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Sample records for factor principal del

  1. The Principal Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    If classrooms teachers play the lead role in establishing relationships that help students do their personal best, principals are leaders in creating good school environments for adults. Westerberg, former principal of award-winning Littleton High School in Colorado, shares six principles that help create positive schoolwide relationships. Drawing…

  2. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  3. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  4. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  5. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  6. Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Kharoune, Mourad; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. PMID:27877925

  7. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  8. Factors Influencing Principals' Retirement Decisions: A Southern US Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Ellen H.; Kochan, Frances K.; Zhu, Linxiang

    2014-01-01

    This study, conducted in one state in the United States, replicated similar research from over a decade ago to compare principal demographics and reasons for remaining or leaving the profession. Demographics have trended with the nation. Principals are older, more diverse and are largely eligible for retirement within the next five years. Similar…

  9. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  10. Factors Influencing Rural Elementary School Principals' Decisions Concerning Building-Based Special Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Terri B.

    2009-01-01

    The decisions rural elementary school principals make related to special education programming at their building sites are influenced by a variety of factors. This study employed a qualitative research methodology to investigate the perspectives of four rural elementary school principals concerning the decision-making processes they use as they…

  11. Factors Affecting the Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing ICT in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Siraj, Saedah

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is an important factor in the effective implementation of technology in schools. This study examines the transformational leadership role of principals to determine whether transformational leadership role of principals in ICT implementation in schools is influenced by the computer competence, level of computer use, and professional…

  12. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-02-22

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  13. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the…

  14. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Assistant Principals' Decisions to Pursue the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Amy Lowman

    2013-01-01

    Educational literature provides evidence that there are numerous steps school districts must consider in order to recruit and grow qualified individuals for the position of the campus principal. However, it also indicates that there are a number of factors that contribute to the decision-making process that future leaders take in order to decide…

  15. Violent Children in the Schoolhouse: One Elementary Principal's Experience with Risk Factors and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cathie E.

    2002-01-01

    Elementary principal describes experience working with violent-prone children. Describes steps in dealing with violence-prone children: Create a support team, schedule a transition meeting, evaluate risk factors, prepare a transition plan, notify staff members, and create a behavior plan, the components of which include behavior, levels plan,…

  16. A principal factor analysis to characterize agricultural exposures among Nebraska veterans

    PubMed Central

    Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years. Participant characteristics were: 98.1% were white males with a mean age 65±8 (SD) years and 39.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The final model included four factors and explained 16.6% of the variance in the exposure data. Factor 1 was a heterogeneous factor; however, Factor 2 was exclusively composed of exposure to livestock such as hogs, dairy and poultry. Factor 3 included exposures from jobs on or off the farm such as wood dust, mineral dust, asbestos and spray paint. Crop exposure loaded exclusively in Factor 4 and included lifetime hours of exposure and maximum number of acres farmed in the participants' lifetime. The factors in the final model were interpretable and consistent with farming practices. PMID:27049536

  17. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  18. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  19. The actinobacterial transcription factor RbpA binds to the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Tabib-Salazar, Aline; Liu, Bing; Doughty, Philip; Lewis, Richard A; Ghosh, Somadri; Parsy, Marie-Laure; Simpson, Peter J; O'Dwyer, Kathleen; Matthews, Steve J; Paget, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    RbpA is a small non-DNA-binding transcription factor that associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme and stimulates transcription in actinobacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RbpA seems to show specificity for the vegetative form of RNA polymerase as opposed to alternative forms of the enzyme. Here, we explain the basis of this specificity by showing that RbpA binds directly to the principal σ subunit in these organisms, but not to more diverged alternative σ factors. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that, although differing in their requirement for structural zinc, the RbpA orthologues from S. coelicolor and M. tuberculosis share a common structural core domain, with extensive, apparently disordered, N- and C-terminal regions. The RbpA-σ interaction is mediated by the C-terminal region of RbpA and σ domain 2, and S. coelicolor RbpA mutants that are defective in binding σ are unable to stimulate transcription in vitro and are inactive in vivo. Given that RbpA is essential in M. tuberculosis and critical for growth in S. coelicolor, these data support a model in which RbpA plays a key role in the σ cycle in actinobacteria.

  20. Pre-Service Preparation, In-Service Development, and Individual Attainment: Factors in Principal Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yslas, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Principals need to be leaders who set and communicate a vision for learning, understand organization development, know how to effect change, are able to help teachers grow in their craft, and can interpret and utilize data for school improvement. The literature has shown disconnect between principal preparation and actual practices needed for the…

  1. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  2. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    PubMed

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage.

  3. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  4. Factors That Determine the Career Stability of Assistant Principals in a Large Urban School District in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Danielle Felder

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the career stability (career choices assistant principals intend to make over the next five to ten years) in a large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States in order to identify factors significantly related to their career aspirations. The study invited a purposive sample (n = 177) of assistant…

  5. Efficacy and Academic Emphasis: A Leadership Factor in Elementary School Principals, and Its Relationship to Hope, Resilience, Optimism, and View of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the construct of academic optimism at the principal level and examine possible explanatory variables for the factors that emerged from the principal academic optimism scale. Academic optimism contains efficacy, trust and academic emphasis (Hoy, Tarter & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006). It has been studied at the…

  6. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  7. Interim Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2003-01-01

    An interim principal can buy a school district time to land a permanent successor. Also lists where to find an interim principal; the interim's steadying influence; Bob Wallace's wild ride as an interim principal in post-retirement; and Roger Prosise's rationale for turning to an interim appointment. (MLF)

  8. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors.

  9. Prediction of the processing factor for pesticides in apple juice by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Gil Garcia, M D; Malato, O; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to establish a mathematical function that correlates pesticide residue levels in apple juice with the levels of the pesticides applied on the raw fruit, taking into account some of their physicochemical properties such as water solubility, the octanol/water partition coefficient, the organic carbon partition coefficient, vapour pressure and density. A mixture of 12 pesticides was applied to an apple tree; apples were collected after 10 days of application. After harvest, apples were treated with a mixture of three post-harvest pesticides and the fruits were then processed in order to obtain apple juice following a routine industrial process. The pesticide residue levels in the apple samples were analysed using two multi-residue methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The concentration of pesticides was determined in samples derived from the different steps of processing. The processing factors (the coefficient between residue level in the processed commodity and the residue level in the commodity to be processed) obtained for the full juicing process were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. In order to investigate the relationships between the levels of pesticide residue found in apple juice samples and their physicochemical properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using two sets of samples (one of them using experimental data obtained in this work and the other including the data taken from the literature). In both cases the correlation was found between processing factors of pesticides in the apple juice and the negative logarithms (base 10) of the water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient and organic carbon partition coefficient. The linear correlation between these physicochemical properties and the processing factor were established using a multiple linear regression technique.

  10. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  11. Turnaround Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration has grand hopes for turning around the nation's lowest-performing schools, in part by allocating $3.5 billion for School Improvement Grants. Unfortunately, there simply aren't enough qualified principals to replace those mandated to be fired under two of the four school improvement models that the federal government says…

  12. Principal Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that school leaders, throughout all stages of their careers, can benefit from a mentoring system in which a seasoned leader helps the protege combine theory and practice with experience. This research roundup reviews works that provide support for principal mentoring and share strategies for establishing mentoring…

  13. Cypriot Primary School Principals' Understanding of Education for Sustainable Development Key Terms and Their Opinions about Factors Affecting Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariou, Aravella; Kadji-Beltran, Chrysanthi

    2009-01-01

    "Transformative leaders for sustainable schools", was a nationwide research project conducted in 150 primary schools in Cyprus during 2005-2007. The project explored the role of the principals in the organisation of sustainable schools. A mixed methods approach to data collection was employed combining quantitative and qualitative…

  14. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  15. Dynamics and spatio-temporal variability of environmental factors in Eastern Australia using functional principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, J.K.; Fedriani, E.M.; Segovia-Gonzalez, M. M.; Astheimer, L.B.; Hooper, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technique in ecology to analyze spatial and temporal variability in environmental variables. By using simple statistics, we explore the relations between abiotic and biotic variables that influence animal distributions. However, spatial and temporal variability in rainfall, a key variable in ecological studies, can cause difficulties to any basic model including time evolution. The study was of a landscape scale (three million square kilometers in eastern Australia), mainly over the period of 19982004. We simultaneously considered qualitative spatial (soil and habitat types) and quantitative temporal (rainfall) variables in a Geographical Information System environment. In addition to some techniques commonly used in ecology, we applied a new method, Functional Principal Component Analysis, which proved to be very suitable for this case, as it explained more than 97% of the total variance of the rainfall data, providing us with substitute variables that are easier to manage and are even able to explain rainfall patterns. The main variable came from a habitat classification that showed strong correlations with rainfall values and soil types. ?? 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H.; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-06-27

    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  17. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  18. Surfactant protein A is a principal and oxidation-sensitive microbial permeabilizing factor in the alveolar lining fluid.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, Alexander I; Wu, Huixing; Wan, Sijue; McCormack, Francis X

    2005-07-08

    We have reported that surfactant protein A kills some Gram-negative organisms by increasing membrane permeability. In this study, we investigated the physiologic importance of this activity and the effect of oxidative stress on the antimicrobial functions of SP-A in vitro and in vivo. Concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from SP-A+/+ mice increased the permeability of the Escherichia coli K12 cell membrane to a greater extent than lavage from SP-A-/- animals. Similarly, calcium-dependent surfactant-binding proteins of SP-A+/+ mice increased membrane permeability more than those from SP-A-/- mice and produced greater zonal killing of agar-embedded bacteria in a radial diffusion assay. Exposure of human SP-A to copper-initiated surfactant phospholipid peroxidation or to free radicals generated by human neutrophils in vitro increased the level of SP-A-associated carbonyl moieties and blocked the permeabilizing function of the protein. We also found that exposure of mice to 90% O2 for 4 days, sufficient to lead to consumption of glutathione, oxidation of protein thiols, and accumulation of airspace protein-associated carbonyl moieties, blocked the permeabilizing activity of lavage fluid from SP-A+/+ mice. We conclude that SP-A is a major microbial permeablizing factor in lavage fluid and that oxidative stress inhibits the antibacterial activity of SP-A by a mechanism that includes oxidative modification and functional inactivation of the protein.

  19. The 'principal components' statistical method as a complementary approach to geochemical methods in water quality factor identification; application to the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melloul, A.; Collin, M.

    1992-12-01

    In general, Schoeller and Piper diagrams, as well as other classical techniques, facilitate the description of the various geochemical groups of water, and help to explain quality changes in an aquifer. We propose the use mainly of 'principal components' analysis for identification of relevant groups of water and the factors that bring about a change in their quality. The major advantage of this method is its suitability for simultaneous analysis of a great number of variables and observations. It is here being applied for the investigation of the Dan metropolitan region of Israel's Coastal Plain. The variables involved include major ions as well as the physical factors of depth of the well intake filter below sea-level, distance from the sea, and aquifer recharge. The primary purpose of this work is to demonstrate the use and reliability of principal components analysis (PCA) as a method complementary to classical approaches for hydrogeochemical research. Subsidiary purposes involve determination of the major water groups characterizing the Coastal Plain aquifer, identification of some of the principal variables that influence changes in water quality in the aquifer, and description of some of the geochemical phenomena contributing to change in aquifer water quality. The following results were achieved for the test area: (1) Two major groups of water were identified: a low-salinity, calcium bicarbonate water occurring in the phreatic portion of the Coastal Plain aquifer, and a more saline, sodium chloride water characterizing the neighboring Cenomanian aquifer and the confined portions of the Coastal Plain aquifer. (2) The major water input sources, such as rain, injection water, waste water, irrigation, etc., may vary in their influence upon resulting water quality; this water quality is affected by such physical factors as distance from the sea, depth of well intake filters below sea-level, proximity to streams and the lithology of the saturated and unsaturated

  20. Solving the Principal Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Les

    2001-01-01

    Districts can quickly relieve the principal shortage by hiring recently retired principals and aspiring assistant principals, keeping good principals on the job, reconsidering early retirement options, providing monetary incentives, and recruiting candidates from local universities and outside education. Nurturing assistant principals is the best…

  1. Open field locomotion and neurotransmission in mice evaluated by principal component factor analysis-effects of housing condition, individual activity disposition and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Jähkel, M; Rilke, O; Koch, R; Oehler, J

    2000-01-01

    Effects of housing condition and individual disposition on dopaminergically and GABAergically influenced open field locomotion and neurochemistry were studied in mice. Mice characterized as high active (HAM) and low active (LAM) by a running-wheel test were housed in groups or isolated for 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 12 or 18 weeks before an open field test was performed with saline, apomorphine (0.75 mg/kg) or diazepam (1.00 mg/kg) administration. Immediately afterwards animals were decapitated and brain sections were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analysis of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmitter metabolism. Principal component factor analysis (PCA) of locomotion variables provided three factors explaining 78.5% of total variance. Variables related to the amount of locomotion loaded highly on Factor 1 (F1-Activity), variables related to place utilization loaded highly on Factor 2 (F2-Exploration) and variables related to immobility and place preference loaded highly on Factor 3 (F3-Irritation). Apomorphine decreased F1-Activity with smaller effects in HAM and without changes in F2-Exploration and F3-Irritation independent on housing conditions. Diazepam exerted a decrease in F2-Exploration with a small increase in FI-Activity and no effects in F3-Irritation. Diazepam induced changes depended on housing conditions and were especially pronounced in isolated HAM. PCA of considerable locomotion and neurochemical data revealed interrelationships between striatal dopamine metabolism and F1-Activity, between cortical dopamine and serotonin metabolism and F2-Exploration as well as between cerebellar, hippocampal and striatal serotonin metabolism and F3-Irritation. The authors concluded that the application of PCA is a useful method to provide functionally relevant characteristics of behaviors and functionally relevant descriptions of interrrelationships between behavior and appropriate central nervous mechanisms. Furthermore the received behavioral characteristics (F1, F2, F3

  2. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA.

  3. Assessment of air quality in the coastal area of South Korea using principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.; Kwack, W.; Ha, H.; Choe, C.; Kim, Y.; Zoh, K.; Yi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of ambiet air pollution in relation with meteorological parameters is a topic of great interest to maintain and manage ambient air quality in the coastal region of South Korea. The objectives of this study were: (i) to locate emission sources qualitatitively and quantitatively, (ii) to identify air quality by day with similar air pollution behaviors; and (iii) to evaluate the effect of sea salt on the aerosols. Two statistical techniques, principal components analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were applied to the concentrations of five pollutants(PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3). The enrichment factor(EF) representing the ratio of Cl/Na in aerosol to Cl/Na in sea water was calculated with 2 soluble ions(Na+ and Cl-) in PM10 analyzed by ion chromatograph in coastal urban area of Incheon city, South Korea from January to December 2008. PCA results show three emission sources; (i) high PM10, NO2 and CO with low temperature, radiation and wind speed(35.9%), (ii) high O3 with high radiation and wind speed, and low humidity(18.2%), (iii) high NO2 and O3 with high temperature and radiation, and low wind speed(11.2%), respectively. CA results show three groups; (i) Friday (high PM10 and NO2, low O3), (ii) Sunday (low PM10 and NO2, high O3), (iii) Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Saturday (medium PM10, NO2 and O3). EF was 1.02 implying contribution of sea salt on the aerosol level with various anthropogenic sources. In conclusion, PCA and CA are suitable for idenfying and estimating the sources of air pollution. EF allows for investigating the effect of sea salt on the PM10 in the region where sea-land breezes. It was conclueded that the sea wind had an important contribution towards the variation of air pollutants. Key words : air pollutants, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, enrichment factor Fig. 1. Dendrogram using average linkage of cluster analysis for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea. Table 1 Main results of PCA

  4. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  5. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  6. Principal Performance Areas and Principal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Thomas E.; McInerney, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes a study that surveyed Indiana superintendents and examined their principal-evaluation instruments. Superintendents were asked which of 21 performance domains were most important and whether these were currently being assessed. Respondents generally agreed that all 21 performance domains identified by the National Policy Board for…

  7. Harried Principals Aren't Helpful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A harried leader is not a helpful leader. Schools need calm, well-balanced, helpful leaders as much as they need visionary ones. In fact, in this era of frenetic change in schools, principals should devote at least as much time to helping teachers be more focused and less frantic as they do to formulating new visions for the school or embarking on…

  8. Factors that Influence Females to Not Pursue the School Leadership Role of Principal in Secondary Schools in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and attracting potential school leaders is a challenge for school districts. Whereas teachers represent the group from which the largest number of new principals will be drawn, fewer and fewer of them now seem willing to seek administrative positions. While women are prepared educationally, certified professionally, and waiting in…

  9. Principals and Blogs: In What Ways Does Blogging Support the Practices of School Principals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebritson, Reggie Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study paper explores the factors that motivate school principals to blog and the effectiveness of those blogs in terms of instructional and technology leadership. Participants were school principals who blog and were sent a web-based survey. Fifty responded. Results indicate that principals blog to communicate to others, including parents,…

  10. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  11. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  12. A Principal's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergalonis, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the interview process, every aspiring principal naively speaks of assuming the role of instructional leader. The candidate has read the right books, taken the right courses, and attended every possible workshop to prepare for the day when he or she would become captain of his or her own ship. However, it does not take long for principals to…

  13. Priming Principal Pipelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Most principals today are hard pressed to find time for the multitasking they are expected to do, from overseeing the daily operation of their schools and interacting with parents to evaluating teachers and providing them with professional development to do their jobs at a high level. What these principals have frequently been lacking, say experts…

  14. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  15. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  16. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  17. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  18. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  19. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  20. The Principal as CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…

  1. The Principal's Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William E., Ed.; And Others

    The principal is faced with myriad legal issues on a daily basis, making it imperative that he or she keep abreast with developing legal issues. The first of four sections, "Students and the Law," surveys federal statutes and landmark Supreme Court decisions pertaining to the rights of students. It addresses legal issues regarding search and…

  2. Turnaround Principal Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lucy; Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    When the Minneapolis Public Schools first set out to hire turnaround school principals, administrators followed their usual process--which focused largely on reputation and anecdotal support and considered mainly internal candidates. Yet success at the complicated task of turning around the fortunes of a failing school depends on exceptionally…

  3. Strategic Principal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  4. The Last Angry Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Howard L.

