Science.gov

Sample records for factor principal del

  1. The Principal Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    If classrooms teachers play the lead role in establishing relationships that help students do their personal best, principals are leaders in creating good school environments for adults. Westerberg, former principal of award-winning Littleton High School in Colorado, shares six principles that help create positive schoolwide relationships. Drawing…

  2. The Principal Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerberg, Tim

    2016-01-01

    If classrooms teachers play the lead role in establishing relationships that help students do their personal best, principals are leaders in creating good school environments for adults. Westerberg, former principal of award-winning Littleton High School in Colorado, shares six principles that help create positive schoolwide relationships. Drawing…

  3. Interpersonal Factors That Influence Principals' Rating of Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, William, Jr.; Davis, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    A study to determine whether principals are influenced by attraction factors in teacher evaluations found that principals are affected by nonperformance factors when they evaluate teacher performance. (MD)

  4. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  5. Principals and School Factors that Impact Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieselmann, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined principals and school factors associated with elementary school student achievement. Nine predictor variables were analyzed to determine their impact on student state assessment scores: (a) years of principal experience, (b) years of teaching experience by the principal, (c) years of principal experience at present site, (d)…

  6. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  7. Principal Leadership: Factors Sustaining Successful School Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Cristina Candelaria

    2010-01-01

    The study examines how urban school principals lead schools that make a difference for children in challenging settings. This research delves deeply into the experiences of three urban public school principals in the School District of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania, who used technology as an avenue to improve educational options for their students.…

  8. Data structure characterization of miltispectral data using principal component and principal factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae K.; Mausel, Paul W.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.

    1989-01-01

    Both principal component analysis (PCA) and principal factor analysis (PFA) were used to analyze an experimental multispectral data structure in terms of common and unique variance. Only the common variance of the multispectral data was associated with the principal factor, while higher-order principal components were associated with both common and unique variance. The unique variance was found to represent small spectral variations within each cover type as well as noise vectors, and was most abundant in the lower-order principal components. The lower-order principal components can be useful in research designed to discriminate minor physical variations within features, and to highlight localized change when using multitemporal-multispectral data. Conversely, PFA of the multispectral data provided an insight into a great potential for discriminating basic land-cover types by excluding the unique variance which was related to the noise and minor spectral variations.

  9. Factors Impacting Principals' Career Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorapuru, Wylene M.

    2012-01-01

    Federal legislation and educational programs such as "No Child Left Behind" (2001) and "Race to the Top" (2009) identify school leaders as one of the major catalysts to improving academic achievement. Increasing accountability demands call for replacement of the principal when adequate gains in student achievement are not met,…

  10. Factors Affecting Principal Turnover: A Study of Three Midwestern Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belt, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. This dissertation addresses the problem of principal turnover. Using state and city level administrative data, a study of principals and their schools in greater Kansas City, Missouri, St. Louis, Missouri, and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was conducted with the goal of discovering themes that emerge regarding the factors associated with turnover…

  11. Principals' Perception regarding Factors Affecting the Performance of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akram, Muhammad Javaid; Raza, Syed Ahmad; Khaleeq, Abdur Rehman; Atika, Samrana

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the perception of principals on how the factors of subject mastery, teaching methodology, personal characteristics, and attitude toward students affect the performance of teachers at higher secondary level in the Punjab. All principals of higher secondary level in the Punjab were part of the population of the study. From…

  12. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  13. Job Satisfaction: Factor Analysis of Greek Primary School Principals' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiti, Anna; Fassoulis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that affect the level of job satisfaction that school principals experience and, based on the findings, to suggest policies or techniques for improving it. Design/methodology/approach: Questionnaires were administered to 180 primary school heads in 13 prefectures--one from each of…

  14. Advances in principal factors influencing carbon dioxide adsorption on zeolites

    PubMed Central

    Bonenfant, Danielle; Kharoune, Mourad; Niquette, Patrick; Mimeault, Murielle; Hausler, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We report the advances in the principal structural and experimental factors that might influence the carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites. The CO2 adsorption is principally govern by the inclusion of exchangeable cations (countercations) within the cavities of zeolites, which induce basicity and an electric field, two key parameters for CO2 adsorption. More specifically, these two parameters vary with diverse factors including the nature, distribution and number of exchangeable cations. The structure of framework also determines CO2 adsorption on zeolites by influencing the basicity and electric field in their cavities. In fact, the basicity and electric field usually vary inversely with the Si/Al ratio. Furthermore, the CO2 adsorption might be limited by the size of pores within zeolites and by the carbonates formation during the CO2 chemisorption. The polarity of molecules adsorbed on zeolites represents a very important factor that influences their interaction with the electric field. The adsorbates that have the most great quadrupole moment such as the CO2, might interact strongly with the electric field of zeolites and this favors their adsorption. The pressure, temperature and presence of water seem to be the most important experimental conditions that influence the adsorption of CO2. The CO2 adsorption increases with the gas phase pressure and decreases with the rise of temperature. The presence of water significantly decreases adsorption capacity of cationic zeolites by decreasing strength and heterogeneity of the electric field and by favoring the formation of bicarbonates. The optimization of the zeolites structural characteristics and the experimental conditions might enhance substantially their CO2 adsorption capacity and thereby might give rise to the excellent adsorbents that may be used to capturing the industrial emissions of CO2. PMID:27877925

  15. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  16. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  17. Factors Influencing Principals' Retirement Decisions: A Southern US Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reames, Ellen H.; Kochan, Frances K.; Zhu, Linxiang

    2014-01-01

    This study, conducted in one state in the United States, replicated similar research from over a decade ago to compare principal demographics and reasons for remaining or leaving the profession. Demographics have trended with the nation. Principals are older, more diverse and are largely eligible for retirement within the next five years. Similar…

  18. Factors Influencing Rural Elementary School Principals' Decisions Concerning Building-Based Special Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Terri B.

    2009-01-01

    The decisions rural elementary school principals make related to special education programming at their building sites are influenced by a variety of factors. This study employed a qualitative research methodology to investigate the perspectives of four rural elementary school principals concerning the decision-making processes they use as they…

  19. Factors Affecting the Transformational Leadership Role of Principals in Implementing ICT in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Siraj, Saedah

    2012-01-01

    Leadership is an important factor in the effective implementation of technology in schools. This study examines the transformational leadership role of principals to determine whether transformational leadership role of principals in ICT implementation in schools is influenced by the computer competence, level of computer use, and professional…

  20. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  1. Impact of the principal stroke risk factors on human movements.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Plamondon, Réjean

    2011-08-01

    In the context of the occidental population aging, new preventive approaches must be developed to reduce the disability related to brain stroke in the elderly. The stroke susceptibility assessment based on the analysis of human movements is one of the potential avenues needing investigation. As a first step in this direction, this paper reports results on the relationship linking the most important stroke risk factors to some characteristics of human movement. Various features were extracted using the Sigma-Lognormal model on 1440 stereotypical triangular movements performed by 120 subjects having different health conditions. These features were combined through a linear modeling to maximize the predictability of presence of stroke risk factors in the studied cohort. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under this curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the clinical significance of this relationship. Using only the information derived from the movements, the six tested risk factors (cardiac problems, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, and cigarette smoking) can be predicted with an AUC ranging from .68 to .82. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-02-22

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  3. Violent Children in the Schoolhouse: One Elementary Principal's Experience with Risk Factors and Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cathie E.

    2002-01-01

    Elementary principal describes experience working with violent-prone children. Describes steps in dealing with violence-prone children: Create a support team, schedule a transition meeting, evaluate risk factors, prepare a transition plan, notify staff members, and create a behavior plan, the components of which include behavior, levels plan,…

  4. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Assistant Principals' Decisions to Pursue the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Amy Lowman

    2013-01-01

    Educational literature provides evidence that there are numerous steps school districts must consider in order to recruit and grow qualified individuals for the position of the campus principal. However, it also indicates that there are a number of factors that contribute to the decision-making process that future leaders take in order to decide…

  5. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Assistant Principals' Decisions to Pursue the Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Amy Lowman

    2013-01-01

    Educational literature provides evidence that there are numerous steps school districts must consider in order to recruit and grow qualified individuals for the position of the campus principal. However, it also indicates that there are a number of factors that contribute to the decision-making process that future leaders take in order to decide…

  6. The Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis in Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Dailey, Rene; Lemus, Daisy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the distinct purposes of principal components analysis (PCA) and exploratory factor analysis (EFA), using two data sets as examples. Reviews the use of each technique in three major communication journals: "Communication Monographs,""Human Communication Research," and "Communication Research." Finds that the…

  7. WALLY 1 ...A large, principal components regression program with varimax rotation of the factor weight matrix

    Treesearch

    James R. Wallis

    1965-01-01

    Written in Fortran IV and MAP, this computer program can handle up to 120 variables, and retain 40 principal components. It can perform simultaneous regression of up to 40 criterion variables upon the varimax rotated factor weight matrix. The columns and rows of all output matrices are labeled by six-character alphanumeric names. Data input can be from punch cards or...

  8. Principal Components versus Principle Axis Factors: When Will We Ever Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Vidal-Brown, Sherry A.

    Analysts differ quite heatedly over the use of principal components rather than principle axis factor analysis. The difference between the two approaches involves the entries used on the diagonal of the matrix of associations that is analyzed. This paper uses an actual data set (N=539; variables =98) to illustrate that these two methods converge…

  9. Factors affecting elementary principals' and teachers' decisions to support outdoor field trips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspar, Michael Joseph

    Outdoor field trips are recommended in science education reform, yet they are not frequently taken. Barriers may prevent elementary public school teachers from participating in outdoor field trips (Mirka, 1973; Falk & Balling, 1979; Ham, 1988; Orion, 1993). To determine what would increase students' attendance at a nature preserve, factors that may affect elementary private and public school principals' and teachers' decisions to support field trips were identified and compared. Private school principals supported field trips. They believed field trips were safe, and easy to arrange, and that the field trips helped students experience culture in the community. Experienced public school principals who were supportive and believed field trips should be required believed field trips fit into the teacher's lesson plan and were taken for enrichment. Public school principals who were less experienced with field trips believed field trips should be extracurricular. They believed that field trips served as a reward, and that they needed more information. They did not support field trips. Private school teachers believed that field trips did not have overly demanding administrative concerns. They believed field trips were safe, easy to arrange, and were supported by their administrator. Public school teachers who supported field trips and believed field trips should be required were white, female, experienced, and older. They believed that field trips were safe, easy to arrange, enjoyable, and that they had enough help to conduct trips. Public school teachers who may not support trips had administrative concerns, and they did not believe field trips met the needs of students. These were male, white or non-white, young or middle-aged, and less experienced. They may believe field trips are a waste of time and money. They believed they had a nonsupportive administrator. Money for transportation was a barrier for older public school teachers and principals. No improvement on

  10. A principal factor analysis to characterize agricultural exposures among Nebraska veterans.

    PubMed

    Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D

    2017-03-01

    Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years. Participant characteristics were: 98.1% were white males with a mean age 65±8 (SD) years and 39.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The final model included four factors and explained 16.6% of the variance in the exposure data. Factor 1 was a heterogeneous factor; however, Factor 2 was exclusively composed of exposure to livestock such as hogs, dairy and poultry. Factor 3 included exposures from jobs on or off the farm such as wood dust, mineral dust, asbestos and spray paint. Crop exposure loaded exclusively in Factor 4 and included lifetime hours of exposure and maximum number of acres farmed in the participants' lifetime. The factors in the final model were interpretable and consistent with farming practices.

  11. A principal factor analysis to characterize agricultural exposures among Nebraska veterans

    PubMed Central

    Weissenburger-Moser, Lisa; Meza, Jane; Yu, Fang; Shiyanbola, Oyewale; Romberger, Debra J; LeVan, Tricia D

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural workers are at an increased risk of developing chronic respiratory disorders. Accurate estimation of long-term agricultural exposures based on questionnaires has been used to improve the validity of epidemiologic investigations and subsequent evaluation of the association between agricultural exposures and chronic diseases. Our aim was to use principal factor analysis (PFA) to distill exposure data into essential variables characterizing long-term agricultural exposures. This is a cross-sectional study of veterans between the ages of 40 and 80 years and who worked on a farm for ≥2 years. Participant characteristics were: 98.1% were white males with a mean age 65±8 (SD) years and 39.8% had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The final model included four factors and explained 16.6% of the variance in the exposure data. Factor 1 was a heterogeneous factor; however, Factor 2 was exclusively composed of exposure to livestock such as hogs, dairy and poultry. Factor 3 included exposures from jobs on or off the farm such as wood dust, mineral dust, asbestos and spray paint. Crop exposure loaded exclusively in Factor 4 and included lifetime hours of exposure and maximum number of acres farmed in the participants' lifetime. The factors in the final model were interpretable and consistent with farming practices. PMID:27049536

  12. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  13. The Relationship among Principals' Emotional Intelligence Skills with Respect to School Accountability Ratings and Selected Demographic Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labby, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among principals' emotional intelligence skills, school accountability ratings, and selected demographic factors. Method: The sample was comprised of Texas public school principals from elementary, middle school/junior high, and high schools and their school accountability…

  14. A feasibility study on age-related factors of wrist pulse using principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang-Han Bae; Young Ju Jeon; Sanghun Lee; Jaeuk U Kim

    2016-08-01

    Various analysis methods for examining wrist pulse characteristics are needed for accurate pulse diagnosis. In this feasibility study, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to observe age-related factors of wrist pulse from various analysis parameters. Forty subjects in the age group of 20s and 40s were participated, and their wrist pulse signal and respiration signal were acquired with the pulse tonometric device. After pre-processing of the signals, twenty analysis parameters which have been regarded as values reflecting pulse characteristics were calculated and PCA was performed. As a results, we could reduce complex parameters to lower dimension and age-related factors of wrist pulse were observed by combining-new analysis parameter derived from PCA. These results demonstrate that PCA can be useful tool for analyzing wrist pulse signal.

  15. Common factor analysis versus principal component analysis: choice for symptom cluster research.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Ju

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine differences between two factor analytical methods and their relevance for symptom cluster research: common factor analysis (CFA) versus principal component analysis (PCA). Literature was critically reviewed to elucidate the differences between CFA and PCA. A secondary analysis (N = 84) was utilized to show the actual result differences from the two methods. CFA analyzes only the reliable common variance of data, while PCA analyzes all the variance of data. An underlying hypothetical process or construct is involved in CFA but not in PCA. PCA tends to increase factor loadings especially in a study with a small number of variables and/or low estimated communality. Thus, PCA is not appropriate for examining the structure of data. If the study purpose is to explain correlations among variables and to examine the structure of the data (this is usual for most cases in symptom cluster research), CFA provides a more accurate result. If the purpose of a study is to summarize data with a smaller number of variables, PCA is the choice. PCA can also be used as an initial step in CFA because it provides information regarding the maximum number and nature of factors. In using factor analysis for symptom cluster research, several issues need to be considered, including subjectivity of solution, sample size, symptom selection, and level of measure.

  16. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  17. Measurement Invariance of Second-Order Factor Model of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Wubbena, Zane; Stewart, Trae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factor structure and the measurement invariance of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) across gender of K-12 school principals (n=6,317) in the USA. Design/methodology/approach: Nine first-order factor models and four second-order factor models were tested using confirmatory…

  18. Identifying principal risk factors for the initiation of adolescent smoking behaviors: the significance of psychological reactance.

    PubMed

    Miller, Claude H; Burgoon, Michael; Grandpre, Joseph R; Alvaro, Eusebio M

    2006-01-01

    An in-school youth survey for a major state anti-tobacco media campaign was conducted with 1,831 students (Grades 6-12) from 70 randomly selected classrooms throughout the state. Tobacco users accounted for nearly 25% of the sample. Pretest questionnaires assessed demographic variables, tobacco use, and various other risk factors. Several predictors of adolescents' susceptibility to tobacco use, including prior experimentation with tobacco, school performance, parental smoking status, parents' level of education, parental communication, parental relationship satisfaction, best friend's smoking status, prevalence of smokers in social environment, self-perceived potential to smoke related to peer pressure, and psychological reactance, were examined using discriminant analysis and logistic regression to identify the factors most useful in classifying adolescents as either high-risk or low-risk for smoking uptake. Results corroborate findings in the prevention literature indicating that age, prior experimentation, and having friends who smoke are among the principal predictors of smoking risk. New evidence is presented indicating that psychological reactance also should be considered as an important predictor of adolescent smoking initiation. The utility of producing antismoking messages informed by an awareness of the key risk factors-particularly psychological reactance-is discussed both in terms of the targeting and design of anti-tobacco campaigns.

  19. Principal Factors for High Performance of Odor and Methane degrading Biocover using Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, H.; Yun, J.; O, G. C.; Ryu, H. W.; Jeon, J. M.; Cho, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is 25 times more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide and plays an important role in global warming. Landfills are one of the biggest methane sources and have emitted 37% of anthropogenic methane in Korea. Applying biocovers in landfills is known to be efficient for the simultaneous mitigation of methane as well as odor which occurs severe civil claims. In this study, three pilot-scale biocovers (2.5mx5mx1m) were constructed in a sanitary landfill at Gwangyang, Korea to establish the optimal operational conditions of biocover. All biocovers are filled with soil, EG microbial agent, food waste compost, and perlite with different combination. Pilot-scale biocovers have been operated since January in this year for simultaneous removal of odor and methane. The concentrations of methane and odors such as ammonia, H2S, methyl mercaptane, methylsulfide, dimetyl disulfide, i-valeraldehyde, and styrene were measured at the inlet and outlet of biocovers each month using GC and HPLC for removal performance evaluation. The biocover with highest removal efficiency eliminated 98.4% of odor and 100.0% of methane. All removal efficiencies of odor measured during experiment are in 81.1 98.4% range, and those of methane are in 3.6 100.0%. Three months later after biocover construction, all biocovers with mixed packing material showed better methane degradation performance than the biocovers packed only with soil. The packing materials of biocovers were sampled during winter (January), spring (April) and summer (July), and their microbial communities were examined based on 16S rDNA using 454 pyrosequencing to detect microbial factors that affects the removal efficiency. Methanotrophs which are known as methane-degradable bacteria take 10 25% of microbial community in biocovers, and most of those found in biocovers are type methanothrophs. Network analysis is performed and principal factors for performance improvement of biocovers are derived. Based on this study, well

  20. Heritable patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Tcuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Polk, Deborah E; Wendell, Steve; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-03-09

    Dental caries is the result of a complex interplay among environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors, with distinct patterns of decay likely due to specific etiologies. Therefore, global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index, may not be optimal for identifying risk factors that manifest as specific decay patterns, especially if the risk factors such as genetic susceptibility loci have small individual effects. We used two methods to extract patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to generate novel phenotypes with which to explore the genetic regulation of caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not by intra-oral examination for 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years from 664 biological families. Principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori surface classifications, were applied to our data. The three strongest caries patterns identified by PCA recaptured variation represented by DMFS index (correlation, r = 0.97), pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.95), and smooth surface caries (r = 0.89). However, together, these three patterns explained only 37% of the variability in the data, indicating that a priori caries measures are insufficient for fully quantifying caries variation. In comparison, the first pattern identified by FA was strongly correlated with pit and fissure surface caries (r = 0.81), but other identified patterns, including a second pattern representing caries of the maxillary incisors, were not representative of any previously defined caries indices. Some patterns identified by PCA and FA were heritable (h(2) = 30-65%, p = 0.043-0.006), whereas other patterns were not, indicating both genetic and non-genetic etiologies of individual decay patterns. This study demonstrates the use of decay patterns as novel phenotypes to assist in understanding the multifactorial nature of dental caries.

  1. The actinobacterial transcription factor RbpA binds to the principal sigma subunit of RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Tabib-Salazar, Aline; Liu, Bing; Doughty, Philip; Lewis, Richard A; Ghosh, Somadri; Parsy, Marie-Laure; Simpson, Peter J; O'Dwyer, Kathleen; Matthews, Steve J; Paget, Mark S

    2013-06-01

    RbpA is a small non-DNA-binding transcription factor that associates with RNA polymerase holoenzyme and stimulates transcription in actinobacteria, including Streptomyces coelicolor and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. RbpA seems to show specificity for the vegetative form of RNA polymerase as opposed to alternative forms of the enzyme. Here, we explain the basis of this specificity by showing that RbpA binds directly to the principal σ subunit in these organisms, but not to more diverged alternative σ factors. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that, although differing in their requirement for structural zinc, the RbpA orthologues from S. coelicolor and M. tuberculosis share a common structural core domain, with extensive, apparently disordered, N- and C-terminal regions. The RbpA-σ interaction is mediated by the C-terminal region of RbpA and σ domain 2, and S. coelicolor RbpA mutants that are defective in binding σ are unable to stimulate transcription in vitro and are inactive in vivo. Given that RbpA is essential in M. tuberculosis and critical for growth in S. coelicolor, these data support a model in which RbpA plays a key role in the σ cycle in actinobacteria.

  2. Pre-Service Preparation, In-Service Development, and Individual Attainment: Factors in Principal Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yslas, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Principals need to be leaders who set and communicate a vision for learning, understand organization development, know how to effect change, are able to help teachers grow in their craft, and can interpret and utilize data for school improvement. The literature has shown disconnect between principal preparation and actual practices needed for the…

  3. Why Principals Leave: Risk Factors for Premature Departure in the Netherlands Compared for Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, M. L.; van Eck, E.; Vermeulen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The shortage of school leaders, mainly caused by the growing complexity of the job is steadily growing in recent years. This study reports on the results of a comparative empirical study into the causes of premature departure for male and female principals in primary and secondary education. Principals who have experienced premature departure…

  4. Pre-Service Preparation, In-Service Development, and Individual Attainment: Factors in Principal Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yslas, Tracy M.

    2016-01-01

    Principals need to be leaders who set and communicate a vision for learning, understand organization development, know how to effect change, are able to help teachers grow in their craft, and can interpret and utilize data for school improvement. The literature has shown disconnect between principal preparation and actual practices needed for the…

  5. Latent profile analysis and principal axis factoring of the DSM-5 dissociative subtype

    PubMed Central

    Frewen, Paul A.; Brown, Matthew F. D.; Steuwe, Carolin; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective A dissociative subtype has been recognized based on the presence of experiences of depersonalization and derealization in relation to DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissociative subtype has not been assessed in a community sample in relation to the revised DSM-5 PTSD criteria. Moreover, the 20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) currently does not assess depersonalization and derealization. Method We therefore evaluated two items for assessing depersonalization and derealization in 557 participants recruited online who endorsed PTSD symptoms of at least moderate severity on the PCL-5. Results A five-class solution identified two PTSD classes who endorsed dissociative experiences associated with either 1) severe or 2) moderate PTSD symptom severity (D-PTSD classes). Those in the severe dissociative class were particularly likely to endorse histories of childhood physical and sexual abuse. A principal axis factor analysis of the symptom list identified six latent variables: 1) Reexperiencing, 2) Emotional Numbing/Anhedonia, 3) Dissociation, 4) Negative Alterations in Cognition & Mood, 5) Avoidance, and 6) Hyperarousal. Conclusions The present results further support the presence of a dissociative subtype within the DSM-5 criteria for PTSD. PMID:25854673

  6. Classification of peacock feather reflectance using principal component analysis similarity factors from multispectral imaging data.

    PubMed

    Medina, José M; Díaz, José A; Vukusic, Pete

    2015-04-20

    Iridescent structural colors in biology exhibit sophisticated spatially-varying reflectance properties that depend on both the illumination and viewing angles. The classification of such spectral and spatial information in iridescent structurally colored surfaces is important to elucidate the functional role of irregularity and to improve understanding of color pattern formation at different length scales. In this study, we propose a non-invasive method for the spectral classification of spatial reflectance patterns at the micron scale based on the multispectral imaging technique and the principal component analysis similarity factor (PCASF). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach and its component methods by detailing its use in the study of the angle-dependent reflectance properties of Pavo cristatus (the common peacock) feathers, a species of peafowl very well known to exhibit bright and saturated iridescent colors. We show that multispectral reflectance imaging and PCASF approaches can be used as effective tools for spectral recognition of iridescent patterns in the visible spectrum and provide meaningful information for spectral classification of the irregularity of the microstructure in iridescent plumage.

