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Sample records for factor rbm15 facilitates

  1. A Pooled shRNA Screen Identifies Rbm15, Spen, and Wtap as Factors Required for Xist RNA-Mediated Silencing.

    PubMed

    Moindrot, Benoit; Cerase, Andrea; Coker, Heather; Masui, Osamu; Grijzenhout, Anne; Pintacuda, Greta; Schermelleh, Lothar; Nesterova, Tatyana B; Brockdorff, Neil

    2015-07-28

    X-chromosome inactivation is the process that evolved in mammals to equalize levels of X-linked gene expression in XX females relative to XY males. Silencing of a single X chromosome in female cells is mediated by the non-coding RNA Xist. Although progress has been made toward identifying factors that function in the maintenance of X inactivation, the primary silencing factors are largely undefined. We developed an shRNA screening strategy to produce a ranked list of candidate primary silencing factors. Validation experiments performed on several of the top hits identified the SPOC domain RNA binding proteins Rbm15 and Spen and Wtap, a component of the m6A RNA methyltransferase complex, as playing an important role in the establishment of Xist-mediated silencing. Localization analysis using super-resolution 3D-SIM microscopy demonstrates that these factors co-localize with Xist RNA within the nuclear matrix subcompartment, consistent with a direct interaction.

  2. A Pooled shRNA Screen Identifies Rbm15, Spen, and Wtap as Factors Required for Xist RNA-Mediated Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Moindrot, Benoit; Cerase, Andrea; Coker, Heather; Masui, Osamu; Grijzenhout, Anne; Pintacuda, Greta; Schermelleh, Lothar; Nesterova, Tatyana B.; Brockdorff, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Summary X-chromosome inactivation is the process that evolved in mammals to equalize levels of X-linked gene expression in XX females relative to XY males. Silencing of a single X chromosome in female cells is mediated by the non-coding RNA Xist. Although progress has been made toward identifying factors that function in the maintenance of X inactivation, the primary silencing factors are largely undefined. We developed an shRNA screening strategy to produce a ranked list of candidate primary silencing factors. Validation experiments performed on several of the top hits identified the SPOC domain RNA binding proteins Rbm15 and Spen and Wtap, a component of the m6A RNA methyltransferase complex, as playing an important role in the establishment of Xist-mediated silencing. Localization analysis using super-resolution 3D-SIM microscopy demonstrates that these factors co-localize with Xist RNA within the nuclear matrix subcompartment, consistent with a direct interaction. PMID:26190105

  3. Cross-talk between PRMT1-mediated methylation and ubiquitylation on RBM15 controls RNA splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Su, Hairui; Wang, Rui; Lu, Yuheng; Tang, Haiping; Aoyagi, Sayura; Guo, Ailan; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Zhou, Dewang; Qian, Kun; Hricik, Todd; Côté, Jocelyn; Han, Xiaosi; Zhou, Wenping; Laha, Suparna; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L; Raffel, Glen; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Dongquan; Li, Haitao; Townes, Tim; Wang, Hengbin; Deng, Haiteng; Zheng, Y George; Leslie, Christina; Luo, Minkui; Zhao, Xinyang

    2015-01-01

    RBM15, an RNA binding protein, determines cell-fate specification of many tissues including blood. We demonstrate that RBM15 is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) at residue R578, leading to its degradation via ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase (CNOT4). Overexpression of PRMT1 in acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines blocks megakaryocyte terminal differentiation by downregulation of RBM15 protein level. Restoring RBM15 protein level rescues megakaryocyte terminal differentiation blocked by PRMT1 overexpression. At the molecular level, RBM15 binds to pre-messenger RNA intronic regions of genes important for megakaryopoiesis such as GATA1, RUNX1, TAL1 and c-MPL. Furthermore, preferential binding of RBM15 to specific intronic regions recruits the splicing factor SF3B1 to the same sites for alternative splicing. Therefore, PRMT1 regulates alternative RNA splicing via reducing RBM15 protein concentration. Targeting PRMT1 may be a curative therapy to restore megakaryocyte differentiation for acute megakaryocytic leukemia. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07938.001 PMID:26575292

  4. Cross-talk between PRMT1-mediated methylation and ubiquitylation on RBM15 controls RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Tran, Ngoc-Tung; Su, Hairui; Wang, Rui; Lu, Yuheng; Tang, Haiping; Aoyagi, Sayura; Guo, Ailan; Khodadadi-Jamayran, Alireza; Zhou, Dewang; Qian, Kun; Hricik, Todd; Côté, Jocelyn; Han, Xiaosi; Zhou, Wenping; Laha, Suparna; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Levine, Ross L; Raffel, Glen; Liu, Yanyan; Chen, Dongquan; Li, Haitao; Townes, Tim; Wang, Hengbin; Deng, Haiteng; Zheng, Y George; Leslie, Christina; Luo, Minkui; Zhao, Xinyang

    2015-11-17

    RBM15, an RNA binding protein, determines cell-fate specification of many tissues including blood. We demonstrate that RBM15 is methylated by protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) at residue R578, leading to its degradation via ubiquitylation by an E3 ligase (CNOT4). Overexpression of PRMT1 in acute megakaryocytic leukemia cell lines blocks megakaryocyte terminal differentiation by downregulation of RBM15 protein level. Restoring RBM15 protein level rescues megakaryocyte terminal differentiation blocked by PRMT1 overexpression. At the molecular level, RBM15 binds to pre-messenger RNA intronic regions of genes important for megakaryopoiesis such as GATA1, RUNX1, TAL1 and c-MPL. Furthermore, preferential binding of RBM15 to specific intronic regions recruits the splicing factor SF3B1 to the same sites for alternative splicing. Therefore, PRMT1 regulates alternative RNA splicing via reducing RBM15 protein concentration. Targeting PRMT1 may be a curative therapy to restore megakaryocyte differentiation for acute megakaryocytic leukemia.

  5. Requirement of UAP56, URH49, RBM15, and OTT3 in the expression of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57

    SciTech Connect

    Majerciak, Vladimir; Deng, Merlyn; Zheng Zhiming

    2010-11-25

    Transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is mediated by cellular RNA export factors. In this report, we examined how RNA export factors UAP56 and URH49, and RNA export cofactors RBM15 and OTT3, function in modulating KSHV ORF57 expression. We found that knockdown of each factor by RNAi led to decreased ORF57 expression. Specifically, reduced expression of either UAP56 or RBM15 led to nuclear export deficiency of ORF57 RNA. In the context of the KSHV genome, the near absence of UAP56 or RBM15 reduced the expression of both ORF57 and ORF59 (an RNA target of ORF57), but not ORF50. Collectively, our data indicate that the expression of KSHV ORF57 is regulated by cellular RNA export factors and cofactors at the posttranscriptional level.

  6. Ott1(Rbm15) has pleiotropic roles in hematopoietic development

    PubMed Central

    Raffel, Glen D.; Mercher, Thomas; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Williams, Ifor R.; Cullen, Dana E.; Akashi, Koichi; Bernard, Olivier A.; Gilliland, D. Gary

    2007-01-01

    OTT1(RBM15) was originally described as a 5′ translocation partner of the MAL(MKL1) gene in t(1,22)(p13;q13) infant acute mega karyocytic leukemia. OTT1 has no established physiological function, but it shares homology with the spen/Mint/SHARP family of proteins defined by three amino-terminal RNA recognition motifs and a carboxyl-terminal SPOC (Spen paralog and ortholog carboxyl-terminal) domain believed to act as a transcriptional repressor. To define the role of OTT1 in hematopoiesis and help elucidate the mechanism of t(1,22) acute megakaryocytic leukemia pathogenesis, a conditional allele of Ott1 was generated in mice. Deletion of Ott1 in adult mice caused a loss of peripheral B cells due to a block in pro/pre-B differentiation. There is myeloid and megakaryocytic expansion in spleen and bone marrow, an increase in the Lin−Sca-1+c-Kit+ compartment that includes hematopoietic stem cells, and a shift in progenitor fate toward granulocyte differentiation. These data show a requirement for Ott1 in B lymphopoiesis, and inhibitory roles in the myeloid, megakaryocytic, and progenitor compartments. The ability of Ott1 to affect hematopoietic cell fate and expansion in multiple lineages is a novel attribute for a spen family member and delineates Ott1 from other known effectors of hematopoietic development. It is plausible that dysregulation of Ott1-dependent hematopoietic developmental pathways, in particular those affecting the megakaryocyte lineage, may contribute to OTT1-MAL-mediated leukemogenesis. PMID:17376872

  7. Rbm15-Mkl1 interacts with the Setd1b histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase via a SPOC domain that is required for cytokine-independent proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Heon; Skalnik, David G

    2012-01-01

    The Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein is associated with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL), although little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) whereby this fusion protein contributes to leukemogenesis. Here, we show that both Rbm15 and the leukemogenic Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein interact with the Setd1b histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase (also known as KMT2G). This interaction is direct and requires the Rbm15 SPOC domain and the Setd1b LSD motif. Over-expression of Rbm15-Mkl1 in the 6133 megakaryoblastic leukemia cell line, previously established by expression of the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein in mice (Mercher et al., [2009] J. Clin. Invest. 119, 852-864), leads to decreased levels of endogenous Rbm15 and increased levels of endogenous Mkl1. These cells exhibit enhanced proliferation and cytokine-independent cell growth, which requires an intact Rbm15 SPOC domain that mediates interaction between the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein and the Setd1b methyltransferase. These results reveal altered Setd1b complex function and consequent altered epigenetic regulation as a possible molecular mechanism that mediates the leukemogenic activity of the Rbm15-Mkl1 fusion protein in AMKL.

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus ORF57 interacts with cellular RNA export cofactors RBM15 and OTT3 to promote expression of viral ORF59.

    PubMed

    Majerciak, Vladimir; Uranishi, Hiroaki; Kruhlak, Michael; Pilkington, Guy R; Massimelli, Maria Julia; Bear, Jenifer; Pavlakis, George N; Felber, Barbara K; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2011-02-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes ORF57, which promotes the accumulation of specific KSHV mRNA targets, including ORF59 mRNA. We report that the cellular export NXF1 cofactors RBM15 and OTT3 participate in ORF57-enhanced expression of KSHV ORF59. We also found that ectopic expression of RBM15 or OTT3 augments ORF59 production in the absence of ORF57. While RBM15 promotes the accumulation of ORF59 RNA predominantly in the nucleus compared to the levels in the cytoplasm, we found that ORF57 shifted the nucleocytoplasmic balance by increasing ORF59 RNA accumulation in the cytoplasm more than in the nucleus. By promoting the accumulation of cytoplasmic ORF59 RNA, ORF57 offsets the nuclear RNA accumulation mediated by RBM15 by preventing nuclear ORF59 RNA from hyperpolyadenylation. ORF57 interacts directly with the RBM15 C-terminal portion containing the SPOC domain to reduce RBM15 binding to ORF59 RNA. Although ORF57 homologs Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EB2, herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP27, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE4/ORF4, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL69 also interact with RBM15 and OTT3, EBV EB2, which also promotes ORF59 expression, does not function like KSHV ORF57 to efficiently prevent RBM15-mediated nuclear accumulation of ORF59 RNA and RBM15's association with polyadenylated RNAs. Collectively, our data provide novel insight elucidating a molecular mechanism by which ORF57 promotes the expression of viral intronless genes.

  9. Ott1 (Rbm15) regulates thrombopoietin response in hematopoietic stem cells through alternative splicing of c-Mpl

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Nan; Laha, Suparna; Das, Shankar P.; Morlock, Kayla; Jesneck, Jonathan L.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (Thpo) signaling through the c-Mpl receptor promotes either quiescence or proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in a concentration-dependent manner; however, in vivo Thpo serum levels are responsive to platelet mass rather than HSC demands, suggesting additional regulation exists. Ott1 (Rbm15), a spliceosomal component originally identified as a fusion partner in t(1;22)-associated acute megakaryocytic leukemia, is also essential for maintaining HSC quiescence under stress. Ott1 controls the alternative splicing of a dominant negative isoform, Mpl-TR, capable of inhibiting HSC engraftment and attenuating Thpo signaling. Ott1, which associates with Hdac3 and the histone methyltransferase, Setd1b, binds to both c-Mpl RNA and chromatin and regulates H4 acetylation and H3K4me3 marks. Histone deacetylase or histone methyltransferase inhibition also increases Mpl-TR levels, suggesting that Ott1 uses an underlying epigenetic mechanism to control alternative splicing of c-Mpl. Manipulation of Ott1-dependent alternative splicing may therefore provide a novel pharmacologic avenue for regulating HSC quiescence and proliferation in response to Thpo. PMID:25468569

  10. Factors for Effective Facilitator Training Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-01

    UNIVERSITY AIR loRCE irsiSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ;|^#i#J4Ä’ ,¥^s»’* Ä^^ Sf « +-¥ ^ . Wrigkt-Patterson Air Force Base/Öhio SfiÄSi «Site AFIT...32 Personal Outcomes 34 Role Ambiguity 35 Sense of Competence 36 Role Satisfaction 37 Regression Analysis 38 Facilitator Knowledge 40 IV Page...process." The items are adapted from a Survey of Perceived Organizational Support (Eisenberger, Huntington , Hutchison, Sowa; 1986:500). Experience

  11. Sustaining Asynchronous Online Discussions: Contributing Factors and Peer Facilitation Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Connie Siew Ling; Cheung, Wing Sum; Hew, Khe Foon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factors and peer facilitation techniques that influenced students' participation in sustained asynchronous online discussion. A case study approach was used, with data collected through interviews, questionnaires, and online discussion transcripts. The findings revealed that factors such as interesting topic, familiarity…

  12. Barriers to and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fotoukian, Zahra; Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Farahnaz; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Empowerment of elderly people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can increase their quality of life and feeling of well-being. However, few researches focused on the obstacles and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly people with COPD; and an adequate determining of these factors need an in-depth understanding of the meaning of these factors which influences empowerment. The objective of this study was to explore the barriers to and factors facilitating empowerment in elderly people with COPD. Methods: This study was conducted with a qualitative approach using content analysis. Twenty- four participants were selected based on purposeful sampling. Data were collected through conducting in-depth semistructured interviews and making filed notes. Data analysis was performed according to the proposed steps by Granhym & Lund man (2004). Results: The potential to empower the elderly with COPD was influenced by mediating factors; the nature of aging, the difficult nature of COPD, fear and hopelessness, the cultural values and beliefs, poor formal support systems and poor economic status were found to be the barriers; and incentive, trust to health care providers, the educable status of the elderly and increased experience were found to be facilitating factors. Conclusion: It seems that empowerment of the elderly with COPD was affected by many factors which mainly rooted in social factors, health care systems and personal resources. PMID:25695013

  13. Middle School Students' Perceptions of Factors Facilitating Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the "World of Water" program. There were two sessions per summer…

  14. Factors Which Facilitate Workplace Learning: Confidence, Challenge and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderton, Jane

    The midcareeer learning of 120 professionals in 12 contrasting business, engineering, and health care organizations was examined to identify factors facilitating workplace learning. Individuals were interviewed regarding their current work and ways they acquired the necessary know-how and knowledge for their jobs and improved or extended their…

  15. Factors facilitating dementia case management: Results of online focus groups.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Jacomine; Deusing, Eline; van Asch, Iris Fm; Peeters, José; Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Pot, Anne Margriet; Francke, Anneke L

    2016-02-24

    To obtain insight into facilitating factors for case management in dementia care, we conducted a qualitative study with 13 online focus groups (OFGs). Participants were professionals involved in dementia case management (N = 99). We used mind-maps and the method of constant comparison for analysis. Participants perceived OFGs as a useful tool to explore their perspectives. The perceived advantage of OFGs was the flexibility and convenience of logging in at any time or place preferred. Five facilitating factors for case management were identified in the OFGs: 1. Good cooperation between partners; 2. Organisational embedding with an independent position of case managers; 3. Structural funding; 4. Competent case managers; 5. Familiarity with case management in the region. Good cooperation was essential for successful dementia case management and should thus be a primary concern for care providers.

  16. Online cognition: factors facilitating reliable online neuropsychological test results.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Heleen E M; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Murre, Jaap M J; Schagen, Sanne B

    2017-01-01

    Online neuropsychological test batteries could allow for large-scale cognitive data collection in clinical studies. However, the few online neuropsychological test batteries that are currently available often still require supervision or lack proper psychometric evaluation. In this paper, we have outlined prerequisites for proper development and use of online neuropsychological tests, with the focus on reliable measurement of cognitive function in an unmonitored setting. First, we identified several technical, contextual, and psychological factors that should be taken into account in order to facilitate reliable test results of online tests in the unmonitored setting. Second, we outlined a methodology of quality assurance needed in order to obtain reliable cognitive data in the long run. Based on factors that distinguish the online unmonitored test setting from the traditional face-to-face setting, we provide a set of basic requirements and suggestions for optimal development and use of unmonitored online neuropsychological tests, including suggestions on acquiring reliability, validity, and norm scores. When properly addressing factors that could hamper reliable test results during development and use, online neuropsychological tests could aid large-scale data collection for clinical studies in the future. Investment in both proper development of online neuropsychological test platforms and the performance of accompanying psychometric studies is currently required.

  17. [Factors facilitating development of degenerative aortic valvular stenosis].

    PubMed

    Andropova, O V; Polubentseva, E I; Anokhin, V N

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine factors of risk and progress of aortal valvular calcinosis (AVC) and aortic ostium stenosis (AOS). The subjects were 85 patients with AVC (42--with aortic valvular stenosis (AVS), and 43--without AOS). The study, which included analysis of the lipid and mineral metabolism, and immunological tests, shows that potential factors of AVC are: age (p < 0. 001), osteoporosis (p < 0.03), mitral ring calcification (p = 0.047), dislipidemia (high serum level of total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins, and apoB, atherogenic shift of apoB/apoA-1 ratio, low level of cholesterol of high density lipoproteins (CHDLP)), disbalance between intecellular matrix synthesis and destruction (high concentration of alkaline phosphatase and its bone fraction, and accelerated deoxypyridinoline excretion), inflammation (high concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). The factors of AOS were: age (p < 0.001), smoking (p < 0.001), osteoporosis (p = 0.004), AVC (p < 0.001), mitral ring calcinosis (p = 0.033), dislipidemia (high levels of cholesterol of low density and very low density lipoproteins, low concentrations of CHDLP, and apoA-1), degradation of extracellular matrix, and inflammation (high concentrations of CRP, fibrinogen, IL-6, and IL-8). Thus, atherogenic dislipidemia and mineral dysmetabolism disorder facilitate AVC. The revealed immune status changes imply the role of inflammation in the development and progress of AVS.

  18. Reviewing audit: barriers and facilitating factors for effective clinical audit

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, G; Crombie, I; Alder, E; Davies, H; Millard, A

    2000-01-01

    I K Crombie, professor and E M Alder, senior lecturer H T O Davies, reader A Millard, research fellow Objective—To review the literature on the benefits and disadvantages of clinical and medical audit, and to assess the main facilitators and barriers to conducting the audit process. Design—A comprehensive literature review was undertaken through a thorough review of Medline and CINAHL databases using the keywords of "audit", "audit of audits", and "evaluation of audits" and a handsearch of the indexes of relevant journals for key papers. Results—Findings from 93 publications were reviewed. These ranged from single case studies of individual audit projects through retrospective reviews of departmental audit programmes to studies of interface projects between primary and secondary care. The studies reviewed incorporated the experiences of a wide variety of clinicians, from medical consultants to professionals allied to medicine and from those involved in unidisciplinary and multidisciplinary ventures. Perceived benefits of audit included improved communication among colleagues and other professional groups, improved patient care, increased professional satisfaction, and better administration. Some disadvantages of audit were perceived as diminished clinical ownership, fear of litigation, hierarchical and territorial suspicions, and professional isolation. The main barriers to clinical audit can be classified under five main headings. These are lack of resources, lack of expertise or advice in project design and analysis, problems between groups and group members, lack of an overall plan for audit, and organisational impediments. Key facilitating factors to audit were also identified: they included modern medical records systems, effective training, dedicated staff, protected time, structured programmes, and a shared dialogue between purchasers and providers. Conclusions—Clinical audit can be a valuable assistance to any programme which aims to improve the

  19. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress

  20. Facilitated diffusion framework for transcription factor search with conformational changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartailler, Jérôme; Reingruber, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Cellular responses often require the fast activation or repression of specific genes, which depends on transcription factors (TFs) that have to quickly find the promoters of these genes within a large genome. TFs search for their DNA promoter target by alternating between bulk diffusion and sliding along the DNA, a mechanism known as facilitated diffusion. We study a facilitated diffusion framework with switching between three search modes: a bulk mode and two sliding modes triggered by conformational changes between two protein conformations. In one conformation (search mode) the TF interacts unspecifically with the DNA backbone resulting in fast sliding. In the other conformation (recognition mode) it interacts specifically and strongly with DNA base pairs leading to slow displacement. From the bulk, a TF associates with the DNA at a random position that is correlated with the previous dissociation point, which implicitly is a function of the DNA structure. The target affinity depends on the conformation. We derive exact expressions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) to bind to the promoter and the conditional probability to bind before detaching when arriving at the promoter site. We systematically explore the parameter space and compare various search scenarios. We compare our results with experimental data for the dimeric Lac repressor search in E. coli bacteria. We find that a coiled DNA conformation is absolutely necessary for a fast MFPT. With frequent spontaneous conformational changes, a fast search time is achieved even when a TF becomes immobilized in the recognition state due to the specific bindings. We find a MFPT compatible with experimental data in presence of a specific TF-DNA interaction energy that has a Gaussian distribution with a large variance.

  1. Facilitated diffusion framework for transcription factor search with conformational changes.

    PubMed

    Cartailler, Jérôme; Reingruber, Jürgen

    2015-07-22

    Cellular responses often require the fast activation or repression of specific genes, which depends on transcription factors (TFs) that have to quickly find the promoters of these genes within a large genome. TFs search for their DNA promoter target by alternating between bulk diffusion and sliding along the DNA, a mechanism known as facilitated diffusion. We study a facilitated diffusion framework with switching between three search modes: a bulk mode and two sliding modes triggered by conformational changes between two protein conformations. In one conformation (search mode) the TF interacts unspecifically with the DNA backbone resulting in fast sliding. In the other conformation (recognition mode) it interacts specifically and strongly with DNA base pairs leading to slow displacement. From the bulk, a TF associates with the DNA at a random position that is correlated with the previous dissociation point, which implicitly is a function of the DNA structure. The target affinity depends on the conformation. We derive exact expressions for the mean first passage time (MFPT) to bind to the promoter and the conditional probability to bind before detaching when arriving at the promoter site. We systematically explore the parameter space and compare various search scenarios. We compare our results with experimental data for the dimeric Lac repressor search in E. coli bacteria. We find that a coiled DNA conformation is absolutely necessary for a fast MFPT. With frequent spontaneous conformational changes, a fast search time is achieved even when a TF becomes immobilized in the recognition state due to the specific bindings. We find a MFPT compatible with experimental data in presence of a specific TF-DNA interaction energy that has a Gaussian distribution with a large variance.

  2. A novel cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor in Aplysia facilitates growth, MAPK activation, and long-term synaptic facilitation.

    PubMed

    Pu, Lu; Kopec, Ashley M; Boyle, Heather D; Carew, Thomas J

    2014-04-01

    Neurotrophins are critically involved in developmental processes such as neuronal cell survival, growth, and differentiation, as well as in adult synaptic plasticity contributing to learning and memory. Our previous studies examining neurotrophins and memory formation in Aplysia showed that a TrkB ligand is required for MAPK activation, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term memory (LTM) for sensitization. These studies indicate that neurotrophin-like molecules in Aplysia can act as key elements in a functionally conserved TrkB signaling pathway. Here we report that we have cloned and characterized a novel neurotrophic factor, Aplysia cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor (apCRNF), which shares classical structural and functional characteristics with mammalian neurotrophins. We show that apCRNF (1) is highly enriched in the CNS, (2) enhances neurite elongation and branching, (3) interacts with mammalian TrkB and p75(NTR), (4) is released from Aplysia CNS in an activity-dependent fashion, (5) facilitates MAPK activation in a tyrosine kinase dependent manner in response to sensitizing stimuli, and (6) facilitates the induction of LTF. These results show that apCRNF is a native neurotrophic factor in Aplysia that can engage the molecular and synaptic mechanisms underlying memory formation.

  3. Facilitated Diffusion of Transcription Factor Proteins with Anomalous Bulk Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-02-16

    What are the physical laws of the diffusive search of proteins for their specific binding sites on DNA in the presence of the macromolecular crowding in cells? We performed extensive computer simulations to elucidate the protein target search on DNA. The novel feature is the viscoelastic non-Brownian protein bulk diffusion recently observed experimentally. We examine the influence of the protein-DNA binding affinity and the anomalous diffusion exponent on the target search time. In all cases an optimal search time is found. The relative contribution of intermittent three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding of proteins along the DNA is quantified. Our results are discussed in the light of recent single molecule tracking experiments, aiming at a better understanding of the influence of anomalous kinetics of proteins on the facilitated diffusion mechanism.

  4. Factors facilitating research: a survey of zoo and aquarium professionals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ursula S; Maple, Terry L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this survey was to assess the background, training, and perceptions of professionals conducting and coordinating research at North American zoos and aquariums accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) and to identify the factors they considered critical to successful scientific programs. We analyzed responses to a 57-item questionnaire from 231 professionals at AZA zoos and aquariums. The majority of those surveyed conducted behavioral research, conducted research only in a captive setting, held curatorial positions, had their salaries supported by their institutions' operating budget, and considered themselves part of a successful scientific program. About 30% of those we surveyed possessed a doctoral research degree in comparison to 55% possessing lesser level degrees-19% with master's, 34% with bachelor's, and 2% with other degrees. Support from the chief executive officer and personnel dedicated to conducting scientific programs were judged as the two most important factors contributing to the successful scientific programs. The information provided in this report may be used to develop and improve both established and newly initiated scientific programs in zoos and aquariums.

  5. Nature and the natural environment as health facilitators: the need to reconceptualize the ICF environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Day, Adam M B; Theurer, Julie A; Dykstra, Allyson D; Doyle, Philip C

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the environmental factors component of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) relative to current health-facilitating evidence about natural environmental factors. We argue that the environmental factors component warrants reconceptualization in order to offer an extended and more systematic framework for identifying and measuring health-facilitating natural environmental factors. Current evidence highlighting the potential health-facilitating benefits of natural environmental factors is synthesized and considered in the context of the ICF framework and its coding system. In its current form, the ICF's conceptual framework and coding system are inadequate for identifying and measuring natural environmental factors in individuals and groups with and/or without health conditions. The ICF provides an advanced framework for health and disability that reflects contemporary conceptualizations about health. However, given the scope of emerging evidence highlighting positive health and well-being outcomes associated with natural environmental factors, we believe the environmental factors component requires further advancement to reflect this current knowledge. Reconceptualizing the environmental factors component supports a more holistic interpretation of the continuum of environmental factors as both facilitators and barriers. In doing so, it strengthens the ICF's utility in identifying and measuring health-facilitating natural environmental factors.

  6. Facilitating and impeding factors for physicians' error disclosure: a structured literature review.

    PubMed

    Kaldjian, Lauris C; Jones, Elizabeth W; Rosenthal, Gary E

    2006-04-01

    It is important for physicians to disclose medical errors to institutions (for patient safety), to colleagues (for professional learning), and to patients (as part of direct patient care), but no comprehensive review of factors that may facilitate or impede disclosure has been undertaken. A MEDLINE search was conducted of English-language articles published from 1975-2004, with review of bibliographies. A total of 5,509 articles were reviewed by title, 881 articles were retrieved for full text review, and 475 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Article content was assessed by identifying factors that facilitate or impede disclosure and classifying each article's primary goal of disclosure. Thirty-five factors believed to facilitate disclosure were identified (for example, accountability, honesty, restitution), as were 41 factors believed to impede it (for example, professional repercussions, legal liability, blame). The three most common goals of disclosure were to improve patient safety, enhance learning, and inform patients. Facilitating factors were more commonly cited when the goal of disclosure was to inform patients. A wide range of factors are capable of facilitating or impeding the disclosure of medical errors. Innovations to enhance error disclosure should address both sides of the equation: impeding factors should be removed and facilitating factors should be promoted.

  7. Contextual Factors Influencing the Facilitation of Others' Learning through Everyday Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; Cseh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Interest and research on workplace learning has intensified in recent years, however, research on assessing how employees facilitate each other's learning through everyday work experiences and how organizational contextual factors promote or impede the facilitation of others' learning at work is underdeveloped. Therefore, the purpose of…

  8. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Volpe, Stella L; Steckler, Allan; Hall, John M; Fisher, M Randall

    2014-06-01

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a cluster-randomized trial of a multicomponent intervention implemented in 21 schools. Interview data were analyzed to identify barriers and facilitators. Barriers included teacher frustration that intervention activities detracted from tested subjects, student resistance and misbehavior, classroom management problems, communication equipment problems, lack of teacher/staff engagement, high cost and limited availability of nutritious products, inadequate facility space, and large class sizes. Facilitators included teacher/staff engagement, effective classroom management, student engagement, schools with direct control over food service, support from school leaders, and adequate facilities and equipment. Contextual barriers and facilitators must be taken into account in the design and implementation of school-based health interventions.

  9. School factors as barriers to and facilitators of a preventive intervention for pediatric type 2 diabetes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    School-based interventions are essential to prevent pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes. School environmental factors influence implementation of these interventions. This article examines how school factors acted as barriers to and facilitators of the HEALTHY intervention. The HEALTHY study was a...

  10. College-Bound Girls and Science Careers: Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Gail Thomas; Piel, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Students' (N=1017) perceptions of barriers, facilitating factors, and information needs related to consideration of careers in science were investigated. Results suggest girls have doubts about combining family life with a science career, lack information about steps in preparing for a science career, and believe influential adults. (Author)

  11. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  12. Study of Factors Which Facilitate Increase of Effectiveness of University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albekov, Adam; Romanova, Tatyana; Vovchenko, Natalya; Epifanova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the factors which facilitate the increase of effectiveness of university education and determination of perspectives of their management for provision of maximization of effectiveness of university education by the example of modern Russia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors define the notion…

  13. College-Bound Girls and Science Careers: Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, Gail Thomas; Piel, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Students' (N=1017) perceptions of barriers, facilitating factors, and information needs related to consideration of careers in science were investigated. Results suggest girls have doubts about combining family life with a science career, lack information about steps in preparing for a science career, and believe influential adults. (Author)

  14. Study of Factors Which Facilitate Increase of Effectiveness of University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albekov, Adam; Romanova, Tatyana; Vovchenko, Natalya; Epifanova, Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the factors which facilitate the increase of effectiveness of university education and determination of perspectives of their management for provision of maximization of effectiveness of university education by the example of modern Russia. Design/methodology/approach: The authors define the notion…

  15. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  16. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  17. The Evolution of a Teacher Community of Practice: Identifying Facilitating and Constraining Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Tracey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a larger, qualitative study that explored the potential of a school-based teacher community of practice as a model for a transformative form of teacher professional development. This paper reports on initial findings from a grounded theory exploration of the factors that facilitated and constrained the evolution…

  18. Factors in the Transfer of Governance-Facilitation Skills within Farmers' Marketing Organizations in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miiro, Richard F.; Mazur, Robert E.; Matsiko, Frank B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Training transfer has been examined for formal industrial and service organizations in developed countries but rarely for rural organizations in sub-Saharan Africa. This study sought to identify transfer system factors that best explain the transfer of governance-facilitation skills provided to leaders of farmers' marketing organizations…

  19. Facilitating and Hindering Factors in the Realization of Disabled Children's Agency in Institutional Contexts: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olli, Johanna; Vehkakoski, Tanja; Salantera, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    Disabled children's opportunity to act as agents may be compromised because adults have the power to choose who are entitled to express agency. Disabled children spend much time in institutions and with professionals of different fields. The aim of this literature review was to find out which factors facilitate or hinder the realization of…

  20. Moving toward universal coverage of health insurance in Vietnam: barriers, facilitating factors, and lessons from Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Ngan; Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok

    2014-07-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance.

  1. Shape as a Facilitating Factor of Changes in Foraminiferan Shell Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalles, L.; Seixas, G.; Payne, J.

    2012-12-01

    Some questions remain regarding the factors facilitating changes in body size of marine organisms over geological time. One such possible factor is body shape, which is intrinsically linked to size. By identifying patterns in shape, we hope to gain a better understanding of how changes in shape facilitate changes in size. For example, we can examine whether an increase in the size of an organism must be accommodated by a change in shape. As such, shape has the potential to be used as a predictor for an organism's success at various body sizes. To identify test (i.e., shell) shape patterns, we measured size dimensions of foraminifera, single-celled marine organisms, from the Ellis and Messina Catalogue of Foraminifera. We quantified shape as the ratio between each foraminifer's largest and smallest dimension (dimension ratio). We then compared shape to average body volume over time, looking at five major foraminifera suborders individually as well as combined data for all suborders. We found that while the maximum dimension ratio tends to increase over time, the average remains relatively constant. This trend is apparent in most examined suborders but is less clear in the suborder Fusilinina. When shape was compared to average volume over time, a similar positive correlation was observed. As maximum dimension ratio increases, average volume also increases; this tendency for foraminifera to become less spherical at larger size may reflect constraints related to food and nutrient uptake, supporting the conclusion that shape acts as a facilitating factor in changes in body size of foraminifera.

  2. Integrating Human Factors Engineering and Information Processing Approaches to Facilitate Evaluations in Criminal Justice Technology Research.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Factors that facilitate or hinder mentoring in the nurse practitioner preceptor/student relationship.

    PubMed

    Hayes, E F

    2001-03-01

    Mentoring, a process thought to be crucial for the novice nurse practitioner during the time of transition to advanced practice, has implications for role socialization and, ultimately, for patient care outcomes. In-depth interviews of mentored or non-mentored nurse practitioner students, drawn from an earlier phase of the present study (Hayes, 1998) and identified as outliers, provided a basis for exploring the meaning of factors that may facilitate or hinder mentoring in the NP preceptor/student relationship. Study findings confirmed and illuminated earlier results (Hayes, 1998) predictive of mentoring, such as time in the practicum, preceptor experience, and choice of preceptor rather than acceptance of faculty assignment. However, NP preceptor/student age differences, student nursing experience, and the tone of the clinical setting can either facilitate or hinder the development of mentoring. Although gender and discipline of the preceptor may be important to many students, a humanistic precepting style may be equally or more important. Understanding factors that facilitate or hinder mentoring will help faculty to better plan clinical experiences, assist preceptors in their potential roles as mentors, and maximize learning opportunities for mentor-seeking students who must navigate successfully in today's cost-conscious, quality outcome-oriented health care environment.

  4. The factors facilitating and inhibiting effective clinical decision-making in nursing: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hagbaghery, Mohsen Adib; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2004-04-06

    BACKGROUND: Nurses' practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology. The dynamic and uncertain nature of health care environment requires nurses to be competent decision-makers in order to respond to clients' needs. Recently, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. However nurses' views and experiences on factors that affect their clinical function and clinical decision-making have rarely been studied. METHODS: Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the participants' lived experiences and their viewpoints regarding the factors affecting their clinical function and clinical decision-making. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed and twelve sessions of observation were carried out. Constant comparative analysis method was used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Five main themes emerged from the data. From the participants' points of view, "feeling competent", "being self-confident", "organizational structure", "nursing education", and "being supported" were considered as important factors in effective clinical decision-making. CONCLUSION: As participants in this research implied, being competent and self-confident are the most important personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision-making. Also external factors such as organizational structure, access to supportive resources and nursing education have strengthening or inhibiting effects on the nurses' decisions. Individual nurses, professional associations, schools of nursing, nurse educators, organizations that employ nurses and government all have responsibility for developing and finding strategies that facilitate nurses' effective clinical decision-making. They are responsible for identifying barriers and enhancing factors within the organizational structure that facilitate nurses' clinical decision-making.

  5. The factors facilitating and inhibiting effective clinical decision-making in nursing: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Hagbaghery, Mohsen Adib; Salsali, Mahvash; Ahmadi, Fazlolah

    2004-01-01

    Background Nurses' practice takes place in a context of ongoing advances in research and technology. The dynamic and uncertain nature of health care environment requires nurses to be competent decision-makers in order to respond to clients' needs. Recently, the public and the government have criticized Iranian nurses because of poor quality of patient care. However nurses' views and experiences on factors that affect their clinical function and clinical decision-making have rarely been studied. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the participants' lived experiences and their viewpoints regarding the factors affecting their clinical function and clinical decision-making. Semi-structured interviews and participant observation methods were used to gather the data. Thirty-eight participants were interviewed and twelve sessions of observation were carried out. Constant comparative analysis method was used to analyze the data. Results Five main themes emerged from the data. From the participants' points of view, "feeling competent", "being self-confident", "organizational structure", "nursing education", and "being supported" were considered as important factors in effective clinical decision-making. Conclusion As participants in this research implied, being competent and self-confident are the most important personal factors influencing nurses clinical decision-making. Also external factors such as organizational structure, access to supportive resources and nursing education have strengthening or inhibiting effects on the nurses' decisions. Individual nurses, professional associations, schools of nursing, nurse educators, organizations that employ nurses and government all have responsibility for developing and finding strategies that facilitate nurses' effective clinical decision-making. They are responsible for identifying barriers and enhancing factors within the organizational structure that facilitate nurses' clinical decision-making. PMID

  6. Exploring socio-cultural factors that mediate, facilitate, & constrain the health and empowerment of refugee youth.

    PubMed

    Edge, Sara; Newbold, K Bruce; McKeary, Marie

    2014-09-01

    Studies on youth health and well-being are predominantly quantitative and expert-driven with less attention given to how youth understand what it means to be healthy themselves and the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping this. Knowledge on the perceptions and experiences of refugee youth is particularly lacking and notable given their unique stressors related to migratory, settlement and integration experiences. We contribute a better understanding of how refugee youth themselves define and contextualize health, with particular emphasis given to socio-cultural factors that enable or constrain health promotion efforts and individual health agency. This research was undertaken at a downtown drop-in centre in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada that provided settlement and integration services to newcomer youth. We employ a grounded theory approach and draw upon participant observation, focus groups and in-depth interviews. Twenty-six youth (age 18-25 years), representing 12 different countries of origin participated. The youth defined health very broadly touching upon many typical determinants of health (e.g. education, income, etc.). Yet factors of most importance (as demonstrated by the frequency and urgency in which they were discussed by youth) included a sense of belonging, positive self-identity, emotional well-being, and sense of agency or self-determination. We conceptualize these as "mediating" factors given the youth argued they enabled or constrained their ability to cope with adversities related to other health determinant categories. The youth also discussed what we interpret as "facilitators" that encourage mediating factors to manifest positively (e.g. informal, non-biomedical settings and programs that nurture trust, break down access barriers, and promote a sense of community amongst peers, mentors, and health professionals). When creating health promotion strategies for refugee youth (and perhaps youth more generally) it is important to understand the

  7. Factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health policies impact on nursing profession and health care. Nurses' involvement in health policy development ensures that health care is safe, of a high quality, accessible and affordable. Numerous factors influence nurse leaders' ability to be politically active in influencing health policy development. These factors can be facilitators or barriers to their participation. There is scant research evidence from Eastern African region that draws attention to this topic. This paper reports part of the larger study. The objectives reported in this paper were those aimed to: build consensus on factors that act as facilitators and barriers to nurse leaders' participation in health policy development in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Methods A Delphi survey was applied which included: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions in East Africa. Data collection was done, in three iterative rounds, and utilized a questionnaire with open and closed ended questions. 78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study; the response rate was 47% of these 64.8% participated in the second round and of those 100% participated in the third round. Data analysis was done by examining the data for the most commonly occurring categories for the open ended questions and descriptive statistics for structured questions. Results The findings of the study indicate that both facilitators and barriers exist. The former include: being involved in health policy development, having knowledge and skills, enhancing the image of nursing and enabling structures and processes. The latter include: lack of involvement, negative image of nursing and structures and processes which exclude them. Conclusion There is a window of opportunity to enhance national nurse leaders' participation in health policy development. Nurse leaders have a key role

  8. Women’s experiences of factors that facilitate or inhibit gestational diabetes self-management

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes rates have increased dramatically in the past two decades and this pattern of increase appears to relate primarily to the obesity epidemic, older maternal age and migration from world areas of high GDM risk. Women from disadvantaged and migrant backgrounds are most at risk of developing and of mismanaging this condition. The aim of the study was to explore the factors that facilitated or inhibited gestational diabetes self-management among women in a socially deprived area. Methods Fifteen pregnant women, with a diagnosis of gestational diabetes, were purposively recruited for this study. Qualitative semi structured interviews and 1 focus group were conducted when participants were approximately 28–38 weeks gestation. The study’s theoretical framework was based on interpretative phenomenology and data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Women in this study identified a number of factors that complicated their task of GDM self-management. Barriers included: (1) time pressures; (2) physical constraints; (3) social constraints; (4) limited comprehension of requirements, and (5) insulin as an easier option. Factors facilitating GDM self-management included: thinking about the baby and psychological support from partners and families. Conclusion Women from low socio economic and migrant backgrounds often struggle to comprehend GDM self-management requirements. To improve adherence to management plans, these women require educational and supportive services that are culturally appropriate and aimed at a low level of literacy. PMID:22988897

  9. Facilitating and inhibiting factors in transition to parenthood - ways in which health professionals can support parents.

    PubMed

    Barimani, Mia; Vikström, Anna; Rosander, Michael; Forslund Frykedal, Karin; Berlin, Anita

    2017-01-31

    The transition to parenthood is an overwhelming life event. From a theoretical perspective, transition to parenthood is a developmental transition that contains certain phases and patterns. This study aim was twofold (i) discover, describe and comprehend transitional conditions that parents perceive as facilitating and inhibiting during transition to parenthood and to (ii) use that knowledge to develop recommendations for professional interventions that support and facilitate transition to parenthood. Meleis transition theory framed the study's deductive qualitative approach - from planning to analysis. In a secondary analysis, data were analysed (as per Meleis transition theory) from two studies that implemented interviews with 60 parents in Sweden between 2013 and 2014. Interview questions dealt with parents' experiences of the transition to parenthood - in relation to experiences with parent-education groups, professional support and continuity after childbirth. A university research ethics board has approved the research. These factors facilitated transition to parenthood: perceiving parenthood as a normal part of life; enjoying the child's growth; being prepared and having knowledge; experiencing social support; receiving professional support, receiving information about resources within the health care; participating in well-functioning parent-education groups; and hearing professionals comment on gender differences as being complementary. These factors inhibited transition to parenthood: having unrealistic expectations; feeling stress and loss of control; experiencing breastfeeding demands and lack of sleep; facing a judgmental attitude about breastfeeding; being unprepared for reality; lacking information about reality; lacking professional support and information; lacking healthcare resources; participating in parent-education groups that did not function optimally; and hearing professionals accentuate gender differences in a problematic way. Transition

  10. Acceptability of emergency contraception in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. 2 - Facilitating factors versus obstacles.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Soledad; Hardy, Ellen; Alvarado, Gloria; Ezcurra, Enrique

    2003-01-01

    A multi-center study was performed in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the introduction of emergency contraception (EC) as well as perceptions concerning emergency contraceptive pills. Background information on the socio-cultural, political, and legal context and the characteristics of reproductive health services was collected. The opinions of potential users and providers were obtained through discussion groups, and those of authorities and policymakers through semi-structured interviews. Barriers to introduction included: perception of EC as an abortifacient, opposition by the Catholic Church, limited recognition of sexual and reproductive rights, limited sex education, and insensitivity to gender issues. Facilitating factors were: perception of EC as a method that would prevent abortion and pregnancy among adolescents and rape victims; interest in the method shown by potential users as well as by some providers and authorities. It appears possible to reduce barriers through support from segments of society committed to improving sexual and reproductive health and adequate training of health care providers.

  11. Moving toward Universal Coverage of Health Insurance in Vietnam: Barriers, Facilitating Factors, and Lessons from Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Vietnam has pursued universal health insurance coverage for two decades but has yet to fully achieve this goal. This paper investigates the barriers to achieve universal coverage and examines the validity of facilitating factors to shorten the transitional period in Vietnam. A comparative study of facilitating factors toward universal coverage of Vietnam and Korea reveals significant internal forces for Vietnam to further develop the National Health Insurance Program. Korea in 1977 and Vietnam in 2009 have common characteristics to be favorable of achieving universal coverage with similarities of level of income, highly qualified administrative ability, tradition of solidarity, and strong political leadership although there are differences in distribution of population and structure of the economy. From a comparative perspective, Vietnam can consider the experience of Korea in implementing the mandatory enrollment approach, household unit of eligibility, design of contribution and benefit scheme, and resource allocation to health insurance for sustainable government subsidy to achieve and sustain the universal coverage of health insurance. Graphical Abstract PMID:25045223

  12. [The factors facilitating and constraining the continuation of breastfeeding in women in Estrie (Quebec)].

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda; Lacombe, Marie; Yergeau, Eric; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Tribble, Denise St-cyr; Royer, Francine; Garant, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    To document breastfeeding rates from birth to six months as well as the factors facilitating and constraining the continuation of breastfeeding in women in the Eastern Townships of Quebec and to compare these to the results obtained in 1999. Postal questionnaire sent to 374 mothers who had breastfed and analysis of archival data. Breastfeeding rates were 86.3% at birth and 75% at discharge from hospital in all mothers who gave birth to a child in 2004-2005. Breastfeeding rates in the 272 mothers who answered the questionnaire were reported to be 67.3% and 47.4% at three and six months respectively. Results indicate that 8.9% of infants were still receiving breast milk exclusively after the third month. However, 27.9% of the mothers had stopped breastfeeding during the infant's first week. Support from the nurses was the primary factor facilitating breastfeeding. The main reasons the mothers gave for stopping breastfeeding were problems with breastfeeding and fatigue. Breastfeeding rates in this area of Quebec have increased significantly in the past five years and are comparable with those in the rest of Canada. Breastfeeding exclusively up to six months is rare, and initiatives to support breastfeeding mothers in the hospital and in the community are having success.

  13. Facilitating factors and barriers to malaria research utilization for policy development in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mwendera, Chikondi A; de Jager, Christiaan; Longwe, Herbert; Phiri, Kamija; Hongoro, Charles; Mutero, Clifford M

    2016-10-19

    Research on various determinants of health is key in providing evidence for policy development, thereby leading to successful interventions. Utilization of research is an intricate process requiring an understanding of contextual factors. The study was conducted to assess enhancing factors and barriers of research utilization for malaria policy development in Malawi. Qualitative research approach was used through in-depth interviews with 39 key informants that included malaria researchers, policy makers, programme managers, and key stakeholders. Purposive sampling and snowballing techniques were used in identifying key informants. Interview transcripts were entered in QSR Nvivo 11 software for coding and analysis. Respondents identified global efforts as key in advancing knowledge translation, while local political will has been conducive for research utilization. Other factors were availability of research, availability of diverse local researchers and stakeholders supporting knowledge translation. While barriers included: lack of platforms for researcher-public engagement, politics, researchers' lack of communication skills, lack of research collaborations, funder driven research, unknown World Health Organization policy position, and the lack of a malaria research repository. Overall, the study identified facilitating factors to malaria research utilization for policy development in Malawi. These factors need to be systematically coordinated to address the identified barriers and improve on malaria research utilization in policy development. Malaria research can be key in the implementation of evidence-based interventions to reduce the malaria burden and assist in the paradigm shift from malaria control to elimination in Malawi.