    In March 1976, Howard L. Hurwitz, then a principal in Long Island City Schools, was barricaded in his office by community supporters to prevent him from being fired for an action he took to maintain discipline in the school. This book is Hurwitz's personal account of his subsequent struggles with the New York City schools, including his arrest by…

  5. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  6. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  7. The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Mahmud, Shawn A; Thompson, Jacob A; Geng, Jian-Guo; Key, Nigel S; Slungaard, Arne

    2006-01-15

    In vivo, bromide (Br(-)), nitrite (NO(2)(-)), and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) compete for oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and H(2)O(2), yielding, respectively, HOBr, NO(2)., and HOSCN. We have recently shown that SCN(-) is the strongly preferred substrate for EPO in vivo and that HOSCN, in contrast with other EPO-generated oxidants and HOCl, is a relatively weak, cell-permeant, sulfhydryl (SH)-reactive oxidant. We here show that HOSCN is a uniquely potent (up to 100-fold) phagocyte oxidant inducer of tissue factor (TF) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This induction is attributable to transcriptional up-regulation of TF gene expression dependent upon both activation of the p65/c-Rel TF-kappaB transcription factor and activity of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway upstream of Egr-1 and was markedly further enhanced in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. HOSCN also markedly activates the proinflammatory p65/p50 NF-kappaB pathway. Based on these findings we hypothesize that HOSCN generated by adherent and infiltrating eosinophils may provoke the development of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory endothelial/endocardial phenotype that promotes the pronounced thrombotic diathesis characteristic of the hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  8. The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Mahmud, Shawn A.; Thompson, Jacob A.; Geng, Jian-Guo; Key, Nigel S.; Slungaard, Arne

    2006-01-01

    In vivo, bromide (Br–), nitrite (NO2–), and thiocyanate (SCN–) compete for oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and H2O2, yielding, respectively, HOBr, NO2·, and HOSCN. We have recently shown that SCN– is the strongly preferred substrate for EPO in vivo and that HOSCN, in contrast with other EPO-generated oxidants and HOCl, is a relatively weak, cell-permeant, sulfhydryl (SH)–reactive oxidant. We here show that HOSCN is a uniquely potent (up to 100-fold) phagocyte oxidant inducer of tissue factor (TF) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This induction is attributable to transcriptional up-regulation of TF gene expression dependent upon both activation of the p65/c-Rel TF-κB transcription factor and activity of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway upstream of Egr-1 and was markedly further enhanced in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. HOSCN also markedly activates the proinflammatory p65/p50 NF-κB pathway. Based on these findings we hypothesize that HOSCN generated by adherent and infiltrating eosinophils may provoke the development of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory endothelial/endocardial phenotype that promotes the pronounced thrombotic diathesis characteristic of the hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:16166591

  9. Role of the endothelial-derived endogenous anti-inflammatory factor Del-1 in inflammation-mediated adrenal gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Sprott, David; Bornstein, Stefan R; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2013-03-01

    Inflammation in the course of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis often results in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The adrenal gland is highly vascularized; thus, we hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction may actively participate in inflammation-related adrenal insufficiency. To address this hypothesis, we used the properties of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), which is an endothelial-derived anti-inflammatory factor that antagonizes integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. Here we identified that Del-1 is expressed in the adrenal gland and that its expression was down-regulated upon SIRS induction by systemic lipopolysaccharide administration. Furthermore, we observed increased leukocyte accumulation, inflammation, and higher apoptosis in the adrenal glands of Del-1-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice. Strikingly, Del-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced corticosterone and ACTH levels 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration. Together, these data suggest that Del-1 may act as a gatekeeper of adrenal gland inflammation and may regulate the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, thereby modulating adrenal (dys)function in the course of SIRS.

  10. Recursive principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Voegtlin, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    A recurrent linear network can be trained with Oja's constrained Hebbian learning rule. As a result, the network learns to represent the temporal context associated to its input sequence. The operation performed by the network is a generalization of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to time-series, called Recursive PCA. The representations learned by the network are adapted to the temporal statistics of the input. Moreover, sequences stored in the network may be retrieved explicitly, in the reverse order of presentation, thus providing a straight-forward neural implementation of a logical stack.

  11. Prevalence, behavioural and social factors associated with Schistosoma intercalatum and geohelminth infections in São Tomé and Principe.

    PubMed

    Belo, S; Rompão, H; Gonçalves, L; Grácio, M A A

    2005-06-01

    A pilot study was conducted in schoolchildren from three main districts of São Tome to assess the relationship between the prevalence of infections caused by Schistosoma intercalatum or intestinal helminths and individual behaviour and social conditions. Coprological examination revealed an increase of schistosome infections and a persisting high endemicity for ascariasis and trichuriasis. Infection rates were 36.2% for S. intercalatum and 70.8%, 68.5% and 4.6% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Ancylostomidae, respectively. Out of the 47 children positive for S. intercalatum, 35 (74.5%) were co-infected with one or more geohelminths. Logistic regression analysis of data collected through questionnaire demonstrate that behaviour and/or social conditions in the house were positively associated with S. intercalatum or T. trichiura. Neither sex nor age groups were associated with infections, suggesting that low personal hygiene and sanitation practices were similar for all groups of children. These data are in accordance to those of other studies and highlight the importance of assessing multivariate factors that may contribute to the transmission of these diseases, in order to design integrated control approaches for schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis which could have more rapid effects on reduction of infections as well as greater cost-effectiveness.

  12. Principal Preferences and the Uneven Distribution of Principals across Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Horng, Eileen Lai

    2010-01-01

    The authors use longitudinal data from one large school district to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. They find that schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low-achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges. This distribution of principals is…

  13. Principals' Supervision and Evaluation Cycles: Perspectives from Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals for this quantitative study were to examine principals' perceptions regarding supervision and evaluation within their own evaluations. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own evaluation?; and…

  14. Teacher and Principal Beliefs about Principal Leadership Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there is a difference between teacher and principal beliefs about principal leadership behavior using a 360-degree evaluation tool. The study also examined whether the difference between teacher and principal beliefs was related to the status of a school relative to the state growth target…

  15. Visible Leading: Principal Academy Connects and Empowers Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John

    2015-01-01

    The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…

  16. The Principal as White Knight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Pamela C.; Walter, James E.

    This 20-month study describes an elementary school principal, John Meyer, and examines his leadership behaviors. From an effective schools perspective, the principal is seen as the white knight who "saves" the children by providing an effective school. John Meyer is known as a "turnaround" principal who came to Garvin School (located in a Missouri…

  17. Principals' Relationship with Computer Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Lantry L.; Sermon, Janet M.; Hope, Warren C.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation sought information about principals and their relationship with computer technology. Several questions were fundamental to the inquiry. Are principals prepared to facilitate the attainment of technology's promise through the integration of computer technology into the teaching and learning process? Are principals prepared to use…

  18. Some Things Assistant Principals Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    The assistant principal of a Catholic elementary school carries out some of the duties (with the needed authority) of the school principal. How tasks and authority are delegated vary and depend upon the personality of each individual school. Fifteen assistant principals wrote essays relating one of their chief responsibilities to show a wide…

  19. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  20. Emerging Challenges Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the challenges facing US public school principals. A survey was sent to a random sample of over 10,000 principals throughout the US. Written responses from a representative sample were analyzed for content and themes. Results indicate that principals are facing emerging challenges never before seen in education,…

  1. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  2. Principals' Salaries, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? How have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  3. Principals' Salaries, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2008-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  4. The Future of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…

  5. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  6. Computer Use by Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Afshari, Marjan; Fooi, Foo Say; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly to identify the extent to which Iranian secondary school principals used computers and secondly to explore the relationship between a number of variables related to the use of information and communications technology (ICT). Findings indicated that four factors played a role in explaining the level of computer…

  7. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  8. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  9. Proficiencies for Principals. Elementary & Middle Schools. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

    Recognizing the principal's role as the single most important factor in determining school effectiveness in the crucial early years of children's education, this document discusses four prerequisites for success as a school leader and thoroughly outlines elements of proficiency in the principalship. Specific leadership capabilities and…

  10. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  11. Status of Programs for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1972-01-01

    Claiming that there's an aura of dissatisfaction with the present pre- and inservice programs for principals, the writer reports his findings about existing programs and suggested improvements. (Editor)

  12. Principals' Leadership Network. Focusing on the Image of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Cheryl Riggins; Hayden, Hal

    2004-01-01

    A recent study by The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support (2000) found that communication, marketing, public affairs and public relations and engagement activities are now given more time and importance than ever before. According to the study, public support builds…

  13. The Principal and Fiscal Management. Elementary Principal Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James K.; Marconnit, George D.

    The sixth of six volumes in the "Elementary Principal Series," this booklet is designed to help principals develop sound fiscal management strategies at the building level. The first section reviews Indiana statutory provisions for handling extracurricular and booster group funds. The second section presents guidelines for managing…

  14. The Principal and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumack, Kenneth A.

    The evolution of a run-down inner city elementary school into a flourishing community school is documented by its principal. By going out into the community and visiting in parents' homes, this principal built a base of support for innovations, such as individualized instruction and tutoring, as well as a lunch and breakfast program. Student…

  15. Burnout among Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2009-01-01

    As the understanding of burnout continues to be refined, studies that examine school principals and burnout will be helpful to those who provide support to school leaders and are concerned about principal attrition and pending shortages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and gender, age, and years experience…

  16. Great Principals at Scale: Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  17. Great New Resources for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The end of the school year is a hectic time for high school principals. Summer often provides a brief opportunity to "kick-back" and take time to rest, relax and spend some time thinking about the coming school year. As the school year ends the author would like to introduce several new or updated resources that every high school principal will…

  18. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  19. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  20. The Principal as Formative Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidus, Gabrielle; Sadder, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders. In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the…

  1. Time Management for New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  2. What Principals Think Motivates Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    How did a graduate class of teachers and principals come to explore what was really important to teachers? They had an idea that they all shared the same values (both teachers and principals) and would agree on what rewards teachers prize. Would administrators rate the motivation rewards the same way the teachers would? To find out, five schools…

  3. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  4. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  5. The Principal and Human Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Human Relations.

    This booklet offers general guidelines and recommendations on how to develop and exercise the interpersonal skills required of a successful school principal. Attention is devoted to the basic principles of effective communication and personal interaction, with emphasis on the principal's relations with students, teachers, and members of the…

  6. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  7. Groundwater studies: principal aquifer surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop nationally consistent long-term datasets and provide information about the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. The USGS uses objective and reliable data, water-quality models, and systematic scientific studies to assess current water-quality conditions, to identify changes in water quality over time, and to determine how natural factors and human activities affect the quality of streams and groundwater. NAWQA is the only non-regulatory Federal program to perform these types of studies; participation is voluntary. In the third decade (Cycle 3) of the NAWQA program (2013–2023), the USGS will evaluate the quality and availability of groundwater for drinking supply, improve our understanding of where and why water quality is degraded, and assess how groundwater quality could respond to changes in climate and land use. These goals will be addressed through the implementation of a new monitoring component in Cycle 3: Principal Aquifer Surveys.

  8. Mentoring Prospective Principals: Determinants of Productive Mentor-Mentee Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring contributes to prospective principals' growth, easing their transition from the role of teacher to that of administrator. This article reports findings from a study aimed at examining the determinant factors affecting the mentor-mentee relationship in a uniquely designed principal preparation program in New York City. The study…

  9. How Do Principals Respond to Charter School Competition? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The current study from the National Center on School Choice contributes to the research by exploring the factors that affect principals' perceptions of charter school competition and the extent to which their leadership behavior may change in response. Central research questions of the study were: (1) How do principals perceive the competition…

  10. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  11. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  12. Profile of a Successful Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thais

    1985-01-01

    Dick Curland, principal of Valley View Elementary School in Portland, Connecticut, enhances his effectiveness by maintaining high visibility, communicating clearly and frequently with others, supporting his staff, and developing positive personal contact with individual students. (PGD)

  13. Principal Fibrations from Noncommutative Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Suijlekom, Walter Van

    2005-11-01

    We construct noncommutative principal fibrations Sθ7→Sθ4 which are deformations of the classical SU(2) Hopf fibration over the four sphere. We realize the noncommutative vector bundles associated to the irreducible representations of SU(2) as modules of coequivariant maps and construct corresponding projections. The index of Dirac operators with coefficients in the associated bundles is computed with the Connes-Moscovici local index formula. "The algebra inclusion is an example of a not-trivial quantum principal bundle."

  14. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  15. Principal Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Principal Must Deliver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Theoretically, schools led by principals providing structure, resources, consideration, useful influence, and professional support in an even-handed, noncontrolling manner should be work places that elicit teacher commitment. This hypothesis was tested using a sample of 72 New Jersey secondary schools. Close control blunts teacher commitment.…

  16. Principal Concerns: Addressing Statewide Principal Pipelines with Data and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine; Gross, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about human capital and school improvement typically center on teachers, not administrators, and that's a mistake. Principals, who are responsible for selecting and developing the teachers they know are so important, are a critical driver of school success. So it is imperative that states do everything they can to find, deploy, and…

  17. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  18. Reflections on My First Year as Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    This book grew out of the first principals' academy for beginning principals, hosted by the National Catholic Educational Association. Almost 60 principals, all in their first or second year as principals of Catholic elementary/middle schools, from all over the U.S. attended the program. At the conclusion of the academy, the principals wrote brief…

  19. A View from the Principal's Office: A Grounded-Theory Exploration of Principals' Perceptions of Non-Academic Barriers to Learning--Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, JoNataye Arnitra

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the principal has been found to be a critical factor in student and school success. School principal responsibilities traditionally encompass operations and management. However, many principals are unable to fulfill these expectations because of students' social and behavioral issues. Consequently, this qualitative study explored…

  20. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  1. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed…

  2. Toward Understanding Principals' Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Curran, F. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore variation across principals in terms of the number and types of strategies they engage in to find teachers to fill the vacancies in their schools. The practices that the authors consider to be strategic are aligned with the district's goals and objectives for teacher recruitment.…

  3. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  4. The Need for Principal Renewal: The Promise of Sustaining Principals through Principal-to-Principal Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Given the challenging complexity of the modern principalship--including high-stakes testing, standards-based reform, increased accountability, and severe budget cuts--practitioners and scholars emphasize the urgency of supporting principals' stress-relief and renewal. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This…

  5. The Principal as Tech Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The conventional wisdom in education is that any school reform--be it curriculum, instruction, assessment, or teacher professionalism--is most likely to take hold in schools that have strong leadership. The same holds true for technology. The most successful implementation of technology programs takes place in schools where the principal sees him…

  6. Evaluating School Principals. Tips & Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Sims, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    With the need to meet a set of higher accountability standards such as Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards and the AYP benchmarks of the NCLB Act, for example, school principals are faced with the knowledge that they play a vital role in school effectiveness as well as teacher retention, parent participation, and…

  7. The Principal as Instructional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1986-01-01

    Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…

  8. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  9. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  10. Functional characterization of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor GhDEL65 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2016-10-01

    Cotton fiber is proposed to share some similarity with the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichome, which is regulated by the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex. Although several MYB transcription factors and WD40 family proteins in cotton have been characterized, little is known about the role of bHLH family proteins in cotton. Here, we report that GhDEL65, a bHLH protein from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) in regulating trichome development. Transcripts of GhDEL65 were detected in 0 ∼ 1 days post-anthesis (DPA) ovules and abundant in 3-DPA fibers, implying that GhDEL65 may act in early fiber development. Ectopic expression of GhDEL65 in Arabidopsis gl3 egl3 double mutant partly rescued the trichome development, and constitutive expression of GhDEL65 in wild-type plants led to increased trichome density on rosette leaves and stems, mainly by activating the transcription of two key positive regulators of trichome development, GLABRA1 (GL1) and GLABRA2 (GL2), and suppressed the expression of a R3 single-repeat MYB factor TRIPTYCHON (TRY). GhDEL65 could interact with cotton R2R3 MYB transcription factors GhMYB2 and GhMYB3, as well as the WD40 protein GhTTG3, suggesting that the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex also exists in cotton fiber cell, though its function in cotton fiber development awaits further investigation.

  11. Bayesian principal geodesic analysis for estimating intrinsic diffeomorphic image variability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Fletcher, P Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a generative Bayesian approach for estimating the low-dimensional latent space of diffeomorphic shape variability in a population of images. We develop a latent variable model for principal geodesic analysis (PGA) that provides a probabilistic framework for factor analysis in the space of diffeomorphisms. A sparsity prior in the model results in automatic selection of the number of relevant dimensions by driving unnecessary principal geodesics to zero. To infer model parameters, including the image atlas, principal geodesic deformations, and the effective dimensionality, we introduce an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. We evaluate our proposed model on 2D synthetic data and the 3D OASIS brain database of magnetic resonance images, and show that the automatically selected latent dimensions from our model are able to reconstruct unobserved testing images with lower error than both linear principal component analysis (LPCA) in the image space and tangent space principal component analysis (TPCA) in the diffeomorphism space.

  12. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  13. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  14. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  15. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  16. How to Spot an Effective Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research shows the importance of effective principals in the development of effective schools. Discusses the importance of the principal selection process. The "Principal Selection Guide" was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist those involved in principal selection. (MD)

  17. Evaluating Principals: Recommendations at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Principal and teacher quality account for nearly 60% of a school's total impact on student achievement, and principals alone for a full 25% (Marzano et al., 2005). The principal's impact is so significant because of the leadership actions principals take to create the school-wide conditions that support student learning--especially those actions…

  18. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  19. Different Approaches to the Professional Development of Principals: A Comparative Study of New Zealand and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors that contribute to effective management of schools is the professional development of principals. The role of the principal has become more complex with the dynamic and constant reforms in the educational environment. The present study focuses on the professional development of principals in New Zealand and Singapore. The…

  20. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  1. Inductive robust principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Liu, Guangcan; Xu, Changsheng; Yan, Shuicheng

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we address the error correction problem that is to uncover the low-dimensional subspace structure from high-dimensional observations, which are possibly corrupted by errors. When the errors are of Gaussian distribution, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can find the optimal (in terms of least-square-error) low-rank approximation to highdimensional data. However, the canonical PCA method is known to be extremely fragile to the presence of gross corruptions. Recently, Wright et al. established a so-called Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) method, which can well handle grossly corrupted data [14]. However, RPCA is a transductive method and does not handle well the new samples which are not involved in the training procedure. Given a new datum, RPCA essentially needs to recalculate over all the data, resulting in high computational cost. So, RPCA is inappropriate for the applications that require fast online computation. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose an Inductive Robust Principal Component Analysis (IRPCA) method. Given a set of training data, unlike RPCA that targets on recovering the original data matrix, IRPCA aims at learning the underlying projection matrix, which can be used to efficiently remove the possible corruptions in any datum. The learning is done by solving a nuclear norm regularized minimization problem, which is convex and can be solved in polynomial time. Extensive experiments on a benchmark human face dataset and two video surveillance datasets show that IRPCA can not only be robust to gross corruptions, but also handle well the new data in an efficient way.

  2. Principal components analysis competitive learning.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato, Juan Miguel; Muñoz-Pérez, José; Gómez-Ruiz, José Antonio

    2004-11-01

    We present a new neural model that extends the classical competitive learning by performing a principal components analysis (PCA) at each neuron. This model represents an improvement with respect to known local PCA methods, because it is not needed to present the entire data set to the network on each computing step. This allows a fast execution while retaining the dimensionality-reduction properties of the PCA. Furthermore, every neuron is able to modify its behavior to adapt to the local dimensionality of the input distribution. Hence, our model has a dimensionality estimation capability. The experimental results we present show the dimensionality-reduction capabilities of the model with multisensor images.

  3. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…

  4. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  5. Principal Recruitment: Assessing Job Pursuit Intentions among Educators Enrolled in Principal Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Rinehart, James S.; Keedy, John L.; Bjork, Lars G.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide cadre of principal certification students (N = 516) completed a principal job survey and role-played as applicants for a principal position by completing a principal job evaluation instrument. Significant predictors of principal job rating included the following: self-reported capability to do the job, expected satisfaction with work…

  6. Evaluation of ground water monitoring network by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, S; Gupta, A; Nachabe, M H

    2001-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a data reduction technique used to identify the important components or factors that explain most of the variance of a system. This technique was extended to evaluating a ground water monitoring network where the variables are monitoring wells. The objective was to identify monitoring wells that are important in predicting the dynamic variation in potentiometric head at a location. The technique is demonstrated through an application to the monitoring network of the Bangkok area. Principal component analysis was carried out for all the monitoring wells of the aquifer, and a ranking scheme based on the frequency of occurrence of a particular well as principal well was developed. The decision maker with budget constraints can now opt to monitor principal wells which can adequately capture the potentiometric head variation in the aquifer. This was evaluated by comparing the observed potentiometric head distribution using data from all available wells and wells selected using the ranking scheme as a guideline.

  7. An Analysis of Factor Extraction Strategies: A Comparison of the Relative Strengths of Principal Axis, Ordinary Least Squares, and Maximum Likelihood in Research Contexts That Include Both Categorical and Continuous Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is intended to provide researchers with empirically derived guidelines for conducting factor analytic studies in research contexts that include dichotomous and continuous levels of measurement. This study is based on the hypotheses that ordinary least squares (OLS) factor analysis will yield more accurate parameter estimates than…

  8. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  9. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL(3) + L(4)), while existing algorithms take O(nL(4)). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier-Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA.