  7. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  8. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: Principal components and factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Polk, Deborah E.; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T.; Weeks, Daniel E.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multi-factorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantified due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data in order to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Methods Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1,068 participants aged 18 to 75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e., those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. Results The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e., comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries, and (iii

  9. Demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral factors affecting patterns of tooth decay in the permanent dentition: principal components and factor analyses.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Polk, Deborah E; Feingold, Eleanor; Wang, Xiaojing; Cuenco, Karen T; Weeks, Daniel E; DeSensi, Rebecca S; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Marazita, Mary L

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries of the permanent dentition is a multifactorial disease resulting from the complex interplay of endogenous and environmental risk factors. The disease is not easily quantitated due to the innumerable possible combinations of carious lesions across individual tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition. Global measures of decay, such as the DMFS index (which was developed for surveillance applications), may not be optimal for studying the epidemiology of dental caries because they ignore the distinct patterns of decay across the dentition. We hypothesize that specific risk factors may manifest their effects on specific tooth surfaces leading to patterns of decay that can be identified and studied. In this study, we utilized two statistical methods of extracting patterns of decay from surface-level caries data to create novel phenotypes with which to study the risk factors affecting dental caries. Intra-oral dental examinations were performed on 1068 participants aged 18-75 years to assess dental caries. The 128 tooth surfaces of the permanent dentition were scored as carious or not and used as input for principal components analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA), two methods of identifying underlying patterns without a priori knowledge of the patterns. Demographic (age, sex, birth year, race/ethnicity, and educational attainment), anthropometric (height, body mass index, waist circumference), endogenous (saliva flow), and environmental (tooth brushing frequency, home water source, and home water fluoride) risk factors were tested for association with the caries patterns identified by PCA and FA, as well as DMFS, for comparison. The ten strongest patterns (i.e. those that explain the most variation in the data set) extracted by PCA and FA were considered. The three strongest patterns identified by PCA reflected (i) global extent of decay (i.e. comparable to DMFS index), (ii) pit and fissure surface caries and (iii) smooth surface caries, respectively. The

  10. Factors That Determine the Career Stability of Assistant Principals in a Large Urban School District in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Danielle Felder

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the career stability (career choices assistant principals intend to make over the next five to ten years) in a large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States in order to identify factors significantly related to their career aspirations. The study invited a purposive sample (n = 177) of assistant…

  11. Factors That Determine the Career Stability of Assistant Principals in a Large Urban School District in the Southeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Danielle Felder

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the career stability (career choices assistant principals intend to make over the next five to ten years) in a large, urban school district in the southeastern region of the United States in order to identify factors significantly related to their career aspirations. The study invited a purposive sample (n = 177) of assistant…

  12. Examination of factors associated with the mental health status of principals.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Dermer, Stanley W; Chau, Nancy; Lowrey, Scott; Mawson, Susan; Bell, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The rise in globalization, new technologies and changes in workforce demographics have created new work environments. As a result, countries around the world are seeking to restructure their educational systems to better prepare future generations for the challenges that they will face in this new labour market. These trends have also introduced new and increased demands on the educational sector and especially school principals who are responsible for the quality of education in schools. This study examines the association between mental health status and self-reported working conditions of principals. Our findings highlight potential mental health problems among principals. The results provide evidence that their satisifaction with their work characteristics are associated with their mental health status. They also indicate areas in which school boards may be well positioned to address some of the potential organizational difficulties encountered by this group.

  13. Communication Factors as Predictors of Relationship Quality: A National Study of Principals and School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duslak, Mark; Geier, Brett

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of meeting frequency, structured meeting times, annual agreements, and demographic variables on school counselor perceptions of their relationship with their building principal. Results of a regression analysis indicated that meeting frequency accounted for 26.7% of the variance in school counselor-reported…

  14. PAH contents in road dust on principal roads collected nationwide in Japan and their influential factors.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Noriatsu; Akagi, Yuma; Kindaichi, Tomonori; Ohashi, Akiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four road dust samples were collected from principal roads (n = 37) and residential roads (n = 17) nationwide in Japan from March 2010 to November 2012. Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and ignition loss (IL) were determined. The total PAH contents ranged from 62 to 6,325 ng g(-1) with a geometric mean of 484 ng g(-1). The IL ranged from 0.8 to 17% with a mean of 6%. The PAH contents were correlated with the IL contents, and the IL contents were dependent on the population density. From the PAH pattern analysis, the PAHs from road dust are considered to be mainly from diesel emissions.

  15. A principal component analysis of postinjury viscoelastic assays: clotting factor depletion versus fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Chin, Theresa L; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Chapman, Michael P; Stringham, John R; Ramos, Christopher R; Banerjee, Anirban; Sauaia, Angela

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms driving trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) remain to be defined, and its therapy demands an orchestrated replacement of specific blood products. Thrombelastography (TEG) is a tool to guide the TIC multicomponent therapy. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical approach that identifies variable clusters; thus, we hypothesize that PCA can identify specific combinations of TEG-generated values that reflect TIC mechanisms. Adult trauma patients admitted from September 2010 to October 2013 for whom a massive transfusion protocol was activated were included. Rapid TEG values obtained within the first 6 hours after injury were included in the PCA. PCA components with an eigenvalue >1 were retained, and, within components, variable loadings (equivalent to correlation coefficients) >|60| were considered significant. Component scorings for each patient were calculated and clinical characteristics of patients with high and low scores were compared. Of 98 enrolled patients, 67% were male and 70% suffered blunt trauma. Median age was 41 years (interquartile range 28-55) and median Injury Severity Score was 31.5 (interquartile range 24-43). PCA identified three principal components (PCs) that together explained 93% of the overall variance. PC1 reflected global coagulopathy with depletion of platelets and fibrinogen whereas PC3 indicated hyperfibrinolysis. PC2 may represent endogenous anticoagulants such as the activation of protein C. PCA suggests depletion coagulopathy is independent from fibrinolytic coagulopathy. Furthermore, the distribution of mortality suggests that low levels of fibrinolysis may be beneficial in a select group of injured patients. These data underscore the potential of risk for concurrent presumptive treatment for preserved depletion coagulopathy and possible fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effective Principal, Effective School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipham, James M.

    In summarizing findings on the principal's role in the school, this monograph assumes that the principal is a pivotal figure in the school and is the one who most affects the quality of teacher performance and student achievement. The author concludes that the studies reviewed demonstrate that the principal is a key factor in the success of the…

  17. Efficacy and Academic Emphasis: A Leadership Factor in Elementary School Principals, and Its Relationship to Hope, Resilience, Optimism, and View of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the construct of academic optimism at the principal level and examine possible explanatory variables for the factors that emerged from the principal academic optimism scale. Academic optimism contains efficacy, trust and academic emphasis (Hoy, Tarter & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006). It has been studied at the…

  18. Efficacy and Academic Emphasis: A Leadership Factor in Elementary School Principals, and Its Relationship to Hope, Resilience, Optimism, and View of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the construct of academic optimism at the principal level and examine possible explanatory variables for the factors that emerged from the principal academic optimism scale. Academic optimism contains efficacy, trust and academic emphasis (Hoy, Tarter & Woolfolk Hoy, 2006). It has been studied at the…

  19. Use of principal factor analysis to generate a corn silage fermentative quality index to rank well- or poorly preserved forages.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Bruschi, Sara; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2016-03-30

    To investigate corn silage fermentative quality, a principal factor analysis was carried out on a database consisting of 196 corn silages sampled from the core, lateral and apical parts of silo feed-out face and characterised by 36 variables. Eleven principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Two PCs were related to chemical and digestibility variables; four PCs were characterised by end-products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic or aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins produced by Penicillium roqueforti or by Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium spp., while three PCs explained ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silages. Lower (P < 0.05) yeast or mould counts and greater (P < 0.05) aerobic stability were measured in core than in peripheral samples. Excluding PCs related to ensiling procedures, other PCs were able to predict microbiological counts, aerobic stability or biogenic amine content as verified by multiple linear regression analysis. Based on these results, several corn silage quality index calculations were computed by using a summative equation approach in which different PCs as well as diverse relative weights multiplying each PCs were combined. To compute definitive index calculation, only PCs explaining clostridia, heterolactic and homolactic fermentations were used with relative weights of 30%, 50% and 20%. The new proposed fermentative quality index was highly correlated to parameters related to corn silage fermentative quality, such as microbiological counts, aerobic stability or biogenic amines and it properly discriminated well- and poorly preserved forages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Thermal Interaction Between Molten Metal Jet and Sodium Pool: Effect of Principal Factors Governing Fragmentation of the Jet

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Izumi; Sugiyama, Ken-Ichiro; Ueda, Nobuyuki

    2005-02-15

    To clarify the effects of the principal factors that govern the thermal fragmentation of a molten metallic fuel jet in the course of fuel-coolant interaction, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents (CDAs) for metallic fuel fast reactors, basic experiments were carried out using molten metallic fuel simulants (copper and silver) and a sodium pool.Fragmentation of a molten metal jet with a solid crust was caused by internal pressure produced by the boiling of sodium, which is locally entrapped inside the jet due to hydrodynamic motion between the jet and the coolant. The superheating and the latent heat of fusion of the jet are the principal factors governing this type of thermal fragmentation. On the other hand, the effect of the initial sodium temperature is regarded as negligible in the case of thermal conditions expected to result in CDAs for practical metallic fuel cores. Based on the fragmentation data for several kinds of jets (Cu, Ag, SUS, U, and U-5 wt% Zr alloy), an empirical correlation is proposed that is applicable to the calculation of a mass median diameter of fragments produced by the thermal fragmentation of the jet with a solid crust under low ambient Weber number conditions.

  1. Interim Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beem, Kate

    2003-01-01

    An interim principal can buy a school district time to land a permanent successor. Also lists where to find an interim principal; the interim's steadying influence; Bob Wallace's wild ride as an interim principal in post-retirement; and Roger Prosise's rationale for turning to an interim appointment. (MLF)

  2. [The prevalence of the principal cardiovascular risk factors in the population of the Azores].

    PubMed

    Schneider, V; Cruz, J; Lopes, D; Bruges, G; Paisana, J; Gomes, F; Gil, C

    1995-12-01

    to characterize the high mortality rate by ischemic heart disease in Azores, by evaluating the main coronary heart disease risk factors prevalence in the population. sample study referring the population of 5 islands: 37 counties. Aleatory choose in the electoral lists. the selected individuals were convocated by mail to show up at the Hospital for evaluation. 1089 individuals selected by aleatory choose from the electoral lists. the sample was stratified regarding rural (R) and urban (U), by sex feminine (F) and masculine (M), age 20-40 and 40 to 60 years old. All of them were determined three values of blood pressure, and was taken for exact value the medium of the three, inquired the smoking habits and serum lipids were determined. We considered risk factors (RF); blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg, total cholesterol > 200 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 35 mg/dl, triglycerides > 180 mg/dl and smoking habits were stratified in three scores: 1: 1-10, 2: 11-20, and 3: more than 20 cigarettes a day. total prevalences; HBP 20.4%, smoking habits 33%, total hypercholesterolemia 47.3%, low HDL cholesterol 17.4% and triglycerides 30.5%. the values found for total cholesterol, triglycerides and smoking habits were high and superior to the national medium and to those found in reference studies. Preventive strategies are pointed out.

  3. Examining parents' ratings of middle-school students' academic self-regulation using principal axis factoring analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy P; Cleary, Timothy J; Lui, Angela M

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of a parent rating scale, the Self-Regulation Strategy Inventory: Parent Rating Scale (SRSI-PRS), using a sample of 451 parents of sixth- and seventh-grade middle-school students. Principal axis factoring (PAF) analysis revealed a 3-factor structure for the 23-item SRSI-PRS: (a) Managing Behavior and Learning (α = .92), (b) Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors (α = .76), and (c) Managing Environment (α = .84). The majority of the observed relations between these 3 subscales, and the SRSI-SR, student motivation beliefs, and student mathematics grades were statistically significant and in the small to medium range. After controlling for various student variables and motivation indices of parental involvement, 2 SRSI-PRS factors (Managing Behavior and Learning, Maladaptive Regulatory Behaviors) reliably predicted students' achievement in their mathematics course. This study provides initial support for the validity and reliability of the SRSI-PRS and underscores the advantages of obtaining parental ratings of students' SRL behaviors.

  4. Elf5 is a principal cell lineage specific transcription factor in the kidney that contributes to Aqp2 and Avpr2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Grassmeyer, Justin; Mukherjee, Malini; deRiso, Jennifer; Hettinger, Casey; Bailey, Monica; Sinha, Satrajit; Visvader, Jane E; Zhao, Haotian; Fogarty, Eric; Surendran, Kameswaran

    2017-04-01

    The mammalian kidney collecting ducts are critical for water, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis and develop as a branched network of tubular structures composed of principal cells intermingled with intercalated cells. The intermingled nature of the different collecting duct cell types has made it challenging to identify unique and critical factors that mark and/or regulate the development of the different collecting duct cell lineages. Here we report that the canonical Notch signaling pathway components, RBPJ and Presinilin1 and 2, are involved in patterning the mouse collecting duct cell fates by maintaining a balance between principal cell and intercalated cell fates. The relatively reduced number of principal cells in Notch-signaling-deficient kidneys offered a unique genetic leverage to identify critical principal cell-enriched factors by transcriptional profiling. Elf5, which codes for an ETS transcription factor, is one such gene that is down-regulated in kidneys with Notch-signaling-deficient collecting ducts. Additionally, Elf5 is among the earliest genes up regulated by ectopic expression of activated Notch1 in the developing collecting ducts. In the kidney, Elf5 is first expressed early within developing collecting ducts and remains on in mature principal cells. Lineage tracing of Elf5-expressing cells revealed that they are committed to the principal cell lineage by as early as E16.5. Over-expression of ETS Class IIa transcription factors, including Elf5, Elf3 and Ehf, increase the transcriptional activity of the proximal promoters of Aqp2 and Avpr2 in cultured ureteric duct cell lines. Conditional inactivation of Elf5 in the developing collecting ducts results in a small but significant reduction in the expression levels of Aqp2 and Avpr2 genes. We have identified Elf5 as an early maker of the principal cell lineage that contributes to the expression of principal cell specific genes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modified kernel principal component analysis using double-weighted local outlier factor and its application to nonlinear process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaogang; Wang, Lei

    2017-10-07

    Traditional kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) based nonlinear process monitoring method may not perform well because its Gaussian distribution assumption is often violated in the real industrial processes. To overcome this deficiency, this paper proposes a modified KPCA method based on double-weighted local outlier factor (DWLOF-KPCA). In order to avoid the assumption of specific data distribution, local outlier factor (LOF) is introduced to construct two LOF-based monitoring statistics, which are used to substitute for the traditional T(2) and SPE statistics, respectively. To provide better online monitoring performance, a double-weighted LOF method is further designed, which assigns the weights for each component to highlight the key components with significant fault information, and uses the moving window to weight the historical statistics for reducing the drastic fluctuations in the monitoring results. Finally, simulations on a numerical example and the Tennessee Eastman (TE) benchmark process are used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed DWLOF-KPCA method. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of the processing factor for pesticides in apple juice by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Martin, L; Mezcua, M; Ferrer, C; Gil Garcia, M D; Malato, O; Fernandez-Alba, A R

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to establish a mathematical function that correlates pesticide residue levels in apple juice with the levels of the pesticides applied on the raw fruit, taking into account some of their physicochemical properties such as water solubility, the octanol/water partition coefficient, the organic carbon partition coefficient, vapour pressure and density. A mixture of 12 pesticides was applied to an apple tree; apples were collected after 10 days of application. After harvest, apples were treated with a mixture of three post-harvest pesticides and the fruits were then processed in order to obtain apple juice following a routine industrial process. The pesticide residue levels in the apple samples were analysed using two multi-residue methods based on LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS. The concentration of pesticides was determined in samples derived from the different steps of processing. The processing factors (the coefficient between residue level in the processed commodity and the residue level in the commodity to be processed) obtained for the full juicing process were found to vary among the different pesticides studied. In order to investigate the relationships between the levels of pesticide residue found in apple juice samples and their physicochemical properties, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using two sets of samples (one of them using experimental data obtained in this work and the other including the data taken from the literature). In both cases the correlation was found between processing factors of pesticides in the apple juice and the negative logarithms (base 10) of the water solubility, octanol/water partition coefficient and organic carbon partition coefficient. The linear correlation between these physicochemical properties and the processing factor were established using a multiple linear regression technique.

  7. Principal Connection/How Principals Spark Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Principals can easily observe when a class is engaged in learning. Engaged students are learning because the content or activity feels "relevant" and "interesting," and they're achieving "success" in whatever they're doing. These three factors of engagement don't happen by chance. It happens when talented teachers…

  8. Principal Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert

    2001-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that school leaders, throughout all stages of their careers, can benefit from a mentoring system in which a seasoned leader helps the protege combine theory and practice with experience. This research roundup reviews works that provide support for principal mentoring and share strategies for establishing mentoring…

  9. Turnaround Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration has grand hopes for turning around the nation's lowest-performing schools, in part by allocating $3.5 billion for School Improvement Grants. Unfortunately, there simply aren't enough qualified principals to replace those mandated to be fired under two of the four school improvement models that the federal government says…

  10. Turnaround Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLester, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The Obama administration has grand hopes for turning around the nation's lowest-performing schools, in part by allocating $3.5 billion for School Improvement Grants. Unfortunately, there simply aren't enough qualified principals to replace those mandated to be fired under two of the four school improvement models that the federal government says…

  11. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  12. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  13. Cypriot Primary School Principals' Understanding of Education for Sustainable Development Key Terms and Their Opinions about Factors Affecting Its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariou, Aravella; Kadji-Beltran, Chrysanthi

    2009-01-01

    "Transformative leaders for sustainable schools", was a nationwide research project conducted in 150 primary schools in Cyprus during 2005-2007. The project explored the role of the principals in the organisation of sustainable schools. A mixed methods approach to data collection was employed combining quantitative and qualitative…

  14. A principal components analysis of the factors effecting personal exposure to air pollution in urban commuters in Dublin, Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNabola, Aonghus; Broderick, Brian M; Gill, Laurence W

    2009-10-01

    Principal component analysis was used to examine air pollution personal exposure data of four urban commuter transport modes for their interrelationships between pollutants and relationships with traffic and meteorological data. Air quality samples of PM2.5 and VOCs were recorded during peak traffic congestion for the car, bus, cyclist and pedestrian between January 2005 and June 2006 on a busy route in Dublin, Ireland. In total, 200 personal exposure samples were recorded each comprising 17 variables describing the personal exposure concentrations, meteorological conditions and traffic conditions. The data reduction technique, principal component analysis (PCA), was used to create weighted linear combinations of the data and these were subsequently examined for interrelationships between the many variables recorded. The results of the PCA found that personal exposure concentrations in non-motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by wind speed, whereas personal exposure concentrations in motorised forms of transport were influenced to a higher degree by traffic congestion. The findings of the investigation show that the most effective mechanisms of personal exposure reduction differ between motorised and non-motorised modes of commuter transport.

  15. The Frontal Area with Higher Frequency Response Is the Principal Feature of Laser-Evoked Potentials in Rats with Chronic Inflammatory Pain: A Parallel Factor Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Wan, You; Li, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pain is a pathological developing course of pain. In clinic, an objective indicator is needed for diagnosing and better controlling chronic pain. The abnormal neural responses in chronic pain are reflected by multiple event-related potentials (ERPs) in time, frequency, and location domain, respectively. However, multiple changes in ERPs are not applicable in clinic. So, the principal feature covered the most informative changes extracted from these three domains of ERP during the development of chronic pain is needed. In the present study, a parallel factor analysis method was employed to extract time-frequency-channel features of laser-evoked potential (LEP) simultaneously from rats with chronic inflammatory pain. Results showed that the main feature of LEP in channel domain locates in the frontal brain region in rats with chronic inflammatory pain while in the parietal brain region in control rats. In the frequency domain, the main frequency of LEP was significantly higher in chronic inflammatory pain rats than that in control rats. These findings indicate that the frontal region with higher frequency response to nociceptive information is the principal feature in the chronic pain state. Our study provided not only a principal feature of LEP but also a promising strategy for chronic pain, which is potential for clinic application.

  16. Structural characterization of the principal mRNA-export factor Mex67–Mtr2 from Chaetomium thermophilum

    SciTech Connect

    Aibara, Shintaro; Valkov, Eugene; Lamers, Meindert H.; Dimitrova, Lyudmila; Hurt, Ed; Stewart, Murray

    2015-06-27

    The crystal structures of the individual domains of the Mex67–Mtr2 complex from C. thermophilum have been determined and their arrangement in solution has been studied by SAXS. Members of the Mex67–Mtr2/NXF–NXT1 family are the principal mediators of the nuclear export of mRNA. Mex67/NXF1 has a modular structure based on four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA) that are thought to be present across species, although the level of sequence conservation between organisms, especially in lower eukaryotes, is low. Here, the crystal structures of these domains from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum are presented together with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and in vitro RNA-binding data that indicate that, not withstanding the limited sequence conservation between different NXF family members, the molecules retain similar structural and RNA-binding properties. Moreover, the resolution of crystal structures obtained with the C. thermophilum domains was often higher than that obtained previously and, when combined with solution and biochemical studies, provided insight into the structural organization, self-association and RNA-binding properties of Mex67–Mtr2 that facilitate mRNA nuclear export.

  17. Dynamics and spatio-temporal variability of environmental factors in Eastern Australia using functional principal component analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, J.K.; Fedriani, E.M.; Segovia-Gonzalez, M. M.; Astheimer, L.B.; Hooper, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new technique in ecology to analyze spatial and temporal variability in environmental variables. By using simple statistics, we explore the relations between abiotic and biotic variables that influence animal distributions. However, spatial and temporal variability in rainfall, a key variable in ecological studies, can cause difficulties to any basic model including time evolution. The study was of a landscape scale (three million square kilometers in eastern Australia), mainly over the period of 19982004. We simultaneously considered qualitative spatial (soil and habitat types) and quantitative temporal (rainfall) variables in a Geographical Information System environment. In addition to some techniques commonly used in ecology, we applied a new method, Functional Principal Component Analysis, which proved to be very suitable for this case, as it explained more than 97% of the total variance of the rainfall data, providing us with substitute variables that are easier to manage and are even able to explain rainfall patterns. The main variable came from a habitat classification that showed strong correlations with rainfall values and soil types. ?? 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  18. Infant EEG spectral coherence data during quiet sleep: unrestricted principal components analysis--relation of factors to gestational age, medical risk, and neurobehavioral status.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Frank H; Als, Heidelise; McAnulty, Gloria B

    2003-04-01

    EEG spectral coherence data in quiet sleep of 312 infants were evaluated, at 42 weeks post-menstrual age. All were medically healthy and living at home by time of evaluation. The sample consisted of prematurely bom infants with a wide spectrum of underlying risk factors, as well as healthy full-term infants. Initial 3040 coherence variables were reduced by principal components analysis in an unrestricted manner, which avoided the folding of spectral and spatial information into among-subject variance. One hundred fifty factors explained 90% of the total variance; 40 Varimax rotated factors explained 65% of the variance yielding a 50:1 data reduction. Factor loading patterns ranged from multiple spectral bands for a single electrode pair to multiple electrode pairs for a single spectral band and all intermediate possibilities. Simple left-right and anterior-posterior pairings were not observed within the factor loadings. By multiple regression analysis, the 40 factors significantly predicted gestational age at birth. By canonical correlation, significant relationships were demonstrated between the coherence factors and medical risk factors as well as neurobehavioral factors. Using discriminant analysis, the coherence factors successfully discriminated between infants with high and low medical risk status and between those with the best and worst neurobehavioral status. The two factors accounting for the most variance, and chosen across several analyses, indicated increased left central-temporal coherence from 6-24 Hz, and increased frontal-occipital coherence at 10 Hz, for the infants born closest to term with lowest medical risk factors and best neurobehavioral performance.