  14. Leaving sex work: barriers, facilitating factors and consequences for female sex workers in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Manopaiboon, C; Bunnell, R E; Kilmarx, P H; Chaikummao, S; Limpakarnjanarat, K; Supawitkul, S; St Louis, M E; Mastro, T D

    2003-02-01

    Factors facilitating or inhibiting women's ability to leave sex work are still poorly characterized, and little is known about women's lives after they leave the profession. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study about factors affecting women's ability to leave sex work and influencing their lives after leaving. We interviewed 42 current and former female sex workers (FSWs) drawn from a cohort study of 500 FSWs in northern Thailand. All but one of the participants had quit sex work at least once. The majority experienced one or more quit-re-entry-quit cycles. Women's ability and decisions to leave sex work were determined primarily by four factors: economic situation, relationship with a steady partner, attitudes towards sex work and HIV/AIDS experience. Economic concerns, ranging from survival needs to materialistic desires, had the strongest influence. Most women perceived their risk for HIV infection to be lower after leaving sex work, but three of the 17 HIV-infected women acquired infection after having left, presumably from their steady partners. Prevention efforts should guide women as they transition out of commercial sex work. Interventions aimed at assisting women wanting to leave sex work need to address the role of economic factors.

  15. Bacillus subtilis δ Factor Functions as a Transcriptional Regulator by Facilitating the Open Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Ranjit Kumar; Sengupta, Shreya; Rudra, Paulami; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta

    2016-01-15

    Most bacterial RNA polymerases (RNAP) contain five conserved subunits, viz. 2α, β, β', and ω. However, in many Gram-positive bacteria, especially in fermicutes, RNAP is associated with an additional factor, called δ. For over three decades since its identification, it had been thought that δ functioned as a subunit of RNAP to enhance the level of transcripts by recycling RNAP. In support of the previous observations, we also find that δ is involved in recycling of RNAP by releasing the RNA from the ternary complex. We further show that δ binds to RNA and is able to recycle RNAP when the length of the nascent RNA reaches a critical length. However, in this work we decipher a new function of δ. Performing biochemical and mutational analysis, we show that Bacillus subtilis δ binds to DNA immediately upstream of the promoter element at A-rich sequences on the abrB and rrnB1 promoters and facilitates open complex formation. As a result, δ facilitates RNAP to initiate transcription in the second scale, compared with minute scale in the absence of δ. Using transcription assay, we show that δ-mediated recycling of RNAP cannot be the sole reason for the enhancement of transcript yield. Our observation that δ does not bind to RNAP holo enzyme but is required to bind to DNA upstream of the -35 promoter element for transcription activation suggests that δ functions as a transcriptional regulator.

  16. Supraspinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling: a novel mechanism for descending pain facilitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Robbins, Meredith T; Wei, Feng; Zou, Shiping; Dubner, Ronald; Ren, Ke

    2006-01-04

    In the adult mammalian brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critically involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that supraspinal BDNF-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling contributes to pain facilitation. We show that BDNF-containing neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the central structure for pain modulation, project to and release BDNF in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a relay between the PAG and spinal cord. BDNF in PAG and TrkB phosphorylation in RVM neurons are upregulated after inflammation. Intra-RVM sequestration of BDNF and knockdown of TrkB by RNA interference attenuate inflammatory pain. Microinjection of BDNF (10-100 fmol) into the RVM facilitates nociception, which is dependent on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). In vitro studies with RVM slices show that BDNF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDAR NR2A subunit in RVM via a signal transduction cascade involving IP(3), PKC, and Src. The supraspinal BDNF-TrkB signaling represents a previously unknown mechanism underlying the development of persistent pain. Our findings also caution that application of BDNF for recovery from CNS disorders could lead to undesirable central pain.

  17. Identifying Facilitating Factors and Barriers to Improving Student Retention Rates in Tertiary Teaching Courses: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terence V.; Brindle, Kimberley A.

    2017-01-01

    Factors which impact student retention in tertiary level teaching courses are complex. This study examined facilitating factors and barriers to student retention for students studying education. Due to a limited number of studies, the search was extended to factors impacting students undertaking tertiary education. A systematic review was…

  18. Women with doctorates in science: Perceptions of facilitative factors and obstacles to their success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guimond, Pamela S.

    In the past thirty years there has been a significant increase in the number of women pursuing careers in the biological sciences, yet similar increases have not been seen in the physical sciences or engineering. Research suggests that societal, educational, and personal factors may be the cause. This study was designed to validate factors previously identified as being influential on the learning of science by women, as well as to discover factors not previously identified and to gain an understanding of the degree to which each of these factors is perceived to relate to their academic success. Quantitative and qualitative methodologies were used to identify factors that facilitated the success of or presented obstacles to women as they pursued doctoral degrees in physical science and engineering. Sixty-four women scientists completed surveys. Of these, twelve participated in telephone interviews. The data collected from these methodologies, when taken together, allowed for both a generalizability of results and in-depth understanding of the factors identified. Three major themes were identified. First was the importance of people in these women's lives. Second was each woman's expression of personality traits including passion, determination, and resilience. Third was the importance of support from a variety of sources. All of the scientists considered support necessary for their success. Implications for practice include: providing girls with a wide variety of experiences in mathematics and science, including both in-school and out-of-school activities; providing girls with role models and mentors; utilizing a variety of teaching strategies aimed at girls' preferred learning styles; providing a variety of kinds of support girls need to feel welcome and valued; developing in girls personal characteristics associated with the culture of science; minimizing the use of high-stakes exams; and maximizing schedule flexibility so women can combine scientific careers and

  19. Absence of tumour necrosis factor facilitates primary and recurrent herpes simplex virus-1 infections.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Koji; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2004-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is an important cytokine in the innate immune response against various infections, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. It has recently become a molecular target of anti-cytokine treatment in certain inflammatory diseases. TNF depletion resulted in a more rapid emergence of infectious HSV-1 in the explant cultures of latently infected trigeminal ganglia (TG), compared with controls. To further evaluate the importance of TNF in the host's defence responses against HSV-1, TNF-knockout mice were challenged via scarified cornea. These mice were more susceptible to primary acute corneal HSV-1 infection than controls, as manifested by an increased mortality rate and higher infectious virus titres in the eyes and TG, indicating that TNF is critical for defence during acute HSV infection. These results imply that the administration of anti-inflammatory TNF antagonists might facilitate the propagation of infectious HSV, resulting in an exacerbation of primary and recurrent acute lesions.

  20. The facilitators and impediment factors of structural empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care: achievement of power

    PubMed Central

    Janighorban, M; Yousefi, H; Yamani, N

    2015-01-01

    Background: The organizations essentially affect empowerment of personnel through the preparation of the needed grounds for them. Also, the students may acquire the required potentials and capabilities in the educational organizations when the possibility is provided to them to access power and opportunity in educational environments. Objective: The present study aimed to explain the facilitators and impediment factors of structural empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care. Methods: According to Kanter’s theory, this qualitative study was conducted with the participation of 15 superior midwifery students, ten academic teachers of midwifery, and two midwives employed in the educational hospitals. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews individually and in the group and analyzed by using a directed content analysis method. Results: To explain the facilitators and impediment factors of empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care in the power structure, the access was provided to a support formed by three broad categories of support from the instructors, support from personnel, and support from a classmate. The access to resources was created with three broad categories of access to the appropriate clinical environment, to the laboratory of clinical skills and to information sources, and to information, forming with two broad categories of awareness of the educational objectives as well as legal and legitimate issues. Conclusion: One could prepare the ground for the midwifery students to access this empowerment in pregnancy and delivery cares more than ever by providing equipped clinical environments and the presence of all-inclusive supportive climate in such environments. Along with the efficient training of students in the laboratory PMID:28316710

  1. Factors associated with the use of pharmacologic agents to facilitate out-of-hospital endotracheal intubation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Henry E; Kupas, Douglas F; Paris, Paul M; Yealy, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    To identify a set of clinical factors most strongly associated with the use of drug-facilitated intubation (DFI) in the out-of-hospital setting. The authors used data from a prospective, multicentered endotracheal intubation (ETI) observational cohort trial, including patients from 45 emergency medical services in Pennsylvania. Providers reported clinical, physiologic, and anatomic factors associated with each ETI effort. The authors included only data from the 23 services using DFI. They identified all non-arrest (presence of a pulse) adult patients. They included both successful and failed ETIs. They defined DFI cases as patients who received a sedative or neuromuscular-blocking agent to facilitate ETI. The authors also classified patients who underwent nasotracheal intubation as DFI. They defined control subjects as patients undergoing conventional oral ETI. They performed multivariate logistic regression to identify the clinical, physiologic, and anatomic factors characteristic of DFI. They examined alternate forms of the final prediction model. The authors analyzed data from 208 nonarrest patients, including 92 DFIs and 116 control subjects. Of 34 factors potentially related to DFI, 17 were excluded on univariate analysis (likelihood ratio p>0.25). Multivariate logistic regression revealed the following as positively associated with DFI: presence of clenched jaw/trismus (odds ratio [OR], 2.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-4.95; p=0.026); increased verbal Glasgow Coma Scale score (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.29-2.26; p<0.001); use of cervical spine precautions (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.15-4.62; p=0.018). Anterior vocal cords (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.10-0.71; p=0.004) and laryngospasm (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-1.17; p=0.025) were negatively associated with DFI. The model showed good fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.75) and discrimination (area under the curve=0.76). The authors identified a set of predictors strongly associated with DFI. These data offer insight into the current use

  2. A four-country investigation of factors facilitating student internet use.

    PubMed

    Fusilier, Marcelline; Durlabhji, Subhash; Cucchi, Alain; Collins, Michael

    2005-10-01

    Education and national culture may influence Internet use. The present study explored factors that might facilitate college students' use of the Internet across samples in four countries: India, Mauritius, Reunion Island (an overseas Department of France), and the United States. Questionnaire data was collected on students' extent and frequency of Internet use. Also, structured items asked about the factors that would help them to use the Internet more. Data was analyzed using dummy-coded multiple regression so as to compare responses across the country groups. The U.S. sample was coded as the reference group so that the regression coefficients in the equation provided a comparison between the U.S. sample and each other country represented. Further country comparisons were made using t-tests for differences between the regression coefficients. Results suggested that there was more Internet use in the U.S. sample compared to the others. The Non-Western samples also reported greater desire for Internet access and non-English web sites. Training on how to use the Internet and course requirements for Internet use were reported as helpful by the India and Mauritius groups to a greater extent than by those in Reunion and the United States. Implications of the present exploratory results are discussed for applications of theoretical models across cultures.

  3. Elementary School Personnel’s Perceptions on Childhood Obesity: Pervasiveness and Facilitating Factors

    PubMed Central

    McKyer, E. Lisako J.; Tisone, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Researchers in numerous disciplines have investigated the effects of the school environment on childhood obesity, one of the greatest current health concerns in the United States. There is a gap in current empirical evidence, however, on school personnel’s perspectives of this issue. This study examined school personnel’s perceptions of obesity as a problem among school-aged children and their views on factors contributing to obesity. METHODS Thirty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with elementary school personnel (teachers, administrators, and support staff) from 5 rural schools with a predominantly Hispanic (58.18%) and Black (30.24%) student population. The constant comparison method was used to identify emergent themes. RESULTS All but one participant considered obesity to be a problem among elementary children. Factors facilitating obesity most frequently cited by school personnel were home environment, poor nutrition, child control of dietary choices, child inactivity, and entertainment electronics. CONCLUSIONS Child control of dietary choices in both home and school environments was identified as a major contributor to obesity. Further exploration of this control is warranted to understand the complexity of this dynamic and its potential link to childhood obesity. PMID:23343321

  4. Factors facilitating a national quality registry to aid clinical quality improvement: findings of a national survey

    PubMed Central

    Eldh, Ann Catrine; Wallin, Lars; Fredriksson, Mio; Vengberg, Sofie; Winblad, Ulrika; Halford, Christina; Dahlström, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While national quality registries (NQRs) are suggested to provide opportunities for systematic follow-up and learning opportunities, and thus clinical improvements, features in registries and contexts triggering such processes are not fully known. This study focuses on one of the world's largest stroke registries, the Swedish NQR Riksstroke, investigating what aspects of the registry and healthcare organisations facilitate or hinder the use of registry data in clinical quality improvement. Methods Following particular qualitative studies, we performed a quantitative survey in an exploratory sequential design. The survey, including 50 items on context, processes and the registry, was sent to managers, physicians and nurses engaged in Riksstroke in all 72 Swedish stroke units. Altogether, 242 individuals were presented with the survey; 163 responded, representing all but two units. Data were analysed descriptively and through multiple linear regression. Results A majority (88%) considered Riksstroke data to facilitate detection of stroke care improvement needs and acknowledged that their data motivated quality improvements (78%). The use of Riksstroke for quality improvement initiatives was associated (R2=0.76) with ‘Colleagues’ call for local results’ (p=<0.001), ‘Management Request of Registry data’ (p=<0.001), and it was said to be ‘Simple to explain the results to colleagues’ (p=0.02). Using stepwise regression, ‘Colleagues’ call for local results’ was identified as the most influential factor. Yet, while 73% reported that managers request registry data, only 39% reported that their colleagues call for the unit's Riksstroke results. Conclusions While an NQR like Riksstroke demonstrates improvement needs and motivates stakeholders to make progress, local stroke care staff and managers need to engage to keep the momentum going in terms of applying registry data when planning, performing and evaluating quality initiatives. PMID

  5. Sprouty 2 binds ESCRT-II factor Eap20 and facilitates HIV-1 gag release.

    PubMed

    Medina, G N; Ehrlich, L S; Chen, M H; Khan, M B; Powell, M D; Carter, C A

    2011-07-01

    The four ESCRT (endocytic sorting complexes required for transport) complexes (ESCRT-0, -I, -II, and -III) normally operate sequentially in the trafficking of cellular cargo. HIV-1 Gag trafficking and release as virus-like particles (VLPs) require the participation of ESCRTs; however, its use of ESCRTs is selective and nonsequential. Specifically, Gag trafficking to release sites on the plasma membrane does not require ESCRT-0 or -II. It is known that a bypass of ESCRT-0 is achieved by the direct linkage of the ESCRT-I component, Tsg101, to the primary L domain motif (PTAP) in Gag and that bypass of ESCRT-II is achieved by the linkage of Gag to ESCRT-III through the adaptor protein Alix. However, the mechanism by which Gag suppresses the interaction of bound ESCRT-I with ESCRT-II is unknown. Here we show (i) that VLP release requires the steady-state level of Sprouty 2 (Spry2) in COS-1 cells, (ii) that Spry2 binds the ESCRT-II component Eap20, (iii) that binding Eap20 permits Spry2 to disrupt ESCRT-I interaction with ESCRT-II, and (iv) that coexpression of Gag with a Spry2 fragment that binds Eap20 increases VLP release. Spry2 also facilitated release of P7L-Gag (i.e., release in the absence of Tsg101 binding). In this case, rescue required the secondary L domain (YPX(n)L) in HIV-1 Gag that binds Alix and the region in Spry2 that binds Eap20. The results identify Spry2 as a novel cellular factor that facilitates release driven by the primary and secondary HIV-1 Gag L domains.

  6. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-07-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency.

  7. Identifying the Factors That Facilitate or Hinder Advance Planning by Persons With Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Karen B.; Kapo, Jennifer M.; Karlawish, Jason H. T.

    2009-01-01

    We performed semistructured interviews with 30 family members of patients with advanced dementia to identify the factors that facilitate or hinder advance planning by persons with dementia. All interviews were analyzed using qualitative data analysis techniques. The majority (77%) of family members reported that their relative had some form of written advance directive, and at least half reported previous discussions about health care preferences (57%), living situation or placement issues (50%), and finances or estate planning (60%) with the patient. Family members reported some themes that prompted planning and others that were barriers to planning. Events that most often triggered planning were medical, living situation, or financial issues associated with a friend or family member of the patient (57%). Barriers to planning included both passive and active avoidance. The most common form of passive avoidance was not realizing the importance of planning until it was too late to have the discussion (63%). The most common form of active avoidance was avoiding the discussion (53%). These data suggest potentially remediable strategies to address barriers to advance planning discussions. PMID:18580595

  8. Factor H facilitates adherence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to complement receptor 3 on eukaryotic cells1

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sarika; Ram, Sanjay; Ngampasutadol, Jutamas; Gulati, Sunita; Zipfel, Peter F.; Rice, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae can engage human complement receptor 3 (CR3) directly or through surface-bound iC3b. Factor H (fH) that binds to bacteria facilitates conversion of C3b to iC3b. fH also binds directly to CR3 on professional phagocytes. Certain non-professional phagocytes such as primary cervical epithelial cells also express CR3. We hypothesized that fH could bridge bacteria to CR3 and facilitate gonococcal association with host cells. Specificity of the fH-CR3 interaction was confirmed using human CR3-transfected CHO (CHO/CR3) cells. Using recombinant proteins that comprised contiguous fH domains (fH contains 20 short consensus repeat (SCR) domains) fused to murine Fc, we observed strong binding through SCRs 18–20, while weaker binding occurred through SCRs 6–10. Both regions also bound to unsialylated porin (Por) B.1A-expressing N. gonorrhoeae. Accordingly, fH-related protein 1 (CFHR1) (three of its five SCRs are highly homologous to fH SCRs 18–20) bound to CHO-CR3 and to unsialylated PorB.1A gonococci. An alternatively spliced variant of fH called fH-like protein-1 (FHL-1) (contains fH SCRs 1–7) bound to gonococci but minimally to CHO/CR3. A fH SCR 6–20 construct enhanced binding of unsialylated PorB.1A gonococci to CHO/CR3. However, a construct that contained only the apparently relevant SCRs (6–7 and 18–20) bound to CHO/CR3 and to gonococci separately, but did not enhance bacteria-CR3 interactions, suggesting that the intervening SCRs (8–17) may impart a configurational and spatial requirement for fH to bridge gonococci to CR3. These results indicate adherence between fH-coated gonococci and CR3 and may provide a means for gonococci to gain sanctuary into non-professional phagocytes. PMID:20826755

  9. Factors Which Facilitate or Impede Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships after Spinal Cord Injury: A Scoping Review with Suggestions for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurs, Sarita; Power, Bettina; Harestad, Yvonne; Kuipers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal interactions and relationships can influence an individual's perceptions of health and quality of life in the presence of disability. In the case of people with spinal cord injury (SCI), positive interpersonal interactions and relationships have been shown to contribute to resilience and adaptability. Understanding factors which facilitate or impede the development and maintenance of relationships after SCI may form the basis for proactive relationship support for people with SCI. To gain a broad insight into these factors, a scoping review was undertaken. Databases were searched for English language studies published between 2000 and 2015 that informed the review question. Sixty-two (62) studies were identified. Thematic analysis was conducted on data extracted from the studies and 51 factors which may facilitate relationships and 38 factors which may impede relationships after SCI were noted. The majority of factors could be categorized as environmental or personal according to the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The facilitating factors included partner and social support, reciprocity in relationships, and presenting oneself positively. Impeding factors included physical environmental barriers, real and perceived social biases, and poor self-image. Factors identified may inform the provision of supportive, holistic rehabilitation for people with SCI. PMID:28127471

  10. Factors Which Facilitate or Impede Interpersonal Interactions and Relationships after Spinal Cord Injury: A Scoping Review with Suggestions for Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Amsters, Delena; Schuurs, Sarita; Pershouse, Kiley; Power, Bettina; Harestad, Yvonne; Kendall, Melissa; Kuipers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal interactions and relationships can influence an individual's perceptions of health and quality of life in the presence of disability. In the case of people with spinal cord injury (SCI), positive interpersonal interactions and relationships have been shown to contribute to resilience and adaptability. Understanding factors which facilitate or impede the development and maintenance of relationships after SCI may form the basis for proactive relationship support for people with SCI. To gain a broad insight into these factors, a scoping review was undertaken. Databases were searched for English language studies published between 2000 and 2015 that informed the review question. Sixty-two (62) studies were identified. Thematic analysis was conducted on data extracted from the studies and 51 factors which may facilitate relationships and 38 factors which may impede relationships after SCI were noted. The majority of factors could be categorized as environmental or personal according to the domains of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). The facilitating factors included partner and social support, reciprocity in relationships, and presenting oneself positively. Impeding factors included physical environmental barriers, real and perceived social biases, and poor self-image. Factors identified may inform the provision of supportive, holistic rehabilitation for people with SCI.

  11. University Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Factors That Facilitate Technology Integration into Their Instruction: An Exploratory Case Study in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory case study was designed to elicit faculty members' perceptions of the factors that facilitate technology integration into their instruction. The study was conducted at a midsized higher education institution in Qatar. Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM) is the conceptual framework that guided this study…

  12. Kinetic Model Facilitates Analysis of Fibrin Generation and Its Modulation by Clotting Factors: Implications for Hemostasis-Enhancing Therapies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    investigating its potential as a hemostatic agent in trauma and surgery.6,7 These applications necessitate a detailed understanding of fibrin ...facilitates analysis of fibrin generation and its modulation by clotting factors: implications for hemostasis-enhancing therapies† Alexander Y...ability of the suggested molecular mechanisms to account for fibrin generation and degradation kinetics in diverse, physiologically relevant in vitro

  13. Willingness to Seek Counselling, and Factors that Facilitate and Inhibit the Seeking of Counselling in Indonesian Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setiawan, Jenny Lukito

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a study designed to investigate Indonesian undergraduates' attitudes to counselling. It focuses on the results derived from data analyses of a questionnaire measuring the level of willingness to seek counselling, factors inhibiting and facilitating the seeking of counselling in Indonesian students. The exploration was…

  14. Gay Rights and School Policy: A Case Study in Community Factors that Facilitate or Impede Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop anti-gay peer abuse…

  15. Gay Rights and School Policy: A Case Study in Community Factors that Facilitate or Impede Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macgillivray, Ian K.

    2004-01-01

    This article highlights factors that either facilitated or hampered the work of a local Safe Schools Coalition in advocating adoption and implementation of their school district's policies that include sexual orientation. Non-discrimination policies that include sexual orientation and gender identity are needed to help stop anti-gay peer abuse…

  16. University Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Factors That Facilitate Technology Integration into Their Instruction: An Exploratory Case Study in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkouti, Ibrahim Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative, exploratory case study was designed to elicit faculty members' perceptions of the factors that facilitate technology integration into their instruction. The study was conducted at a midsized higher education institution in Qatar. Davis's (1986) technology acceptance model (TAM) is the conceptual framework that guided this study…

  17. Implementation of geriatric assessment and decision support in residential care homes: facilitating and impeding factors during initial and maintenance phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Successfully introducing and maintaining care innovations may depend on the interplay between care setting, the intervention and specific circumstances. We studied the factors influencing the introduction and maintenance of a Multidisciplinary Integrated Care model in 10 Dutch residential care homes. Methods Facilitating and impeding factors were studied and compared at the time of introduction of the interRAI-LTCF assessment method in residential care homes as well as three years later, by surveys and semi structured interviews among nurse staff, managers, and physicians. Results Facilitating factors at introduction were positive opinions of staff and family physicians about the changes of the process of care and the anticipated improvement of quality of care. Staff was positive about the applicability of the software to support the interRAI-LTCF assessments. Impeding factors were time constraints to complete interRAI-LTCF assessments and insufficient computer equipment. In the maintenance phase, the positive attitude of the location manager and the perceived benefits of the care model and the interRAI-LTCF assessment method were most important. Impeding factors after 3 years remained the lack of time to complete the assessments and lack of sufficient computer equipment. Conclusions Impeding and facilitating factors were comparable in the initial and maintenance phase. Adoption of the interRAI-LTCF assessment method depended on positive opinions of staff and management, continuing support of staff and the availability of sufficient computer equipment. PMID:23289629

  18. Supervision on Site: A Critical Factor in the Online Facilitated Internship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotson, Kaye B.; Bian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Online education is increasingly prevalent in graduate schools of teacher education. Questions arise, however, as to the effectiveness of the online facilitated graduate internship. This article examines perspectives of librarian site supervisors within online supported internships. Perspectives in regard to program support and self-perceived…

  19. Pedagogy and Some Factors that Influence How We Facilitate Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Donald R.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper I'll share a personal overview of pedagogy in general. This will include a listing of my personal choices of the major events, from about 1950 onwards, that have had an impact on how I try to facilitate learning. The events occurred in Canada, the United States, UK and Australia. Some were publications; some were local,…

  20. Exploring Factors Facilitating and Hindering College-University Pathway Program Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, Jennifer; DiGiuseppe, Maurice; Goodman, Bill; LeSage, Ann; Longo, Fabiola; De La Rocha, Arlene; Hinch, Ron; Samis, John; Sanchez, Otto; Augusto Rodrigues, Anna; Raby, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore not only the academic measures such as grade point average of success of college-to-university transfer programs (Pathway Programs), but also the social-cultural facilitators and barriers throughout the students' Pathway experience. Design/methodology/approach: The experience of students and…

  1. Exploring Factors Facilitating and Hindering College-University Pathway Program Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Percival, Jennifer; DiGiuseppe, Maurice; Goodman, Bill; LeSage, Ann; Longo, Fabiola; De La Rocha, Arlene; Hinch, Ron; Samis, John; Sanchez, Otto; Augusto Rodrigues, Anna; Raby, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore not only the academic measures such as grade point average of success of college-to-university transfer programs (Pathway Programs), but also the social-cultural facilitators and barriers throughout the students' Pathway experience. Design/methodology/approach: The experience of students and…

  2. Facilitating and hindering factors for coping with the experience of having a child with cancer: A Lebanese perspective.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Myrna A A; Khoury, May Naifeh

    2017-01-01

    Families with a child with cancer face significant emotional and psychosocial stressors. The frequency of childhood cancer is increasing in Lebanon with more than 282 children diagnosed each year. This condition is reported to evoke a range of challenging emotions for parents, yet no studies have been conducted on the facilitating and hindering factors that affect Lebanese parents coping with a child with cancer. The purpose of the study was to gain an in-depth understanding of factors facilitating and hindering coping methods of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer. The study followed purposeful sampling and saturation principles in which 12 parents (mother or father) of a child were interviewed. Data were analyzed following the Utrecht School of phenomenology. Helpful and harmful experiences emerged through the coding process. The enabling factors were social/family support; talking about it; strong religious beliefs; and the communication style of health workers. On the other hand, the deterring factors were the waiting time and the hospital stay; changes in the couple's relationship; and sibling rivalry. These results could be used as the basis for additional research aimed at developing a structured approach to care that endorses the coping processes of Lebanese parents with a child with cancer. Nursing and medical staff need to be conscious of parents' coping strategies and their impact on family dynamics and the relationship between the family and the health care team.

  3. Uropathogenic virulence factor FimH facilitates binding of uteropathogenic Escherichia coli to canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, N; Marenda, M S; Browning, G F; Holden, K M; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-09-01

    Pyometra is a potentially life-threatening condition in bitches and is often caused by Escherichia coli infection. Both pathogenic and non-pathogenic E. coli strains commonly carry the genes for type 1 fimbriae that mediate bacterial adhesion onto host epithelium. To investigate whether the type 1 fimbrial adhesin, FimH, facilitates the binding of uropathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium, the fimH gene was insertionally inactivated in a pathogenic E. coli strain. The ability of E. coli to bind to canine endometrial epithelial cells was determined in vitro using canine uterine biopsies. Binding of the fimH mutant was only 0.3% of that of the wild type. Complementation of the mutation restored the phenotype to that of the parent. This study has developed an in vitro model that allows quantitative and qualitative assessment of bacterial binding to canine endometrium and has demonstrated that the fimH gene plays a role in adherence of pathogenic E. coli to canine endometrium.

  4. Factors that Facilitated an Alabama School Assistance Team's Success in a Low-Performing School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Virginia; Kochan, Frances

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the perceived factors that enabled an Alabama School Assistance Team (ASAT) to be effective in helping improve a low performing school. A case study was conducted with the ASATs and the Local Education Agency (LEA) site they served. Data were collected from interviews, documents and observations. The perceptions explored in…

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 facilitates cervical cancer progression in human papillomavirus type 16 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhi Hong; Wright, Jason D; Belt, Brian; Cardiff, Robert D; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2007-08-01

    Advanced cervical cancer remains a vexing clinical challenge despite screening programs. Many of these cancers are hypoxic, and expression of the alpha subunit of the major regulator of the hypoxic cellular response, the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), is correlated with poor prognosis. Here, we tested a functional role for HIF-1alpha in pathogenesis of cervical cancer in estrogen-treated transgenic mice. Double-transgenic (DTG) mice developed locally invasive cervical cancers 70 times larger than K14-HPV16 mice. In vivo bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was elevated in DTG cancers without a significant increase in apoptosis. HIF-1alpha gain of function did not up-regulate canonical HIF-1 targets in premalignant DTG cervices, in contrast to elevation of these targets in K14-HIF-1alpha transgenic cervices. The DTG transcriptional signature included up-regulation of mRNAs encoding cytokines and chemokines, immune signaling molecules, extracellular proteases, and cell motility factors, as well as reduced expression of cell adhesion and epithelial differentiation genes. Importantly, a set of gene markers derived from the DTG transcriptome predicted cervical cancer progression in patients. This study suggests a novel paradigm for HIF-1 function evident in multistage carcinogenesis as opposed to established malignancies, including interaction with viral oncogenes to induce multiple genomic networks in premalignancy that fosters the development of advanced cervical cancer.

  6. Factors that facilitate registered nurses in their first-line nurse manager role.

    PubMed

    Cziraki, Karen; McKey, Colleen; Peachey, Gladys; Baxter, Pamela; Flaherty, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    To determine the factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses in the first-line nurse manager role. The first-line nurse manger role is pivotal in health-care organisations. National demographics suggest that Canada will face a first-line nurse manager shortage because of retirement in the next decade. Determination of factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses will assist organisations and policy makers to employ strategies to address this shortage. The study used an exploratory, descriptive qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Registered Nurses in first-line nurse manager roles. The findings revealed a discrepancy between the factors that attract and retain Registered Nurses in the first-line nurse manager role, underscored the importance of the mentor role and confirmed the challenges encountered by first-line nurse managers practicing in the current health-care environment. The first-line nurse manager role has been under studied. Further research is warranted to understand which strategies are most effective in supporting first-line nurse managers. Strategies to support nurses in the first-line nurse manager role are discussed for the individual, programme, organisation and health-care system/policy levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Aurora kinase-induced phosphorylation excludes transcription factor RUNX from the chromatin to facilitate proper mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Linda Shyue Huey; Khor, Jian Ming; Lai, Soak Kuan; Garg, Shubham; Krishnan, Vaidehi; Koh, Cheng-Gee; Lee, Sang Hyun; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The Runt-related transcription factors (RUNX) are master regulators of development and major players in tumorigenesis. Interestingly, unlike most transcription factors, RUNX proteins are detected on the mitotic chromatin and apparatus, suggesting that they are functionally active in mitosis. Here, we identify key sites of RUNX phosphorylation in mitosis. We show that the phosphorylation of threonine 173 (T173) residue within the Runt domain of RUNX3 disrupts RUNX DNA binding activity during mitotic entry to facilitate the recruitment of RUNX proteins to mitotic structures. Moreover, knockdown of RUNX3 delays mitotic entry. RUNX3 phosphorylation is therefore a regulatory mechanism for mitotic entry. Cancer-associated mutations of RUNX3 T173 and its equivalent in RUNX1 further corroborate the role of RUNX phosphorylation in regulating proper mitotic progression and genomic integrity. PMID:27217562

  8. Behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for anxiety disorders, facilitate conditioned avoidance (also) in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheynin, Jony; Beck, Kevin D.; Pang, Kevin C.H.; Servatius, Richard J.; Shikari, Saima; Ostovich, Jacqueline; Myers, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of avoidance behaviour is a key feature of all human anxiety disorders. Animal models have been useful in understanding how anxiety vulnerability could translate into avoidance learning. For example, behaviourally-inhibited temperament and female sex, two vulnerability factors for clinical anxiety, are associated with faster acquisition of avoidance responses in rodents. However, to date, the translation of such empirical data to human populations has been limited since many features of animal avoidance paradigms are not typically captured in human research. Here, using a computer-based task that captures many features of rodent escape-avoidance learning paradigms, we investigated whether avoidance learning would be faster in humans with inhibited temperament and/or female sex and, if so, whether this facilitation would take the same form. Results showed that, as in rats, both vulnerability factors were associated with facilitated acquisition of avoidance behaviour in humans. Specifically, inhibited temperament was specifically associated with higher rate of avoidance responding, while female sex was associated with longer avoidance duration. These findings strengthen the direct link between animal avoidance work and human anxiety vulnerability, further motivating the study of animal models while also providing a simple testbed for a direct human testing. PMID:24412263

  9. The facilitators and impediment factors of midwifery student's empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Janighorban, Mojgan; Yamani, Nikoo; Yousefi, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: The organizational environment and its existing context may deeply affect on empowerment of individuals. In educational institutions as well as other organizations, students are going to be powerful when opportunities for growth and achievement of power are provided for them in learning and educational environments. This study has been carried out to explain the facilitators and impediment factors of midwifery student's empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care. Materials and Methods: The current qualitative study has been conducted with participation of 15 midwifery senior students, 10 midwifery academic teachers, and 2 employed midwives in educational hospitals. The given data were collected through individual and group semi-structured interviews, and there were analyzed using directed content analysis method. Results: Three main categories of opportunity for acquisition of knowledge, opportunity for acquisition of clinical skills and opportunity for acquisition of clinical experiences formed structure of access to opportunity in the course of an explanation of facilitators and impediment factors for midwifery student's empowerment in pregnancy and delivery care. Conclusion: To prepare and train the skilled midwives for giving care services to mothers during pregnancy and on delivery and after this period, the academic teachers and clinical instructors should pay due attention to providing the needed opportunities to acquire the applied knowledge and proficiency in the required skills for clinical work and the necessary clinical experiences in these individuals during college period. PMID:27904613

  10. Epithelial Hypoxia-Inducible FactorFacilitates the Progression of Colon Tumors through Recruiting Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Triner, Daniel; Xue, Xiang; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Jung, Inkyung; Colacino, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation is a significant risk factor for colon cancer. Recent work has demonstrated essential roles for several infiltrating immune populations in the metaplastic progression following inflammation. Hypoxia and stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are hallmark features of inflammation and solid tumors. Previously, we demonstrated an important role for tumor epithelial HIF-2α in colon tumors; however, the function of epithelial HIF-2α as a critical link in the progression of inflammation to cancer has not been elucidated. In colitis-associated colon cancer models, epithelial HIF-2α was essential in tumor growth. Concurrently, epithelial disruption of HIF-2α significantly decreased neutrophils in the colon tumor microenvironment. Intestinal epithelial HIF-2α-overexpressing mice demonstrated that neutrophil recruitment was a direct response to increased epithelial HIF-2α signaling. High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis of HIF-2α-overexpressing mice in conjunction with data mining from the Cancer Genome Atlas showed that the neutrophil chemokine CXCL1 gene was highly upregulated in colon tumor epithelium in a HIF-2α-dependent manner. Using selective peptide inhibitors of the CXCL1-CXCR2 signaling axis identified HIF-2α-dependent neutrophil recruitment as an essential mechanism to increase colon carcinogenesis. These studies demonstrate that HIF-2α is a novel regulator of neutrophil recruitment to colon tumors and that it is essential in shaping the protumorigenic inflammatory microenvironment in colon cancer. PMID:27956697

  11. Epidermal growth factor facilitates melanoma lymph node metastasis by influencing tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Cardona, Ana Soler; Tauber, Stefanie; Fink, Astrid M; Steiner, Andreas; Pehamberger, Hubert; Niederleithner, Heide; Petzelbauer, Peter; Gröger, Marion; Loewe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression are known to be of prognostic relevance in human melanoma, but EGF-mediated effects on melanoma have not been extensively studied. As lymph node metastasis usually represents the first major step in melanoma progression, we were trying to identify a potential role of primary tumor-derived EGF in the mediation of melanoma lymph node metastases. Stable EGF knockdown (EGFkd) in EGF-high (M24met) and EGF-low (A375) expressing melanoma cells was generated. Only in EGF-high melanoma cells, EGFkd led to a significant reduction of lymph node metastasis and primary tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo, as well as impairment of tumor cell migration in vitro. Moreover, EGF-induced sprouting of lymphatic but not of blood endothelial cells was abolished using supernatants of M24met EGFkd cells. In addition, M24met EGFkd tumors showed reduced vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression levels. Similarly, in human primary melanomas, a direct correlation between EGF/VEGF-C and EGF/Prox-1 expression levels was found. Finally, melanoma patients with lymph node micrometastases undergoing sentinel node biopsy were found to have significantly elevated EGF serum levels as compared with sentinel lymph node-negative patients. Our data indicate that tumor-derived EGF is important in mediating melanoma lymph node metastasis.

  12. Predisposing, facilitating and reinforcing factors of healthy and unhealthy food consumption in schoolchildren: a study in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Daboné, Charles; Delisle, Hélène; Receveur, Olivier

    2013-03-01

    African schoolchildren's dietary habits are likely changing in the realm of the nutrition transition, particularly in urban areas, but data on their diet and on determinants are scanty. In order to design relevant interventions for this priority target group, the study aimed to assess food habits and their determinants in schoolchildren of Ouagadougou. In a cross-sectional survey, fifth-grade schoolchildren filled during school hours a questionnaire to assess consumption frequency of 'healthy' foods (fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, legumes) and 'unhealthy' (superfluous) items (cake, cookies, candies, ice, soda) and underlying factors, using Green's PRECEDE model. The study included 769 schoolchildren, mean age 11.7 ± 1.4 years, from eight public and four private schools. Consumption scores of unhealthy items were significantly higher than healthy foods (p = 0.001). During the week prior to the survey, 25% of children had eaten no fruit, 20% no meat, 20% no legumes, 17% no fish and 17% no vegetables. While less than 4% ate fruits or vegetables every day, 18.3% ate ice pop every day. Children eating cookies, cakes and candy every day were up to seven-fold those eating fruits, vegetables or legumes. Compared to public-school pupils, those from private schools consumed both healthy and unhealthy items more frequently (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007, respectively). Urban schoolchildren had significantly higher unhealthy food scores (p = 0.027) compared to peri-urban schools. Children's healthy and unhealthy food consumption was primarily explained by perceived decisional power and availability [facilitating factors] for both types of foods, and maternal reinforcement for healthy foods and peers' reinforcement for consumption of unhealthy items. Overall, facilitating factors rated higher for unhealthy than healthy foods. The study showed that city schoolchildren's eating behaviours are far from optimal. Nutrition interventions should be tailored to address the underlying

  13. Pathogenicity Island Cross Talk Mediated by Recombination Directionality Factors Facilitates Excision from the Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Megan R.; Rozovsky, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pathogenicity islands (PAIs) are mobile integrated genetic elements (MIGEs) that contain a diverse range of virulence factors and are essential in the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. PAIs are widespread among bacteria and integrate into the host genome, commonly at a tRNA locus, via integrase-mediated site-specific recombination. The excision of PAIs is the first step in the horizontal transfer of these elements and is not well understood. In this study, we examined the role of recombination directionality factors (RDFs) and their relationship with integrases in the excision of two PAIs essential for Vibrio cholerae host colonization: Vibrio pathogenicity island 1 (VPI-1) and VPI-2. VPI-1 does not contain an RDF, which allowed us to answer the question of whether RDFs are an absolute requirement for excision. We found that an RDF was required for efficient excision of VPI-2 but not VPI-1 and that RDFs can induce excision of both islands. Expression data revealed that the RDFs act as transcriptional repressors to both VPI-1- and VPI-2-encoded integrases. We demonstrated that the RDFs Vibrio excision factor A (VefA) and VefB bind at the attachment sites (overlapping the int promoter region) of VPI-1 and VPI-2, thus supporting this mode of integrase repression. In addition, V. cholerae RDFs are promiscuous due to their dual functions of promoting excision of both VPI-1 and VPI-2 and acting as negative transcriptional regulators of the integrases. This is the first demonstration of cross talk between PAIs mediated via RDFs which reveals the complex interactions that occur between separately acquired MIGEs. IMPORTANCE Deciphering the mechanisms of pathogenicity island excision is necessary for understanding the evolution and spread of these elements to their nonpathogenic counterparts. Such mechanistic insight would assist in predicting the mobility of uncharacterized genetic elements. This study identified extensive RDF-mediated cross talk between two

  14. Post-injury regeneration in rat sciatic nerve facilitated by neurotrophic factors secreted by amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hung-Chuan; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Chen, Chun-Jung; Lai, Shu-Zhen; Lee, Chi-Wen; Yang, Dar-Yu; Chang, Ming-Hong; Ho, Shu-Peng

    2007-11-01

    Amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells have the ability to secrete neurotrophic factors that are able to promote neuron survival in vitro. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of neurotrophic factors secreted by rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells on regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 250-300 g were used. The left sciatic nerve was crushed with a vessel clamp. Rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells embedded in fibrin glue were delivered to the injured nerve. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry were used to detect neurotrophic factors secreted by the amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Nerve regeneration was assessed by motor function, electrophysiology, histology, and immunocytochemistry studies. Positive CD29/44, and negative CD11b/45, as well as high levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glia cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), nerve growth factor, and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) were demonstrated in amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Motor function recovery, the compound muscle action potential, and nerve conduction latency showed significant improvement in rats treated with amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. ELISA measurement in retrieved nerves displayed statistically significant elevation of CNTF and NT-3. The immunocytochemical studies demonstrated positive staining for NT-3 and CNTF in transplanted cells. The histology and immunocytochemistry studies revealed less fibrosis and a high level of expression of S-100 and glial fibrillary acid protein at the crush site. Rat amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells may facilitate regeneration in the sciatic nerve after crush injury. The increased nerve regeneration found in this study may be due to the neurotrophic factors secreted by amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells.

  15. [Factors facilitating or constraining volunteer involvement in community organizations for home support to seniors].

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Julie; Vézina, Aline; Sévigny, Andrée

    2014-03-01

    The reality of volunteering in nonprofit organizations who offer services to seniors at home was observed from the viewpoint of two types of actors: volunteers and coordinators. Our results suggest that there are three decisive stages in volunteering: recruitment, realization of volunteer activity, and pursuit of this commitment. For each of them, some factors are more influential than others. Their presence or absence makes possible or not the initiation of this commitment and its pursuit. In this context, a constant negotiation takes place between the actors. Each of them has to adapt himself to others. Nevertheless, this adaptation is limited. So, stability between the position of the organization and that of the volunteer is necessary.

  16. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  18. Facilitation of facial nerve regeneration using chitosan-β-glycerophosphate-nerve growth factor hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Chao, Xiuhua; Xu, Lei; Li, Jianfeng; Han, Yuechen; Li, Xiaofei; Mao, YanYan; Shang, Haiqiong; Fan, Zhaomin; Wang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion C/GP hydrogel was demonstrated to be an ideal drug delivery vehicle and scaffold in the vein conduit. Combined use autologous vein and NGF continuously delivered by C/GP-NGF hydrogel can improve the recovery of facial nerve defects. Objective This study investigated the effects of chitosan-β-glycerophosphate-nerve growth factor (C/GP-NGF) hydrogel combined with autologous vein conduit on the recovery of damaged facial nerve in a rat model. Methods A 5 mm gap in the buccal branch of a rat facial nerve was reconstructed with an autologous vein. Next, C/GP-NGF hydrogel was injected into the vein conduit. In negative control groups, NGF solution or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the vein conduits, respectively. Autologous implantation was used as a positive control group. Vibrissae movement, electrophysiological assessment, and morphological analysis of regenerated nerves were performed to assess nerve regeneration. Results NGF continuously released from C/GP-NGF hydrogel in vitro. The recovery rate of vibrissae movement and the compound muscle action potentials of regenerated facial nerve in the C/GP-NGF group were similar to those in the Auto group, and significantly better than those in the NGF group. Furthermore, larger regenerated axons and thicker myelin sheaths were obtained in the C/GP-NGF group than those in the NGF group.

  19. Elevated expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates visual imprinting in chicks.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keiko; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Suzuki, Shingo; Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sugiyama, Hayato; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2012-12-01

    With the aim of elucidating the neural mechanisms of early learning, we studied the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in visual imprinting in birds. The telencephalic neural circuit connecting the visual Wulst and intermediate medial mesopallium is critical for imprinting, and the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), situated at the center of this circuit, has a key role in regulating the activity of the circuit. We found that the number of BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo was elevated during the critical period, particularly at its onset, on the day of hatching (P0). After imprinting training on P1, BDNF mRNA-positive cells in the HDCo increased in number, and tyrosine phosphorylation of TrkB was observed. BDNF infusion into the HDCo at P1 induced imprinting, even with a weak training protocol that does not normally induce imprinting. In contrast, K252a, an antagonist of Trk, inhibited imprinting. Injection of BDNF at P7, after the critical period, did not elicit imprinting. These results suggest that BDNF promotes the induction of imprinting through TrkB exclusively during the critical period. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 Facilitates Neuronal Glutathione Synthesis by Upregulating Neuronal Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Escartin, Carole; Won, Seok Joon; Malgorn, Carole; Auregan, Gwennaelle; Berman, Ari E.; Chen, Pei-Chun; Déglon, Nicole; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Suh, Sang Won; Swanson, Raymond A.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space. Free cysteine is then taken up by neurons through excitatory amino acid transporter 3 [EAAT3; also termed Slc1a1 (solute carrier family 1 member 1)] to support de novo glutathione synthesis. Activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway by oxidative stress promotes astrocyte release of glutathione, but it remains unknown how this release is coupled to neuronal glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated transcriptional regulation of the neuronal cysteine transporter EAAT3 by the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Nrf2 activators and Nrf2 overexpression both produced EAAT3 transcriptional activation in C6 cells. A conserved ARE-related sequence was found in the EAAT3 promoter of several mammalian species. This ARE-related sequence was bound by Nrf2 in mouse neurons in vivo as observed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Chemical activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in mouse brain increased both neuronal EAAT3 levels and neuronal glutathione content, and these effects were abrogated in mice genetically deficient in either Nrf2 or EAAT3. Selective overexpression of Nrf2 in brain neurons by lentiviral gene transfer was sufficient to upregulate both neuronal EAAT3 protein and glutathione content. These findings identify a mechanism whereby Nrf2 activation can coordinate astrocyte glutathione release with neuronal glutathione synthesis through transcriptional upregulation of neuronal EAAT3 expression. PMID:21593323

  1. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression.