  10. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  11. Implications for Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, N. S.; Robert-Okah, I.

    2007-01-01

    The school system is a green pasture for inexhaustible investigations for the purpose of enhancing academic achievement. The reason is that factors and variables within the confines of educational activities appear also to be inexhaustible. One such factor that attracted an investigation is "administrative stress" as it affects secondary…

  12. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  13. Professional Learning Communities, Principals, and Collegial Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, Ron Edmonds identified the instructional leadership of principals as one of the characteristics of effective schools. The connections between what principals do as instructional leaders and the successes of their schools continue to be well recognized. Principals who comprehend the significance of these linkages, however,…

  14. Analyzing the Leadership Behavior of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete; Boothe, Diane; Pickett, Winston

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe various methods of measuring a principal's leadership behavior. They have developed a new survey instrument that can be used to analyze the leadership behavior/style of a principal. The instrument consists of 49 positive and negative behaviors that measure how a principal interacts with staff in the following five leadership…

  15. Beginning Elementary Principals around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Garduno, Jose Maria; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez-Gorosave, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the different circumstances of newly appointed principals around the world. It is a literature review that examines articles from both English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries. Being a novice principal is stressful and even traumatic. Principals appear to feel unprepared for their role. The problem most common to all…

  16. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  17. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  18. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  19. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  20. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  1. New Principal Coaching as a Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…

  2. Gender and Perceptions: Females as Secondary Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…

  3. 12 CFR 561.39 - Principal office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the...

  4. The Principal as Academician: The Renewed Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.

    This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through…

  5. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  6. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  7. Principal Connection/Reaching out for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are remarkably insular institutions, so "Have I improved?" is an especially difficult question for principals. Sure, schools are filled with people. Despite the schoolwide assemblies, faculty meetings, and crowded halls, much of what principals do is unseen and unknown by other adults. A big portion of principals' time is spent…

  8. The Principal and the Pear Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, John R.

    1991-01-01

    School principals are in a difficult environment filled with stress and plagued by weak support. Most principals are unprepared for site-based decision making. University professors must take the initiative to use the emerging knowledge base and develop professional studies degree and staff development programs to prepare principals. (24…

  9. Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective principals are those who boost academic achievement for all students, increase the effectiveness of their teaching staffs, and consistently take leadership actions shown to improve outcomes for students. Therefore principal evaluation systems should place 70% of their weight on the ability of principals to increase student achievement…

  10. School Principal Wants to Spearhead Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the crucial role that a school principal plays in spearheading environmental education. In the execution of environmental education, the principal is not merely a passive supporter and participant; he should go further to be an initiator. The principal must take the initiative and, using his own ideas and his…

  11. Principals: What Are Their Roles and Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Amanda; Bruce, Mary Alice

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between school counselors and principals is increasingly important in this accountability era. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of principal as perceived by professional school counselors and principals, both in training and practicing. While similarities were found in two categories: Managing School…

  12. Early Career Principals: Working Productively with Difficult and Resistant Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, John F.; Eller, Sheila A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective leaders must find ways to motivate their employees to provide maximum success for the organization. In today's world of high accountability, this ability is paramount to the success and survival of schools, and is an especially important skill for early career principals to master. Knowledge of the factors that might have contributed to…

  13. School Principal Succession and Teachers on Successor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Licata, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of 3,067 teachers of the effectiveness of successors to 73 prior principals. Effective successors inspired teacher confidence early. Results further indicate that teachers assess succession in terms of its effect on organizational factors that allow teachers to maintain predictability and control over their work. (SLD)

  14. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  15. Increasing Principal Effectiveness: A Strategic Investment for ESEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School principals are second only to teachers among school-based factors that influence student achievement and they are critical to attracting and retaining effective teachers and other school staff. Yet in the past, federal policymakers haven't given school leadership much attention. This reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  16. An Exploration of Two Female Principals' Leadership in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Wanjuan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two dimensions of leadership practices (i.e. teaching and learning and sources of power) used by two exemplary principals in mainland China against a background of education reform and to identify how broader contextual factors have shaped these two dimensions of their leadership.…

  17. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  18. Measurement Invariance of the "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Stewart, Trae; Haber-Curran, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the five-factor "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" between female and male K-12 principals was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 956 principals (56.9% were females and 43.1% were males) was analysed in this study. The hierarchical multi-step measurement invariance test supported…

  19. Unpacking the Issues: Researching the Shortage of School Principals in Two States in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barty, Karin; Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the declining supply of principals in two states in Australia revealed that a mosaic of issues surrounds the overall trend towards fewer applications for vacant positions. Looking beyond systemic factors influencing this trend--factors such as the increasing workload of principals--this study discovered why some schools are…

  20. The Teacher Self-Efficacy Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Effects on Principal Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberry, James E.

    2010-01-01

    School principal's practices are affected by many factors on a daily basis. Various factors affecting their practice are invisible to the eye and silent by the spoken word. However, the problem exists that there is a lack of research identifying the experiences of practicing principals regarding teacher self-efficacy. Furthermore, there is not…

  1. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  2. Preservice Principals' Post-Internship Concerns about Becoming a Principal: America and Scotland in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare American and Scottish preservice principals' post-internship concerns about becoming a principal. The survey findings for this study showed that overall American preservice principals were more concerned about becoming principals than their Scottish preservice counterparts. Based on the groups' discussion…

  3. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principals' Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Site level administrators make decisions during the course of a day that have ethical dimensions that challenge their personal values and ethics. This study examined the extent to which particular factors would affect principals' and vice principals' judgments of the ethicality of sanctions given a teacher who had been sending sexually…

  4. Gene expression profiling of cytochromes P450, ABC transporters and their principal transcription factors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, smokers and drug-free controls by qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Francesca; de Waziers, Isabelle; Dutheil, Mary; Vincent, Marc; Wilce, Peter A; Dodd, Peter R; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Ethanol consumption and smoking alter the expression of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, potentially influencing the tissue-specific effects of xenobiotics. 2. Amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are brain regions that modulate the effects of alcohol and smoking, yet little is known about the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these tissues. 3. Here, we describe the first study on the expression of 19 P450s, their redox partners, three ABC transporters and four related transcription factors in the AMG and PFC of smokers and alcoholics by quantitative RT-PCR. 4. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP2U1, CYP4X1, CYP46, adrenodoxin and NADPH-P450 reductase, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCA1, and transcription factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and proliferator-activated receptor α were quantified in both areas. CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, adrenodoxin reductase and the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor were detected but below the limit of quantification. CYP1A2 and CYP2W1 were not detected. 5. Adrenodoxin expression was elevated in all case groups over controls, and smokers showed a trend toward higher CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. 6. Our study shows that most xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s and associated redox partners, transporters and transcription factors are expressed in human AMG and PFC.

  5. [Neuroblastoma: prognostic factors and survival. Experience in Hospital de Pediatria del Centro Medico Nacional del Siglo XXI and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Cerecedo-Díaz, Fernando; Rivera-Márquez, Hugo; Valdéz-Sánchez, Martha; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Delgado Huerta, Sandra; Vera-Hermosillo, Herlinda; Vázquez-Langle, José Raúl; Wanzke del Angel, Volkmar

    2003-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children according to the literature. In Mexico it is less frequent, fallen to 8th place. Our objective was to analyze our experience and compare it with the one reported in other countries. We included all patients admitted to our hospital during the previous five years and who had not received any treatment. Patients with stages I, II, and IV received cyclophosphamide and epirrubicin. Patients with stages were III and IV received the same chemotherapy alternating with cisplatinum., ifosfamide and etoposide during 12 months as well as massive doses of 131-MIBG and surgical ablation of the remaining tumor when possible. We included 30 patients, 25 with initial presentation in the abdomen. Five were in early stages and 20 (70%) were advanced with an overall survival of 100% and 27% at 5 years respectively. When analyzed by age, 40% were 12 months of age and 60% older, with survival of 100% and 27% in the same period, respectively. According to histology there was 91% survival for differentiated and 23% for undifferentiated tumors. The chemotherapeutic regimen reported is effective but not better than that reported by other authors, in which some benefits are seen with use of transplant and immunotherapy. The most important prognostic factors are still considered to be age, stage and histology.

  6. Evaluation Priorities of Students, Teachers, and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, David; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation needs of students, teachers, and principals, and to develop recommendations for an evaluation system within the school building. Students, teachers, and principals were surveyed to depict the availability and importance of eight different categories of evaluative information derived…

  7. Special Topic/The Principal's Priority 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Five Public Agenda surveys--A Mission of the Heart (2008); Lessons Learned (2008); Reality Check 2006; Rolling Up Their Sleeves (2003); and Stand by Me (2003)--provide snapshots of how instructional leadership is working in schools. Most principals see instructional leadership as a key mission. "Transformer" principals are able to focus squarely…

  8. Essential Knowledges and Skills for Beginning Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Noeline

    The purpose of this literature review is to produce a list of essential knowledge and skills for beginning principals. Research on the principalship falls into two distinct categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive research emphasizes the perceived or idealized role of the principal as "bold innovator" or "creative…

  9. Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the…

  10. Democratic Principals in Action: Eight Pioneers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; And Others

    This book was written for teachers and principals committed to instituting shared governance and more democratic forms of leadership and to help understand today's principalship and what it means to administer a shared-governance school. The data were derived from a study of successful principals in schools affiliated with the League of…

  11. The New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Any principal starting at a new school or taking a leadership position for the first time needs this book to help focus on the issues that are most critical to success. Drawing from research data and advice from experienced principals, the authors reveal secrets that can make or break a new school leader's career: (1) Three stages of becoming…

  12. THE PRINCIPAL'S ROLE IN COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, RICHARD P.; RHODES, ERIC F.

    PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL'S ROLE AS THE MIDDLEMAN IN COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN SCHOOL BOARDS AND TEACHER ORGANIZATIONS ARE IDENTIFIED WITHIN THE NEW RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PRINCIPAL IS VIEWED AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBLE DECISIONMAKER ON QUESTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION…

  13. Principals' Perceptions of School Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Robert C.; Chan, Tak Cheung; Patterson, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate school principals' perceptions on school public relations in five areas: community demographics, parental involvement, internal and external communications, school council issues, and community resources. Findings indicated that principals' concerns were as follows: rapid population growth, change of…

  14. Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir, Ed.; Pashiardis, Petros, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional management skills are crucial to success in educational environments. As school leaders, principals are expected to effectively supervise the school system while facing a multitude of issues and demands. "Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness" combines best practices and the latest approaches in…

  15. Social Media Strategies for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…

  16. The Principal and the Issue of Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Individuals wishing to establish a legal negligence claim against a principal must first present evidence of recognizable duty (adequate supervision); breach of duty; proximate cause; and injury. Wise principals schedule periodic meetings to review safety measures, focus on vulnerable areas, designate an emergency stand-in, review equipment and…

  17. Investigating Roles of Online School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilici, Sarah B.; Joki, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the instructional leadership skills required from online principals, as defined by one state's (Idaho) adaptation of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards (1996) as a requirement for professional certification. Specifically, this qualitative study examined six sets of paired online principals and…

  18. Urban Principals' Second Order Change Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; La Cava, Gonzalo S.

    2011-01-01

    Urban school leaders have challenges in continually improving student achievement and making change as quickly as needed. To address this problem 37 non-Title I principals completed an on-line survey, Principal's Actions Survey (PAS), based on the seven responsibilities for second order change identified by Marzano, Waters, and McNulty (2005).…

  19. Relationship Building: The First "R" for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieg, Sue A.; Marcoline, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    School leadership today demands skills, knowledge, and attitudes much different than those required a short time ago. With the increased accountability for principals to achieve and maintain adequate yearly progress, test scores are often seen by teachers and parents as principals' top priority. Relationships are seen as secondary and they should…

  20. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide...

  1. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide...

  4. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide...

  5. The Principal, School Discipline, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Howard L.

    In this booklet, the Council of Supervisors and Administrators of the City of New York seeks to offer hope that teachers' and principals' capacity for the reasonable exercise of authority has not been exhausted. There is a body of legal opinion that supports the authority of the principal in disciplinary matters. It is a misconception that a…

  6. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  7. Principals Judge Teachers by Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principals in the Southeastern Unites States completed an e-mailed survey. Two nonparametric tests,…

  8. Learning to Lead: Ten Stories for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichello, Michael; Richmond, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Principals must be knowledgeable about students, curriculum, teacher performance, and the community that they serve while at the same time, able to manage a myriad of daily activities. Often times, management activities predominate and take time away from leadership leaving little time for principals to engage in reflective thinking and proactive…

  9. How Not to Prepare School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…

  10. A Latina Principal Leading for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Cerecer, Patricia Quijada

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the role that racial identity plays among Latina school principals is examined through a case study of a principal in a K-3 elementary school. Based on a Latina/o critical race framework and a phenomenological research approach, the study explores the degree to which having a strong understanding of one's racial identity formation…

  11. Management Philosophies of Primary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Said

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the management philosophies of primary school principals. Stratification method of sampling was used in the study. The study sample consisted of 33 school principals and 132 teachers serving at primary education schools in Isparta in the academic year 2008-2009. The "Manager Philosophy Scale" developed by Tanriogen and…

  12. Principal Selection Panels: Strategies, Preferences and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Kwan, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report a study of the strategies members of principal selection panels use to select the best candidate for a principal position. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on both qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative analysis drawn on data collected from school supervisors and school…

  13. A Principal's Guide to Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Burke, M. Trika; Pinnell, Gay Su; Jackson, Mary; Wey, Susan; Askew, Billie J.; Hambright-Brown, Eloise

    This guide, requested by principals across the nation, is intended to help them successfully implement Reading Recovery in their schools. The guide is organized by topics that experienced principals have said are important to ongoing program operation. To help access information quickly, a detailed table of contents is provided, as well as an…

  14. Untapped Resources: Assistant Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Selma K.; Melendez-Delaney, Genis; Orta, Awilda; White, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Assistant principals are often overlooked as a resource for creating, advancing, and sustaining a compelling vision for mathematics. The Math Collaborative Project developed in New York City examined the process of developing and implementing programs designed to help assistant principals network and strengthen their instructional leadership…

  15. Principal Turnover. Information Capsule. Volume 0914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that school districts are facing increasing rates of principal turnover. Frequent principal changes deprive schools of the leadership stability they need to succeed, disrupt long-term school reform efforts, and may even be linked to increased teacher turnover and lower levels of student achievement. This Information Capsule…

  16. Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…

  17. Elementary Principals' Role in Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patricia; Dunlap, Karen; Brown, Kristen; Davison, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role elementary school principals play in science education. Specifically, the study employed an online survey of 16 elementary school principals at high-performing campuses in North Texas to explore their perceptions of how they influenced science education on their campuses. The survey used a combination of Likert-type…

  18. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  19. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  20. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

  1. Principals: Human Capital Managers at Every School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…

  2. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  3. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  4. Bennett Public Schools Principal Induction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ross; Beaudoin, Colleen; Carmona, Ruben; Delahanty, Michael; Gartside, William; Oyedele, Abidemi; Teta, Lynne Mooney

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring equity in education and academic success for all students requires a highly skilled principal engages others in continually improving the instructional program in order to meet the needs of students. Over the past few years, a number of reports have indicated that the role of principal is becoming more challenging. School districts are…

  5. Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Marguerita L.

    2013-01-01

    Framed in the critical race theory of structuration (CRTS), this sequential explanatory mixed methods study seeks to identify the socialization practices by examining the realities of practices of assistant principals and the ways in which they impact the disciplinary actions of assistant principals at middle and high schools. The mixed methods…

  6. Strategic Plans and Principals' Need for Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir, Adam E.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the extent that principals' managerial behavior is related to their beliefs about control. Argues for a negative relation between extreme locus of control and perspectives used by individuals for strategic and long-term plans. "Extreme control" principals produce strategic plans with shorter perspectives. (Contains 56…

  7. The Principal as Change Facilitator. Bulletin 1753.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Louisiana Dissemination Network.

    This monograph surveys the literature relating to the role of the principal as change agent and the process of educational change, and reviews those characteristics that research has found to make principals more effective and efficient change agents. The introduction identifies four relevant perspectives in the research on instructional…

  8. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  9. Handheld Computers: A Boon for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazell, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    As I reflect on my many years as an elementary school principal, I realize how much more effective I would have been if I had owned a wireless handheld computer. This relatively new technology can provide considerable assistance to today?s principals and recent advancements have increased its functions and capacity. Handheld computers are…

  10. New Principals' Perspectives of Their Multifaceted Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentilucci, James L.; Denti, Lou; Guaglianone, Curtis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilizes Symbolic Interactionism to explore perspectives of neophyte principals. Findings explain how these perspectives are modified through complex interactions throughout the school year, and they also suggest preparation programs can help new principals most effectively by teaching "soft" skills such as active listening…

  11. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  12. An Examination of Principal Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pengilly, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    As education continues to succumb to deficits in budgets and increasingly high levels of student performance to meet the federal and state mandates, the quest to sustain and retain successful principals is imperative. The National Association of School Boards (1999) portrays effective principals as "linchpins" of school improvement and…

  13. 32 CFR 716.1 - Principal rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal rule. 716.1 Section 716.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.1 Principal rule. Under title 10 U.S.C., section 1475,...

  14. Implementing IDEA: A Guide for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is designed to provide information on ensuring quality special education services and early intervention to building principals in elementary and middle schools. It sets forth standards of excellence that directly relate to implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and presents guidelines for principals to use…

  15. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  16. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-11-06

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  17. Large Covariance Estimation by Thresholding Principal Orthogonal Complements.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of a high-dimensional covariance with a conditional sparsity structure and fast-diverging eigenvalues. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix in an approximate factor model, we allow for the presence of some cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common but unobservable factors. We introduce the Principal Orthogonal complEment Thresholding (POET) method to explore such an approximate factor structure with sparsity. The POET estimator includes the sample covariance matrix, the factor-based covariance matrix (Fan, Fan, and Lv, 2008), the thresholding estimator (Bickel and Levina, 2008) and the adaptive thresholding estimator (Cai and Liu, 2011) as specific examples. We provide mathematical insights when the factor analysis is approximately the same as the principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. The rates of convergence of the sparse residual covariance matrix and the conditional sparse covariance matrix are studied under various norms. It is shown that the impact of estimating the unknown factors vanishes as the dimensionality increases. The uniform rates of convergence for the unobserved factors and their factor loadings are derived. The asymptotic results are also verified by extensive simulation studies. Finally, a real data application on portfolio allocation is presented.