  19. Principal component analysis of socioeconomic factors and their association with malaria and arbovirus risk in Tanzania: a sensitivity analysis.

    PubMed

    Homenauth, Esha; Kajeguka, Debora; Kulkarni, Manisha A

    2017-08-19

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently adopted for creating socioeconomic proxies in order to investigate the independent effects of wealth on disease status. The guidelines and methods for the creation of these proxies are well described and validated. The Demographic and Health Survey, World Health Survey and the Living Standards Measurement Survey are examples of large data sets that use PCA to create wealth indices particularly in low and middle-income countries (LMIC), where quantifying wealth-disease associations is problematic due to the unavailability of reliable income and expenditure data. However, the application of this method to smaller survey data sets, especially in rural LMIC settings, is less rigorously studied.In this paper, we aimed to highlight some of these issues by investigating the association of derived wealth indices using PCA on risk of vector-borne disease infection in Tanzania focusing on malaria and key arboviruses (ie, dengue and chikungunya). We demonstrated that indices consisting of subsets of socioeconomic indicators provided the least methodologically flawed representations of household wealth compared with an index that combined all socioeconomic variables. These results suggest that the choice of the socioeconomic indicators included in a wealth proxy can influence the relative position of households in the overall wealth hierarchy, and subsequently the strength of disease associations. This can, therefore, influence future resource planning activities and should be considered among investigators who use a PCA-derived wealth index based on community-level survey data to influence programme or policy decisions in rural LMIC settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Identification of factors most important for ammonia emission from fertilized soils for potato production using principal component analysis

    Treesearch

    Guodoong Liu; Yuncong Li; Kati W. Migliaccio; Ying Ouyang; Ashok K. Alva

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from fertilized soils are a costly problem that is undermining agricultural and ecological sustainability worldwide. Ammonia emissions from crop production have been reliably documented in recent years. However, insufficient efforts have been made to determine the factors most influential in facilitating NH3 emissions. The goal of this study was...

  1. Ambient air quality measurements from a continuously moving mobile platform: Estimation of area-wide, fuel-based, mobile source emission factors using absolute principal component scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Timothy; Gould, Timothy; Riley, Erin A.; Austin, Elena; Fintzi, Jonathan; Sheppard, Lianne; Yost, Michael; Simpson, Christopher

    2017-03-01

    We have applied the absolute principal component scores (APCS) receptor model to on-road, background-adjusted measurements of NOx, CO, CO2, black carbon (BC), and particle number (PN) obtained from a continuously moving platform deployed over nine afternoon sampling periods in Seattle, WA. Two Varimax-rotated principal component features described 75% of the overall variance of the observations. A heavy-duty vehicle feature was correlated with black carbon and particle number, whereas a light-duty feature was correlated with CO and CO2. NOx had moderate correlation with both features. The bootstrapped APCS model predictions were used to estimate area-wide, average fuel-based emission factors and their respective 95% confidence limits. The average emission factors for NOx, CO, BC and PN (14.8, 18.9, 0.40 g/kg, and 4.3 × 1015 particles/kg for heavy duty vehicles, and 3.2, 22.4, 0.016 g/kg, and 0.19 × 1015 particles/kg for light-duty vehicles, respectively) are consistent with previous estimates based on remote sensing, vehicle chase studies, and recent dynamometer tests. Information on the spatial distribution of the concentrations contributed by these two vehicle categories relative to background during the sampling period was also obtained.

  2. New assessment based on the use of principal factor analysis to investigate corn silage quality from nutritional traits, fermentation end products and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Antonio; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Moschini, Maurizio; Bruschi, Sara; Cerioli, Carla; Masoero, Francesco

    2016-01-30

    A survey on 68 dairy farms was carried out to evaluate the ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silage. Samples from core, lateral and apical zones of the feed-out face of silos were analysed. A principal factor analysis (PFA) was carried out on the entire database (196 silage samples and 36 variables) and 11 principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Ensiling procedures influenced the area exposed to risk of air penetration. Cores had higher dry matter, starch and lactic acid content or lower pH, fibre, propionate and butyrate concentrations than peripheral samples (P < 0.05). The highest (P < 0.05) mycophenolic acid and roquefortina C concentrations were detected in lateral samples. Chemical and digestibility variables loaded on two PCs; four PCs were characterized by end-products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic and aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins, whereas three PCs explained ensiling procedures. The main quality traits of corn silages differed throughout the entire silo face. Minimization of the area exposed to risk of air penetration represents the best strategy to preserve the nutritional value and safety of corn silages. PFA allowed a clusterization of original variables into 11 PCs, appearing able to discriminate well and poorly preserved corn silages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Fundamental principals of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene therapy approach and implications for patients with lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Aydin, Cigdem; Bozcuk, Hakan; Terzioglu, Ender; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2004-05-01

    Apoptosis, known as programmed cell death, is defined as a cell's preferred form of death under hectic conditions through genetically conserved and complex pathways. There is a decisive balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signaling pathways to maintain homeostasis in cells. In order to shift the balance towards apoptosis, the modulation of both apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways represents an attractive target for cancer therapeutics. Currently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the most commonly used treatment modalities against lung cancer. Tumor suppressor gene, p53, is required in order for both of these treatment methods to work as anti-tumor agents. As a result, tumors lacking p53 display resistance to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. However, death ligands induce apoptosis regardless of p53 status of cells. Thus, these methods constitute a complementary therapeutic approach to currently employed conventional treatment modalities. At present, death ligands are being evaluated as potential cancer therapeutic agents. Since resistance to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-mediated apoptosis represented an obstacle for the treatment of patients with lung carcinoma in the earlier attempts, an extensive research was recently initiated to understand molecular mechanism of TNF-alpha signaling. NF-kappaB transcription factors have been demonstrated to modulate the apoptotic program, mostly as blockers of apoptosis in different cell types. In this review, we concentrate on the current progress in the understanding of TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis for lung carcinoma. Representative models of NF-kappaB-inhibiting gene therapy strategies from various labs including ours are also provided as examples of up-to-date approaches to defeat TNF resistance. In order to give the reader better understanding and appreciation of such approaches, previously unpublished in vivo assays are also incorporated into this review. Current progress in clinical trials using

  4. The 'principal components' statistical method as a complementary approach to geochemical methods in water quality factor identification; application to the Coastal Plain aquifer of Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melloul, A.; Collin, M.

    1992-12-01

    In general, Schoeller and Piper diagrams, as well as other classical techniques, facilitate the description of the various geochemical groups of water, and help to explain quality changes in an aquifer. We propose the use mainly of 'principal components' analysis for identification of relevant groups of water and the factors that bring about a change in their quality. The major advantage of this method is its suitability for simultaneous analysis of a great number of variables and observations. It is here being applied for the investigation of the Dan metropolitan region of Israel's Coastal Plain. The variables involved include major ions as well as the physical factors of depth of the well intake filter below sea-level, distance from the sea, and aquifer recharge. The primary purpose of this work is to demonstrate the use and reliability of principal components analysis (PCA) as a method complementary to classical approaches for hydrogeochemical research. Subsidiary purposes involve determination of the major water groups characterizing the Coastal Plain aquifer, identification of some of the principal variables that influence changes in water quality in the aquifer, and description of some of the geochemical phenomena contributing to change in aquifer water quality. The following results were achieved for the test area: (1) Two major groups of water were identified: a low-salinity, calcium bicarbonate water occurring in the phreatic portion of the Coastal Plain aquifer, and a more saline, sodium chloride water characterizing the neighboring Cenomanian aquifer and the confined portions of the Coastal Plain aquifer. (2) The major water input sources, such as rain, injection water, waste water, irrigation, etc., may vary in their influence upon resulting water quality; this water quality is affected by such physical factors as distance from the sea, depth of well intake filters below sea-level, proximity to streams and the lithology of the saturated and unsaturated

  5. Surfactant protein A is a principal and oxidation-sensitive microbial permeabilizing factor in the alveolar lining fluid.

    PubMed

    Kuzmenko, Alexander I; Wu, Huixing; Wan, Sijue; McCormack, Francis X

    2005-07-08

    We have reported that surfactant protein A kills some Gram-negative organisms by increasing membrane permeability. In this study, we investigated the physiologic importance of this activity and the effect of oxidative stress on the antimicrobial functions of SP-A in vitro and in vivo. Concentrated bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from SP-A+/+ mice increased the permeability of the Escherichia coli K12 cell membrane to a greater extent than lavage from SP-A-/- animals. Similarly, calcium-dependent surfactant-binding proteins of SP-A+/+ mice increased membrane permeability more than those from SP-A-/- mice and produced greater zonal killing of agar-embedded bacteria in a radial diffusion assay. Exposure of human SP-A to copper-initiated surfactant phospholipid peroxidation or to free radicals generated by human neutrophils in vitro increased the level of SP-A-associated carbonyl moieties and blocked the permeabilizing function of the protein. We also found that exposure of mice to 90% O2 for 4 days, sufficient to lead to consumption of glutathione, oxidation of protein thiols, and accumulation of airspace protein-associated carbonyl moieties, blocked the permeabilizing activity of lavage fluid from SP-A+/+ mice. We conclude that SP-A is a major microbial permeablizing factor in lavage fluid and that oxidative stress inhibits the antibacterial activity of SP-A by a mechanism that includes oxidative modification and functional inactivation of the protein.

  6. Solving the Principal Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Les

    2001-01-01

    Districts can quickly relieve the principal shortage by hiring recently retired principals and aspiring assistant principals, keeping good principals on the job, reconsidering early retirement options, providing monetary incentives, and recruiting candidates from local universities and outside education. Nurturing assistant principals is the best…

  7. Open field locomotion and neurotransmission in mice evaluated by principal component factor analysis-effects of housing condition, individual activity disposition and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Jähkel, M; Rilke, O; Koch, R; Oehler, J

    2000-01-01

    Effects of housing condition and individual disposition on dopaminergically and GABAergically influenced open field locomotion and neurochemistry were studied in mice. Mice characterized as high active (HAM) and low active (LAM) by a running-wheel test were housed in groups or isolated for 1 day, 1 week, 3, 6, 12 or 18 weeks before an open field test was performed with saline, apomorphine (0.75 mg/kg) or diazepam (1.00 mg/kg) administration. Immediately afterwards animals were decapitated and brain sections were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analysis of dopaminergic and serotonergic transmitter metabolism. Principal component factor analysis (PCA) of locomotion variables provided three factors explaining 78.5% of total variance. Variables related to the amount of locomotion loaded highly on Factor 1 (F1-Activity), variables related to place utilization loaded highly on Factor 2 (F2-Exploration) and variables related to immobility and place preference loaded highly on Factor 3 (F3-Irritation). Apomorphine decreased F1-Activity with smaller effects in HAM and without changes in F2-Exploration and F3-Irritation independent on housing conditions. Diazepam exerted a decrease in F2-Exploration with a small increase in FI-Activity and no effects in F3-Irritation. Diazepam induced changes depended on housing conditions and were especially pronounced in isolated HAM. PCA of considerable locomotion and neurochemical data revealed interrelationships between striatal dopamine metabolism and F1-Activity, between cortical dopamine and serotonin metabolism and F2-Exploration as well as between cerebellar, hippocampal and striatal serotonin metabolism and F3-Irritation. The authors concluded that the application of PCA is a useful method to provide functionally relevant characteristics of behaviors and functionally relevant descriptions of interrrelationships between behavior and appropriate central nervous mechanisms. Furthermore the received behavioral characteristics (F1, F2, F3

  8. Principal factor and hierarchical cluster analyses for the performance assessment of an urban wastewater treatment plant in the Southeast of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bayo, Javier; López-Castellanos, Joaquín

    2016-07-01

    Process performance and operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are carried out to ensure their compliance with legislative requirements imposed by European Union. Because a high amount of variables are daily measured, a coherent and structured approach of such a system is required to understand its inherent behavior and performance efficiency. In this sense, both principal factor analysis (PFA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) are multivariate techniques that have been widely applied to extract and structure information for different purposes. In this paper, both statistical tools are applied in an urban WWTP situated in the Southeast of Spain, a zone with special characteristics related to the geochemical background composition of water and an important use of fertilizers. Four main factors were extracted in association with nutrients, the ionic component, the organic load to the WWTP, and the efficiency of the whole process. HCA allowed distinguish between influent and effluent parameters, although a deeper examination resulted in a dendrogram with groupings similar to those previously reported for PFA.

  9. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  10. Principal Mentoring: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Never before has the need for effective mentoring programs for principals been more urgent. Record student enrollment, an anticipated retirement of about 40 percent of principals, and a shrinking pool of those who aspire to be principals have brought about a shortage of principals and an alarming lack of qualified applicants. This research roundup…

  11. Principal Experiences of Succession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Farla Gay

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study explored the experiences of school principals and the usefulness of Peters' (2011) succession planning model. Ten purposefully selected principals from varying grade levels were interviewed; none reported a formal succession plan, and all had been assistant principals. The study concluded the assistant principal position…

  12. Assessment of air quality in the coastal area of South Korea using principal component analysis combined with cluster analysis and enrichment factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, H.; Kwack, W.; Ha, H.; Choe, C.; Kim, Y.; Zoh, K.; Yi, S.

    2009-12-01

    The interpretation of ambiet air pollution in relation with meteorological parameters is a topic of great interest to maintain and manage ambient air quality in the coastal region of South Korea. The objectives of this study were: (i) to locate emission sources qualitatitively and quantitatively, (ii) to identify air quality by day with similar air pollution behaviors; and (iii) to evaluate the effect of sea salt on the aerosols. Two statistical techniques, principal components analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) were applied to the concentrations of five pollutants(PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3). The enrichment factor(EF) representing the ratio of Cl/Na in aerosol to Cl/Na in sea water was calculated with 2 soluble ions(Na+ and Cl-) in PM10 analyzed by ion chromatograph in coastal urban area of Incheon city, South Korea from January to December 2008. PCA results show three emission sources; (i) high PM10, NO2 and CO with low temperature, radiation and wind speed(35.9%), (ii) high O3 with high radiation and wind speed, and low humidity(18.2%), (iii) high NO2 and O3 with high temperature and radiation, and low wind speed(11.2%), respectively. CA results show three groups; (i) Friday (high PM10 and NO2, low O3), (ii) Sunday (low PM10 and NO2, high O3), (iii) Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Saturday (medium PM10, NO2 and O3). EF was 1.02 implying contribution of sea salt on the aerosol level with various anthropogenic sources. In conclusion, PCA and CA are suitable for idenfying and estimating the sources of air pollution. EF allows for investigating the effect of sea salt on the PM10 in the region where sea-land breezes. It was conclueded that the sea wind had an important contribution towards the variation of air pollutants. Key words : air pollutants, principal component analysis, cluster analysis, enrichment factor Fig. 1. Dendrogram using average linkage of cluster analysis for PM10 at coastal urban area of Incheon, South Korea. Table 1 Main results of PCA

  13. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  14. Principal Preparedness: Superintendent Perceptions of New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cray, Martha; Weiler, Spencer C.

    2011-01-01

    National advocacy groups have undertaken significant efforts to define the performance capacities needed by principals to lead schools in this era of continuous improvement and accountability. There has been little articulation between the core skills essential to new principals and the leadership capacities of experienced peers. This study…

  15. From principal curves to granular principal curves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyun; Pedrycz, Witold; Miao, Duoqian; Wei, Zhihua

    2014-06-01

    Principal curves arising as an essential construct in dimensionality reduction and data analysis have recently attracted much attention from theoretical as well as practical perspective. In many real-world situations, however, the efficiency of existing principal curves algorithms is often arguable, in particular when dealing with massive data owing to the associated high computational complexity. A certain drawback of these constructs stems from the fact that in several applications principal curves cannot fully capture some essential problem-oriented facets of the data dealing with width, aspect ratio, width change, etc. Information granulation is a powerful tool supporting processing and interpreting massive data. In this paper, invoking the underlying ideas of information granulation, we propose a granular principal curves approach, regarded as an extension of principal curves algorithms, to improve efficiency and achieve a sound accuracy-efficiency tradeoff. First, large amounts of numerical data are granulated into C intervals-information granules developed with the use of fuzzy C-means clustering and the two criteria of information granulation, which significantly reduce the amount of data to be processed at the later phase of the overall design. Granular principal curves are then constructed by determining the upper and the lower bounds of the interval data. Finally, we develop an objective function using the criteria of information confidence and specificity to evaluate the granular output formed by the principal curves. We also optimize the granular principal curves by adjusting the level of information granularity (the number of clusters), which is realized with the aid of the particle swarm optimization. A number of numeric studies completed for synthetic and real-world datasets provide a useful quantifiable insight into the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. Principal Selection Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.

    The choice of principals is too important to be left to chance. Dynamic, committed leaders not only help determine the quality of teachers that are recruited, but provide the key to effective schools where the battle for excellence will be won or lost. Section 1, "The Effective Principal," outlines the tasks that an effective principal performs.…

  17. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has…

  18. Principal Preparation Program Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Education Policy, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Education Policy utilized several grants to develop principal preparation program tools to assist programs in the implementation of the new standards and requirements for the licensure of school principals and assistant principals. Also, with the help of another grant in partnership with several PK-12 school districts,…

  19. Principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

    PubMed

    Liu, R X; Kuang, J; Gong, Q; Hou, X L

    2003-06-01

    The paper introduces all indices of multicollinearity diagnoses, the basic principle of principal component regression and determination of 'best' equation method. The paper uses an example to describe how to do principal component regression analysis with SPSS 10.0: including all calculating processes of the principal component regression and all operations of linear regression, factor analysis, descriptives, compute variable and bivariate correlations procedures in SPSS 10.0. The principal component regression analysis can be used to overcome disturbance of the multicollinearity. The simplified, speeded up and accurate statistical effect is reached through the principal component regression analysis with SPSS.

  20. Desgarros del epitelio pigmentario de la retina: factores de riesgo, mecanismo y control terapéutico.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Christoph R; Eter, Nicole

    2017-07-11

    Los desgarros del epitelio pigmentario de la retina (EPR) se asocian en la mayoría de los casos con los desprendimientos vascularizados del EPR debido a una degeneración macular asociada a la edad (DMAE), y normalmente implican una pérdida adversa de la agudeza visual. Estudios recientes indican que ha habido un aumento en la incidencia de desgarros del EPR desde la introducción de fármacos anti-factor de crecimiento del endotelio vascular (anti-VEGF) así como una asociación temporal entre el desgarro y la inyección intravítrea. Dado que el número de pacientes con DMAE y el número de inyecciones anti-VEGF va en aumento, tanto la dificultad de prevenir desgarros del EPR como el tratamiento tras la formación de los desgarros han adquirido una mayor relevancia. De forma paralela, la evolución de la imagenología de la retina ha contribuido de manera significativa a comprender mejor el desarrollo de los desgarros del EPR en los últimos años. Esta revisión resume los conocimientos que se poseen actualmente sobre el desarrollo, los factores pronósticos y las estrategias terapéuticas de los desgarros del EPR antes y después de que estos se formen. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Principal Self-Efficacy and Work Engagement: Assessing a Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federici, Roger A.; Skaalvik, Einar M.

    2011-01-01

    One purpose of the present study was to develop and test the factor structure of a multidimensional and hierarchical Norwegian Principal Self-Efficacy Scale (NPSES). Another purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between principal self-efficacy and work engagement. Principal self-efficacy was measured by the 22-item NPSES. Work…

  2. Principals and Blogs: In What Ways Does Blogging Support the Practices of School Principals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebritson, Reggie Marie

    2011-01-01

    This study paper explores the factors that motivate school principals to blog and the effectiveness of those blogs in terms of instructional and technology leadership. Participants were school principals who blog and were sent a web-based survey. Fifty responded. Results indicate that principals blog to communicate to others, including parents,…

  3. Harried Principals Aren't Helpful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A harried leader is not a helpful leader. Schools need calm, well-balanced, helpful leaders as much as they need visionary ones. In fact, in this era of frenetic change in schools, principals should devote at least as much time to helping teachers be more focused and less frantic as they do to formulating new visions for the school or embarking on…

  4. Principal Performance Areas and Principal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Thomas E.; McInerney, William D.

    1995-01-01

    Summarizes a study that surveyed Indiana superintendents and examined their principal-evaluation instruments. Superintendents were asked which of 21 performance domains were most important and whether these were currently being assessed. Respondents generally agreed that all 21 performance domains identified by the National Policy Board for…

  5. Harried Principals Aren't Helpful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Mike

    2007-01-01

    A harried leader is not a helpful leader. Schools need calm, well-balanced, helpful leaders as much as they need visionary ones. In fact, in this era of frenetic change in schools, principals should devote at least as much time to helping teachers be more focused and less frantic as they do to formulating new visions for the school or embarking on…

  6. Factors that Influence Females to Not Pursue the School Leadership Role of Principal in Secondary Schools in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and attracting potential school leaders is a challenge for school districts. Whereas teachers represent the group from which the largest number of new principals will be drawn, fewer and fewer of them now seem willing to seek administrative positions. While women are prepared educationally, certified professionally, and waiting in…

  7. Factors that Influence Females to Not Pursue the School Leadership Role of Principal in Secondary Schools in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Identifying and attracting potential school leaders is a challenge for school districts. Whereas teachers represent the group from which the largest number of new principals will be drawn, fewer and fewer of them now seem willing to seek administrative positions. While women are prepared educationally, certified professionally, and waiting in…

  8. Creating Strong Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Pamela; Mitgang, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Principals have a substantial effect on the quality of learning in their schools. Likewise, districts have a substantial effect on the quality of their leaders. A growing number of large school districts are focusing on two objectives to strengthen school leadership: (1) building a pipeline of new principals who are ready to tackle the most…

  9. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  10. Principles for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Wilbur M.