    PubMed

    Escartin, Carole; Won, Seok Joon; Malgorn, Carole; Auregan, Gwennaelle; Berman, Ari E; Chen, Pei-Chun; Déglon, Nicole; Johnson, Jeffrey A; Suh, Sang Won; Swanson, Raymond A

    2011-05-18

    Astrocytes support neuronal antioxidant capacity by releasing glutathione, which is cleaved to cysteine in brain extracellular space. Free cysteine is then taken up by neurons through excitatory amino acid transporter 3 [EAAT3; also termed Slc1a1 (solute carrier family 1 member 1)] to support de novo glutathione synthesis. Activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-antioxidant responsive element (ARE) pathway by oxidative stress promotes astrocyte release of glutathione, but it remains unknown how this release is coupled to neuronal glutathione synthesis. Here we evaluated transcriptional regulation of the neuronal cysteine transporter EAAT3 by the Nrf2-ARE pathway. Nrf2 activators and Nrf2 overexpression both produced EAAT3 transcriptional activation in C6 cells. A conserved ARE-related sequence was found in the EAAT3 promoter of several mammalian species. This ARE-related sequence was bound by Nrf2 in mouse neurons in vivo as observed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Chemical activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway in mouse brain increased both neuronal EAAT3 levels and neuronal glutathione content, and these effects were abrogated in mice genetically deficient in either Nrf2 or EAAT3. Selective overexpression of Nrf2 in brain neurons by lentiviral gene transfer was sufficient to upregulate both neuronal EAAT3 protein and glutathione content. These findings identify a mechanism whereby Nrf2 activation can coordinate astrocyte glutathione release with neuronal glutathione synthesis through transcriptional upregulation of neuronal EAAT3 expression.

  2. [Description of factors facilitating and restricting the use of research results: the point of view of Tunisian nurses].

    PubMed

    Krifa, Fethi; Gagnon, Johanne; Nouira, Amel

    2014-03-01

    The written agree on the importance of nursing research as a means to improve the quality effectiveness and efficiency of care and contribute to advance in the nursing discipline. Studies from different countries have attempted to describe the barriers and facilitating the use of researcher by staff nurse, however, no original studies have been conducted in Tunisia. PURPOSE AND FRAMEWORK: According to the theory of innovation of Rogers, this study aims to identify factors facilitating and contraining the use of research as an innovation from the point of view of Tunisian nurses. A mixed descriptive design allowed to raise perceptions of 5 manager nurses and 37 clinicians nurses in 2 care units of the university hospital of Sousse in Tunisia. Three methods of data collection were used either semistructured interviews (n = 5), a self-reported questionnaire including the scale of measurement of Funk and al., on the barriers of using the research (n = 37) and an observation grid units of participating care (n = 2). A triangulation of data revealed that they are organizational factors that seem to be the main determinants of using the research. In fact, the average of score calculated for the four factors of the scale of Funk showed that for the interviewed nurses, the characteristic of the organization present the highest average (3,01), followed by those with relation to the characteristic of the nurse (2,86) of the research (2,73) and of the diffusion (2,55). The qualitative analysis support these results. The recommendations for the value of using the results of research in Tunisia were formulated followed by limitations of the study.

  3. Understanding stewardship behaviour: factors facilitating and constraining private water well stewardship.

    PubMed

    Kreutzwiser, Reid; de Loë, Rob; Imgrund, Krystian; Conboy, Mary Jane; Simpson, Hugh; Plummer, Ryan

    2011-04-01

    Regulatory frameworks to ensure municipal drinking water safety exist in most North American jurisdictions. However, similar protection is rarely provided to people reliant on water provided from private wells. In Canada, approximately 4 million people depend on privately owned, domestic wells for their drinking water. Numerous studies have shown that people who rely on private wells for their water supplies are at risk from nitrate and bacterial contamination. Given the fact that regulations relating to private wells tend to be weak or poorly enforced, actions taken by well owners to protect their own drinking water safety are extremely important. Drawing on one of the largest and most comprehensive surveys of private well owners ever conducted in Canada or elsewhere, this paper explores factors that influence well owner stewardship behaviour. Key behaviours examined included annual testing of well water and inspection of wells, measures to protect water quality, and proper decommissioning of unused wells. A geographically-stratified survey, sent to 4950 well owners in Ontario, Canada, resulted in an effective response rate of 34% (n = 1567). Logistic regression analyses revealed that motivations for well stewardship behaviours included reassurance, the perception of problems, and knowledge of the environment. Knowing how to perform stewardship behaviours was an important antecedent to action. Barriers to stewardship included complacency, inconvenience, ignorance, cost, and privacy concerns. To promote stewardship, local initiatives, better educational materials, and enforcement through real estate laws are all required. Ultimately, drinking water safety for people reliant on private wells is shown to be a responsibility shared by governments and private well owners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) facilitates cell proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Meng; Jia, Yuli; Liu, Zhikui; Ding, Linglong; Tian, Run; Gu, Hua; Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Hongyong; Tu, Kangsheng; Liu, Qingguang

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have revealed that the abnormal expression of chromatin assembly factor 1, subunit A (P150) (CHAF1A) was involved in the development of some types of malignant tumors. However, CHAF1A expression and its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain poorly characterized. In this study, we first investigated CHAF1A expression in six cell lines and 116 pairs of HCC and matched normal tumor-adjacent tissues to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of CHAF1A in HCC. Then, we detected the proliferation and apoptosis in HCC cells. In addition, a subcutaneous tumor model in nude mice was performed to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. We found that the expression of CHAF1A was significantly higher in HCC tissues than that in adjacent nontumor tissues (P<0.01). Clinical analysis indicated that CHAF1A expression was significantly correlated with the tumor–node–metastasis stage, tumor number, and tumor differentiation in HCC tissues (P<0.05, respectively). We also found that CHAF1A may potentially function as a poor prognostic indicator for 5-year overall and disease-free survival in patients with HCC (P<0.05, respectively). The elevated expression of CHAF1A was also observed in HCC cell lines compared with that in normal LO2 hepatic cell line (P<0.01). HCC cancer cells exhibited inhibition of cell growth, reduction in colony-formation ability, increased cell apoptosis rate, and impaired tumorigenicity in nude mice after CHAF1A knockdown. Collectively, we propose that CHAF1A by potentially mediating cancer cell proliferation plays an important role in promoting the development of HCC and may serve as a potential therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:27445493

  5. Ending Open Defecation in Rural Tanzania: Which Factors Facilitate Latrine Adoption?

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Stephen; Graham, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases account for 7% of deaths in children under five years of age in Tanzania. Improving sanitation is an essential step towards reducing these deaths. This secondary analysis examined rural Tanzanian households’ sanitation behaviors and attitudes in order to identify barriers and drivers to latrine adoption. The analysis was conducted using results from a cross-sectional study of 1000 households in five rural districts of Tanzania. Motivating factors, perceptions, and constraints surrounding open defecation and latrine adoption were assessed using behavioral change theory. Results showed a significant association between use of improved sanitation and satisfaction with current sanitation facility (OR: 5.91; CI: 2.95–11.85; p = 0.008). Livestock-keeping was strongly associated with practicing open defecation (OR: 0.22; CI 0.063–0.75; p < 0.001). Of the 93 total households that practiced open defecation, 79 (85%) were dissatisfied with the practice, 62 (67%) had plans to build a latrine and 17 (18%) had started saving for a latrine. Among households that planned to build a latrine, health was the primary reason stated (60%). The inability to pay for upgrading sanitation infrastructure was commonly reported among the households. Future efforts should consider methods to reduce costs and ease payments for households to upgrade sanitation infrastructure. Messages to increase demand for latrine adoption in rural Tanzania should integrate themes of privacy, safety, prestige and health. Findings indicate a need for lower cost sanitation options and financing strategies to increase household ability to adopt sanitation facilities. PMID:25247427

  6. Mitochondrial Ca2+ Cycling Facilitates Activation of the Transcription Factor NFAT in Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Man-Su; Usachev, Yuriy M.

    2009-01-01

    Ca2+-dependent gene regulation controls many aspects of neuronal plasticity. Significant progress has been made toward understanding the roles of voltage- and ligand-gated Ca2+ channels in triggering specific transcriptional responses. In contrast, the functional importance of Ca2+ buffers and Ca2+ transporters in neuronal gene regulation is less clear despite their critical contribution to the spatio-temporal control of Ca2+ signals. Here we examined the role of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and release in regulating the Ca2+-dependent transcription factor NFAT that has been implicated in synaptic plasticity, axonal growth and neuronal survival. Intense stimulation of sensory neurons by action potentials or TRPV1 agonists induced rapid activation and nuclear import of NFAT. Nuclear translocation of NFAT was associated with a characteristic prolonged [Ca2+]i elevation (plateau) that resulted from Ca2+ uptake by, and its subsequent release from mitochondria. Measurements using a mitochondrial Ca2+ indicator, mtPericam, showed that this process recruited mitochondria throughout the cell body, including the perinuclear region. [Ca2+]i levels attained during the plateau phase were similar to or higher than those required for NFAT activation (200–300 nM). The elimination of the [Ca2+]i plateau by blocking either mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake via the uniporter or Ca2+ release via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger strongly reduced nuclear import of NFAT. Furthermore, preventing Ca2+ mobilization via the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger diminished NFAT-mediated transcription. Collectively, these data implicate activity-induced Ca2+ uptake and prolonged release from mitochondria as a novel regulatory mechanism in neuronal excitation-transcription coupling. PMID:19793968

  7. Implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis: a systematic review of facilitating and hindering factors

    PubMed Central

    Eassom, Erica; Giacco, Domenico; Dirik, Aysegul; Priebe, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To synthesise the evidence on implementing family involvement in the treatment of patients with psychosis with a focus on barriers, problems and facilitating factors. Design Systematic review of studies evaluating the involvement of families in tripartite communication between health professionals, ‘families’ (or other unpaid carers) and adult patients, in a single-family context. A theoretical thematic analysis approach and thematic synthesis were used. Data sources A systematic electronic search was carried out in seven databases, using database-specific search strategies and controlled vocabulary. A secondary manual search of grey literature was performed as well as using forwards and backwards snowballing techniques. Results A total of 43 studies were included. The majority featured qualitative data (n=42), focused solely on staff perspectives (n=32) and were carried out in the UK (n=23). Facilitating the training and ongoing supervision needs of staff are necessary but not sufficient conditions for a consistent involvement of families. Organisational cultures and paradigms can work to limit family involvement, and effective implementation appears to operate via a whole team coordinated effort at every level of the organisation, supported by strong leadership. Reservations about family involvement regarding power relations, fear of negative outcomes and the need for an exclusive patient–professional relationship may be explored and addressed through mutually trusting relationships. Conclusions Implementing family involvement carries additional challenges beyond those generally associated with translating research to practice. Implementation may require a cultural and organisational shift towards working with families. Family work can only be implemented if this is considered a shared goal of all members of a clinical team and/or mental health service, including the leaders of the organisation. This may imply a change in the ethos and practices

  8. Harnessing Integrative Omics to Facilitate Molecular Imaging of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family for Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Pool, Martin; de Boer, H Rudolf; Hooge, Marjolijn N Lub-de; van Vugt, Marcel A T M; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a growing problem worldwide. The cause of death in cancer patients is often due to treatment-resistant metastatic disease. Many molecularly targeted anticancer drugs have been developed against 'oncogenic driver' pathways. However, these treatments are usually only effective in properly selected patients. Resistance to molecularly targeted drugs through selective pressure on acquired mutations or molecular rewiring can hinder their effectiveness. This review summarizes how molecular imaging techniques can potentially facilitate the optimal implementation of targeted agents. Using the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family as a model in (pre)clinical studies, we illustrate how molecular imaging may be employed to characterize whole body target expression as well as monitor drug effectiveness and the emergence of tumor resistance. We further discuss how an integrative omics discovery platform could guide the selection of 'effect sensors' - new molecular imaging targets - which are dynamic markers that indicate treatment effectiveness or resistance.

  9. Harnessing Integrative Omics to Facilitate Molecular Imaging of the Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Family for Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Martin; de Boer, H. Rudolf; Hooge, Marjolijn N. Lub-de; van Vugt, Marcel A.T.M.; de Vries, Elisabeth G.E.

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a growing problem worldwide. The cause of death in cancer patients is often due to treatment-resistant metastatic disease. Many molecularly targeted anticancer drugs have been developed against 'oncogenic driver' pathways. However, these treatments are usually only effective in properly selected patients. Resistance to molecularly targeted drugs through selective pressure on acquired mutations or molecular rewiring can hinder their effectiveness. This review summarizes how molecular imaging techniques can potentially facilitate the optimal implementation of targeted agents. Using the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family as a model in (pre)clinical studies, we illustrate how molecular imaging may be employed to characterize whole body target expression as well as monitor drug effectiveness and the emergence of tumor resistance. We further discuss how an integrative omics discovery platform could guide the selection of 'effect sensors' - new molecular imaging targets - which are dynamic markers that indicate treatment effectiveness or resistance. PMID:28638489

  10. MEF2C, a transcription factor that facilitates learning and memory by negative regulation of synapse numbers and function.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Ana C; Kim, Mi-Sung; Ertunc, Mert; Adachi, Megumi; Nelson, Erika D; McAnally, John; Richardson, James A; Kavalali, Ege T; Monteggia, Lisa M; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2008-07-08

    Learning and memory depend on the activity-dependent structural plasticity of synapses and changes in neuronal gene expression. We show that deletion of the MEF2C transcription factor in the CNS of mice impairs hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Unexpectedly, these behavioral changes were accompanied by a marked increase in the number of excitatory synapses and potentiation of basal and evoked synaptic transmission. Conversely, neuronal expression of a superactivating form of MEF2C results in a reduction of excitatory postsynaptic sites without affecting learning and memory performance. We conclude that MEF2C limits excessive synapse formation during activity-dependent refinement of synaptic connectivity and thus facilitates hippocampal-dependent learning and memory.

  11. Factors Influencing Parent Reports of Facilitators and Barriers to Human Milk Supply in Neonatal Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Alves, Elisabete; Magano, Raquel; Amorim, Mariana; Nogueira, Conceição; Silva, Susana

    2016-11-01

    Successful human milk supply in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) requires the development of family-centered services. This study aimed to assess parent perceptions of factors that help or hinder providing human milk to very preterm infants (VPI) in the NICU according to sociodemographic, reproductive, and obstetric characteristics. This cross-sectional quantitative study included 120 mothers and 91 fathers of VPI hospitalized in a level 3 NICU located in the Northern Health Region of Portugal (July 2013-June 2014). Interviewers administered structured questionnaires regarding parent characteristics and the provision and perception of factors that help or hinder human milk supply in the NICU, 15 to 22 days after birth. The main facilitators of human milk supply were its contribution to infant growth and well-being (51.4%) and parents' knowledge of breastfeeding benefits (27.6%). The main barriers were worries related to inadequate milk supply (35.7%), difficulties with expressing breast milk (24.8%), and physical separation from infants (24.3%). Fathers referred less frequently to the contribution of human milk to infant growth and well-being (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32-1.00) but more frequently to knowledge of breastfeeding benefits as facilitators (OR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.23-4.32). Participants with > 12 years of education (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 1.05-3.47) and those with an extremely low birth weight infant (OR = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.02-3.54) highlighted worries related to inadequate milk supply. Fathers (OR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.11-4.19) and participants with ≤ 12 years of education (OR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.11-0.57) more frequently reported difficulties with expressing as the main barrier. The parent's gender and education and the infant's birth weight are crucial considerations for establishing optimal practices for supporting breastfeeding.

  12. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpaul, Monica; Bird, Deborah; Manikam, Logan; Culley, Lorraine; Perkins, Gill; Hudson, Nicky; Wilson, Joanne; Johnson, Mark

    2014-04-27

    South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013.Inclusion Criteria - Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0-18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals.Data Extraction - Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were:1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals.2. Under-use of preventer medications.3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma.4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management.5. Communication problems.6. Non-adherence to medication.7. Use of complementary therapies.Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs, health service utilisation pattern explanations and the

  13. A systematic review of explanatory factors of barriers and facilitators to improving asthma management in South Asian children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background South Asian children with asthma are less likely to receive prescriptions and more likely to suffer uncontrolled symptoms and acute asthma admissions compared with White British children. Understanding barriers are therefore vital in addressing health inequalities. We undertook a systematic review identifying explanatory factors for barriers and facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children. South Asians were defined as individuals of Indian, Pakistani or Bangladeshi descent. Methods Data Sources - Medline, HMIC, EMBASE, ASSIA, Web of Science, BNI, CINAHL, PsycINFO, OpenSIGLE, CRD, Scopus, NHS Evidence, Cochrane Library, Campbell Collaboration, RCPCH, ATS, ERS, Asthma UK, Google Scholar & Asthma Guidelines (BTS, GINA, ATS, Monash, NAEPP, Singapore & New Zealand) to August 2013. Inclusion Criteria – Qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods research with primary focus on identifying explanations for barriers and/or facilitators to asthma management in South Asian children aged 0–18 years with diagnosed/suspected asthma and/or carers and/or healthcare professionals. Data Extraction – Three authors independently reviewed, selected & extracted eligible articles with disagreements resolved by research team discussion. Results 15 studies encompassing 25,755 children, 18,483 parents/carers and 239 healthcare professionals were included. Barriers and explanatory factors identified were: 1. Lack of asthma knowledge in families and healthcare professionals. 2. Under-use of preventer medications. 3. Non-acceptance/denial of asthma. 4. Over-reliance on Emergency Department management. 5. Communication problems. 6. Non-adherence to medication. 7. Use of complementary therapies. Little facilitators regarding asthma management were identified. Conclusions Several key issues were identified as likely to be ethnic-specific to South Asian families, rather than a reflection of minority status: impact of parental and professional knowledge and beliefs

  14. "We Sometimes Hold on to Ours" - Professionals' Views on Factors that both Delay and Facilitate Transition to Adult Care.

    PubMed

    Aldiss, Susie; Cass, Hilary; Ellis, Judith; Gibson, Faith

    2016-01-01

    The transition from child to adult services is a crucial time in the health of young people who may potentially fall into a poorly managed "care gap." Health service provision, which fails to meet the needs of young people and families at this time of significant change, may result in deterioration in health or disengagement with services, which can have negative long-term consequences. Developing transitional care packages has become a focus of activity in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Indeed, policy documents have been trying to guide practice for many years, with some variable success. There is much work still to be done, particularly around how guidance and the sharing of best practice, when combined can result in a change in practice. This study aimed to explore the views of professionals involved in transitional care, the process of transition in their services, and the barriers and facilitators to transition. This was a qualitative study using focus group methodology. Four focus groups were carried out, attended by 36 health professionals across child and adult services. They had expertise in working with young people with various health conditions and disabilities. Transcripts were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Eight key factors that impact on transition emerged from the data. These included factors associated with the patient group (such as age, health condition, having complex needs) as well as factors associated with services (such as the availability of equivalent services within adult care and the links between child and adult team). It is imperative that health professionals consider the population they are working with when planning transitional care and take into account the factors which can lead to delayed transition, so that this can be avoided if possible. Numerous examples of initiatives to facilitate more timely transition were shared: these have been reflected in our "Benchmarks for Transition from Child to Adult Health

  15. Pharmacological stimulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1α facilitates the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Constance S; Rowson, Sydney A; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2015-07-23

    While both glucocorticoids (the principal output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and oxidative stress have been implicated in outcomes due to an excessive or prolonged stress response, the precise mechanisms linking these two systems remain poorly elucidated. One potential mediator between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and oxidative stress is the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. HIF-1 is an oxygen-responsive transcription factor with diverse effects including changes in cellular metabolism. The experiments in this manuscript sought to determine if pharmacological stimulation of HIF-1α via administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) would facilitate the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor. DMOG administration significantly increased plasma corticosterone 5 min after an acute airpuff without changing baseline plasma corticosterone or plasma corticosterone level two hours post-startle. DMOG administration also reduced hippocampal gene expression of the pro-translocation co-chaperone for the glucocorticoid receptor, FKBP4, two hours after airpuff startle. At this same two-hour time point, hippocampal expression of FKBP5, an anti-translocation co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, in the DMOG-treated group was also positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. These data indicate that there is significant crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis and the HIF-1 pathway and extend the current knowledge of glucocorticoid and hypoxia interactions in an ethologically relevant stress model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacological stimulation of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α facilitates the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, Constance S.; Rowson, Sydney A.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2015-01-01

    While both glucocorticoids (the principal output of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and oxidative stress have been implicated in outcomes due to an excessive or prolonged stress response, the precise mechanisms linking these two systems remain poorly elucidated. One potential mediator between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and oxidative stress is the Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. HIF-1 is an oxygen-responsive transcription factor with diverse effects including changes in cellular metabolism. The experiments in this manuscript sought to determine if pharmacological stimulation of HIF-1α via administration of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) would facilitate the corticosterone response to a mild acute stressor. DMOG administration significantly increased plasma corticosterone five minutes after an acute airpuff without changing baseline plasma corticosterone or plasma corticosterone level two hours post-startle. DMOG administration also reduced hippocampal gene expression of the pro-translocation co-chaperone for the glucocorticoid receptor, FKBP4, two hours after airpuff startle. At this same two-hour time point, hippocampal expression of FKBP5, an anti-translocation co-chaperone of glucocorticoid receptor, in the DMOG-treated group was also positively correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. These data indicate that there is significant crosstalk between the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis and the HIF-1 pathway and extend the current knowledge of glucocorticoid and hypoxia interactions in an ethologically relevant stress model. PMID:26037418

  17. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    PubMed

    Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    The "flipped classroom," a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved "students" (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with "tutors" (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students' expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education.

  18. Interleukin-1-induced acute bone resorption facilitates the secretion of fibroblast growth factor 23 into the circulation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Miwa; Kawai, Masanobu; Miyagawa, Kazuaki; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Tachikawa, Kanako; Kinoshita, Saori; Nishino, Jin; Ozono, Keiichi; Michigami, Toshimi

    2015-05-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a central regulator of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, is mainly produced by osteocytes in bone and exerts its effects on distant organs. Despite its endocrine function, the mechanism controlling serum FGF23 levels is not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption may play a role in regulating circulating levels of FGF23, using a mouse model where injections of interleukin (IL)-1β into the subcutaneous tissue over the calvaria induced rapid bone resorption. A significant amount of FGF23 was detected in the extracts from mouse bones, which supports the idea that FGF23 stays in bone for a while after its production. IL-1β-induced bone resorption was associated with elevated serum FGF23 levels, an effect abolished by pre-treatment with pamidronate. Fgf23 expression was not increased in either the calvariae or tibiae of IL-1β-injected mice, which suggests that IL-1β facilitated the entry of FGF23 protein into circulation by accelerating bone resorption rather than increasing its gene expression. The direct effect of IL-1β on bone was confirmed when it increased FGF23 levels in the conditioned media of mouse calvariae in organ culture. Repeated treatment of the cultured calvariae with IL-1β led to a refractory phase, where FGF23 was not mobilized by IL-1β anymore. Consistent with the in vivo results, treatment with IL-1β failed to increase Fgf23 mRNA in isolated primary osteocytes and osteoblasts. These results suggest that FGF23 produced by osteocytes remains in bone, and that rapid bone resorption facilitates its entry into the bloodstream.

  19. Spinal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) induced phrenic motor facilitation after repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Dale, Erica A; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2013-02-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (EPO) exert neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in the CNS. We recently demonstrated that VEGF, EPO and their receptors (VEGF-R2, EPO-R) are expressed in phrenic motor neurons, and that cervical spinal VEGF-R2 and EPO-R activation elicit long-lasting phrenic motor facilitation (pMF). Since VEGF, VEGF-R, EPO, and EPO-R are hypoxia-regulated genes, and repetitive exposure to acute intermittent hypoxia (rAIH) up-regulates these molecules in phrenic motor neurons, we tested the hypothesis that 4 weeks of rAIH (10 episodes per day, 3 days per week) enhances VEGF- or EPO-induced pMF. We confirm that cervical spinal VEGF and EPO injections elicit pMF. However, neither VEGF- nor EPO-induced pMF was affected by rAIH pre-conditioning (4 wks). Although our data confirm that spinal VEGF and EPO may play an important role in respiratory plasticity, we provide no evidence that rAIH amplifies their impact. Further experiments with more robust protocols are warranted.

  20. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei; Lu, Su; Tang, Huamei; Peng, Zhihai

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  1. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor signaling facilitates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis independently of transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Oga, Toru; Matsuoka, Toshiyuki; Yao, Chengcan; Nonomura, Kimiko; Kitaoka, Shiho; Sakata, Daiji; Kita, Yoshihiro; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Taguchi, Yoshio; Chin, Kazuo; Mishima, Michiaki; Shimizu, Takao; Narumiya, Shuh

    2009-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease characterized by fibroblast proliferation and excess deposition of collagen and other extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, which lead to distorted lung architecture and function. Given that anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive therapy currently used for IPF does not improve disease progression therapies targeted to blocking the mechanisms of fibrogenesis are needed. Although transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) functions are crucial in fibrosis, antagonizing this pathway in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, an animal model of IPF, does not prevent fibrosis completely, indicating an additional pathway also has a key role in fibrogenesis. Given that the loss of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) suppresses bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis, we examined the roles of prostaglandins using mice lacking each prostoaglandin receptor. Here we show that loss of prostaglandin F (PGF) receptor (FP) selectively attenuates pulmonary fibrosis while maintaining similar levels of alveolar inflammation and TGF-beta stimulation as compared to wild-type (WT) mice, and that FP deficiency and inhibition of TGF-beta signaling additively decrease fibrosis. Furthermore, PGF(2alpha) is abundant in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of subjects with IPF and stimulates proliferation and collagen production of lung fibroblasts via FP, independently of TGF-beta. These findings show that PGF(2alpha)-FP signaling facilitates pulmonary fibrosis independently of TGF-beta and suggests this signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for IPF.

  2. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-28

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques.

  3. Icaritin Inhibits Collagen Degradation-Related Factors and Facilitates Collagen Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions: A Potential Action for Plaque Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zong-Kang; Li, Jie; Yan, De-Xin; Leung, Wing-Nang; Zhang, Bao-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Most acute coronary syndromes result from rupture of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. The collagen content of plaques may critically affect plaque stability. This study tested whether Icaritin (ICT), an intestinal metabolite of Epimedium-derived flavonoids, could alter the collagen synthesis/degradation balance in atherosclerotic lesions. Rabbits were fed with an atherogenic diet for four months. Oral administration of ICT (10 mg·kg−1·day−1) was started after two months of an atherogenic diet and lasted for two months. The collagen degradation-related parameters, including macrophages accumulation, content and activity of interstitial collagenase-1 (MMP-1), and the collagen synthesis-related parameters, including amount and distribution of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and collagen mRNA/protein levels, were evaluated in the aorta. ICT reduced plasma lipid levels, inhibited macrophage accumulation, lowered MMP-1 mRNA and protein expression, and suppressed proteolytic activity of pro-MMP-1 and MMP-1 in the aorta. ICT changed the distribution of the SMCs towards the fibrous cap of lesions without increasing the amount of SMCs. Higher collagen protein content in lesions and aorta homogenates was observed with ICT treatment compared with the atherogenic diet only, without altered collagen mRNA level. These results suggest that ICT could inhibit the collagen degradation-related factors and facilitate collagen accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating a new potential of ICT in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:26828485

  4. Cytokine-Like Factor 1, an Essential Facilitator of Cardiotrophin-Like Cytokine:Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Receptor α Signaling and sorLA-Mediated Turnover

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Anders Mejer; Pallesen, Lone Tjener; Bauer, Johannes; Vægter, Christian Bjerggaard; Nielsen, Morten Schallburg; Madsen, Peder

    2016-01-01

    Cardiotrophin-like cytokine:cytokine-like factor-1 (CLC:CLF-1) is a heterodimeric neurotropic cytokine that plays a crucial role during neuronal development. Mice lacking CLC:CLF-1 die soon after birth due to a suckling defect and show reduced numbers of motor neurons. Humans carrying mutations in CLC:CLF-1 develop similar disorders, known as Sohar-Crisponi or cold-induced sweating syndrome, and have a high risk of early death. It is well known that CLC binds the ciliary neurotrophic factor receptor α (CNTFRα) and is a prerequisite for signaling through the gp130/leukemia inhibitory factor receptor β (LIFRβ) heterodimer, whereas CLF-1 serves to promote the cellular release of CLC. However, the precise role of CLF-1 is unclear. Here, we report that CLF-1, based on its binding site for CLC and on two additional and independent sites for CNTFRα and sorLA, is a key player in CLC and CNTFRα signaling and turnover. The site for CNTFRα enables CLF-1 to promote CLC:CNTFRα complex formation and signaling. The second site establishes a link between the endocytic receptor sorLA and the tripartite CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex and allows sorLA to downregulate the CNTFRα pool in stimulated cells. Finally, sorLA may bind and concentrate the tripartite soluble CLC:CLF-1:CNTFRα complex on cell membranes and thus facilitate its signaling through gp130/LIFRβ. PMID:26858303

  5. Attachment to laminin‐111 facilitates transforming growth factor β‐induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase‐3 in synovial fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hoberg, Maik; Rudert, Maximilian; Pap, Thomas; Klein, Gerd; Gay, Steffen; Aicher, Wilhelm K

    2007-01-01

    Background In the synovial membrane of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a strong expression of laminins and matrix degrading proteases was reported. Aim To investigate the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and RA by attachment to laminin‐1 (LM‐111) and in the presence or absence of costimulatory signals provided by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Methods SFs were seeded in laminin‐coated flasks and activated by addition of TGFβ. The expression of genes was investigated by quantitative reverse transcriptase‐polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR), immunocytochemistry and ELISA, and intracellular signalling pathways by immunoblotting, and by poisoning p38MAPK by SB203580, MEK‐ERK by PD98059 and SMAD2 by A‐83‐01. Results Attachment of SF to LM‐111 did not activate the expression of MMPs, but addition of TGFβ induced a fivefold higher expression of MMP‐3. Incubation of SF on LM‐111 in the presence of TGFβ induced a significant 12‐fold higher expression of MMP‐3 mRNA, and secretion of MMP‐3 was elevated 20‐fold above controls. Functional blocking of LM‐111–integrin interaction reduced the laminin‐activated MMP‐3 expression significantly. Stimulation of SF by LM‐111 and TGFβ activated the p38MAPK, ERK and SMAD2 pathways, and inhibition of these pathways by using SB203580, PD98059 or A‐83‐01 confirmed the involvement of these pathways in the regulation of MMP‐3. Conclusion Attachment of SF to LM‐111 by itself has only minor effects on the expression of MMP‐1 or MMP‐3, but it facilitates the TGFβ‐induced expression of MMP‐3 significantly. This mode of MMP‐3 induction may therefore contribute to inflammatory joint destruction in RA independent of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)1β or tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α. PMID:17124250

  6. Factors facilitating and challenging access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in a township in the Zambian Copperbelt: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Elizabeth; Logie, Dorothy; Masura, Mary; Gorman, Dermot; Murray, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is increasingly available in African communities. We set out to gain patient perceptions on factors that facilitate and challenge access and adherence to such therapy. We carried out two semi-structured interviews 12 months apart with 40 HIV-positive people drawn from three economically deprived townships in the Copperbelt, Zambia. We also conducted a focus group of 12 of these interviewees. Availability of medication in health facilities did not automatically ensure access to those in need. A prerequisite for commencing on treatment was a positive documented HIV test result, but too few HIV testing centres, fear of family and community rejection and male domination in sexual and social decision-making prevented a number from coming forward to be tested. Once within the system of care, further barriers, such as rumours of bad side-effects, inconsistent information, high costs of drugs (at the time of the first interviews), ongoing costs of additional medical tests, overcrowded systems and overworked staff, all hindered access to receiving treatment. When taken, therapy brought side-effects, the most common being increased appetite and hunger. Yet, despite these barriers and challenges many of those on treatment reported good adherence. Immediate factors, such as seeing ill people becoming well; being supported by a friend or family member; and having a watch or clock to keep to a regular regime, were important. The increase in the number of people who were expected to die but were now looking well also shifted community attitudes. HIV/AIDS is beginning to move from a hidden terminal disease to a chronic condition that is treatable.

  7. What factors facilitate the engagement with flipped classrooms used in the preparation for postgraduate medical membership examinations?

    PubMed Central

    Jesurasa, Amrita; Mackenzie, Kelly; Jordan, Hannah; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2017-01-01

    Background The “flipped classroom,” a pedagogical model where typical lecture and homework elements are reversed, is being advocated in medical education to support the teaching of a large curriculum. However, research into the use of this model in postgraduate medical education, which requires the application of acquired knowledge, is limited. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to engagement with the flipped classroom model in preparation for the written element of postgraduate membership examinations. Methods Three focus groups (n=14) were held between February and June 2016. Participants were drawn from a membership examination preparation course, run by the University of Shef-field. Two of the groups (n=10) involved “students” (public health registrars) while the other focus group (n=4) was held with “tutors” (experienced registrars and consultants). The focus groups were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using both predetermined and emergent themes. Results Key themes that emerged from the data included variation in learning and teaching styles of individuals as well as the feasibility and flexibility of the overall course design. However, management of students’ expectations was found to be the fundamental factor, which underpinned the engagement. Conclusion The complex interaction of factors affecting engagement in this study highlights the need to consider the appropriateness of the flipped classroom model. However, this must be balanced by the potential benefits of the approach for delivering a large curriculum. Recognizing the central importance of managing expectations at the outset would be useful when considering this model in postgraduate medical education. PMID:28721116

  8. Factors facilitating and inhibiting the use of female condoms among female university students in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mahlalela, Nomsa Brightness; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to explore the factors facilitating and inhibiting female condom use among female university students in South Africa. This qualitative study drew on 15 individual, in-depth interviews with female university students in Durban, South Africa. The results of the study highlight several factors that facilitate and inhibit female condom use. Protection from sexually transmitted infections (including HIV/AIDS) and prevention of pregnancy facilitated use of the device among female students. In addition, students expressed positive attitudes towards the female condom and preferred it to hormonal contraceptives because it offered them dual protection. Absence of side effects and greater power and autonomy to initiate safer sex were other factors that facilitated use. Inadequate availability, partner objection, stigma, insertion difficulties and lack of awareness served as significant barriers to consistent female condom use. Although the female condom can protect female students from infections and pregnancy, there are several barriers to its use. Interventions should aim to increase availability of the female condom, and male involvement should be increased to facilitate consistent use of the method.

  9. Protease Omi facilitates neurite outgrowth in mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells by cleaving transcription factor E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qi; Hu, Qing-song; Xu, Ran-jie; Zhen, Xue-chu; Wang, Guang-hui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Omi is an ATP-independent serine protease that is necessary for neuronal function and survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of protease Omi in regulating differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and to identify the substrate of Omi involved in this process. Methods: Mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells and Omi protease-deficient mnd2 mice were used in this study. To modulate Omi and E2F1 expression, N2a cells were transfected with expression plasmids, shRNA plasmids or siRNA. Protein levels were detected using immunoblot assays. The interaction between Omi and E2F1 was studied using immunoprecipitation, GST pulldown and in vitro cleavage assays. N2a cells were treated with 20 μmol/L retinoic acid (RA) and 1% fetal bovine serum to induce neurite outgrowth, which was measured using Image J software. Results: E2F1 was significantly increased in Omi knockdown cells and in brain lysates of mnd2 mice, and was decreased in cells overexpressing wild-type Omi, but not inactive Omi S276C. In brain lysates of mnd2 mice, endogenous E2F1 was co-immunoprecipitated with endogenous Omi. In vitro cleavage assay demonstrated that Omi directly cleaved E2F1. Treatment of N2a cells with RA induced marked differentiation and neurite outgrowth accompanied by significantly increased Omi and decreased E2F1 levels, which were suppressed by pretreatment with the specific Omi inhibitor UCF-101. Knockdown of Omi in N2a cells suppressed RA-induced neurite outgrowth, which was partially restored by knockdown of E2F1. Conclusion: Protease Omi facilitates neurite outgrowth by cleaving the transcription factor E2F1 in differentiated neuroblastoma cells; E2F1 is a substrate of Omi. PMID:26238290

  10. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  11. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  12. Factors that Facilitate and Barriers towards the Implementation of Health Educational Programmes in Primary Education Schools of the Prefecture of Achaia, Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholevas, Nikolaos K.; Loucaides, Constantinos A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that facilitate and barriers towards the implementation of health education programmes in primary education schools of the prefecture of Achaia, Greece. Methods: The sample of the study included 141 educators from a total population of 218 educators who dealt with the implementation of…

  13. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  14. Principals' Attitudes towards ICT and Their Perceptions about the Factors that Facilitate or Inhibit ICT Integration in Primary Schools of Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaioannou, Photos; Charalambous, Kyriacos

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the Cyprus primary school principals' attitudes towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) as well as their perceptions about the factors that facilitate or inhibit ICT integration in primary schools in Cyprus. A sequential mixed method approach was used to answer the research questions that guided this study.…

  15. Facilitating and Inhibiting Factors of Sexual Behavior among Migrants in Transition from Mexico to the United States.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Ordoñez, Jesús Alejandro; Benavides-Torres, Raquel A; Zapata-Garibay, Rogelio; Onofre-Rodríguez, Dora Julia; Márquez-Vega, María Aracely; Zamora-Carmona, Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in the border region of Mexico due to the flow of migrants under desperate conditions, encouraging casual and unprotected sex. Since this has become a binational public health problem, it is important to understand the factors that predict these sexual behaviors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the facilitators and inhibitors of transition in the sexual behavior of migrants from two border regions on the Mexico-United States (US) border. This was a predictive and cross-sectional study. A sample of 256 migrants in shelters for migrants on the border between Mexico and US were selected through systematic random sampling. Predictor variables investigated for effect on the safe sexual behavior (SSB) of the migrant were reasons for having sex; sexual attitudes; sexual machismo; knowledge about HIV; access to health services; and social discrimination. The sample was predominantly male (89.5%), with 46.1% reporting being single. The average age was 33.38 years (SD = 9.73) and the average number of years of education reported was 8.05 (SD = 3.37). A permissive sexual attitude and sexual machismo both correlated with condom use (rs = 0.130, p < 0.01 and rs = -0.174, p < 0.01, respectively). Regression analysis showed that a permissive sexual attitude decreased the practice of safe sex (β = 0.17, t = 4.16, p < 0.001), as did sexual machismo (β = -0.28, t = -4.83, p < 0.001) and HIV knowledge (β = -0.11, t = -2.62, p = 0.006). It was found that access to health services did not influence the SSB of migrants, as suggested by the literature. However, a permissive sexual attitude, sexual machismo, and HIV knowledge were all variables capable of predicting SSB. It is recommended that the study is extended to study migrant populations from other parts of the border, as well

  16. Barriers and facilitating factors among lay health workers and primary care providers to promote children's oral health in Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Steckler, Allan; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong

    2013-03-01

    This study explored the barriers and facilitating factors among lay health workers (LHWs) and primary care providers (PCPs) in implementing a multi-level program to promote children's oral health care in a rural Thai community. Twelve focus groups and 11 in-depth interviews were conducted with LHWs and PCPs who implemented the program from January 2008 to January 2009. The findings showed that the PCPs encountered the constraints of time and human resources, lack of ownership, and problem of coordination with the district hospital. The barriers among LHWs during home visits were related to their assumption of caregiver's knowledge, some conflicting beliefs, and limited counseling skills. The facilitating factors were the training program, caregivers' positive feedback, and available resources such as brochures and toothbrushes. The PCPs identified LHWs as the main facilitators of the program and indicated that policy should be developed for better integrating oral health services in local health Centers. This study provides a better understanding of the barriers and facilitating factors to promote children's oral health in rural Thai communities. While the barriers to integrating oral health activities to primary care are complex, the use of LHWs to promote the children's oral health was feasible and should be supported.

  17. Co-Construction as a Facilitative Factor in Supporting the Personal Narratives of Children Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon-Rice, Patti; Soto, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Adult co-construction with children who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) has been found to facilitate child communicative competence in general, but few studies have examined adult co-construction during the telling of personal narratives. This study explored the use of adult co-constructive strategies during personal…

  18. Implementation of a Tool to Enhance Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Public Health: Identifying Barriers and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heide, Iris; van der Noordt, Maaike; Proper, Karin I.; Schoemaker, Casper; van den Berg, Matthijs; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the barriers regarding evidence-informed decision making is the gap between the needs of policy makers and the ways researchers present evidence. This pilot study evaluates the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a tool to enhance transparent and unambiguous communication on scientific evidence by knowledge workers.…

  19. Implementation of a Tool to Enhance Evidence-Informed Decision Making in Public Health: Identifying Barriers and Facilitating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Heide, Iris; van der Noordt, Maaike; Proper, Karin I.; Schoemaker, Casper; van den Berg, Matthijs; Hamberg-van Reenen, Heleen H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the barriers regarding evidence-informed decision making is the gap between the needs of policy makers and the ways researchers present evidence. This pilot study evaluates the barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a tool to enhance transparent and unambiguous communication on scientific evidence by knowledge workers.…

  20. Working-class Filipino women's perspectives on factors that facilitate or hinder prenatal micronutrients supplementation to prevent congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Gamboa, Henrietta

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to plan for a community-health campaign to inform working-class Filipinos about the causes and prevention of orofacial clefting. Prenatal micronutrients may play a role in preventing orofacial clefting. Therefore, women's practices and perspectives on barriers to and facilitators of micronutrient supplementation were elicited. A total of 43 women and 22 health care workers were interviewed. Barriers to taking supplements included side effects, late prenatal care, the view that micronutrients are medications, inadequate supply, and health care workers who were unaware that prenatal vitamin supplements prevent congenital anomalies. The main facilitator was women's understanding that prenatal micronutrients improve the physical well-being of both mother and child. Given that women view having healthy babies as a reason to take micronutrients and that the health care workers lacked knowledge related to the use of micronutrients to prevent congenital anomalies, uptake of prenatal micronutrient supplementation programs may improve by specifically promoting the health benefit of preventing congenital anomalies.

  1. A study of factors facilitating and inhibiting the willingness of the institutionalized disabled elderly for rehabilitation: a United States-Japanese comparison.

    PubMed

    Ushikubo, M

    1998-01-01

    The high prevalence of 'bedridden elderly' in Japan is at least three times higher than that of any other industrialized country. To decrease likelihood of being bedridden, it is important to cultivate and maintain the willingness of older disabled patients for rehabilitation, and to preserve functioning in activities of daily living (ADL). The purpose of this study was to identify the factors facilitating and inhibiting the willingness of institutionalized disabled older adults for rehabilitation with respect to physical, goal-attainment, psychological and cultural aspects. The convenience sample consisted of 71 disabled older adults (45 in Japan and 26 in the USA). 46 subjects (64.8%) were identified as 'willing for rehabilitation', whereas 25 (35.2%) were 'unwilling for rehabilitation'. The data were gathered using structured interviews to subjects and administering questionnaires to the nurses. The data were compared between the 'willing' and the 'unwilling', and between those from Japan and from the USA by cross-tabular and correlational analyses. The major findings in this study were as follows: (1) Factors found to facilitate willingness of older persons for rehabilitation included: high independence level in ADL, generalized endurance/stamina, lack of pain, mutual goal agreement between old people and care staff, and no presence of regressive behavior. (2) Factors found to inhibit willingness of older persons for rehabilitation included: lower independence in ADL, presence of pain, generalized little stamina, depression, presence of regressive behavior, and dementia, and expectation of another person's help all the time. Healthcare workers need to be aware of patients who are subject to factors inhibiting willingness, and to promote factors facilitating willingness, in order to prevent the elderly with disabilities from becoming bedridden. In addition, the implications of this study are for a multidimensional functional assessment to be part of the

  2. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor drives neutrophil accumulation by facilitating IL-1β production in a murine model of acute gout.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Izabela; Dias, Ana Carolina Fialho; Tavares, Livia Duarte; Rodrigues, Irla Paula Stopa; Queiroz-Junior, Celso Martins; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Reis, Alesandra Corte; Ribeiro Oliveira, Rene Donizeti; Louzada-Junior, Paulo; Souza, Daniele Glória; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Bozza, Marcelo Torres; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Amaral, Flávio Almeida

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in inflammation caused by monosodium urate crystals. The concentration of macrophage migration inhibitory factor was increased in synovial fluid of patients with acute gout, and there was a positive correlation between intra-articular macrophage migration inhibitory factor and IL-1β concentrations. In mice, the injection of monosodium urate crystals into the knee joint increased the levels of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in macrophages and in inflamed tissue. The injection of recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor into the joint of mice reproduced the inflammatory response observed in acute gout, including histologic changes, the recruitment of neutrophils, and increased levels of IL-1β and CXCL1. Importantly, the accumulation of neutrophils and the amount IL-1β in the joints were reduced in macrophage migration inhibitory factor-deficient mice when injected with monosodium urate crystals. We observed a similar effect when we blocked macrophage migration inhibitory factor with (S,R)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-dihydro-5-isoxazole acetic acid or anti-macrophage migration inhibitory factor. In addition, the blockade of IL-1R and CXCR2 reduced recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor-induced neutrophil recruitment. Mechanistically, recombinant macrophage migration inhibitory factor is important for the synthesis of il1β mRNA in vivo and in isolated macrophages. Altogether, macrophage migration inhibitory factor promotes neutrophil accumulation and is important for IL-1β production, which are 2 crucial events contributing to the pathogenesis of acute gout. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  3. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  4. Factors influencing speech and language outcomes of children with early identified severe/profound hearing loss: Clinician-identified facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, Anne Nivelles; Purcell, Alison; Baker, Elise; Munro, Natalie

    2015-06-01

    Early identification of severe/profound childhood hearing loss (HL) gives these children access to hearing devices and early intervention to facilitate improved speech and language outcomes. Predicting which infants will go on to achieve such outcomes remains difficult. This study describes clinician identified malleable and non-malleable factors that may influence speech and language outcomes for children with severe/profound HL. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six experienced auditory verbal clinicians. A collective case study design was implemented. The interviews were transcribed and coded into themes using constant comparative analysis. Clinicians identified that, for children with severe/profound HL, early identification, early amplification and commencing auditory-verbal intervention under 6 months of age may facilitate child progress. Possible barriers were living in rural/remote areas, the clinicians' lack of experience and confidence in providing intervention for infants under age 6-months and belonging to a family with a culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) background. The results indicate that multiple factors need to be considered by clinicians working with children with HL and their families to determine how each child functions within their own environment and personal contexts, consistent with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. Such an approach is likely to empower clinicians to carefully balance potential barriers to, and facilitators of, optimal speech and language outcomes for all children with HL.

  5. Blocking Infralimbic Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF or FGF2) Facilitates Extinction of Drug Seeking After Cocaine Self-Administration.

    PubMed

    Hafenbreidel, Madalyn; Twining, Robert C; Rafa Todd, Carolynn; Mueller, Devin

    2015-12-01

    Drug exposure results in structural and functional changes in brain regions that regulate reward and these changes may underlie the persistence of compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Neurotrophic factors, such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), are necessary for neuronal survival, growth, and differentiation, and may contribute to these drug-induced changes. Following cocaine exposure, bFGF is increased in addiction-related brain regions, including the infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex (IL-mPFC). The IL-mPFC is necessary for extinction, but whether drug-induced overexpression of bFGF in this region affects extinction of drug seeking is unknown. Thus, we determined whether blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC would facilitate extinction following cocaine self-administration. Rats were trained to lever press for intravenous infusions of cocaine before extinction. Blocking bFGF in IL-mPFC before four extinction sessions resulted in facilitated extinction. In contrast, blocking bFGF alone was not sufficient to facilitate extinction, as blocking bFGF and returning rats to their home cage had no effect on subsequent extinction. Furthermore, bFGF protein expression increased in IL-mPFC following cocaine self-administration, an effect reversed by extinction. These results suggest that cocaine-induced overexpression of bFGF inhibits extinction, as blocking bFGF during extinction permits rapid extinction. Therefore, targeted reductions in bFGF during therapeutic interventions could enhance treatment outcomes for addiction.