  18. Large Covariance Estimation by Thresholding Principal Orthogonal Complements

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Mincheva, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the estimation of a high-dimensional covariance with a conditional sparsity structure and fast-diverging eigenvalues. By assuming sparse error covariance matrix in an approximate factor model, we allow for the presence of some cross-sectional correlation even after taking out common but unobservable factors. We introduce the Principal Orthogonal complEment Thresholding (POET) method to explore such an approximate factor structure with sparsity. The POET estimator includes the sample covariance matrix, the factor-based covariance matrix (Fan, Fan, and Lv, 2008), the thresholding estimator (Bickel and Levina, 2008) and the adaptive thresholding estimator (Cai and Liu, 2011) as specific examples. We provide mathematical insights when the factor analysis is approximately the same as the principal component analysis for high-dimensional data. The rates of convergence of the sparse residual covariance matrix and the conditional sparse covariance matrix are studied under various norms. It is shown that the impact of estimating the unknown factors vanishes as the dimensionality increases. The uniform rates of convergence for the unobserved factors and their factor loadings are derived. The asymptotic results are also verified by extensive simulation studies. Finally, a real data application on portfolio allocation is presented. PMID:24348088

  19. Principal Time Management Skills: Explaining Patterns in Principals' Time Use, Job Stress, and Perceived Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna; Mitani, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Time demands faced by school principals make principals' work increasingly difficult. Research outside education suggests that effective time management skills may help principals meet job demands, reduce job stress, and improve their performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate these hypotheses. Design/methodology/approach:…

  20. Aspiring Principals' Perception of the Challenges of Beginning Principals and the Support That They Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory research project about the perception of aspiring principals regarding the challenges of beginning principals and the support that they need. These aspiring principals are participants on the Leaders in Education Programme (LEP) in Singapore. According to the research findings, the LEP participants…

  1. Measuring Principals' Effectiveness: Results from New Jersey's Principal Evaluation Pilot. REL 2015-089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Christine; Herrmann, Mariesa; Angus, Megan Hague

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the measures used to evaluate principals in New Jersey in the first (pilot) year of the new principal evaluation system and examine three of the statistical properties of the measures: their variation among principals, their year-to-year stability, and the associations between these measures and the…

  2. What Is a "Good" Principal? Perspectives of Aspiring Principals in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pak Tee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research project that examines what aspiring principals in Singapore think a good principal is, based on a framework of personal, interpersonal, and organizational dimensions of school leadership. According to the findings, a good principal has a moral purpose centered on personal values, a humble…

  3. Understanding the Principal's Contribution to Instruction: Seven Principals, Seven Stories. Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, David C.; And Others

    Existing qualitative studies of school principals suffer from procedural or conceptual shortcomings that result in failure to clarify the principal's instructional role. This paper describes the methodology and procedures of a year-long, multimethod, multilevel field study of 12 school principals. First, the background for the study (the…

  4. Relationship between Principals' Sense of Achievement and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Leadership Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqi, Javaid Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between principals' sense of achievement and teachers' perceptions of their principals' leadership behaviors. This was determined by examining job satisfaction of principals and leadership style using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) and the School District's Climate Survey.…

  5. The Impact of Principal Movement and School Achievement on Principal Salaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Buckman, David G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether principals' movements and school achievement are associated with their salaries. Predictors of principal salaries were examined using three years of panel data. Results from a fixed-effects regression analysis suggest that principals who moved to school leadership positions in other districts leveraged higher salaries…

  6. What Makes a Successful Principal? Incorporating School Principal Background in State and District Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    School principals' education and professional experience shape their approach to school leadership and how successful their students will be. However, it is not clear from existing research which aspects of principal education and professional experience are related to student outcomes and principal retention. This dissertation explores aspects of…

  7. Effect of Principal Managerial Leadership and Compensation towards Physics Teacher Performance in Senior High School in Baguala District-Ambon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenno, Izaak Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    The performance of teachers is an important factor that must be considered in efforts to improve the quality of education. Teacher's performance is affected by many factors. Factors that affect the performance of teachers are principals' managerial leadership and compensation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of principals'…

  8. Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors of School Principals by Means of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more…

  9. The Principal's Relationship with Teacher and Development Literacy of Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsobaie, Mohammed Fahad

    2015-01-01

    Throughout this study a number of factors regarding the experience of principals and their strategies and processes from the perspective of helping teachers adopt more effective teaching practices, will be examined. The result should be a fresh and more complete picture of the principals' processes and helping teachers adopt more effective…

  10. The Role of the Principal's Leadership Style in the Implementation of ICT Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjithoma-Garstka, Christina

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a study in information communication technology (ICT) implementation, on the principal's leadership style in relation to other factors that influence implementation. The principal's leadership style is perceived--on the basis of the characteristics of the context where the study was conducted--as a personal quality,…

  11. Invisible Barriers: The Career Progress of Women Secondary School Principals in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaparou, Maria; Bush, Tony

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the career progress of female principals in Greek secondary schools and the under-representation of women in management positions. Drawing on in-depth interviews with six women principals in Athens, the paper considers the factors affecting women's participation in school management. The findings demonstrate that women are…

  12. Trust and Its Role in Principal Succession: A Preliminary Examination of a Continuum of Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macmillan, Robert B.; Meyer, Matthew J.; Northfield, Shawn

    2004-01-01

    Trust is a critical factor in determining whether principal-teacher working relationships are positive or negative. This article begins to explore the concept of trust and its development in twelve Canadian secondary schools that experienced frequent principal turnover in a period of eight years. The authors found that the development of trust…

  13. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  14. Linking Parent and Community Involvement with Student Achievement: Comparing Principal and Teacher Perceptions of Stakeholder Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Molly F.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2009-01-01

    Expanding the sources of leadership in schools has been a reform theme since the mid 1980s. Using exploratory factor analysis and regression, we examine the following questions: (1) How does leadership style affect principals' openness to community involvement? (2) Is a principal's openness to community involvement related to student achievement?…

  15. Involuntary Departure of Public School Principals in the State of Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Elva Jimenez

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the reasons for ineffective public school leadership. The study examined the factors associated with the involuntary departure of public school principals in the state of Texas and aimed to reveal the ineffective behaviors that erode the public school principal's leadership. The study also indirectly pointed out to…

  16. High School Principals Who Stay: Stability in a Time of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebke, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the institutional factors, personal characteristics, and work-related relationships of high school principals that led to their longer than usual tenure in their positions. Data were gathered from interviews with ten high school principals who had served in their positions for a range of 8 to 23 years, much longer…

  17. Are We Looking through the Same Lens? Principal Recruitment and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Paula; Walker, Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study designed to identify the factors that both hiring bodies and applicants believe are most important when making decisions about principal selection, appointment and acceptance. Based on a quantitative study involving the four main groups of players in the principal selection process, we confirmed a four-factor…

  18. Principals' Perceptions of Barriers to Dismissal of Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandoy, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which factors influence items that school principals consider "barriers" to dismissal of "incompetent" or "poor performing" teachers. This study determines if specific characteristics of schools, principals, or a combination of the two can predict the specific barriers cited…

  19. A novel mutation (4040-4045 nt. delA) in exon 14 of the factor VIII gene causing severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Feizi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour; Feizi, Abbas Ali Hosseinpour

    2011-09-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked congenital bleeding disorder caused by Factor VIII deficiency. Different mutations including point mutations, deletions, insertions and inversions have been reported in the FVIII gene, which cause hemophilia A. In the current study, with the use of conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) analysis, we report a novel 1-nt deletion in the A6 sequence at codons 1328-1330 (4040-4045 nt delA) occurring in exon 14 of the FVIII gene in a seven-year-old Iranian boy with severe hemophilia A. This mutation that causes frameshift and premature stop-codon at 1331 has not previously been reported in the F8 Hemophilia A Mutation, Structure, Test and Resource Site (HAMSTeRS) database.

  20. Principal-Component Analysis of the Characteristics Desirable in Baker's Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Yuji; Ouchi, Kozo

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-seven properties considered to be required for good bakery products were examined in 56 industrial and 2 laboratory yeast strains. The data obtained were applied to principal-component analysis, one of the multivariate statistical analyses. The first and second principal components together were extracted, and these accounted for 77.7% of the variance. The first principal component was interpreted as the glycolytic activity of yeast in dough, and the second one was interpreted as the balance of leavening abilities in sweet and flour doughs from the factor loadings. The scattergram on the two principal components was effective in grouping the 58 yeast strains used. PMID:16347943

  1. How a Lighthouse Principal Revitalized His School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reavis, Charles A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the steps a "lighthouse" principal took in turning an ineffective school characterized by low morale, poor achievement, and high absentee rates into an effective school with high morale and improved student achievement during a six-month period. (MD)

  2. Attitudes of Principals Toward Participatory Managerial Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C.

    1977-01-01

    In order to identify more precisely the extent to which building principals adhere to participatory managerial practices, a study was conducted to assess their attitudes toward selected policies of participatory managerial practices. (Author)

  3. Principal's Roles and Teacher Conflict: A Recapitulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Earl H., Jr.; Lindsey, Jimmy D.

    1986-01-01

    Principals should perform functions in three major areas: (1) interpersonal relationships (leader, figurehead, liaison); (2) information processing (disseminator, spokesperson); and (3) decision making (change agent, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator, and evaluator). (CL)

  4. Check List: Are You a Gifted Principal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Vicki L.

    1984-01-01

    An 18-item check list is provided for principals to evaluate themselves relative to encouraging gifts and talents of their most able students. Suggestions are given in the areas of educational needs, specialized materials, and counseling. (MC)

  5. Paranoia: Perceptions of Public School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Daniel A.

    1980-01-01

    Examines forces which are undermining the principal's leadership role and ability to effectively administer the school: teachers and unions; the competency movement; political and community interest groups; and media pundits. (SJL)

  6. Dynamic competitive probabilistic principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Ortiz-DE-Lazcano-Lobato, Juan Miguel

    2009-04-01

    We present a new neural model which extends the classical competitive learning (CL) by performing a Probabilistic Principal Components Analysis (PPCA) at each neuron. The model also has the ability to learn the number of basis vectors required to represent the principal directions of each cluster, so it overcomes a drawback of most local PCA models, where the dimensionality of a cluster must be fixed a priori. Experimental results are presented to show the performance of the network with multispectral image data.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Intestinal Parasitic Infections in a Rural Community in “Consolación del Sur” Municipality, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A Pino; Fernández, FA Núñez; Sánchez, R Martínez; Cañete, I Domenech; Rodríguez, M; Puebla, L Jerez; González, Z Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are very common infections worldwide and they are responsible for significant public health problems. The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world population is infected and some epidemiologic factors related to the transmission have been identified. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in people living in the rural community of “El Canal”, Consolación del Sur municipality and the association with some epidemiologic risk factors. All participants were subjected to three methods of parasitological examinations on the stool samples and by immunodiagnostic tests which allow the detection of excretory-secretory antigens of adults with Fasciola hepatica. The global prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 18%, and 16.7% for protozoan infections, while the rate of helminth infection was lower (5.3%) in the population studied. The univariate analysis identified three factors associated with intestinal pathogenic protozoan infections which include livestock work, drinking water from well\\river and eating unwashed fruits/vegetables. The multivariate logistic regression using introduction test ratified the association of these risk factors. Contrary to what have been published in the majority of Cuban studies carried out in rural places, a higher prevalence of protozoan than helminth infection was found. This discrepancy may be explained because the majority of the workers in this rural community were stock-breeders and they are not involved in other agricultural work. The identification of risk factors is important in order to design appropriate strategies for control of IPIs in communities. PMID:25429477

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasitic infections in a rural community in "consolación del sur" municipality, cuba.

    PubMed

    Pino Santos, A; Núñez Fernández, F A; Martínez Sánchez, R; Domenech Cañete, I; Rodríguez, M; Jeres Puebla, L; Rodríguez González, Z

    2014-08-01

    Intestinal parasites are very common infections worldwide and they are responsible for significant public health problems. The World Health Organization estimates that one-third of the world population is infected and some epidemiologic factors related to the transmission have been identified. The purpose of this investigation was to study the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in people living in the rural community of "El Canal", Consolación del Sur municipality and the association with some epidemiologic risk factors. All participants were subjected to three methods of parasitological examinations on the stool samples and by immunodiagnostic tests which allow the detection of excretory-secretory antigens of adults with Fasciola hepatica. The global prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) was 18%, and 16.7% for protozoan infections, while the rate of helminth infection was lower (5.3%) in the population studied. The univariate analysis identified three factors associated with intestinal pathogenic protozoan infections which include livestock work, drinking water from well\\river and eating unwashed fruits\\vegetables. The multivariate analysis using introduction test logistic regression ratified the association of these risk factors. Contrary to what have been published in the majority of Cuban studies carried out in rural places, a higher prevalence of protozoan than helminth infection was found. This discrepancy may be explained because the majority of the workers in this rural community were stock-breeders and they are not involved in other agricultural work. The identification of risk factors is important in order to design appropriate strategies for control of IPIs in communities.

  9. Immorally obtained principal increases investors’ risk preference

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiaxin; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today’s financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors’ risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying), whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors’ risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people’s investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of “grey principal” to market stability. PMID:28369117

  10. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  11. Promoting principals' managerial involvement in instructional improvement

    PubMed Central

    Gillat, Alex; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1994-01-01

    Studies of school leadership suggest that visiting classrooms, emphasizing achievement and training, and supporting teachers are important indicators of the effectiveness of school principals. The utility of a behavior-analytic program to support the enhancement of these behaviors in 2 school principals and the impact of their involvement upon teachers' and students' performances in three classes were examined in two experiments, one at an elementary school and another at a secondary school. Treatment conditions consisted of helping the principal or teacher to schedule his or her time and to use goal setting, feedback, and praise. A withdrawal design (Experiment 1) and a multiple baseline across classrooms (Experiment 2) showed that the principal's and teacher's rates of praise, feedback, and goal setting increased during the intervention, and were associated with improvements in the academic performance of the students. In the future, school psychologists might analyze the impact of involving themselves in supporting the principal's involvement in improving students' and teachers' performances or in playing a similar leadership role themselves. PMID:16795819

  12. Next in Line: Preparing Assistant Principals for the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Taylor, Cindy; Martin, Mary B.

    2007-01-01

    Grooming an assistant principal to lead a school is a privilege for any principal and enables him or her to leave a larger mark on the field. Although assistant principals are ultimately responsible for their own professional growth, principals must not underestimate their responsibility to help train aspiring principals. Preparing assistant…

  13. Principal Component Analysis of Brown Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleary, Colleen; Rodriguez, David

    2017-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a technique for reducing variables and emphasizing patterns in a data set. In this study, the data set consisted of the attributes of 174 brown dwarfs. The PCA was performed on several photometric measurements in near-infrared wavelengths and colors in order to determine if these variables showed a correlation with the physical parameters. This research resulted in two separate models that predict luminosity and temperature. The application of principal component analysis on the near-infrared photometric measurements and colors of brown dwarfs, along with models, provides alternate methods for predicting the luminosity and temperature of brown dwarfs using only photometric measurements.

  14. Fringe Benefits for Principals, Assistant Principals & Other Administrators. Administrative Information Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    The statistical data included in this report was collected from a survey of 1,052 school districts, all of which enroll at least 300 pupils. The data indicate national trends in paid vacation and leave policies, retirement plans, insurance benefits, severance pay, and school district payment of membership dues for principals, assistant principals,…

  15. Principal Preferences and the Unequal Distribution of Principals across Schools. Working Paper 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Eileen; Kalogrides, Demetra; Loeb, Susanna

    2009-01-01

    In this study the authors use longitudinal data from one large school district--Miami-Dade County Public Schools, to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. The authors find schools serving many low-income, non-white, and low-achieving students have principals with less experience, less education, and who attended less selective…

  16. Principal Self-Efficacy, Teacher Perceptions of Principal Performance, and Teacher Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Molly Lynn

    2016-01-01

    In public schools, the principal's role is of paramount importance in influencing teachers to excel and to keep their job satisfaction high. The self-efficacy of leaders is an important characteristic of leadership, but this issue has not been extensively explored in school principals. Using internet-based questionnaires, this study obtained…

  17. Principal Performance and the ISLLC Standards: Implications for Principal Selection and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knuth, Richard K.

    2004-01-01

    Probably no effort has been more successful than the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) in capturing the current complexity of the principal's role and in providing direction for the professional development and selection of principals. As more states require universities to restructure training programs to align with the ISLLC…

  18. Multisource Principal Evaluation Data: Principals' Orientations and Reactions to Teacher Feedback Regarding Their Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Ellen B.; Mavrogordato, Madeline; Haynes, Katherine Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A relatively new approach to principal evaluation is the use of multisource feedback, which typically entails a leader's self-evaluation as well as parallel evaluations from subordinates, peers, and/or superiors. However, there is little research on how principals interact with evaluation data from multisource feedback systems. This…

  19. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  20. Great Principals at Scale: Creating District Conditions That Enable All Principals to Be Effective. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  1. Leading Schools through a Generational Lens: Perceptions of Principals' Change Leadership Disaggregated by Principal Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matthew Scott

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative study was to investigate possible differences in school leadership within a change process, as perceived by teachers. Grouped by generation, this study investigated principals' perceptions of change order and that of their teachers, as well as how their teachers perceived their principal's leadership…

  2. African-American Principals in the Midwest: Voices of the Sojourner Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David Byron

    2012-01-01

    In an era of accountability and high standards for public schools, some African American principals decided to work in predominantly white schools. Their experiences were challenging because they were racial newcomers in schools with students different from their own race. In this case study, 12 African-American principals and assistant principals…

  3. What Do We Expect of School Principals? Congruence between Principal Evaluation and Performance Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catano, Nancy; Stronge, James H.

    2007-01-01

    This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods of content analysis to examine principal evaluation instruments and state and professional standards for principals in school districts located in a mid-Atlantic state in the USA. The purposes of this study were to (a) determine the degrees of emphasis that are placed upon leadership and…

  4. The Deputy Principal Instructional Leadership Role and Professional Learning: Perceptions of Secondary Principals, Deputies and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Ann; Odhiambo, George

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on a study examining the perceptions of secondary principals, deputies and teachers, of deputy principal (DP) instructional leadership (IL), as well as deputies' professional learning (PL) needs. Framed within an interpretivist approach, the specific objectives of this study were: to explore the…

  5. The Micropolitics of School Principals' Decision Making in Nigeria: Principals' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olayiwola, Shina; Alabi, Kingsley

    2015-01-01

    This study depicted a micropolitical analysis of school principals' decision making as regards the influence of formal and informal groups on school administrative processes from the point of view of principals. It was based on descriptive survey study of all 24 public secondary schools within Ile-Ife community, Osun State, Nigeria, out of which a…

  6. Psychosemantics of Management Strategy Notions by Comprehensive School Principals and Vice Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saparnis, Gintaras; Saparniene, Diana

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the research is to reveal the psychosemantics of the opinion of school principals and vice principals on the issues of the development of school management. Methodology: From the methodological point of view the research is based on the teaching of the empirical social research about qualitative and quantitative research…

  7. Principal Evaluations and the Principal Supervisor: Survey Results from the Great City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2013-01-01

    Principals serve as both instructional and administrative leaders in their schools. Their roles and responsibilities vary from managing school compliance issues to facilitating and assisting teachers with their instructional duties. In order to support principals in public schools, district leaders and others are working to build the kinds of…

  8. Does Restructuring Make a Difference for the Principal? Role Conceptions of Principals in Restructuring Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Danny; Crow, Gary M.