    1994-01-01

    A former central office curriculum supervisor drafted to manage an elementary school enumerates some principles for other principals: put kids first; seek advice from veteran principals; practice lead management; delegate responsibility and authority; support the superintendent and school board; eschew perfect control over situations; try not to…

  11. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  12. Qualities of Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.; Richard, Holly B.; Catano, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    You know how important principals are in advancing student achievement and school success, but it's not been exactly clear which components of the principal's job are the highest priority... until now. Following on the results-based approach from the ASCD best-seller "Qualities of Effective Teachers", James Stronge and his coauthors…

  13. Priming Principal Pipelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Most principals today are hard pressed to find time for the multitasking they are expected to do, from overseeing the daily operation of their schools and interacting with parents to evaluating teachers and providing them with professional development to do their jobs at a high level. What these principals have frequently been lacking, say experts…

  14. Nurture Budding Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer, Leonard O.; Buford, Connie

    1982-01-01

    The Richland School District in Columbia (South Carolina), along with the University of South Carolina, established a program of full-time internships to develop potential new principals. The program includes on-the-job training with practicing principals, university courses, seminars, special retreats, individual improvement plans, and…

  15. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  16. Assisting the Assistant Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, James

    2008-01-01

    Retaining quality staff members is a hot topic in the public school arena. Although teachers are often the focus of concern, hiring and retaining quality assistant principals must be addressed as well. Interviewing and hiring the right assistant principal--and then ensuring that he or she remains on in a campus for several years--can do a great…

  17. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  18. Evaluating Principals. Research Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Carl

    1990-01-01

    Five recent studies included in this annotated bibliography highlight the diverse facets of an effective principal evaluation system. A technical report by Jerry W. Valentine and Michael L. Bowman includes a clinical instrument for assessing teachers' perception of principals' effectiveness. In a second report, Daniel L. Duke and Richard J.…

  19. A Principal's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yergalonis, Edward

    2005-01-01

    In the interview process, every aspiring principal naively speaks of assuming the role of instructional leader. The candidate has read the right books, taken the right courses, and attended every possible workshop to prepare for the day when he or she would become captain of his or her own ship. However, it does not take long for principals to…

  20. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  1. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  2. Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2012-01-01

    At some level, principals always have been instructional leaders--but never before has their role been more prominent. First, the accountability movement--No Child Left Behind (NCLB) in particular--thrust principals into the spotlight on academic achievement. Then budget cuts peeled away capacity at both the district and school levels, thinning…

  3. Principals from Hell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    Some principals have personalities that can drive teachers around the bend and back again. Sure, most are wonderful bosses who support teachers in any way, but woe betide teachers if they are unlucky enough to run across one of the six dreaded "problem principals" identified in this article. Teachers do not have to be held hostage by difficult…

  4. Superintendents' Perceptions of the Principal Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijanowski, John C.; Hewitt, Paul M.; Brady, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    The research literature on the principal shortage is inconsistent regarding the actual scope of the shortage and a clear articulation of factors contributing to the successful recruitment and retention of today's school leaders. Often, critical data related to the principal shortage are ignored, including the number of younger principals…

  5. Exploring Principals' Perceptions of Supervised Agricultural Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of principals at high schools with agricultural education programs in regard to Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE). There is evidence that suggests that high school principals' attitudes may both directly and indirectly affect factors that influence school climate and student achievement. In this study,…

  6. Integrating Technology: The Principals' Role and Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Lucas J.; Chung, Chia-Jung

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors that influence technology integration in the classroom such as teacher willingness, availability of hardware, and professional development of staff. Taking into account these elements, this paper describes research on technology integration with a focus on principals' attitudes. The role of the principal in classroom…

  7. Career Paths of Female Elementary Assistant Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baier, Hope C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the worklife experiences and personal issues of female elementary assistant principals and examine the influence of these factors on their intent to remain in their position or leave. The worklife experiences and perceptions of female elementary assistant principals were categorized as institutional or…

  8. [Rapid Response obstetrics Team at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social,enabling factors].

    PubMed

    Dávila-Torres, Javier; González-Izquierdo, José de Jesús; Ruíz-Rosas, Roberto Aguli; Cruz-Cruz, Polita Del Rocío; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    There are barriers and enablers for the implementation of Rapid Response Teams in obstetric hospitals. The enabling factors were determined at Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective study was conducted by analysing the emergency obstetric reports sent by mobile technology and e-mail to the Medical Care Unit of the IMSS in 2013. Frequency and mean was obtained using the Excel 2010 program for descriptive statistics. A total of 164,250 emergency obstetric cases were reported, and there was a mean of 425 messages per day, of which 32.2% were true obstetric emergencies and required the Rapid Response team. By e-mail, there were 73,452 life threatening cases (a mean of 6 cases per day). A monthly simulation was performed in hospitals (480 in total). Enabling factors were messagés synchronisation among the participating personnel,the accurate record of the obstetrics, as well as the simulations performed by the operational staff. The most common emergency was pre-eclampsia-eclampsia with 3,351 reports, followed by obstetric haemorrhage with 2,982 cases. The enabling factors for the implementation of a rapid response team at IMSS were properly timed communication between the central delegation teams, as they allowed faster medical and administrative management and participation of hospital medical teams in the process. Mobile technology has increased the speed of medical and administrative management in emergency obstetric care. However, comparative studies are needed to determine the statistical significance. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  9. Role of the endothelial-derived endogenous anti-inflammatory factor Del-1 in inflammation-mediated adrenal gland dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kanczkowski, Waldemar; Chatzigeorgiou, Antonios; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Sprott, David; Bornstein, Stefan R; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2013-03-01

    Inflammation in the course of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis often results in dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The adrenal gland is highly vascularized; thus, we hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction may actively participate in inflammation-related adrenal insufficiency. To address this hypothesis, we used the properties of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), which is an endothelial-derived anti-inflammatory factor that antagonizes integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. Here we identified that Del-1 is expressed in the adrenal gland and that its expression was down-regulated upon SIRS induction by systemic lipopolysaccharide administration. Furthermore, we observed increased leukocyte accumulation, inflammation, and higher apoptosis in the adrenal glands of Del-1-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice. Strikingly, Del-1 deficiency was also associated with reduced corticosterone and ACTH levels 24 hours after lipopolysaccharide administration. Together, these data suggest that Del-1 may act as a gatekeeper of adrenal gland inflammation and may regulate the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, thereby modulating adrenal (dys)function in the course of SIRS.

  10. Strategic Principal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  11. Strategic Principal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  12. Turnaround Principal Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Lucy; Barrett, Sharon Kebschull

    2012-01-01

    When the Minneapolis Public Schools first set out to hire turnaround school principals, administrators followed their usual process--which focused largely on reputation and anecdotal support and considered mainly internal candidates. Yet success at the complicated task of turning around the fortunes of a failing school depends on exceptionally…

  13. Let Teachers Pick Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raisch, C. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    If a school and community are qualified enough to hire teachers, counselors, and secretaries through school-based-management processes, they are equally qualified to hire the school principal. This article describes a site-based team-selection process designed to identify optimal administrator characteristics, advertise the job opening, handle…

  14. The Principal as CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…

  15. The Principal's Legal Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, William E., Ed.; And Others

    The principal is faced with myriad legal issues on a daily basis, making it imperative that he or she keep abreast with developing legal issues. The first of four sections, "Students and the Law," surveys federal statutes and landmark Supreme Court decisions pertaining to the rights of students. It addresses legal issues regarding search and…

  16. Principals Make Assignments Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    The inner-city high school in Washington, DC, that Guillaume Gendre joined as an assistant principal had a modest reputation for achievement but was nevertheless challenged to raise expectations for student work. In other schools, Gendre had used assignments--a specific kind of instructional task in which students are charged to think about an…

  17. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  18. The Principal as CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollar, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…

  19. When Principals Gather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes main discussion topics at the recent annual meeting of the National Association of Elementary School Principals held in New Orleans. Participants discussed school readiness, parenthood education, minority achievement, whole-language instruction, and multiculturalism. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development's New…

  20. Principals as Cultural Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louis, Karen Seashore; Wahlstrom, Kyla

    2011-01-01

    Principals have a strong role to play in forming school cultures that encourage change. Changing a school's culture requires shared or distributed leadership and instructional leadership. A multiyear study found that three elements are necessary for a school culture that stimulates teachers to improve their instruction: 1) Teachers and…

  1. Effective Principals in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiro, Jody D.

    2013-01-01

    The idea that principals should focus more closely on teaching and learning did not emerge prominently until the mid-1990s. Then educators and policy makers began to realize that school leadership matters to student achievement. In a dozen years of working with states, districts, researchers and others, the Wallace Foundation has pinpointed five…

  2. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  3. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  4. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  5. Principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Groth, Detlef; Hartmann, Stefanie; Klie, Sebastian; Selbig, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Principal components analysis (PCA) is a standard tool in multivariate data analysis to reduce the number of dimensions, while retaining as much as possible of the data's variation. Instead of investigating thousands of original variables, the first few components containing the majority of the data's variation are explored. The visualization and statistical analysis of these new variables, the principal components, can help to find similarities and differences between samples. Important original variables that are the major contributors to the first few components can be discovered as well.This chapter seeks to deliver a conceptual understanding of PCA as well as a mathematical description. We describe how PCA can be used to analyze different datasets, and we include practical code examples. Possible shortcomings of the methodology and ways to overcome these problems are also discussed.

  6. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  7. The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Mahmud, Shawn A; Thompson, Jacob A; Geng, Jian-Guo; Key, Nigel S; Slungaard, Arne

    2006-01-15

    In vivo, bromide (Br(-)), nitrite (NO(2)(-)), and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) compete for oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and H(2)O(2), yielding, respectively, HOBr, NO(2)., and HOSCN. We have recently shown that SCN(-) is the strongly preferred substrate for EPO in vivo and that HOSCN, in contrast with other EPO-generated oxidants and HOCl, is a relatively weak, cell-permeant, sulfhydryl (SH)-reactive oxidant. We here show that HOSCN is a uniquely potent (up to 100-fold) phagocyte oxidant inducer of tissue factor (TF) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This induction is attributable to transcriptional up-regulation of TF gene expression dependent upon both activation of the p65/c-Rel TF-kappaB transcription factor and activity of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway upstream of Egr-1 and was markedly further enhanced in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. HOSCN also markedly activates the proinflammatory p65/p50 NF-kappaB pathway. Based on these findings we hypothesize that HOSCN generated by adherent and infiltrating eosinophils may provoke the development of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory endothelial/endocardial phenotype that promotes the pronounced thrombotic diathesis characteristic of the hypereosinophilic syndrome.

  8. The principal eosinophil peroxidase product, HOSCN, is a uniquely potent phagocyte oxidant inducer of endothelial cell tissue factor activity: a potential mechanism for thrombosis in eosinophilic inflammatory states

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Guo; Mahmud, Shawn A.; Thompson, Jacob A.; Geng, Jian-Guo; Key, Nigel S.; Slungaard, Arne

    2006-01-01

    In vivo, bromide (Br–), nitrite (NO2–), and thiocyanate (SCN–) compete for oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and H2O2, yielding, respectively, HOBr, NO2·, and HOSCN. We have recently shown that SCN– is the strongly preferred substrate for EPO in vivo and that HOSCN, in contrast with other EPO-generated oxidants and HOCl, is a relatively weak, cell-permeant, sulfhydryl (SH)–reactive oxidant. We here show that HOSCN is a uniquely potent (up to 100-fold) phagocyte oxidant inducer of tissue factor (TF) activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This induction is attributable to transcriptional up-regulation of TF gene expression dependent upon both activation of the p65/c-Rel TF-κB transcription factor and activity of the ERK1/2 kinase pathway upstream of Egr-1 and was markedly further enhanced in the presence of wortmannin, an inhibitor of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway. HOSCN also markedly activates the proinflammatory p65/p50 NF-κB pathway. Based on these findings we hypothesize that HOSCN generated by adherent and infiltrating eosinophils may provoke the development of a prothrombotic and proinflammatory endothelial/endocardial phenotype that promotes the pronounced thrombotic diathesis characteristic of the hypereosinophilic syndrome. PMID:16166591

  9. Factorial and Item-Level Invariance of a Principal Perspectives Survey: German and U.S. Principals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuang; Hancock, Dawson R; Muller, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the factorial and item-level invariance of a survey of principals' job satisfaction and perspectives about reasons and barriers to becoming a principal with a sample of US principals and another sample of German principals. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and differential item functioning (DIF) analysis were employed at the test and item level, respectively. A single group CFA was conducted first, and the model was found to fit the data collected. The factorial invariance between the German and the US principals was tested through three steps: (a) configural invariance; (b) measurement invariance; and (c) structural invariance. The results suggest that the survey is a viable measure of principals' job satisfaction and perspectives about reasons and barriers to becoming a principal because principals from two different cultures shared a similar pattern on all three constructs. The DIF analysis further revealed that 22 out of the 28 items functioned similarly between German and US principals.

  10. Recursive principal components analysis.

    PubMed

    Voegtlin, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    A recurrent linear network can be trained with Oja's constrained Hebbian learning rule. As a result, the network learns to represent the temporal context associated to its input sequence. The operation performed by the network is a generalization of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to time-series, called Recursive PCA. The representations learned by the network are adapted to the temporal statistics of the input. Moreover, sequences stored in the network may be retrieved explicitly, in the reverse order of presentation, thus providing a straight-forward neural implementation of a logical stack.

  11. The principal mRNA nuclear export factor NXF1:NXT1 forms a symmetric binding platform that facilitates export of retroviral CTE-RNA

    PubMed Central

    Aibara, Shintaro; Katahira, Jun; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2015-01-01

    The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the first three domains of human NXF1 together with NXT1 that has two copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit arranged to form an intimate domain-swapped dimer. In this dimer, the linkers between the NXF1 LRR and NTF2-like domains interact with NXT1, generating a 2-fold symmetric platform in which the RNA-binding RRM, LRR and NTF2-like domains are arranged on one face. In addition to bulk transcripts, NXF1:NXT1 also facilitates the export of unspliced retroviral genomic RNA from simple type-D retroviruses such as SRV-1 that contain a constitutive transport element (CTE), a cis-acting 2-fold symmetric RNA stem–loop motif. Complementary structural, biochemical and cellular techniques indicated that the formation of a symmetric RNA binding platform generated by dimerization of NXF1:NXT1 facilitates the recognition of CTE-RNA and promotes its nuclear export. PMID:25628361

  12. The principal mRNA nuclear export factor NXF1:NXT1 forms a symmetric binding platform that facilitates export of retroviral CTE-RNA.

    PubMed

    Aibara, Shintaro; Katahira, Jun; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2015-02-18

    The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the first three domains of human NXF1 together with NXT1 that has two copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit arranged to form an intimate domain-swapped dimer. In this dimer, the linkers between the NXF1 LRR and NTF2-like domains interact with NXT1, generating a 2-fold symmetric platform in which the RNA-binding RRM, LRR and NTF2-like domains are arranged on one face. In addition to bulk transcripts, NXF1:NXT1 also facilitates the export of unspliced retroviral genomic RNA from simple type-D retroviruses such as SRV-1 that contain a constitutive transport element (CTE), a cis-acting 2-fold symmetric RNA stem-loop motif. Complementary structural, biochemical and cellular techniques indicated that the formation of a symmetric RNA binding platform generated by dimerization of NXF1:NXT1 facilitates the recognition of CTE-RNA and promotes its nuclear export. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Prevalence, behavioural and social factors associated with Schistosoma intercalatum and geohelminth infections in São Tomé and Principe.

    PubMed

    Belo, S; Rompão, H; Gonçalves, L; Grácio, M A A

    2005-06-01

    A pilot study was conducted in schoolchildren from three main districts of São Tome to assess the relationship between the prevalence of infections caused by Schistosoma intercalatum or intestinal helminths and individual behaviour and social conditions. Coprological examination revealed an increase of schistosome infections and a persisting high endemicity for ascariasis and trichuriasis. Infection rates were 36.2% for S. intercalatum and 70.8%, 68.5% and 4.6% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Ancylostomidae, respectively. Out of the 47 children positive for S. intercalatum, 35 (74.5%) were co-infected with one or more geohelminths. Logistic regression analysis of data collected through questionnaire demonstrate that behaviour and/or social conditions in the house were positively associated with S. intercalatum or T. trichiura. Neither sex nor age groups were associated with infections, suggesting that low personal hygiene and sanitation practices were similar for all groups of children. These data are in accordance to those of other studies and highlight the importance of assessing multivariate factors that may contribute to the transmission of these diseases, in order to design integrated control approaches for schistosomiasis and geohelminthiasis which could have more rapid effects on reduction of infections as well as greater cost-effectiveness.

  14. Teacher and Principal Beliefs about Principal Leadership Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there is a difference between teacher and principal beliefs about principal leadership behavior using a 360-degree evaluation tool. The study also examined whether the difference between teacher and principal beliefs was related to the status of a school relative to the state growth target…

  15. Visible Leading: Principal Academy Connects and Empowers Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John

    2015-01-01

    The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…

  16. Principal Preferences and the Uneven Distribution of Principals across Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Kalogrides, Demetra; Horng, Eileen Lai

    2010-01-01

    The authors use longitudinal data from one large school district to investigate the distribution of principals across schools. They find that schools serving many low-income, non-White, and low-achieving students have principals who have less experience and less education and who attended less selective colleges. This distribution of principals is…

  17. Principals' Supervision and Evaluation Cycles: Perspectives from Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals for this quantitative study were to examine principals' perceptions regarding supervision and evaluation within their own evaluations. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own evaluation?; and…

  18. Teacher and Principal Beliefs about Principal Leadership Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not there is a difference between teacher and principal beliefs about principal leadership behavior using a 360-degree evaluation tool. The study also examined whether the difference between teacher and principal beliefs was related to the status of a school relative to the state growth target…

  19. Principals' Supervision and Evaluation Cycles: Perspectives from Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; McKim, Courtney Ann; Mette, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    The goals for this quantitative study were to examine principals' perceptions regarding supervision and evaluation within their own evaluations. Three research questions guided the inquiry: (1) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own supervision?; (2) What are the perceptions of principals' regarding their own evaluation?; and…

  20. Visible Leading: Principal Academy Connects and Empowers Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Jennifer; Rozzelle, Jan; Ball, Rachel; Fahey, John

    2015-01-01

    The School-University Research Network (SURN) Principal Academy at the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, Virginia, has a mission to build a leadership development program that increases principals' instructional knowledge and develops mentor principals to sustain the program. The academy is designed to connect and empower principals…

  1. The Skills of Exemplary Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John E.

    1990-01-01

    NASSP's Assessment Center Project has identified 12 key skills for successful principals: problem analysis, judgment, organizational ability, decisiveness, leadership, sensitivity, stress tolerance, oral communication, written communication, wide-ranging interests, personal motivation, and educational values. Effective principals succeed by…

  2. Burnout among Iranian school principals.

    PubMed

    Rashidzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2002-02-01

    This study investigated burnout among Iranian school principals. Also, the relationships of sex, years of administration, age, and marital status were considered. The sample were 200 principals (100 men, 100 women) who completed the Friedman School Principal Burnout Scale. Analysis showed principals who completed the scale felt exhausted, aloof, and deprecated. The women scored lower. There were significant correlationships between marital status and years of administration with the scores on burnout.

  3. School Principal: Managing in Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie, Dan C.

    2009-01-01

    When we think about school principals, most of us imagine a figure of vague, yet intimidating authority--for an elementary school student, being sent to the principal's office is roughly on par with a trip to Orwell's Room 101. But with "School Principal", Dan C. Lortie aims to change that. Much as he did for teachers with his groundbreaking book…

  4. Emerging Challenges Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the challenges facing US public school principals. A survey was sent to a random sample of over 10,000 principals throughout the US. Written responses from a representative sample were analyzed for content and themes. Results indicate that principals are facing emerging challenges never before seen in education,…

  5. Some Things Assistant Principals Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    The assistant principal of a Catholic elementary school carries out some of the duties (with the needed authority) of the school principal. How tasks and authority are delegated vary and depend upon the personality of each individual school. Fifteen assistant principals wrote essays relating one of their chief responsibilities to show a wide…

  6. School Principal: Managing in Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lortie, Dan C.

    2009-01-01

    When we think about school principals, most of us imagine a figure of vague, yet intimidating authority--for an elementary school student, being sent to the principal's office is roughly on par with a trip to Orwell's Room 101. But with "School Principal", Dan C. Lortie aims to change that. Much as he did for teachers with his groundbreaking book…

  7. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  8. Principals' Relationship with Computer Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmeier, Lantry L.; Sermon, Janet M.; Hope, Warren C.

    2005-01-01

    This investigation sought information about principals and their relationship with computer technology. Several questions were fundamental to the inquiry. Are principals prepared to facilitate the attainment of technology's promise through the integration of computer technology into the teaching and learning process? Are principals prepared to use…

  9. Principals' Salaries, 2006-2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2007-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? This article…

  10. The Principal as White Knight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, Pamela C.; Walter, James E.

    This 20-month study describes an elementary school principal, John Meyer, and examines his leadership behaviors. From an effective schools perspective, the principal is seen as the white knight who "saves" the children by providing an effective school. John Meyer is known as a "turnaround" principal who came to Garvin School (located in a Missouri…

  11. The Future of Principal Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Matthew; Ross, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The need to improve the quality of principal evaluation systems is long overdue. Although states and districts generally require principal evaluations, research and experience tell that many state and district evaluations do not reflect current standards and practices for principals, and that evaluation is not systematically administered. When…

  12. Principal Succession: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffery C.; Webber, Charles F.

    Principal succession is misunderstood and underutilized as a means of affecting dynamic renewal in school communities. Previously, the replacement of a principal was examined solely through the experiences of principals and teachers. This paper reports on a case study that added the previously neglected perspectives of students, support staff, and…

  13. Emerging Challenges Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Donald

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the challenges facing US public school principals. A survey was sent to a random sample of over 10,000 principals throughout the US. Written responses from a representative sample were analyzed for content and themes. Results indicate that principals are facing emerging challenges never before seen in education,…

  14. Principals' Salaries, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.

    2000-01-01

    The average of annual salaries paid elementary school principals in 1999-2000 ($69,407) is 64.4 percent above that of classroom teachers. Principals' annual salaries have kept pace with those of classroom teachers, central-office administrators, and public school employees generally. Principals average 226 days on duty. (MLH)

  15. Principals' Salaries, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? How have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  16. Principals' Salaries, 2007-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2008-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? And how have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  17. Principals' Salaries, 2008-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Willa D.; Licciardi, Chris

    2009-01-01

    How do salaries of elementary and middle school principals compare with those of other administrators and classroom teachers? Are increases in salaries of principals keeping pace with increases in salaries of classroom teachers? How have principals' salaries fared over the years when the cost of living is taken into account? There are reliable…

  18. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  19. Principal Turnover: Are There Different Types of Principals Who Move from or Leave Their Schools? A Latent Class Analysis of the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-Up Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Jared; Bowers, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which there is a typology of principals who depart from their schools in the U.S. using the 2007-2008 Schools and Staffing Survey and the 2008-2009 Principal Follow-up Survey. Prior principal retention research has focused on identifying factors that predict principal turnover; however,…

  20. Principal stratification in causal inference.

    PubMed

    Frangakis, Constantine E; Rubin, Donald B

    2002-03-01

    Many scientific problems require that treatment comparisons be adjusted for posttreatment variables, but the estimands underlying standard methods are not causal effects. To address this deficiency, we propose a general framework for comparing treatments adjusting for posttreatment variables that yields principal effects based on principal stratification. Principal stratification with respect to a posttreatment variable is a cross-classification of subjects defined by the joint potential values of that posttreatment variable tinder each of the treatments being compared. Principal effects are causal effects within a principal stratum. The key property of principal strata is that they are not affected by treatment assignment and therefore can be used just as any pretreatment covariate. such as age category. As a result, the central property of our principal effects is that they are always causal effects and do not suffer from the complications of standard posttreatment-adjusted estimands. We discuss briefly that such principal causal effects are the link between three recent applications with adjustment for posttreatment variables: (i) treatment noncompliance, (ii) missing outcomes (dropout) following treatment noncompliance. and (iii) censoring by death. We then attack the problem of surrogate or biomarker endpoints, where we show, using principal causal effects, that all current definitions of surrogacy, even when perfectly true, do not generally have the desired interpretation as causal effects of treatment on outcome. We go on to forrmulate estimands based on principal stratification and principal causal effects and show their superiority.