  6. A degradable, bioactive, gelatinized alginate hydrogel to improve stem cell/growth factor delivery and facilitate healing after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, Domenico G; Willenberg, Bradley J; Ferreira, Leonardo F; Wate, Prateek S; Petersen, John W; Handberg, Eileen M; Zheng, Tong; Steindler, Dennis A; Terada, Naohiro; Batich, Christopher D; Byrne, Barry J; Pepine, Carl J

    2012-11-01

    Despite remarkable effectiveness of reperfusion and drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), many patients have debilitating symptoms and impaired left ventricular (LV) function highlighting the need for improved post-MI therapies. A promising concept currently under investigation is intramyocardial injection of high-water content, polymeric biomaterial gels (e.g., hydrogels) to modulate myocardial scar formation and LV adverse remodeling. We propose a degradable, bioactive hydrogel that forms a unique microstructure of continuous, parallel capillary-like channels (Capgel). We hypothesize that the innovative architecture and composition of Capgel can serve as a platform for endogenous cell recruitment and drug/cell delivery, therefore facilitating myocardial repair after MI. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A degradable, bioactive, gelatinized alginate hydrogel to improve stem cell/growth factor delivery and facilitate healing after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Della Rocca, Domenico G.; Willenberg, Bradley J.; Ferreira, Leonardo F.; Wate, Prateek S.; Petersen, John W.; Handberg, Eileen M.; Zheng, Tong; Steindler, Dennis A.; Terada, Naohiro; Batich, Christopher D.; Byrne, Barry J.; Pepine, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite remarkable effectiveness of reperfusion and drug therapies to reduce morbidity and mortality following myocardial infarction (MI), many patients have debilitating symptoms and impaired left ventricular (LV) function highlighting the need for improved post-MI therapies. A promising concept currently under investigation is intramyocardial injection of high-water content, polymeric biomaterial gels (e.g., hydrogels) to modulate myocardial scar formation and LV adverse remodeling. We propose a degradable, bioactive hydrogel that forms a unique microstructure of continuous, parallel capillary-like channels (Capgel). We hypothesize that the innovative architecture and composition of Capgel can serve as a platform for endogenous cell recruitment and drug/cell delivery, therefore facilitating myocardial repair after MI. PMID:22939314

  8. Coadministration of adipose-derived stem cells and control-released basic fibroblast growth factor facilitates angiogenesis in a murine ischemic hind limb model.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi-Ishihara, Hisako; Tobita, Morikuni; Tajima, Satoshi; Tanaka, Rica; Oshita, Takashi; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have angiogenic potential owing to their differentiation into endothelial cells and their release of angiogenic growth factors to elicit paracrine effects. In addition, control-released basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) sustained with a gelatin hydrogel also supports effective angiogenesis. We sought to determine if coadministration of ASCs and control-released bFGF into murine ischemic limbs facilitates angiogenesis. Levels of growth factors in the conditioned media of ASCs cultured with or without control-released bFGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A murine ischemic hind limb model was generated and intramuscularly injected with the following: gelatin hydrogel (group 1), a high number of ASCs (group 2), control-released bFGF (group 3), a small number of ASCs and control-released bFGF (group 4), and a high number of ASCs and control-released bFGF (group 5). Macroscopic and microscopic vascular changes were evaluated until day 7 by laser Doppler perfusion imaging and histologic analyses, respectively. Secretion of hepatocyte growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and transforming growth factor-β1 was enhanced by control-released bFGF. Vascular improvement was achieved in groups 4 and 5 according to laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and CD31 immunohistochemical staining demonstrated an increase in the vascular density, vessel diameter, and thickness of vessel walls in groups 4 and 5. Cells positively stained for CD146, α-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-β1 were observed around vessel walls in groups 4 and 5. These findings suggest that coadministration of ASCs and control-released bFGF facilitates angiogenesis in terms of vessel maturation in a murine ischemic hind limb model. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. microRNA-558 facilitates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha through binding to 5′-untranslated region in neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Huajie; Jiao, Wanju; Li, Dan; Fang, Erhu; Wang, Xiaojing; Mei, Hong; Pu, Jiarui; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in childhood. Our previous studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 2 alpha (HIF-2α), one member of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor family, facilitates the progression of NB under non-hypoxic conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying HIF-2α expression in NB still remain largely unknown. Herein, through analyzing the computational algorithm programs, we identified microRNA-558 (miR-558) as a crucial regulator of HIF-2α expression in NB. We demonstrated that miR-558 promoted the expression of HIF-2α at translational levels in NB cells through recruiting Argonaute 2 (AGO2). Mechanistically, miR-558 directly bound with its complementary site within 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) to facilitate the binding of AGO2 to eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein 1, resulting in increased eIF4E enrichment and HIF-2α translation. In addition, miR-558 promoted the growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of NB cells in vitro and in vivo, and these biological features were rescued by knockdown of AGO2, eIF4E, or HIF-2α. In clinical NB specimens, miR-558, AGO2, and eIF4E were highly expressed and positively correlated with HIF-2α expression. Patients with high miR-558, HIF-2α, AGO2, or eIF4E levels had lower survival probability. Taken together, these results demonstrate that miR-558 facilitates the expression of HIF-2α through bindingto its 5′-UTR, thus promoting the tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of NB. PMID:27276678

  10. A Qualitative Study of Middle School Students' Perceptions of Factors Facilitating the Learning of Science: Grounded Theory and Existing Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a qualitative study that explores students' perceptions of their own learning. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data. Factors that were perceived as helpful were woven into a theoretical model. The uses of the model are discussed. (Author/KR)

  11. Factors That Facilitate or Hinder the Use of Computer-Assisted Reading in the L2 Reading Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with whether instructors of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) incorporate computer-assisted reading (CAR) into their second-language (L2) reading classrooms. To achieve this goal, 70 ESL/EFL instructors completed a survey containing 37 items and 1 open-ended question concerning their…

  12. Lansoprazole Upregulates Polyubiquitination of the TNF Receptor-Associated Factor 6 and Facilitates Runx2-mediated Osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kenichi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Okuno, Tatsuya; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2015-12-01

    The transcription factor, runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), plays a pivotal role in the differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells to the osteochondroblast lineages. We found by the drug repositioning strategy that a proton pump inhibitor, lansoprazole, enhances nuclear accumulation of Runx2 and induces osteoblastogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Systemic administration of lansoprazole to a rat femoral fracture model increased osteoblastogenesis. Dissection of signaling pathways revealed that lansoprazole activates a noncanonical bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) activated kinase-1 (TAK1)-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. We found by in cellulo ubiquitination studies that lansoprazole enhances polyubiquitination of the TNF receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and by in vitro ubiquitination studies that the enhanced polyubiquitination of TRAF6 is attributed to the blocking of a deubiquitination enzyme, cylindromatosis (CYLD). Structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis of CYLD demonstrated that lansoprazole tightly fits in a pocket of CYLD where the C-terminal tail of ubiquitin lies. Lansoprazole is a potential therapeutic agent for enhancing osteoblastic differentiation.

  13. A Systematic/Structural Examination of Factors that Facilitate and Inhibit Natural Recovery from Alcohol Abuse in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors involved in natural recover or spontaneous remission from high-risk alcohol use in college students. The author hoped to explore the relationship between cognitive development and college students' drinking behaviors. Fraternity and sorority students from The College of William and Mary and…

  14. Soluble factors secreted by glioblastoma cell lines facilitate recruitment, survival, and expansion of regulatory T cells: implications for immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Courtney A.; Ahn, Brian J.; Han, Seunggu J.; Parsa, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    In patients with glioma, the tumor microenvironment can significantly impact pro-inflammatory immune cell functions. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly defined. Because immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Treg) are over represented in the tumor microenvironment compared with peripheral blood, we hypothesized that the tumor may have an effect on Treg survival, migration, expansion, and/or induction of a regulatory phenotype from non-Treg conventional CD4+ T cells. We defined the impact of soluble factors produced by tumor cells on Treg from healthy patients in vitro to determine mechanisms by which gliomas influence T cell populations. We found that tumor-derived soluble factors allowed for preferential proliferation and increased chemotaxis of Treg, compared with conventional T cells, indicating that these mechanisms may contribute to the increased Treg in the tumor microenvironment. Conventional T cells also exhibited a significantly increased expression of pro-apoptotic transcripts in the presence of tumor-derived factors, indicating that survival of Treg in the tumor site is driven by exposure to soluble factors produced by the tumor. Together, these data suggest that tumor burden may induce increased Treg infiltration, proliferation, and survival, negating productive anti-tumor immune responses in patients treated with immunotherapies. Collectively, our data indicate that several mechanisms of Treg recruitment and retention in the tumor microenvironment exist and may need to be addressed to improve the specificity of immunotherapies seeking to eliminate Treg in patients with glioma. PMID:22406925

  15. A Systematic/Structural Examination of Factors that Facilitate and Inhibit Natural Recovery from Alcohol Abuse in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keel, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors involved in natural recover or spontaneous remission from high-risk alcohol use in college students. The author hoped to explore the relationship between cognitive development and college students' drinking behaviors. Fraternity and sorority students from The College of William and Mary and…

  16. Factors That Facilitate or Hinder the Use of Computer-Assisted Reading in the L2 Reading Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with whether instructors of English as a second or foreign language (ESL/EFL) incorporate computer-assisted reading (CAR) into their second-language (L2) reading classrooms. To achieve this goal, 70 ESL/EFL instructors completed a survey containing 37 items and 1 open-ended question concerning their…

  17. Factors Facilitating Verbal Interaction in Group Work in a Ninth-Grade Content-Based ESL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    This case study investigated factors that increased verbal interaction for students in group work in a ninth grade, content-based, English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) class. Out of 11 tasks assigned to the students during the semester, four language-based and four genre-based tasks were analyzed. At the end of the study, the nature of verbal…

  18. Myristoylation-facilitated binding of the G protein ARF1GDP to membrane phospholipids is required for its activation by a soluble nucleotide exchange factor.

    PubMed

    Franco, M; Chardin, P; Chabre, M; Paris, S

    1996-01-19

    We have investigated the role of N-myristoylation in the activation of bovine ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1). We previously showed that myristoylation allows some spontaneous GDP-to-GTP exchange to occur on ARF1 at physiological Mg2+ levels in the presence of phospholipid vesicles (Franco, M., Chardin, P., Chabre, M., and Paris, S. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 1337-1341). Here, we report that this basal nucleotide exchange can be accelerated (by up to 5-fold) by addition of a soluble fraction obtained from bovine retinas. This acceleration is totally abolished by brefeldin A (IC50 = 2 microM) and by trypsin treatment of the retinal extract, as expected for an ARF-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor. To accelerate GDP release from ARF1, this soluble exchange factor absolutely requires myristoylation of ARF1 and the presence of phospholipid vesicles. The retinal extract also stimulates guanosine 5'-3-O-(thio)-triphosphate (GTP gamma S) release from ARF1 in the presence of phospholipids, but in this case myristoylation of ARF is not required. These observations, together with our previous findings that both myristoylated and non-myristoylated forms of ARF GTP-gamma S but only the myristoylated form of ARFGDP bind to membrane phospholipids, suggest that (i) the retinal exchange factor acts only on membrane-bound ARF, (ii) the myristate is not involved in the protein-protein interaction between ARF1 and the exchange factor, and (iii) N-myristoylation facilitates both spontaneous and catalyzed GDP-to-GTP exchange on ARF1 simply by facilitating the binding of ARFGDP to membrane phospholipids.

  19. miR-203 facilitates tumor growth and metastasis by targeting fibroblast growth factor 2 in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuqian; Zhang, Guihui; Dong, He; Ma, Maoqiang; Sun, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide. Molecular therapy is needed to improve the outcome in patients with breast cancer. miR-203 participates in cancer cell proliferation, transformation, and apoptosis. This study showed that miR-203 was upregulated in breast cancer tissues and the MCF-7 cell line. miR-203 knockdown suppressed colony formation and transformation and also limited migration in MCF-7 cells. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) was confirmed as a novel target of miR-203, as miR-203 knockdown induced an enhanced expression of FGF2 in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, FGF2 can reverse transforming growth factor-β signal pathway to suppress breast cancer. These findings provide new insights with potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27785068

  20. Money isn't everything: rural physicians identify other factors that facilitate providing prenatal care for low-income women.

    PubMed Central

    Machala, M; Miner, M W

    1994-01-01

    The problem of physicians dropping the practice of obstetrics is becoming more serious each year in the United States. Those who remain in practice are increasingly reluctant to serve women who receive Medicaid assistance. Previous research has tended to focus on low reimbursement and liability as barriers that physicians perceive to providing prenatal care to low-income clients. In a 1992 survey in rural Idaho, however, physicians who have been serving these clients for at least 4 years rated other factors equally or more important in treating low-income women. These other factors, discussed in this paper, have to do with the administrative and psychosocial support coordinated by public health nurses for their internal clients, the physicians, as well as for their external clients, pregnant women. PMID:8190869

  1. [Factors facilitating the return of the elderly to their homes after discharge from a geriatric intermediate care facility].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T

    1992-02-01

    Geriatric intermediate care facilities (GICFs) were started with subsidies from the Ministry of Health and Welfare in 1987 to encourage return of the elderly from hospitals to their homes rather than other destinations such as nursing homes or hospitals. Contrary to the initial expectation, only half of users (the elderly) have returned home. In order to examine the factors influencing destination after discharge from GICFs, characteristics of the users of a GICF and their primary caregivers were analyzed in a rural community in Nagano. The users were grouped according to their discharge destinations (i.e. 1: home, 2: hospital, 3: nursing home and other GICFs) and compared with respect to the users' and caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics, the length of stay, the users' activities of daily living (ADL) and mental status, the type of place before admission and after discharge, and the caring capacity of the family (i.e. manpower, housing conditions, household economic level and social support). A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the following factors were correlated to their return home: good ADL, a short admission period, good level of health of caregivers, adequate space in the residence, negative perception of the caregivers regarding the costs of GICF, and economic level of the household. Evaluation of these factors at an early stage of admission to GICFs may enable prediction of whether or not a user can be successfully discharged to return home.

  2. Factors facilitating and hindering the intention to promote pulmonary rehabilitation for patients with COPD among respiratory therapists.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Fan, Jun-Yu; Guo, Su-Er; Hwang, Su-Lun; Yang, Tsung-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is recognized as the chief non-pharmacologic management approach for patients with COPD, but is clinically under-utilized. In Taiwan, respiratory therapists (RTs) are one of the first-line health care providers who spend vast amounts of time with COPD patients in PR programs. To better enhance patients' knowledge of and participation in PR, it is necessary to understand how PR is viewed by RTs, as well as how these views influence their behavioral intentions toward promoting PR. This study applied the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate both the behavioral intentions and the influential factors surrounding PR in RTs. This cross-sectional study used structured self-administered questionnaires at a national symposium for RTs to collect data on their knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral controls, and behavioral intentions with regard to promoting PR. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify significant factors affecting the intended promotion of PR by RTs. The response rate after excluding respondents with incomplete data was 88.1% (n=379). A majority of the participants were college graduates, aged over 30 years, and women. The respective percentage scores derived from questionnaires gauging the knowledge, attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions components of total PR scores were 63.12%, 71.33%, 68.96%, 66.46%, and 80.29%. The factors significantly affecting RTs' intentions to suggest PR participation to COPD patients or encourage it were attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. The total model explained 22.5% of the variance in behavioral intentions. The results of the study suggest that RTs strongly intend to promote PR, but are hindered by insufficient knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy with regard to it. Applying TPB provided insight into which factors can be addressed, and by whom. For example, enhancing RTs' self-efficacy can be achieved

  3. Exploring facilitating factors and barriers to the nationwide dissemination of a Dutch school-based obesity prevention program “DOiT”: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evidence-based Dutch Obesity Intervention in Teenagers (DOiT) program is a school-based obesity prevention program for 12 to 14-year olds attending the first two years of prevocational education. This paper describes the study protocol applied to evaluate (a) the nationwide dissemination process of DOiT in the Netherlands, and (b) the relationship between quality of implementation and effectiveness during nationwide dissemination of the program in the Netherlands. Methods In order to explore facilitating factors and barriers for dissemination of DOiT, we monitored the process of adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program among 20 prevocational schools in the Netherlands. The study was an observational study using qualitative (i.e. semi-structured interviews) and quantitative methods (i.e. questionnaires and logbooks). Eight process indicators were assessed: recruitment, context, reach, dosage, fidelity, satisfaction, effectiveness and continuation. All teachers, students and parents involved in the implementation of the program were invited to participate in the study. As part of the process evaluation, a cluster-controlled trial with ten control schools was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the program on students’ anthropometry and energy balance-related behaviours and its association with quality of implementation. Discussion The identified impeding and facilitating factors will contribute to an adjusted strategy promoting adoption, implementation and continuation of the DOiT program to ensure optimal use and, thereby, prevention of obesity in Dutch adolescents. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN92755979. PMID:24355056

  4. Concentrating pre-mRNA processing factors in the histone locus body facilitates efficient histone mRNA biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tatomer, Deirdre C.; Terzo, Esteban; Curry, Kaitlin P.; Salzler, Harmony; Sabath, Ivan; Zapotoczny, Grzegorz; McKay, Daniel J.; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The histone locus body (HLB) assembles at replication-dependent histone genes and concentrates factors required for histone messenger RNA (mRNA) biosynthesis. FLASH (Flice-associated huge protein) and U7 small nuclear RNP (snRNP) are HLB components that participate in 3′ processing of the nonpolyadenylated histone mRNAs by recruiting the endonuclease CPSF-73 to histone pre-mRNA. Using transgenes to complement a FLASH mutant, we show that distinct domains of FLASH involved in U7 snRNP binding, histone pre-mRNA cleavage, and HLB localization are all required for proper FLASH function in vivo. By genetically manipulating HLB composition using mutations in FLASH, mutations in the HLB assembly factor Mxc, or depletion of the variant histone H2aV, we find that failure to concentrate FLASH and/or U7 snRNP in the HLB impairs histone pre-mRNA processing. This failure results in accumulation of small amounts of polyadenylated histone mRNA and nascent read-through transcripts at the histone locus. Thus, the HLB concentrates FLASH and U7 snRNP, promoting efficient histone mRNA biosynthesis and coupling 3′ end processing with transcription termination. PMID:27241916

  5. The fibril core of transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) facilitates aggregation of corneal TGFBIp

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Charlotte S.; Runager, Kasper; Scavenius, Carsten; Jensen, Morten M.; Nielsen, Nadia S.; Christiansen, Gunna; Petersen, Steen V.; Karring, Henrik; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Enghild, Jan J.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI) gene result in a group of hereditary diseases of the cornea that are collectively known as TGFBI corneal dystrophies. These mutations translate into amino acid substitutions mainly within the fourth fasciclin 1 domain (FAS1-4) of the transforming growth factor beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) and cause either amyloid or non-amyloid protein aggregates in the anterior and central parts of the cornea, depending on the mutation. The A546T substitution in TGFBIp causes lattice corneal dystrophy (LCD), which manifests as amyloid-type aggregates in the corneal stroma. We previously showed that the A546T substitution renders TGFBIp and the FAS1-4 domain thermodynamically less stable compared with the wild-type (WT) protein, and the mutant FAS1-4 is prone to amyloid formation in vitro. In the present study, we identified the core of A546T FAS1-4 amyloid fibrils. Significantly, we identified the Y571-R588 region of TGFBIp, which we previously found to be enriched in amyloid deposits in LCD patients. We further found that the Y571-R588 peptide seeded fibrillation of A546T FAS1-4 and, more importantly, we demonstrated that native TGFBIp aggregates in the presence of fibrils formed by the core peptide. Collectively, these data suggest an involvement of the Y571-R588 peptide in LCD pathophysiology. PMID:25910219

  6. [Priorization of facilitators for the implementation of medication review with follow-up service in Spanish community pharmacies through exploratory factor analysis].

    PubMed

    Gil, Modesta Inmaculada; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Cardero, Manuel; Gastelurrutia, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    to prioritize previously identified in Spain facilitators for the implementation of new Pharmaceutical Services that allow designing strategies for the implementation of Medication Review with follow-up (MRFup) service. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A draft of a questionnaire was performed based on a previous literature review and following the RAND/UCLA methodology. An expert panel worked with it and generated a definitive questionnaire which, after piloting, was used with a representative sample of pharmacists, owners or staff members, who were working in community pharmacy, using computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) methodology. To understand underlying constructs in the questionnaire an EFA was performed. Different approaches were tested such as principal components factor analysis and principal axis factoring method. The best interpretability was achieved using the Factorization of Principal axis method with Direct Oblimin rotation, which explained the 40.0% of total variance. This produced four factors defined as: «Incentives», «External campaigns», «Expert in MRFup» and «Professionalism of the pharmacist». It can be stated that for implementation and sustainability of MRFup Service it is necessary being paid; also it must be explained to health professional and society in general. Practice of MRFup service demands pharmacists receiving a more clinical education and assuming more responsibilities as health professionals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Streptococcal 5'-Nucleotidase A (S5nA), a Novel Streptococcus pyogenes Virulence Factor That Facilitates Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lisa; Khemlani, Adrina; Lorenz, Natalie; Loh, Jacelyn M S; Langley, Ries J; Proft, Thomas

    2015-12-25

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an important human pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases. Using bioinformatics analysis of the complete S. pyogenes strain SF370 genome, we have identified a novel S. pyogenes virulence factor, which we termed streptococcal 5'-nucleotidase A (S5nA). A recombinant form of S5nA hydrolyzed AMP and ADP, but not ATP, to generate the immunomodulatory molecule adenosine. Michaelis-Menten kinetics revealed a Km of 169 μm and a Vmax of 7550 nmol/mg/min for the substrate AMP. Furthermore, recombinant S5nA acted synergistically with S. pyogenes nuclease A to generate macrophage-toxic deoxyadenosine from DNA. The enzyme showed optimal activity between pH 5 and pH 6.5 and between 37 and 47 °C. Like other 5'-nucleotidases, S5nA requires divalent cations and was active in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+), or Mn(2+). However, Zn(2+) inhibited the enzymatic activity. Structural modeling combined with mutational analysis revealed a highly conserved catalytic dyad as well as conserved substrate and cation-binding sites. Recombinant S5nA significantly increased the survival of the non-pathogenic bacterium Lactococcus lactis during a human whole blood killing assay in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a role as an S. pyogenes virulence factor. In conclusion, we have identified a novel S. pyogenes enzyme with 5'-nucleotidase activity and immune evasion properties. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Cancer Stem Cell-Secreted Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Stimulates Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cell Function and Facilitates Glioblastoma Immune Evasion.

    PubMed

    Otvos, Balint; Silver, Daniel J; Mulkearns-Hubert, Erin E; Alvarado, Alvaro G; Turaga, Soumya M; Sorensen, Mia D; Rayman, Patricia; Flavahan, William A; Hale, James S; Stoltz, Kevin; Sinyuk, Maksim; Wu, Qiulian; Jarrar, Awad; Kim, Sung-Hak; Fox, Paul L; Nakano, Ichiro; Rich, Jeremy N; Ransohoff, Richard M; Finke, James; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Lathia, Justin D

    2016-08-01

    Shifting the balance away from tumor-mediated immune suppression toward tumor immune rejection is the conceptual foundation for a variety of immunotherapy efforts currently being tested. These efforts largely focus on activating antitumor immune responses but are confounded by multiple immune cell populations, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which serve to suppress immune system function. We have identified immune-suppressive MDSCs in the brains of GBM patients and found that they were in close proximity to self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). MDSCs were selectively depleted using 5-flurouracil (5-FU) in a low-dose administration paradigm, which resulted in prolonged survival in a syngeneic mouse model of glioma. In coculture studies, patient-derived CSCs but not nonstem tumor cells selectively drove MDSC-mediated immune suppression. A cytokine screen revealed that CSCs secreted multiple factors that promoted this activity, including macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which was produced at high levels by CSCs. Addition of MIF increased production of the immune-suppressive enzyme arginase-1 in MDSCs in a CXCR2-dependent manner, whereas blocking MIF reduced arginase-1 production. Similarly to 5-FU, targeting tumor-derived MIF conferred a survival advantage to tumor-bearing animals and increased the cytotoxic T cell response within the tumor. Importantly, tumor cell proliferation, survival, and self-renewal were not impacted by MIF reduction, demonstrating that MIF is primarily an indirect promoter of GBM progression, working to suppress immune rejection by activating and protecting immune suppressive MDSCs within the GBM tumor microenvironment. Stem Cells 2016;34:2026-2039.

  9. The facilitating factors and barriers encountered in the adoption of a humanized birth care approach in a highly specialized university affiliated hospital.

    PubMed

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William

    2011-11-25

    Considering the fact that a significant proportion of high-risk pregnancies are currently referred to tertiary level hospitals; and that a large proportion of low obstetric risk women still seek care in these hospitals, it is important to explore the factors that influence the childbirth experience in these hospitals, particularly, the concept of humanized birth care.The aim of this study was to explore the organizational and cultural factors, which act as barriers or facilitators in the provision of humanized obstetrical care in a highly specialized, university-affiliated hospital in Quebec province, in Canada. A single case study design was chosen. The study sample included 17 professionals and administrators from different disciplines, and 157 women who gave birth in the hospital during the study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, field notes, participant observations, a self-administered questionnaire, documents, and archives. Both descriptive and qualitative deductive content analyses were performed and ethical considerations were respected. Both external and internal dimensions of a highly specialized hospital can facilitate or be a barrier to the humanization of birth care practices in such institutions, whether independently, or altogether. The greatest facilitating factors found were: caring and family- centered model of care, professionals' and administrators' ambient for the provision of humanized birth care besides the medical interventional care which is tailored to improve safety, assurance, and comfort for women and their children, facilities to provide a pain-free birth, companionship and visiting rules, dealing with the patients' spiritual and religious beliefs. The most cited barriers were: the shortage of health care professionals, the lack of sufficient communication among the professionals, the stakeholders' desire for specialization rather than humanization, over estimation of medical performance, finally the training

  10. The facilitating factors and barriers encountered in the adoption of a humanized birth care approach in a highly specialized university affiliated hospital

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Considering the fact that a significant proportion of high-risk pregnancies are currently referred to tertiary level hospitals; and that a large proportion of low obstetric risk women still seek care in these hospitals, it is important to explore the factors that influence the childbirth experience in these hospitals, particularly, the concept of humanized birth care. The aim of this study was to explore the organizational and cultural factors, which act as barriers or facilitators in the provision of humanized obstetrical care in a highly specialized, university-affiliated hospital in Quebec province, in Canada. Methods A single case study design was chosen. The study sample included 17 professionals and administrators from different disciplines, and 157 women who gave birth in the hospital during the study. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, field notes, participant observations, a self-administered questionnaire, documents, and archives. Both descriptive and qualitative deductive content analyses were performed and ethical considerations were respected. Results Both external and internal dimensions of a highly specialized hospital can facilitate or be a barrier to the humanization of birth care practices in such institutions, whether independently, or altogether. The greatest facilitating factors found were: caring and family- centered model of care, professionals' and administrators' ambient for the provision of humanized birth care besides the medical interventional care which is tailored to improve safety, assurance, and comfort for women and their children, facilities to provide a pain-free birth, companionship and visiting rules, dealing with the patients' spiritual and religious beliefs. The most cited barriers were: the shortage of health care professionals, the lack of sufficient communication among the professionals, the stakeholders' desire for specialization rather than humanization, over estimation of medical

  11. Core Binding Factor Beta Plays a Critical Role by Facilitating the Assembly of the Vif-Cullin 5 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase

    PubMed Central

    Fribourgh, Jennifer L.; Nguyen, Henry C.; Wolfe, Leslie S.; DeWitt, David C.; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif) targets the cellular cytidine deaminases APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F) for degradation via the host ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Vif recruits a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase to polyubiquitinate A3G/F. The activity of Vif critically depends on the cellular core binding factor beta (CBFβ). In this study, we investigated the Vif-CBFβ interaction and the role of CBFβ in the E3 ligase assembly. Vif-CBFβ interaction requires an extensive region of Vif spanning most of its amino terminus and zinc finger region, and cullin 5 (Cul5) binding enhances the stability of the Vif-CBFβ interaction. Our results further demonstrate that CBFβ plays a critical role in facilitating Cul5 binding to the Vif/elongin B/elongin C complex. Vif, with or without bound substrate, is unable to bind Cul5 in the absence of CBFβ. These studies support the notion that CBFβ serves as a molecular chaperone to facilitate Vif-E3 ligase assembly. IMPORTANCE The host antiviral restriction factors A3G/F inhibit viral replication. The HIV-1 protein Vif targets A3G/F for degradation. This immune evasion activity of Vif is dependent on the cellular factor CBFβ. Multiple regions of Vif are known to be important for Vif function, but the mechanisms are unclear. The studies described here provide important information about the Vif-CBFβ interaction interface and the function of CBFβ in E3 ligase assembly. In particular, our comprehensive Vif-CBFβ interface mapping results help to delineate the role of various Vif regions, determining if they are important for binding CBFβ or A3G/F. Furthermore, our studies reveal an important potential mechanism of CBFβ that has not been shown before. Our results suggest that CBFβ may serve as a molecular chaperone to enable Vif to adopt an appropriate conformation for interaction with the Cul5-based E3 ligase. This study advances our understanding of how CBFβ facilitates the Vif-mediated degradation of

  12. Qualitative exploration of facilitating factors and barriers to use of antenatal care services by pregnant women in urban and rural settings in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Aurangzeb, Brekhna; Dibley, Michael J; Alam, Ashraful

    2016-03-01

    World Health Organisation recommends that pregnant women with no complications should visit a healthcare provider at least four times to receive sufficient antenatal care services. In Pakistan only 37% of women reported to have had four or more antenatal care visits during their last pregnancy. This study aimed to explore facilitators and barriers to use of antenatal care services in rural and urban communities of two selected districts in Pakistan. Qualitative explorative study using in-depth interviews with currently pregnant women, lady health workers and doctors providing antenatal care services, and focus group discussion with women who had a child aged 5 years or younger, was conducted in a rural community in the district Swabi and in a tertiary care hospital in urban Islamabad in Pakistan. The audio-recorded interviews and discussions were transcribed verbatim in Urdu (the language spoken by the respondents). A list of topical codes for all topics related to the research questions was developed. Subsequently the text pertaining to each topical code was discussed and summarised in a document that presented the findings for each topic using quotes and tables. We conducted in-depth interviews with six lady health workers, four doctors, and ten currently pregnant women, and facilitated ten focus group discussions with women who had a child aged 5 years or younger. Currently pregnant women, and women who had a child aged 5 years or younger, were not aware of the recommended minimum number of antenatal care visits to be made during pregnancy. Facilitating factors to visit a particular health care facility were: availability of qualified healthcare providers (private facility); trust in healthcare providers; recommendation from a family member, friend or lady health worker (in rural areas); availability of good quality services including medical equipment and laboratory facilities; low cost (public facility); and easy access to the health facility (private facility

  13. Connective tissue growth factor regulates adipocyte differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells and facilitates leukemia bone marrow engraftment

    PubMed Central

    Battula, V. Lokesh; Chen, Ye; Cabreira, Maria da Graca; Ruvolo, Vivian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Ma, Wencai; Konoplev, Sergej; Shpall, Elizabeth; Lyons, Karen; Strunk, Dirk; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Davis, Richard Eric; Konopleva, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a major component of the leukemia bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is highly expressed in MSCs, but its role in the BM stroma is unknown. Therefore, we knocked down (KD) CTGF expression in human BM-derived MSCs by CTGF short hairpin RNA. CTGF KD MSCs exhibited fivefold lower proliferation compared with control MSCs and had markedly fewer S-phase cells. CTGF KD MSCs differentiated into adipocytes at a sixfold higher rate than controls in vitro and in vivo. To study the effect of CTGF on engraftment of leukemia cells into BM, an in vivo model of humanized extramedullary BM (EXM-BM) was developed in NOD/SCID/IL-2rgnull mice. Transplanted Nalm-6 or Molm-13 human leukemia cells engrafted at a threefold higher rate in adipocyte-rich CTGF KD MSC-derived EXM-BM than in control EXM-BM. Leptin was found to be highly expressed in CTGF KD EXM-BM and in BM samples of patients with acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, whereas it was not expressed in normal controls. Given the established role of the leptin receptor in leukemia cells, the data suggest an important role of CTGF in MSC differentiation into adipocytes and of leptin in homing and progression of leukemia. PMID:23741006

  14. Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling in injured neurons facilitates protection and survival.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian; Elwood, Fiona; Britschgi, Markus; Villeda, Saul; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Zhaoqing; Zhu, Liyin; Alabsi, Haitham; Getachew, Ruth; Narasimhan, Ramya; Wabl, Rafael; Fainberg, Nina; James, Michelle L; Wong, Gordon; Relton, Jane; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Pollard, Jeffrey W; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2013-01-14

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) are functional ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) and thus are key regulators of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We discovered that systemic administration of human recombinant CSF1 ameliorates memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. CSF1 and IL-34 strongly reduced excitotoxin-induced neuronal cell loss and gliosis in wild-type mice when administered systemically before or up to 6 h after injury. These effects were accompanied by maintenance of cAMP responsive element-binding protein (CREB) signaling in neurons rather than in microglia. Using lineage-tracing experiments, we discovered that a small number of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex express CSF1R under physiological conditions and that kainic acid-induced excitotoxic injury results in a profound increase in neuronal receptor expression. Selective deletion of CSF1R in forebrain neurons in mice exacerbated excitotoxin-induced death and neurodegeneration. We conclude that CSF1 and IL-34 provide powerful neuroprotective and survival signals in brain injury and neurodegeneration involving CSF1R expression on neurons.

  15. Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling in injured neurons facilitates protection and survival

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Elwood, Fiona; Britschgi, Markus; Villeda, Saul; Zhang, Hui; Ding, Zhaoqing; Zhu, Liyin; Alabsi, Haitham; Getachew, Ruth; Narasimhan, Ramya; Wabl, Rafael; Fainberg, Nina; James, Michelle L.; Wong, Gordon; Relton, Jane; Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34) are functional ligands of the CSF1 receptor (CSF1R) and thus are key regulators of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. We discovered that systemic administration of human recombinant CSF1 ameliorates memory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. CSF1 and IL-34 strongly reduced excitotoxin-induced neuronal cell loss and gliosis in wild-type mice when administered systemically before or up to 6 h after injury. These effects were accompanied by maintenance of cAMP responsive element–binding protein (CREB) signaling in neurons rather than in microglia. Using lineage-tracing experiments, we discovered that a small number of neurons in the hippocampus and cortex express CSF1R under physiological conditions and that kainic acid–induced excitotoxic injury results in a profound increase in neuronal receptor expression. Selective deletion of CSF1R in forebrain neurons in mice exacerbated excitotoxin-induced death and neurodegeneration. We conclude that CSF1 and IL-34 provide powerful neuroprotective and survival signals in brain injury and neurodegeneration involving CSF1R expression on neurons. PMID:23296467

  16. CCAAT box binding protein NF-Y facilitates in vivo recruitment of upstream DNA binding transcription factors.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K L; Vilen, B J; Itoh-Lindstrom, Y; Moore, T L; Li, G; Criscitiello, M; Cogswell, P; Clarke, J B; Ting, J P

    1994-01-01

    NF-Y binds a CCAAT motif found in many eukaryotic polymerase II-dependent promoters. In the HLA-DRA promoter it has been demonstrated that stereo-specific alignment between this motif and the upstream elements X1 and X2 is required for activation. To study the underlying mechanism for this requirement, a panel of transfected cell lines that maintained integrated, wild-type and mutant promoters were analyzed by in vivo genomic footprinting. Cell lines harboring a mutated CCAAT element exhibited a loss of interactions at the CCAAT site, as expected, and no transcriptional activity. Most importantly, mutation of the CCAAT sequence nearly abolished in vivo binding at the X1 and X2 sites, while mutations of X1 and X2 had little effect on CCAAT box binding. However, X1 and X2 binding was interdependent. In vitro, X1 binding activities are known to be stabilized by NF-Y binding. Interaction between NF-Y and X box binding proteins was demonstrated by reciprocal co-immunoprecipitation in the absence of DNA and co-affinity purification in the presence of DNA. Collectively, these studies indicate that occupancy of the CCAAT element represents an early event affecting other protein-DNA interactions and suggest that NF-Y stabilizes and interacts with X box factors to mediate this function. These findings may represent a common theme among promoters containing a CCAAT element. Images PMID:8076600

  17. Hominis Placenta facilitates hair re-growth by upregulating cellular proliferation and expression of fibroblast growth factor-7.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Dong-Jin; Chung, Jae-Ho; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Kim, Ha Rim; Kim, Jae Eun; Kim, Byung Joo; Jung, Myeong Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Jeong, Han-Sol

    2016-07-07

    Hominis Placenta (HP) known as a restorative medicine in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), has been widely applied in the clinics of Korea and China as an anti-aging agent to enhance the regeneration of tissue. This study was conducted to investigate whether topical treatment of HP promotes hair regrowth in the animal model. The dorsal hairs of 8-week-old C57BL/6 mice were depilated to synchronize hair follicles to the anagen phase. HP was applied topically once a day for 15 days. Hair growth was evaluated visually and microscopically. The incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) in dorsal skin tissue was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the mRNA expression of FGF-7. HP exhibited potent hair growth-promoting activity in C57BL/6 mice. Gross examination indicated that HP markedly increased hair regrowth as well as hair density and diameter. Histologic analysis showed that HP treatment enhanced the anagen induction of hair follicles. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that BrdU incorporation and the expressions of PCNA were increased by treatment of HP. HP treatment significantly increased the expression of FGF-7, which plays pivotal roles to maintain anagen phase both protein and mRNA levels. Taken together, our results indicate that HP has a potent hair growth-promoting activity; therefore, it may be a good candidate for the treatment of alopecia.

  18. Understanding factors that facilitate the inclusion of pain education in undergraduate curricula: Perspectives from a UK survey

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Eloise CJ; Briggs, Emma V; Briggs, Michelle; Allcock, Nick; Black, Pauline; Jones, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies in Europe, North America and Australasia suggest that one in five adults suffer from pain. There is increasing recognition that pain, particularly chronic pain, represents a global health burden. Many studies, including two national surveys exploring the content of undergraduate curricula for pain education, identify that documented pain education in curricula was limited and fragmentary. Methods: The study design used a questionnaire which included an open text comment box for respondents to add ‘further comments’ as part of larger study previously published. The sample consisted of 19 UK universities that offered 108 undergraduate programmes in the following: dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing (adult, child, learning disabilities and mental health branches), occupational therapy (OT), pharmacy, physiotherapy and veterinary science. An inductive content analysis was performed, and the data were managed using NVivo 10 software for data management. Results: A total of 57 participants across seven disciplines (dentistry, medicine, midwifery, nursing, pharmacy, physiotherapy and OT) completed the open text comment box (none were received from veterinary science). Analysis revealed two major themes of successes and challenges. Successes included expansion (extending coverage and/or increased student access), multidimensional curriculum content and diversity of teaching methods. Challenges included difficulties in identifying where pain is taught in the curriculum, biomedical versus biopsychosocial definitions of pain, perceived importance, time, resources and staff knowledge, and finally a diffusion of responsibility for pain education. Conclusion: This study identifies new insights of the factors attributed to successful implementation of pain education in undergraduate education. Many of the challenges previously reported were also identified. This is one of the first studies to identify a broad range of approaches, for pain education

  19. Spiroplasma eriocheiris Adhesin-Like Protein (ALP) Interacts with Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) Domain Proteins to Facilitate Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Libo; Liu, Yuhan; Gao, Qi; Xu, Xuechuan; Ning, Mingxiao; Bi, Jingxiu; Liu, Hui; Liu, Min; Gu, Wei; Wang, Wen; Meng, Qingguo

    2017-01-01

    Spiroplasma eriocheiris is a novel pathogen found in recent years, causing the tremor disease (TD) of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Like Spiroplasma mirum, S. eriocheiris infects the newborn mouse (adult mice are not infected) and can cause cataract. Adhesion-related protein is an important protein involved in the interaction between pathogen and host. In this study, the Adhesin-like Protein (ALP) of S. eriocheiris was detected on its outer membrane by using immune electron microscopy, and was found to be involved in the bacterium's infection of mouse embryo fibroblasts (3T6-Swiss albino). Yeast two-hybrid analysis demonstrated that ALP interacts with a diverse group of mouse proteins. The interactions between recombinant partial fibulin7 (FBLN7; including two epidermal growth factor [EGF] domains) and ALP were confirmed by Far-western blotting and colocalization. We synthetized the domains of FBLN7 [EGF domain: amino acids 136–172 and complement control protein (CCP) domain: 81–134 amino acids], and demonstrated that only EGF domain of FBLN7 can interact with ALP. Because the EGF domain has high degree of similarity to EGF, it can activate the downstream EGFR signaling pathway, in key site amino acids. The EGFR pathway in 3T6 cells was restrained after rALP stimulation resulting from competitive binding of ALP to EGF. The unborn mouse, newborn mouse, and the adult mouse with cataract have a small amount of expressed FBLN7; however, none was detected in the brain and very little expression was seen in the eye of normal adult mice. In short, ALP as a S. eriocheiris surface protein, is critical for infection and further supports the role of ALP in S. eriocheiris infection by competitive effection of the EGF/EGFR axis of the target cells. PMID:28184355

  20. Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling facilitates liver repair from acute ethanol-induced injury in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Changwen; Ellis, Jillian L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) results from alcohol overconsumption and is among the leading causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors has been observed in ALD, but how it contributes to ALD pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we investigated the impact of VEGF signaling inhibition on an established zebrafish model of acute alcoholic liver injury. Kdrl activity was blocked by chemical inhibitor treatment or by genetic mutation. Exposing 4-day-old zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol for 24 h induced hepatic steatosis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. The liver started self-repair once ethanol was removed. Although inhibiting Kdrl did not block the initial activation of hepatic stellate cells during ethanol treatment, it suppressed their proliferation, extracellular matrix protein deposition and fibrogenic gene expression after ethanol exposure, thus enhancing the liver repair. It also ameliorated hepatic steatosis and attenuated hepatic angiogenesis that accelerated after the ethanol treatment. qPCR showed that hepatic stellate cells are the first liver cell type to increase the expression of VEGF ligand and receptor genes in response to ethanol exposure. Both hepatic stellate cells and endothelial cells, but not hepatic parenchymal cells, expressed kdrl upon ethanol exposure and were likely the direct targets of Kdrl inhibition. Ethanol-induced steatosis and fibrogenesis still occurred in cloche mutants that have hepatic stellate cells but lack hepatic endothelial cells, and Kdrl inhibition suppressed both phenotypes in the mutants. These results suggest that VEGF signaling mediates interactions between activated hepatic stellate cells and hepatocytes that lead to steatosis. Our study demonstrates the involvement of VEGF signaling in regulating sustained liver injuries after acute alcohol exposure. It also provides a proof of principle of using the zebrafish model

  1. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. - Highlights: • MOV10 can function as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev. • MOV10 facilitates Rev/RRE-dependent transport of viral mRNAs. • MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. • The DEAG-box of MOV10 is required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent export.

  2. Facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients at outcome conferences—lessons learnt from a decade of collaboration in OMERACT: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Maarten; Abma, Tineke; Koelewijn-Van Loon, Marije; Collins, Sarah; Kirwan, John

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several studies have provided insights into the conditions for successful patient involvement in health research. We recently demonstrated that long-term engagement with people with rheumatic conditions in international outcome research led to significant changes in the research agenda in the field of rheumatology. This article explores facilitating and inhibiting factors for long-term involvement of patients as collaborative partners at five Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences. Design Responsive evaluation, starting with a thematic document analysis of conference proceedings and the grey literature, followed by 38 qualitative interviews. Interview transcripts were subjected to inductive content analysis. Setting 5 international OMERACT conferences between 2002 and 2012. Participants Patient delegates (n=16) and professional delegates representing researchers (n=14), pharmaceutical industry and regulators (n=2). Results Combined review of the document analysis and interview data revealed five main facilitators and three main barriers. Patient engagement as full participants at OMERACT conferences was enhanced by: strong leadership commitment and the presence of change agents, a clear selection procedure, an inclusive consensus-based conference design, individualised and self-organised support, an interactive and encouraging moderation style during discussion groups. Barriers were related to the intensity of the conference programme, scepticism among researchers and doubts about the representativeness of the patient group. Conclusions This study concludes that developing a sustainable structure for funding, selection and support of patient delegates, as well as adjusting conference design and moderation style, contributes not only towards facilitating direct dialogue between all stakeholders but also towards enhancing mutual understanding and the successful incorporation of the patient perspective in an outcome conference such as OMERACT

  3. The principal mRNA nuclear export factor NXF1:NXT1 forms a symmetric binding platform that facilitates export of retroviral CTE-RNA

    PubMed Central

    Aibara, Shintaro; Katahira, Jun; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2015-01-01

    The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the first three domains of human NXF1 together with NXT1 that has two copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit arranged to form an intimate domain-swapped dimer. In this dimer, the linkers between the NXF1 LRR and NTF2-like domains interact with NXT1, generating a 2-fold symmetric platform in which the RNA-binding RRM, LRR and NTF2-like domains are arranged on one face. In addition to bulk transcripts, NXF1:NXT1 also facilitates the export of unspliced retroviral genomic RNA from simple type-D retroviruses such as SRV-1 that contain a constitutive transport element (CTE), a cis-acting 2-fold symmetric RNA stem–loop motif. Complementary structural, biochemical and cellular techniques indicated that the formation of a symmetric RNA binding platform generated by dimerization of NXF1:NXT1 facilitates the recognition of CTE-RNA and promotes its nuclear export. PMID:25628361

  4. The principal mRNA nuclear export factor NXF1:NXT1 forms a symmetric binding platform that facilitates export of retroviral CTE-RNA.

