new kind of efficient raisin color-sorting algorithm was presented here. First, the technology of image processing basing on the threshold was applied for the image pre-processing, and then the gray-scale distribution characteristic of the raisin image was found. In order to get the chromatic aberration image and reduce some disturbance, we made the flame image subtraction that the target image data minus the background image data. Second, Haar wavelet filter was used to get the smooth image of raisins. According to the different colors and mildew, spots and other external features, the calculation was made to identify the characteristics of their images, to enable them to fully reflect the quality differences between the raisins of different types. After the processing above, the image were analyzed by K-means clustering analysis method, which can achieve the adaptive extraction of the statistic features, in accordance with which, the image data were divided into different categories, thereby the categories of abnormal colors were distinct. By the use of this algorithm, the raisins of abnormal colors and ones with mottles were eliminated. The sorting rate was up to 98.6%, and the ratio of normal raisins to sorted grains was less than one eighth.

  4. Sort-Mid tasks scheduling algorithm in grid computing

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Naglaa M.; Tawfik, A.; Marzok, Mohamed A.; Khamis, Soheir M.

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling tasks on heterogeneous resources distributed over a grid computing system is an NP-complete problem. The main aim for several researchers is to develop variant scheduling algorithms for achieving optimality, and they have shown a good performance for tasks scheduling regarding resources selection. However, using of the full power of resources is still a challenge. In this paper, a new heuristic algorithm called Sort-Mid is proposed. It aims to maximizing the utilization and minimizing the makespan. The new strategy of Sort-Mid algorithm is to find appropriate resources. The base step is to get the average value via sorting list of completion time of each task. Then, the maximum average is obtained. Finally, the task has the maximum average is allocated to the machine that has the minimum completion time. The allocated task is deleted and then, these steps are repeated until all tasks are allocated. Experimental tests show that the proposed algorithm outperforms almost other algorithms in terms of resources utilization and makespan. PMID:26644937

  5. Constant-time parallel sorting algorithm and its optical implementation using smart pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louri, Ahmed; Hatch, James A., Jr.; Na, Jongwhoa

    1995-06-01

    Sorting is a fundamental operation that has important implications in a vast number of areas. For instance, sorting is heavily utilized in applications such as database machines, in which hashing techniques are used to accelerate data-processing algorithms. It is also the basis for interprocessor message routing and has strong implications in video telecommunications. However, high-speed electronic sorting networks are difficult to implement with VLSI technology because of the dense, global connectivity required. Optics eliminates this bottleneck by offering global interconnects, massive parallelism, and noninterfering communications. We present a parallel sorting algorithm and its efficient optical implementation. The algorithm sorts n data elements in few steps, independent of the number of elements to be sorted. Thus it is a constant-time sorting algorithm [i.e., O(1) time]. We also estimate the system's performance to show that the proposed sorting algorithm can provide at least 2 orders of magnitude improvement in execution time over conventional electronic algorithms.

  6. Sex-sorting of boar spermatozoa does not influence the localization of glucose transporters.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Diego; Galeati, Giovanna; Giaretta, Elisa; Tamanini, Carlo; Spinaci, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    Sex-sorting damages spermatozoa function, shortening their lifespan and fertility. This study used an immunofluorescence technique to investigate the effect of sex-sorting on the localization of glucose transporters (GLUTs) in boar spermatozoa. GLUTs are trans-membrane proteins responsible for glucose transport within cells. Distribution of GLUTs on sperm cells was similar in unsorted and sex-sorted semen, suggesting that the flow cytometric sex-sorting process did not affect the sperm energy apparatus. PMID:24287043

  7. Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sediment sorting on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Kuhn, Brigitte; Gartmann, Andres