  1. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  2. Principals' Perceptions Regarding Their Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvidston, David J.; Range, Bret G.; McKim, Courtney Ann

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of principals concerning principal evaluation and supervisory feedback. Principals were asked two open-ended questions. Respondents included 82 principals in the Rocky Mountain region. The emerging themes were "Superintendent Performance," "Principal Evaluation Components," "Specific…

  3. How Effective Is the Principal? Discrepancy between New Zealand Teachers' and Principals' Perceptions of Principal Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Ludlow, Larry; Pope, Denyse

    2015-01-01

    Multi-source evaluation of school principals is likely to become increasingly common in education contexts as the evidence accumulates about the relationship between principal effectiveness and student achievement. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) the magnitude and direction of discrepancy between how principals and their teachers…

  4. Responsibilities of Today's Principal: Implications for Principal Preparation Programs and Principal Certification Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, principals served as disciplinarians and the teachers' boss. Under current federal legislation, principals now must accept the responsibility to manage personnel, funds, and strategic planning. Today's principals also must accept responsibilities associated with being their schools' instructional leaders. As instructional leaders,…

  5. The Forgotten Aspect of Communication: Principals' Listening Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jerry; Shoho, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated principals' self-perceptions and teachers' perceptions of principals' listening skills. An instrument measuring perception of listening skills was developed on the basis of four listening factors: attending, empathy, response, and trustworthiness. Factor analysis confirmed the structure of the new listening instrument, and…

  6. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  7. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  8. Principals' Leadership Styles and Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, David Alan

    2012-01-01

    Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…

  9. Computer Use by Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afshari, Mojgan; Bakar, Kamariah Abu; Luan, Wong Su; Afshari, Marjan; Fooi, Foo Say; Samah, Bahaman Abu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was firstly to identify the extent to which Iranian secondary school principals used computers and secondly to explore the relationship between a number of variables related to the use of information and communications technology (ICT). Findings indicated that four factors played a role in explaining the level of computer…

  10. Principals' Learning Mechanisms: Exploring an Emerging Construct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Qadach, Mowafaq

    2016-01-01

    This exploration of principal learning mechanisms (PLM) to support a learning-centered school aimed to develop, field-test, and validate a PLM-measuring instrument. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of items to examine factorial validity, the developed scale was correlated with other work-related established constructs (e.g.,…

  11. Principals' Transformational Leadership in School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yingxiu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute experience and ideas of the transformational leadership, not only for the principal want to improve leadership himself (herself), but also for the school at critical period of improvement, through summarizing forming process and the problem during the course and key factors that affect the course.…

  12. Proficiencies for Principals. Elementary & Middle Schools. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Elementary School Principals, Alexandria, VA.

    Recognizing the principal's role as the single most important factor in determining school effectiveness in the crucial early years of children's education, this document discusses four prerequisites for success as a school leader and thoroughly outlines elements of proficiency in the principalship. Specific leadership capabilities and…

  13. Status of Programs for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1972-01-01

    Claiming that there's an aura of dissatisfaction with the present pre- and inservice programs for principals, the writer reports his findings about existing programs and suggested improvements. (Editor)

  14. Status of Programs for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Neal C.

    1972-01-01

    Claiming that there's an aura of dissatisfaction with the present pre- and inservice programs for principals, the writer reports his findings about existing programs and suggested improvements. (Editor)

  15. Elementary Principals' and Teachers' Perceptions of Their Principals' Supervisory Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Bettye Hamill; Sistrunk, Walter E.

    To influence teaching in a way that enhances and improves student learning is the school principal's responsibility. Because perceptions are more important than actual behavior, it is essential for principals to know if their perception of their supervisory actions is in agreement with the way their teachers perceive the same supervisory…

  16. Principals' Leadership Network. Focusing on the Image of the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Cheryl Riggins; Hayden, Hal

    2004-01-01

    A recent study by The National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Principals in the Public: Engaging Community Support (2000) found that communication, marketing, public affairs and public relations and engagement activities are now given more time and importance than ever before. According to the study, public support builds…

  17. Principal Preparation Programs: Perceptions of High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; LeMire, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    There has been an abundance of research documenting perceived deficiencies in traditional principal preparation programs, but little field data have been collected. As such, the authors of this study sought to assess the satisfaction of practitioners, high school principals, with their preparation programs. Questionnaires were received from 374…

  18. Mentor Principals' Perceptions about a Mentoring Program for Aspiring Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steven Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the perceptions of principals who serve as mentors for an internship program for aspiring principals at East Tennessee State University. Each mentor was interviewed to gather information about the internship program, the benefits of mentoring in the program, and what the mentors may have learned about their…

  19. From Training Great Principals to Preparing Principals for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Rallis, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    We offer the collaborative inquiry-action cycle as a framework for principals' practice and principal preparation. The cycle is a pragmatic tool that does not prescribe behaviors or contexts. Moreover, the cycle does not represent another programmatic solution or model for leadership. Rather the power of the cycle is that it drives collaboration,…

  20. The Principal and Fiscal Management. Elementary Principal Series No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, James K.; Marconnit, George D.

    The sixth of six volumes in the "Elementary Principal Series," this booklet is designed to help principals develop sound fiscal management strategies at the building level. The first section reviews Indiana statutory provisions for handling extracurricular and booster group funds. The second section presents guidelines for managing…

  1. Implementing elementary school nutrition policy: principals' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer P; Maclellan, Debbie; Caiger, Jane Mary; Hernandez, Kimberley; McKenna, Mary; Gray, Bob; Veugelers, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We assessed principals' perceptions about the level of school nutrition policy (SNP) implementation in Prince Edward Island elementary schools, objectively evaluated how closely elementary schools are following SNP regulations for types and frequency of foods offered at school, and explored principals' beliefs about the key enablers and barriers to SNP implementation. Phase I involved a cross-sectional survey of principals' assessment of perceived and actual adherence to SNP components. Phase II included in-depth interviews to explore principals' perceptions about factors influencing policy adherence. Descriptive statistics were generated. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes. Forty-one (93%) principals participated in Phase I, and nine of these participated in Phase II. The level of implementation of SNP components varied. Seventy-four percent of all foods sold were categorized as allowed by the SNP; 68% of schools sold at least one "not allowed" food. Key barriers included lost revenue, a higher cost of healthy foods, and limited availability of policy-allowed foods. Enablers were a high level of community support, ready access to food suppliers, and active parent volunteers. While schools are making progress in implementing the SNP, challenges remain. Identifying and communicating strategies for healthy fundraising activities and finding ways to involve parents in SNP implementation are recommended.

  2. Development and Validation of a Principal Implementation Practices Measure: The Principal Implementation Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Nettles, Stephen M.; Petscher, Yaacov

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of principal implementation behaviors has proved difficult to researchers in educational leadership due to a lack of consensus on the operational definitions of leadership constructs. The Principal Implementation Questionnaire (PIQ) was developed and validated with the intention of providing clarity in the assessment of principal leadership behaviors in the implementation of effective reading programs. Constructs were operationally defined within the context of the population of interest, with subsequent item writing centered around the constructs. A resulting calibration sample of principals from Florida Reading First schools was used to test the hypothesized measurement model to determine how well the items were described by the proposed factors. Results from LISREL analyses revealed a well-fitted model, based on numerous fit indices. PMID:26366043

  3. School Principals as Effective Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, William L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of elementary and secondary principals revealed that effective principals all demonstrated five essential qualities of leadership--they had clear visions of desirable futures for their schools, translated those visions into specific goals, established supportive environments for improvement, monitored progress, and intervened effectively…

  4. The Principal and the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumack, Kenneth A.

    The evolution of a run-down inner city elementary school into a flourishing community school is documented by its principal. By going out into the community and visiting in parents' homes, this principal built a base of support for innovations, such as individualized instruction and tutoring, as well as a lunch and breakfast program. Student…

  5. The Principal as Formative Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidus, Gabrielle; Sadder, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders. In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the…

  6. The Principal and Human Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Human Relations.

    This booklet offers general guidelines and recommendations on how to develop and exercise the interpersonal skills required of a successful school principal. Attention is devoted to the basic principles of effective communication and personal interaction, with emphasis on the principal's relations with students, teachers, and members of the…

  7. Analysis of principal nested spheres.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sungkyu; Dryden, Ian L; Marron, J S

    2012-09-01

    A general framework for a novel non-geodesic decomposition of high-dimensional spheres or high-dimensional shape spaces for planar landmarks is discussed. The decomposition, principal nested spheres, leads to a sequence of submanifolds with decreasing intrinsic dimensions, which can be interpreted as an analogue of principal component analysis. In a number of real datasets, an apparent one-dimensional mode of variation curving through more than one geodesic component is captured in the one-dimensional component of principal nested spheres. While analysis of principal nested spheres provides an intuitive and flexible decomposition of the high-dimensional sphere, an interesting special case of the analysis results in finding principal geodesics, similar to those from previous approaches to manifold principal component analysis. An adaptation of our method to Kendall's shape space is discussed, and a computational algorithm for fitting principal nested spheres is proposed. The result provides a coordinate system to visualize the data structure and an intuitive summary of principal modes of variation, as exemplified by several datasets.

  8. Analysis of principal nested spheres

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sungkyu; Dryden, Ian L.; Marron, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Summary A general framework for a novel non-geodesic decomposition of high-dimensional spheres or high-dimensional shape spaces for planar landmarks is discussed. The decomposition, principal nested spheres, leads to a sequence of submanifolds with decreasing intrinsic dimensions, which can be interpreted as an analogue of principal component analysis. In a number of real datasets, an apparent one-dimensional mode of variation curving through more than one geodesic component is captured in the one-dimensional component of principal nested spheres. While analysis of principal nested spheres provides an intuitive and flexible decomposition of the high-dimensional sphere, an interesting special case of the analysis results in finding principal geodesics, similar to those from previous approaches to manifold principal component analysis. An adaptation of our method to Kendall’s shape space is discussed, and a computational algorithm for fitting principal nested spheres is proposed. The result provides a coordinate system to visualize the data structure and an intuitive summary of principal modes of variation, as exemplified by several datasets. PMID:23843669

  9. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  10. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  11. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  12. Principals and SRO's: Defining Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Many principals have recently acquired school resource officers, police officers who are stationed in schools and report to local sheriffs or police chiefs. Working effectively with a resource officer requires that principals and officers understand each other's role and express partnership details in a memorandum of understanding. (MLH)

  13. The Principal as Curriculum Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Judy; Pfeifer, R. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Today's reform landscape transcends instructional leadership and data-based decision-making skills. This is not to say that those behaviors are not essential to a principal's success, but they no longer suffice. Principals do not need to be curriculum experts, but they do need to lead their schools with full knowledge of the Common Core State…

  14. Principals' Perceptions of Successful Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this qualitative multiple case study were to determine the catalysts and pathways that caused principals to move from managers to effective leaders. Data were collected through a series of interviews with 4 principals who were selected through a purposeful sampling procedure. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and…

  15. What Do Effective Principals Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protheroe, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written during the past decade about the changing role of the principal and the shift in emphasis from manager to instructional leader. Anyone in education, and especially principals themselves, could develop a mental list of responsibilities that fit within each of these realms. But research makes it clear that both those aspects of…

  16. Burnout among Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Combs, Julie; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2009-01-01

    As the understanding of burnout continues to be refined, studies that examine school principals and burnout will be helpful to those who provide support to school leaders and are concerned about principal attrition and pending shortages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and gender, age, and years experience…

  17. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  18. Preparing Principals for Leadership Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindauer, Patricia; Petrie, Garth; Leonard, John; Gooden, John; Bennett, Brenda

    2003-01-01

    Reports findings of two studies--one in Georgia, the other in Kentucky--of principal group-processing skills and training. Finds, for example, that group-processing skills are critical to principals' job success, especially in schools with site-based management, but that the quality and amount of such training in university preparation programs…

  19. The Principal: Gatekeeper of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Sandra C.

    The role of the principal as the key decision-maker, problem-solver, and agent of change at the school site is discussed in this paper. A review of the recent literature indicates the major ways in which this role may be enhanced to bring about school effectiveness. The first section discusses the skills necessary to be a principal in today's…

  20. A Principal's Reflections on Twinning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelliher, Shirley; Rees, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    A principal of three Ontario "twinned" schools (sharing principal and services) discusses the arrangement's advantages: greater sharing of both human and technical resources and increased opportunities for broader budget negotiations between schools. The disadvantages of twinning relate to the additional stress placed on the principal…

  1. Time Management for New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  2. Great Principals at Scale: Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  3. Managers Help Principals Balance Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    Most principals probably hope that at least half their working day is spent in meaningful interactions with teachers and students. But that's not likely. Investigators who shadowed principals for a week showed that a crush of managerial duties allowed them to spend only a third of their day--or less--on tasks that involved interaction with…

  4. Teacher and Principal Assessment Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Michael Lee

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act in 2002 has increased the emphasis on standardized achievement tests. Principals are asked to lead instruction and improve student achievement through assessment. NCLB has sanctions that could include replacing a school principal. The purpose of this study was to look at the level of…

  5. Time Management for New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  6. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  7. Getting Intentional about Principal Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    As part of "The Wallace Foundation's Principal Pipeline" initiative, six districts have been working to reshape their school leadership evaluation systems to provide better and more consistent feedback to principals--and ultimately to help them grow in their jobs. In this article, Pamela Mendels, a senior editor at Wallace, describes the…

  8. Fear in the Principal's Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romaneck, Greg M.

    2006-01-01

    Fear and anxiety are emotions that principals must learn to overcome if they are to be effective leaders. This article provides some observations and suggestions that can help principals understand and cope with fear on the job. (Contains 3 online resources.)

  9. The Principal in Metropolitan Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Donald A., Ed.; Reller, Theodore L., Ed.

    This collection of articles is designed to help metropolitan school principals meet the challenges of their positions. It is especially concerned with how principals can contribute to effective education for students of markedly heterogenous backgrounds. The authors deal with such issues as the principalship and metropolitan administration, the…

  10. Principal Components and Scale Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankmeyer, Eric

    A limitation of the principal components method is its scale dependence. This note shows that the method is scale invariant if the normalization is modified in an obvious way. Then the effect of a change in units is as transparent as in linear regression, and principal components can be used without apology. Most researchers who use multivariate…

  11. School Principals' Sources of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Arland Early

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what sources of professional knowledge are available to principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district. Qualitative research methods were applied to gain an understanding of what sources of knowledge are used by school principals in 1 rural East Tennessee school district and the barriers they face…

  12. Great New Resources for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The end of the school year is a hectic time for high school principals. Summer often provides a brief opportunity to "kick-back" and take time to rest, relax and spend some time thinking about the coming school year. As the school year ends the author would like to introduce several new or updated resources that every high school principal will…

  13. Groundwater studies: principal aquifer surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop nationally consistent long-term datasets and provide information about the quality of the Nation’s streams and groundwater. The USGS uses objective and reliable data, water-quality models, and systematic scientific studies to assess current water-quality conditions, to identify changes in water quality over time, and to determine how natural factors and human activities affect the quality of streams and groundwater. NAWQA is the only non-regulatory Federal program to perform these types of studies; participation is voluntary. In the third decade (Cycle 3) of the NAWQA program (2013–2023), the USGS will evaluate the quality and availability of groundwater for drinking supply, improve our understanding of where and why water quality is degraded, and assess how groundwater quality could respond to changes in climate and land use. These goals will be addressed through the implementation of a new monitoring component in Cycle 3: Principal Aquifer Surveys.

  14. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  15. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  16. Mentoring Prospective Principals: Determinants of Productive Mentor-Mentee Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring contributes to prospective principals' growth, easing their transition from the role of teacher to that of administrator. This article reports findings from a study aimed at examining the determinant factors affecting the mentor-mentee relationship in a uniquely designed principal preparation program in New York City. The study…

  17. How Do Principals Respond to Charter School Competition? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannata, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    The current study from the National Center on School Choice contributes to the research by exploring the factors that affect principals' perceptions of charter school competition and the extent to which their leadership behavior may change in response. Central research questions of the study were: (1) How do principals perceive the competition…

  18. Primary School Principals' Job Satisfaction and Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors associated with occupational stress and job satisfaction among Irish primary school principals. A principal's job has become increasingly demanding and complex in recent decades. However, there is little current research into their levels of stress and job satisfaction, particularly…

  19. High School Principals as Leaders: Styles and Sources of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinia, Vasiliki; Papantoniou, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics of leadership (style adopted, sources of power exercised and factors affecting leadership) of high school principals in Greece. Design/Methodology/Approach: In total, 235 school principals were surveyed using questionnaires. These questionnaires assessed how often they adopted…

  20. Mentoring Prospective Principals: Determinants of Productive Mentor-Mentee Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Mentoring contributes to prospective principals' growth, easing their transition from the role of teacher to that of administrator. This article reports findings from a study aimed at examining the determinant factors affecting the mentor-mentee relationship in a uniquely designed principal preparation program in New York City. The study…

  1. Profile of a Successful Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Thais

    1985-01-01

    Dick Curland, principal of Valley View Elementary School in Portland, Connecticut, enhances his effectiveness by maintaining high visibility, communicating clearly and frequently with others, supporting his staff, and developing positive personal contact with individual students. (PGD)

  2. A Salary Formula for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

  3. Aquarius Principal Investigator with Observatory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-19

    NASA Aquarius Principal Investigator Gary Lagerloef photographed in front of the Aquarius/SAC-D satellite observatory as it is being readied for transportation from Brazil to Vandenberg Air Force Base in California for a June 2011 launch.

  4. Functional characterization of a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor GhDEL65 from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Shangguan, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Chang-Qing; Zhang, Xiu-Fang; Wang, Ling-Jian

    2016-10-01

    Cotton fiber is proposed to share some similarity with the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf trichome, which is regulated by the MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex. Although several MYB transcription factors and WD40 family proteins in cotton have been characterized, little is known about the role of bHLH family proteins in cotton. Here, we report that GhDEL65, a bHLH protein from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), is a functional homologue of Arabidopsis GLABRA3 (GL3) and ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 (EGL3) in regulating trichome development. Transcripts of GhDEL65 were detected in 0 ∼ 1 days post-anthesis (DPA) ovules and abundant in 3-DPA fibers, implying that GhDEL65 may act in early fiber development. Ectopic expression of GhDEL65 in Arabidopsis gl3 egl3 double mutant partly rescued the trichome development, and constitutive expression of GhDEL65 in wild-type plants led to increased trichome density on rosette leaves and stems, mainly by activating the transcription of two key positive regulators of trichome development, GLABRA1 (GL1) and GLABRA2 (GL2), and suppressed the expression of a R3 single-repeat MYB factor TRIPTYCHON (TRY). GhDEL65 could interact with cotton R2R3 MYB transcription factors GhMYB2 and GhMYB3, as well as the WD40 protein GhTTG3, suggesting that the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex also exists in cotton fiber cell, though its function in cotton fiber development awaits further investigation.

  5. Principal Fibrations from Noncommutative Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Suijlekom, Walter Van

    2005-11-01

    We construct noncommutative principal fibrations Sθ7→Sθ4 which are deformations of the classical SU(2) Hopf fibration over the four sphere. We realize the noncommutative vector bundles associated to the irreducible representations of SU(2) as modules of coequivariant maps and construct corresponding projections. The index of Dirac operators with coefficients in the associated bundles is computed with the Connes-Moscovici local index formula. "The algebra inclusion is an example of a not-trivial quantum principal bundle."

  6. Motorcycle helmet use in Mar del Plata, Argentina: prevalence and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Rubén D; López, Soledad S; Tosi, Jeremías; Poó, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Injuries resulting from motorcycle crashes constitute a growing problem in Argentina and other Latin American countries. The problem is aggravated because helmet use is not widespread. This observational study analysed the prevalence of helmet use and related factors in a city in Argentina. The sample consisted of 2542 observations of motorcyclists. The results show an incidence of helmet use of 69.8% for drives and 43.4% for passengers. Helmet use was greater among women. Environmental and temporal conditions were related with the rate of helmet use. The findings indicate a considerable increase in helmet use with respect to prior years, providing evidence in favour of government policies. However, the number of motorcycles in circulation has tripled in the past five years, and therefore, the public health impact of injuries due to motorcycle crashes persists.

  7. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    PubMed

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  8. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  9. Principal Investigator-in-a-Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Human performance in orbit is currently limited by several factors beyond the intrinsic awkwardness of motor control in weightlessness. Cognitive functioning can be affected by such factors as cumulative sleep loss, stress and the psychological effects of long-duration small-group isolation. When an astronaut operates a scientific experiment, the performance decrement associated with such factors can lead to lost or poor quality data and even the total loss of a scientific objective, at great cost to the sponsors and to the dismay of the Principal Investigator. In long-duration flights, as anticipated on the International Space Station and on any planetary exploration, the experimental model is further complicated by long delays between training and experiment, and the large number of experiments each crew member must perform. Although no documented studies have been published on the subject, astronauts report that an unusually large number of simple errors are made in space. Whether a result of the effects of microgravity, accumulated fatigue, stress or other factors, this pattern of increased error supports the need for a computerized decision-making aid for astronauts performing experiments. Artificial intelligence and expert systems might serve as powerful tools for assisting experiments in space. Those conducting space experiments typically need assistance exactly when the planned checklist does not apply. Expert systems, which use bits of human knowledge and human methods to respond appropriately to unusual situations, have a flexibility that is highly desirable in circumstances where an invariably predictable course of action/response does not exist. Frequently the human expert on the ground is unavailable, lacking the latest information, or not consulted by the astronaut conducting the experiment. In response to these issues, we have developed "Principal Investigator-in-a-Box," or [PI], to capture the reasoning process of the real expert, the Principal

  10. Principal curvature for infrared small target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yao; Pan, Haibin; Du, Changping; Zheng, Yao

    2015-03-01

    Small target detection in infrared image with complex background and low signal-noise ratio is an important and difficult task in the infrared target tracking system. In this paper, a principal curvature-based method is proposed. The principal curvatures of target pixels are negative and their absolute values are larger than that of background pixels and noise pixels in a Gaussian-blurred infrared image. The proposed filter takes a composite function of the curvatures for detection. An approximate model is also built for optimizing the parameters. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and adaptable for infrared small target detection in complex background. Compared with several popular methods, the proposed algorithm demonstrates significant improvement on detection performance in terms of the parameters of signal clutter ratio gain, background suppression factor and ROC.