    PubMed

    Aibara, Shintaro; Katahira, Jun; Valkov, Eugene; Stewart, Murray

    2015-02-18

    The NXF1:NXT1 complex (also known as TAP:p15) is a general mRNA nuclear export factor that is conserved from yeast to humans. NXF1 is a modular protein constructed from four domains (RRM, LRR, NTF2-like and UBA domains). It is currently unclear how NXF1:NXT1 binds transcripts and whether there is higher organization of the NXF1 domains. We report here the 3.4 Å resolution crystal structure of the first three domains of human NXF1 together with NXT1 that has two copies of the complex in the asymmetric unit arranged to form an intimate domain-swapped dimer. In this dimer, the linkers between the NXF1 LRR and NTF2-like domains interact with NXT1, generating a 2-fold symmetric platform in which the RNA-binding RRM, LRR and NTF2-like domains are arranged on one face. In addition to bulk transcripts, NXF1:NXT1 also facilitates the export of unspliced retroviral genomic RNA from simple type-D retroviruses such as SRV-1 that contain a constitutive transport element (CTE), a cis-acting 2-fold symmetric RNA stem-loop motif. Complementary structural, biochemical and cellular techniques indicated that the formation of a symmetric RNA binding platform generated by dimerization of NXF1:NXT1 facilitates the recognition of CTE-RNA and promotes its nuclear export. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Nerve growth factor facilitates redistribution of adrenergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic perivascular nerves injured by phenol in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Ayako; Takatori, Shingo; Hashikawa-Hobara, Narumi; Goda, Mitsuhiro; Kawasaki, Hiromu

    2016-01-05

    We previously reported that nerve growth factor (NGF) facilitated perivascular sympathetic neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves injured by the topical application of phenol in the rat mesenteric artery. We also demonstrated that mesenteric arterial nerves were distributed into tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-, substance P (SP)-, and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-containing nerves, which had axo-axonal interactions. In the present study, we examined the effects of NGF on phenol-injured perivascular nerves, including TH-, NPY-, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-containing nerves, in rat mesenteric arteries in more detail. Wistar rats underwent the in vivo topical application of 10% phenol to the superior mesenteric artery, proximal to the abdominal aorta, under pentobarbital-Na anesthesia. The distribution of perivascular nerves in the mesenteric arteries of the 2nd to 3rd-order branches isolated from 8-week-old Wistar rats was investigated immunohistochemically using antibodies against TH-, NPY-, nNOS-, CGRP-, and SP-containing nerves. The topical phenol treatment markedly reduced the density of all nerves in these arteries. The administration of NGF at a dose of 20µg/kg/day with an osmotic pump for 7 days significantly increased the density of all perivascular nerves over that of sham control levels. These results suggest that NGF facilitates the reinnervation of all perivascular nerves injured by phenol in small resistance arteries.

  6. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  7. An analysis of key stakeholders' attitudes and beliefs about barriers and facilitating factors in the development of a cervical cancer prevention program in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Francis, Shelley A; Leser, Kendall A; Esmont, Emma E; Griffith, Fareeda M

    2013-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related deaths among women. Each year there are approximately 250,000 deaths; most of which occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. The purpose of this report is to examine key stakeholders experience and knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, examine their experiences with the current cervical cancer screening and treatment policy, and identify barriers and facilitating factors to vaccine implementation and uptake. Fifteen indepth interviews were conducted with key stakeholders in Cape Town and Johannesburg, South Africa. The interviews revealed several key findings including: 1) knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer varied across participants, 2) knowledge about cervical cancer was also mixed while knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer was low among participants. Our findings indicate that key stakeholders are concerned about women's health and wellbeing. In addition, they believe that the government, families, and the media need to play a prominent role in prevention efforts.

  8. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state.

  9. Controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse perpetrated by men receiving substance use treatment in England and Brazil: Prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d

  10. The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 facilitates hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma progression by regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Cao, Yanhua; Bai, Lan; Zhu, Chengliang; Li, Rui; He, Hui; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Liu, Fang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major causes of acute and chronic liver diseases, fulminant hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC accounts for more than 85% of primary liver cancers and is the seventh most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths. However, the mechanism by which HBV induces HCC is largely unknown. Collagen triple helixes repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) is a secreted protein and has characteristics of a circulating hormone with potentially broad implications for cell metabolism and physiology. CTHRC1 is associated with human cancers, but its effect on HCC is unknown. Here, we revealed that CTHRC1 expression is highly correlated with HCC progression in HBV-infected patients, and demonstrated that HBV stimulates CTHRC1 expression by activating nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), through extracellular signal-regulated kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (ERK/c-JNK) pathway. In addition, CTHRC1 activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through regulating phosphoinosmde-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI-3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. More interestingly, CTHRC1 enhances colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells by regulating p53 and stimulating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression. In addition, knock-down of CTHRC1 results in the repression of HBV-associated carcinogenesis in nude mice. Thus, we revealed a novel mechanism by which HBV facilitates HCC development through activating the oncoprotein CTHRC1, which in turn enhances HBV-related HCC progression by stimulates colony formation, migration, and invasion of hepatoma cells through regulating multiple cellular factors and signal cascades.

  11. The transcription factor protein Sox11 enhances early osteoblast differentiation by facilitating proliferation and the survival of mesenchymal and osteoblast progenitors.

    PubMed

    Gadi, Jogeswar; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Min-Jung; Jami, Ajita; Ruthala, Kalyani; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Jung, Han-Sung; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Sung-Kil

    2013-08-30

    Sox11 deletion mice are known to exhibit developmental defects of craniofacial skeletal malformations, asplenia, and hypoplasia of the lung, stomach, and pancreas. Despite the importance of Sox11 in the developing skeleton, the role of Sox11 in osteogenesis has not been studied yet. In this study, we identified that Sox11 is an important transcription factor for regulating the proliferation and survival of osteoblast precursor cells as well as the self-renewal potency of mesenchymal progenitor cells via up-regulation of Tead2. Furthermore, Sox11 also plays an important role in the segregation of functional osteoblast lineage progenitors from osteochondrogenic progenitors. Facilitation of osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal cells was achieved by enhanced expression of the osteoblast lineage specific transcription factors Runx2 and Osterix. Morpholino-targeted disruption of Sox11 in zebrafish impaired organogenesis, including the bones, which were under mineralized. These results indicated that Sox11 plays a crucial role in the proliferation and survival of mesenchymal and osteoblast precursors by Tead2, and osteogenic differentiation by regulating Runx2 and Osterix.

  12. Heat Shock Protein 90 Facilitates Latent HIV Reactivation through Maintaining the Function of Positive Transcriptional Elongation Factor b (p-TEFb) under Proteasome Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiao-Yan; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Chun-Yan; Lin, Jian; Zeng, Xiao-Yun; Ren, Ru-Xia; Wang, Keng; Xun, Tian-Rong; Shai, Yechiel; Liu, Shu-Wen

    2016-12-09

    The persistence of HIV in resting memory CD4(+) T cells at a latent state is considered as the major barrier on the path to achieve a cure for HIV. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) were previously reported as latency reversing agents (LRAs) but the mechanism underlying this function is yet unclear. Here we demonstrate that PIs reactivate latent HIV ex vivo without global T cell activation, and may facilitate host innate immune responses. Mechanistically, latent HIV reactivation induced by PIs is mediated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) via the recruitment of the heat shock protein (HSP) 90-positive transcriptional elongation factor b (p-TEFb) complex. Specifically, HSP90 downstream HSF1 gives positive feedback to the reactivation process through binding to cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) and preventing it from undergoing degradation by the proteasome. Overall, these findings suggest proteasome inhibitors as potential latency reversing agents. In addition, HSF1/HSP90 involved in HIV transcription elongation, may serve as therapeutic targets in HIV eradication. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Myopia as a latent phenotype of a pleiotropic gene positively selected for facilitating neurocognitive development, and the effects of environmental factors in its expression.

    PubMed

    Mak, W; Kwan, M W M; Cheng, T S; Chan, K H; Cheung, R T F; Ho, S L

    2006-01-01

    Myopia has become an almost pandemic problem in many populations. There are compelling evidence to suggest that myopia is a hereditary condition. However, myopia would constitute a definite selection disadvantage during most stages of human evolution, which is incompatible with its moderate to high prevalence in most modern populations. The rapid upsurge of myopia over just a few decades also implies that its inheritance does not follow any of the usual patterns, and environmental factors may have an important role in precipitating its occurrence in those who are genetically predisposed. Previous studies showed that myopes were, on average, more intelligent than non-myopes, and this association had been attributed to a biological link between eye growth and brain development. We propose a pleiotropic genetic model to explain the atypical epidemiologic and inheritance pattern of myopia and its relationship with neurocognitive development. This pleiotropic gene was positively selected for its facilitation of human intelligence. The myopic component is a latent phenotype; myopia will not be expressed unless some novel external factors are encountered (i.e. a "quirk" phenomenon). Therefore, the myopic component was selectively neutral in our ancestral environment. The net gain in Darwinian fitness enables the pleiotropic gene to attain a high frequency in the human population, as reflected by our current prevalence of myopia.

  14. Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia Induced by Transforming Growth Factor Beta Facilitates KRAS(G12D)-driven Pancreatic Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chuvin, Nicolas; Vincent, David F; Pommier, Roxane M; Alcaraz, Lindsay B; Gout, Johann; Caligaris, Cassandre; Yacoub, Karam; Cardot, Victoire; Roger, Elodie; Kaniewski, Bastien; Martel, Sylvie; Cintas, Celia; Goddard-Léon, Sophie; Colombe, Amélie; Valantin, Julie; Gadot, Nicolas; Servoz, Emilie; Morton, Jennifer; Goddard, Isabelle; Couvelard, Anne; Rebours, Vinciane; Guillermet, Julie; Sansom, Owen J; Treilleux, Isabelle; Valcourt, Ulrich; Sentis, Stéphanie; Dubus, Pierre; Bartholin, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) acts either as a tumor suppressor or as an oncogene, depending on the cellular context and time of activation. TGFβ activates the canonical SMAD pathway through its interaction with the serine/threonine kinase type I and II heterotetrameric receptors. Previous studies investigating TGFβ-mediated signaling in the pancreas relied either on loss-of-function approaches or on ligand overexpression, and its effects on acinar cells have so far remained elusive. We developed a transgenic mouse model allowing tamoxifen-inducible and Cre-mediated conditional activation of a constitutively active type I TGFβ receptor (TβRI(CA)) in the pancreatic acinar compartment. We observed that TβRI(CA) expression induced acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) reprogramming, eventually facilitating the onset of KRAS(G12D)-induced pre-cancerous pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. This phenotype was characterized by the cellular activation of apoptosis and dedifferentiation, two hallmarks of ADM, whereas at the molecular level, we evidenced a modulation in the expression of transcription factors such as Hnf1β, Sox9, and Hes1. We demonstrate that TGFβ pathway activation plays a crucial role in pancreatic tumor initiation through its capacity to induce ADM, providing a favorable environment for KRAS(G12D)-dependent carcinogenesis. Such findings are highly relevant for the development of early detection markers and of potentially novel treatments for pancreatic cancer patients.

  15. Cloning and Characterization of a 2-Cys Peroxiredoxin in the Pine Wood Nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, a Putative Genetic Factor Facilitating the Infestation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chu, Yanna; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Qingwen; Zhou, Xuguo

    2011-01-01

    (especially the “surprising” presence under the nematode cuticle), and recombinant antioxidant activity suggest that BxPrx plays a key role in combating the oxidative burst engineered by the ROS defense system in host plants during the infection process. In summary, BxPrx is a genetic factor potentially facilitating B. xylophilus infestation. PMID:21814479

  16. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health environmental factors as facilitators or barriers used in describing personal and social networks: a pilot study of adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Gerd; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2008-06-01

    Using the environmental factors of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), the aim of the study was to describe the social networks involved in the everyday lives of adults with cerebral palsy (CP). A further aim was to use the ICF generic scale to describe how far these adults experienced the contacts within these networks as facilitators or barriers. Sixteen adults with CP, including nine women, with a mean age of 32 years were interviewed. The interviews were performed using a guide based on the component environmental factors of the ICF. The participants described (ICF codes e310-e360) 85 contacts in the domain of 'support and relationships' as substantial facilitators (md=3.5), and 45 as both moderate-to-substantial facilitators and barriers (md=2.5). Four contacts were considered as barriers. The participants described (ICF codes e410-e455) 88 contacts in the domain of 'attitudes' as substantial facilitators (md=3) and 36 contacts as both moderate barriers and facilitators (md=2). Another four contacts were considered as moderate-to-severe barriers (md=2.5). Within the domain 'services, systems and policies' (e535-e590), the participants described 123 facilitators, the majority considered as substantial, 37 considered as both moderate facilitators and barriers and one considered as a complete barrier. The result of this pilot study contributes new information concerning the contact networks of adults with CP. It indicates new possibilities for using the ICF environmental factors and the 1-4 scale of facilitators and barriers in clinical work. The participants felt the majority of the contacts in their networks to be supportive, whereas some were felt to be both facilitators and barriers.

  17. Identification of factors for physicians to facilitate early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ko; Lee, Nan-Yao; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tsai, Jih-Jin; Lin, Wei-Ru; Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-02-01

    Dengue fever, rickettsial diseases, and Q fever are acute febrile illnesses with similar manifestations in tropical areas. Early differential diagnosis of scrub typhus, murine typhus, and Q fever from dengue fever may be made by understanding the distinguishing clinical characteristics and the significance of demographic and weather factors. We conducted a retrospective study to identify clinical, demographic, and meteorological characteristics of 454 dengue fever, 178 scrub typhus, 143 Q fever, and 81 murine typhus cases in three Taiwan hospitals. Case numbers of murine typhus and Q fever correlated significantly with temperature and rainfall; the scrub typhus case number was only significantly related with temperature. Neither temperature nor rainfall correlated with the case number of dengue fever. The rarity of dengue fever cases from January to June in Taiwan may be a helpful clue for diagnosis in the area. A male predominance was observed, as the male-to-female rate was 2.1 for murine typhus and 7.4 for Q fever. Multivariate analysis revealed the following six important factors for differentiating the rickettsial diseases and Q fever group from the dengue fever group: fever ≥8 days, alanine aminotransferase > aspartate aminotransferase, platelets >63,000/mL, C-reactive protein >31.9 mg/L, absence of bone pain, and absence of a bleeding syndrome. Understanding the rarity of dengue in the first half of a year in Taiwan and the six differentiating factors may help facilitate the early differential diagnosis of rickettsial diseases and Q fever from dengue fever, permitting early antibiotic treatment. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Controlling behaviours and technology-facilitated abuse perpetrated by men receiving substance use treatment in England and Brazil: Prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Gail; Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non-physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology-facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Secondary analysis from two cross-sectional studies was performed. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Sixty-four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d'Oliveira AFPL. Controlling behaviours and technology-facilitated abuse perpetrated by

  19. Scale-Up of Early Infant Male Circumcision Services for HIV Prevention in Lesotho: A Review of Facilitating Factors and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kikaya, Virgile; Kakaire, Rajab; Thompson, Elizabeth; Ramokhele, Mareitumetse; Adamu, Tigistu; Curran, Kelly; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS recommend early infant male circumcision (EIMC) as a component of male circumcision programs in countries with high HIV prevalence and low circumcision rates. Lesotho began incorporating EIMC into routine maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) services in 2013 with funding from the United States Agency for International Development and United Nations Children’s Fund. This presented unique challenges: Lesotho had no previous experience with EIMC and cultural traditions link removal of the foreskin to rites of passage. This process evaluation provides an overview of EIMC implementation. Methodology: The Lesotho Ministry of Health and Jhpiego conducted a baseline assessment before service implementation. Baseline information from an initial assessment was used to develop and implement an EIMC program that had a pilot and a scale-up phase. Key program activities such as staff training, quality assurance, and demand creation were included at the program design phase. Facilitating factors and challenges were identified from a review of information collected during the baseline assessment as well as the pilot. Results: Between September 2013 and March 2015, 592 infants were circumcised at 9 sites: 165 (28%) between 1 day and 6 days after birth; 196 (33%) between 7 and 30 days, and 231 (39%) between 31 and 60 days. Facilitating factors included strong support from the Ministry of Health, collaboration with stakeholders, and donor funding. Providers were enthusiastic about the opportunity to offer new services and receive training. Challenges included gaining consent from family members other than mothers, and parents’ concern about pain and complications. The EIMC program also had to manage providers’ expectations of compensation because overtime was paid to providers who took part in adult circumcision programming but not for EIMC. Limited human resources

  20. [Inhibition of histone deacetylases in the chick brain modulates expression of c-Fos and ZENK transcription factors and facilitates establishment of long-term memory].

    PubMed

    Toropova, K A; Anokhin, K V; Tiunova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the role of histone acetylation in memory consolidation in newborn chicks. We studied the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) on a "weak" memory for passive avoidance and on expression of two transcription factors c-Fos and ZENK known to play a role in neuronal plasticity in the chick brain. Intraventricular administration of trichostatin A prior to training produced a dose-dependent enhancement of memory when tested 24 hours after the training. It also increased neuronal expression of c-Fos and ZENK proteins: the density of ZENK immunopositive cells increased in the hippocampus and intermediate medial mesopallium and the density of c-Fos immunopositive cells increased in intermediate arcopallium and dorsocaudal nidopallium. Weak passive avoidance training did not produce further enhancement of c-Fos and ZENK expression in any of these brain areas. These data demonstrate possibility of facilitating long-term memory in day-old chicks by a histone deacetylases inhibitor, thus supporting the hypothesis on the role of histone acetylation in long-term memory formation. They also suggest that these effects might be mediated through modulation of transcriptional response in brain areas involved in consolidation of this form of memory.

  1. High concentrations of mast cell chymase facilitate the transduction of the transforming growth factor-β1/Smads signaling pathway in skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xianglin; Zhang, Chuanshan; Ma, Shaolin; Wen, Hao

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different concentrations of mast cell chymase on the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad signaling pathway in skin fibroblasts. Cultured skin fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of chymase for different time periods. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to assess the rate of cell proliferation. In addition, protein expression in the fibroblasts was measured using western blot analysis. Chymase was shown to enhance the proliferation of skin fibroblasts following incubation for 48, 72 and 96 h (P<0.01). Furthermore, high concentrations of mast cell chymase were shown to enhance the mRNA and protein expression levels of TGF-β1 after long-term (≥6 h) incubation. In addition, high concentrations of mast cell chymase increased P-Smad2/3 and Smad2/3 protein expression. By contrast, low concentrations of mast cell chymase increased Smad7 protein expression. Therefore, the results demonstrated that high concentrations of mast cell chymase facilitated the transduction of the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway in skin fibroblasts.

  2. Barriers and facilitating factors to the uptake of antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gourlay, Annabelle; Birdthistle, Isolde; Mburu, Gitau; Iorpenda, Kate; Wringe, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and synthesize reasons for low access, initiation and adherence to antiretroviral drugs by mothers and exposed babies for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted. Four databases were searched (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) for studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa from January 2000 to September 2012. Quantitative and qualitative studies were included that met pre-defined criteria. Antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis (maternal/infant) and combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) usage/registration at HIV care and treatment during pregnancy were included as outcomes. Results Of 574 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Four references were added after searching reference lists of included articles. Twenty studies were quantitative, 16 were qualitative and eight were mixed methods. Forty-one studies were conducted in Southern and East Africa, two in West Africa, none in Central Africa and one was multi-regional. The majority (n=25) were conducted before combination ART for PMTCT was emphasized in 2006. At the individual-level, poor knowledge of HIV/ART/vertical transmission, lower maternal educational level and psychological issues following HIV diagnosis were the key barriers identified. Stigma and fear of status disclosure to partners, family or community members (community-level factors) were the most frequently cited barriers overall and across time. The extent of partner/community support was another major factor impeding or facilitating the uptake of PMTCT ARVs, while cultural traditions including preferences for traditional healers and birth attendants were also common. Key health-systems issues included poor staff-client interactions, staff shortages, service accessibility and non-facility deliveries. Conclusions Long-standing health-systems issues (such as staffing and service accessibility) and community

  3. Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 Is an Important Surface Attachment Factor That Facilitates Entry of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Che-Man; Chu, Hin; Wang, Yixin; Wong, Bosco Ho-Yin; Zhao, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Jie; Yang, Dong; Leung, Sze Pui; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yeung, Man-Lung; Yan, Jinghua; Lu, Guangwen; Gao, George Fu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The spike proteins of coronaviruses are capable of binding to a wide range of cellular targets, which contributes to the broad species tropism of coronaviruses. Previous reports have demonstrated that Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) predominantly utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) for cell entry. However, additional cellular binding targets of the MERS-CoV spike protein that may augment MERS-CoV infection have not been further explored. In the current study, using the virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), we identified carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) as a novel cell surface binding target of MERS-CoV. CEACAM5 coimmunoprecipitated with the spike protein of MERS-CoV in both overexpressed and endogenous settings. Disrupting the interaction between CEACAM5 and MERS-CoV spike with anti-CEACAM5 antibody, recombinant CEACAM5 protein, or small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of CEACAM5 significantly inhibited the entry of MERS-CoV. Recombinant expression of CEACAM5 did not render nonpermissive baby hamster kidney (BHK21) cells susceptible to MERS-CoV infection. Instead, CEACAM5 overexpression significantly enhanced the attachment of MERS-CoV to the BHK21 cells. More importantly, the entry of MERS-CoV was increased when CEACAM5 was overexpressed in permissive cells, which suggested that CEACAM5 could facilitate MERS-CoV entry in conjunction with DPP4 despite not being able to support MERS-CoV entry independently. Taken together, the results of our study identified CEACAM5 as a novel cell surface binding target of MERS-CoV that facilitates MERS-CoV infection by augmenting the attachment of the virus to the host cell surface. IMPORTANCE Infection with the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is associated with the highest mortality rate among all known human-pathogenic coronaviruses. Currently, there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics against MERS-CoV infection. The

  4. Excessive Ovarian Production of Nerve Growth Factor Facilitates Development of Cystic Ovarian Morphology in Mice and Is a Feature of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Dissen, Gregory A.; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Paredes, Alfonso; Mayer, Christine; Mayerhofer, Artur; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2009-01-01

    Although ovarian nerve growth factor (NGF) facilitates follicular development and ovulation, an excess of the neurotrophin in the rodent ovary reduces ovulatory capacity and causes development of precystic follicles. Here we show that ovarian NGF production is enhanced in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and that transgenically driven overproduction of NGF targeted to the ovary results in cystic morphology, when accompanied by elevated LH levels. NGF levels are increased in the follicular fluid from PCOS ovaries and in the culture medium of granulosa cells from PCOS patients, as compared with non-PCOS patients. Ovaries from transgenic mice carrying the NGF gene targeted to thecal-interstitial cells by the 17α-hydroxylase gene promoter produce more NGF than wild-type (WT) ovaries and are hyperinnervated by sympathetic nerves. Antral follicle growth is arrested resulting in accumulation of intermediate size follicles, many of which are apoptotic. Peripubertal transgenic mice respond to a gonadotropin challenge with a greater increase in plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone, estradiol, and testosterone levels than WT controls. Transgenic mice also exhibit a reduced ovulatory response, delayed puberty, and reduced fertility, as assessed by a prolonged interval between litters, and a reduced number of pups per litter. Sustained, but mild, elevation of plasma LH levels results in a heightened incidence of ovarian follicular cysts in transgenic mice as compared with WT controls. These results suggest that overproduction of ovarian NGF is a component of polycystic ovarian morphology in both humans and rodents and that a persistent elevation in plasma LH levels is required for the morphological abnormalities to appear. PMID:19264868

  5. Excessive ovarian production of nerve growth factor facilitates development of cystic ovarian morphology in mice and is a feature of polycystic ovarian syndrome in humans.

    PubMed

    Dissen, Gregory A; Garcia-Rudaz, Cecilia; Paredes, Alfonso; Mayer, Christine; Mayerhofer, Artur; Ojeda, Sergio R

    2009-06-01

    Although ovarian nerve growth factor (NGF) facilitates follicular development and ovulation, an excess of the neurotrophin in the rodent ovary reduces ovulatory capacity and causes development of precystic follicles. Here we show that ovarian NGF production is enhanced in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and that transgenically driven overproduction of NGF targeted to the ovary results in cystic morphology, when accompanied by elevated LH levels. NGF levels are increased in the follicular fluid from PCOS ovaries and in the culture medium of granulosa cells from PCOS patients, as compared with non-PCOS patients. Ovaries from transgenic mice carrying the NGF gene targeted to thecal-interstitial cells by the 17alpha-hydroxylase gene promoter produce more NGF than wild-type (WT) ovaries and are hyperinnervated by sympathetic nerves. Antral follicle growth is arrested resulting in accumulation of intermediate size follicles, many of which are apoptotic. Peripubertal transgenic mice respond to a gonadotropin challenge with a greater increase in plasma 17-hydroxyprogesterone, estradiol, and testosterone levels than WT controls. Transgenic mice also exhibit a reduced ovulatory response, delayed puberty, and reduced fertility, as assessed by a prolonged interval between litters, and a reduced number of pups per litter. Sustained, but mild, elevation of plasma LH levels results in a heightened incidence of ovarian follicular cysts in transgenic mice as compared with WT controls. These results suggest that overproduction of ovarian NGF is a component of polycystic ovarian morphology in both humans and rodents and that a persistent elevation in plasma LH levels is required for the morphological abnormalities to appear.

  6. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  7. Facilitating Facilitators: Enhancing PBL through a Structured Facilitator Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinitri, Francine D.; Wilhelm, Sheila M.; Crabtree, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing adoption of the problem-based learning (PBL) model, creative approaches to enhancing facilitator training and optimizing resources to maintain effective learning in small groups is essential. We describe a theoretical framework for the development of a PBL facilitator training program that uses the constructivist approach as the…

  8. BAF53b, a Neuron-Specific Nucleosome Remodeling Factor, Is Induced after Learning and Facilitates Long-Term Memory Consolidation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Miran; Choi, Kwang-Yeon; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Mujun; Shim, Jaehoon; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Cho, Hye-Yeon; Oh, Jung-Pyo; Kim, Hyung-Su; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Han, Jin-Hee

    2017-03-29

    Although epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression regulation have recently been implicated in memory consolidation and persistence, the role of nucleosome-remodeling is largely unexplored. Recent studies show that the functional loss of BAF53b, a postmitotic neuron-specific subunit of the BAF nucleosome-remodeling complex, results in the deficit of consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory and cocaine-associated memory in the rodent brain. However, it is unclear whether BAF53b expression is regulated during memory formation and how BAF53b regulates fear memory in the amygdala, a key brain site for fear memory encoding and storage. To address these questions, we used viral vector approaches to either decrease or increase BAF53b function specifically in the lateral amygdala of adult mice in auditory fear conditioning paradigm. Knockdown of Baf53b before training disrupted long-term memory formation with no effect on short-term memory, basal synaptic transmission, and spine structures. We observed in our qPCR analysis that BAF53b was induced in the lateral amygdala neurons at the late consolidation phase after fear conditioning. Moreover, transient BAF53b overexpression led to persistently enhanced memory formation, which was accompanied by increase in thin-type spine density. Together, our results provide the evidence that BAF53b is induced after learning, and show that such increase of BAF53b level facilitates memory consolidation likely by regulating learning-related spine structural plasticity.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent works in the rodent brain begin to link nucleosome remodeling-dependent epigenetic mechanism to memory consolidation. Here we show that BAF53b, an epigenetic factor involved in nucleosome remodeling, is induced in the lateral amygdala neurons at the late phase of consolidation after fear conditioning. Using specific gene knockdown or overexpression approaches, we identify the critical role of BAF53b in the lateral amygdala neurons for memory

  9. Barriers and facilitating factors for disease self-management: a qualitative analysis of perceptions of patients receiving care for type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in the Mesoamerican region. Patients’ disease self-management is an important contributor to control of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have explored factors that facilitate and inhibit disease self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in urban settings in the region. This article presents patients’ perceptions of barriers and facilitating factors to disease self-management, and offers considerations for health care professionals in how to support them. Methods In 2011, 12 focus groups were conducted with a total of 70 adults with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension who attended urban public health centers in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico. Focus group discussions were transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach to identify themes. Themes were organized using the trans-theoretical model, and other themes that transcend the individual level were also considered. Results Patients were at different stages in their readiness-to-change, and barriers and facilitating factors are presented for each stage. Barriers to disease self-management included: not accepting the disease, lack of information about symptoms, vertical communication between providers and patients, difficulty negotiating work and health care commitments, perception of healthy food as expensive or not filling, difficulty adhering to treatment and weight loss plans, additional health complications, and health care becoming monotonous. Factors facilitating disease self-management included: a family member’s positive experience, sense of urgency, accessible health care services and guidance from providers, inclusive communication, and family and community support. Financial difficulty, gender roles, differences by disease type, faith, and implications for families and their support were identified as cross-cutting themes that may add an additional layer of complexity to

  10. Barriers and facilitating factors for disease self-management: a qualitative analysis of perceptions of patients receiving care for type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Fort, Meredith P; Alvarado-Molina, Nadia; Peña, Liz; Mendoza Montano, Carlos; Murrillo, Sandra; Martínez, Homero

    2013-09-04

    The burden of cardiovascular disease is growing in the Mesoamerican region. Patients' disease self-management is an important contributor to control of cardiovascular disease. Few studies have explored factors that facilitate and inhibit disease self-management in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension in urban settings in the region. This article presents patients' perceptions of barriers and facilitating factors to disease self-management, and offers considerations for health care professionals in how to support them. In 2011, 12 focus groups were conducted with a total of 70 adults with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension who attended urban public health centers in San José, Costa Rica and Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico. Focus group discussions were transcribed and coded using a content analysis approach to identify themes. Themes were organized using the trans-theoretical model, and other themes that transcend the individual level were also considered. Patients were at different stages in their readiness-to-change, and barriers and facilitating factors are presented for each stage. Barriers to disease self-management included: not accepting the disease, lack of information about symptoms, vertical communication between providers and patients, difficulty negotiating work and health care commitments, perception of healthy food as expensive or not filling, difficulty adhering to treatment and weight loss plans, additional health complications, and health care becoming monotonous. Factors facilitating disease self-management included: a family member's positive experience, sense of urgency, accessible health care services and guidance from providers, inclusive communication, and family and community support.Financial difficulty, gender roles, differences by disease type, faith, and implications for families and their support were identified as cross-cutting themes that may add an additional layer of complexity to disease management at any stage. These

  11. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; McInerney, Dennis M.

    Primary and high school students (277 in grades 5-6; 615 in grades 7-12) in the United States (47 percent boys) responded to 26 items of the Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Results indicate 7 distinct FCQ factors: perceived value of schooling; affect toward schooling; peer positive academic climate (Peer Positive); encouragement from…

  12. Impact of environmental factors in home rehabilitation--a qualitative study from the perspective of older persons using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to describe facilitators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Randström, Kerstin Björkman; Asplund, Kenneth; Svedlund, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore older people's experience of environmental factors that impact on their activity and participation in home rehabilitation. Older people aged between 68 and 93 years and receiving home rehabilitation were interviewed. A qualitative content analysis was performed on the interview text using the predetermined structure of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) environmental domain. The text was linked to the closest ICF category. The results identified environmental facilitators and barriers that influenced activity and participation among older people receiving home rehabilitation. Approaches that provided a facilitative environment were access to assistive products and technologies, alterations to the physical environment, social support and relationships, and adjusted health and social care services. A qualitative study using ICF-listed environmental factors contributed a holistic view of facilitators and barriers in home rehabilitation for older people. Awareness of the importance of the impact of the social environment on activities and participation could improve home rehabilitation services for older people. The study represents an important step towards a holistic approach using the ICF, which aims to enable all health care professionals to describe, plan and evaluate rehabilitation services together with older people across the health and social care sectors.

  13. Barriers and facilitators of retention in HIV care and treatment services in Iringa, Tanzania: the importance of socioeconomic and sociocultural factors.

    PubMed

    Tomori, Cecilia; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Brahmbhatt, Heena; Wagman, Jennifer A; Mbwambo, Jessie K; Likindikoki, Samuel; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2014-01-01

    Although an increasing number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in sub-Saharan Africa are benefiting from the rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART), retention in HIV care and treatment services remains a major concern. We examined socioeconomic and sociocultural barriers and potential facilitators of retention in ART in Iringa, Tanzania, a region with the second highest prevalence of HIV in the country. In 2012, 116 in-depth interviews were conducted to assess community members' perceptions, barriers and facilitators of HIV treatment in Iringa, including key informants, persons at heightened risk for infection, and HIV service-delivery users. Data were transcribed, translated, entered into Atlas.ti, coded, and analyzed for key themes. In order to provide the full range of perspectives across the community on issues that may affect retention, we report findings from all 116 participants, but draw on verbatim quotes to highlight the experiences of the 14 PLHIV who reported that they were receiving HIV care and treatment services. Despite the growing availability of HIV care and treatment services in Iringa, participants reported significant barriers to retention, including lack of knowledge and misperceptions of treatment, access problems that included difficulties in reaching distant clinics and pervasive poverty that left PLHIV unable to cope with out-of-pocket costs associated with their care, persistent stigmatization of PLHIV and frequent reliance on alternative healing systems instead of biomedical treatment. Positive perceptions of the efficacy of ART, improved ART availability in the region, improved access to care through supplemental aid, and social support were perceived to enhance treatment continuation. Our findings suggest that numerous socioeconomic and sociocultural barriers inhibit retention in HIV care and treatment services in this setting. Intervention strategies that improve ART accessibility, incorporate supplemental aid, enhance social

  14. A novel approach to facilitate dopaminergic neuron generation from stem-cells: the combination of genetic modification and signaling factors within a three-dimensional perfusion microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Liu, Peng; Han, Chao; Liu, Yang; Zou, Wei; Piao, Hua; Wang, Yachen; Liu, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that cell replacement therapy holds great promise for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Many efforts have been made to improve current methods for differentiating stem or somatic cells into functional dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Previous studies have demonstrated that lineage-specific factors, extrinsic signaling factors and the cellular microenvironment are important considerations for generating functional DA neurons. We hypothesize that a combination of genetic modification, neurotrophic or extrinsic signaling factors and the construction of dynamic neural networks within a three-dimensional perfusion microbioreactor will produce greater efficiency and effectiveness in DA neuron generation from stem-cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carrier facilitated transport through membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H.G.; Leaf, G.K.; Matkowsky, B.J.

    1980-06-01

    Facilitated transport is a process whereby the diffusion of a solute across a membrane is chemically enhanced. In this report an analysis is given of a facilitated transport system involving a volatile species A which reacts with a nonvolatile carrier species B to form the nonvolatile product AB. The species A is transported across the membrane by ordinary diffusion, as well as by the diffusion of the product AB. It is assumed that the reaction rates are large, so the reactions are confined mostly to thin boundary layers near the surfaces of the membrane. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to derive the asymptotic solution of the nonlinear boundary value problem governing equilibrium. The effect of various parameters on the facilitation factor is analyzed in detail.

  16. Human Genome-Wide RNAi Screen for Host Factors That Facilitate Salmonella Invasion Reveals a Role for Potassium Secretion in Promoting Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Thornbrough, Joshua M.; Gopinath, Adarsh; Hundley, Tom; Worley, Micah J.

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica can actively invade the gastro-intestinal epithelium. This frequently leads to diarrheal disease, and also gives the pathogen access to phagocytes that can serve as vehicles for dissemination into deeper tissue. The ability to invade host cells is also important in maintaining the carrier state. While much is known about the bacterial factors that promote invasion, relatively little is known about the host factors involved. To gain insight into how Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is able to invade normally non-phagocytic cells, we undertook a global RNAi screen with S. Typhimurium-infected human epithelial cells. In all, we identified 633 genes as contributing to bacterial internalization. These genes fall into a diverse group of functional categories revealing that cytoskeletal regulators are not the only factors that modulate invasion. In fact, potassium ion transport was the most enriched molecular function category in our screen, reinforcing a link between potassium and internalization. In addition to providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of pathogens to invade host cells, all 633 host factors identified are candidates for new anti-microbial targets for treating Salmonella infections, and may be useful in curtailing infections with other pathogens as well. PMID:27880807

  17. "Facilitated consensus," "ethics facilitation," and unsettled cases.

    PubMed

    Aulisio, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    In "Consensus, Clinical Decision Making, and Unsettled Cases:' David M. Adams and William J.Winslade' make multiple references to both editions of the American Society of Bioethics and Humanities (ASBH) Core Competencies for Healthcare Ethics Consultation in their discussion of two assumptions that are supposed to be at the heart of the facilitated consensus model's inability to handle unsettled cases; that is, that: 1. Consultants "should maintain a kind of moral impartiality or neutrality throughout the process," "explicitly condemn[ing] anything resembling a substantive 'ethics' recommendation, and 2. "What counts as the proper set of allowable options among which the parties are to deliberate will itself always be clearly discernible' Herein, I argue that neither of these assumptions is required by ASBH's ethics facilitation approach. I then conclude by suggesting that, despite their fundamentally mistaken interpretation of the ASBH approach-perhaps even because of it-Adams and Winslade have made two important contributions to the ethics consultation literature.

  18. Yeast Translation Elongation Factor-1A Binds Vacuole-localized Rho1p to Facilitate Membrane Integrity through F-actin Remodeling*

    PubMed Central

    Bodman, James A. R.; Yang, Yang; Logan, Michael R.; Eitzen, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that modulate a variety of cellular processes, most notably those involving actin dynamics. We have previously shown that yeast vacuolar membrane fusion requires re-organization of actin filaments mediated by two Rho GTPases, Rho1p and Cdc42p. Cdc42p initiates actin polymerization to facilitate membrane tethering; Rho1p has a role in the late stages of vacuolar fusion, but its mode of action is unknown. Here, we identified eEF1A as a vacuolar Rho1p-interacting protein. eEF1A (encoded by the TEF1 and TEF2 genes in yeast) is an aminoacyl-tRNA transferase needed during protein translation. eEF1A also has a second function that is independent of translation; it binds and organizes actin filaments into ordered cable structures. Here, we report that eEF1A interacts with Rho1p via a C-terminal subdomain. This interaction occurs predominantly when both proteins are in the GDP-bound state. Therefore, eEF1A is an atypical downstream effector of Rho1p. eEF1A does not promote vacuolar fusion; however, overexpression of the Rho1p-interacting subdomain affects vacuolar morphology. Vacuoles were destabilized and prone to leakage when treated with the eEF1A inhibitor narciclasine. We propose a model whereby eEF1A binds to Rho1p-GDP on the vacuolar membrane; it is released upon Rho1p activation and then bundles actin filaments to stabilize fused vacuoles. Therefore, the Rho1p-eEF1A complex acts to spatially localize a pool of eEF1A to vacuoles where it can readily organize F-actin. PMID:25561732

  19. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  20. Service user and care giver involvement in mental health system strengthening in Nepal: a qualitative study on barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Dristy; Upadhyaya, Nawaraj; Magar, Jananee; Giri, Nir Prakash; Hanlon, Charlotte; Jordans, Mark J D

    2017-01-01

    Service user and caregiver involvement has become an increasingly common strategy to enhance mental health outcomes, and has been incorporated in the mental healthpolicies of many developed nations. However, this practice is non-existent or fragmented in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Instances of service user and caregiver involvement have been rising slowly in a few LMICs, but are rarely described in the literature. Very little is known about the context of user and caregiver participation in mental health system strengthening processes in a low-income, disaster- and conflict-affected state such as Nepal. This study explores (a) the extent and experiences of service user and caregiver involvement in policy making, service planning, monitoring, and research in Nepal; (b) perceived barriers to such involvement; and (c) possible strategies to overcome barriers. Key Informant Interviews (n = 24) were conducted with service users and caregivers who were either affiliated to a mental health organization or receiving menta health care integrated within primary care. Purposive sampling was employed. Data collection was carried out in 2014 in Chitwan and Kathmandu districts of Nepal. Data analysis was carried out in NVivo10 using a framework approach. The involvement of service users affiliated to mental health organizations in policy development was reported to be 'tokenistic'. Involvement of caregivers was non-existent. Perceived barriers to greater involvement included lack of awareness, stigma and discrimination, poor economic conditions, the centralized health system, and lack of strong leadership and unity among user organizations. Increased focus on reducing public as well as self-stigma, improved policy frameworks and initiatives, and decentralization of care are some strategies that may facilitate service user and caregiver involvement. The study highlighted need for user and caregiver networks free from competing interests and priorities. Improved

  1. Landscape Factors Facilitating the Invasive Dynamics and Distribution of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug, Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), after Arrival in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Adam M.; Hamilton, George C.; Nielsen, Anne L.; Hahn, Noel; Green, Edwin J.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2014-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, a native of Asia, has become a serious invasive pest in the USA. H. halys was first detected in the USA in the mid 1990s, dispersing to over 41 other states. Since 1998, H. halys has spread throughout New Jersey, becoming an important pest of agriculture, and a major nuisance in urban developments. In this study, we used spatial analysis, geostatistics, and Bayesian linear regression to investigate the invasion dynamics and colonization processes of this pest in New Jersey. We present the results of monitoring H. halys from 51 to 71 black light traps that were placed on farms throughout New Jersey from 2004 to 2011 and examined relationships between total yearly densities of H. halys and square hectares of 48 landscape/land use variables derived from urban, wetland, forest, and agriculture metadata, as well as distances to nearest highways. From these analyses we propose the following hypotheses: (1) H. halys density is strongly associated with urban developments and railroads during its initial establishment and dispersal from 2004 to 2006; (2) H. halys overwintering in multiple habitats and feeding on a variety of plants may have reduced the Allee effect, thus facilitating movement into the southernmost regions of the state by railroads from 2005 to 2008; (3) density of H. halys contracted in 2009 possibly from invading wetlands or sampling artifact; (4) subsequent invasion of H. halys from the northwest to the south in 2010 may conform to a stratified-dispersal model marked by rapid long-distance movement, from railroads and wetland rights-of-way; and (5) high densities of H. halys may be associated with agriculture in southern New Jersey in 2011. These landscape features associated with the invasion of H. halys in New Jersey may predict its potential rate of invasion across the USA and worldwide. PMID:24787576

  2. RNA helicase MOV10 functions as a co-factor of HIV-1 Rev to facilitate Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export of viral mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Zhang, Yijun; Geng, Guannan; Liang, Juanran; Li, Yingniang; Chen, Jingliang; Liu, Chao; Zhang, Hui

    2015-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exploits multiple host factors during its replication. The REV/RRE-dependent nuclear export of unspliced/partially spliced viral transcripts needs the assistance of host proteins. Recent studies have shown that MOV10 overexpression inhibited HIV-1 replication at various steps. However, the endogenous MOV10 was required in certain step(s) of HIV-1 replication. In this report, we found that MOV10 potently enhances the nuclear export of viral mRNAs and subsequently increases the expression of Gag protein and other late products through affecting the Rev/RRE axis. The co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that MOV10 interacts with Rev in an RNA-independent manner. The DEAG-box of MOV10 was required for the enhancement of Rev/RRE-dependent nuclear export and the DEAG-box mutant showed a dominant-negative activity. Our data propose that HIV-1 utilizes the anti-viral factor MOV10 to function as a co-factor of Rev and demonstrate the complicated effects of MOV10 on HIV-1 life cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Facilitating Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the three papers in this symposium, "Conflicts that Arise in Small Group Facilitation: A Descriptive Study of Accounts, Actions, Outcomes, and Assessments" (Judith A. Kolb, William J. Rothwell), contains self-report verbatim accounts contributed by facilitators and the results of a literature review on small group conflict.…

  4. Evaluator or Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolding, James T.

    1978-01-01

    In American schools, the classroom teacher must act in two conflicting capacities: as a facilitator of learning and as an evaluator of his own facilitating activities. To avoid problems inherent in this, the evaluator role could be assigned elsewhere, as in the Boy Scouts' merit badge system. (SJL)

  5. Reconceptualizing the Pedagogical Value of Student Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztok, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Sustained discourse is critical to the learning potential of online courses. And, while research has surfaced many factors that mediate interaction, it further suggests that sustained interaction remains elusive. In this paper, I propose that student facilitation may have an impact on the quality of facilitators' interactions following a week of…

  6. The social facilitation of eating. A review.

    PubMed

    Herman, C Peter

    2015-03-01

    The social facilitation of eating (i.e., people eating more in groups than when alone) has been studied for about three decades now. In this paper, we review the empirical research (diary studies, observational studies, and experimental studies) of social facilitation, attending to factors that increase or decrease socially facilitated eating. We also review the various explanations (e.g., "time extension") that have been offered for the effect and offer our own speculations as to the underlying mechanisms. Further, we discuss promising directions for future research on the social facilitation of eating. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Ian N; Batty, Ian H; Prescott, Alan R; Gray, Alex; Kular, Gursant S; Stewart, Hazel; Downes, C Peter

    2004-09-15

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P(2). Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P(2) and PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo.

  8. Inositol phospholipids regulate the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor Tiam1 by facilitating its binding to the plasma membrane and regulating GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Binding of the Rac1-specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor, Tiam1, to the plasma membrane requires the N-terminal pleckstrin homology domain. In the present study, we show that membrane-association is mediated by binding of PtdIns(4,5)P2 to the pleckstrin homology domain. Moreover, in 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, translocation of Tiam1 to the cytosol, following receptor-mediated stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown, correlates with decreased Rac1-GTP levels, indicating that membrane-association is required for GDP/GTP exchange on Rac1. In addition, we show that platelet-derived growth factor activates Rac1 in vivo by increasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 concentrations, rather than the closely related lipid, PtdIns(3,4)P2. Finally, the data demonstrate that PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 bind to the same pleckstrin homology domain in Tiam1 and that soluble inositol phosphates appear to compete with lipids for this binding. Together, these novel observations provide strong evidence that distinct phosphoinositides regulate different functions of this enzyme, indicating that local concentrations of signalling lipids and the levels of cytosolic inositol phosphates will play crucial roles in determining its activity in vivo. PMID:15242348

  9. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Net1 facilitates the specification of dorsal cell fates in zebrafish embryos by promoting maternal β-catenin activation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shi; Dai, Miaomiao; Liu, Zhaoting; Ma, Yuanqing; Shang, Hanqiao; Cao, Yu; Wang, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for the initiation of dorsal-ventral patterning during vertebrate embryogenesis. Maternal β-catenin accumulates in dorsal marginal nuclei during cleavage stages, but its critical target genes essential for dorsalization are silent until mid-blastula transition (MBT). Here, we find that zebrafish net1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, is specifically expressed in dorsal marginal blastomeres after MBT, and acts as a zygotic factor to promote the specification of dorsal cell fates. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments show that the GEF activity of Net1 is required for the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in zebrafish embryos and mammalian cells. Net1 dissociates and activates PAK1 dimers, and PAK1 kinase activation causes phosphorylation of S675 of β-catenin after MBT, which ultimately leads to the transcription of downstream target genes. In summary, our results reveal that Net1-regulated β-catenin activation plays a crucial role in the dorsal axis formation during zebrafish development.

  10. GRP78(BiP) facilitates the cytosolic delivery of anthrax lethal factor (LF) in vivo and functions as an unfoldase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Alfred G; Slater, Louise; Taylor-Parker, Julian; Bharti, Ajit; Harrison, Robert; Hung, Deborah T; Murphy, John R

    2011-09-01

    Anthrax toxin is an A/B bacterial protein toxin which is composed of the enzymatically active Lethal Factor (LF) and/or Oedema Factor (EF) bound to Protective Antigen 63 (PA63) which functions as both the receptor binding and transmembrane domains. Once the toxin binds to its cell surface receptors it is internalized into the cell and traffics through Rab5- and Rab7-associated endosomal vesicles. Following acidification of the vesicle lumen, PA63 undergoes a dynamic change forming a beta-barrel that inserts into and forms a pore through the endosomal membrane. It is widely recognized that LF, and the related fusion protein LFnDTA, must be completely denatured in order to transit through the PA63 formed pore and enter the eukaryotic cell cytosol. We demonstrate by protease protection assays that the molecular chaperone GRP78 mediates the unfolding of LFnDTA and LF at neutral pH and thereby converts these proteins from a trypsin resistant to sensitive conformation. We have used immunoelectron microscopy and gold-labelled antibodies to demonstrate that both GRP78 and GRP94 chaperones are present in the lumen of endosomal vesicles. Finally, we have used siRNA to demonstrate that knock-down of GRP78 results in the emergence of resistance to anthrax lethal toxin and oedema toxin action.