    Researchers who have focused on issues of interpersonal communication in organizations have concluded that it is an essential component of organizational life. This paper presents findings of a study that examined the role conceptions of principals in the Centenial Schools Program (CSP) and those of principals in non-CSP schools. Communicator…

  9. Triangulating Principal Effectiveness: How Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Assistant Principals Identify the Central Importance of Managerial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissom, Jason A.; Loeb, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    While the importance of effective principals is undisputed, few studies have identified specific skills that principals need to promote school success. This study draws on unique data combining survey responses from principals, assistant principals, teachers, and parents with rich administrative data to determine which principal skills correlate…

  10. Chicago Initiative Aims to Upgrade Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    Even with nearly 50 schools shutting down at the end of this month, Chicago education officials have been barreling ahead with plans to groom a large crop of high-performing principals that they say represents the most ambitious effort the city has undertaken to upgrade its school leadership ranks. The goal, said Chicago schools CEO Barbara…

  11. Studies Explore Secrets of Principals' Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    Although principals have long been seen as important to the success of schools, a new set of working papers from some prominent education researchers aims to promote a better understanding of the extent to which school leaders matter and why. For instance, one study of the 345,000-student Miami-Dade County, Florida, school system finds that the…

  12. The Mold that Almost Ate the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Wayne; Bishop, Chuck; Byars, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    New-building mold was a bane for many home construction companies and new homeowners during the 1990s. It was not unusual to read or watch the news and see the tragedy played out in one's local community. Untold, however, is the story of the toll new-building mold can take on school systems and their principals, especially as these mold problems…

  13. Principal Leadership to Improve Collective Teacher Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fancera, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between, and predictive value of, select school and teacher characteristics, and collective teacher efficacy (CTE). CTE is a strong predictor of school and student outcomes that principals may target to minimize the continued strong influence of socioeconomic status. Results from this…

  14. Counseling Tips for Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottler, Jeffrey A.; McEwan, Elaine K.

    This book suggests that a crucial part of becoming an effective instructional leader is the development of positive relationships with students, staff, and parents. The principal's mission, need for counseling skills, and roles as facilitator and manager are discussed. Life inside the school involves being able to quickly assess many types of…

  15. Best Principals Espouse Collective Leadership, Research Finds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a national study examining the characteristics of effective school principals which reveals that high student achievement is directly linked to "collective leadership"--the shared influence of educators, parents, stakeholders, and community members. The five-year study, commissioned by the Wallace Foundation and…

  16. Elementary Principals' Perceptions of Institutional Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landahl, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the different kinds of instructional structures used in elementary schools in Virginia and why they were used according to principals. The findings and implications of this study are important to the field of school leadership and instructional structures. No study in the past has provided a rich description of how and why…

  17. Principals and Counselors Partnering for Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith, Ed.; Protheroe, Nancy, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    Today's schools, with their increasingly diverse student populations and ever-higher achievement standards, need to use all of their resources in ways that create the maximum positive impact for students and student learning. A school's counseling program is one of these resources, and this book provides a roadmap principals and counselors can…

  18. Vocational Education in the Principality of Liechtenstein.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigsch, Josef; Gunz, Dieter; Jenny, Christoph; Jehle, Karl

    This booklet provides an overview of vocational education (VE) in the principality of Liechtenstein. The following are among the topics discussed: Liechtenstein's government, sovereignty, history, and foreign policy; Liechtenstein's VE system (history, underlying principles, policy, structure, economic framework, legal basis, organization and…

  19. Principals' Sensemaking and Enactment of Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jessica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look across six first-year principals to investigate their engagement with and sensemaking of specific messages of instructional leadership around teacher evaluation. Design/methodology/approach: This research project, a cross-case study, was carried out using in-depth qualitative observations and…

  20. Principal Development: Self-Directed Project Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of self-directed projects as an element within a New Zealand principal development programme was designed to reflect increasing support internationally for such a context-specific "inquiry" approach. The results reported in this article suggest that considerable clarity is required for such projects if they are to realize…

  1. The Principal's Legal Handbook. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth, Ed.; Gooden, Mark, Ed.; Mead, Julie, Ed.; Pauken, Patrick, Ed.; Eckes, Suzanne, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The Principal's Legal Handbook contains information and recommendations for practice in four areas. Section 1, "Students and the Law," yields interesting and informative answers on a number of issues related to students and the law: recent issues in schools relative to students' rights; the use of technology; and the latest case law and…

  2. Principal Succession: Establishing Leadership in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    Succession in administrative positions can affect leadership at a school and educational effectiveness. This book examines succession not as an event, but as a complex social process marked by interactions among a school's faculty and their new principal. The first three chapters comprise the first section and cover the foundations of leader…

  3. 29 CFR 780.325 - Principally engaged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principally engaged. 780.325 Section 780.325 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  4. 29 CFR 780.325 - Principally engaged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principally engaged. 780.325 Section 780.325 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  5. 29 CFR 780.325 - Principally engaged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principally engaged. 780.325 Section 780.325 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  6. 29 CFR 780.325 - Principally engaged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principally engaged. 780.325 Section 780.325 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  7. 29 CFR 780.325 - Principally engaged.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principally engaged. 780.325 Section 780.325 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF...

  8. Shift Would Add Burden on Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how the transition from district-centered to school-based staff development can add to the burden on principals. This column first presents a brief review of the efforts of Braxton Hinsdale, a staff development director who advocated for moving professional development resources from the district level to the…

  9. The Principal as Pygmalion: Executive Professional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, J. Foster; Loposer, Nancy

    1983-01-01

    The authors link the educational research by Rosenthal and Jacobson ("Pygmalion in the Classroom") with Livingston's ("Pygmalion in Management") from the business arena in looking through concept of Executive Professional Leadership advanced by Gross and Herriott. The position is taken that the "Principal can really be…

  10. Conceptualizing Social Justice: Interviews with Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Today, as the understanding of diversity is further expanded, the meaning of social justice becomes even more complicated, if not confusing. The purpose of this paper is to explore how school principals with social justice commitment understand and perceive social justice in their leadership practices. Design/methodology/approach: A…

  11. The Principal's Mind-Set for Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Is there a school leader anywhere who hasn't been directed, or at least encouraged, to "analyze the data" and practice what has been termed "data-driven decision-making"? Today's principal is expected to be able to skillfully collect, organize, analyze, interpret and use a variety of data in order to improve instruction, services and programs for…

  12. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan

    2005-01-01

    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  13. Principal Connection / Amazon and the Whole Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    A recent controversy over Amazon's culture has strong implications for the whole child approach, and it offers powerful lessons for principals. A significant difference between the culture of so many businesses today and the culture at good schools is that in good schools, the welfare of the employees is very important. Student success is the…

  14. Thinking Styles of Teachers, Principals, and Inspectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Özlem Yesim Özbek; Çelik, Bünyamin

    2014-01-01

    Much of current studies focus on the investigation of the thinking styles of students and teachers. However, exploring school administrators' and inpectors' thinking styles is also critical for increasing students' achievement at school. For that purpose, this study was performed to determine the thinking styles of teachers, principals, and…

  15. Principals and New Teachers: Considering Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Gent, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    What principals think new teachers need and provide, and what new teachers say they need and receive are not necessarily the same. Whether this disconnect is merely a difference in perception or reflects actual discrepancies in program planning and implementation, the core issue is that there can be miscommunication about how building principals…

  16. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  17. Principals as Knowledge Managers in Partner Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Cindy; Field, Susan; Simmons, John; Basile, Carole G.

    2007-01-01

    Today's school leaders are searching for a way to give value to and effectively manage a school's intangible assets to create a more holistic picture of student success. Schools establish partnerships with community organizations towards this end and to ultimately impact student learning. Utilizing the framework of principals as "knowledge…

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' ICT Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Ann-Louise

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on the leadership used by the principal in a collaborative ICT project. The case study chosen was a school project conducted within the NCCE project (Nordic Cross Country Education). The EU funded project ran for three years in grades 5-9 in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The goal of the project was to develop cross-border…

  19. 21 CFR 1404.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Principal. 1404.995 Section 1404.995 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... of substantially influencing the development or outcome of an activity required to perform...

  20. Elementary Teachers' Perceptions of Elementary Principals' Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridenvalds, Kriss R.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examined the beliefs of elementary teachers to determine if their perceptions of effective principal leadership align to transformational leadership theory vis-a-vis the Educational Leadership Policy Standards (ELPS). A phenomenological, single-case study approach was utilized by means of a mixed-methodological, Web-based survey,…

  1. SINGULAR INTEGRALS AND THE PRINCIPAL SERIES

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, A. W.; Stein, E. M.

    1969-01-01

    The L2 theory of singular integral operators on nilpotent Lie groups is studied, extending known results for IRn. The intertwining operators for the representations of the simple Lie groups of real rank one turn out to be of this type. As a result we determine which representations of the principal series of these groups are irreducible. PMID:16591758

  2. Middle Schools Principals' Attitudes about Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Gloria Denise

    2009-01-01

    Important legislation has demanded the education of students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Administrators, principals and educators in the local schools are impacted tremendously by this decision. The necessity to provide an appropriate education for special needs children while successfully implementing inclusion is a…

  3. Ohio Principal Evaluation System: Model Packet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Ohio Principal Evaluation System (OPES) was collaboratively developed by Ohio superintendents, school administrators, higher education faculty, and representatives from Ohio's administrator associations. It was designed to be research-based, transparent, fair and adaptable to the specific contexts of Ohio's districts (rural, urban, suburban,…

  4. The Principal: The Law and Student Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve; And Others

    Intended to serve as a practical guide for principals, this book analyzes the implications of recent court interpretations of constitutional and statutory law as it applies to the disciplinary policies and practices of schools. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the law on the actions of school administrators in Illinois, and several sections of…

  5. The Leadership Teachers Want from Principals: Transformational

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    The data shared in this paper is part a preliminary study. A more detailed and robust analysis of data will be conducted later. From a randomly generated sample of 135 public schools in the Province of Alberta, Canada 77 agreed to participate in a study on leadership attributes of principals. Ten randomly selected teachers from each participating…

  6. California Testing: How Principals Choose Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushman, James; Goodman, Greg; Brown-Welty, Sharon; Dorn, Shelly

    2001-01-01

    The Central Valley (California) Educational Research Consortium asked 118 area principals what they were doing to improve their lowest achieving students' education. Respondents are focusing on individualizing instruction, aligning curricula to standards, advocating teaching to standards and tests, promoting new curriculum methodologies, and…

  7. High Tech Schools: The Principal's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Janis

    This report offers the conclusions of a 1983 EPCOT symposium on education and the Information Age involving distinguished national experts and 46 secondary school principals from across the country. Discussed in the first section on "The Demands of an Information Age" are a number of transitions, including current shifts from an industrial to an…

  8. Dealing with Crises: One Principal's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Charles F.

    1986-01-01

    The principal of Concord High School (New Hampshire) recounts the 1985-86 school year's four crises--the visits of teacher-astronaut Christa McAuliffe and Secretary of Education William Bennett, the shooting of a former student, and the Challenger space shuttle explosion. The greatest challenge was resuming the normal schedule and fielding media…

  9. The Principal as Chief Executive Officer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Andrew E., Ed.

    This book was predicated on the idea that an effective principal must be proactive in decision making and have available appropriate information sources to make good decisions. Each chapter analyzes decision making from the perspective of different professionals in education and business management. Through the use of personal accounts and case…

  10. Managerial Leadership and the Effective Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yukl, Gary

    To help relate management ideas and knowledge to educational administration, the author reviews the major theories and findings from the last 20 years on managerial leadership and discusses their relevance for school principals. He first summarizes findings from three approaches: the traits approach, emphasizing managerial motivation and skills;…

  11. THE ROLE BEHAVIOR OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS OF THREE ROLE BEHAVIOR ASPECTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS WERE STUDIED, AS FOLLOWS--(1) CLOSENESS OF TEACHER SUPERVISION, (2) SUPPORT OF INNOVATION, AND (3) INVOLVEMENT OF PARENTS IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS. SPECIFICALLY, THE EFFECTS AND DETERMINANTS TO BE EXAMINED WERE THE ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS OF ROLE BEHAVIOR IN TERMS OF TEACHER…

  12. Teachers' Perceptions Regarding School Principals' Coaching Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Özdemir, Tuncay Yavuz; Kartal, Seçil Eda; Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out teachers' perceptions about school principals' coaching skills. The study was carried out within qualitative research methods. The study group included 76 teachers in Elazig and 73 teachers in Kahramanmaras provinces of Turkey. All the data were processed using Nvivo 9 software. The results indicate that…

  13. Standards-Based Assessment for Principal Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Glenn; Causey, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The Framework for School Leaders, an architecture derived from the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards, is utilized in the design of the Principal Internship Mentor's Assessment (PIMA). PIMA outcomes are reported for average scores for each standard and investigated as a measure of ISLLC Standards achievement and for…

  14. Summer Principals'/Directors' Orientation Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mata, Robert L.; Garcia, Richard L.

    Intended to provide current or potential project principals/directors with the basic knowledge, skills, abilities, and sensitivities needed to manage a summer migrant school project in the local educational setting, this module provides instruction in the project management areas of planning, preparation, control, and termination. The module…

  15. The Evolution and Training of School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer, Leonard O.; And Others

    Beginning with an historical description of the development of the principalship, this monograph gives a comprehensive analysis of both current and evolving training programs for principals. Given particular attention are field-based training programs and administrative internships, particulary the National Association of Secondary School…

  16. Technology Leadership Conditions among Nebraska School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curnyn, Molly A.

    2013-01-01

    As visionary leaders, school administrators are responsible for leading their schools into the 21st century by integrating technology to enhance learning and teaching. As technology leaders, principals must apply rigorous thought into the overall role that technology plays in the enhancement of student learning. Leveraging technology will assist…

  17. Utah Principals Academy, 1987-1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Board of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Improving instructional leadership skills of principals is the focus of the academy. Following a foreword and mission statement by James R. Moss, the state superintendent of public instruction, the booklet describes three programs that help to achieve the academy's goals: Academy Fellows, Academy Seminars, and Cluster Grants. Titles and authors of…

  18. The Principal's Role in Supporting Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hord, Shirley M.; Hirsh, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the following approaches which principals have found support strong learning communities: (1) Emphasize to teachers that you know they can succeed--together; (2) Expect teachers to keep knowledge fresh; (3) Guide communities toward self-governance; (4) Make data accessible; (5) Teach discussion and…

  19. Primary School Principals' Experiences with Smartphone Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Rahman; Aktay, Sayim

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are not just pieces of hardware, they at same time also dip into software features such as communication systems. The aim of this study is to examine primary school principals' experiences with smart phone applications. Shedding light on this subject means that this research is qualitative. Criterion sampling has been intentionally…

  20. Preparing Principals for Social Justice Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Martinez, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the experiences of social justice leaders to uncover specific leadership competencies that may inform current principal preparation programs. This study employed a qualitative multiple case study design. The three participants all shared many common strategies on how they manage the multiple forms of…

  1. The Novice Principal: Change and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northfield, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Rachel Wilson is a novice principal and new school leader of a large English junior-senior high school located in a rural township of a maritime province in Canada. Upon her appointment, she was challenged with having to establish herself as a credible leadership choice for the venue in addition to having to engage in new role learning as a…

  2. Selecting a Principal: Keep It Complicated!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naso, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    When searching for a new principal, many search committees tend to use the lists of competencies published in the literature and provided by state departments of education as if they were checklists. Instead, they should focus on more complicated competencies, such as acumen, judgment, and ability to manage the dilemmas of practice.

  3. The Assistant Principal's Handbook: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Long considered an under-appreciated and under-utilized position, the role of the assistant principal is finally getting the attention and respect it deserves. In this truly indispensable companion, current and prospective administrators will gain concrete suggestions and solutions to maximize their impact, effectiveness, and satisfaction in this…

  4. Assessment of School Principals' Reassignment Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezgin-Nartgün, Senay; Ekinci, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify administrators' views related to the assessment of school principals' reassignment in educational organizations. The study utilized qualitative research design and the study group composed of 8 school administrators selected via simple sampling who were employed in the Bolu central district in 2014-2015 academic year.…

  5. Turkish School Principals' Earthquake Experiences and Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbaba-Altun, Sadegul

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to explore the elementary school principals' experiences and reactions toward two earthquakes, which hit the north-west region of Turkey on August 17 and November 12, 1999. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative methodology was used since the goal of the researcher was to delineate the experiences and…

  6. The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Rebecca J., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains two articles concerned with doubly exceptional children and gifted education. In "The Doubly Exceptional Child: A Principal's Dilemma," (Carol J. Mills and Linda E. Brody), such children do not fit into the usual categories for sorting children because their gifts and disabilities often mask each other. Suggestions are…

  7. Understanding Principals' Attitudes towards Inclusive Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Jeff; du Plessis, Diana

    1997-01-01

    Inclusion is both a philosophy based on social justice and a practice requiring significant adaptations by the school community. This article presents qualitative data on over 200 Queensland (Australia) principals toward inclusion. Responses suggest the majority are "qualified" inclusionists. Although mindful of social-justice…

  8. Principal Pressure in the Middle of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrington, Mary Lynne; Larsen, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    When a new superintendent is hired, Tom Thompson, middle school principal, is squeezed between complying with the demands of the district and cultivating a positive culture in his school. He wrestles with the stress of facing tough leadership choices that take a toll on his physical and mental health. Tom realizes that a career-ending move might…

  9. A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

  10. What Principals Should Know About Food Allergies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Furlong, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Describes what principals should know about recent research findings on food allergies (peanuts, tree nuts, milk, eggs, soy, wheat) that can produce severe or life-threatening reactions in children. Asserts that every school should have trained staff and written procedures for reacting quickly to allergic reactions. (PKP)

  11. My School Principal Is Not a Leader!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutan, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of new approaches in educational management, have made mandatory to consider the school administration as "school leader". School principals of today's schools, are obliged to become individuals who influence teachers and students by dint of their personal characteristics, getting rid of being one who utilizes legal powers…

  12. An Exploration of Principal Instructional Technology Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, LaTricia Walker

    2013-01-01

    Nationwide the demand for schools to incorporate technology into their educational programs is great. In response, North Carolina developed the IMPACT model in 2003 to provide a comprehensive model for technology integration in the state. The model is aligned to national educational technology standards for teachers, students, and principals.…

  13. 21 CFR 1404.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal. 1404.995 Section 1404.995 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT... influence or control the use of those funds; or, (3) Occupies a technical or professional position...

  14. Building Blocks for the New Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckerman, Leon

    2005-01-01

    After all of the theories, strategies, discussions, and classes are completed, new principals often still feel isolated and think they have to reinvent the wheel to learn the basic lessons of leadership--how to improve school climate, how to provide leadership for change, how to communicate effectively, and how to manage time. However, they do not…

  15. Statutory Protection for Principals: Tort Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan

    1986-01-01

    Due to increasing numbers of lawsuits, educators need protection against financial liability to persons claiming injury on school property or in school-related activities. This legal memorandum describes needed protections, discusses the National Association of Secondary School Principals' (NASSP) role in developing liability insurance, and…

  16. Attention Deficit Disorder and the Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.; Schifani, John

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were often placed in special education classrooms. The critical challenge for administrators is ensuring that ADD children are correctly identified and appropriately educated. To avoid lawsuits, principals must lead the development of appropriate policies, procedures, and strategies to…

  17. Principals in Partnership with Math Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Catherine Miles; Davenport, Linda Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising developments in math education is the fact that many districts are hiring math coaches--also called math resource teachers, math facilitators, math lead teachers, or math specialists--to assist elementary-level teachers with math instruction. What must not be lost, however, is that principals play an essential role in…

  18. Facilitative Leadership: How Principals Lead without Dominating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    "Facilitative leadership" may be defined as the ability of principals to lead without controlling, while making it easier for all members of the school community to achieve agreed-upon goals. The bulk of the Bulletin consists of a discussion of 10 propositions related to facilitative leadership drawn from 3 sources: (1) studies in…

  19. Transformational Leadership Behaviors in Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergle, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    School leaders face high expectations from society for leadership effectiveness. While it is commonly accepted that leadership practices contribute to school excellence, specific behaviors of effective elementary principals in the local context were not well understood. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to investigate self-reported…

  20. Great Schools Have Great Principals: Link Crew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The author describes the Link Crew transition program that she implemented in 2012 as assistant principal for curriculum and guidance at Villa Park High School in California. She states that administrative and counseling teams at her school had noticed that ninth-grade students struggled in their transitions to high school, with over half of the…

  1. Stochastic convex sparse principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Baytas, Inci M; Lin, Kaixiang; Wang, Fei; Jain, Anil K; Zhou, Jiayu

    2016-12-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is a dimensionality reduction and data analysis tool commonly used in many areas. The main idea of PCA is to represent high-dimensional data with a few representative components that capture most of the variance present in the data. However, there is an obvious disadvantage of traditional PCA when it is applied to analyze data where interpretability is important. In applications, where the features have some physical meanings, we lose the ability to interpret the principal components extracted by conventional PCA because each principal component is a linear combination of all the original features. For this reason, sparse PCA has been proposed to improve the interpretability of traditional PCA by introducing sparsity to the loading vectors of principal components. The sparse PCA can be formulated as an ℓ1 regularized optimization problem, which can be solved by proximal gradient methods. However, these methods do not scale well because computation of the exact gradient is generally required at each iteration. Stochastic gradient framework addresses this challenge by computing an expected gradient at each iteration. Nevertheless, stochastic approaches typically have low convergence rates due to the high variance. In this paper, we propose a convex sparse principal component analysis (Cvx-SPCA), which leverages a proximal variance reduced stochastic scheme to achieve a geometric convergence rate. We further show that the convergence analysis can be significantly simplified by using a weak condition which allows a broader class of objectives to be applied. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated on a large-scale electronic medical record cohort.