  11. Reflections on My First Year as Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealey, Robert J., Comp.

    This book grew out of the first principals' academy for beginning principals, hosted by the National Catholic Educational Association. Almost 60 principals, all in their first or second year as principals of Catholic elementary/middle schools, from all over the U.S. attended the program. At the conclusion of the academy, the principals wrote brief…

  12. Perceived Induction Needs for Beginning Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jason; Siegrist, Gerald; Pate, James; Monetti, David; Raiford, Simmie

    2009-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the perceptions of beginning principals regarding their need for induction experiences and the relationship of principal responsibilities to those perceived induction needs. Beginning principals were denied as principals in their first through third years as a principal in a school. The study further examined…

  13. A View from the Principal's Office: A Grounded-Theory Exploration of Principals' Perceptions of Non-Academic Barriers to Learning--Implications for School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prather, JoNataye Arnitra

    2010-01-01

    The importance of the principal has been found to be a critical factor in student and school success. School principal responsibilities traditionally encompass operations and management. However, many principals are unable to fulfill these expectations because of students' social and behavioral issues. Consequently, this qualitative study explored…

  14. The Principal and the Law. Elementary Principal Series No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doverspike, David E.; Cone, W. Henry

    Developments over the past 25 years in school-related legal issues in elementary schools have significantly changed the principal's role. In 1975, a decision of the U.S. Supreme Court established three due-process guidelines for short-term suspension. The decision requires student notification of charges, explanation of evidence, and an informal…

  15. Principal Leadership and Organizational Commitment: The Principal Must Deliver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Theoretically, schools led by principals providing structure, resources, consideration, useful influence, and professional support in an even-handed, noncontrolling manner should be work places that elicit teacher commitment. This hypothesis was tested using a sample of 72 New Jersey secondary schools. Close control blunts teacher commitment.…

  16. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  17. Principal Concerns: Addressing Statewide Principal Pipelines with Data and Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Christine; Gross, Bethany

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about human capital and school improvement typically center on teachers, not administrators, and that's a mistake. Principals, who are responsible for selecting and developing the teachers they know are so important, are a critical driver of school success. So it is imperative that states do everything they can to find, deploy, and…

  18. "Successful" Principals: A Contested Notion for Superintendents and Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribner, Samantha M. Paredes; Crow, Gary M.; Lopez, Gerardo R.; Murtadha, Khaula

    2011-01-01

    The notion of "success" is narrowly defined and appropriated within an educational context. Typically limited to objective measures of organizational productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency, "successful" principal practices, we argue, engender action and attention to a broader array of issues and interrelationships. In this study, we conducted…

  19. Toward Understanding Principals' Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Curran, F. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore variation across principals in terms of the number and types of strategies they engage in to find teachers to fill the vacancies in their schools. The practices that the authors consider to be strategic are aligned with the district's goals and objectives for teacher recruitment.…

  20. Teachers' Perspectives on Principal Mistreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; Blase, Jo

    2006-01-01

    Although there is some important scholarly work on the problem of workplace mistreatment/abuse, theoretical or empirical work on abusive school principals is nonexistent. Symbolic interactionism was the theoretical structure for the present study. This perspective on social research is founded on three primary assumptions: (1) individuals act…

  1. The Principal as Instructional Leader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1986-01-01

    Effective schools research has verified that schools are rarely effective unless the principal is a proficient instructional leader. This article summarizes five recent studies examining the practices and qualities comprising good instructional leadership. A Seattle study by Richard L. Andrews disclosed a statistical correlation between student…

  2. Preparing Elementary Principals for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bish, Marion; Shore, Rebecca; Shue, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    "Surprise! Here come the preschoolers." Thousands of elementary principals are receiving a similar message from their supervisors as the concept of universal preschool is propelled to the forefront of the national education agenda. School districts across the country are being infused with wide varieties of federal- and state-funded…

  3. The Principal and Tort Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Ralph D.

    The emphasis of this chapter is on the tort liability of principals, especially their commission of unintentional torts or torts resulting from negligent conduct. A tort is defined as a wrongful act, not including a breach of contract or trust, which results in injury to another's person, property, or reputation and for which the injured party is…

  4. ROLE CONFLICTS OF SCHOOL PRINCIPALS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROSS, NEAL; AND OTHERS

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY WAS TO ISOLATE THE ROLE CONFLICTS TO WHICH SCHOOL PRINCIPALS ARE EXPOSED, THE METHODS USED TO RESOLVE THEM, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH THEY OCCUR. THE SOCIAL MATRIX OF ROLE CONFLICT IS BASED ON DIFFERING EXPECTATIONS OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR INTERPRETATIONS. THUS, WHEN PARENTS, STUDENTS, TEACHERS, OTHER ADMINISTRATORS, AND…

  5. Principal Leadership in Taiwan Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, Roger C.; Lin, Kuan-Pei

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, Taiwan's Ministry of Education has responded to globalization by restructuring school curricular, instructional, and decision making practices along western lines in an attempt to attain legitimacy on the world stage. As a result, Taiwanese principals, once kings within their schools, now must share power with other…

  6. Solving the Assistant Principal's Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    How does an assistant principal complete the large number of managerial duties and, at the same time, serve as a credible instructional leader? This book provides practical recommendations for successfully filling the dual role as manager and instructional leader, building effective relationships, using power appropriately, and productively…

  7. Evaluating School Principals. Tips & Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Sims, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    With the need to meet a set of higher accountability standards such as Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) Standards and the AYP benchmarks of the NCLB Act, for example, school principals are faced with the knowledge that they play a vital role in school effectiveness as well as teacher retention, parent participation, and…

  8. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  9. The Need for Principal Renewal: The Promise of Sustaining Principals through Principal-to-Principal Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Given the challenging complexity of the modern principalship--including high-stakes testing, standards-based reform, increased accountability, and severe budget cuts--practitioners and scholars emphasize the urgency of supporting principals' stress-relief and renewal. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: This…

  10. The Principal as Tech Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The conventional wisdom in education is that any school reform--be it curriculum, instruction, assessment, or teacher professionalism--is most likely to take hold in schools that have strong leadership. The same holds true for technology. The most successful implementation of technology programs takes place in schools where the principal sees him…

  11. Veteran Advice for New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Bob; Conner, Nancy; Murray, Vincent; Williams, Claudia

    2004-01-01

    A recent survey found that 67% of principals believe that school of education leadership programs are out of touch with what it takes to run a school district. Only 4% praise their graduate studies, and a majority say that mentoring and guidance from people they work with has the greatest benefit for them. In this article, the author asked three…

  12. Preparing Principals for Today's Demands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Pamela F.

    2006-01-01

    As a principal, Ms. Brown has firsthand knowledge of the pressures educational leaders face in the NCLB era. If administrators are going to perform effectively in today's school environment, she argues, the programs that prepare them will have to undergo significant reform. She urges university leadership programs to adopt four changes that will…

  13. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  14. Toward Understanding Principals' Hiring Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Mimi; Curran, F. Chris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore variation across principals in terms of the number and types of strategies they engage in to find teachers to fill the vacancies in their schools. The practices that the authors consider to be strategic are aligned with the district's goals and objectives for teacher recruitment.…

  15. Principals and Teachers, Leading Together.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blegen, Mary Beth; Kennedy, Carole

    2000-01-01

    Today's students need countless opportunities to turn information into knowledge that helps them understand themselves, others, and the world. Emergent teacher leadership will help students practice democracy. Principals must partner with teachers to create time for staff to converse, learn together, and convert schools to learning centers. (MLH)

  16. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed…

  17. [Risk Factors Associated With School Bullying in Local Authority Schools in Four Municipalities of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. Year 2009].

    PubMed

    Hernández Carrillo, Mauricio; Gutiérrez Martínez, María Isabel

    2013-09-01

    To determine the association between family and social relationships and School Bullying (SB) among peers in public education institutions in four municipalities of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia, during 2009. A case-control study matched by sex and educational institution was carried out. The study population came from a secondary database provided by the Departof Health Secretaryhealth, which consisted of data gathered in a survey of schoolchildren enrolled in grades 6 to 11. The CISNEROS scale and the Family APGAR test were applied to measure outcome and exposure variables. A conditional logistic regression model was obtained to explain SB. It was found that schoolchildren living with a family where verbal and physical violence prevails, as well as in a hostile neighborhood, are more vulnerable to SB. The probability of being an SB victim is explained by: family dysfunction (OR=2.67; 95%CI, 1.05-6.82), verbal aggression at home (OR=2.81; 95%CI, 1.45-5.46), physical punishing parents (OR=2.53; 95%CI, 1.12-5.75), and neighbors who are physically aggressive to each other (OR=1.87; 95% CI, 1.00-3.56). The study confirmed that reported by Lopez, who suggested that victimization and school rejection in adolescence is related to factors outside the classroom, such as the quality of communication between parents and children. As regards family influence in the SB, Bowes indicates that a positive family atmosphere is significantly associated with the resilience of school victimization. Furthermore, being physically punished by parents generates low self-esteem in the schoolchild that leads to lack of self-protective attitudes to the attacks that occur within the school. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-01-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable. PMID:11394483

  19. The principal components of response strength.

    PubMed

    Killeen, P R; Hall, S S

    2001-03-01

    As Skinner (1938) described it, response strength is the "state of the reflex with respect to all its static properties" (p. 15), which include response rate, latency, probability, and persistence. The relations of those measures to one another was analyzed by probabilistically reinforcing, satiating, and extinguishing pigeons' key pecking in a trials paradigm. Reinforcement was scheduled according to variable-interval, variable-ratio, and fixed-interval contingencies. Principal components analysis permitted description in terms of a single latent variable, strength, and this was validated with confirmatory factor analyses. Overall response rate was an excellent predictor of this state variable.

  20. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  1. Principal elementary mode analysis (PEMA).

    PubMed

    Folch-Fortuny, Abel; Marques, Rodolfo; Isidro, Inês A; Oliveira, Rui; Ferrer, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely applied in fluxomics to compress data into a few latent structures in order to simplify the identification of metabolic patterns. These latent structures lack a direct biological interpretation due to the intrinsic constraints associated with a PCA model. Here we introduce a new method that significantly improves the interpretability of the principal components with a direct link to metabolic pathways. This method, called principal elementary mode analysis (PEMA), establishes a bridge between a PCA-like model, aimed at explaining the maximum variance in flux data, and the set of elementary modes (EMs) of a metabolic network. It provides an easy way to identify metabolic patterns in large fluxomics datasets in terms of the simplest pathways of the organism metabolism. The results using a real metabolic model of Escherichia coli show the ability of PEMA to identify the EMs that generated the different simulated flux distributions. Actual flux data of E. coli and Pichia pastoris cultures confirm the results observed in the simulated study, providing a biologically meaningful model to explain flux data of both organisms in terms of the EM activation. The PEMA toolbox is freely available for non-commercial purposes on http://mseg.webs.upv.es.

  2. How to Spot an Effective Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Chester E, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Research shows the importance of effective principals in the development of effective schools. Discusses the importance of the principal selection process. The "Principal Selection Guide" was developed by the United States Department of Education to assist those involved in principal selection. (MD)

  3. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  4. 31 CFR 19.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal. 19.995 Section 19.995... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory...

  5. 22 CFR 208.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal. 208.995 Section 208.995 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  6. 22 CFR 208.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal. 208.995 Section 208.995 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 208.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  7. 31 CFR 19.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 19.995 Section 19.995... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or supervisory...

  8. 7 CFR 3017.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal. 3017.995 Section 3017.995 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a...

  9. 29 CFR 1471.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal. 1471.995 Section 1471.995 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or...

  10. 29 CFR 1471.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 1471.995 Section 1471.995 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with management or...

  11. 47 CFR 76.1708 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1708 Section 76.1708... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1708 Principal headend. (a) The... of its principal headend. If an operator changes the designation of its principal headend, that new...

  12. 22 CFR 1508.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Principal. 1508.995 Section 1508.995 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  13. 2 CFR 180.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principal. 180.995 Section 180.995 Grants... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with...

  14. 47 CFR 76.1708 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1708 Section 76.1708... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1708 Principal headend. (a) The... of its principal headend. If an operator changes the designation of its principal headend, that new...

  15. 2 CFR 180.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal. 180.995 Section 180.995 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET GOVERNMENTWIDE GUIDANCE FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS... § 180.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator...

  16. 22 CFR 1508.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1508.995 Section 1508.995 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1508.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  17. 7 CFR 1786.208 - Increased principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Increased principal. 1786.208 Section 1786.208... Increased principal. A borrower can meet the premium requirements by increasing the outstanding principal... outstanding principal balance of the loan. ...

  18. 41 CFR 105-68.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principal. 105-68.995...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant...

  19. 22 CFR 1006.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Principal. 1006.995 Section 1006.995 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal. 1404.995 Section 1404.995 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Principal. 1006.995 Section 1006.995 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1006.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator...

  2. 29 CFR 98.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal. 98.995 Section 98.995 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a...

  3. 5 CFR 919.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal. 919.995 Section 919.995...) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with...

  4. 29 CFR 98.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Principal. 98.995 Section 98.995 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a...

  5. 5 CFR 919.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principal. 919.995 Section 919.995...) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant with...

  6. 41 CFR 105-68.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 105-68.995...-GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 105-68.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal investigator, or other person within a participant...

  7. 34 CFR 85.995 - Principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal. 85.995 Section 85.995 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 85.995 Principal. Principal means— (a) An officer, director, owner, partner, principal...

  8. Developing Principal Instructional Leadership through Collaborative Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Mariah Bahar

    2010-01-01

    This study examines what occurs when principals of urban schools meet together to learn and improve their instructional leadership in collaborative principal networks designed to support, sustain, and provide ongoing principal capacity building. Principal leadership is considered second only to teaching in its ability to improve schools, yet few…

  9. The Changing Role of the School Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    2014-01-01

    The role of the school principal has changed much in the recent intervening years. He/she was formerly thought of as a manager and management of the local school. Today the principal is seen as the leader of curriculum improvement. School principals must believe in pupils being able to achieve optimally in school and in life. Principals must…

  10. Leading Change: Principals' Stories of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Susan, Ed.

    This little book contains eight stories of school reform and leadership by eight public-school principals. Each principal leads a school that is a member of the Coalition of Essential Schools. The principals' stories are highly personal, often focusing more on the individual principal than on the reforms they brought about. Nevertheless, through…

  11. Principal's Time Use and School Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Eileen Lai; Klasik, Daniel; Loeb, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    School principals have complex jobs. To better understand the work lives of principals, this study uses observational time use data for all high school principals in one district. This article examines the relationship between the time principals spent on different types of activities and school outcomes, including student achievement, teacher and…

  12. Three Principals Who Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagor, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Principals who are transformative leaders consistently use three building blocks to promote school success: a clear, unified purpose; a common cultural perspective; and a constant push for improvement. In one study, an opinionated, assertive middle school principal; a nurturing, supportive principal; and a high-energy, charismatic principal all…

  13. Evaluating Principals: Recommendations at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Principal and teacher quality account for nearly 60% of a school's total impact on student achievement, and principals alone for a full 25% (Marzano et al., 2005). The principal's impact is so significant because of the leadership actions principals take to create the school-wide conditions that support student learning--especially those actions…

  14. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  15. Time Management Abilities of School Principals According to Gender: A Case Study in Selected Gauteng Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botha, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the literature on school effectiveness and school improvement and the role of the school principal in this regard, the lack of time management skills and abilities among school principals can be regarded as one of the main factors that lead to principal inefficiency and ineffectiveness in the school context. But, how do male and…

  16. Different Approaches to the Professional Development of Principals: A Comparative Study of New Zealand and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors that contribute to effective management of schools is the professional development of principals. The role of the principal has become more complex with the dynamic and constant reforms in the educational environment. The present study focuses on the professional development of principals in New Zealand and Singapore. The…

  17. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  18. Different Approaches to the Professional Development of Principals: A Comparative Study of New Zealand and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retna, Kala S.

    2015-01-01

    One of the key factors that contribute to effective management of schools is the professional development of principals. The role of the principal has become more complex with the dynamic and constant reforms in the educational environment. The present study focuses on the professional development of principals in New Zealand and Singapore. The…

  19. Retention and Social Promotion: Perspectives of North Carolina Elementary School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulla, Tom; Gooden, John S.

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses of 407 elementary school principals revealed that the factors most influencing principals' decisions to retain students include lack of mastery of material, local and state accountability standards, and the student's maturity level and chronological age. Principals also believe children should be retained in the early years.…

  20. Instructional, Transformational, and Managerial Leadership and Student Achievement: High School Principals Make a Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Jerry W.; Prater, Mike

    2011-01-01

    This statewide study examined the relationships between principal managerial, instructional, and transformational leadership and student achievement in public high schools. Differences in student achievement were found when schools were grouped according to principal leadership factors. Principal leadership behaviors promoting instructional and…

  1. Inductive robust principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bing-Kun; Liu, Guangcan; Xu, Changsheng; Yan, Shuicheng

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we address the error correction problem that is to uncover the low-dimensional subspace structure from high-dimensional observations, which are possibly corrupted by errors. When the errors are of Gaussian distribution, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can find the optimal (in terms of least-square-error) low-rank approximation to highdimensional data. However, the canonical PCA method is known to be extremely fragile to the presence of gross corruptions. Recently, Wright et al. established a so-called Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) method, which can well handle grossly corrupted data [14]. However, RPCA is a transductive method and does not handle well the new samples which are not involved in the training procedure. Given a new datum, RPCA essentially needs to recalculate over all the data, resulting in high computational cost. So, RPCA is inappropriate for the applications that require fast online computation. To overcome this limitation, in this paper we propose an Inductive Robust Principal Component Analysis (IRPCA) method. Given a set of training data, unlike RPCA that targets on recovering the original data matrix, IRPCA aims at learning the underlying projection matrix, which can be used to efficiently remove the possible corruptions in any datum. The learning is done by solving a nuclear norm regularized minimization problem, which is convex and can be solved in polynomial time. Extensive experiments on a benchmark human face dataset and two video surveillance datasets show that IRPCA can not only be robust to gross corruptions, but also handle well the new data in an efficient way.

  2. Principal components analysis competitive learning.

    PubMed

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Ortiz-de-Lazcano-Lobato, Juan Miguel; Muñoz-Pérez, José; Gómez-Ruiz, José Antonio

    2004-11-01

    We present a new neural model that extends the classical competitive learning by performing a principal components analysis (PCA) at each neuron. This model represents an improvement with respect to known local PCA methods, because it is not needed to present the entire data set to the network on each computing step. This allows a fast execution while retaining the dimensionality-reduction properties of the PCA. Furthermore, every neuron is able to modify its behavior to adapt to the local dimensionality of the input distribution. Hence, our model has a dimensionality estimation capability. The experimental results we present show the dimensionality-reduction capabilities of the model with multisensor images.

  3. Costo- Efectividad Del Uso Profiláctico Del Factor Estimulante De Colonias De Granulocitos En Adultos Con Leucemia Linfoblástica Aguda en Colombia.

    PubMed

    Casadiego Rincón, Elkin Javier; Díaz Rojas, Jorge Augusto; Bermúdez, Carlos Daniel; Martínez, Víctor Prieto

    2016-12-01

    To assess the cost-effectiveness of prophylactic administration of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) compared with no use of it, during the induction phase of chemotherapy in Adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in Colombia. A decision tree with a time horizon of 30 days was built under colombian health system perspective including only direct costs. The costs of procedures and medications were taken from official sources and an institution of national reference of oncology services. The safety and effectiveness data were taken from the literature and two Colombian cohorts with patients older than 15 years. The unit of outcome was the proportion of deaths avoided. Base-case results on a clinical trial indicate that using factor is a dominant strategy. The variable that most impacted the outcome was the incidence of febrile neutropenia. Considering a threshold of $22.228 USD in 80% of cases using factor was cost effective. However, the use of factor is not cost-effective for the country for incidences of febrile neutropenia > 48%. It was not possible to establish cost-effectiveness of pegfilgrastim because no information was found. As per Colombian data, the use of prophylactic factor under chemotherapeutic induction in adults with ALL, turns out to be not cost effective. The difference in the results suggests the need of a careful extrapolation of information from clinical trials (ideal world) for developing economic evaluations in Colombia. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parametric functional principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Principal Recruitment: Assessing Job Pursuit Intentions among Educators Enrolled in Principal Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Rinehart, James S.; Keedy, John L.; Bjork, Lars G.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide cadre of principal certification students (N = 516) completed a principal job survey and role-played as applicants for a principal position by completing a principal job evaluation instrument. Significant predictors of principal job rating included the following: self-reported capability to do the job, expected satisfaction with work…

  6. Principal Recruitment: Assessing Job Pursuit Intentions among Educators Enrolled in Principal Certification Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Paul A.; Rinehart, James S.; Keedy, John L.; Bjork, Lars G.

    2007-01-01

    A statewide cadre of principal certification students (N = 516) completed a principal job survey and role-played as applicants for a principal position by completing a principal job evaluation instrument. Significant predictors of principal job rating included the following: self-reported capability to do the job, expected satisfaction with work…

  7. Female Traditional Principals and Co-Principals: Experiences of Role Conflict and Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Ellen Wexler; Kelber, Sheryl Talcott

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a secondary analysis of survey data focusing on role conflict and job satisfaction of 102 female principals. Data were collected from 51 female traditional principals and 51 female co-principals. By examining the traditional and co-principal leadership models as experienced by female principals, this paper addresses the impact…

  8. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…

  9. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…

  10. Evaluation of ground water monitoring network by principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, S; Gupta, A; Nachabe, M H

    2001-01-01

    Principal component analysis is a data reduction technique used to identify the important components or factors that explain most of the variance of a system. This technique was extended to evaluating a ground water monitoring network where the variables are monitoring wells. The objective was to identify monitoring wells that are important in predicting the dynamic variation in potentiometric head at a location. The technique is demonstrated through an application to the monitoring network of the Bangkok area. Principal component analysis was carried out for all the monitoring wells of the aquifer, and a ranking scheme based on the frequency of occurrence of a particular well as principal well was developed. The decision maker with budget constraints can now opt to monitor principal wells which can adequately capture the potentiometric head variation in the aquifer. This was evaluated by comparing the observed potentiometric head distribution using data from all available wells and wells selected using the ranking scheme as a guideline.

  11. Nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, J.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents the details of the nonlinear principal component analysis of climate data. Topic discussed include: connection with principal component analysis; network architecture; analysis of the standard routine (PRINC); and results.

  12. Magellan: Principal Venus science findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, R. Stephen

    1993-01-01

    This is a brief summary of the science findings of the Magellan mission, principally based on data from the radar system. Future plans for Magellan include acquisition of high resolution gravity data from a nearly circular orbit and atmospheric drag and occultation experiments. The Magellan science results represent the combined effort of more than 100 Magellan investigators and their students and colleagues. More extensive discussions can be found in the August and October, 1992 issues of the Journal of Geophysical Research, Planets. The Magellan mission's scientific objectives were to provide a global characterization of landforms and tectonic features; to distinguish and understand impact processes; to define and explain erosion, deposition, and chemical processes; and to model the interior density distribution. All but the last objective, which requires new global gravity data, have been accomplished, or we have acquired the data that are required to accomplish them.

  13. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL(3) + L(4)), while existing algorithms take O(nL(4)). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier-Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA.

  14. [Principals of high frequency surgery].

    PubMed

    Bergler, W F; Hörmann, K; Hammerschmitt, N; Huber, K

    2004-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments are routinely and daily applied at a variety of indications in Otorhinolaryngology. They can be used for cutting, coagulation and devitalisation. All have in common that the high frequency energy is transported into the tissue via an instrument and by this causes a thermal change. Depending on the duration and characteristic of the electricity a vaporisation of the tissue is effected through coagulation, devitalisation and carbonisation. The knowledge of the effects on the tissue by the choice of the different instrument parameters and application systems is essential for an ingenious therapeutically indication. In principal the following application methods for electrosurgery by modulation of the high frequency parameters are distinguished: the monopolar and the bipolar coagulation and devitalisation and the monopolar and the bipolar cutting. This article deals with the physical basis, the effects in the tissue as well as the single application methods of the high frequency surgery.

  15. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2-D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here, we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of 2-D images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of n images of size L × L pixels, the computational complexity of our algorithm is O(nL3 + L4), while existing algorithms take O(nL4). The new algorithm computes the expansion coefficients of the images in a Fourier–Bessel basis efficiently using the nonuniform fast Fourier transform. We compare the accuracy and efficiency of the new algorithm with traditional PCA and existing algorithms for steerable PCA. PMID:27570801

  16. Teacher Supervision Practices and Principals' Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    April, Daniel; Bouchamma, Yamina

    2015-01-01

    A questionnaire was used to determine the individual and collective teacher supervision practices of school principals and vice-principals in Québec (n = 39) who participated in a research-action study on pedagogical supervision. These practices were then analyzed in terms of the principals' sociodemographic and socioprofessional characteristics…

  17. 12 CFR 561.39 - Principal office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the home...

  18. 24 CFR 206.39 - Principal residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Principal residence. 206.39 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.39 Principal residence. The property must be the principal residence of each mortgagor at closing. For purposes of this section, the...

  19. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in the...

  20. 5 CFR 531.401 - Principal authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Principal authorities. 531.401 Section... THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.401 Principal authorities. The following are the principal authorities for the regulations in this subpart: (a) Section 2301(b)(3) of title 5, United States...

  1. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in the...

  2. 12 CFR 561.39 - Principal office.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principal office. 561.39 Section 561.39 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.39 Principal office. The term principal office means the home...

  3. 24 CFR 206.39 - Principal residence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal residence. 206.39 Section... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.39 Principal residence. The property must be the principal residence of each mortgagor at closing. For purposes of this section, the...

  4. 45 CFR 63.34 - Principal investigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principal investigators. 63.34 Section 63.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Principal investigators. The principal investigator(s) designated in successful grant applications as...

  5. 5 CFR 531.401 - Principal authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Principal authorities. 531.401 Section... THE GENERAL SCHEDULE Within-Grade Increases § 531.401 Principal authorities. The following are the principal authorities for the regulations in this subpart: (a) Section 2301(b)(3) of title 5, United States...

  6. 45 CFR 63.34 - Principal investigators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principal investigators. 63.34 Section 63.34 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED... Principal investigators. The principal investigator(s) designated in successful grant applications as...

  7. Principal Perceptions of New Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Dan; Devers, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Relatively little research has been conducted on the professional satisfaction of principals with recently hired beginning teachers. This study surveyed principals to learn their perspectives on these new teachers in relation to National Board Standards. Data were gathered using an online survey of 423 principals throughout the state of Indiana…

  8. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  9. Principal Connection/Reaching out for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are remarkably insular institutions, so "Have I improved?" is an especially difficult question for principals. Sure, schools are filled with people. Despite the schoolwide assemblies, faculty meetings, and crowded halls, much of what principals do is unseen and unknown by other adults. A big portion of principals' time is spent…

  10. 7 CFR 1786.208 - Increased principal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Increased principal. 1786.208 Section 1786.208 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Increased principal. A borrower can meet the premium requirements by increasing the outstanding principal...