  11. Linear Ordered Collagen Scaffolds Loaded with Collagen-Binding Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Facilitate Recovery of Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fukai; Xiao, Zhifeng; Chen, Bing; Hou, Xianglin

    2014-01-01

    Natural biological functional scaffolds, consisting of biological materials filled with promoting elements, provide a promising strategy for the regeneration of peripheral nerve defects. Collagen conduits have been used widely due to their excellent biological properties. Linear ordered collagen scaffold (LOCS) fibers are good lumen fillers that can guide nerve regeneration in an ordered direction. In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is important in the recovery of nerve injury. However, the traditional method for delivering bFGF to the lesion site has no long-term effect because of its short half-life and rapid diffusion. Therefore, we fused a specific collagen-binding domain (CBD) peptide to the N-terminal of native basic fibroblast growth factor (NAT-bFGF) to retain bFGF on the collagen scaffolds. In this study, a natural biological functional scaffold was constructed using collagen tubes filled with collagen-binding bFGF (CBD-bFGF)-loaded LOCS to promote regeneration in a 5-mm rat sciatic nerve transection model. Functional evaluation, histological investigation, and morphometric analysis indicated that the natural biological functional scaffold retained more bFGF at the injury site, guided axon growth, and promoted nerve regeneration as well as functional restoration. PMID:24188561

  12. The eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4H facilitates loop-binding, repetitive RNA unwinding by the eIF4A DEAD-box helicase.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yingjie; Atas, Evrim; Lindqvist, Lisa; Sonenberg, Nahum; Pelletier, Jerry; Meller, Amit

    2012-07-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation is a highly regulated process in protein synthesis. The principal translation initiation factor eIF4AI displays helicase activity, unwinding secondary structures in the mRNAs 5'-UTR. Single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) is applied here to directly observe and quantify the helicase activity of eIF4AI in the presence of the ancillary RNA-binding factor eIF4H. Results show that eIF4H can significantly enhance the helicase activity of eIF4AI by strongly binding both to loop structures within the RNA transcript as well as to eIF4AI. In the presence of ATP, the eIF4AI/eIF4H complex exhibits persistent rapid and repetitive cycles of unwinding and re-annealing. ATP titration assays suggest that this process consumes a single ATP molecule per cycle. In contrast, helicase unwinding activity does not occur in the presence of the non-hydrolysable analog ATP-γS. Based on our sm-FRET results, we propose an unwinding mechanism where eIF4AI/eIF4H can bind directly to loop structures to destabilize duplexes. Since eIF4AI is the prototypical example of a DEA(D/H)-box RNA helicase, it is highly likely that this unwinding mechanism is applicable to a myriad of DEAD-box helicases employed in RNA metabolism.

  13. Disentangling rhetoric and reality: an international Delphi study of factors and processes that facilitate the successful implementation of decisions to decommission healthcare services.

    PubMed

    Robert, Glenn; Harlock, Jenny; Williams, Iestyn

    2014-09-10

    The need to better understand processes of removing, reducing, or replacing healthcare services that are no longer deemed essential or effective is common across publicly funded healthcare systems. This paper explores expert international opinion regarding, first, the factors and processes that shape the successful implementation of decommissioning decisions and, second, consensus as to current best practice. A three round Delphi study of 30 international experts was undertaken. In round one, participants identified factors that shape the outcome of decommissioning processes; responses were analysed using conventional content analysis. In round two, responses to 88 Likert scale statements derived from round one were analysed using measures of the degree of consensus. In round three the statements that achieved low consensus were then repeated but presented alongside the overall results from round two. The responses were re-analysed to observe whether the degree of consensus had changed. Any open comments provided during the Delphi study were analysed thematically. Participants strongly agreed that three considerations should ideally inform decommissioning decisions: quality and patient safety, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Although there was less consensus as to which considerations informed such decisions in practice, those that drew the most agreement were: cost/budgetary pressures, government intervention and capital costs/condition. Important factors in shaping decommissioning were: strength of executive leadership, strength of clinical leadership, quality of communications, demonstrable benefits and clarity of rationale/case for change. Amongst the 19 best practice recommendations high consensus was achieved for: establishing a strong leadership team, engaging clinical leaders from an early stage, and establishing a clear rationale for change. There was a stark contrast between what experts thought should determine decommissioning decisions

  14. The intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin, is a high-affinity apolipoprotein A-I receptor facilitating endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kozyraki, R; Fyfe, J; Kristiansen, M; Gerdes, C; Jacobsen, C; Cui, S; Christensen, E I; Aminoff, M; de la Chapelle, A; Krahe, R; Verroust, P J; Moestrup, S K

    1999-06-01

    Cubilin is the intestinal receptor for the endocytosis of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12. However, several lines of evidence, including a high expression in kidney and yolk sac, indicate it may have additional functions. We isolated apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), using cubilin affinity chromatography. Surface plasmon resonance analysis demonstrated a high-affinity binding of apoA-I and HDL to cubilin, and cubilin-expressing yolk sac cells showed efficient 125I-HDL endocytosis that could be inhibited by IgG antibodies against apoA-I and cubilin. The physiological relevance of the cubilin-apoA-I interaction was further emphasized by urinary apoA-I loss in some known cases of functional cubilin deficiency. Therefore, cubilin is a receptor in epithelial apoA-I/HDL metabolism.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-PI3K Signaling Controls Cofilin Activity To Facilitate Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Entry into Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kai; Xiang, Yangfei; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Qiaoli; Zhong, Meigong; Wang, Shaoxiang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Fan, Jianglin; Kitazato, Kaio; Wang, Yifei

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes latency in neurons and can cause severe disseminated infection with neurological impairment and high mortality. This neurodegeneration is thought to be tightly associated with virus-induced cytoskeleton disruption. Currently, the regulation pattern of the actin cytoskeleton and the involved molecular mechanisms during HSV-1 entry into neurons remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the entry of HSV-1 into neuronal cells induces biphasic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and an initial inactivation followed by the subsequent activation of cofilin, a member of the actin depolymerizing factor family that is critical for actin reorganization. The disruption of F-actin dynamics or the modulation of cofilin activity by mutation, knockdown, or overexpression affects HSV-1 entry efficacy and virus-mediated cell ruffle formation. Binding of the HSV-1 envelope initiates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which leads to virus-induced early cofilin phosphorylation and F-actin polymerization. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase and Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK) are recruited as downstream mediators of the HSV-1-induced cofilin inactivation pathway. Inhibitors specific for those kinases significantly reduce the virus infectivity without affecting virus binding to the target cells. Additionally, lipid rafts are clustered to promote EGFR-associated signaling cascade transduction. We propose that HSV-1 hijacks cofilin to initiate infection. These results could promote a better understanding of the pathogenesis of HSV-1-induced neurological diseases. PMID:24425731

  16. Training Internal Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, R. Glenn; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Corning enhanced teamwork by training employees to facilitate team training. The employees learned to deal with change management, interpersonal communication, feedback, group development, team and individual expectations, and conflict management. (SK)

  17. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor facilitates TrkB down-regulation and neuronal injury after status epilepticus in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Unsain, Nicolás; Montroull, Laura Ester; Mascó, Daniel Hugo

    2009-10-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in many aspects of neuronal biology and hippocampal physiology. Status epilepticus (SE) is a condition in which prolonged seizures lead to neuronal degeneration. SE-induced in rodents serves as a model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis, the most frequent epilepsy in humans. We have recently described a strong correlation between TrkB decrease and p75ntr increase with neuronal degeneration (Neuroscience 154:978, 2008). In this report, we report that local, acute intra-hippocampal infusion of function-blocking antibodies against BDNF prevented both early TrkB down-regulation and neuronal degeneration after SE. Conversely, the infusion of recombinant human BDNF protein after SE greatly increased neuronal degeneration. The inhibition of BDNF mRNA translation by the infusion of antisense oligonucleotides induced a rapid decrease of BDNF protein levels, and a delayed increase. If seizures were induced at the time endogenous BDNF was decreased, SE-induced neuronal damage was prevented. On the other hand, if seizures were induced at the time endogenous BDNF was increased, SE-induced neuronal damage was exacerbated. These results indicate that under a pathological condition BDNF exacerbates neuronal injury.

  19. Fat-specific Protein 27 Inhibits Lipolysis by Facilitating the Inhibitory Effect of Transcription Factor Egr1 on Transcription of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase*

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Maneet; Kaur, Rajween; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Pickering, R. Taylor; Sharma, Vishva Mitra; Puri, Vishwajeet; Kandror, Konstantin V.

    2014-01-01

    Lipolysis in fat tissue represents a major source of circulating fatty acids. Previously, we have found that lipolysis in adipocytes is controlled by early growth response transcription factor Egr1 that directly inhibits transcription of adipose triglyceride lipase, ATGL (Chakrabarti, P., Kim, J. Y., Singh, M., Shin, Y. K., Kim, J., Kumbrink, J., Wu, Y., Lee, M. J., Kirsch, K. H., Fried, S. K., and Kandror, K. V. (2013) Mol. Cell. Biol. 33, 3659–3666). Here we demonstrate that knockdown of the lipid droplet protein FSP27 (a.k.a. CIDEC) in human adipocytes increases expression of ATGL at the level of transcription, whereas overexpression of FSP27 has the opposite effect. FSP27 suppresses the activity of the ATGL promoter in vitro, and the proximal Egr1 binding site is responsible for this effect. FSP27 co-immunoprecipitates with Egr1 and increases its association with and inhibition of the ATGL promoter. Knockdown of Egr1 attenuates the inhibitory effect of FSP27. These results provide a new model of transcriptional regulation of ATGL. PMID:24742676

  20. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; Niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen; Zhang, Ting

    2016-12-06

    The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development.

  1. Mitotic Inheritance of mRNA Facilitates Translational Activation of the Osteogenic-Lineage Commitment Factor Runx2 in Progeny of Osteoblastic Cells.

    PubMed

    Varela, Nelson; Aranguiz, Alejandra; Lizama, Carlos; Sepulveda, Hugo; Antonelli, Marcelo; Thaler, Roman; Moreno, Ricardo D; Montecino, Martin; Stein, Gary S; van Wijnen, Andre J; Galindo, Mario

    2016-05-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms mediate the acquisition of specialized cellular phenotypes during tissue development, maintenance and repair. When phenotype-committed cells transit through mitosis, chromosomal condensation counteracts epigenetic activation of gene expression. Subsequent post-mitotic re-activation of transcription depends on epigenetic DNA and histone modifications, as well as other architecturally bound proteins that "bookmark" the genome. Osteogenic lineage commitment, differentiation and progenitor proliferation require the bone-related runt-related transcription factor Runx2. Here, we characterized a non-genomic mRNA mediated mechanism by which osteoblast precursors retain their phenotype during self-renewal. We show that osteoblasts produce maximal levels of Runx2 mRNA, but not protein, prior to mitotic cell division. Runx2 mRNA partitions symmetrically between daughter cells in a non-chromosomal tubulin-containing compartment. Subsequently, transcription-independent de novo synthesis of Runx2 protein in early G1 phase results in increased functional interactions of Runx2 with a representative osteoblast-specific target gene (osteocalcin/BGLAP2) in chromatin. Somatic transmission of Runx2 mRNAs in osteoblasts and osteosarcoma cells represents a versatile mechanism for translational rather than transcriptional induction of this principal gene regulator to maintain osteoblast phenotype identity after mitosis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor Aberrantly Activates Complement and Facilitates Lung Tumor Progression via Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiao; Zha, Haoran; Yang, Fei; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-01

    The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression. C5aR antagonism blunted the effect of TF on tumor progression and decreased MDSC recruitment. In conclusion, our data suggested that in tumor microenvironment, TF-induced coagulation activated the complement system and subsequently recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth, which brings new insights into the coagulation-induced complement activation within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression. PMID:28106852

  3. Folate deficiency facilitates recruitment of upstream binding factor to hot spots of DNA double-strand breaks of rRNA genes and promotes its transcription

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiu; Li, Caihua; Song, Xiaozhen; Wu, Lihua; Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Zhiyong; Cao, Haiyan; Yu, Kaihui; Wan, Chunlei; Li, Jianting; Yang, Feng; Huang, Zebing; niu, Bo; Jiang, Zhengwen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The biogenesis of ribosomes in vivo is an essential process for cellular functions. Transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is the rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis controlled by environmental conditions. Here, we investigated the role of folate antagonist on changes of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) landscape in mouse embryonic stem cells. A significant DSB enhancement was detected in the genome of these cells and a large majority of these DSBs were found in rRNA genes. Furthermore, spontaneous DSBs in cells under folate deficiency conditions were located exclusively within the rRNA gene units, representing a H3K4me1 hallmark. Enrichment H3K4me1 at the hot spots of DSB regions enhanced the recruitment of upstream binding factor (UBF) to rRNA genes, resulting in the increment of rRNA genes transcription. Supplement of folate resulted in a restored UBF binding across DNA breakage sites of rRNA genes, and normal rRNA gene transcription. In samples from neural tube defects (NTDs) with low folate level, up-regulation of rRNA gene transcription was observed, along with aberrant UBF level. Our results present a new view by which alterations in folate levels affects DNA breakage through epigenetic control leading to the regulation of rRNA gene transcription during the early stage of development. PMID:27924000

  4. Tumor-Derived Tissue Factor Aberrantly Activates Complement and Facilitates Lung Tumor Progression via Recruitment of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Zha, Haoran; Yang, Fei; Guo, Bo; Zhu, Bo

    2017-01-19

    The initiator of extrinsic coagulation, tissue factor (TF), and its non-coagulant isoform alternatively spliced TF (asTF) are closely associated with tumor development. In the tumor microenvironment, the role of TF-induced coagulation in tumor progression remains to be fully elucidated. Using TF-knockdown lung tumor cells, we showed that TF is the dominant component of procoagulant activity but is dispensable in the cellular biology of tumor cells. In a xenograft model, using immunohistochemical analysis and flow cytometry analysis of the tumor microenvironment, we demonstrated that TF-induced fibrin deposition, which is correlated with complement activation and myeloid-derived suppressor cell (MDSC) recruitment, is positively associated with tumor progression. C5aR antagonism blunted the effect of TF on tumor progression and decreased MDSC recruitment. In conclusion, our data suggested that in tumor microenvironment, TF-induced coagulation activated the complement system and subsequently recruited myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth, which brings new insights into the coagulation-induced complement activation within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression.

  5. DNA-mediated cooperativity facilitates the co-selection of cryptic enhancer sequences by SOX2 and PAX6 transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Kamesh; Pillay, Shubhadra; Huang, Yong-Heng; Jayabal, Sriram; Udayasuryan, Barath; Veerapandian, Veeramohan; Kolatkar, Prasanna; Cojocaru, Vlad; Pervushin, Konstantin; Jauch, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Sox2 and Pax6 are transcription factors that direct cell fate decision during neurogenesis, yet the mechanism behind how they cooperate on enhancer DNA elements and regulate gene expression is unclear. By systematically interrogating Sox2 and Pax6 interaction on minimal enhancer elements, we found that cooperative DNA recognition relies on combinatorial nucleotide switches and precisely spaced, but cryptic composite DNA motifs. Surprisingly, all tested Sox and Pax paralogs have the capacity to cooperate on such enhancer elements. NMR and molecular modeling reveal very few direct protein–protein interactions between Sox2 and Pax6, suggesting that cooperative binding is mediated by allosteric interactions propagating through DNA structure. Furthermore, we detected and validated several novel sites in the human genome targeted cooperatively by Sox2 and Pax6. Collectively, we demonstrate that Sox–Pax partnerships have the potential to substantially alter DNA target specificities and likely enable the pleiotropic and context-specific action of these cell-lineage specifiers. PMID:25578969

  6. Facilitated diffusion of proteins on chromatin.

    PubMed

    Bénichou, O; Chevalier, C; Meyer, B; Voituriez, R

    2011-01-21

    We present a theoretical model of facilitated diffusion of proteins in the cell nucleus. This model, which takes into account the successive binding and unbinding events of proteins to DNA, relies on a fractal description of the chromatin which has been recently evidenced experimentally. Facilitated diffusion is shown quantitatively to be favorable for a fast localization of a target locus by a transcription factor and even to enable the minimization of the search time by tuning the affinity of the transcription factor with DNA. This study shows the robustness of the facilitated diffusion mechanism, invoked so far only for linear conformations of DNA.

  7. Both the autophagy and proteasomal pathways facilitate the Ubp3p-dependent depletion of a subset of translation and RNA turnover factors during nitrogen starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shane P.; Bedwell, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein turnover is an important regulatory mechanism that facilitates cellular adaptation to changing environmental conditions. Previous studies have shown that ribosome abundance is reduced during nitrogen starvation by a selective autophagy mechanism termed ribophagy, which is dependent upon the deubiquitinase Ubp3p. In this study, we asked whether the abundance of various translation and RNA turnover factors are reduced following the onset of nitrogen starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found distinct differences in the abundance of the proteins tested following nitrogen starvation: (1) The level of some did not change; (2) others were reduced with kinetics similar to ribophagy, and (3) a few proteins were rapidly depleted. Furthermore, different pathways differentially degraded the various proteins upon nitrogen starvation. The translation factors eRF3 and eIF4GI, and the decapping enhancer Pat1p, required an intact autophagy pathway for their depletion. In contrast, the deadenylase subunit Pop2p and the decapping enzyme Dcp2p were rapidly depleted by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. The proteasome-dependent depletion of Dcp2p and Pop2p was also induced by rapamycin, suggesting that the TOR1 pathway influences this pathway. Like ribophagy, depletion of eIF4GI, eRF3, Dcp2p, and Pop2p was dependent upon Ubp3p to varying extents. Together, our results suggest that the autophagy and proteasomal pathways degrade distinct translation and RNA turnover factors in a Ubp3p-dependent manner during nitrogen starvation. While ribophagy is thought to mediate the reutilization of scarce resources during nutrient limitation, our results suggest that the selective degradation of specific proteins could also facilitate a broader reprogramming of the post-transcriptional control of gene expression. PMID:25795416

  8. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan–tripolyphosphate–hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  9. Silencing tumor necrosis factor-alpha in vitro from small interfering RNA-decorated titanium nanotube array can facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenlin; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dawei; Zhuo, Mengchuan; Cheng, Jiwei; Xu, Xingping; Xing, Yongming; Fan, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are known for their bone bonding ability. However, the osseointegration may be severely disturbed in the inflammation environment. In order to enhance osseointegration of the implant in an inflamed environment, the small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was used to functionalize titanium surface for gene silencing. The chitosan-tripolyphosphate-hyaluronate complexes were used to formulate nanoparticles (NPs) with siRNA, which were adsorbed directly by the anodized titanium surface. The surface characterization was analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy, as well as contact angle measurement. The fluorescence microscope was used to monitor the degradation of the layer. The coculture system was established with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown directly on functionalized titanium surface and RAW264.7 cells (preactivated by lipopolysaccharide) grown upside in a transwell chamber. The transfection and knockdown efficiency of TNF-α in RAW264.7 cells were determined by fluorescence microscope, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The cytoskeleton and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were also analyzed. Regular vertical aligned nanotubes (~100 nm diameter and ~300 nm length) were generated after anodization of polished titanium. After loading with NPs, the nanotubes were filled and covered by a layer of amorphous particles. The surface topography changed and wettability decreased after covering with NPs. As expected, a burst degradation of the film was observed, which could provide sufficient NPs in the released supernatant and result in transfection and knockdown effects in RAW264.7 cells. The cytoskeleton arrangement of MSCs was elongated and the osteogenic differentiation was also significantly improved on NPs loading surface. In conclusion, the siRNA decorated titanium implant could simultaneously suppress inflammation and improve

  10. NMDA receptor dysfunction contributes to impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission in a Tau transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Sylvie; Martire, Alberto; Derisbourg, Maxime; Laurent, Cyril; Belarbi, Karim; Leboucher, Antoine; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco J; Troquier, Laetitia; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Demeyer, Dominique; Muhr-Tailleux, Anne; Buisson, Alain; Sergeant, Nicolas; Hamdane, Malika; Humez, Sandrine; Popoli, Patrizia; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2013-02-01

    While the spatiotemporal development of Tau pathology has been correlated with occurrence of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's patients, mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unclear. Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB play a critical role in hippocampus-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory. When applied on hippocampal slices, BDNF is able to enhance AMPA receptor-dependent hippocampal basal synaptic transmission through a mechanism involving TrkB and N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Using THY-Tau22 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that hippocampal Tau pathology is associated with loss of synaptic enhancement normally induced by exogenous BDNF. This defective response was concomitant to significant memory impairments. We show here that loss of BDNF response was due to impaired NMDAR function. Indeed, we observed a significant reduction of NMDA-induced field excitatory postsynaptic potential depression in the hippocampus of Tau mice together with a reduced phosphorylation of NR2B at the Y1472, known to be critical for NMDAR function. Interestingly, we found that both NR2B and Src, one of the NR2B main kinases, interact with Tau and are mislocalized to the insoluble protein fraction rich in pathological Tau species. Defective response to BDNF was thus likely related to abnormal interaction of Src and NR2B with Tau in THY-Tau22 animals. These are the first data demonstrating a relationship between Tau pathology and synaptic effects of BDNF and supporting a contribution of defective BDNF response and impaired NMDAR function to the cognitive deficits associated with Tauopathies.

  11. Multiple copies of eukaryotic translation initiation factors in Brassica rapa facilitate redundancy, enabling diversification through variation in splicing and broad-spectrum virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Nellist, Charlotte F; Qian, Wei; Jenner, Carol E; Moore, Jonathan D; Zhang, Shujiang; Wang, Xiaowu; Briggs, William H; Barker, Guy C; Sun, Rifei; Walsh, John A

    2014-01-01

    Recessive strain-specific resistance to a number of plant viruses in the Potyvirus genus has been found to be based on mutations in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and its isoform, eIF(iso)4E. We identified three copies of eIF(iso)4E in a number of Brassica rapa lines. Here we report broad-spectrum resistance to the potyvirus Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) due to a natural mechanism based on the mis-splicing of the eIF(iso)4E allele in some TuMV-resistant B. rapa var. pekinensis lines. Of the splice variants, the most common results in a stop codon in intron 1 and a much truncated, non-functional protein. The existence of multiple copies has enabled redundancy in the host plant's translational machinery, resulting in diversification and emergence of the resistance. Deployment of the resistance is complicated by the presence of multiple copies of the gene. Our data suggest that in the B. rapa subspecies trilocularis, TuMV appears to be able to use copies of eIF(iso)4E at two loci. Transformation of different copies of eIF(iso)4E from a resistant B. rapa line into an eIF(iso)4E knockout line of Arabidopsis thaliana proved misleading because it showed that, when expressed ectopically, TuMV could use multiple copies which was not the case in the resistant B. rapa line. The inability of TuMV to access multiple copies of eIF(iso)4E in B. rapa and the broad spectrum of the resistance suggest it may be durable.

  12. The N-terminal pleckstrin, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of the exchange factor Ras-GRF act cooperatively to facilitate activation by calcium.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, R; Telliez, J B; Goonesekera, S; Feig, L A

    1996-09-01

    We have recently shown that the neuronal exchange factor p140 Ras-GRF becomes activated in vivo in response to elevated calcium levels [C. L. Farnsworth, N. W. Freshney, L. B. Rosen, A. Ghosh, M. E. Greenberg, and L. A. Feig, Nature (London) 376:524-527, 1995]. Activation is mediated by calcium-induced calmodulin binding to an IQ domain near the N terminus of Ras-GRF. Here we show that the adjacent N-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH), coiled-coil, and IQ domains function cooperatively to allow Ras-GRF activation. Deletion of the N-terminal PH domain redistributes a large percentage of Ras-GRF from the particulate to the cytosolic fraction of cells and renders the protein insensitive to calcium stimulation. A similar cellular distribution and biological activity are observed when only the core catalytic domain is expressed. Although the PH domain is necessary for particulate association of Ras-GRF, it is not sufficient for targeting the core catalytic domain to this cellular location. This requires the PH domain and the adjacent coiled-coil and IQ sequences. Remarkably, this form of Ras-GRF is constitutively activated. The PH and coiled-coil domains must also perform an additional function, since targeting to the particulate fraction of cells is not sufficient to allow Ras-GRF activation by calcium. A Ras-GRF mutant containing the PH domain from Ras-GTPase-activating protein in place of its own N-terminal PH domain localizes to the particulate fraction of cells but does not respond to calcium. Similar phenotypes are seen with mutant Ras-GRFs containing point mutations in either the PH or coiled-coil domain. These findings argue that the N-terminal PH, coiled-coil, and IQ domains of Ras-GRF function together to connect Ras-GRF to multiple components in the particulate fractions of cells that are required for responsiveness of the protein to calcium signaling.

  13. Stimulation of transforming growth factor-beta-1 and contact with type I collagen cooperatively facilitate irreversible transdifferentiation in proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Yen, Chieh-Li; Li, Yi-Jung; Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tian, Ya-Chung

    2016-02-01

    By transdifferentiation, proximal tubular cells (PTC) have been considered as a source of interstitial myofibroblasts. We examined the combined effect of transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) stimulation and contact with type I collagen on PTC transdifferentiation. Human kidney-2 cells were grown on type I substratum with the concurrent stimulation of TGF-β1. Following addition of TGF-β1, cells acquired an elongated fibroblastic appearance and an increase in α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, a myofibroblastic marker. Upon addition of TGF-β1, E-cadherin expression, an epithelial marker, was reduced, while cytokeratin expression, another epithelial marker, remained unaltered. Following removal of TGF-β1, PTC regained an epithelial appearance and E-cadherin expression reverted to the unstimulated level, suggesting incomplete and reversible transdifferentiation. Addition of TGF-β1 to cells grown on type I collagen demonstrated a cooperatively increased α-SMA expression and decreased E-cadherin and cytokeratin expressions, suggesting more complete transdifferentiation. Co-stimulation of TGF-β1 and contact with type I collagen led to a stable cell phenotype and persistently decreased E-cadherin, which was not reversed upon removal of TGF-β1, indicating irreversible transdifferentiation. Addition of TGF-β1 or type I collagen caused a 4-fold increase in migratory cell number as compared to the control, whereas addition of both TGF-β1 and type I collagen led to an 11-fold increase. TGF-β1 alone results in a reversible and incomplete transdifferentiation. The combination of TGF-β1 and exposure to type I collagen leads to an irreversible and complete PTC transdifferentiation. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vivo Facilitated Diffusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model. PMID:23349772

  15. In vivo facilitated diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Maximilian; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Under dilute in vitro conditions transcription factors rapidly locate their target sequence on DNA by using the facilitated diffusion mechanism. However, whether this strategy of alternating between three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA contour is still beneficial in the crowded interior of cells is highly disputed. Here we use a simple model for the bacterial genome inside the cell and present a semi-analytical model for the in vivo target search of transcription factors within the facilitated diffusion framework. Without having to resort to extensive simulations we determine the mean search time of a lac repressor in a living E. coli cell by including parameters deduced from experimental measurements. The results agree very well with experimental findings, and thus the facilitated diffusion picture emerges as a quantitative approach to gene regulation in living bacteria cells. Furthermore we see that the search time is not very sensitive to the parameters characterizing the DNA configuration and that the cell seems to operate very close to optimal conditions for target localization. Local searches as implied by the colocalization mechanism are only found to mildly accelerate the mean search time within our model.

  16. Phospholipase Cϵ Activates Nuclear Factor-κB Signaling by Causing Cytoplasmic Localization of Ribosomal S6 Kinase and Facilitating Its Phosphorylation of Inhibitor κB in Colon Epithelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masahiro; Edamatsu, Hironori; Li, Mingzhen; Emi, Aki; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kataoka, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    Phospholipase Cϵ (PLCϵ), an effector of Ras and Rap small GTPases, plays a crucial role in inflammation by augmenting proinflammatory cytokine expression. This proinflammatory function of PLCϵ is implicated in its facilitative role in tumor promotion and progression during skin and colorectal carcinogenesis, although their direct link remains to be established. Moreover, the molecular mechanism underlying these functions of PLCϵ remains unknown except that PKD works downstream of PLCϵ. Here we show by employing the colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, where ApcMin/+ mice are administered with dextran sulfate sodium, that PLCϵ knock-out alleviates the colitis and suppresses the following tumorigenesis concomitant with marked attenuation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. In human colon epithelial Caco2 cells, TNF-α induces sustained expression of proinflammatory molecules and sustained activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and PKD, the late phases of which are suppressed by not only siRNA-mediated PLCϵ knockdown but also treatment with a lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor antagonist. Also, LPA stimulation induces these events in an early time course, suggesting that LPA mediates TNF-α signaling in an autocrine manner. Moreover, PLCϵ knockdown results in inhibition of phosphorylation of IκB by ribosomal S6 kinase (RSK) but not by IκB kinases. Subcellular fractionation suggests that enhanced phosphorylation of a scaffolding protein, PEA15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15), downstream of the PLCϵ-PKD axis causes sustained cytoplasmic localization of phosphorylated RSK, thereby facilitating IκB phosphorylation in the cytoplasm. These results suggest the crucial role of the TNF-α-LPA-LPA receptor-PLCϵ-PKD-PEA15-RSK-IκB-NF-κB pathway in facilitating inflammation and inflammation-associated carcinogenesis in the colon. PMID:27053111

  17. Systemic transforming growth factor-beta1 gene therapy induces Foxp3+ regulatory cells, restores self-tolerance, and facilitates regeneration of beta cell function in overtly diabetic nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xunrong; Yang, Hua; Kim, Il Soo; Saint-Hilaire, Fludd; Thomas, Dolca A; De, Bishnu P; Ozkaynak, Engin; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Hancock, Wayne W; Crystal, Ronald G; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2005-05-15

    Type 1 diabetes results from auto-aggressive T-cell-mediated destruction of beta cells of the pancreas. Recent data suggest that restoration of self-tolerance may facilitate islet-cell regeneration/recovery. In view of the immunoregulatory activity of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, we investigated whether systemic TGF-beta1 gene therapy blocks islet destructive autoimmunity and facilitates regeneration of beta-cell function in overtly diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We used site-directed mutagenesis to create cysteine to serine mutation at sites 224 and 226 and constructed a replication deficient adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding active form of human TGF-beta1 (Ad-hTGF-beta1). Overtly diabetic NOD mice received intravenous injection of Ad-hTGF-beta1. Seven to 14 days after the injection, the mice received transplants with 500 syngeneic islets under the kidney capsule. Islet-graft survival and regeneration of endogenous beta-cell function were examined. Syngeneic islet grafts failed by day 17 in all untreated mice, whereas Ad-hTGF-beta1 therapy prolonged survival of islet grafts. Islet grafts from treated mice showed well-preserved islets with a peri-islet infiltrate primarily of CD4+ T cells and expression of CD25 and Foxp3. Systemic TGF-beta1 gene therapy was associated with islet regeneration in the native pancreas. Native pancreas of treated mice revealed islets staining strongly for insulin. Similar to what was found in the syngeneic islet graft, there were well-demarcated peri-islet infiltrates that were positive for CD4, TGF-beta1, and Foxp3. Our data demonstrate that systemic TGF-beta1 gene therapy blocks islet destructive autoimmunity, facilitates islet regeneration, and cures diabetes in diabetic NOD mice.

  18. [Drug facilitated sexual assault].

    PubMed

    Alempijević, Djordje; Savić, Slobodan; Stojanović, Jovan; Spasić, Andjelka

    2007-01-01

    In line with the fact that there is little information regarding drug facilitated sexual assault in national medical literature, the authors aimed to prepare a review of the phenomenon based on available international references. Therefore we offered a definition of the concept of sexual assault, and rape in particular. Consent and ability for valid consent for sexual intercourse were defined as well. A review contains discussion about the basic elements of a concept of drug-facilitated sexual assault. There is also available information in regard to pharmacology of common data rape drugs, i.e. flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), and ketamine. We indicate the utmost importance of prompt collecting of biological samples for toxicological screening in patients who are suspected victims of drug facilitated sexual assault.

  19. Understanding Facilitation: Theory and Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Christine

    This book introduces newcomers to the concept of facilitation, and it presents a critical analysis of established and current theory on facilitation for existing practitioners. The following are among the topics discussed: (1) emergence of the field of facilitation; (2) development of facilitation in management; (3) development of facilitation in…

  20. Formation of Freirian Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Phyllis

    This paper is written for people who are already familiar with the philosophy and methodology of Paulo Freire's liberatory education and are interested in creating a formation program for adult education facilitators using his ideas. The author describes the paper as "a collection of thoughts, of things to consider," when organizing such…

  1. Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

  2. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  3. Facilitator's Guide: Censorship Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layden, Kent

    To help leaders or "facilitators" of a series of simulation exercises on controversial issues for school board members, this guide describes how the simulations work and provides some of the materials required for the simulation exercise on censorship and book banning. After defining simulation or gaming exercises, the author notes the…

  4. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  5. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  6. Facilitating Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Mark H., Ed.; Rossman, Maxine E., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This collection of articles on distance learning reflects the perspectives and concerns of the learner and the facilitator of learning in distance education setting. Eight chapters are included: (1) "The Evolution and Advantages of Distance Education" (John E. Cantelon) traces the history of distance education and demonstrates how it transcends…

  7. Facilitation of Adult Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boydell, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Taking an autobiographical approach, I tell the story of my experiences facilitating adult development, in a polytechnic and as a management consultant. I relate these to a developmental framework of Modes of Being and Learning that I created and elaborated with colleagues. I connect this picture with a number of related models, theories,…

  8. Facilitative Strategies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Thara M. A.; Haugabrook, Adrian K.

    2001-01-01

    Describes campus-based strategies to facilitate collaboration by examining the process of restructuring a division of student affairs as an educational partner with academic affairs. Describes three collaborative efforts at the University of Massachusetts Boston: the Beacon Leadership Project, the Diversity Research Initiative, and the Beacon…

  9. The Inclusion Facilitator's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Schuh, Mary C.; Nisbet, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion facilitators are educators who do more than teach children with disabilities--they advocate for change in schools and communities, sparking a passion for inclusion in teachers, administrators, and families and giving them the practical guidance they need to make it work. This is an essential new role in today's schools, and this guide…

  10. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action…

  11. Program Facilitates Distributed Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    KNET computer program facilitates distribution of computing between UNIX-compatible local host computer and remote host computer, which may or may not be UNIX-compatible. Capable of automatic remote log-in. User communicates interactively with remote host computer. Data output from remote host computer directed to local screen, to local file, and/or to local process. Conversely, data input from keyboard, local file, or local process directed to remote host computer. Written in ANSI standard C language.

  12. The nuclear factor κB family member RelB facilitates apoptosis of renal epithelial cells caused by cisplatin/tumor necrosis factor α synergy by suppressing an epithelial to mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic switch.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Giulia; Fokkelman, Michiel; Yan, Kuan; Fredriksson, Lisa; Herpers, Bram; Meerman, John; van de Water, Bob; de Graauw, Marjo

    2013-07-01

    Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin)-induced renal proximal tubular apoptosis is known to be preceded by actin cytoskeleton reorganization, in conjunction with disruption of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. In the present study, we show that the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) aggravated these cisplatin-induced F-actin and cell adhesion changes, which was associated with enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis of immortalized proximal tubular epithelial cells. TNF-α-induced RelB expression and lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of RelB, but not other nuclear factor κB members, abrogated the synergistic apoptosis observed with cisplatin/TNF-α treatment to the level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. This protective effect was associated with increased stress fiber formation, cell-matrix, and cell-cell adhesion in the shRNARelB (shRelB) cells during cisplatin/TNF-α treatment, mimicking an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotypic switch. Indeed, gene array analysis revealed that knockdown of RelB was associated with upregulation of several actin regulatory genes, including Snai2 and the Rho GTPase proteins Rhophilin and Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 3 (ARHGEF3). Pharmacological inhibition of Rho kinase signaling re-established the synergistic apoptosis induced by combined cisplatin/TNF-α treatment of shRelB cells. In conclusion, our study shows for the first time that RelB is required for the cisplatin/TNF-α-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and apoptosis in renal cells by controlling a Rho kinase-dependent signaling network.

  13. Facilitation as a teaching strategy : experiences of facilitators.

    PubMed

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, E

    2006-08-01

    Changes in nursing education involve the move from traditional teaching approaches that are teacher-centred to facilitation, a student centred approach. The student-centred approach is based on a philosophy of teaching and learning that puts the learner on centre-stage. The aim of this study was to identify the challenges of facilitators of learning using facilitation as a teaching method and recommend strategies for their (facilitators) development and support. A qualitative, explorative and contextual design was used. Four (4) universities in South Africa which utilize facilitation as a teaching/ learning process were identified and the facilitators were selected to be the sample of the study. The main question posed during in-depth group interviews was: How do you experience facilitation as a teaching/learning method?. Facilitators indicated different experiences and emotions when they first had to facilitate learning. All of them indicated that it was difficult to facilitate at the beginning as they were trained to lecture and that no format for facilitation was available. They experienced frustrations and anxieties as a result. The lack of knowledge of facilitation instilled fear in them. However they indicated that facilitation had many benefits for them and for the students. Amongst the ones mentioned were personal and professional growth. Challenges mentioned were the fear that they waste time and that they do not cover the content. It is therefore important that facilitation be included in the training of nurse educators.

  14. Barriers and facilitators to enrollment and re-enrollment into the community health funds/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania: a cross-sectional inquiry on the effects of socio-demographic factors and social marketing strategies.

    PubMed

    Kapologwe, Ntuli A; Kagaruki, Gibson B; Kalolo, Albino; Ally, Mariam; Shao, Amani; Meshack, Manoris; Stoermer, Manfred; Briet, Amena; Wiedenmayer, Karin; Hoffman, Axel

    2017-04-27

    Introduction of a health insurance scheme is one of the ways to enhance access to health care services and to protect individuals from catastrophic health expenditures. Little is known on the influence of socio-demographic and social marketing strategies on enrollment and re-enrollment in the Community Health Fund/Tiba Kwa Kadi (CHF/TIKA) in Tanzania. This cross-sectional study employed quantitative methods for data collection between November 2014 and March 2015 in Singida and Shinyanga regions. Relationship between variables was obtained through Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. We recruited 496 participants in the study. Majority (92.7%) of participants consented to participate, with 229 (49.8%) and 231 (50.2%) members and non members of CHF/TIKA respectively. Majority (90.9%) were aware of CHF/TIKA. Majority of CHF/TIKA members and non-members (90% and 68.3% respectively) reported health facility-based sensitization as the most common social marketing approach employed to market the CHF/TIKA. The most popular marketing strategies in the country including traditional dances, football games, radio, television, news papers, and mosques/church were reported by few CHF and non CHF members. Multivariate Logistic regression models revealed no significant association between social marketing strategies and enrollment, but only socio-demographics; including marital status (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8) and family size (household with ≥ 6 members) (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.5), were significant factors associated with enrollment/re-enrollment rate. This study indicated that low level of utilization of available social marketing strategies and socio-demographic factors are the barriers for attracting members to join the schemes. There is a need for applying various social marketing strategies and considering different facilitating and impending socio-demographic factors for the growth and sustainability of the scheme as we move towards

  15. Program Facilitates CMMI Appraisals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweetser, Wesley

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate appraisals according to the methodology of Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). [CMMI is a government/industry standard, maintained by the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University, for objectively assessing the engineering capability and maturity of an organization (especially, an organization that produces software)]. The program assists in preparation for a CMMI appraisal by providing drop-down lists suggesting required artifacts or evidence. It identifies process areas for which similar evidence is required and includes a copy feature that reduces or eliminates repetitive data entry. It generates reports to show the entire framework for reference, the appraisal artifacts to determine readiness for an appraisal, and lists of interviewees and questions to ask them during the appraisal. During an appraisal, the program provides screens for entering observations and ratings, and reviewing evidence provided thus far. Findings concerning strengths and weaknesses can be exported for use in a report or a graphical presentation. The program generates a chart showing capability level ratings of the organization. A context-sensitive Windows help system enables a novice to use the program and learn about the CMMI appraisal process.

  16. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Rita F; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration.

  17. Task Integration Facilitates Multitasking

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Raab, Markus; Hegele, Mathias; Schorer, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multi-task integration in a continuous tracking task. We were particularly interested in how manipulating task structure in a dual-task situation affects learning of a constant segment embedded in a pursuit-tracking task. Importantly, we examined if dual-task effects could be attributed to task integration by varying the structural similarity and difficulty of the primary and secondary tasks. In Experiment 1 participants performed a pursuit tracking task while counting high-pitched tones and ignoring low-pitched tones. The tones were either presented randomly or structurally 250 ms before each tracking turn. Experiment 2 increased the motor load of the secondary tasks by asking participants to tap their feet to the tones. Experiment 3 further increased motor load of the primary task by increasing its speed and having participants tracking with their non-dominant hand. The results show that dual-task interference can be moderated by secondary task conditions that match the structure of the primary task. Therefore our results support proposals of task integration in continuous tracking paradigms. We conclude that multi-tasking is not always detrimental for motor learning but can be facilitated through task-integration. PMID:28360878

  18. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression.

    PubMed

    Schoech, Armin P; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-09-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion [three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA] when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise.

  19. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoech, Armin P.; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-09-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion [three-dimensional (3D) diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA] when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise.

  20. Facilitated diffusion buffers noise in gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Schoech, Armin P.; Zabet, Nicolae Radu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription factors perform facilitated diffusion (3D diffusion in the cytosol and 1D diffusion on the DNA) when binding to their target sites to regulate gene expression. Here, we investigated the influence of this binding mechanism on the noise in gene expression. Our results showed that, for biologically relevant parameters, the binding process can be represented by a two-state Markov model and that the accelerated target finding due to facilitated diffusion leads to a reduction in both the mRNA and the protein noise. PMID:25314467

  1. Facilitating Collaboration with Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Lucy N.

    2001-01-01

    Details some ways schools and community-based organizations can form effective school-site after-school collaborative programs. Describes factors exacerbating misperceptions between teachers and youth workers, and offers suggestions for combining both partners' perspectives through joint planning, hiring staff approved by both programs, joint…

  2. Social facilitation of wound healing.

    PubMed

    Detillion, Courtney E; Craft, Tara K S; Glasper, Erica R; Prendergast, Brian J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2004-09-01

    It is well documented that psychological stress impairs wound healing in humans and rodents. However, most research effort into influences on wound healing has focused on factors that compromise, rather than promote, healing. In the present study, we determined if positive social interaction, which influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in social rodents, promotes wound healing. Siberian hamsters received a cutaneous wound and then were exposed to immobilization stress. Stress increased cortisol concentrations and impaired wound healing in isolated, but not socially housed, hamsters. Removal of endogenous cortisol via adrenalectomy eliminated the effects of stress on wound healing in isolated hamsters. Treatment of isolated hamsters with oxytocin (OT), a hormone released during social contact and associated with social bonding, also blocked stress-induced increases in cortisol concentrations and facilitated wound healing. In contrast, treating socially housed hamsters with an OT antagonist delayed wound healing. Taken together, these data suggest that social interactions buffer against stress and promote wound healing through a mechanism that involves OT-induced suppression of the HPA axis. The data imply that social isolation impairs wound healing, whereas OT treatment may ameliorate some effects of social isolation on health.

  3. Why variability facilitates spinal learning.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Matthias D; Zhong, Hui; Roy, Roland R; Edgerton, V Reggie

    2010-08-11

    Spinal Wistar Hannover rats trained to step bipedally on a treadmill with manual assistance of the hindlimbs have been shown to improve their stepping ability. Given the improvement in motor performance with practice and the ability of the spinal cord circuitry to learn to step more effectively when the mode of training allows variability, we examined why this intrinsic variability is an important factor. Intramuscular EMG electrodes were implanted to monitor and compare the patterns of activation of flexor (tibialis anterior) and extensor (soleus) muscles associated with a fixed-trajectory and assist-as-needed (AAN) step training paradigms in rats after a complete midthoracic (T8-T9) spinal cord transection. Both methods involved a robotic arm attached to each ankle of the rat to provide guidance during stepping. The fixed trajectory allowed little variance between steps, and the AAN provided guidance only when the ankle deviated a specified distance from the programmed trajectory. We hypothesized that an AAN paradigm would impose fewer disruptions of the control strategies intrinsic to the spinal locomotor circuitry compared with a fixed trajectory. Intrathecal injections of quipazine were given to each rat to facilitate stepping. Analysis confirmed that there were more corrections within a fixed-trajectory step cycle and consequently there was less coactivation of agonist and antagonist muscles during the AAN paradigm. These data suggest that some critical level of variation in the specific circuitry activated and the resulting kinematics reflect a fundamental feature of the neural control mechanisms even in a highly repetitive motor task.

  4. The Essential Elements of Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon; Gass, Michael; Gillis, Lee

    Most organizations find it difficult to implement change, and only about 10 percent of learning from training and development experiences is actually applied in the workplace. This book advocates facilitation as a means of enhancing change and increasing productivity. Facilitation engages employees by enhancing the processes associated with their…

  5. Facilitated Communication in Mainstream Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington-Gurney, Jane; Crossley, Rosemary

    Facilitated communication is described as a method of training communication partners or facilitators to provide physical assistance to communication aid users, to help them overcome physical and emotional problems in using their aids. In Melbourne (Victoria, Australia), the DEAL (Dignity, Education and Language) Centre has identified 96 people…

  6. Facilitating Dialogues about Racial Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Facilitating dialogues about racial issues in higher education classroom settings continues to be a vexing problem facing postsecondary educators. In order for students to discuss race with their peers, they need skilled facilitators who are knowledgeable about racial issues and able to support students in these difficult…

  7. Facilitator's Role in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Burton R.

    Since the role of the adult educator has become so widely accepted as that of facilitator of learning rather than of content-transmitter, educators of adults should enhance their facilitating skills. An important concept for adult education then is self-directed learning, in which the learner plays the central role. The need for self-directed…

  8. A Manual for Group Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auvine, Brian; And Others

    This resource manual presents guidelines and effective techniques for people who want to acquire group facilitation skills. It is a valuable resource for anyone planning or presenting a workshop; trainers or teachers interested in innovative classroom techniques; and anyone involved in a group as leader, facilitator, or participant. The manual…

  9. Facilitated diffusion on confined DNA.

    PubMed

    Foffano, G; Marenduzzo, D; Orlandini, E

    2012-02-01

    In living cells, proteins combine three-dimensional bulk diffusion and one-dimensional sliding along the DNA to reach a target faster. This process is known as facilitated diffusion and we investigate its dynamics in the physiologically relevant case of confined DNA. The confining geometry and DNA elasticity are key parameters: We find that facilitated diffusion is most efficient inside an isotropic volume and on a flexible polymer. By considering the typical copy numbers of proteins in vivo, we show that the speedup due to sliding becomes insensitive to fine tuning of parameters, rendering facilitated diffusion a robust mechanism to speed up intracellular diffusion-limited reactions. The parameter range we focus on is relevant for in vitro systems and for facilitated diffusion on yeast chromatin. © 2012 American Physical Society

  10. Singing can facilitate foreign language learning.

    PubMed

    Ludke, Karen M; Ferreira, Fernanda; Overy, Katie

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the first experimental evidence that singing can facilitate short-term paired-associate phrase learning in an unfamiliar language (Hungarian). Sixty adult participants were randomly assigned to one of three "listen-and-repeat" learning conditions: speaking, rhythmic speaking, or singing. Participants in the singing condition showed superior overall performance on a collection of Hungarian language tests after a 15-min learning period, as compared with participants in the speaking and rhythmic speaking conditions. This superior performance was statistically significant (p < .05) for the two tests that required participants to recall and produce spoken Hungarian phrases. The differences in performance were not explained by potentially influencing factors such as age, gender, mood, phonological working memory ability, or musical ability and training. These results suggest that a "listen-and-sing" learning method can facilitate verbatim memory for spoken foreign language phrases.