  2. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also developed an Akaike information criterion (AIC) based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with factor analysis in multivariate time series data, we also consider the information criteria by Bai & Ng (2002) and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results. PMID:24376287

  3. Selecting the Number of Principal Components in Functional Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Yehua; Wang, Naisyin; Carroll, Raymond J

    2013-12-19

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) has become the most widely used dimension reduction tool for functional data analysis. We consider functional data measured at random, subject-specific time points, contaminated with measurement error, allowing for both sparse and dense functional data, and propose novel information criteria to select the number of principal component in such data. We propose a Bayesian information criterion based on marginal modeling that can consistently select the number of principal components for both sparse and dense functional data. For dense functional data, we also developed an Akaike information criterion (AIC) based on the expected Kullback-Leibler information under a Gaussian assumption. In connecting with factor analysis in multivariate time series data, we also consider the information criteria by Bai & Ng (2002) and show that they are still consistent for dense functional data, if a prescribed undersmoothing scheme is undertaken in the FPCA algorithm. We perform intensive simulation studies and show that the proposed information criteria vastly outperform existing methods for this type of data. Surprisingly, our empirical evidence shows that our information criteria proposed for dense functional data also perform well for sparse functional data. An empirical example using colon carcinogenesis data is also provided to illustrate the results.

  4. The associate principal astronomer telescope operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Mark; Bresina, John; Swanson, Keith; Edgington, Will; Henry, Greg

    1994-01-01

    This paper outlines a new telescope operations model that is intended to achieve low operating costs with high operating efficiency and high scientific productivity. The model is based on the existing Principal Astronomer approach used in conjunction with ATIS, a language for commanding remotely located automatic telescopes. This paper introduces the notion of an Associate Principal Astronomer, or APA. At the heart of the APA is automatic observation loading and scheduling software, and it is this software that is expected to help achieve efficient and productive telescope operations. The purpose of the APA system is to make it possible for astronomers to submit observation requests to and obtain resulting data from remote automatic telescopes, via the Internet, in a highly-automated way that minimizes human interaction with the system and maximizes the scientific return from observing time.

  5. Determination and validation of principal gene products

    PubMed Central

    Tress, Michael L.; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Frankish, Adam; López, Gonzalo; Goldman, Nick; Löytynoja, Ari; Massingham, Tim; Pardi, Fabio; Whelan, Simon; Harrow, Jennifer; Valencia, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Motivation Alternative splicing has the potential to generate a wide range of protein isoforms. For many computational applications and for experimental research, it is important to be able to concentrate on the isoform that retains the core biological function. For many genes this is far from clear. Results We have combined five methods into a pipeline that allows us to detect the principal variant for a gene. Most of the methods were based on conservation between species, at the level of both gene and protein. The five methods used were the conservation of exonic structure, the detection of non-neutral evolution, the conservation of functional residues, the existence of a known protein structure and the abundance of vertebrate orthologues. The pipeline was able to determine a principal isoform for 83% of a set of well-annotated genes with multiple variants. PMID:18006548

  6. Principals' transformational leadership and teachers' collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marc; Payette, Daniel; Leroux, Mathieu

    2008-04-01

    The study was designed to test the relationship of principals' transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership with teachers' collective efficacy. Bandura's theory of efficacy applied to the group and Bass's transformational leadership theory were used as the theoretical framework. Participants included 487 French Canadian teachers from 40 public high schools. As expected, there were positive and significant correlations between principals' transformational and transactional leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Also, there was a negative and significant correlation between laissez-faire leadership and teachers' collective efficacy. Moreover, regression analysis showed transformational leadership significantly enhanced the predictive capabilities of transactional leadership on teachers' collective efficacy. These results confirm the importance of leadership to predict collective efficacy and, by doing so, strengthen Bass's theory of leadership.

  7. Machine condition monitoring using principal component representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingbo; Yan, Ruqiang; Kong, Fanrang; Du, Ruxu

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find the low-dimensional principal component (PC) representations from the statistical features of the measured signals to characterize and hence, monitor machine conditions. The PC representations can be automatically extracted using the principal component analysis (PCA) technique from the time- and frequency-domains statistical features of the measured signals. First, a mean correlation rule is proposed to evaluate the capability of each of the PCs in characterizing machine conditions and to select the most representative PCs to classify machine fault patterns. Then a procedure that uses the low-dimensional PC representations for machine condition monitoring is proposed. The experimental results from an internal-combustion engine sound analysis and an automobile gearbox vibration analysis show that the proposed method is effective for machine condition monitoring.

  8. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  9. Multilevel sparse functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Di, Chongzhi; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Jank, Wolfgang S

    2014-01-29

    We consider analysis of sparsely sampled multilevel functional data, where the basic observational unit is a function and data have a natural hierarchy of basic units. An example is when functions are recorded at multiple visits for each subject. Multilevel functional principal component analysis (MFPCA; Di et al. 2009) was proposed for such data when functions are densely recorded. Here we consider the case when functions are sparsely sampled and may contain only a few observations per function. We exploit the multilevel structure of covariance operators and achieve data reduction by principal component decompositions at both between and within subject levels. We address inherent methodological differences in the sparse sampling context to: 1) estimate the covariance operators; 2) estimate the functional principal component scores; 3) predict the underlying curves. Through simulations the proposed method is able to discover dominating modes of variations and reconstruct underlying curves well even in sparse settings. Our approach is illustrated by two applications, the Sleep Heart Health Study and eBay auctions.

  10. Complex principal components for robust motion estimation.

    PubMed

    Mauldin, F William; Viola, Francesco; Walker, William F

    2010-11-01

    Bias and variance errors in motion estimation result from electronic noise, decorrelation, aliasing, and inherent algorithm limitations. Unlike most error sources, decorrelation is coherent over time and has the same power spectrum as the signal. Thus, reducing decorrelation is impossible through frequency domain filtering or simple averaging and must be achieved through other methods. In this paper, we present a novel motion estimator, termed the principal component displacement estimator (PCDE), which takes advantage of the signal separation capabilities of principal component analysis (PCA) to reject decorrelation and noise. Furthermore, PCDE only requires the computation of a single principal component, enabling computational speed that is on the same order of magnitude or faster than the commonly used Loupas algorithm. Unlike prior PCA strategies, PCDE uses complex data to generate motion estimates using only a single principal component. The use of complex echo data is critical because it allows for separation of signal components based on motion, which is revealed through phase changes of the complex principal components. PCDE operates on the assumption that the signal component of interest is also the most energetic component in an ensemble of echo data. This assumption holds in most clinical ultrasound environments. However, in environments where electronic noise SNR is less than 0 dB or in blood flow data for which the wall signal dominates the signal from blood flow, the calculation of more than one PC is required to obtain the signal of interest. We simulated synthetic ultrasound data to assess the performance of PCDE over a wide range of imaging conditions and in the presence of decorrelation and additive noise. Under typical ultrasonic elasticity imaging conditions (0.98 signal correlation, 25 dB SNR, 1 sample shift), PCDE decreased estimation bias by more than 10% and standard deviation by more than 30% compared with the Loupas method and normalized

  11. Stress and Job Satisfaction among Secondary School Principals in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romney, Angela G.

    2012-01-01

    The role of a secondary school principal continues to expand and increase principals' daily workload. The high stakes testing environment also places pressure on principals to ensure that students score high on standardized tests. With a heavy workload, principals find themselves faced with numerous work-related stressors that influence job…

  12. What Should Be Done with "Fit" in Principal Selection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Brandon; Kelly, Joseph; Mullooly, James

    2016-01-01

    Although the school principal's role has been growing in importance, the methods used to select principals have not changed much since the 1950s. Moreover, researchers have seldom scrutinized principal selection methods; yet, significant procedural issues exist. The concept of "fit" has been used within principal selection for decades,…

  13. 24 CFR 241.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... Security Instruments § 241.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum principal obligation shall be $10,000....

  14. Evaluating and Supporting Principals. Building a Stronger Principalship: Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Leslie M.; Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2016-01-01

    This is the fourth report from an evaluation of the Principal Pipeline Initiative (PPI). This report addresses the implementation of principal evaluation and related support as of 2015, viewing implementation in the context of districts' aims, constraints, and capacity. Principal evaluation is part of the Wallace Principal Pipeline Initiative…

  15. Principal Role Changes and Implications for Principalship Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Kathryn S.

    1999-01-01

    A principal who exchanged jobs with a university professor explores changing principal roles, using a case-study approach. Principals' working world is characterized by overwhelming responsibilities, information perplexity, and emotional anxiety. Principals would appreciate intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, support networks, university-school…

  16. 19 CFR 113.33 - Corporations as principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corporations as principals. 113.33 Section 113.33... TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.33 Corporations as principals. (a) Name of corporation on the bonds. The name of a corporation executing a Customs bond as a principal, may be printed...

  17. Male and Female High School Principals: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Susan C.

    Differences in the personal and career characteristics of men and women secondary principals were examined by comparing data from a study of women high school principals with data from a National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) study on the secondary school principalship. Data for the study of women principals were provided by…

  18. Principal Quality Practice in Alberta: Education 900 Introduction Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennest, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of Alberta's Principal Quality Practice Standard as a framework for the roles and responsibilities of school principals. Methodology: Three principals participated in the study, and each principal had more than 25 years of teaching and school administration experience. Each principal…

  19. 19 CFR 113.34 - Co-principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Co-principals. 113.34 Section 113.34 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.34 Co-principals. A bond with a co-principal may be used by a... with the same distinct legal status on the bond. A bond with a co-principal shall not be used to...

  20. 19 CFR 113.34 - Co-principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Co-principals. 113.34 Section 113.34 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.34 Co-principals. A bond with a co-principal may be used by a... with the same distinct legal status on the bond. A bond with a co-principal shall not be used to...

  1. 19 CFR 113.34 - Co-principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Co-principals. 113.34 Section 113.34 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.34 Co-principals. A bond with a co-principal may be used by a... with the same distinct legal status on the bond. A bond with a co-principal shall not be used to...

  2. 19 CFR 113.34 - Co-principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Co-principals. 113.34 Section 113.34 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.34 Co-principals. A bond with a co-principal may be used by a... with the same distinct legal status on the bond. A bond with a co-principal shall not be used to...

  3. 19 CFR 113.34 - Co-principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Co-principals. 113.34 Section 113.34 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.34 Co-principals. A bond with a co-principal may be used by a... with the same distinct legal status on the bond. A bond with a co-principal shall not be used to...

  4. Trust Me, Principal, or Burn Out! The Relationship between Principals' Burnout and Trust in Students and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Niyazi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the primary school principals' views on trust in students and parents and also, to explore the relationships between principals' levels of professional burnout and their trust in students and parents. To this end, Principal Trust Survey and Friedman Principal Burnout scales were administered on 119…

  5. In Search of How Principals Change: A Qualitative Study of Events That Help and Hinder Administrator Support for School-Wide PBIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Kelm, Joanna L.; Canizal Delabra, Alondra

    2016-01-01

    Research has shown principal support to be a critical variable for implementing and sustaining evidence-based practices. However, there remains little understanding of the factors that may influence a principal's personal decision to support a practice. The purpose of the current study was to examine events that influenced principals' support for…

  6. Radar fall detection using principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokanovic, Branka; Amin, Moeness; Ahmad, Fauzia; Boashash, Boualem

    2016-05-01

    Falls are a major cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries in people aged 65 years and older. Radar has the potential to become one of the leading technologies for fall detection, thereby enabling the elderly to live independently. Existing techniques for fall detection using radar are based on manual feature extraction and require significant parameter tuning in order to provide successful detections. In this paper, we employ principal component analysis for fall detection, wherein eigen images of observed motions are employed for classification. Using real data, we demonstrate that the PCA based technique provides performance improvement over the conventional feature extraction methods.

  7. Principal symbol of Euler-Lagrange operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatibene, L.; Garruto, S.

    2016-07-01

    We shall introduce the principal symbol for quite a general class of (quasi linear) Euler-Lagrange operators and use them to characterise well-posed initial value problems in gauge covariant field theories. We shall clarify how constraints can arise in covariant Lagrangian theories by extending the standard treatment in GR and without resorting to Hamiltonian formalism. Finally as an example of application, we sketch a quantisation procedure based on what is done in LQG by framing it in a more general context which applies to general gauge covariant field theories.

  8. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Adam Hugh

    2000-11-01

    A nonlinear generalisation of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), denoted Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA), is introduced and applied to the analysis of climate data. It is found empirically that NLPCA partitions variance in the same fashion as does PCA. An important distinction is drawn between a modal P-dimensional NLPCA analysis, in which the approximation is the sum of P nonlinear functions of one variable, and a nonmodal analysis, in which the P-dimensional NLPCA approximation is determined as a nonlinear non- additive function of P variables. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis is first applied to a data set sampled from the Lorenz attractor. The 1D and 2D NLPCA approximations explain 76% and 99.5% of the total variance, respectively, in contrast to 60% and 95% explained by the 1D and 2D PCA approximations. When applied to a data set consisting of monthly-averaged tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures (SST), the modal 1D NLPCA approximation describes average variability associated with the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, as does the 1D PCA approximation. The NLPCA approximation, however, characterises the asymmetry in spatial pattern of SST anomalies between average warm and cold events in a manner that the PCA approximation cannot. The second NLPCA mode of SST is found to characterise differences in ENSO variability between individual events, and in particular is consistent with the celebrated 1977 ``regime shift''. A 2D nonmodal NLPCA approximation is determined, the interpretation of which is complicated by the fact that a secondary feature extraction problem has to be carried out. It is found that this approximation contains much the same information as that provided by the modal analysis. A modal NLPC analysis of tropical Indo-Pacific sea level pressure (SLP) finds that the first mode describes average ENSO variability in this field, and also characterises an asymmetry in SLP fields between average warm and

  9. The Effects of Principal's Leadership Style on Support for Innovation: Evidence from Korean Vocational High School Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joo-Ho

    2012-01-01

    A climate of innovation and principal leadership in schools are regarded as significant factors in successfully implementing school change or innovation. Nevertheless, the relationship between the school climate supportive of innovation and the principal's leadership has rarely been addressed to determine whether schools successfully perform their…

  10. The Effect of Human Capital on Principals' Decisions to Interview Candidates in Agricultural Education: Implications for Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, J. Shane; Baker, Marshall A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine which factors of human capital were valued most by principals regarding their decisions to interview candidates, based on teacher resumes. The findings of this study point to the fact that principals desire teachers who are academically rigorous. That is, they desire teachers who have strong…

  11. The Leadership Role of the High School Principal in Providing a Supportive Environment for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porreca, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on school leadership and on effective schools has long held that the leadership of the principal is the single most important factor in creating and sustaining the culture of a school; it follows, then, that the leadership of the principal has tremendous potential to increase the safety, comfort, and academic achievement of LGBT…

  12. An Examination of Leadership Styles in Implementing Instructional Technology: A Case Study to Examine the Elementary School Principal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Technology is a powerful tool with incredible potential for altering established forms of pedagogy. The school principal is the key factor affecting the successful integration of technology. The purpose of this study was to identify the leadership styles practiced by school principals who are implementing instructional technology in their…

  13. The influence of iliotibial band syndrome history on running biomechanics examined via principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Foch, Eric; Milner, Clare E

    2014-01-03

    Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common knee overuse injury among female runners. Atypical discrete trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during running may be associated with the etiology of ITBS. Examining discrete data points limits the interpretation of a waveform to a single value. Characterizing entire kinematic and kinetic waveforms may provide additional insight into biomechanical factors associated with ITBS. Therefore, the purpose of this cross-sectional investigation was to determine whether female runners with previous ITBS exhibited differences in kinematics and kinetics compared to controls using a principal components analysis (PCA) approach. Forty participants comprised two groups: previous ITBS and controls. Principal component scores were retained for the first three principal components and were analyzed using independent t-tests. The retained principal components accounted for 93-99% of the total variance within each waveform. Runners with previous ITBS exhibited low principal component one scores for frontal plane hip angle. Principal component one accounted for the overall magnitude in hip adduction which indicated that runners with previous ITBS assumed less hip adduction throughout stance. No differences in the remaining retained principal component scores for the waveforms were detected among groups. A smaller hip adduction angle throughout the stance phase of running may be a compensatory strategy to limit iliotibial band strain. This running strategy may have persisted after ITBS symptoms subsided.

  14. Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Dmitry; Gavrilov, Andrey; Feigin, Alexander; Loskutov, Evgeny; Kurths, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    We suggest a new nonlinear expansion of space-distributed observational time series. The expansion allows constructing principal nonlinear manifolds holding essential part of observed variability. It yields low-dimensional hidden time series interpreted as internal modes driving observed multivariate dynamics as well as their mapping to a geographic grid. Bayesian optimality is used for selecting relevant structure of nonlinear transformation, including both the number of principal modes and degree of nonlinearity. Furthermore, the optimal characteristic time scale of the reconstructed modes is also found. The technique is applied to monthly sea surface temperature (SST) time series having a duration of 33 years and covering the globe. Three dominant nonlinear modes were extracted from the time series: the first efficiently separates the annual cycle, the second is responsible for ENSO variability, and combinations of the second and the third modes explain substantial parts of Pacific and Atlantic dynamics. A relation of the obtained modes to decadal natural climate variability including current hiatus in global warming is exhibited and discussed. PMID:26489769

  15. Fault detection with principal component pursuit method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yijun; Yang, Chunjie; Sun, Youxian; An, Ruqiao; Wang, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Data-driven approaches are widely applied for fault detection in industrial process. Recently, a new method for fault detection called principal component pursuit(PCP) is introduced. PCP is not only robust to outliers, but also can accomplish the objectives of model building, fault detection, fault isolation and process reconstruction simultaneously. PCP divides the data matrix into two parts: a fault-free low rank matrix and a sparse matrix with sensor noise and process fault. The statistics presented in this paper fully utilize the information in data matrix. Since the low rank matrix in PCP is similar to principal components matrix in PCA, a T2 statistic is proposed for fault detection in low rank matrix. And this statistic can illustrate that PCP is more sensitive to small variations in variables than PCA. In addition, in sparse matrix, a new monitored statistic performing the online fault detection with PCP-based method is introduced. This statistic uses the mean and the correlation coefficient of variables. Monte Carlo simulation and Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of monitored statistics.