  11. The Principal and the Pear Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, John R.

    1991-01-01

    School principals are in a difficult environment filled with stress and plagued by weak support. Most principals are unprepared for site-based decision making. University professors must take the initiative to use the emerging knowledge base and develop professional studies degree and staff development programs to prepare principals. (24…

  12. New Principal Coaching as a Safety Net

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celoria, Davide; Roberson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    This study examines new principal coaching as an induction process and explores the emotional dimensions of educational leadership. Twelve principal coaches and new principals--six of each--participated in this qualitative study that employed emergent coding (Creswell, 2008; Denzin, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1998; Spradley, 1979). The major…

  13. Beginning Elementary Principals around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Garduno, Jose Maria; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez-Gorosave, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the different circumstances of newly appointed principals around the world. It is a literature review that examines articles from both English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries. Being a novice principal is stressful and even traumatic. Principals appear to feel unprepared for their role. The problem most common to all…

  14. The Principal as Academician: The Renewed Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.

    This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through…

  15. Principals as Assessment Leaders in Rural Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renihan, Patrick; Noonan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article reports a study of rural school principals' assessment leadership roles and the impact of rural context on their work. The study involved three focus groups of principals serving small rural schools of varied size and grade configuration in three systems. Principals viewed assessment as a matter of teacher accountability and as a…

  16. Professional Learning Communities, Principals, and Collegial Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, Ron Edmonds identified the instructional leadership of principals as one of the characteristics of effective schools. The connections between what principals do as instructional leaders and the successes of their schools continue to be well recognized. Principals who comprehend the significance of these linkages, however,…

  17. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  18. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  19. 37 CFR 2.46 - Principal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal Register. 2.46... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.46 Principal Register. All applications will be treated as seeking registration on the Principal Register unless otherwise stated in...

  20. Grading Principals: Administrator Evaluations Come of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, John A.; Pimentel, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The Charlotte-Mecklenburg (North Carolina) Public Schools have replaced checklists with a result-based, profit-sharing administrator evaluation system that rewards educational excellence and provides principals with needed assistance or support. Effective principals enjoy substantial autonomy; marginal principals receive massive central-office…

  1. Professional Learning Communities, Principals, and Collegial Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, Ron Edmonds identified the instructional leadership of principals as one of the characteristics of effective schools. The connections between what principals do as instructional leaders and the successes of their schools continue to be well recognized. Principals who comprehend the significance of these linkages, however,…

  2. Perceptions of Isolation among High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Molly P.; Mallory, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    This study addressed the perceptions of isolation among high school principals in Georgia. The data collection process, in which interviews were conducted, provided insight into the lived experiences of 10 principals. One of the findings was that high school principals were relieved, in a sense, to discuss their perceptions of the…

  3. Principal Connection/Reaching out for Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are remarkably insular institutions, so "Have I improved?" is an especially difficult question for principals. Sure, schools are filled with people. Despite the schoolwide assemblies, faculty meetings, and crowded halls, much of what principals do is unseen and unknown by other adults. A big portion of principals' time is spent…

  4. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  5. Gender and Perceptions: Females as Secondary Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nogay, Kathleen; Beebe, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of teachers and supervisors toward the principal leadership behaviors of female secondary principals in Ohio. Principal self-perceptions were also included to complete the study. The literature shows that women continue to be underrepresented in a field in which the majority of…

  6. Principal-Counselor Collaboration and School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Wendy D.; Remley, Theodore P.; Range, Lillian M.

    2017-01-01

    Examining whether principal-counselor collaboration and school climate were related, researchers sent 4,193 surveys to high school counselors in the United States and received 419 responses. As principal-counselor collaboration increased, there were increases in counselors viewing the principal as supportive, the teachers as regarding one another…

  7. Analyzing the Leadership Behavior of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete; Boothe, Diane; Pickett, Winston

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe various methods of measuring a principal's leadership behavior. They have developed a new survey instrument that can be used to analyze the leadership behavior/style of a principal. The instrument consists of 49 positive and negative behaviors that measure how a principal interacts with staff in the following five leadership…

  8. Beginning Elementary Principals around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Garduno, Jose Maria; Slater, Charles L.; Lopez-Gorosave, Gema

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores the different circumstances of newly appointed principals around the world. It is a literature review that examines articles from both English-speaking and non-English-speaking countries. Being a novice principal is stressful and even traumatic. Principals appear to feel unprepared for their role. The problem most common to all…

  9. Professional Development Resource Book for School Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leak, Lawrence E.; And Others

    The emergence of LEAD Centers, Principals' Centers, and other similar principal support efforts are an acknowledgement of the demanding professional requirements placed upon principals. This document provides an easy-to-use reference listing of resources identified by the Maryland Commission on School-based Administration and the Maryland LEAD…

  10. Conversations with Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubin, Andrew E.

    2006-01-01

    "Conversations With Principals: Issues, Values, and Politics" is a unique compilation of interviews with principals at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels. Unlike any other text in Educational Administration, this book allows students the unusual opportunity to experience the inner voice of principals as they discuss the many…

  11. Leadership Effects: School Principals and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelli, Michael; Green, David A.

    2012-01-01

    We identify the effect of individual high school principals on graduation rates and English exam scores using an administrative data set of grade 12 students in BC Canada. Many principals were rotated across schools by districts, permitting isolation of the effect of principals from the effect of schools. We estimate the variance of the…

  12. Evaluating Principals: Balancing Accountability with Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Leaders for New Schools (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Effective principals are those who boost academic achievement for all students, increase the effectiveness of their teaching staffs, and consistently take leadership actions shown to improve outcomes for students. Therefore principal evaluation systems should place 70% of their weight on the ability of principals to increase student achievement…

  13. School Principal Wants to Spearhead Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the crucial role that a school principal plays in spearheading environmental education. In the execution of environmental education, the principal is not merely a passive supporter and participant; he should go further to be an initiator. The principal must take the initiative and, using his own ideas and his…

  14. The Changing Role of the Secondary Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Rebecca H.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Childress, Ronald

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the current role of the principal, how the role has changed, and how it should change. It also suggests that the principal shortage is an unintended consequence of these changes. In a national study, practitioners identified 45 descriptors of the principal's role. The analysis of the descriptors revealed four themes: role…

  15. School Principal Wants to Spearhead Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzhong, Cheng

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the crucial role that a school principal plays in spearheading environmental education. In the execution of environmental education, the principal is not merely a passive supporter and participant; he should go further to be an initiator. The principal must take the initiative and, using his own ideas and his…

  16. The Principal as Academician: The Renewed Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Brenda, Ed.

    This collection of essays was written by principals who participated in the 1986-87 Humanities Seminar sponsored by the Principals' Institute of Georgia State University. The focus was "The Evolution of Intellectual Leadership." The roles of the principal as philosopher, historian, ethnician, writer and team member are examined through…

  17. Principals' Collaborative Roles as Leaders for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchen, Margaret; Gray, Susan; Jeurissen, Maree

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on data from three multicultural New Zealand primary schools to reconceptualize principals' roles as leaders for learning. In doing so, the writers build on Sinnema and Robinson's (2012) article on goal setting in principal evaluation. Sinnema and Robinson found that even principals hand-picked for their experience fell short on…

  18. Principals: What Are Their Roles and Responsibilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisler, Amanda; Bruce, Mary Alice

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration between school counselors and principals is increasingly important in this accountability era. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role of principal as perceived by professional school counselors and principals, both in training and practicing. While similarities were found in two categories: Managing School…

  19. An Analysis of Factor Extraction Strategies: A Comparison of the Relative Strengths of Principal Axis, Ordinary Least Squares, and Maximum Likelihood in Research Contexts That Include Both Categorical and Continuous Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    This study is intended to provide researchers with empirically derived guidelines for conducting factor analytic studies in research contexts that include dichotomous and continuous levels of measurement. This study is based on the hypotheses that ordinary least squares (OLS) factor analysis will yield more accurate parameter estimates than…

  20. Implications for Secondary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoroma, N. S.; Robert-Okah, I.

    2007-01-01

    The school system is a green pasture for inexhaustible investigations for the purpose of enhancing academic achievement. The reason is that factors and variables within the confines of educational activities appear also to be inexhaustible. One such factor that attracted an investigation is "administrative stress" as it affects secondary…

  1. [Neuroblastoma: prognostic factors and survival. Experience in Hospital de Pediatria del Centro Medico Nacional del Siglo XXI and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    López-Aguilar, Enrique; Cerecedo-Díaz, Fernando; Rivera-Márquez, Hugo; Valdéz-Sánchez, Martha; Sepúlveda-Vildósola, Ana Carolina; Delgado Huerta, Sandra; Vera-Hermosillo, Herlinda; Vázquez-Langle, José Raúl; Wanzke del Angel, Volkmar

    2003-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in children according to the literature. In Mexico it is less frequent, fallen to 8th place. Our objective was to analyze our experience and compare it with the one reported in other countries. We included all patients admitted to our hospital during the previous five years and who had not received any treatment. Patients with stages I, II, and IV received cyclophosphamide and epirrubicin. Patients with stages were III and IV received the same chemotherapy alternating with cisplatinum., ifosfamide and etoposide during 12 months as well as massive doses of 131-MIBG and surgical ablation of the remaining tumor when possible. We included 30 patients, 25 with initial presentation in the abdomen. Five were in early stages and 20 (70%) were advanced with an overall survival of 100% and 27% at 5 years respectively. When analyzed by age, 40% were 12 months of age and 60% older, with survival of 100% and 27% in the same period, respectively. According to histology there was 91% survival for differentiated and 23% for undifferentiated tumors. The chemotherapeutic regimen reported is effective but not better than that reported by other authors, in which some benefits are seen with use of transplant and immunotherapy. The most important prognostic factors are still considered to be age, stage and histology.

  2. A refreshing account of principal stratification.

    PubMed

    Mealli, Fabrizia; Mattei, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Pearl (2011) invites researchers to contribute to a discussion on the logic and utility of principal stratification in causal inference, raising some thought-provoking questions. In our commentary, we discuss the role of principal stratification in causal inference, describing why we view the principal stratification framework as useful for addressing causal inference problems where causal estimands are defined in terms of intermediate outcomes. We focus on mediation analysis and principal stratification analysis, showing that they generally involve different causal estimands and answer different questions. We argue that even when principal stratification may not answer the causal questions of primary interest, it can be a preliminary analysis of the data to assess the plausibility of identifying assumptions. We also discuss the use of principal stratification to address issues of surrogate outcomes. Our discussion stresses that a principal stratification analysis should account for all the principal strata and evaluate the distributions of potential outcomes in each of the principal strata. To this end, we view a Bayesian analysis particularly suited for drawing inference on principal strata membership and principal strata effects.

  3. Teaching Principal Components Using Correlations.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Peter H; Arias, Andrea L; Fulton, Larry V

    2017-07-17

    Introducing principal components (PCs) to students is difficult. First, the matrix algebra and mathematical maximization lemmas are daunting, especially for students in the social and behavioral sciences. Second, the standard motivation involving variance maximization subject to unit length constraint does not directly connect to the "variance explained" interpretation. Third, the unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints of the standard motivation do not allow re-scaling or oblique rotations, which are common in practice. Instead, we propose to motivate the subject in terms of optimizing (weighted) average proportions of variance explained in the original variables; this approach may be more intuitive, and hence easier to understand because it links directly to the familiar "R-squared" statistic. It also removes the need for unit length and uncorrelatedness constraints, provides a direct interpretation of "variance explained," and provides a direct answer to the question of whether to use covariance-based or correlation-based PCs. Furthermore, the presentation can be made without matrix algebra or optimization proofs. Modern tools from data science, including heat maps and text mining, provide further help in the interpretation and application of PCs; examples are given. Together, these techniques may be used to revise currently used methods for teaching and learning PCs in the behavioral sciences.

  4. Evaluating Candidate Principal Surrogate Endpoints

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Hudgens, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Frangakis and Rubin (2002, Biometrics 58, 21–29) proposed a new definition of a surrogate endpoint (a “principal” surrogate) based on causal effects. We introduce an estimand for evaluating a principal surrogate, the causal effect predictiveness (CEP) surface, which quantifies how well causal treatment effects on the biomarker predict causal treatment effects on the clinical endpoint. Although the CEP surface is not identifiable due to missing potential outcomes, it can be identified by incorporating a baseline covariate(s) that predicts the biomarker. Given case–cohort sampling of such a baseline predictor and the biomarker in a large blinded randomized clinical trial, we develop an estimated likelihood method for estimating the CEP surface. This estimation assesses the “surrogate value” of the biomarker for reliably predicting clinical treatment effects for the same or similar setting as the trial. A CEP surface plot provides a way to compare the surrogate value of multiple biomarkers. The approach is illustrated by the problem of assessing an immune response to a vaccine as a surrogate endpoint for infection. PMID:18363776

  5. The Teacher Self-Efficacy Experience: A Phenomenological Inquiry of the Effects on Principal Leadership Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenberry, James E.

    2010-01-01

    School principal's practices are affected by many factors on a daily basis. Various factors affecting their practice are invisible to the eye and silent by the spoken word. However, the problem exists that there is a lack of research identifying the experiences of practicing principals regarding teacher self-efficacy. Furthermore, there is not…

  6. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  7. Unpacking the Issues: Researching the Shortage of School Principals in Two States in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barty, Karin; Thomson, Pat; Blackmore, Jill; Sachs, Judyth

    2005-01-01

    An investigation into the declining supply of principals in two states in Australia revealed that a mosaic of issues surrounds the overall trend towards fewer applications for vacant positions. Looking beyond systemic factors influencing this trend--factors such as the increasing workload of principals--this study discovered why some schools are…

  8. Measurement Invariance of the "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Stewart, Trae; Haber-Curran, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the five-factor "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" between female and male K-12 principals was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 956 principals (56.9% were females and 43.1% were males) was analysed in this study. The hierarchical multi-step measurement invariance test supported…

  9. Measurement Invariance of the "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" across K-12 Principal Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Lihua; Stewart, Trae; Haber-Curran, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Measurement invariance of the five-factor "Servant Leadership Questionnaire" between female and male K-12 principals was tested using multi-group confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 956 principals (56.9% were females and 43.1% were males) was analysed in this study. The hierarchical multi-step measurement invariance test supported…

  10. Cloning Their Own: Aspirant Principals and the School-Based Selection Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter; Lacey, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we report data from two projects concerned with the aspirant principals' perspectives about school principal recruitment in three Australian states. In particular, we consider what our informants perceive as factors that inhibit the realisation of their aspirations. These factors include aspects of the operation of school-based…

  11. An Exploration of Two Female Principals' Leadership in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Wanjuan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two dimensions of leadership practices (i.e. teaching and learning and sources of power) used by two exemplary principals in mainland China against a background of education reform and to identify how broader contextual factors have shaped these two dimensions of their leadership.…

  12. Catholic School Principal Job Satisfaction: Keys to Retention and Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Jennifer; Brock, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a study on principal retention in New South Wales, Australia. Factors in job retention included economic security, role enjoyment, and the opportunity to contribute. Disincentives to the principalship included lack of support from the employing authority, inadequate pay, isolation, growing responsibilities, difficult parents,…

  13. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  14. Increasing Principal Effectiveness: A Strategic Investment for ESEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for American Progress, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School principals are second only to teachers among school-based factors that influence student achievement and they are critical to attracting and retaining effective teachers and other school staff. Yet in the past, federal policymakers haven't given school leadership much attention. This reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education…

  15. An Examination of Principal Consistency in Evaluating Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagona, Randi Keller

    2012-01-01

    Teacher effectiveness has been shown to have a greater impact on student achievement than any other single factor. School principals must therefore take measures to ensure that schools are staffed with only the most effective teachers. Teacher effectiveness should be assessed yearly and accurately reflected through teacher evaluation measures.…

  16. Principals' Perceptions of the School Counsellor Role in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghamdi, Nawal G.; Riddick, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Many factors in Saudi society have led to a need for counselling services in educational institutions. However, concerns remain that the role of school counsellors in that setting is unclear. An aim of this study was to determine the perceptions of principals concerning the actual and ideal role of intermediate girls school counsellors in Saudi…

  17. Early Career Principals: Working Productively with Difficult and Resistant Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, John F.; Eller, Sheila A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective leaders must find ways to motivate their employees to provide maximum success for the organization. In today's world of high accountability, this ability is paramount to the success and survival of schools, and is an especially important skill for early career principals to master. Knowledge of the factors that might have contributed to…

  18. Teacher Perceptions of Principals' Leadership Qualities: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauserman, Cal P.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods sequential explanatory study utilized the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire, responses to open-ended questions, and in-depth interviews to identify transformational leadership qualities that were present among principals in Alberta, Canada. The first quantitative phase consisted of a random sample of 135 schools (with…

  19. An Exploration of Two Female Principals' Leadership in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Wanjuan; Ehrich, Lisa Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore two dimensions of leadership practices (i.e. teaching and learning and sources of power) used by two exemplary principals in mainland China against a background of education reform and to identify how broader contextual factors have shaped these two dimensions of their leadership.…

  20. School Principal Succession and Teachers on Successor Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Bob L., Jr.; Licata, Joseph W.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the perceptions of 3,067 teachers of the effectiveness of successors to 73 prior principals. Effective successors inspired teacher confidence early. Results further indicate that teachers assess succession in terms of its effect on organizational factors that allow teachers to maintain predictability and control over their work. (SLD)

  1. [Extra-oral implants: principal areas of implantation].

    PubMed

    Badie-Modiri, B; Kaplanski, P

    2001-08-01

    The success of extra-oral implants raises a certain number of technical and medical problems. Among these, the anatomy of the implant zone and bone quality are determining factors for osteointegration of the implants. We describe the principal zones of implantation detailing the risks involved in each area.

  2. Early Career Principals: Working Productively with Difficult and Resistant Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, John F.; Eller, Sheila A.

    2012-01-01

    Effective leaders must find ways to motivate their employees to provide maximum success for the organization. In today's world of high accountability, this ability is paramount to the success and survival of schools, and is an especially important skill for early career principals to master. Knowledge of the factors that might have contributed to…

  3. Assistant Principal Experiences that Contribute to Their Transformational Leadership Practices as New Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVillier, Doug

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research study used narrative inquiry to explore the assistant principal experiences that contribute to transformational leadership practices in new principals. Eight administrators, who were in their first or second year as a principal, participated in the study. The findings suggested that principals play an important role in…

  4. Preservice Principals' Post-Internship Concerns about Becoming a Principal: America and Scotland in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Mack T., III

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare American and Scottish preservice principals' post-internship concerns about becoming a principal. The survey findings for this study showed that overall American preservice principals were more concerned about becoming principals than their Scottish preservice counterparts. Based on the groups' discussion…

  5. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principals' Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Site level administrators make decisions during the course of a day that have ethical dimensions that challenge their personal values and ethics. This study examined the extent to which particular factors would affect principals' and vice principals' judgments of the ethicality of sanctions given a teacher who had been sending sexually…

  6. School Principals' Perceptions of Ethically Just Responses to a Teacher Sexting Vignette: Severity of Administrator Response, Principals' Personality, and Offender Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Site level administrators make decisions during the course of a day that have ethical dimensions that challenge their personal values and ethics. This study examined the extent to which particular factors would affect principals' and vice principals' judgments of the ethicality of sanctions given a teacher who had been sending sexually…

  7. Collecting duct principal cell transport processes and their regulation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, David; Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B; Deen, Peter M T; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-01-07

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters-the epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K(+) channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na(+) and K(+) concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na(+), K(+), and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Collecting Duct Principal Cell Transport Processes and Their Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Soundararajan, Rama; Trimpert, Christiane; Kashlan, Ossama B.; Deen, Peter M.T.; Kohan, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The principal cell of the kidney collecting duct is one of the most highly regulated epithelial cell types in vertebrates. The effects of hormonal, autocrine, and paracrine factors to regulate principal cell transport processes are central to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the face of wide variations in food and water intake. In marked contrast with the epithelial cells lining the proximal tubule, the collecting duct is electrically tight, and ion and osmotic gradients can be very high. The central role of principal cells in salt and water transport is reflected by their defining transporters—the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary K+ channel, and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel. The coordinated regulation of ENaC by aldosterone, and AQP2 by arginine vasopressin (AVP) in principal cells is essential for the control of plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations, extracellular fluid volume, and BP. In addition to these essential hormones, additional neuronal, physical, and chemical factors influence Na+, K+, and water homeostasis. Notably, a variety of secreted paracrine and autocrine agents such as bradykinin, ATP, endothelin, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 counterbalance and limit the natriferic effects of aldosterone and the water-retaining effects of AVP. Considerable recent progress has improved our understanding of the transporters, receptors, second messengers, and signaling events that mediate principal cell responses to changing environments in health and disease. This review primarily addresses the structure and function of the key transporters and the complex interplay of regulatory factors that modulate principal cell ion and water transport. PMID:24875192

  9. Bayesian principal geodesic analysis in diffeomorphic image registration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Fletcher, P Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Computing a concise representation of the anatomical variability found in large sets of images is an important first step in many statistical shape analyses. In this paper, we present a generative Bayesian approach for automatic dimensionality reduction of shape variability represented through diffeomorphic mappings. To achieve this, we develop a latent variable model for principal geodesic analysis (PGA) that provides a probabilistic framework for factor analysis on diffeomorphisms. Our key contribution is a Bayesian inference procedure for model parameter estimation and simultaneous detection of the effective dimensionality of the latent space. We evaluate our proposed model for atlas and principal geodesic estimation on the OASIS brain database of magnetic resonance images. We show that the automatically selected latent dimensions from our model are able to reconstruct unseen brain images with lower error than equivalent linear principal components analysis (LPCA) models in the image space, and it also outperforms tangent space PCA (TPCA) models in the diffeomorphism setting.

  10. A constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jong-Hoon; Oh, Jong-Hoon

    2003-01-01

    We propose a constrained EM algorithm for principal component analysis (PCA) using a coupled probability model derived from single-standard factor analysis models with isotropic noise structure. The single probabilistic PCA, especially for the case where there is no noise, can find only a vector set that is a linear superposition of principal components and requires postprocessing, such as diagonalization of symmetric matrices. By contrast, the proposed algorithm finds the actual principal components, which are sorted in descending order of eigenvalue size and require no additional calculation or postprocessing. The method is easily applied to kernel PCA. It is also shown that the new EM algorithm is derived from a generalized least-squares formulation.

  11. The School Principal as a Behavior Modifier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ronald E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in which a school principal implemented behavior modification programs with elementary school children. The behaviors dealt with were tardiness, absenteeism, and disruptions. (Author)

  12. NCA Principals' Perception of their Principalship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanavage, John A.

    1972-01-01

    In general, NCA secondary principals perceive their fundamental role to be that of educational leadership, with management, crisis resolution, and even general administration being quite subordinate functions. (Author)

  13. Bayesian principal geodesic analysis for estimating intrinsic diffeomorphic image variability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Fletcher, P Thomas

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present a generative Bayesian approach for estimating the low-dimensional latent space of diffeomorphic shape variability in a population of images. We develop a latent variable model for principal geodesic analysis (PGA) that provides a probabilistic framework for factor analysis in the space of diffeomorphisms. A sparsity prior in the model results in automatic selection of the number of relevant dimensions by driving unnecessary principal geodesics to zero. To infer model parameters, including the image atlas, principal geodesic deformations, and the effective dimensionality, we introduce an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. We evaluate our proposed model on 2D synthetic data and the 3D OASIS brain database of magnetic resonance images, and show that the automatically selected latent dimensions from our model are able to reconstruct unobserved testing images with lower error than both linear principal component analysis (LPCA) in the image space and tangent space principal component analysis (TPCA) in the diffeomorphism space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel mutation (4040-4045 nt. delA) in exon 14 of the factor VIII gene causing severe hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Feizi, Mohammad Ali Hosseinpour; Feizi, Abbas Ali Hosseinpour

    2011-09-01

    Hemophilia A is an X-linked congenital bleeding disorder caused by Factor VIII deficiency. Different mutations including point mutations, deletions, insertions and inversions have been reported in the FVIII gene, which cause hemophilia A. In the current study, with the use of conformational sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) analysis, we report a novel 1-nt deletion in the A6 sequence at codons 1328-1330 (4040-4045 nt delA) occurring in exon 14 of the FVIII gene in a seven-year-old Iranian boy with severe hemophilia A. This mutation that causes frameshift and premature stop-codon at 1331 has not previously been reported in the F8 Hemophilia A Mutation, Structure, Test and Resource Site (HAMSTeRS) database.