  11. Facilitating emergent change in a healthcare setting.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    During my doctoral research, I identified new ways of thinking about complexity in organizations. This involved embracing the capacity of complex systems to find their own form of order and coherence, often referred to as self-organization, and then asking the question, "What can organizational leaders do to create the systems and structures that would facilitate emergent change?" Emergent change comes from within and through the active members of a system and not according to some external prompting or design. This results in the sort of change capacity that enables an organization to be agile and resilient through a high level of employee engagement. The question was answered by identifying and validating organizational-specific factors that facilitate emergent change.

  12. Facilitation of ß-cell K(ATP) channel sulfonylurea sensitivity by a cAMP analog selective for the cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac.

    PubMed

    Leech, Colin A; Dzhura, Igor; Chepurny, Oleg G; Schwede, Frank; Genieser, Hans-G; Holz, George G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical studies demonstrate that combined administration of sulfonylureas with exenatide can induce hypoglycemia in type 2 diabetic subjects. Whereas sulfonylureas inhibit ß-cell K(ATP) channels by binding to the sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1), exenatide binds to the GLP-1 receptor, stimulates ß-cell cAMP production and activates both PKA and Epac. In this study, we hypothesized that the adverse in vivo interaction of sulfonylureas and exenatide to produce hypoglycemia might be explained by Epac-mediated facilitation of K(ATP) channel sulfonylurea sensitivity. We now report that the inhibitory action of a sulfonylurea (tolbutamide) at K(ATP) channels was facilitated by 2’-O-Me-cAMP, a selective activator of Epac. Thus, under conditions of excised patch recording, the dose-response relationship describing the inhibitory action of tolbutamide at human ß-cell or rat INS-1 cell K(ATP) channels was left-shifted in the presence of 2’-O-Me-cAMP, and this effect was abolished in INS-1 cells expressing a dominant-negative Epac2. Using an acetoxymethyl ester prodrug of an Epac-selective cAMP analog (8-pCP T-2’-O-Me-cAMP-AM), the synergistic interaction of an Epac activator and tolbutamide to depolarize INS-1 cells and to raise [Ca²(+)](i) was also measured. This effect of 8-pCP T-2’-O-Me-cAMP-AM correlated with its ability to stimulate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis that might contribute to the changes in K(ATP) channel sulfonylurea-sensitivity reported here. On the basis of such findings, we propose that the adverse interaction of sulfonylureas and exenatide to induce hypoglycemia involves at least in part, a functional interaction of these two compounds to close K(ATP) channels, to depolarize ß-cells and to promote insulin secretion.

  13. Facilitation of learning: part 1.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Tyler; Trish, Houghton; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-06

    This article, the fourth in a series of 11, discusses the context for the facilitation of learning. It outlines the main principles and theories for understanding the process of learning, including examples which link these concepts to practice. The practical aspects of using these theories in a practice setting will be discussed in the fifth article of this series. Together, these two articles will provide mentors and practice teachers with knowledge of the learning process, which will enable them to meet the second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice on facilitation of learning.

  14. Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Taich, Zachary J; Hillyard, Steven A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Ramachandran, V S

    2013-09-01

    Our senses interact in daily life through multisensory integration, facilitating perceptual processes and behavioral responses. The neural mechanisms proposed to underlie this multisensory facilitation include anatomical connections directly linking early sensory areas, indirect connections to higher-order multisensory regions, as well as thalamic connections. Here we examine the relationship between white matter connectivity, as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging, and individual differences in multisensory facilitation and provide the first demonstration of a relationship between anatomical connectivity and multisensory processing in typically developed individuals. Using a whole-brain analysis and contrasting anatomical models of multisensory processing we found that increased connectivity between parietal regions and early sensory areas was associated with the facilitation of reaction times to multisensory (auditory-visual) stimuli. Furthermore, building on prior animal work suggesting the involvement of the superior colliculus in this process, using probabilistic tractography we determined that the strongest cortical projection area connected with the superior colliculus includes the region of connectivity implicated in our independent whole-brain analysis.

  15. State Facilitator Profiles, Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This catalogue provides current information on State Facilitator projects on educational programs in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. The one-page descriptions outline services, funds available, and activities of each project. Staff members are listed by name, title, responsibilities, and percentage of…

  16. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  17. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  18. SUPERFUND GROUNDWATER ISSUE - FACILITATED TRANSPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Superfund Ground Water Forum is a group of ground-water scientists representing EPA's Regional Superfund Offices, organized to exchange up to date information related to ground-water remediation at Superfund sites. Facilitated transport is an issue identified by the ...

  19. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  20. Facilitating Creativity in Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Kuan Chen

    2013-01-01

    Creativity in education research has received increasing attention, although the major focus of this research has been on children. Despite pleas by several adult educators for promoting creativity, very few studies have focused on adult learners, leaving to it to be explored what approaches are useful for adult educators to facilitate creativity…

  1. Activities to Facilitate Concept Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, John

    1991-01-01

    Presents class activities to facilitate concept acquisition in elementary social studies classes. Suggests ways to teach the concepts of family, city, the presidency, and immigration. Methods outlined include field trips, oral history projects, family shield design, letters to past U.S. Presidents, fact quizzes, art activities, and guest speakers.…

  2. Social Facilitation of Aiding Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Patricia; And Others

    Research on individual's response to emergency situations in the presence of others has produced conflicting results. The bystander effect is the label applied to inaction or the unlikelihood of assistance with others present. The social facilitation effect occurs when the presence of others energizes response; strong habit responses are…

  3. Facilitation of Mourning During Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliman, Gilbert; And Others

    This paper discusses case studies of children psychologically disturbed by the death of parents or siblings. Illustrations of mourning facilitation were mainly gathered from 16 orphaned children, ages 3-14. Some techniques used in helping children mourn include: discussing physical details of the illness, discussing previous deaths of animals and…

  4. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation: Construct Validity and Applicability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2005-01-01

    Elementary students (n = 277, in Grades 5-6) and high school students (n = 615, in Grades 7-12) responded to 26 items of McInerneys Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses of the FCQ found seven distinct factors underlying these items. These were perceived value of schooling (Value), affect toward schooling…

  5. A Study of the Relationship of Three Factors--Perceived Need Deficiency, Importance of Need Fulfillment, Perception of Education as a Mobility Facilitator--to Participation in Educational Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeClair, Lowell Vincent

    This study assessed three factors in adult education participation by industrial employees: (1) perceived need deficiency on the job; (2) importance of need fulfillment; (3) perception of education as a means of advancement. A measure of perceived need deficiency was applied to 177 participants and 149 nonparticipants in classes at Purdue…

  6. Facilitating Facilitators to Facilitate, in Problem or Enquiry Based Learning Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coelho, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Problem based learning (PBL) has been used in dental education over the past 20 years and uses a patient case scenario to stimulate learning in a small group setting, where a trained facilitator does not teach but guides the group to bring about deep contextualized learning, to be empathetic to each other and to encourage fair and equitable…

  7. The menopause: stressors and facilitators.

    PubMed Central

    el-Guebaly, N; Atchison, B; Hay, W

    1984-01-01

    Between about ages 40 and 55 years, women experience a transition known as the menopause, which marks the end of their childbearing years. Although the most striking feature of the menopause is the cessation of menstruation, other biologic and psychosocial events occur and can be classified as stressors and "facilitators". For a predisposed group of women the stressors are likely to cause psychiatric disorders. At the same time, the facilitators are opportunities for personal growth and development. Physicians who understand both types of events during this phase of life and who are sensitive to the overall effects of ageing on marital partners can provide comprehensive care to the menopausal patient rather than automatically pursuing drug therapy (substitution hormonal therapy) alone. PMID:6488116

  8. Downstream promoter sequences facilitate the formation of a specific transcription factor IID-promoter complex topology required for efficient transcription from the megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Knutson, A; Castaño, E; Oelgeschläger, T; Roeder, R G; Westin, G

    2000-05-12

    Megalin/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP-2) is an endocytic receptor expressed in highly specialized cell types such as parathyroid cells and epithelia of the kidney. Previous experiments identified a nonconsensus TATA element, with the sequence TAGAAAA, as crucial for accurate and efficient transcription from the LRP-2 promoter. Here we show that, in addition to the TAGA element, promoter sequences downstream of the transcription start site contribute significantly to transcription both in vitro and in transfected cells. Deletion and point mutational analyses reveal that the promoter region located between positions +5 and +11 (sequence TTTTGGC) is of particular importance. Complementation experiments in nuclear extracts lacking transcription factor IID (TFIID) activity show that TATA-binding protein-associated factors of TFIID are essential for the function of LRP-2 downstream promoter sequences. Interestingly, DNase I footprinting studies show that the downstream region between positions +5 and +11 does not significantly affect overall TFIID affinity to the promoter but that it profoundly affects the topology of the TFIID x promoter complex not only downstream of the transcription start site, but in particular in the TATA box region. Our observations suggest a model for a novel downstream sequence function, in which TATA-binding protein-associated factor-promoter interactions downstream of the transcription start site modulate TFIID-DNA interactions in the TATA box region.

  9. Getting evidence into practice: the role and function of facilitation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gill; Loftus-Hills, Alison; Rycroft-Malone, Jo; Titchen, Angie; Kitson, Alison; McCormack, Brendan; Seers, Kate

    2002-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of a concept analysis of facilitation in relation to successful implementation of evidence into practice. In 1998, we presented a conceptual framework that represented the interplay and interdependence of the many factors influencing the uptake of evidence into practice. One of the three elements of the framework was facilitation, alongside the nature of evidence and context. It was proposed that facilitators had a key role in helping individuals and teams understand what they needed to change and how they needed to change it. As part of the on-going development and refinement of the framework, the elements within it have undergone a concept analysis in order to provide theoretical and conceptual clarity. The concept analysis approach was used as a framework to review critically the research literature and seminal texts in order to establish the conceptual clarity and maturity of facilitation in relation to its role in the implementation of evidence-based practice. The concept of facilitation is partially developed and in need of delineation and comparison. Here, the purpose, role and skills and attributes of facilitators are explored in order to try and make distinctions between this role and other change agent roles such as educational outreach workers, academic detailers and opinion leaders. We propose that facilitation can be represented as a set of continua, with the purpose of facilitation ranging from a discrete task-focused activity to a more holistic process of enabling individuals, teams and organizations to change. A number of defining characteristics of facilitation are proposed. However, further research to clarify and evaluate different models of facilitation is required.

  10. How We Think and Talk about Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Fumitoshi

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years, the notion of "facilitation" has been increasingly gaining attention and acceptance in Japan, especially in the context of education and training. Today, Japanese educators think and talk about facilitation, even if it is not yet clear what facilitation is. Interestingly enough, the term "facilitation"…

  11. Germination phenology determines the propensity for facilitation and competition.

    PubMed

    Leverett, Lindsay D

    2017-09-01

    A single plant can interact both positively and negatively with its neighbors through the processes of facilitation and competition, respectively. Much of the variation in the balance of facilitation and competition that individuals experience can be explained by the degree of physical stress and the sizes or ages of plants during the interaction. Germination phenology partly controls both of these factors, but its role in defining the facilitation-competition balance has not been explicitly considered. I performed an experiment in a population of the winter annual Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae) to test whether germinating during physically stressful periods leads to facilitation while germinating during periods that promote growth and reproduction leads to competition. I manipulated germination and neighbor presence across two years in order to quantify the effects of the local plant community on survival, fecundity, and total fitness as a function of germination phenology. Neighbors increased survival when germination occurred under conditions that were unsuitable for survival, but they reduced fecundity in germinants that were otherwise the most fecund. Later germination was associated with facilitation in the first year but competition in the second year. These episodes of facilitation and competition opposed each other, leading to no net effect of neighbors when averaged over all cohorts. These results indicate that variation in germination timing can explain some of the variation in the facilitation-competition balance in plant communities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Stochastic facilitation in the brain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Lawrence M.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2016-05-01

    We describe the context for three unsolved problems of noise in the brain as well as provide some new results relevant to one of them. The problems are: are neural oscillations better described as noisy limit cycles or as noise-driven quasicycles, does noise facilitate synchronization and information transmission in the brain, and do noise-driven spatial patterns (quasipatterns) coexist with noise-driven quasicycles in the brain? We provide a few new results indicating that, in models at least, spatial quasipatterns of quasicycles can occur, and resemble patterns observed in other areas, such as predator-prey systems and chemical reactions.

  13. Monoclonal Antibodies against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Acquire an Ability To Kill Tumor Cells through Complement Activation by Mutations That Selectively Facilitate the Hexamerization of IgG on Opsonized Cells.

    PubMed

    Tammen, Annalina; Derer, Stefanie; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Rösner, Thies; Kretschmer, Anna; Beurskens, Frank J; Schuurman, Janine; Parren, Paul W H I; Valerius, Thomas

    2017-02-15

    Triggering of the complement cascade induces tumor cell lysis via complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and attracts and activates cytotoxic cells. It therefore represents an attractive mechanism for mAb in cancer immunotherapy development. The classical complement pathway is initiated by IgG molecules that have assembled into ordered hexamers after binding their Ag on the tumor cell surface. The requirements for CDC are further impacted by factors such as Ab epitope, valency, and affinity. Thus, mAb against well-validated solid tumor targets, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) that effectively induces complement activation and CDC, are highly sought after. The potency of complement activation by IgG Abs can be increased via several strategies. We identified single-point mutations in the Fc domain (e.g., E345K or E430G) enhancing Fc:Fc interactions, hexamer formation, and CDC after Ab binds cell-surface Ag. We show that EGFR Abs directed against clinically relevant epitopes can be converted into mAb with unprecedented CDC activity. Alternative strategies rely on increasing the affinity of monomeric IgG for C1q by introduction of a quadruple mutation at the C1q binding site or via generation of an IgG1/IgG3 chimera. In this study we show that selective enhancement of C1q binding via avidity modulation is superior to the unattended increase in C1q binding via affinity approaches, particularly for target cells with reduced EGFR expression levels. Improving Fc:Fc interactions of Ag-bound IgG therefore represents a highly promising and novel approach for potentiating the anti-tumor activity of therapeutic mAb against EGFR and potentially other tumor targets.

  14. Small Cytoskeleton-Associated Molecule, Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Oncogene Partner 2/Wound Inducible Transcript-3.0 (FGFR1OP2/wit3.0), Facilitates Fibroblast-Driven Wound Closure

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Audrey; Hokugo, Akishige; Choi, Jae; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Wounds created in the oral cavity heal rapidly and leave minimal scarring. We have examined a role of a previously isolated cDNA from oral wounds encoding wound inducible transcript-3.0 (wit3.0), also known as fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 oncogene partner 2 (FGFR1OP2). FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 was highly expressed in oral wound fibroblasts without noticeable up-regulation of α-smooth muscle actin. In silico analyses, denaturing and nondenaturing gel Western blot, and immunocytology together demonstrated that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 were able to dimerize and oligomerize through coiled-coil structures and appeared to associate with cytoskeleton networks in oral wound fibroblasts. Overexpression of FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 increased the floating collagen gel contraction of naïve oral fibroblasts to the level of oral wound fibroblasts, which was in turn attenuated by small-interfering RNA knockdown. The FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 synthesis did not affect the expression of collagen I as well as procontractile peptides such as α-smooth muscle actin, and transforming growth factor-β1 had no effect on FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 expression. Fibroblastic cells derived from embryonic stem cells carrying FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 (+/−) mutation showed significant retardation in cell migration. Thus, we postulate that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 may regulate cell motility and stimulate wound closure. FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 was not up-regulated during skin wound healing; however, when treated with FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 -expression vector, the skin wound closure was significantly accelerated, resulting in the limited granulation tissue formation. Our data suggest that FGFR1OP2/wit3.0 may possess a therapeutic potential for wound management. PMID:19959814

  15. The Role of the Facilitator in Couple Relationship Education.

    PubMed

    Ketring, Scott A; Bradford, Angela B; Davis, Stephanie Y; Adler-Baeder, Francesca; McGill, Julianne; Smith, Thomas A

    2017-03-11

    While much of the Couple Relationship Education (CRE) research has focused on participant factors, unexpectedly little research has considered how characteristics of those providing the programming shape its efficacy. The current study draws upon a diverse sample of 225 couples who received CRE from community educators to examine how facilitation alliance is related to relationship outcomes for men and women and whether having a facilitator with similar demographic characteristics is related to the alliance. Results suggest that the facilitation alliance is related to some-though not all-postprogram outcomes and these effects were uniform across gender and relationship status (married vs. unmarried). Having a facilitator of the same gender was associated with a stronger alliance. Implications are discussed.

  16. Facilitation of learning: part 2.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Tyler; Houghton, Trish; Barry, Debbie

    2016-04-27

    The previous article in this series of 11, Facilitation of learning: part 1, reviewed learning theories and how they relate to clinical practice. Developing an understanding of these theories is essential for mentors and practice teachers to enable them to deliver evidence-based learning support. This is important given that effective learning support is dependent on an educator who possesses knowledge of their specialist area as well as the relevent tools and methods to support learning. The second domain of the Nursing and Midwifery Council's Standards to Support Learning and Assessment in Practice relates to the facilitation of learning. To fulfil this domain, mentors and practice teachers are required to demonstrate their ability to recognise the needs of learners and provide appropriate support to meet those needs. This article expands on some of the discussions from part 1 of this article and considers these from a practical perspective, in addition to introducing some of the tools that can be used to support learning.

  17. Voice Congruency Facilitates Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I. M.; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory. PMID:23527021

  18. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    PubMed

    Campeanu, Sandra; Craik, Fergus I M; Alain, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent) varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  19. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  20. The Influence of Facilitator and Facilitation Characteristics on Participants' Ratings of Stepfamily Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Brian J.; Myler, Cory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the relative importance of facilitator and facilitation characteristics on participant ratings of a stepfamily education program. Data from 48 facilitators and 598 participants suggest that quality facilitation is more meaningful to participants than whether facilitators have comparable demographic characteristics or life experiences.…

  1. The helical structure of DNA facilitates binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Otto G.; Mahmutovic, Anel; Marklund, Emil; Elf, Johan

    2016-09-01

    The helical structure of DNA imposes constraints on the rate of diffusion-limited protein binding. Here we solve the reaction-diffusion equations for DNA-like geometries and extend with simulations when necessary. We find that the helical structure can make binding to the DNA more than twice as fast compared to a case where DNA would be reactive only along one side. We also find that this rate advantage remains when the contributions from steric constraints and rotational diffusion of the DNA-binding protein are included. Furthermore, we find that the association rate is insensitive to changes in the steric constraints on the DNA in the helix geometry, while it is much more dependent on the steric constraints on the DNA-binding protein. We conclude that the helical structure of DNA facilitates the nonspecific binding of transcription factors and structural DNA-binding proteins in general.

  2. The advancement of a new human factors report--'The Unique Report'--facilitating flight crew auditing of performance/operations as part of an airline's safety management system.

    PubMed

    Leva, M C; Cahill, J; Kay, A M; Losa, G; McDonald, N

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of research relating to the specification of a new human factors report, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems project, sponsored by the European Commission. Specifically, it describes the proposed concept for a unique report, which will form the basis for all operational and safety reports completed by flight crew. This includes all mandatory and optional reports. Critically, this form is central to the advancement of improved processes and technology tools, supporting airline performance management, safety management, organisational learning and knowledge integration/information-sharing activities. Specifically, this paper describes the background to the development of this reporting form, the logic and contents of this form and how reporting data will be made use of by airline personnel. This includes a description of the proposed intelligent planning process and the associated intelligent flight plan concept, which makes use of airline operational and safety analyses information. Primarily, this new reporting form has been developed in collaboration with a major Spanish airline. In addition, it has involved research with five other airlines. Overall, this has involved extensive field research, collaborative prototyping and evaluation of new reports/flight plan concepts and a number of evaluation activities. Participants have included both operational and management personnel, across different airline flight operations processes. Statement of Relevance: This paper presents the development of a reporting concept outlined through field research and collaborative prototyping within an airline. The resulting reporting function, embedded in the journey log compiled at the end of each flight, aims at enabling employees to audit the operations of the company they work for.

  3. The Role of Health Systems Factors in Facilitating Access to Psychotropic Medicines: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the WHO-AIMS in 63 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Daniel J.; Morris, Jodi; Yasamy, M. Taghi; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric conditions comprise 14% of the global burden of disease and 30% of all noncommunicable disease. Despite the existence of cost-effective interventions, including administration of psychotropic medicines, the number of persons who remain untreated is as high as 85% in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). While access to psychotropic medicines varies substantially across countries, no studies to date have empirically investigated potential health systems factors underlying this issue. Methods and Findings This study uses a cross-sectional sample of 63 LAMICs and country regions to identify key health systems components associated with access to psychotropic medicines. Data from countries that completed the World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) were included in multiple regression analyses to investigate the role of five major mental health systems domains in shaping medicine availability and affordability. These domains are: mental health legislation, human rights implementations, mental health care financing, human resources, and the role of advocacy groups. Availability of psychotropic medicines was associated with features of all five mental health systems domains. Most notably, within the domain of mental health legislation, a comprehensive national mental health plan was associated with 15% greater availability; and in terms of advocacy groups, the participation of family-based organizations in the development of mental health legislation was associated with 17% greater availability. Only three measures were related with affordability of medicines to consumers: level of human resources, percentage of countries' health budget dedicated to mental health, and availability of mental health care in prisons. Controlling for country development, as measured by the Human Development Index, health systems features were associated with medicine availability but not affordability. Conclusions

  4. Bis-Retinoid A2E Induces an Increase of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor via Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases 1/2 Pathway in Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Facilitates Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Balmer, Delphine; Bapst-Wicht, Linda; Pyakurel, Aswin; Emery, Martine; Nanchen, Natacha; Bochet, Christian G.; Roduit, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in developed countries. Hallmarks of the disease are well known; indeed, this pathology is characterized by lipofuscin accumulation, is principally composed of lipid-containing residues of lysosomal digestion. The N-retinyl-N-retinylidene ethanolamine (A2E) retinoid which is thought to be a cytotoxic component for RPE is the best-characterized component of lipofuscin so far. Even if no direct correlation between A2E spatial distribution and lipofuscin fluorescence has been established in aged human RPE, modified forms or metabolites of A2E could be involved in ARMD pathology. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways have been involved in many pathologies, but not in ARMD. Therefore, we wanted to analyze the effects of A2E on MAPKs in polarized ARPE19 and isolated mouse RPE cells. We showed that long-term exposure of polarized ARPE19 cells to low A2E dose induces a strong decrease of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases' (ERK1/2) activity. In addition, we showed that A2E, via ERK1/2 decrease, induces a significant decrease of the retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65) expression in ARPE19 cells and isolated mouse RPE. In the meantime, we showed that the decrease of ERK1/2 activity mediates an increase of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA expression and secretion that induces an increase in phagocytosis via a paracrine effect. We suggest that the accumulation of deposits coming from outer segments (OS) could be explained by both an increase of bFGF-induced phagocytosis and by the decrease of clearance by A2E. The bFGF angiogenic protein may therefore be an attractive target to treat ARMD. PMID:28298893

  5. What are some of the cognitive, psychological, and social factors that facilitate or hinder licensed vocational nursing students' acquisition of problem-solving skills involved with medication-dosage calculations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Arthur William

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cognitive and psychological factors that either enhanced or inhibited Licensed Vocational Nurse (LVN) students' abilities to solve medication-dosage calculation problems. A causal-comparative approach was adopted for use in this study which encompassed aspects of both qualitative and quantitative data collection. A purposive, maximum-variation sample of 20 LVN students was chosen from among a self-selected population of junior college LVN students. The participants' views and feelings concerning their training and clinical experiences in medication administration was explored using a semi-structured interview. In addition, data revealing the students' actual competence at solving sample medication-dosage calculation problems was gathered using a talk-aloud protocol. Results indicated that few participants anticipated difficulty with medication-dosage calculations, yet many participants reported being lost during much of the medication-dosage problem solving instruction in class. While many participants (65%) were able to solve the medication-dosage problems, some (35%) of the participants were unable to correctly solve the problems. Successful students usually spent time analyzing the problem and planning a solution path, and they tended to solve the problem faster than did unsuccessful participants. Successful participants relied on a formula or a proportional statement to solve the problem. They recognized conversion problems as a two-step process and solved the problems in that fashion. Unsuccessful participants often went directly from reading the problem statement to attempts at implementing vague plans. Some unsuccessful participants finished quickly because they just gave up. Others spent considerable time backtracking by rereading the problem and participating in aimless exploration of the problem space. When unsuccessful participants tried to use a formula or a proportion, they were unsure of the formula's or

  6. Facilitating attachment after international adoption.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Natalie L

    2009-01-01

    Americans have increasingly turned to international adoption (IA) as an alternative way to build a family. Unfortunately, IA families are often being developed under conditions of loss, and sometimes these families struggle to form healthy attachments to each other. Disordered attachment (the failure to form a reciprocal, loving bond between parent and child) can occur, and can have devastating consequences. In some instances, IA children have been relinquished into state foster care systems; other families simply struggle for years caring for a developmentally delayed child who appears to have no emotion for his/her adoptive family. Nurses are likely to have contact with IA families and can use their education about attachment and bonding to help facilitate attachment in these developing families. Swanson's caring theory provides a clinically useful guide to meet this need.

  7. Facilitating submetering implementation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, M.A.

    1996-05-01

    Residential submetering is the measurement and billing of electric use in individual apartments in master-metered buildings. In master-metered building situations, residents do not bear electricity costs in proportion to consumption levels. As a result, studies have confirmed that residents in master-metered buildings tend to consume more electricity than residents with individual apartment metering, and have established electrical submetering as an effective energy conservation measure. The New York State Energy Research & Development Authority (NYSERDA) has commissioned a project called Facilitating Submetering Implementation to identify and analyze barriers to the implementation of residential electrical submetering in New York and to formulate recommendations that would facilitate the removal of these barriers, streamlining the process. Experienced professionals in the technical, legal, regulatory, analytical, financial, and other aspects of submetering were retained to interview key interested parties and conduct public forums. This and other data were then analyzed to ascertain the barriers to submetering and develop recommendations designed to reduce or eliminate these barriers. The key barriers to submetering implementation were found to be the Public Service Commission (PSC) requirement for a vote of a majority of shareholders (for coops and condos) and the high initial cost that cannot easily be recouped by owners of both rental and shareholder-owned buildings. The key recommendations are to repeal the voting requirement, maintain the utility incentives, adopt a uniform dispute resolution mechanism, and increase awareness through an Ad-hoc Submetering Committee and supporting educational materials. Other funding sources not fully available can also be made available with regulatory agency support.

  8. Technologies and Techniques for Supporting Facilitated Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, demand for education of all kinds is increasing beyond the capacity to provide it. One approach that shows potential for addressing this demand is facilitated video. In facilitated video, an educator is recorded teaching, and that video is sent to a remote site where it is shown to students by a facilitator who creates interaction…

  9. Fungal phylogenetic diversity drives plant facilitation.

    PubMed

    Montesinos-Navarro, Alicia; Segarra-Moragues, J G; Valiente-Banuet, A; Verdú, M

    2016-06-01

    Plant-plant facilitation is a crucial ecological process, as many plant species (facilitated) require the presence of an established individual (nurse) to recruit. Some plant facilitative interactions disappear during the ontogenetic development of the facilitated plant but others persist, even when the two plants are adults. We test whether the persistence of plant facilitative interactions is explained by the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi that the nurse and the facilitated species add to the shared rhizosphere. We classify plant facilitative interactions as persistent and non-persistent interactions and quantify the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic and non-mutualistic fungi added by the plant species to the shared rhizosphere. Our results show that the facilitated species add less phylogenetic diversity of non-mutualistic fungi when plant facilitative interactions persist than when they do not persist. However, persistent and non-persistent facilitative interactions did not differ in the phylogenetic diversity of mutualistic fungi added by the facilitated species to the shared rhizosphere. Finally, the fungal phylogenetic diversity added by the nurse to the shared rhizosphere did not differ between persistent and non-persistent interactions. This study suggests that considering the fungal associates of the plant species involved in facilitative interactions can shed light on the mechanisms of persistence for plant-plant interactions.

  10. The Teacher and Town Planner as Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of theories of facilitation in teaching focuses on citizen participation and the role of the facilitator in town planning. Highlights include hierarchies of learning; student-centered learning; facilitating community participation; information technology skills and interpersonal skills; and a rationale for participation. (LRW)

  11. Evaluation of the Facilitated Communication Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Special Education and Student Services asked the Office of Shared Accountability to evaluate the "Facilitated Communication Pilot." In facilitated communication (FC), people with communication impairments express themselves by typing with the aid of a communication partner, called a facilitator, who provides physical (and…

  12. Technologies and Techniques for Supporting Facilitated Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, demand for education of all kinds is increasing beyond the capacity to provide it. One approach that shows potential for addressing this demand is facilitated video. In facilitated video, an educator is recorded teaching, and that video is sent to a remote site where it is shown to students by a facilitator who creates interaction…

  13. Forming and activating an internal facilitation group for successful implementation: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Megan B; Gillespie, Chris; Petrakis, Beth Ann; Jones, Ellen A; Park, Angela M; Lukas, Carol VanDeusen; Rose, Adam J

    This study focuses on an implementation facilitation strategy to improve the delivery of anticoagulation care within pharmacy-run clinics across 8 Veterans Health Administration (VA) medical centers. Other studies have explored various models of implementation facilitation, including external facilitation (EF), internal facilitation (IF), and blended facilitation (BF) combining both approaches. This study focuses on the use of an internal facilitation team of anticoagulation coordinators representing 8 VA anticoagulation clinics to enhance the implementation process. This study examines how the team became instrumental in the successful implementation of evidence-based practice change. Semi-structured interviews were conducted annually over 4 years with representatives from each site, the internal facilitators (site champions), at 8 VA hospitals (47 interviews). Additionally, five external facilitators, experts in quality improvement and anticoagulation care who guided the implementation, were interviewed. Analysis drew on a deductive approach based on the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) model and emergent thematic analysis to identify factors related to effectiveness of the internal facilitation team. Key findings are that the following factors enhanced successful uptake of the anticoagulation initiative: 1) Regular participation by the site champion in the internal facilitation team; 2) Champion strongly committed to being an agent of change; and 3) Champion received greater support from their supervisors. The first and second factors are interrelated, as internal facilitators who actively and regularly participated in the internal facilitation team often became truly committed to the improvement project. Both factors relate to the third, as supervisor support not only facilitated changes in practice, but also facilitated regular team attendance and stronger participation. Our study adds to implementation science by

  14. Facilitated diffusion with DNA coiling.

    PubMed

    Lomholt, Michael A; van den Broek, Bram; Kalisch, Svenja-Marei J; Wuite, Gijs J L; Metzler, Ralf

    2009-05-19

    When DNA-binding proteins search for their specific binding site on a DNA molecule they alternate between linear 1-dimensional diffusion along the DNA molecule, mediated by nonspecific binding, and 3-dimensional volume excursion events between successive dissociation from and rebinding to DNA. If the DNA molecule is kept in a straight configuration, for instance, by optical tweezers, these 3-dimensional excursions may be divided into long volume excursions and short hops along the DNA. These short hops correspond to immediate rebindings after dissociation such that a rebinding event to the DNA occurs at a site that is close to the site of the preceding dissociation. When the DNA molecule is allowed to coil up, immediate rebinding may also lead to so-called intersegmental jumps, i.e., immediate rebindings to a DNA segment that is far away from the unbinding site when measured in the chemical distance along the DNA, but close by in the embedding 3-dimensional space. This effect is made possible by DNA looping. The significance of intersegmental jumps was recently demonstrated in a single DNA optical tweezers setup. Here we present a theoretical approach in which we explicitly take the effect of DNA coiling into account. By including the spatial correlations of the short hops we demonstrate how the facilitated diffusion model can be extended to account for intersegmental jumping at varying DNA densities. It is also shown that our approach provides a quantitative interpretation of the experimentally measured enhancement of the target location by DNA-binding proteins.

  15. Other Shades of Diversity: Identifying Factors that Facilitate Critical Thought

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ethnic background or gender . Today’s mission- effective force is a living testament to progress in the areas of military equal opportunity policies...to determine whether it is possible to have diversity of thought among a group of people of the same race and/or gender , specifically Caucasian...male officers in the United States Air Force (USAF). He begins by researching recent USAF diversity initiatives and evaluating their effectiveness

  16. A Canadian Lens on Facilitating Factors for North American Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christa Lee

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to develop and maintain effective international education partnerships between institutions in the Canada, Mexico, and United States? This was a driving question for the qualitative study funded by a Fulbright-Enders-Garcia grant examining the relationship between North American partnerships and campus internationalization.…

  17. A Canadian Lens on Facilitating Factors for North American Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christa Lee

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to develop and maintain effective international education partnerships between institutions in the Canada, Mexico, and United States? This was a driving question for the qualitative study funded by a Fulbright-Enders-Garcia grant examining the relationship between North American partnerships and campus internationalization.…

  18. Factors facilitating acceptable mammography services for women with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Jarman, Molly P.; Bowling, J. Michael; Dickens, Pamela; Luken, Karen; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction and Background Prior research has described general barriers to breast cancer screening for women with disabilities (WWD). We explored specific accommodations described as necessary by WWD who have accessed screening services, and the presence of such accommodations in community based screening programs. Methods We surveyed WWD in the Carolina Mammography Registry to determine what accommodations were needed when accessing breast screening services, and whether or not these needs were met. The sample of 1,348 WWD was identified through a survey of limitations, with a response rate of 45.5% (4,498/9,885). Of the 1,348 WWD eligible for the second survey, 739 responded for a response rate of 54.8%. Results The most frequently needed accommodations were an accessible changing area with a bench (60.0%), oral description of the procedure by the technologist (60.5%), and handicapped/accessible parking (27.6%). Handicapped parking was the need most likely to go unmet (3.1%). Conclusions Most needs are being met by radiology facilities and staff, and the few needs going unmet are related to the physical/built environment. Overall, for WWD who are in screening, the mammography system appears to be more accessible than generally perceived. PMID:22818248

  19. Factors Facilitating Implicit Learning: The Case of the Sesotho Passive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Melissa; Demuth, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have long debated the mechanisms underlying the learning of syntactic structure. Of significant interest has been the fact that passive constructions appear to be learned earlier in Sesotho than English. This paper provides a comprehensive, quantitative analysis of the passive input Sesotho-speaking children hear, how it differs from…

  20. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  1. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to BMI Screening in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Ann M.; Chaudry, Rosemary V.; Polivka, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Association of School Nurses advocates for body mass index (BMI) screening. Little research describes school nurse practice of BMI screening. In this descriptive study, 25 Ohio school nurses participated in three focus groups. An adapted "Healthy People 2010" Determinants of Health Model guided the research questions. School…

  2. Facilitated diffusion with DNA coiling

    PubMed Central

    Lomholt, Michael A.; van den Broek, Bram; Kalisch, Svenja-Marei J.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.; Metzler, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    When DNA-binding proteins search for their specific binding site on a DNA molecule they alternate between linear 1-dimensional diffusion along the DNA molecule, mediated by nonspecific binding, and 3-dimensional volume excursion events between successive dissociation from and rebinding to DNA. If the DNA molecule is kept in a straight configuration, for instance, by optical tweezers, these 3-dimensional excursions may be divided into long volume excursions and short hops along the DNA. These short hops correspond to immediate rebindings after dissociation such that a rebinding event to the DNA occurs at a site that is close to the site of the preceding dissociation. When the DNA molecule is allowed to coil up, immediate rebinding may also lead to so-called intersegmental jumps, i.e., immediate rebindings to a DNA segment that is far away from the unbinding site when measured in the chemical distance along the DNA, but close by in the embedding 3-dimensional space. This effect is made possible by DNA looping. The significance of intersegmental jumps was recently demonstrated in a single DNA optical tweezers setup. Here we present a theoretical approach in which we explicitly take the effect of DNA coiling into account. By including the spatial correlations of the short hops we demonstrate how the facilitated diffusion model can be extended to account for intersegmental jumping at varying DNA densities. It is also shown that our approach provides a quantitative interpretation of the experimentally measured enhancement of the target location by DNA-binding proteins. PMID:19420219

  3. Facilitation of shape-from-shading perception by random textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Ko; Narushima, Kazuki; Aoki, Natsuko

    2006-08-01

    Most natural objects have a texture on their surface, so the segregation between shading and texture is crucial for the robust perception of three-dimensional structure: The visual system has to decide whether shading or texture evoked the luminance change. We found that the contextual pop-out that results from shading was not suppressed, but was even facilitated, when random texture was added to the luminance of the entire stimulus, indicating the functional segregation and facilitative interaction between shading and texture cues. The local contrast evoked by random texture within a figure or at a boundary was a major factor in the facilitation, suggesting the crucial role of early vision in the interaction between the cues.

  4. The Motivation-Facilitation Model of Sexual Offending.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C

    2017-07-01

    In this article, I describe the motivation-facilitation model of sexual offending, which identifies the traits of paraphilia, high sex drive, and intense mating effort as primary motivations for sexual offenses, as well as trait (e.g., antisocial personality) and state (e.g., intoxication) factors that can facilitate acting on these motivations when opportunities exist. Originally developed to explain contact sexual offending against children, the motivation-facilitation model was subsequently extended as an explanation for child pornography offending and for online solicitations of young adolescents. Here, I argue it has the potential to be expanded to explain other forms of sexual offending, including sexual assaults of adults and noncontact offenses involving exhibitionism or voyeurism. In this review, I critically examine the evidence for and against the model, discuss its limitations, and identify critical gaps for future research.

  5. Online grief support groups: facilitators' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Lubas, Margaret; De Leo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Although bereaved individuals report positive experiences from participating in online support groups, little is known from a facilitator perspective. Using a web-based survey, data was collected from a national sample of grief facilitators (N = 64). Respondents reported more favorable attitudes toward in-person groups over online and indicated a low likelihood of facilitating an online group in the next year. However, 62% of the sample (n = 37) reported willingness to refer to online groups. This attitude may reflect facilitator acknowledgment of the need to increase the presence and availability of grief services; a need that bereaved individuals' express, as shown in previous research.

  6. Simple scale interpolator facilitates reading of graphs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, D. E., Jr.

    1965-01-01

    Simple transparent overlay with interpolation scale facilitates accurate, rapid reading of graph coordinate points. This device can be used for enlarging drawings and locating points on perspective drawings.

  7. Interspecific competition/facilitation among insect parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Competition for limited resources is a widespread ecological interaction in animals. In the case of insect parasitoids, species can compete for host resources both at the adult stage as well as at the larval stage. Interspecific competition can play a role in sizing and shaping community structures. In addition of being relevant for basic ecological studies, understanding how interspecific competition between parasitoids affects pest suppression is important for biological control. In this opinion paper we review recent advances in the field of interspecific competition among parasitoids in a biological control perspective. We first discuss adult competition, highlighting which factors are likely to play a role in the outcome of competition when adults interact either directly or indirectly. Then we focus on the interactions occurring between competing larvae that develop within the same host taking also into account the fitness consequences of competition for the larva surviving interspecific competition. We also explore the possibility of interspecific facilitation among parasitoids in those situations in which a given species may benefit from interspecific competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Facilitation of calcium-dependent potassium current.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S H

    1994-12-01

    The activation of Ca-dependent K+ current, Ic, was studied in macropatches on the cell bodies of molluscan neurons. When a depolarizing voltage-clamp pulse was applied repeatedly, Ic facilitated in a manner that resembled the facilitation of synaptic transmitter release. Facilitation was characterized by an increase in Ic amplitude, a progressive increase in instantaneous outward current, and a decrease in utilization time. Experiments were done to investigate the mechanism responsible for Ic facilitation. Facilitation was reduced by microinjection of an exogenous Ca2+ buffer into the cytoplasm, indicating that facilitation is a Ca(2+)-dependent process. It was also reduced at elevated temperatures. Conversely, facilitation was greatly potentiated by blocking the Na/Ca exchange mechanism. It is concluded that the facilitation of Ca-dependent K+ current results from the accumulation of Ca2+ at the inner face of the membrane during the repeated activation of Ca2+ channels by depolarization. The Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 was used in fluorescence imaging experiments to measure changes in [Ca]i near the cell membrane during repeated depolarizing pulses and the interpretation of these results was aided by numerical simulations of Ca2+ accumulation, diffusion, and buffering in the peripheral cytoplasm. These experiments showed that the time course of Ic facilitation matches the time course of Ca2+ accumulation at the membrane. It was found that the strength of Ic facilitation varies among patches on the same neuron, suggesting that the accumulation of Ca2+ is not uniform along the inner surface of the membrane and that gradients in [Ca]i develop and are maintained during trains of depolarizing pulses. Potential mechanisms that may lead to local differences in Ca2+ accumulation and Ic facilitation are discussed.

  9. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    SciTech Connect

    A. Wolfsberg; P. Reimus

    2001-12-18

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS M&O 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  10. Homeobox transcription factor muscle segment homeobox 2 (Msx2) correlates with good prognosis in breast cancer patients and induces apoptosis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    of Survivin and the 'split ends' (SPEN) protein family member RBM15. Conclusions We conclude that increased Msx2 expression results in improved outcome for breast cancer patients, possibly by increasing the likelihood of tumour cell death by apoptosis. PMID:20682066

  11. Children's active play: self-reported motivators, barriers and facilitators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity has important benefits for children's physical health and mental wellbeing, but many children do not meet recommended levels. Research suggests that active play has the potential to make a valuable contribution to children's overall physical activity, whilst providing additional cognitive, social and emotional benefits. However, relatively little is known about the determinants of UK children's active play. Understanding these factors provides the critical first step in developing interventions to increase children's active play, and therefore overall physical activity. Methods Eleven focus groups were conducted with 77, 10-11 year old children from four primary schools in Bristol, UK. Focus groups examined: (i) factors which motivate children to take part in active play; (ii) factors which limit children's active play and (iii) factors which facilitate children's active play. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. Results Children were motivated to engage in active play because they perceived it to be enjoyable, to prevent boredom, to have physical and mental health benefits and to provide freedom from adult control, rules and structure. However, children's active play was constrained by a number of factors, including rainy weather and fear of groups of teenagers in their play spaces. Some features of the physical environment facilitated children's active play, including the presence of green spaces and cul-de-sacs in the neighbourhood. Additionally, children's use of mobile phones when playing away from home was reported to help to alleviate parents' safety fears, and therefore assist children's active play. Conclusions Children express a range of motivational and environmental factors that constrain and facilitate their active play. Consideration of these factors should improve effectiveness of interventions designed to increase active play. PMID:21663605

  12. Computational models for large-scale simulations of facilitated diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zabet, Nicolae Radu; Adryan, Boris

    2012-11-01

    The binding of site-specific transcription factors to their genomic target sites is a key step in gene regulation. While the genome is huge, transcription factors belong to the least abundant protein classes in the cell. It is therefore fascinating how short the time frame is that they require to home in on their target sites. The underlying search mechanism is called facilitated diffusion and assumes a combination of three-dimensional diffusion in the space around the DNA combined with one-dimensional random walk on it. In this review, we present the current understanding of the facilitated diffusion mechanism and identify questions that lack a clear or detailed answer. One way to investigate these questions is through stochastic simulation and, in this manuscript, we support the idea that such simulations are able to address them. Finally, we review which biological parameters need to be included in such computational models in order to obtain a detailed representation of the actual process.

  13. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  14. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  15. Facilitator Talk in EAP Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Current sociocultural perspectives on language learning call on teachers to reinvent themselves in ways which facilitate student learning rather than transmit knowledge. For teachers, this means adopting new roles, and acquiring a new repertoire of teacher talk. This paper aims to further the work on facilitator talk begun by Clifton (2006) and…

  16. A Dialogic Approach to Online Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching, and while there are many models for the design of online activities to promote this, there are considerably fewer models for the facilitation of such dialogue. This paper examines some of these facilitation models from the point of view…

  17. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  18. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  19. 36 CFR 1194.5 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1194.5 Section 1194.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... facilitation. Nothing in this part is intended to prevent the use of designs or technologies as alternatives to...

  20. Facilitated Communication: The Clinical and Social Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Howard C., Ed.

    This text explains the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from an empirical, data-based, and/or clinical perspective. It is not a how-to-facilitate text, but one that explores the clinical and sociological reality of FC. A common theme running through each of the papers in the book is the question of FC's legitimacy. The papers reveal…

  1. A Dialogic Approach to Online Facilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Social construction of understanding has long been a significant underlying principle of learning and teaching, and while there are many models for the design of online activities to promote this, there are considerably fewer models for the facilitation of such dialogue. This paper examines some of these facilitation models from the point of view…

  2. Getting the Words Out: Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary; Remington-Gurney, Jane

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of facilitated communication training with individuals labeled as intellectually impaired, including individuals diagnosed as autistic, at the DEAL Communication Centre in Victoria, Australia. The paper describes the clients, hand use problems addressed by facilitation, literacy, structuring success, fading support,…

  3. 75 FR 64641 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Parts 200, 232, 240, and 249 RIN 3235-AK27 Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations... rules that the Commission adopted to facilitate the effective exercise of shareholders' traditional state law rights to nominate and elect directors to company boards of directors. We are publishing this...

  4. 76 FR 58100 - Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... facilitate the effective exercise of shareholders' traditional state law rights to nominate and elect... COMMISSION 17 CFR parts 200, 232, 240 and 249 RIN 3235-AK27 Facilitating Shareholder Director Nominations... release provides notice of the effective date of the amendment to Exchange Act Rule 14a-8, the shareholder...

  5. Caring and Sharing: Becoming a Peer Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Robert D.; Erney, Tom

    This book contains information and skill-building activities designed to train adolescents as peer facilitators. The first chapter describes peer facilitation and provides an overview of the book. The second chapter discusses principles, concepts, and ideas to help better understand how people learn, make decisions, change, and develop their own…

  6. Facilitated Communication: The Clinical and Social Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shane, Howard C., Ed.