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment in water is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is more uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. In reality, such considerations have to be applied with great caution because the shape of a particle strongly influences drag. Drag itself can only be calculated directly for an irregularly shaped particle with great computational effort, if at all. Therefore, even for terrestrial applications, sediment settling velocities are often determined directly, e.g. by measurements using settling tubes. Experiments: In this study the results of settling tube tests conducted under reduced gravity during three Mars Sedimentation Experiment (MarsSedEx I, II and III) flights, conducted between 2012 and 2015, are presented. Ten types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Results: The experiments conducted during the MarsSedEx reduced gravity experiments showed that the violation of fluid dynamics caused by using empirical models and parameter values developed for sediment transport on Earth lead to significant miscalculations for Mars, specifically an underetsimation of settling velcoity because of an overestimation of turbulant drag. The error is caused by the flawed representation of particle drag on Mars. Drag coefficients are not a property of a sediment particle, but a property of the flow around the particle, and thus strongly affected by gravity. Conlcusions: The observed errors in settling velocity when using terrestrial models

  8. Two Types of Perseveration in the Dimension Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima

    2010-01-01

    In the Dimension Change Card Sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards well by one dimension but have difficulty in switching to sort the same cards by another dimension when asked; that is, they perseverate on the first relevant information. What is the information that children perseverate on? Using a new version of the DCCS, the experiments…

  9. Lazarus's BASIC ID: Making Initial Client Assessments Using Q-Sorts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Presents overview of Lazarus's multimodal therapy model and the Q-sort, an observer-evaluation scoring instrument. Outlines feasibility of integrating Q-sort within multimodal model. Describes both a preliminary attempt using expert raters to categorize Q-sort cards within the model and a case study on how to assess client by incorporating Q-sort…

  10. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  11. Enhancing the Executive Functions of 3-Year-Olds in the Dimensional Change Card Sort Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Molitor, Stephen J.; Buss, Aaron T.; Spencer, John P.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Executive functions enable flexible thinking, something young children are notoriously bad at. For instance, in the dimensional change card sort (DCCS) task, 3-year-olds can sort cards by one dimension (shape), but continue to sort by this dimension when asked to switch (to color). This study tests a prediction of a dynamic neural field model that…

  12. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-05-01

    , at least in part, through existing mechanisms at NSF, NIH, and other agencies. It will also be important to develop new integrated software and database systems for cross-species data analyses. Multidisciplinary efforts to develop such analytical tools should be supported financially. Finally, training opportunities should be created to stimulate multidisciplinary, integrative research into brain structure, function, and evolution.

  13. NSF workshop report: discovering general principles of nervous system organization by comparing brain maps across species.

    PubMed

    Striedter, Georg F; Belgard, T Grant; Chen, Chun-Chun; Davis, Fred P; Finlay, Barbara L; Güntürkün, Onur; Hale, Melina E; Harris, Julie A; Hecht, Erin E; Hof, Patrick R; Hofmann, Hans A; Holland, Linda Z; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Jarvis, Erich D; Karten, Harvey J; Katz, Paul S; Kristan, William B; Macagno, Eduardo R; Mitra, Partha P; Moroz, Leonid L; Preuss, Todd M; Ragsdale, Clifton W; Sherwood, Chet C; Stevens, Charles F; Stüttgen, Maik C; Tsumoto, Tadaharu; Wilczynski, Walter

    2014-01-01

    , at least in part, through existing mechanisms at NSF, NIH, and other agencies. It will also be important to develop new integrated software and database systems for cross-species data analyses. Multidisciplinary efforts to develop such analytical tools should be supported financially. Finally, training opportunities should be created to stimulate multidisciplinary, integrative research into brain structure, function, and evolution.

  14. Progress in sorting individual atoms in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tsung-Yao; Kumar, Aishwarya; Wang, Yang; Weiss, David

    2016-05-01

    An exactly unity filled optical lattice is a desirable initial state for a neutral atom quantum computer. We have previously proposed an efficient way to compact a partially filled lattice into a perfectly filled one, by combining site-resolved imaging, site-selective qubit rotations and state-selective motion steps. We have previously demonstrated site-resolved imaging and site-selective rotations in our system of cesium atoms in a 40% filled 5x5x5 3D lattice. We have now demonstrated the final element, state-selective motion steps in 3D produced by rotating the polarizations of one of the lattice beams in each pair. We will present our progress in putting all the elements together to reach perfect unity filling. Supported by NSF.