  15. Gene expression profiling of cytochromes P450, ABC transporters and their principal transcription factors in the amygdala and prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, smokers and drug-free controls by qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Francesca; de Waziers, Isabelle; Dutheil, Mary; Vincent, Marc; Wilce, Peter A; Dodd, Peter R; Beaune, Philippe; Loriot, Marie-Anne; Gillam, Elizabeth M J

    2015-01-01

    1. Ethanol consumption and smoking alter the expression of certain drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters, potentially influencing the tissue-specific effects of xenobiotics. 2. Amygdala (AMG) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are brain regions that modulate the effects of alcohol and smoking, yet little is known about the expression of cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450s) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in these tissues. 3. Here, we describe the first study on the expression of 19 P450s, their redox partners, three ABC transporters and four related transcription factors in the AMG and PFC of smokers and alcoholics by quantitative RT-PCR. 4. CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C18, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP2S1, CYP2U1, CYP4X1, CYP46, adrenodoxin and NADPH-P450 reductase, ABCB1, ABCG2, ABCA1, and transcription factors aryl hydrocarbon receptor AhR and proliferator-activated receptor α were quantified in both areas. CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, adrenodoxin reductase and the nuclear receptors pregnane X receptor and constitutive androstane receptor were detected but below the limit of quantification. CYP1A2 and CYP2W1 were not detected. 5. Adrenodoxin expression was elevated in all case groups over controls, and smokers showed a trend toward higher CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression. 6. Our study shows that most xenobiotic-metabolizing P450s and associated redox partners, transporters and transcription factors are expressed in human AMG and PFC.

  16. Special Topic/The Principal's Priority 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Five Public Agenda surveys--A Mission of the Heart (2008); Lessons Learned (2008); Reality Check 2006; Rolling Up Their Sleeves (2003); and Stand by Me (2003)--provide snapshots of how instructional leadership is working in schools. Most principals see instructional leadership as a key mission. "Transformer" principals are able to focus squarely…

  17. Learning to Lead: Ten Stories for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichello, Michael; Richmond, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Principals must be knowledgeable about students, curriculum, teacher performance, and the community that they serve while at the same time, able to manage a myriad of daily activities. Often times, management activities predominate and take time away from leadership leaving little time for principals to engage in reflective thinking and proactive…

  18. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  19. Principal Preparation--Revisited--Time Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutmore, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There has been both a historic and continuing interest in the preparation process for school administrators (principals and vice principals). Much of the literature has been critical of how school administrators are prepared (Achilles, 1991; Hale and Moorman, 2003; Levine, 2005; Hallinger and Lu, 2013). Although the length of time from graduation…

  20. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  1. Balancing Acts: Women Principals at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This book uses life history and ethnography to examine the lives and work of three female elementary school principals and highlights their daily use of personal and professional skills. The principals' personal backgrounds and their effect on their work are examined within the community they serve, their school, and the historical and social…

  2. Handheld Computers: A Boon for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazell, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    As I reflect on my many years as an elementary school principal, I realize how much more effective I would have been if I had owned a wireless handheld computer. This relatively new technology can provide considerable assistance to today?s principals and recent advancements have increased its functions and capacity. Handheld computers are…

  3. Evaluation Priorities of Students, Teachers, and Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, David; Stufflebeam, Daniel L.

    The main purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation needs of students, teachers, and principals, and to develop recommendations for an evaluation system within the school building. Students, teachers, and principals were surveyed to depict the availability and importance of eight different categories of evaluative information derived…

  4. 32 CFR 716.1 - Principal rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Principal rule. 716.1 Section 716.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.1 Principal rule. Under title 10 U.S.C., section 1475, the...

  5. 32 CFR 716.1 - Principal rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Principal rule. 716.1 Section 716.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.1 Principal rule. Under title 10 U.S.C., section 1475, the...

  6. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  7. The Principal as Change Facilitator. Bulletin 1753.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Louisiana Dissemination Network.

    This monograph surveys the literature relating to the role of the principal as change agent and the process of educational change, and reviews those characteristics that research has found to make principals more effective and efficient change agents. The introduction identifies four relevant perspectives in the research on instructional…

  8. Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Marguerita L.

    2013-01-01

    Framed in the critical race theory of structuration (CRTS), this sequential explanatory mixed methods study seeks to identify the socialization practices by examining the realities of practices of assistant principals and the ways in which they impact the disciplinary actions of assistant principals at middle and high schools. The mixed methods…

  9. Legal Aspects of the Principal's Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    Principals still are not differentiated from teachers under the law of many states, even though their duties and responsibilities differ. This situation has begun to change as a result of court action by principals at the state level, which is discussed in this paper. Although administrative tenure is rare, it presents special problems when…

  10. Democratic Principals in Action: Eight Pioneers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; And Others

    This book was written for teachers and principals committed to instituting shared governance and more democratic forms of leadership and to help understand today's principalship and what it means to administer a shared-governance school. The data were derived from a study of successful principals in schools affiliated with the League of…

  11. 32 CFR 716.1 - Principal rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Principal rule. 716.1 Section 716.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.1 Principal rule. Under title 10 U.S.C., section 1475,...

  12. Principals: Human Capital Managers at Every School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…

  13. An Examination of Principal Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pengilly, Michelle M.

    2010-01-01

    As education continues to succumb to deficits in budgets and increasingly high levels of student performance to meet the federal and state mandates, the quest to sustain and retain successful principals is imperative. The National Association of School Boards (1999) portrays effective principals as "linchpins" of school improvement and…

  14. Untapped Resources: Assistant Principals as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Selma K.; Melendez-Delaney, Genis; Orta, Awilda; White, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    Assistant principals are often overlooked as a resource for creating, advancing, and sustaining a compelling vision for mathematics. The Math Collaborative Project developed in New York City examined the process of developing and implementing programs designed to help assistant principals network and strengthen their instructional leadership…

  15. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  16. The Principal's New Role in Implementing Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Ruth E.

    The role of the principal in implementing school choice policy is examined in this paper. Choice policy is viewed as a triad composed of three points--policy, consumer information, and diversity of the learning environment. Guidelines are offered for principals to help parents make school choice decisions, and several helpful booklets are…

  17. Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir, Ed.; Pashiardis, Petros, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional management skills are crucial to success in educational environments. As school leaders, principals are expected to effectively supervise the school system while facing a multitude of issues and demands. "Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness" combines best practices and the latest approaches in…

  18. Effective Principals: Knowledge, Talent, Spirit of Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol

    1983-01-01

    To explore the principal's role as instructional leader in school improvement strategies, this research brief focuses on characteristics of effective schools, a profile of effective principals, and a discussion with Dr. Steven Bossert, Associate Laboratory Director for Research and Development at Far West Laboratory in San Francisco, California,…

  19. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

  20. A Principal's Guide to Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Burke, M. Trika; Pinnell, Gay Su; Jackson, Mary; Wey, Susan; Askew, Billie J.; Hambright-Brown, Eloise

    This guide, requested by principals across the nation, is intended to help them successfully implement Reading Recovery in their schools. The guide is organized by topics that experienced principals have said are important to ongoing program operation. To help access information quickly, a detailed table of contents is provided, as well as an…

  1. Framing Research on School Principals' Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Gary; Day, Christopher; Møller, Jorunn

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a basis for a tentative framework for guiding future research into principals' identity construction and development. It is situated in the context of persisting emphases placed by government policies on the need for technocratic competencies in principals as a means of demonstrating success defined largely as compliance with…

  2. Management Philosophies of Primary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Said

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the management philosophies of primary school principals. Stratification method of sampling was used in the study. The study sample consisted of 33 school principals and 132 teachers serving at primary education schools in Isparta in the academic year 2008-2009. The "Manager Philosophy Scale" developed by Tanriogen and…

  3. Principal Prep for Common Core Gaining Traction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    A year ago, top officials in the school leadership world were worried. It seemed to them that principals were being overlooked in national conversations about how to get educators ready for the Common Core State Standards. But that is changing. The past six months have seen a surge of activity to acquaint principals with the new standards and…

  4. Principals' Pupil Control Behavior and School Robustness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedley, Stanley R.; Willower, Donald J.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of 3,100 students, teachers, and principals in 47 elementary and secondary schools in the Middle Atlantic region, using the Pupil Control Behavior Form, revealed a positive association between principals' humanistic pupil control behavior and schools'"robustness" (the degree of meaning and excitement students find in school).…

  5. Urban Principals' Second Order Change Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; La Cava, Gonzalo S.

    2011-01-01

    Urban school leaders have challenges in continually improving student achievement and making change as quickly as needed. To address this problem 37 non-Title I principals completed an on-line survey, Principal's Actions Survey (PAS), based on the seven responsibilities for second order change identified by Marzano, Waters, and McNulty (2005).…

  6. The Principal and the Issue of Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Individuals wishing to establish a legal negligence claim against a principal must first present evidence of recognizable duty (adequate supervision); breach of duty; proximate cause; and injury. Wise principals schedule periodic meetings to review safety measures, focus on vulnerable areas, designate an emergency stand-in, review equipment and…

  7. Social Media Strategies for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…

  8. Principal Selection Panels: Strategies, Preferences and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Kwan, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report a study of the strategies members of principal selection panels use to select the best candidate for a principal position. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on both qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative analysis drawn on data collected from school supervisors and school…

  9. Special Topic/The Principal's Priority 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Five Public Agenda surveys--A Mission of the Heart (2008); Lessons Learned (2008); Reality Check 2006; Rolling Up Their Sleeves (2003); and Stand by Me (2003)--provide snapshots of how instructional leadership is working in schools. Most principals see instructional leadership as a key mission. "Transformer" principals are able to focus squarely…

  10. Investigating Roles of Online School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quilici, Sarah B.; Joki, Russell

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the instructional leadership skills required from online principals, as defined by one state's (Idaho) adaptation of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC) standards (1996) as a requirement for professional certification. Specifically, this qualitative study examined six sets of paired online principals and…

  11. Principal Turnover. Information Capsule. Volume 0914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazer, Christie

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that school districts are facing increasing rates of principal turnover. Frequent principal changes deprive schools of the leadership stability they need to succeed, disrupt long-term school reform efforts, and may even be linked to increased teacher turnover and lower levels of student achievement. This Information Capsule…

  12. The Big Rocks: Priority Management for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    How can a dedicated principal work really, really hard but fail to get significant gains in student achievement? The answer is obvious: by spending too much time on the wrong things and not enough on the right things. The principal's number-one priority is zeroing in on the highest-priority activities for bringing all students to high levels of…

  13. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  14. Principals Judge Teachers by Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principals in the Southeastern Unites States completed an e-mailed survey. Two nonparametric tests,…

  15. Principals: Human Capital Managers at Every School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Being a principal is more than just being an instructional leader. Principals also must manage their schools' teaching talent in a strategic way so that it is linked to school instructional improvement strategies, to the competencies needed to enact the strategies, and to success in boosting student learning. Teacher acquisition and performance…

  16. A Latina Principal Leading for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Cerecer, Patricia Quijada

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the role that racial identity plays among Latina school principals is examined through a case study of a principal in a K-3 elementary school. Based on a Latina/o critical race framework and a phenomenological research approach, the study explores the degree to which having a strong understanding of one's racial identity formation…

  17. Urban Principals' Second Order Change Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Rosemarye T.; La Cava, Gonzalo S.

    2011-01-01

    Urban school leaders have challenges in continually improving student achievement and making change as quickly as needed. To address this problem 37 non-Title I principals completed an on-line survey, Principal's Actions Survey (PAS), based on the seven responsibilities for second order change identified by Marzano, Waters, and McNulty (2005).…

  18. Relationship Building: The First "R" for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieg, Sue A.; Marcoline, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    School leadership today demands skills, knowledge, and attitudes much different than those required a short time ago. With the increased accountability for principals to achieve and maintain adequate yearly progress, test scores are often seen by teachers and parents as principals' top priority. Relationships are seen as secondary and they should…

  19. Bennett Public Schools Principal Induction Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Ross; Beaudoin, Colleen; Carmona, Ruben; Delahanty, Michael; Gartside, William; Oyedele, Abidemi; Teta, Lynne Mooney

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring equity in education and academic success for all students requires a highly skilled principal engages others in continually improving the instructional program in order to meet the needs of students. Over the past few years, a number of reports have indicated that the role of principal is becoming more challenging. School districts are…

  20. Geographical Distribution of Principals in Israeli Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebental, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    This quantitative investigation focuses on women high school principals at Jewish secular schools throughout Israel. Despite challenges, Israeli women have succeeded in obtaining over half of the principal positions at Jewish secular high schools, but the degree to which there is equal gender access to leadership roles in the school system remains…

  1. Do Principals Fire the Worst Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    This article takes advantage of a unique policy change to examine how principals make decisions regarding teacher dismissal. In 2004, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) and Chicago Teachers Union signed a new collective bargaining agreement that gave principals the flexibility to dismiss probationary teachers for any reason and without the…

  2. Democratic Principals in Action: Eight Pioneers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blase, Joseph; And Others

    This book was written for teachers and principals committed to instituting shared governance and more democratic forms of leadership and to help understand today's principalship and what it means to administer a shared-governance school. The data were derived from a study of successful principals in schools affiliated with the League of…

  3. The Learning Principal. Volume 6, Number 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Anthony, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "The Learning Principal" is an eight-page newsletter published eight times a year. It focuses on the important and unique work of school principals. This issue includes: (1) Taking Action on Equity (Anthony Armstrong); (2) School Leadership: Just How Forward Thinking Are You? (Frederick Brown); (3) From the Research: Leadership Practices that Make…

  4. Essential Knowledges and Skills for Beginning Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Noeline

    The purpose of this literature review is to produce a list of essential knowledge and skills for beginning principals. Research on the principalship falls into two distinct categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive research emphasizes the perceived or idealized role of the principal as "bold innovator" or "creative…

  5. Elementary Principals' Role in Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Patricia; Dunlap, Karen; Brown, Kristen; Davison, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the role elementary school principals play in science education. Specifically, the study employed an online survey of 16 elementary school principals at high-performing campuses in North Texas to explore their perceptions of how they influenced science education on their campuses. The survey used a combination of Likert-type…

  6. The Principal and the Issue of Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Permuth, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Individuals wishing to establish a legal negligence claim against a principal must first present evidence of recognizable duty (adequate supervision); breach of duty; proximate cause; and injury. Wise principals schedule periodic meetings to review safety measures, focus on vulnerable areas, designate an emergency stand-in, review equipment and…

  7. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  8. Primary School Principals' Self-Monitoring Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konan, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to identify primary school principals' self-monitoring skills. The study adopted the general survey model and its population comprised primary school principals serving in the city of Diyarbakir, Turkey, while 292 of these constituted the sample. Self-Monitoring Scale was used as the data collection instrument. In…

  9. New Principals: Problems, Priorities, and Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Karen F.; And Others

    Findings of the first phase of a longitudinal study that developed a descriptive profile of new principals in New York City are presented in this paper. A survey of 216 newly appointed principals in New York City elicited 158 responses, a 73 percent response rate. Findings indicate that despite the emphasis on aspects of transformational…

  10. Revising the Role of Principal Supervisor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In Washington, D.C., and Tulsa, Okla., districts whose efforts are supported by the Wallace Foundation, principal supervisors concentrate on bolstering their principals' work to improve instruction, as opposed to focusing on the managerial or operational aspects of running a school. Supervisors oversee fewer schools, which enables them to provide…

  11. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  12. A Latina Principal Leading for Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Frank; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Cerecer, Patricia Quijada

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the role that racial identity plays among Latina school principals is examined through a case study of a principal in a K-3 elementary school. Based on a Latina/o critical race framework and a phenomenological research approach, the study explores the degree to which having a strong understanding of one's racial identity formation…

  13. Learning to Lead: Ten Stories for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chirichello, Michael; Richmond, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Principals must be knowledgeable about students, curriculum, teacher performance, and the community that they serve while at the same time, able to manage a myriad of daily activities. Often times, management activities predominate and take time away from leadership leaving little time for principals to engage in reflective thinking and proactive…

  14. Women Principals Leading Learning at "Poverty's Edge"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    The author profiles two women principals of color who have successfully enhanced student learning in high-poverty schools. In their leadership narratives, the principals address how the complexity of poverty affects their work, how they affirm the worth and dignity of all, how they influence beliefs and attitudes of staff, why they think their…

  15. The Principal, School Discipline, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Howard L.

    In this booklet, the Council of Supervisors and Administrators of the City of New York seeks to offer hope that teachers' and principals' capacity for the reasonable exercise of authority has not been exhausted. There is a body of legal opinion that supports the authority of the principal in disciplinary matters. It is a misconception that a…

  16. The Daily Practices of Successful Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Barbara L.; Grady, Marilyn L.

    2011-01-01

    While many books outline the attributes of successful school leaders, few describe how those traits manifest in daily practice. "The Daily Practices of Successful Principals" goes beyond the outward picture of excellence and provides a compendium of daily practices used by successful principals in various settings. Written by former administrators…

  17. How Not to Prepare School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephen H.; Leon, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Instead of focusing on how principals should be trained, an contrarian view is offered, grounded upon theoretical perspectives of experiential learning, and in particular, upon the theory of andragogy. A brief parable of the DoNoHarm School of Medicine is used as a descriptive analog for many principal preparation programs in America. The…

  18. Perceived Educational Values of Omani School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Ani, Wajeha Thabit; Al-Harthi, Aisha Salim

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the perceived educational values of Omani school principals. Data were collected using a semi-structured interview form which focused on the core values of school administration as perceived by a sample of 44 school principals; a focus group interview was also held. Data were analysed using Nvivo software. The…

  19. Assistant Principals: Their Readiness as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searby, Linda; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Wang, Chih-hsuan

    2017-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study investigating the capacity of assistant principals to be instructional leaders. Analyses of survey responses yielded four interesting findings: (a) years of experience as a teacher and age had no significance on assistant principals' perceived readiness as an instructional leader; (b) those completing…

  20. Social Media Strategies for School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dan; McLeod, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe, analyze, and interpret the experiences of school principals who use multiple social media tools with stakeholders as part of their comprehensive communications practices. Additionally, it examined why school principals have chosen to communicate with their stakeholders through social media.…

  1. Principals Judge Teachers by Their Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Andy; Packard, Abbot; Dam, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated the relationship between teacher dispositions, subject content knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge, and reasons that school principals recommend non-renewal of probationary teachers' contracts. Principals in the Southeastern Unites States completed an e-mailed survey. Two nonparametric tests,…

  2. Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beycioglu, Kadir, Ed.; Pashiardis, Petros, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Exceptional management skills are crucial to success in educational environments. As school leaders, principals are expected to effectively supervise the school system while facing a multitude of issues and demands. "Multidimensional Perspectives on Principal Leadership Effectiveness" combines best practices and the latest approaches in…

  3. THE PRINCIPAL'S ROLE IN COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LONG, RICHARD P.; RHODES, ERIC F.

    PROBLEMS OF THE SCHOOL PRINCIPAL'S ROLE AS THE MIDDLEMAN IN COLLECTIVE NEGOTIATIONS BETWEEN SCHOOL BOARDS AND TEACHER ORGANIZATIONS ARE IDENTIFIED WITHIN THE NEW RELATIONSHIP OF TEACHERS AND ADMINISTRATORS IN PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PRINCIPAL IS VIEWED AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBLE DECISIONMAKER ON QUESTIONS OF ADMINISTRATION…

  4. Capital Wisdom: Papers from the Principals Academy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anne, Ed.; Feistritzer, Patricia, Ed.

    During the 1991 National Catholic Principals Academy, 30 elementary school principals came together to sharpen their skills, to be exposed to new trends and ideas, and to be empowered as Catholic education administrators. This handbook is the result of sharing ideas and is a compilation of tried and true processes, "how to" advice, and practical…

  5. School Principal Speech about Fiscal Mismanagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassenpflug, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A review of two recent federal court cases concerning school principals who experienced adverse job actions after they engaged in speech about fiscal misconduct by other employees indicates that the courts found that the principal's speech was made as part of his or her job duties and was not protected by the First Amendment.

  6. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  7. The New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Any principal starting at a new school or taking a leadership position for the first time needs this book to help focus on the issues that are most critical to success. Drawing from research data and advice from experienced principals, the authors reveal secrets that can make or break a new school leader's career: (1) Three stages of becoming…

  8. Nonlinear Principal Components Analysis: Introduction and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linting, Marielle; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; van der Koojj, Anita J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors provide a didactic treatment of nonlinear (categorical) principal components analysis (PCA). This method is the nonlinear equivalent of standard PCA and reduces the observed variables to a number of uncorrelated principal components. The most important advantages of nonlinear over linear PCA are that it incorporates nominal and ordinal…

  9. Principal Selection Panels: Strategies, Preferences and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Kwan, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report a study of the strategies members of principal selection panels use to select the best candidate for a principal position. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws on both qualitative and quantitative data. The quantitative analysis drawn on data collected from school supervisors and school…

  10. Assistant Principals and Reform: A Socialization Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Marguerita L.

    2013-01-01

    Framed in the critical race theory of structuration (CRTS), this sequential explanatory mixed methods study seeks to identify the socialization practices by examining the realities of practices of assistant principals and the ways in which they impact the disciplinary actions of assistant principals at middle and high schools. The mixed methods…

  11. Principals as Maverick Leaders: Rethinking Democratic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Sharron Goldman; Chirichello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    After her school wins the coveted United States National Secondary Education Award, a school principal embarks upon an educational odyssey. The principal discovers that the reasons for winning the award are a sham! As her school falls apart, she begins to reflect on the stagnant school organization and the ineffective prescriptions for…

  12. Implementing IDEA: A Guide for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    This guide is designed to provide information on ensuring quality special education services and early intervention to building principals in elementary and middle schools. It sets forth standards of excellence that directly relate to implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and presents guidelines for principals to use…

  13. Principals' Leadership, Antecedents, and Student Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Min B.; Glasman, Naftaly S.

    1998-01-01

    Uses a large random sample of California principals to determine the relationship of certain personal and organizational variables and principals' perceived use of four organizational leadership approaches. Explores the relationship between using these approaches and student outcomes. The political leadership approach strongly predicted schools'…

  14. Professional Development: Perceptions of Benefits for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaik Hourani, Rida; Stringer, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Schools in Abu Dhabi are going through change and reform. Abu Dhabi Education Council (ADEC) has initiated professional development for principals to facilitate change and school improvement. This paper explores principals' perception on the benefits of professional development received in light of managing school change and reforms.…

  15. The New Principal's Fieldbook: Strategies for Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Pam; Alvy, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Any principal starting at a new school or taking a leadership position for the first time needs this book to help focus on the issues that are most critical to success. Drawing from research data and advice from experienced principals, the authors reveal secrets that can make or break a new school leader's career: (1) Three stages of becoming…

  16. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide written...

  17. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide written...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide written...

  19. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide written...

  20. 47 CFR 76.1607 - Principal headend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Principal headend. 76.1607 Section 76.1607 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1607 Principal headend. A cable operator shall provide written...