  16. Health-related biotechnology transfer to Africa: principal-agency relationship issues.

    PubMed

    Kirigia, J M; Muthuri, L K; Kirigia, D G

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate on the agency (principal-agent) in health-related biotechnology research. It attempts to answer the following questions: What is health-related biotechnology and biotechnology research? What is an agency? What factors are likely to undermine the principal's capacity to exercise informed consent? When might the principal-agency problem arise? How could the agency in biotechnology transfer be strengthened in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)? The transfer of health-related biotechnology to SSA ought to be preceded by research to ascertain the effectiveness of such technologies on population health. In that process, the national ethical review committee (REC), as an agent of every human research subject (principal), ought to ensure that international principles (e.g. beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, justice, dignity, truthfulness and honesty) for human experimentation are observed by biotechnology researchers in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal requirements. The key factors that undermine principals' sovereignty in exercising their right to informed consent to participate in biotechnology trials are discussed. The paper ends with a list of activities that can strengthen the agency, e.g. legislative requirement that all health-related biotechnology transfer should be preceded by rigorous evaluation; continuous update of the agents knowledge of the contents of the international ethical guidelines; and education of potential and actual principals on their human rights; among others.

  17. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  18. Health governance: principal-agent linkages and health system strengthening.

    PubMed

    Brinkerhoff, Derick W; Bossert, Thomas J

    2014-09-01

    Governance is increasingly recognized as an important factor in health system performance, yet conceptually and practically it remains poorly understood and subject to often vague and competing notions of both what its role is and how to address its weaknesses. This overview article for the symposium on health governance presents a model of health governance that focuses on the multiplicity of societal actors in health systems, the distribution of roles and responsibilities among them and their ability and willingness to fulfil these roles and responsibilities. This focus highlights the principal-agent linkages among actors and the resulting incentives for good governance and health system performance. The discussion identifies three disconnects that constitute challenges for health system strengthening interventions that target improving governance: (1) the gap between the good governance agenda and existing capacities, (2) the discrepancy between formal and informal governance and (3) the inattention to sociopolitical power dynamics. The article summarizes the three country cases in the symposium and highlights their governance findings: health sector reform in China, financial management of health resources in Brazilian municipalities and budget reform in hospitals in Lesotho. The concluding sections clarify how the three cases apply the model's principal-agent linkages and highlight the importance of filling the gaps remaining between problem diagnosis and the development of practical guidance that supports 'best fit' solutions and accommodates political realities in health systems strengthening.

  19. Principal Components Analysis of Triaxial Vibration Data From Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Irem Y.; Huff, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    Research on the nature of the vibration data collected from helicopter transmissions during flight experiments has led to several crucial observations believed to be responsible for the high rates of false alarms and missed detections in aircraft vibration monitoring systems. This work focuses on one such finding, namely, the need to consider additional sources of information about system vibrations. In this light, helicopter transmission vibration data, collected using triaxial accelerometers, were explored in three different directions, analyzed for content, and then combined using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to analyze changes in directionality. In this paper, the PCA transformation is applied to 176 test conditions/data sets collected from an OH58C helicopter to derive the overall experiment-wide covariance matrix and its principal eigenvectors. The experiment-wide eigenvectors. are then projected onto the individual test conditions to evaluate changes and similarities in their directionality based on the various experimental factors. The paper will present the foundations of the proposed approach, addressing the question of whether experiment-wide eigenvectors accurately model the vibration modes in individual test conditions. The results will further determine the value of using directionality and triaxial accelerometers for vibration monitoring and anomaly detection.

  20. Nonlinear Process Fault Diagnosis Based on Serial Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Tian, Xuemin; Chen, Sheng; Harris, Chris J

    2016-12-22

    Many industrial processes contain both linear and nonlinear parts, and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), widely used in nonlinear process monitoring, may not offer the most effective means for dealing with these nonlinear processes. This paper proposes a new hybrid linear-nonlinear statistical modeling approach for nonlinear process monitoring by closely integrating linear principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear KPCA using a serial model structure, which we refer to as serial PCA (SPCA). Specifically, PCA is first applied to extract PCs as linear features, and to decompose the data into the PC subspace and residual subspace (RS). Then, KPCA is performed in the RS to extract the nonlinear PCs as nonlinear features. Two monitoring statistics are constructed for fault detection, based on both the linear and nonlinear features extracted by the proposed SPCA. To effectively perform fault identification after a fault is detected, an SPCA similarity factor method is built for fault recognition, which fuses both the linear and nonlinear features. Unlike PCA and KPCA, the proposed method takes into account both linear and nonlinear PCs simultaneously, and therefore, it can better exploit the underlying process's structure to enhance fault diagnosis performance. Two case studies involving a simulated nonlinear process and the benchmark Tennessee Eastman process demonstrate that the proposed SPCA approach is more effective than the existing state-of-the-art approach based on KPCA alone, in terms of nonlinear process fault detection and identification.

  1. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, C.; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  2. Principal Component Analysis of Thermographic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.; Burke, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has been shown effective for reducing thermographic NDE data. While a reliable technique for enhancing the visibility of defects in thermal data, PCA can be computationally intense and time consuming when applied to the large data sets typical in thermography. Additionally, PCA can experience problems when very large defects are present (defects that dominate the field-of-view), since the calculation of the eigenvectors is now governed by the presence of the defect, not the "good" material. To increase the processing speed and to minimize the negative effects of large defects, an alternative method of PCA is being pursued where a fixed set of eigenvectors, generated from an analytic model of the thermal response of the material under examination, is used to process the thermal data from composite materials. This method has been applied for characterization of flaws.

  3. Extraction of principal components from biosignals by neural net.

    PubMed

    Krajca, V; Principe, J C; Petránek, S

    1999-01-01

    This contribution gives the information on a useful application of principal component analysis (PCA) in the field of electroencephalogram (EEG) and laser-Doppler signal processing. The principal components are estimated by a neural network (NN) approach.

  4. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel as it applies to cosmetics in package form and as used in this part, means the part of a label...

  5. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel as it applies to cosmetics in package form and as used in this part, means the part of a label...

  6. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel as it applies to cosmetics in package form and as used in this part, means the part of a label...

  7. Termolecular Ion-Molecules Reactions in Titan's Atmosphere. I. Principal Ions with Principal Neutrals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anicich, V.; Milligan, D.; Fairley, D.; McEwan, M.

    1999-01-01

    The FA-SIFT experiment at Canterbury was used to determine some of the principal termolecular ion-molecule reactions that occur in Saturn's satellite Titan's atmosphere. The experiments were performed using both a pure nitrogen bath gas and a pure helium bath gas.

  8. Principal Leadership for Special Education: Perceptions of Principals and Directors of Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Angela Bost

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of public school leaders about principal leadership for special education in ten leadership categories: understanding law and policy, using data to improve teacher performance, using data to improve student performance, creating an inclusive culture, collaborating with families,…

  9. Principal-Teacher Interactions: How Affective Relationships Shape Principal and Teacher Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Research finds that the attitudes of principals and teachers create an atmosphere for learning, often referred to as school climate, that influences school effectiveness. Other research shows that atmospheres of trust, shared vision, and openness create positive school climate conditions. Little is known, however, about how these climates…

  10. Increasing Assistant Principals' Capacity for Success Based on the New Principal Evaluation Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Rhonda Keever

    2012-01-01

    The importance of leadership is critical with current accountability for student performance. The increased accountability for school leaders has caused a change in leadership roles to incorporate collaboration and shared leadership. Assistant principals are included in the concept of distributive leadership. A review of the literature shows…

  11. Principals' and Teachers' Views of Spirituality in Principal Leadership in Three Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Alaster

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses key findings from my doctoral research involving a qualitative case study inquiring into the lived experiences of spirituality in principal leadership and its influence on teachers and their teaching within three public primary school contexts in New Zealand. Spirituality is understood in this article as a complex and…

  12. Quality M.Ed. Principal Licensure Degrees + Conscientious Students = Leader Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillaume, Cindy; Vitucci, Alanna

    2015-01-01

    Effective educational leadership at the principal level positively correlates with quality classroom teachers and improved student achievement (Portin et al., 2009). It also fosters a caring, supportive and inter-connected environment that inspires students and engages teachers (Seashore et al., 2010). Preparing competent, effective, and caring…

  13. Novice School Principals' Sense of Ultimate Responsibility: Problems of Practice in Transitioning to the Principal's Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Lee, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the problems of practice experienced by novice school principals as they transition into their new occupation, focusing in particular on the first 3 months on the job--a critical transition period according to the literature. Research Methods/Approach: This theory-building, mixed-methods, longitudinal study examines a…

  14. A Preliminary Examination of the Impact of a Structured Principal Network on Principal Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillery, Denise Artus

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which participation in a formal network has on a principal's personal perception of burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory for Educators (MBI-E). The MBI-E consists of 22 questions with responses indicated on a 7 point Likert scale ranging from 0-6. It measures three constructs of emotional…

  15. The Networked Principal: Examining Principals' Social Relationships and Transformational Leadership in School and District Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While in everyday practice, school leaders are often involved in social relationships with a variety of stakeholders both within and outside their own schools, studies on school leaders' networks often focus either on networks within or outside schools. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which principals occupy…

  16. Aerobic Physical Activity and the Leadership of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiser, Kari

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore if there was a connection between regular aerobic physical activity and the stress and energy levels of principals as they reported it. To begin the research, the current aerobic physical activity level of principals was discovered. Additionally, the energy and stress levels of the principals who do engage…

  17. The Development of Assistant Principals: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oleszewski, Ashley; Shoho, Alan; Barnett, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to add to the discussion of assistant principals (APs), a position that has been under-represented in the professional literature. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive search was undertaken on assistant principals, vice principals, and deputy head teachers from various sources, including journals,…

  18. The Impact of Principals in Sustaining Middle School Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipp, Kristine A.

    1997-01-01

    Notes survey of teachers and principals in 10 middle schools to determine the relationship between principals' leadership behavior and teachers' sense of efficacy. Identifies 11 principal behaviors that reinforce teacher efficacy, including inspiring group purpose, encouraging innovation, fostering teamwork, managing student behavior, and…

  19. The Assistant Principal's Accountability in School Reform and Restructuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George J.; And Others

    Five papers examine issues regarding the role of the assistant principal, with a focus on accountability in school reform and restructuring. The first paper, by George J. Michel, analyzes the leadership areas of the assistant principal and suggests methods to make the assistant principal accountable. The next four papers describe new models of…

  20. Suicide in Middle Level Schools: Implications for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toepfer, Conrad F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Prevention of teenage suicide and coping with it when it occurs is an increasing concern for middle-level principals. This article focuses on specific implications of the youth suicide problem for middle-level principals with considerations for other principals as well. (Author/TE)

  1. The Work of Chicago Public Schools' Principals. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoelinga, Sara Ray

    2008-01-01

    This report examines the roles and perceptions of Chicago Public Schools' principals, drawing upon Consortium surveys and principal interviews. Consortium Senior Analyst Sara Ray Stoelinga is the lead author of this report. She was assisted by Holly Hart and David Schalliol. Key findings in the research reveal that principal turnover is a pressing…

  2. Principals' Perceptions of Their Role in Curriculum Implementation. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Elaine; And Others

    This study, initiated by the Scarborough (Ontario) Board of Education, examines principals' perceptions of their role in curriculum implementation, the difficulties inherent in this role and the support systems available to assist principals, and the leadership component of the principals' role in curriculum implementation. Interviews, based on a…

  3. Principal Selection: A National Study of Selection Criteria and Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Despite empirical evidence correlating the role of the principal with student achievement, researchers have seldom scrutinized principal selection methods over the past 60 years. This mixed methods study investigated the processes by which school principals are selected. A national sample of top-level school district administrators was used to…

  4. Principal Succession and Changes in School Coupling and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil; Owens, Melva

    To assess the effects of principal turnover on school organizational structures and effectiveness at elementary and secondary levels, the operations of schools that changed principals were compared to those that retained principals. Studies of organizational dynamics have identified important structural variables that can be applied to school…

  5. Principal Turnover: Upheaval and Uncertainty in Charter Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Yongmei; Sun, Min; Rorrer, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Informed by literature on labor market and school choice, this study aims to examine the dynamics of principal career movements in charter schools by comparing principal turnover rates and patterns between charter schools and traditional public schools. Research Methods/Approach: This study uses longitudinal data on Utah principals and…

  6. The Perceived Stress Levels of Primary and Secondary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savery, Lawson K.; Detiuk, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Research conducted in Western Australian government schools indicates perceived stress among principals, particularly role overload and role conflict. Primary principals experienced greater stress than secondary principals. Suggestions on how the education department can reduce employee stress include altering leadership styles and offering stress…

  7. Walking the Tightrope: Secondary School Principals' Perspectives on Teacher Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    The conflicting nature of the principal's role as a leader in the context of the school building and yet a follower within the school district organization may lead to frustration, poor job performance, and ultimately, premature principal departure. As middle managers in the school district organization, principals are wedged between…

  8. Consejeria de los directores (Principal Mentoring). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    To help new principals succeed, school districts are capitalizing on senior administrators' expertise by adding mentor programs to the practical training programs for beginning principals. This ERIC Digest in Spanish examines the nature of mentorships and discusses how they can prepare principals for the next stage of their careers. Although…

  9. Libby School Leaders: Principals--Past to Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, Cassie, Ed.; McGarity, Fiona, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine," written and edited by Texas high school students, features two female principals in the Carthage, Texas, school system. Dura Heaton Lampin was the first principal of Libby Elementary School (built in 1955) and the first woman principal in the Carthage school system. Rosa Lee Edge was the second…

  10. Principals' Experiences of Being Evaluated: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parylo, Oksana; Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study sought to understand principals' lived experiences of being evaluated with reliance on the principles of developmental supervision and adult learning theory. Analysis of interview data from 16 principals revealed 3 major constructs in principal evaluation: evaluation is a complex, constantly changing system; principal…

  11. A Comparison between Saudi and American School Principal Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altuwaijri, Anas

    2016-01-01

    Saudi educators are increasingly concerned over whether principal preparation programs in Saudi Arabia are accomplishing their goal of developing qualified leaders who are prepared to take on the tasks of school principals. Thus, Saudi researchers recommend that the school principal preparation programs undergo evaluation. This study examines…

  12. School Principals and School Performance. Working Paper 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damon; Martorell, Paco; Rockoff, Jonah

    2009-01-01

    We use detailed data from New York City to estimate how the characteristics of school principals relate to school performance, as measured by students' standardized exam scores and other outcomes. We find little evidence of any relationship between school performance and principal education and pre-principal work experience, although we do find…

  13. School Principals and School Performance. CALDER Working Paper No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Damon; Martorell, Paco; Rockoff, Jonah

    2009-01-01

    We use detailed data from New York City to estimate how the characteristics of school principals relate to school performance, as measured by students' standardized exam scores and other outcomes. We find little evidence of any relationship between school performance and principal education and pre-principal work experience, although we do find…

  14. Professional Development of Middle Level Principals: Pushing the Reform Forward.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Anfara, Vincent A.; Hartman, Kimberly J.; Mahar, Robert J.; Mills, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Study of middle-school principal professional development content, place, and optimal learning strategies for school reform. Finds, for example, that principals want to learn how to nurture collegial and collaborative learning environments. Also finds that principals want more in-house training and that they learn best, for example, through…

  15. Professional Development Perspectives of Principals in Australia and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, David T.; Ueyama, Takeyuki

    2004-01-01

    Irrespective of how the roles, tasks, and responsibilities of principals have evolved due to educational change and reform, the school principal still holds the key to achieving school effectiveness. Over the last few decades, extensive studies have been conducted on the role of the school principal. Most scholars, researchers, and school…

  16. Principals Leading for Educational Equity: Social Justice in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Cynthia Marie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined how principals promote educational equity in schools. The study examined the experiences of three principals in a school district that mandated that principals lead for equity. The school system defined equity as the elimination of racial predictability in student achievement. To conduct this examination, the…

  17. How the Principalship Has Changed: Lessons from Principals' Life Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Dale L.

    1995-01-01

    The life stories of (North Carolina) principals in a graduate education class reveal vast changes over the past 20 years. "Good ol' boy" superintendents and principals have been replaced by self-interested political "sharks" concerned more with image than substance. Fortunately, principals with resiliency, caring values, and…

  18. California School Principals' Perceptions of the Effects of Proposition 227

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basurto, Imelda; Wise, Donald; Unruh, Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Few studies provide insight into how California principals perceive Proposition 227 and its impact on bilingual education. The findings of a survey distributed to 100 randomly selected California principals with bilingual programs, indicate the law passed by California voters has not changed the perceptions of California principals towards…

  19. A Primer for New Principals: Guidelines for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellough, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Many new principals seek a professional guide that is simple, current, to-the-point, and enjoyable to read. This book can be used by beginning principals as a personal reference for the demands of the stressful and important job. The guidelines presented in this book are grade-level neutral-intended for the principal of K-12 public, charter, or…

  20. 19 CFR 113.32 - Partnerships as principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partnerships as principals. 113.32 Section 113.32... TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.32 Partnerships as principals. (a) Names of partners... partnership has been previously filed with the port director or drawback office in the case of a bond...

  1. 19 CFR 113.32 - Partnerships as principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partnerships as principals. 113.32 Section 113.32... TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.32 Partnerships as principals. (a) Names of partners... partnership has been previously filed with the port director or drawback office in the case of a bond...

  2. 19 CFR 113.32 - Partnerships as principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partnerships as principals. 113.32 Section 113.32... TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.32 Partnerships as principals. (a) Names of partners... partnership has been previously filed with the port director or drawback office in the case of a bond...

  3. 19 CFR 113.32 - Partnerships as principals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partnerships as principals. 113.32 Section 113.32... TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Principals and Sureties § 113.32 Partnerships as principals. (a) Names of partners... partnership has been previously filed with the port director or drawback office in the case of a bond...

  4. Building PACs: A Guide for Title I Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druian, Janice; Sayers, Susan

    This inservice program for principals was designed to assist the development and maintenance of effective Parent Advisory Councils (PACs), as mandated by Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. The manual first introduces the concept of the principal as a facilitator, outlining the principal's role and responsibilities within a PAC.…

  5. 76 FR 61764 - Principal Funds, Inc., et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... F Street, NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090; Applicants: c/o Principal Financial Group, 680 8th Street, Des Moines, Iowa 50392. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bruce R. MacNeil, Senior Counsel, at (202... wholly-owned subsidiary of Principal Financial Group, Inc., the ultimate parent entity of Principal...

  6. Principal Succession and Its Impact on Teacher Morale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Matthew J.; Macmillan, Robert B.; Northfield, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Our detailed study of two secondary schools in Nova Scotia which had experienced regular principal succession examined succession and its impact on teacher morale. We found that the process of principal succession and the new principal's practices have the potential to change a school culture and both positively and negatively affect teacher and…

  7. 24 CFR 232.535 - Loan multiples-minimum principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan multiples-minimum principal... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.535 Loan multiples—minimum principal. The loan shall involve a principal obligation in multiples of $100, and the minimum...