  15. The Arctic Cooperative Data and Information System: Data Management Support for the NSF Arctic Research Program (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, J.; Serreze, M. C.; Middleton, D.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Yarmey, L.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF funds the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information System (ACADIS), url: (http://www.aoncadis.org/). It serves the growing and increasingly diverse data management needs of NSF's arctic research community. The ACADIS investigator team combines experienced data managers, curators and software engineers from the NSIDC, UCAR and NCAR. ACADIS fosters scientific synthesis and discovery by providing a secure long-term data archive to NSF investigators. The system provides discovery and access to arctic related data from this and other archives. This paper updates the technical components of ACADIS, the implementation of best practices, the value of ACADIS to the community and the major challenges facing this archive for the future in handling the diverse data coming from NSF Arctic investigators. ACADIS provides sustainable data management, data stewardship services and leadership for the NSF Arctic research community through open data sharing, adherence to best practices and standards, capitalizing on appropriate evolving technologies, community support and engagement. ACADIS leverages other pertinent projects, capitalizing on appropriate emerging technologies and participating in emerging cyberinfrastructure initiatives. The key elements of ACADIS user services to the NSF Arctic community include: data and metadata upload; support for datasets with special requirements; metadata and documentation generation; interoperability and initiatives with other archives; and science support to investigators and the community. Providing a self-service data publishing platform requiring minimal curation oversight while maintaining rich metadata for discovery, access and preservation is challenging. Implementing metadata standards are a first step towards consistent content. The ACADIS Gateway and ADE offer users choices for data discovery and access with the clear objective of increasing discovery and use of all Arctic data especially for analysis activities

  16. Multi-objective calibration of a reservoir model: aggregation and non-dominated sorting approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Numerical reservoir models can be helpful tools for water resource management. These models are generally calibrated against historical measurement data made in reservoirs. In this study, two methods are proposed for the multi-objective calibration of such models: aggregation and non-dominated sorting methods. Both methods use a hybrid genetic algorithm as an optimization engine and are different in fitness assignment. In the aggregation method, a weighted sum of scaled simulation errors is designed as an overall objective function to measure the fitness of solutions (i.e. parameter values). The contribution of this study to the aggregation method is the correlation analysis and its implication to the choice of weight factors. In the non-dominated sorting method, a novel method based on non-dominated sorting and the method of minimal distance is used to calculate the dummy fitness of solutions. The proposed methods are illustrated using a water quality model that was set up to simulate the water quality of Pepacton Reservoir, which is located to the north of New York City and is used for water supply of city. The study also compares the aggregation and the non-dominated sorting methods. The purpose of this comparison is not to evaluate the pros and cons between the two methods but to determine whether the parameter values, objective function values (simulation errors) and simulated results obtained are significantly different with each other. The final results (objective function values) from the two methods are good compromise between all objective functions, and none of these results are the worst for any objective function. The calibrated model provides an overall good performance and the simulated results with the calibrated parameter values match the observed data better than the un-calibrated parameters, which supports and justifies the use of multi-objective calibration. The results achieved in this study can be very useful for the calibration of water

  17. Cost evaluation of automated and manual post-consumer plastic bottle sorting systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burgiel, J.; Butcher, W.; Halpern, R.; Oliver, D.; Tangora, P.

    1994-09-01

    The study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at two Magnetic Separation System facilities with costs developed from a study at a manual sorting facility. Three months of historical operating data was provided by each facility. This data, along with data obtained from three-day site visits to each facility, provided the basis for the economic analysis and comparison among the three facilities. Both facilities utilizing the automated sorting system produced material at lower costs than the manual sorting facility, based on overall sorting costs per pound of material generated for sale.

  18. Management and Stewardship of Airborne Observational Data for the NSF/NCAR HIAPER (GV) and NSF/NCAR C-130 at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) funding for the operation, maintenance and upgrade of two research aircraft: the NSF/NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Gulfstream V and the NSF/NCAR Hercules C-130. A suite of in-situ and remote sensing airborne instruments housed at the EOL Research Aviation Facility (RAF) provide a basic set of measurements that are typically deployed on most airborne field campaigns. In addition, instruments to address more specific research requirements are provided by collaborating participants from universities, industry, NASA, NOAA or other agencies. The data collected are an important legacy of these field campaigns. A comprehensive metadata database and integrated cyber-infrastructure, along with a robust data workflow that begins during the field phase and extends to long-term archival (current aircraft data holdings go back to 1967), assures that: all data and associated software are safeguarded throughout the data handling process; community standards of practice for data stewardship and software version control are followed; simple and timely community access to collected data and associated software tools are provided; and the quality of the collected data is preserved, with the ultimate goal of supporting research and the reproducibility of published results. The components of this data system to be presented include: robust, searchable web access to data holdings; reliable, redundant data storage; web-based tools and scripts for efficient creation, maintenance and update of data holdings; access to supplemental data and documentation; storage of data in standardized data formats; comprehensive metadata collection; mature version control; human-discernable storage practices; and procedures to inform users of changes. In addition, lessons learned, shortcomings, and desired upgrades

  19. Flow sorting of the Y sex chromosome in the dioecious plant Melandrium album

    SciTech Connect

    Veuskens, J.; Jacobs, M.; Negrutiu, I.

    1995-12-01

    The preparation of stable chromosome suspensions and flow cytometric sorting of both the Y sex chromosome of the white campion, Melandrium album, and the deleted Y chromosome of an asexual mutant, 5K63, is described. The principle has been to maintain transformed roots in vitro, synchronize and block mitosis, reduce cells to protoplasts, and lyse these to release chromosomes. Such in vitro material, unlike many cell suspensions, showed a stable karyotype. Factors critical to producing high-quality chromosome suspensions from protoplasts include osmolality of isolation solutions and choice of spindle toxin and of lysis buffer. Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed young growing root cultures were synchronized at G1/S with 50 {mu}M aphidicolin for 24 h and released to a mitotic block with 30 {mu}M oryzalin for 11 h. Protoplast preparations from such tissue routinely had metaphase indices reaching 15%. Suspensions of intact metaphase chromosomes, with few chromatids, were obtained by lysing swollen mitotic protoplasts in a citric acid/disodium phosphate buffer. Except for the presence of clumps of autosomal chromosomes near the X and Y chromosome zones, monoparametric histograms of fluorescence intensities of suspensions stained with 4{prime},6-diamidino-2-phenylindole showed profiles similar to theoretical flow karyotypes. Two types of Y chromosomes, one full-length and one partially deleted (from the asexual mutant), could be sorted at 90% purity (21-fold enrichment of Y). These results are discussed in the context of sex determination and differentiation in higher plants. 45 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Global Analysis of Yeast Endosomal Transport Identifies the Vps55/68 Sorting Complex

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Cayetana; Lam, Karen K.Y.; Brumm, Jochen; Wu, Bella W.; Saunders, Matthew; Stevens, Tom H.

    2008-01-01

    Endosomal transport is critical for cellular processes ranging from receptor down-regulation and retroviral budding to the immune response. A full understanding of endosome sorting requires a comprehensive picture of the multiprotein complexes that orchestrate vesicle formation and fusion. Here, we use unsupervised, large-scale phenotypic analysis and a novel computational approach for the global identification of endosomal transport factors. This technique effectively identifies components of known and novel protein assemblies. We report the characterization of a previously undescribed endosome sorting complex that contains two well-conserved proteins with four predicted membrane-spanning domains. Vps55p and Vps68p form a complex that acts with or downstream of ESCRT function to regulate endosomal trafficking. Loss of Vps68p disrupts recycling to the TGN as well as onward trafficking to the vacuole without preventing the formation of lumenal vesicles within the MVB. Our results suggest the Vps55/68 complex mediates a novel, conserved step in the endosomal maturation process. PMID:18216282