  8. Leveraging Principal Evaluations to Scale up Instructional Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Strong school leaders play a vital role in accelerating student achievement across a state. Research has found that principals account for 25 percent of a school's total impact on student achievement, and an above-average principal can raise student achievement by as much as 20 percentage points more than an average principal--equivalent to seven…

  9. Are Changing School Needs Reflected in Principal Job Ads?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Watts, Dana Specker; Hollis, Ericka; McLeod, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The roles of the school principal continue to evolve due to shifting demands as well as ever-changing organizational needs. As new leadership skill sets emerge, we might expect school systems to respond by actively seeking different credentials, experiences, and dispositions of their principal candidates. This study of 279 principal job…

  10. How Do They Know You Care? The Principal's Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    This book presents a portrait of Ken Hinton, an African American principal who in his childhood was abused by life in schools and as a result resolved that no other child would be treated that way. He became a caring, nurturing male school administrator. Chapter 1 introduces a caring principal and school. Chapter 2 profiles principal Kenneth…

  11. Importance of an Effective Principal-Counselor Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, LaWanda; Grace, Ronald; King, Gwendolyn

    2014-01-01

    An effective relationship between the principal and school counselor is essential when improving student achievement. To have an effective relationship, there must be communication, trust and respect, leadership, and collaborative planning between the principal and school counselor (College Board, 2011). Principals and school counselors are both…

  12. Leadership Behaviors and Its Relation with Principals' Management Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehdinezhad, Vali; Sardarzahi, Zaid

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the leadership behaviors reported by principals and observed by teachers and its relationship with management experience of principals. A quantitative method was used in this study. The target population included all principals and teachers of guidance schools and high schools in the Dashtiari District, Iran. A sample…

  13. Principals' Attitudes toward the Inclusion of Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stith, Angelnet L.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative correlation study investigated 50 Virginia's elementary principals' attitudes toward the inclusion of students with disabilities and principals' training, experience, placement decision, and state assessment decision in special education. The data was collected using the modified version of Principal and Inclusion Survey tool.…

  14. Professional Isolation and Performance at Work of School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dussault, Marc; Thibodeau, Stephane

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between school principals' professional isolation and their performance at work. Suburban Quebec principals were administered French versions of the UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Self-Appraisal Instrument for Community College Administrators. Principals' professional isolation was negatively and significantly…

  15. In the Midst of Comprehensive School Reform: Principals' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: The role of the principal, and especially the role of the principal in promoting school reform to increase student achievement, is a topic with a long and evolving history. Principals are believed to play a critical role in school reform because they have the potential to impact all aspects of school policy, from time allocated…

  16. Middle School Certification: A Comparison of Teachers' and Principals' Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thistle, Maureen; O'Connor, James E.

    Findings of a study that examined the attitudes of middle level teachers and principals toward middle-school certification are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to 82 teachers and principals of all 46 public schools serving sixth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade students in Kern County, California. Twenty-four principals and 48…

  17. Principal Selection and School District Hiring Cultures: Fair or Foul?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Brandon; Mullooly, James

    2015-01-01

    A host of research dating back to the 1970's has established the link between principals and school success. Yet, research on how principals are selected has been infrequent, and, the use of merit-based within principal selection processes has been a concern of researchers since the 1950s. This qualitative research study examined the perceptions…

  18. Assessing Multiple Stakeholders' Perceptions of an Effective Principal Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Bon, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing principal evaluation research has failed to include the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. The present research study used focus group interviews to gather data about designing a principal evaluation process that includes these perspectives. Focus groups were conducted with principals, parents, certificated staff, and classified…

  19. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required...

  20. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required...

  1. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required...

  2. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required...

  3. 40 CFR 264.342 - Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal organic hazardous..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Incinerators § 264.342 Principal organic hazardous constituents (POHCs). (a) Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents (POHCs) in the waste feed must be treated to the extent required...

  4. Taking a Distributed Perspective to the School Principal's Workday

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Camburn, Eric M.; Pareja, Amber Stitziel

    2007-01-01

    Focusing on the school principal's day-to-day work, we examine who leads curriculum and instruction- and administration-related activities when the school principal is not leading but participating in the activity. We also explore the prevalence of coperformance of management and leadership activities in the school principal's workday. Looking…

  5. Principals' Perceptions of Instructional Stages Based on Felt Teaching Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMoulin, Donald F.; Guyton, John W.

    Whether principals could identify teaching traits and categorize these consistently as descriptors of instructional stages was studied by asking 145 randomly selected principals in public schools throughout Illinois and Indiana to characterize teacher behavior based on experience. Principals were asked to list instructional stages, yielding 161…

  6. On the Fallibility of Principal Components in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Li, Tenglong

    2017-01-01

    The measurement error in principal components extracted from a set of fallible measures is discussed and evaluated. It is shown that as long as one or more measures in a given set of observed variables contains error of measurement, so also does any principal component obtained from the set. The error variance in any principal component is shown…

  7. Evaluating State Principal Evaluation Plans across the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Recent federal legislation has created strong incentives for states to adopt principal evaluation systems, many of which include new measures of principal effectiveness such as estimates of student growth and changes in school climate. Yet, there has been little research on principal evaluation systems and no state-by-state analysis of the…

  8. Principals' Perceptions of the Importance of Technology in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Hersh C.; Boriack, Anna Witt; Lee, Yuan-Hsuan; MacNeil, Angus

    2013-01-01

    A sample of 311 principals from a large metropolitan area in the southwest region of the U. S. responded to a questionnaire that addressed public school principals' perceptions related to the major functions of technology in their schools. Principals reported that the major functions of technology were: (a) communication, (b) instruction, (c) data…

  9. Principals' Approaches to Hiring, Assigning, Evaluating, and Developing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides key findings from a study of 30 principals working in charter and conventional schools in two northeastern states. It aims to inform policy makers regarding how principals could more positively influence teacher quality. It focuses on the following questions: (1) What influenced how principals hired, assigned, evaluated, and…

  10. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form...

  11. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form...

  12. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used...

  13. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used...

  14. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form...

  15. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used...

  16. 21 CFR 801.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Principal display panel. 801.60 Section 801.60...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Devices § 801.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter devices in package form...

  17. 21 CFR 201.60 - Principal display panel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Principal display panel. 201.60 Section 201.60...: GENERAL LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.60 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel, as it applies to over-the-counter drugs in package form and as used...

  18. Is School Value Added Indicative of Principal Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2016-01-01

    States across the country are developing systems for evaluating school principals on the basis of student achievement growth. A common approach is to hold principals accountable for the value added of their schools--that is, schools' contributions to student achievement growth. In theory, school value added can reflect not only principals'…

  19. The Effective Principal: Perspectives on School Leadership. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Arthur; Greenfield, William

    Unstructured interviews conducted in 1977 with eight respected elementary and secondary school principals revealed their conceptions of the principal's role and of the skills and activities that had gone into their efforts to fill that role. The eight principals are identified in terms of their outstanding characteristics, as revealed through…

  20. District Leadership for Effective Principal Evaluation and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Arrigoni, Jessica; Clifford, Matthew; Yoder, Maureen; Milanowski, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Research demonstrating principals' impact on student learning outcomes has fueled the shift from principals as facilities managers to an emphasis on instructional leadership (Hallinger & Heck, 1996; Leithwood, Louis, Anderson, & Wahlstrom, 2004; Marzano, Waters, & McNulty, 2005). Principals are under increasing pressure to carry out…

  1. Exploring Principal Autonomy in Charter, Private, and Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Linda

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative multiple case study concerned how school principals in charter, private, and public school settings experience autonomy, based on the schools' governance structures and accountability systems. Principal autonomy was defined as the authority that school principals exercise to lead staff effectively, to make decisions based on…

  2. Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective principals are those who boost academic achievement for all students, increase the effectiveness of their teaching staffs, and consistently take leadership actions shown to improve outcomes for students. Therefore principal evaluation systems should place 70% of their weight on the ability of principals to increase student achievement…

  3. Contemporary Challenges and Changes: Principals' Leadership Practices in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michelle; Adams, Donnie; Joo, Mabel Tan Hwee; Muniandy, Vasu; Perera, Corinne Jaqueline; Harris, Alma

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the findings from a contemporary study of principals' leadership practices in Malaysia as part of the 7 System Leadership Study. Recent policy developments within Malaysia have increased principals' accountability and have underlined the importance of the role of the principals in transforming school performance and student…

  4. Del Norte's Study of High School Factors as Related to Placement of Freshmen in the University of New Mexico's Basic Skills Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Jo Ann

    According to a report from the University of New Mexico (UNM) 52 percent of Del Norte High School's (Albuquerque) graduates who entered UNM in the fall of 1979 were placed in at least one Basic Skills class, designed to assist beginning students whose American College Test (ACT) scores showed deficient college preparation in raising their academic…

  5. Principal uranium deposits of the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byers, Virginia P.

    1978-01-01

    The geology of the principal world uranium deposits that have identified uranium reserves and production, as described in published literature, is summarized briefly, including such features as type of deposit, host rock and age of host roc, age of mineralization, depositional environment, and mineralogy. The deposits are located on four maps with the deposit grouped according to age of host rocks?Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic?and further subdivided into types of deposits and size categories. Types of deposits are penecordant sandstone, quartz-pebble conglomerate, vein and vein-type, marine black shale, phosphate deposits, coaly carbonaceous rocks, and pegmatic and alaskitic rocks. The economically most significant deposits of uranium known in 1975 are in quartz-pebble conglomerates and sandstones, which together represented about 75 percent of the world?s total production. The largest deposits occur in quartz-pebble conglomerate at the Elliot Lake-Blind River area, Canada (average grade 0.12 percent U3O8), and at the Witwatersrand basin area in the Republic of South Africa (average grade 0.025 percent U3O8), where uranium is produced principally as a byproduct or coproduct of gold mining; and in medium-grained sandstones in the Colorado Plateau, USA (average grade 0.2 percent U3O8). Other economically significant concentrations are vein, pegmatite or contact metamorphic types, containing smaller but relatively high-grade tonnages and representing about 20 percent of the world?s total production. At Vastergotland (Billingen) and Narke in Sweden, uranium has been recovered on a pilot-plant basis from black shale deposits having an uncommonly high grade for black shale of 0.03 percent U3O8. ?Recoverable reserves? in the near future (40 year period, lifetime of nuclear plants) is on the order of 50,000 metric tons U. Over 50 percent of the world?s total uranium reserves is located on or near the trend of the iron deposits in the Precambrian iron

  6. Wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Mahesh Kumar; Sharma, Shashikant; Leeprechanon, Nopbhorn; Ranjan, Aashish

    2016-03-01

    For the realization of face recognition systems in the static as well as in the real time frame, algorithms such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, linear discriminate analysis, neural networks and genetic algorithms are used for decades. This paper discusses an approach which is a wavelet decomposition based principal component analysis for face recognition. Principal component analysis is chosen over other algorithms due to its relative simplicity, efficiency, and robustness features. The term face recognition stands for identifying a person from his facial gestures and having resemblance with factor analysis in some sense, i.e. extraction of the principal component of an image. Principal component analysis is subjected to some drawbacks, mainly the poor discriminatory power and the large computational load in finding eigenvectors, in particular. These drawbacks can be greatly reduced by combining both wavelet transform decomposition for feature extraction and principal component analysis for pattern representation and classification together, by analyzing the facial gestures into space and time domain, where, frequency and time are used interchangeably. From the experimental results, it is envisaged that this face recognition method has made a significant percentage improvement in recognition rate as well as having a better computational efficiency.

  7. A Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Principal Evaluation Systems: A Tool to Assist in the Development of Principal Evaluation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Hansen, Ulcca Joshni; Wraight, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Across the country, states and districts are designing principal evaluation systems as a means of improving leadership, learning, and school performance. Principal evaluation systems hold potential for supporting leaders' learning and sense of accountability for instructional excellence and student performance. Principal evaluation is also an…

  8. Perceptions of the Principal Evaluation Process and Performance Criteria: A Qualitative Study of the Challenge of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faginski-Stark, Erica; Casavant, Christopher; Collins, William; McCandless, Jason; Tencza, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Recent federal and state mandates have tasked school systems to move beyond principal evaluation as a bureaucratic function and to re-imagine it as a critical component to improve principal performance and compel school renewal. This qualitative study investigated the district leaders' and principals' perceptions of the performance evaluation…

  9. Measuring Principal Performance: How Rigorous Are Commonly Used Principal Performance Assessment Instruments? A Quality School Leadership Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Christopher; Clifford, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This brief reviews the publicly available principal assessments and points superintendents and policy makers toward strong instruments to measure principal performance. Specifically, the measures included in this review are expressly intended to evaluate principal performance and have varying degrees of publicly available evidence of psychometric…

  10. Implementing a Cross-District Principal Mentoring Program: A Human Resources Approach to Developing Midcareer Principals' Leadership Capacities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della Sala, Matthew R.; Klar, Hans W.; Lindle, Jane Clark; Reese, Kenyae L.; Knoeppel, Robert C.; Campbell, Michael; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the key role that principals play in leading schoolwide change, districts' efforts to support principals are often limited, particularly in rural settings. In this article, we report the preliminary findings of a cross-district mentoring program for nine midcareer rural school principals. The collaboratively developed human resource…

  11. Principal VASIMR Results and Present Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Tim W.; Chang Diaz, Franklin R.; Squire, Jared P.; Jacobson, Verlin P.; Chavers, D. Gregory; Carter, Mark D.

    2005-02-01

    Principal achievements of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) project at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) are reviewed and objectives for continuing development are described. The evolution of the VASIMR design from the 1994 concept to the present device is summarized. In its present configuration (VX-10), the VASIMR device consists of a 10 kW helicon plasma source and a 1.5 kW radio-frequency booster stage. At modest power levels, the measured plasma exhaust velocity implies a specific impulse spanning the range of 5,000 - 12,000 seconds using deuterium propellant. Experimental results indicate very high efficiency for the RF booster stage. Given sufficient power, the helicon source approaches 100 % mass utilization (ionization); however, the ionization cost of the present source must be reduced for satisfactory overall system efficiency. Immediate goals are measurement of thrust in the exhaust plume, reduction of ionization cost, and observation of detachment of the plasma from the magnetic field of the thruster.

  12. Incorporating principal component analysis into air quality ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The efficacy of standard air quality model evaluation techniques is becoming compromised as the simulation periods continue to lengthen in response to ever increasing computing capacity. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical approach called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) with the intent of motivating its use by the evaluation community. One of the main objectives of PCA is to identify, through data reduction, the recurring and independent modes of variations (or signals) within a very large dataset, thereby summarizing the essential information of that dataset so that meaningful and descriptive conclusions can be made. In this demonstration, PCA is applied to a simple evaluation metric – the model bias associated with EPA's Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model when compared to weekly observations of sulfate (SO42−) and ammonium (NH4+) ambient air concentrations measured by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet). The advantages of using this technique are demonstrated as it identifies strong and systematic patterns of CMAQ model bias across a myriad of spatial and temporal scales that are neither constrained to geopolitical boundaries nor monthly/seasonal time periods (a limitation of many current studies). The technique also identifies locations (station–grid cell pairs) that are used as indicators for a more thorough diagnostic evaluation thereby hastening and facilitating understanding of the prob

  13. Volumic visual perception: principally novel concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1996-01-01

    The general concept of volumic view (VV) as a universal property of space is introduced. VV exists in every point of the universe where electromagnetic (EM) waves can reach and a point or a quasi-point receiver (detector) of EM waves can be placed. Classification of receivers is given for the first time. They are classified into three main categories: biological, man-made non-biological, and mathematically specified hypothetical receivers. The principally novel concept of volumic perception is introduced. It differs chiefly from the traditional concept which traces back to Euclid and pre-Euclidean times and much later to Leonardo da Vinci and Giovanni Battista della Porta's discoveries and practical stereoscopy as introduced by C. Wheatstone. The basic idea of novel concept is that humans and animals acquire volumic visual data flows in series rather than in parallel. In this case the brain is free from extremely sophisticated real time parallel processing of two volumic visual data flows in order to combine them. Such procedure seems hardly probable even for humans who are unable to combine two primitive static stereoscopic images in one quicker than in a few seconds. Some people are unable to perform this procedure at all.

  14. Compressive-projection principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, James E

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is often central to dimensionality reduction and compression in many applications, yet its data-dependent nature as a transform computed via expensive eigendecomposition often hinders its use in severely resource-constrained settings such as satellite-borne sensors. A process is presented that effectively shifts the computational burden of PCA from the resource-constrained encoder to a presumably more capable base-station decoder. The proposed approach, compressive-projection PCA (CPPCA), is driven by projections at the sensor onto lower-dimensional subspaces chosen at random, while the CPPCA decoder, given only these random projections, recovers not only the coefficients associated with the PCA transform, but also an approximation to the PCA transform basis itself. An analysis is presented that extends existing Rayleigh-Ritz theory to the special case of highly eccentric distributions; this analysis in turn motivates a reconstruction process at the CPPCA decoder that consists of a novel eigenvector reconstruction based on a convex-set optimization driven by Ritz vectors within the projected subspaces. As such, CPPCA constitutes a fundamental departure from traditional PCA in that it permits its excellent dimensionality-reduction and compression performance to be realized in an light-encoder/heavy-decoder system architecture. In experimental results, CPPCA outperforms a multiple-vector variant of compressed sensing for the reconstruction of hyperspectral data.

  15. Clustering method for estimating principal diffusion directions

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Davoodi-Bojd, Esmaeil; Jiang, Quan; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) is a non-invasive tool for the investigation of white matter structure within the brain. However, the traditional tensor model is unable to characterize anisotropies of orders higher than two in heterogeneous areas containing more than one fiber population. To resolve this issue, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) with a large number of diffusion encoding gradients is used along with reconstruction methods such as Q-ball. Using HARDI data, the fiber orientation distribution function (ODF) on the unit sphere is calculated and used to extract the principal diffusion directions (PDDs). Fast and accurate estimation of PDDs is a prerequisite for tracking algorithms that deal with fiber crossings. In this paper, the PDDs are defined as the directions around which the ODF data is concentrated. Estimates of the PDDs based on this definition are less sensitive to noise in comparison with the previous approaches. A clustering approach to estimate the PDDs is proposed which is an extension of fuzzy c-means clustering developed for orientation of points on a sphere. MDL (Minimum description length) principle is proposed to estimate the number of PDDs. Using both simulated and real diffusion data, the proposed method has been evaluated and compared with some previous protocols. Experimental results show that the proposed clustering algorithm is more accurate, more resistant to noise, and faster than some of techniques currently being utilized. PMID:21642005

  16. [The evolution of principal drugs in prescription compatibility].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bing; Shi, Dong-ping

    2009-01-01

    The principal drugs of principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant compatiblity in prescriptions recorded in the ancient literatures had different meaning and quantities. According to the current literatures, Zhuangzi Xu Wugui took the one can cure diseases as the principal drug; The principal, adjuvant, auxiliary and conductant drugs in Shennong Bencao Jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) can be used to differentiate the good and bad of drugs; Yaoxing Lun (Treatise on medicinal property) of Zheng quan (Tang dynasty) stipulated some drugs as principal drugs; Zazhu Bencao of Jiang Xiaowan (Tang dynasty) took the one can cure yin diseases as the principal drugs; Yixue Qiyuan (the origination of medicine) of Zhang Yuansu (Jin dynasty) took the one of maximum dosage as principal drugs; Piwei Lun (Treatise on Spleen and Stomach) of LI gao (Jin dynasty) took the powerful one as the principal drug; The principal drugs in Yi Lun (medicine treatise) of Wang Kentang (Ming dynasty) changed according to different ages. The quantities of principal drugs can had two and three ingredients even took one prescription as principal drug instead of one ingredient.

  17. Is Your School Fit for Literacy? 10 Areas of Action for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Janet S.; Hesbol, Kristina; Corso, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this document is to provide a scheme that may be used by principals, literacy leaders, and school teams to take stock of the literacy health of their school. The assessment may show that the school is fit on most factors, or that a boost is needed in several areas. Most importantly, as with physical fitness, is to determine priorities…

  18. The Perceptions of Urban School Principals Regarding the Education of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoh, Jean-Dominique Herve

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the perceptions and attitudes of principals and headmasters about the inclusion of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), the factors supporting or inhibiting school leaders in their effort to implement inclusive practices, and the approaches they use to initiate, facilitate, support and sustain the…

  19. Career Path Processes as Perceived by African American Female School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to improve our understanding of factors that influence the career paths of African American female school principals in North Carolina. Three pertinent research questions were addressed in this study: (1) What formative experiences influence the career path decisions of African American females who want to become school…

  20. Teachers' Perceptions of Principals' Motivating Language and Public School Climates in Kuwait

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Abdulmuhsen Ayedh

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the overall climate in a school can encourage or deter learning. One significant factor promoting a positive climate is the use of motivational language by school leaders. This article presents empirical evidence of teachers' perceptions of motivational language used by school principals and the effects of this language on…