    This text explains the phenomenon of facilitated communication (FC) from an empirical, data-based, and/or clinical perspective. It is not a how-to-facilitate text, but one that explores the clinical and sociological reality of FC. A common theme running through each of the papers in the book is the question of FC's legitimacy. The papers reveal…

  7. Getting the Words Out: Facilitated Communication Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Rosemary; Remington-Gurney, Jane

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of facilitated communication training with individuals labeled as intellectually impaired, including individuals diagnosed as autistic, at the DEAL Communication Centre in Victoria, Australia. The paper describes the clients, hand use problems addressed by facilitation, literacy, structuring success, fading support,…

  8. Toward Facilitative Mentoring and Catalytic Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melissa K.; Lewis, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    In TESOL teacher mentoring, giving advice can be conceptualized as a continuum, ranging from directive to facilitative feedback. The goal, over time, is to lead toward the facilitative end of the continuum and specifically to catalytic interventions that encourage self-reflection and autonomous learning. This study begins by examining research on…

  9. A Guide to Facilitating Cases in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Barbara; Kantrov, Ilene

    This book for teachers, administrators, and central office staff provides guidelines for orchestrating and extending conversations among case users, with strategies for improving facilitators' effectiveness and a conceptual framework for understanding and acting in the role of facilitator. The book describes how to foster an entire professional…

  10. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  11. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  12. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  13. 49 CFR 38.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 38.2 Section 38.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES General § 38.2 Equivalent facilitation. Departures from...

  14. Teachers as Friendship Facilitators: Respeto and Personalismo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Ann P.; Pereira, Lourdes; Blue-Banning, Martha

    2000-01-01

    This article highlights three teachers who were actively involved as friendship facilitators by illuminating their use of a friendship-facilitator framework with three students with moderate/severe disabilities. The framework includes three strategies: finding opportunities to bring children and youth together, acknowledging individual strengths…

  15. Interaction Patterns and Facilitation of Peer Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marvin E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Data show that giving information to members of a group is more important in determining the perception by others that the person is facilitating group performance. Asking for information and opinions is more important in actual facilitation of group learning. Social-emotional support becomes important after initial phases of group interaction.…

  16. Facilitator Talk in EAP Reading Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Current sociocultural perspectives on language learning call on teachers to reinvent themselves in ways which facilitate student learning rather than transmit knowledge. For teachers, this means adopting new roles, and acquiring a new repertoire of teacher talk. This paper aims to further the work on facilitator talk begun by Clifton (2006) and…

  17. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  18. Facilitative Leadership: How Principals Lead without Dominating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.; Goldman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    "Facilitative leadership" may be defined as the ability of principals to lead without controlling, while making it easier for all members of the school community to achieve agreed-upon goals. The bulk of the Bulletin consists of a discussion of 10 propositions related to facilitative leadership drawn from 3 sources: (1) studies in…

  19. Parent Involvement Facilitators: Unlocking Social Capital Wealth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrara, Margaret M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study provides an overview of a family outreach intervention that supports student retention in school through a school-home communication link. This intervention structure, which employs staff appropriately called parent involvement facilitators (PIFs), is one that school districts have employed to facilitate family engagement in…

  20. The Limited Facilitative Effect of Typographical Signals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Jonathan M.; Fowler, Susan B.

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments with 188 college students investigated the facilitative effect of typographical signals such as underlining, headings, or other devices to help readers identify specific points. Results do not support a general facilitative effect of typographical signals but suggest that use of signals depends on the reader's strategic processing.…

  1. "Stepping Up": A Focus on Facilitator Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostouros, Patricia; Warthe, D. Gaye; Carter-Snell, Catherine; Burnett, Che

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the impact on peer facilitators in "Stepping Up," a dating violence prevention program at a Canadian university. A focus group held eight months following the delivery of the program determined the personal impact of involvement in the program. Results indicate that peer facilitators experienced personal growth as…

  2. Facilitator and Student Roles and Performance in a High School Distance Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Elizabeth; Driscoll, Marcy

    This study focused on the roles facilitators and students play in high school distance education classes, how these roles affect student performance, and other factors (such as school organization) which affect facilitator and student performance. Three classrooms from three different high schools, each taking the same nationally-offered distance…

  3. Customized Body Mapping to Facilitate the Ergonomic Design of Sportswear.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng

    2016-01-01

    A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.

  4. Wet FGD system design to facilitate owner's operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmarajan, N.N.; England, W.E.; Predick, P.R.

    1983-06-01

    Wet FGD proposals were received in response to the specification we have described for Coleto Creek - Unit 2. A comprehensive economic evaluation of the wet and dry FGD proposals was completed. A dry FGD system was selected and a major factor was its ease of operation and maintenance. However, we believe that wet FGD systems will be selected for future coal-fired plants and that, if designed according to the criteria described herein, will facilitate operation and maintenance.

  5. External facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams: a qualitative study of their roles in supporting practice change.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Sylvie; Bareil, Céline; Lalonde, Lyne; Duhamel, Fabie; Hudon, Eveline; Goudreau, Johanne; Lévesque, Lise

    2016-07-16

    Facilitation is a powerful approach to support practice change. The purpose of this study is to better understand the facilitation roles exercised by both external facilitators and interprofessional facilitation teams to foster the implementation of change. Building on Dogherty et al.'s taxonomy of facilitation activities, this study uses an organizational development lens to identify and analyze facilitation roles. It includes a concise definition of what interprofessional facilitation teams actually do, thus expanding our limited knowledge of teams that act as change agents. We also investigate the facilitation dynamics between change actors. We carried out a qualitative analysis of a 1-year process of practice change implementation. We studied four family medicine groups, in which we constituted interprofessional facilitation teams. Each team was supported by one external facilitator and included at least one family physician, one case manager nurse, and health professionals located on or off the family medicine group's site (one pharmacist, plus at least one nutritionist, kinesiologist, or psychologist). We collected our data through focus group interviews with the four teams, individual interviews with the two external facilitators, and case audit documentation. We analyzed both predetermined (as per Dogherty et al., 2012) and emerging facilitation roles, as well as facilitation dynamics. A non-linear framework of facilitation roles emerged from our data, based on four fields of expertise: change management, project management, meeting management, and group/interpersonal dynamics. We identified 72 facilitation roles, grouped into two categories: "implementation-oriented" and "support-oriented." Each category was subdivided into themes (n = 6; n = 5) for clearer understanding (e.g., legitimation of change/project, management of effective meetings). Finally, an examination of facilitation dynamics revealed eight relational ties occurring within and/or between

  6. Facilitated versus Non-Facilitated Online Case Discussions: Comparing Differences in Problem Space Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertmer, Peggy A.; Koehler, Adrie A.

    2015-01-01

    The facilitator plays a key role in guiding students' efforts during case discussions. However, few studies have compared differences in learning outcomes for students participating in facilitated versus non-facilitated discussions. In this research, we used "problem space coverage" as a learning measure to compare outcomes between…

  7. Facilitators and Barriers for Interprofessional Rounding: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Susan; LaMothe, Virginia Julie; Kara, Areeba; Miller, Joan

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the barriers and facilitators for interprofessional patient-centered rounding across 4 acute care units in a large urban hospital. A qualitative descriptive method that included data gathered over an 18-month period was used. Three data sources were included: participant observation of rounding activities, focused meetings related to interprofessional practice, and exit interviews with key informants representing multiple professions and roles. The data were analyzed, and the findings were developed through an extensive transcription, coding, and discussion process. The facilitators and barriers related to the team included high versus low turnover of team membership, structured versus unstructured rounding, valuing versus skepticism about interprofessional practice, and confidence versus hesitancy about skills. Facilitator/barrier pairs related to the environment included rounding aligned versus mismatched with hospital's mission, time for rounding versus competing demands, geographically cohorted versus distributed teams, and readiness for change and innovation versus saturation. Factors associated with the members of the interprofessional team were important in successful implementation of interprofessional rounding. The organizational context and structure were also important. Leaders who anticipate implementing interprofessional rounding may incorporate knowledge of these facilitators and barriers into their planning process.

  8. Whole-Community Facilitation Regulates Biodiversity on Patagonian Rocky Shores

    PubMed Central

    Silliman, Brian R.; Bertness, Mark D.; Altieri, Andrew H.; Griffin, John N.; Bazterrica, M. Cielo; Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Crain, Caitlin M.; Reyna, Maria V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that generate and maintain biodiversity is a central goal in ecology. While positive species interactions (i.e., facilitation) have historically been underemphasized in ecological research, they are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the evolution and maintenance of biodiversity. Dominant habitat-forming species (foundation species) buffer environmental conditions and can therefore facilitate myriad associated species. Theory predicts that facilitation will be the dominant community-structuring force under harsh environmental conditions, where organisms depend on shelter for survival and predation is diminished. Wind-swept, arid Patagonian rocky shores are one of the most desiccating intertidal rocky shores ever studied, providing an opportunity to test this theory and elucidate the context-dependency of facilitation. Methodology/Principal Findings Surveys across 2100 km of southern Argentinean coastline and experimental manipulations both supported theoretical predictions, with 43 out of 46 species in the animal assemblage obligated to living within the matrices of mussels for protection from potentially lethal desiccation stress and predators having no detectable impact on diversity. Conclusions/Significance These results provide the first experimental support of long-standing theoretical predictions and reveal that in extreme climates, maintenance of whole-community diversity can be maintained by positive interactions that ameliorate physical stress. These findings have important conservation implications and emphasize that preserving foundation species should be a priority in remediating the biodiversity consequences of global climate change. PMID:22022356

  9. Surfactant Protein D Facilitates Cryptococcus neoformans Infection

    PubMed Central

    Geunes-Boyer, Scarlett; Beers, Michael F.; Heitman, Joseph; Wright, Jo Rae

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent with the global escalation of the AIDS pandemic, cryptococcal infections are increasing and are of significant medical importance. Furthermore, Cryptococcus neoformans has become a primary human pathogen, causing infection in seemingly healthy individuals. Although numerous studies have elucidated the virulence properties of C. neoformans, less is understood regarding lung host immune factors during early stages of fungal infection. Based on our previous studies documenting that pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) protects C. neoformans cells against macrophage-mediated defense mechanisms in vitro (S. Geunes-Boyer et al., Infect. Immun. 77:2783–2794, 2009), we postulated that SP-D would facilitate fungal infection in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we examined the role of SP-D in response to C. neoformans using SP-D−/− mice. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking SP-D were partially protected during C. neoformans infection; they displayed a longer mean time to death and decreased fungal burden at several time points postinfection than wild-type mice. This effect was reversed by the administration of exogenous SP-D. Furthermore, we show that SP-D bound to the surface of the yeast cells and protected the pathogenic microbes against macrophage-mediated defense mechanisms and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that C. neoformans is capable of coopting host SP-D to increase host susceptibility to the yeast. This study establishes a new paradigm for the role played by SP-D during host responses to C. neoformans and consequently imparts insight into potential future preventive and/or treatment strategies for cryptococcosis. PMID:22547543

  10. Suicide: Issues of Prevention, Intervention, and Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Franklyn L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of suicide intervention which allows for the possibility of death facilitation as well as prevention. A proposed suicide intervention model is contrasted with the goals and methods of existing suicide prevention and crisis counseling services. (JAC)

  11. Facilitating Transfer in College Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie; Simpson, Michele L.

    1987-01-01

    Gives three activities--journal writing, microteaching partners, and the PLAE model (planning, listing, activating, and evaluating)--that can facilitate learner independence and transfer of efficient and effective study strategies in college developmental reading programs. (NKA)

  12. Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonnell, Lori K.; Jobe, Kimberly K.; Dismukes, R. Key

    1997-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide to help airline instructors effectively facilitate debriefings of Line Oriented Simulations (LOS). It is based on a recently completed study of Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) debriefings at several U.S. airlines. This manual presents specific facilitation tools instructors can use to achieve debriefing objectives. The approach of the manual is to be flexible so it can be tailored to the individual needs of each airline. Part One clarifies the purpose and objectives of facilitation in the LOS setting. Part Two provides recommendations for clarifying roles and expectations and presents a model for organizing discussion. Part Tree suggests techniques for eliciting active crew participation and in-depth analysis and evaluation. Finally, in Part Four, these techniques are organized according to the facilitation model. Examples of how to effectively use the techniques are provided throughout, including strategies to try when the debriefing objectives are not being fully achieved.

  13. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  14. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  15. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kelsey G.; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes. PMID:28582439

  16. Familiarity facilitates feature-based face processing.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Wheeler, Kelsey G; Cipolli, Carlo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2017-01-01

    Recognition of personally familiar faces is remarkably efficient, effortless and robust. We asked if feature-based face processing facilitates detection of familiar faces by testing the effect of face inversion on a visual search task for familiar and unfamiliar faces. Because face inversion disrupts configural and holistic face processing, we hypothesized that inversion would diminish the familiarity advantage to the extent that it is mediated by such processing. Subjects detected personally familiar and stranger target faces in arrays of two, four, or six face images. Subjects showed significant facilitation of personally familiar face detection for both upright and inverted faces. The effect of familiarity on target absent trials, which involved only rejection of unfamiliar face distractors, suggests that familiarity facilitates rejection of unfamiliar distractors as well as detection of familiar targets. The preserved familiarity effect for inverted faces suggests that facilitation of face detection afforded by familiarity reflects mostly feature-based processes.

  17. Facilitation of transmitter release at squid synapses

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Facilitation is shown to decay as a compound exponential with two time constants (T1, T2) at both giant and non-giant synapses in squid stellate ganglia bathed in solutions having low extracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca++]o). Maximum values of facilitation (F1) were significantly larger, and T1 was significantly smaller in giant than non-giant synapses. Decreases in [Ca++]o or increases in [Mn++]o had variable effects on T1 and F1, whereas decreases in temperature increased T1 but had insignificant effects on F1. The growth of facilitation during short trains of equal interval stimuli was adequately predicted by the linear summation model developed by Mallart and Martin (1967. J. Physiol. (Lond.). 193:676--694) for frog neuromuscular junctions. This result suggests that the underlying mechanisms of facilitation are similar in squid and other synapses which release many transmitter quanta. PMID:31411

  18. Facilitating Transfer in College Reading Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie; Simpson, Michele L.

    1987-01-01

    Gives three activities--journal writing, microteaching partners, and the PLAE model (planning, listing, activating, and evaluating)--that can facilitate learner independence and transfer of efficient and effective study strategies in college developmental reading programs. (NKA)

  19. Examining social facilitation in vigilance: a hit and a miss.

    PubMed

    Claypoole, Victoria Lynne; Szalma, James L

    2017-11-01

    Vigilance is the ability of an observer to maintain attention for extended periods of time; however, performance tends to decline with time on watch, a pattern referred to as the vigilance decrement. Previous research has focused on factors that attenuate the decrement; however, one factor rarely studied is the effect of social facilitation. The purpose for the present investigation was to determine how different types of social presence affected the performance, workload and stress of vigilance. It was hypothesised that the presence of a supervisory figure would increase overall performance, but may occur at the cost of increased workload and stress. Results indicated that the per cent of false alarm and response times decreased in the presence of a supervisory figure. Using social facilitation in vigilance tasks may thus have positive, as well as, negative effects depending on the dependent measure of interest and the role of the observer. Practitioner Summary: Social facilitation has rarely been examined in the context of vigilance, even though it may improve performance. Vigilance task performance was examined under social presence. The results of the present study indicated that false alarms and response times decreased in the social presence of a supervisory figure, thus improving performance.

  20. Pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Alan L; Bruskiewitz, Ruth H; Demuth, James E

    2007-08-15

    To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the "routine." The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure.

  1. Pharmacists' Perceptions of Facilitators and Barriers to Lifelong Learning

    PubMed Central

    Bruskiewitz, Ruth H.; DeMuth, James E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To reevaluate facilitators of and barriers to pharmacists' participation in lifelong learning previously examined in a 1990 study. Methods A survey instrument was mailed to 274 pharmacists who volunteered to participate based on a prior random sample survey. Data based on perceptions of facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning, as well as self-perception as a lifelong learner, were analyzed and compared to a similar 1990 survey. Results The response rate for the survey was 88%. The top 3 facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning from the 2003 and the 1990 samples were: (1) personal desire to learn; (2) requirement to maintain professional licensure; and (3) enjoyment/relaxation provided by learning as change of pace from the “routine.” The top 3 barriers were: (1) job constraints; (2) scheduling (location, distance, time) of group learning activities; and (3) family constraints (eg, spouse, children, personal). Respondents' broad self-perception as lifelong learners continued to be highly positive overall, but remained less positive relative to more specific lifelong learning skills such as the ability to identify learning objectives as well as to evaluate learning outcomes. Conclusions Little has changed in the last decade relative to how pharmacists view themselves as lifelong learners, as well as what they perceive as facilitators and barriers to lifelong learning. To address factors identified as facilitators and barriers, continuing education (CE) providers should focus on pharmacists' time constraints, whether due to employment, family responsibilities, or time invested in the educational activity itself, and pharmacists' internal motivations to learn (personal desire, enjoyment), as well as external forces such as mandatory CE for relicensure. PMID:17786254

  2. [Health care access barriers and facilitators: a qualitative systematic review].

    PubMed

    Hirmas Adauy, Macarena; Poffald Angulo, Lucy; Jasmen Sepúlveda, Anita María; Aguilera Sanhueza, Ximena; Delgado Becerra, Iris; Vega Morales, Jeanette

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether health care access barriers and facilitators cut across different populations, countries, and pathologies, and if so, at which stages of health care access they occur most frequently. A qualitative systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2010 was undertaken drawing on six international sources: Fuente Académica, MEDLINE (full-text), Academic Search Complete (a full-text multidisciplinary academic database), PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS. Scientific appraisal guidelines from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme Español (CASPe) and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) were applied. Gray literature was also reviewed. From the review of scientific literature, 19 of 1 160 articles and 8 of 12 gray literature documents were selected. A total of 230 barriers and 35 facilitators were identified in countries with different contexts and degrees of development. The 230 barriers were classified according to the Tanahashi framework: 25 corresponded to availability, 67 to access, 87 to acceptability, and 51 to contact. Most of the barriers were related to acceptability and access. The facilitating elements that were identified had to do with personal factors, the provider-client relationship, social support, knowledge about diseases, and adaptation of the services to patients. The barriers and facilitators were seen mostly in people who initiated contact with the health systems, and they occurred at all stages of health care access. Only a few of the studies looked at people who did not initiate contact with the health services. The barriers and facilitators identified were socially determined and largely a reflection of existing social inequities in the countries. To reduce or eliminate them, joint action with other non-health sectors will be necessary.

  3. Facilitators of HIV Medical Care Engagement among Former Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Bracken, Natalie; Hilliard, Charles; McCuller, William J.; Harawa, Nina T.

    2016-01-01

    Linkage to and retention in medical care is a concern for HIV-positive individuals leaving custody settings in the United States. The minimal existing research points to low rates of entry into care in the months following release and lapsed viral control among releasees who are subsequently reincarcerated. We conducted seven small focus group discussions with 27 HIV-positive individuals who were recently incarceration in a California State prison to understand those factors that facilitated linkage to and retention in HIV care following their release. We used a consensual approach to code and analyze the focus group transcripts. Four main themes emerged from the analysis: 1) interpersonal relationships, 2) professional relationships, 3) coping strategies and resources, and 4) individual attitudes. Improving HIV-related outcomes among individuals after their release from prison requires strengthening supportive relationships, fostering the appropriate attitudes and skills, and ensuring access to resources that stabilize daily living and facilitate the process of accessing care. PMID:26595268

  4. [Facilitators and barriers for the consumption of a micronutrient supplement].

    PubMed

    Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence; Nava, Fernanda; Villanueva, María Angeles; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2008-01-01

    To define and explore the sociocultural factors that could enhance (facilitators) or interfere with (barriers) the adequate consumption of a nutritional supplement (NS) by children from 6 to 59 months of age, provided as part of the national program Oportunidades. Qualitative study in rural communities of Chiapas and Veracruz. Forty-four semi-structured interviews and 25 focus groups were conducted with mothers and other key informants. The framework analysis approach was used. Facilitators. The NS is free, is highly accessible, is positively accepted and mothers believe the physicians recommendations. Barriers. Lack of adequate storage and distribution, poverty conditions, intrahousehold dilution (within the family members), beliefs regarding child feeding and the purpose of the NS. Results shows the incongruence between the Programs recommendations and the preferences and practices of the target population and provides important elements to be considered in the promotion of the NS .

  5. Injury-induced platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha expression mediated by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) release and cooperative transactivation by NF-kappaB and ATF-4: IL-1beta facilitates HDAC-1/2 dissociation from promoter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Khachigian, Levon M

    2009-10-09

    Platelet-derived growth factors are a family of potent mitogens and chemoattractants for fibroblasts and other cells of mesenchymal origin. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) dimeric ligands (composed of A-, B-, C-, and D-chains) exert their biological activity through high affinity interactions with cell surface receptor subunits (alpha and beta). PDGF-receptor-alpha is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of hyperplastic fibrotic disease, yet the molecular mechanisms controlling its expression in response to injury are poorly understood. Here we show that PDGF-R alpha expression is induced in fibroblasts by mechanical injury and interleukin (IL)-1beta, which was abolished by neutralizing IL-1beta antibodies in the culture supernatant or inhibitors of NF-kappaB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed the existence of a new NF-kappaB binding site at -531/-521 bp in the PDGF-R alpha promoter. We have recently shown that ATF-4 is also induced by injury (Malabanan, K. P., Kanellakis, P., Bobik, A., and Khachigian, L. M. (2008) Circ. Res. 103, 378-387), and we demonstrate here that ATF-4 binds a novel element -259/-254 and stimulates PDGF-R alpha transcription. ATF-4 and NF-kappaB interact, occupy the PDGF-R alpha promoter, and induce PDGF-R alpha transcription in a cooperative manner. IL-1beta facilitates the dissociation of histone deacetylase (HDAC)-1/2 from the PDGF-R alpha promoter, whereas the HDAC inhibitors suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and trichostatin A potentiate IL-1beta induction of PDGF-R alpha transcription. These findings, taken together, demonstrate that injury stimulates IL-1beta secretion by fibroblasts, which activates NF-kappaB and ATF-4 and stimulates interaction with the PDGF-R alpha promoter, triggering PDGF-R alpha transcription. Physical and functional interactions between NF-kappaB and ATF-4 have not been reported in any gene. This is also the first report of HDAC regulation of PDGF-R alpha

  6. Processes, barriers and facilitators to implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Charlotte Diana Nørregaard; Lindberg, Naja Klærke; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the processes of a participatory ergonomics program among 594 eldercare workers with emphasis on identified risk factors for low back pain and solutions, and reveal barriers and facilitators for implementation. Sixty-nine per cent of the identified risk factors were physical ergonomic, 24% were organisational and 7% were psychosocial risk factors. Most solutions were organisational (55%), followed by physical (43%) and psychosocial solutions (2%). Internal factors (e.g. team or management) constituted 47% of the barriers and 75% of the facilitators. External factors (e.g. time, financial resources, collaboration with resident or relatives) constituted 53% of the barriers and 25% of the facilitators. This study revealed the processes and implementation of a participatory ergonomics program among eldercare workers. The findings can be transferred to workers, workplaces, health and safety professionals, and researchers to improve future participatory ergonomics programs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Facilitation as a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Eliot J B; Fajardo, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Models describing the biotic drivers that create and maintain biological diversity within trophic levels have focused primarily on negative interactions (i.e. competition), leaving marginal room for positive interactions (i.e. facilitation). We show facilitation to be a ubiquitous driver of biodiversity by first noting that all species use resources and thus change the local biotic or abiotic conditions, altering the available multidimensional niches. This can cause a shift in local species composition, which can cause an increase in beta, and sometimes alpha, diversity. We show that these increases are ubiquitous across ecosystems. These positive effects on diversity occur via a broad host of disparate direct and indirect mechanisms. We identify and unify several of these facilitative mechanisms and discuss why it has been easy to underappreciate the importance of facilitation. We show that net positive effects have a long history of being considered ecologically or evolutionarily unstable, and we present recent evidence of its potential stability. Facilitation goes well beyond the common case of stress amelioration and it probably gains importance as community complexity increases. While biodiversity is, in part, created by species exploiting many niches, many niches are available to exploit only because species create them. Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  8. Using soil bacteria to facilitate phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Glick, Bernard R

    2010-01-01

    In the past twenty years or so, researchers have endeavored to utilize plants to facilitate the removal of both organic and inorganic contaminants from the environment, especially from soil. These phytoremediation approaches have come a long way in a short time. However, the majority of this work has been done under more controlled laboratory conditions and not in the field. As an adjunct to various phytoremediation strategies and as part of an effort to make this technology more efficacious, a number of scientists have begun to explore the possibility of using various soil bacteria together with plants. These bacteria include biodegradative bacteria, plant growth-promoting bacteria and bacteria that facilitate phytoremediation by other means. An overview of bacterially assisted phytoremediation is provided here for both organic and metallic contaminants, with the intent of providing some insight into how these bacteria aid phytoremediation so that future field studies might be facilitated. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Facilitation: An Essential Ingredient in Online Coursework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristvey, J.; Bogner, D.

    2003-12-01

    Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning (McREL) partnered with the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to offer the ESSEA Earth System Science Online Course for Middle School Teachers during the 2002-2003 school year. During the two semesters that the course was offered, we were able to retain 75% of our enrollees. We found that course facilitation was the key ingredient in retaining this large number of students-who are not only scattered across the U.S., but around the world-in a rigorous online course. In this poster session, we will share what we have learned about online facilitation as part of this course, and how this knowledge might translate into other online coursework. Online facilitation begins as soon as a student enrolls in the course. When a student registers online or at CSM, McREL receives notification and then sends course materials and e-mail and written confirmation to the enrollee within 24 hours. This sets the tone for the type of communications that students can expect during the 16-week course. McREL facilitators know how time consuming monitoring participant progress can be, but feel strongly about its importance when facilitating learners who are working in small groups and are completing independent research. Timely monitoring of discussion spaces and e-mail messages is essential to maintaining a high student-retention rate. Kearsley (2000) confirms this when he states that, "the most important role of the instructor in online classes is to ensure that there is a high degree of interactivity and participation." In the ESSEA courses, the isolation of students working independently on classroom applications and reflection is balanced with group construction of interactions and causal chains. Each step of the way facilitators use guided questioning in group discussion sessions and serve as a mentor when participants develop individualized classroom assignments, giving participants the opportunity to apply what they have learned in a

  10. The mechanism of facilitated cell membrane resealing.

    PubMed

    Togo, T; Alderton, J M; Bi, G Q; Steinhardt, R A

    1999-03-01

    Disruption of the plasma membrane evokes an exocytotic response that is required for rapid membrane resealing. We show here in Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts that a second disruption at the same site reseals more rapidly than the initial wound. This facilitated response of resealing was inhibited by both low external Ca2+ concentration and specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimide I (BIS) and Gö-6976. In addition, activation of PKC by phorbol ester facilitated the resealing of a first wound. BIS and Gö-6976 suppressed the effect of phorbol ester on resealing rate. Fluorescent dye loss from a FM1-43 pre-labeled endocytotic compartment was used to investigate the relationship between exocytosis, resealing and the facilitation of resealing. Exocytosis of endocytotic compartments near the wounding site was correlated with successful resealing. The destaining did not occur when exocytosis and resealing were inhibited by low external Ca2+ concentration or by injected tetanus toxin. When the dye loaded cells were wounded twice, FM1-43 destaining at the second wound was less than at the first wound. Less destaining was also observed in cells pre-treated with phorbol ester, suggesting newly formed vesicles, which were FM1-43 unlabeled, were exocytosed in the resealing at repeated woundings. Facilitation was also blocked by brefeldin A (BFA), a fungal metabolite that inhibits vesicle formation at the Golgi apparatus. Lowering the temperature below 20 degrees C also blocked facilitation as expected from a block of Golgi function. BFA had no effect on the resealing rate of an initial wound. The facilitation of the resealing by phorbol ester was blocked by pre-treatment with BFA. These results suggest that at first wounding the cell used the endocytotic compartment to add membrane necessary for resealing. At a second wounding, PKC, activated by Ca2+ entry at the first wound, stimulated vesicle formation from the Golgi apparatus, resulting in more rapid resealing

  11. Managerial intervention to facilitate organizational change.

    PubMed

    Snyder, J R

    1983-07-01

    Facilitating change in the clinical laboratory is a constant managerial responsibility. Change is often met with resistance when staff members perceive it as threatening their convenience, interpersonal relationships, position, or economic security. This paper examines the application of the Concerns-Based Adoption Model to assess individual concerns regarding change. The model views change as a process rather than an event and examines the various motivations, perceptions, attitudes, and feelings of individuals regarding an innovation. After an individual's concerns have been identified, the manager is better able to target intervention strategies to facilitate organizational change.

  12. Facilitating scholarly writer development: the writing scaffold.

    PubMed

    Gazza, Elizabeth A; Hunker, Diane F

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM OF INTEREST: Nursing faculty at a private, medium-sized university noted that students in their online Registered Nurse to Bachelor of Science in Nursing, hybrid Master of Science in Nursing, and online Doctor of Nursing Practice programs displayed varying scholarly writing abilities. This article proposes an evidence-based comprehensive support framework, or scaffold that can be used in nursing education to facilitate the development of scholarly writing abilities in students. The writing scaffold is recommended for use by nursing faculty to facilitate the development of scholarly writing abilities within nursing, across nursing program levels, and across disciplines. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Facilitated ignition in turbulence through differential diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fujia; Saha, Abhishek; Chaudhuri, Swetaprovo; Law, Chung K

    2014-07-11

    Contrary to the belief that ignition of a combustible mixture by a high-energy kernel is more difficult in turbulence than in quiescence because of the increased dissipation rate of the deposited energy, we experimentally demonstrate that it can actually be facilitated by turbulence for mixtures whose thermal diffusivity sufficiently exceeds its mass diffusivity. In such cases, turbulence breaks the otherwise single spherical flame of positive curvature, and hence positive aerodynamics stretch, into a multitude of wrinkled flamelets subjected to either positive or negative stretch, such that the intensified burning of the latter constitutes local sources to facilitate ignition.

  14. Dental hygienists' work environment: motivating, facilitating, but also trying.

    PubMed

    Candell, A; Engström, M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe dental hygienists' experiences of their physical and psychosocial work environment. The study was descriptive in design and used a qualitative approach. Eleven dental hygienists participated in the study and data were collected during spring 2008 using semi-structured interviews. The material was analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that the dental hygienists experienced their work environment as motivating and facilitating, but at the same time as trying. The three categories revealed a theme: Being controlled in a modern environment characterized by good relationships. Motivating factors were the good relationship with co-workers, managers and patients, seeing the results of your work, having your own responsibility and making your own decisions. The new, pleasant and modern clinics, good cooperation between co-workers and varying duties were described as facilitating factors. The trying factors, as described by the dental hygienists, were above all being controlled by time limits or by some elements of the work, such as teamwork. The dental hygienists also felt stress because appointments were too-short. To conclude, the participants described their work environment as trying in several ways, despite the modern clinics and good relationships.

  15. Coping with employee, family, and student roles: evidence of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Tracy D; McCarthy, Julie M

    2010-07-01

    Balancing multiple roles is a challenge for individuals in many sectors of the population. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that individuals have dispositional tendencies to experience interrole conflict and facilitation. We also aimed to show that coping styles and life satisfaction are correlates of dispositional conflict and facilitation tendencies. Two survey studies were conducted with individuals involved in 3 life roles (i.e., employee, student, and family member; Study 1: N = 193; Study 2: N = 284). The hierarchical structure of conflict and facilitation was examined in both studies. Support for the dispositional model was found in both cases through the use of hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses. In Study 2, a longitudinal assessment of the nomological network surrounding conflict and facilitation tendencies was conducted with structural equation modeling analyses; we found that coping styles had synchronous relations with dispositional conflict and facilitation; dispositional conflict had a lagged and negative relation with life satisfaction.

  16. Facilitated diffusion in the presence of obstacles on the DNA.

    PubMed

    Gomez, David; Klumpp, Stefan

    2016-04-28

    Biological functions of DNA depend on the sequence-specific binding of DNA-binding proteins to their corresponding binding sites. Binding of these proteins to their binding sites occurs through a facilitated diffusion process that combines three-dimensional diffusion in the cytoplasm with one-dimensional diffusion (sliding) along the DNA. In this work, we use a lattice model of facilitated diffusion to study how the dynamics of binding of a protein to a specific site (e.g., binding of an RNA polymerase to a promoter or of a transcription factor to its operator site) is affected by the presence of other proteins bound to the DNA, which act as 'obstacles' in the sliding process. Different types of these obstacles with different dynamics are implemented. While all types impair facilitated diffusion, the extent of the hindrance depends on the type of obstacle. As a consequence of hindrance by obstacles, more excursions into the cytoplasm are required for optimal target binding compared to the case without obstacles.

  17. Constructal law of vascular trees for facilitation of flow.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Mohammad S; Shirani, Ebrahim; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Kassab, Ghassan S

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tree structures such as blood vessels, branches of a tree and river basins exist in nature. The constructal law states that the evolution of flow structures in nature has a tendency to facilitate flow. This study suggests a theoretical basis for evaluation of flow facilitation within vascular structure from the perspective of evolution. A novel evolution parameter (Ev) is proposed to quantify the flow capacity of vascular structures. Ev is defined as the ratio of the flow conductance of an evolving structure (configuration with imperfection) to the flow conductance of structure with least imperfection. Attaining higher Ev enables the structure to expedite flow circulation with less energy dissipation. For both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, the evolution parameter was developed as a function of geometrical shape factors in laminar and turbulent fully developed flows. It was found that the non-Newtonian or Newtonian behavior of fluid as well as flow behavior such as laminar or turbulent behavior affects the evolution parameter. Using measured vascular morphometric data of various organs and species, the evolution parameter was calculated. The evolution parameter of the tree structures in biological systems was found to be in the range of 0.95 to 1. The conclusion is that various organs in various species have high capacity to facilitate flow within their respective vascular structures.

  18. Constructal Law of Vascular Trees for Facilitation of Flow

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Mohammad S.; Shirani, Ebrahim; Salimpour, Mohammad Reza; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tree structures such as blood vessels, branches of a tree and river basins exist in nature. The constructal law states that the evolution of flow structures in nature has a tendency to facilitate flow. This study suggests a theoretical basis for evaluation of flow facilitation within vascular structure from the perspective of evolution. A novel evolution parameter (Ev) is proposed to quantify the flow capacity of vascular structures. Ev is defined as the ratio of the flow conductance of an evolving structure (configuration with imperfection) to the flow conductance of structure with least imperfection. Attaining higher Ev enables the structure to expedite flow circulation with less energy dissipation. For both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, the evolution parameter was developed as a function of geometrical shape factors in laminar and turbulent fully developed flows. It was found that the non-Newtonian or Newtonian behavior of fluid as well as flow behavior such as laminar or turbulent behavior affects the evolution parameter. Using measured vascular morphometric data of various organs and species, the evolution parameter was calculated. The evolution parameter of the tree structures in biological systems was found to be in the range of 0.95 to 1. The conclusion is that various organs in various species have high capacity to facilitate flow within their respective vascular structures. PMID:25551617

  19. FIRE (facilitating implementation of research evidence): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research evidence underpins best practice, but is not always used in healthcare. The Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework suggests that the nature of evidence, the context in which it is used, and whether those trying to use evidence are helped (or facilitated) affect the use of evidence. Urinary incontinence has a major effect on quality of life of older people, has a high prevalence, and is a key priority within European health and social care policy. Improving continence care has the potential to improve the quality of life for older people and reduce the costs associated with providing incontinence aids. Objectives This study aims to advance understanding about the contribution facilitation can make to implementing research findings into practice via: extending current knowledge of facilitation as a process for translating research evidence into practice; evaluating the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of two different models of facilitation in promoting the uptake of research evidence on continence management; assessing the impact of contextual factors on the processes and outcomes of implementation; and implementing a pro-active knowledge transfer and dissemination strategy to diffuse study findings to a wide policy and practice community. Setting and sample Four European countries, each with six long-term nursing care sites (total 24 sites) for people aged 60 years and over with documented urinary incontinence Methods and design Pragmatic randomised controlled trial with three arms (standard dissemination and two different programmes of facilitation), with embedded process and economic evaluation. The primary outcome is compliance with the continence recommendations. Secondary outcomes include proportion of residents with incontinence, incidence of incontinence-related dermatitis, urinary tract infections, and quality of life. Outcomes are assessed at baseline, then at 6, 12, 18, and

  20. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  1. The Resourceful Facilitator: Teacher Leaders Constructing Identities as Facilitators of Teacher Peer Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David

    2016-01-01

    The use of teacher peer groups is a prevalent strategy for school-based professional development and instructional improvement. Facilitation of such groups is an increasingly vital dimension of teacher leadership as a component of school improvement efforts. Drawing on a qualitative study of facilitation of teacher peer groups, the article…

  2. Does Teaching Creationism Facilitate Student Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Fooce, C. David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in US public schools continues to generate controversy. One argument for including creationism in science classrooms is based on the goal of facilitating student autonomy. Autonomy requires that students be exposed to significant alternatives, it is argued, and religious creation stories offer a significant alternative to…

  3. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  4. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  5. The spatial range of peripheral collinear facilitation

    PubMed Central

    Maniglia, Marcello; Pavan, Andrea; Aedo-Jury, Felipe; Trotter, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Contrast detection thresholds for a central Gabor patch (target) can be modulated by the presence of co-oriented and collinear high contrast Gabors flankers. In foveal vision collinear facilitation can be observed for target-to-flankers relative distances beyond two times the wavelength (λ) of the Gabor’s carrier, while for shorter relative distances (<2λ) there is suppression. These modulatory influences seem to disappear after 12λ. In this study, we measured contrast detection thresholds for different spatial frequencies (1, 4 and 6 cpd) and target-to-flankers relative distances ranging from 6 to 16λ, but with collinear configurations presented in near periphery at 4° of eccentricity. Results showed that in near periphery collinear facilitation extends beyond 12λ for the higher spatial frequencies tested (4 and 6 cpd), while it decays already at 10λ for the lowest spatial frequency used (i.e., 1 cpd). In addition, we found that increasing the spatial frequency the peak of collinear facilitation shifts towards larger target-to-flankers relative distances (expressed as multiples of the stimulus wavelength), an effect never reported neither for near peripheral nor for central vision. The results suggest that the peak and the spatial extent of collinear facilitation in near periphery depend on the spatial frequency of the stimuli used. PMID:26502834

  6. 31 CFR 542.210 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 542.210 Section 542.210 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SYRIAN SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions §...

  7. Improving the Human Environment of Schools: Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avis, Joan P.; Bigelow, Elizabeth D.

    This training guide and reference manual helps educational leaders learn to be facilitators in the program called "Improving the Human Environment of Schools" (IHES), a participative problem-solving method designed to improve a school's "quality of life." An introductory chapter reviews the history of IHES and outlines IHES…

  8. The Facilitation of Change: An Administrator's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarino, Charles A.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a strategy that facilitates the introduction of a large-scale innovation into public school settings. The principal focus is the new administrative role as it functions in this process. The context is the Experience-Based Career Education model (Academy for Career Education) designed and implemented by…

  9. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2011-10-01 2005-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  10. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  11. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  12. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2014-10-01 2013-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  13. 50 CFR 17.107 - Facilitating enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Facilitating enforcement. 17.107 Section 17.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., provide a safe ladder, manrope, safety line and illumination of the ladder; and (4) Take such...

  14. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  15. Building Better Career Futures: Facilitator Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezanson, Lynne; Hopkins, Sareena

    This guide, designed to be used by facilitators of the Building Better Career Futures, a comprehensive career development program for young adults, is to be used in conjunction with the Backgrounder and the Portfolio Builder. It includes an introduction to the full program and lesson plans for all topics. Each lesson plan begins with a cover sheet…

  16. Videoconferencing: A New Opportunity to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Cheryl; Ming, Kavin

    2015-01-01

    The use of distance learning techniques as a means of delivering instruction in higher education classrooms has become increasingly popular with the growing diversity of today's college students. Videoconferencing has been used as a tool to facilitate the simultaneous communication of individuals across varying geographic regions through the use…

  17. Facilitating International Business Communication: A Global Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, James Calvert

    This document, which is intended for business educators at all levels, outlines two approaches to facilitating international business communication by adopting a global approach in business communication and related business education courses. In the first half of the document, the following steps in implementing the separate-course approach, are…

  18. Teacher Actions to Facilitate Early Algebraic Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased emphasis on integrating the teaching of arithmetic and algebra in primary school classrooms. This requires teachers to develop links between arithmetic and algebra and use pedagogical actions that facilitate algebraic reasoning. Drawing on findings from a classroom-based study, this paper provides an…

  19. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions...

  20. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  1. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  2. Social facilitation effects of virtual humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung; Catrambone, Richard

    2007-12-01

    To investigate whether virtual humans produce social facilitation effects. When people do an easy task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task better than when they are alone. Conversely, when people do a hard task and another person is nearby, they tend to do that task less well than when they are alone. This phenomenon is referred to in the social psychology literature as social facilitation. The present study investigated whether virtual humans can evoke a social facilitation response. Participants were given different tasks to do that varied in difficulty. The tasks involved anagrams, mazes, and modular arithmetic. They did the tasks alone, in the company of another person, or in the company of a virtual human on a computer screen. For easy tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was better than in the alone condition, and for difficult tasks, performance in the virtual human condition was worse than in the alone condition. As with a human, virtual humans can produce social facilitation. The results suggest that designers of virtual humans should be mindful about the social nature of virtual humans; a design decision as to when and how to present a virtual human should be a deliberate and informed decision. An ever-present virtual human might make learning and performance difficult for challenging tasks.

  3. Exploring Staff Facilitation that Supports Family Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Scott A.; Dierking, Lynn D.

    2012-01-01

    Front-line educators are arguably critical to the visitor experience at museums and science centers across the country. However, little research exists to inform staff facilitation strategies or professional development efforts. In this article, we describe the results of a qualitative study of 63 staff-family interactions in a science center,…

  4. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  5. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  6. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS... these guidelines by use of other designs and technologies are permitted where the alternative designs...

  7. The Creative Music Workshop: Event, Facilitation, Gift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Lee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the desires and tensions inherent within the act of facilitating creative music-making workshops. Following the introduction, the article is divided into three sections: (1) a discussion of the workshop event as a contingent structure through which creative music-making may take place; (2) an exploration…

  8. Retrieval during Learning Facilitates Subsequent Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastotter, Bernhard; Schicker, Sabine; Niedernhuber, Julia; Bauml, Karl-Heinz T.

    2011-01-01

    In multiple-list learning, retrieval during learning has been suggested to improve recall of the single lists by enhancing list discrimination and, at test, reducing interference. Using electrophysiological, oscillatory measures of brain activity, we examined to what extent retrieval during learning facilitates list encoding. Subjects studied 5…

  9. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  10. Competency Based Vocational Education Workshop Facilitators Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Michigan Center for Career and Technical Education.

    This workshop facilitator's guide is designed to inform professional staff about competency-based vocational education (CBVE) to help eligible persons on public assistance acquire competencies necessary for gainful employment in the following occupational areas: airline reservations and travel services; computer applications; dental care;…

  11. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  12. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  13. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  14. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. Does Teaching Creationism Facilitate Student Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Fooce, C. David

    2007-01-01

    The teaching of evolution in US public schools continues to generate controversy. One argument for including creationism in science classrooms is based on the goal of facilitating student autonomy. Autonomy requires that students be exposed to significant alternatives, it is argued, and religious creation stories offer a significant alternative to…

  16. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PHP-c90

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education and the Minnesota Special Education Mediation Service (MNSEMS) provide the option of facilitated IEP meetings. This option is available for IEP (Individualized Education Program), IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP (Individual…

  17. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  18. Facilitating Learning Spaces in Forum Theatre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which forum theatre interventions can support non-hierarchical approaches to learning, development and change management initiatives in organisations. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with theatre consultancies, actors/facilitators,…

  19. Sports participation after rehabilitation: Barriers and facilitators.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, Eva A; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-01-01

    To analyse barriers to, and facilitators of, sports participation among people with physical disabilities after rehabilitation and to compare differences between inactive and active participants regarding these experienced barriers and facilitators. Participants were 1,223 adults (mean age 51.6 years, standard deviation 15.1 years) treated in the Rehabilitation Centre of the University Medical Center Groningen, who completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a self-constructed questionnaire regarding barriers and facilitators. Fifty-eight percent of the participants were active in sports after their rehabilitation. Younger age and a higher level of education were positively associated with sports participation, whereas using assistive devices and experiencing environmental barriers were negatively associated. Facilitators of sports participation were health, fun and increasing physical strength, and advice from rehabilitation professionals. Rehabilitation professionals should emphasize the health benefits of, and enjoyment from, sports participation for people with physical disabilities. They should repeatedly remind people with physical disabilities to stay/become active after completing their rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation professionals should also provide information about strategies to reduce environmental barriers to sports participation, which could help people using assistive devices to overcome these barriers.

  20. Writing To Facilitate Learning in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Linda E.

    This paper describes a microbiology course that utilizes writing to facilitate learning of complex concepts, for communicating experimental results, and as a diagnostic tool for the instructor in monitoring the students' understanding of material on an on-going basis. In-class writing assignments that summarize subject units are accompanied by a…

  1. Facilitating Second Language Learning with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Su-Young

    2006-01-01

    The use of music in facilitating second language (as well as first language) learning is supported by evidence that points to the musical nature of even preverbal infants. Music and language have been found to develop similarly, and researchers have noted advantages to using song in learning. The author observed her Korean 21-month-old for …

  2. Plant facilitation of a belowground predator.

    PubMed

    Preisser, Evan L; Dugaw, Christopher J; Dennis, Brian; Strong, Donald R

    2006-05-01

    Interest in facilitative predator plant interactions has focused upon above-ground systems. Underground physical conditions are distinctive, however, and we provide evidence that bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus, facilitates the survival of the predatory nematode Heterorhabditis marelatus. Because H. marelatus is prone to desiccation and lupines maintain a zone of moist soil around their taproots even during dry periods, we hypothesized that dry-season nematode survival under lupines might be higher than in the surrounding grasslands. We performed field surveys and measured nematode survival in lupine and grassland rhizospheres under wet- and dry-season conditions. Nematodes survived the crucial summer period better under lupines than in grasslands; however, this advantage disappeared in wet, winter soils. Modeling the probability of nematode population extinction showed that, while even large nematode cohorts were likely to go extinct in grasslands, even small cohorts in lupine rhizospheres were likely to survive until the arrival of the next prey generation. Because this nematode predator has a strong top-down effect on lupine survival via its effect on root-boring larvae of the ghost moth Hepialus californicus, this facilitative interaction may enable a belowground trophic cascade. Similar cases of predator facilitation in seasonally stressful environments are probably common in nature.

  3. Facilitation and Practice in Verb Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keren-Portnoy, Tamar

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of syntax acquisition, whose main points are as follows: Syntax is acquired in an item-based manner; early learning facilitates subsequent learning--as evidenced by the accelerating rate of new verbs entering a given structure; and mastery of syntactic knowledge is typically achieved through practice--as evidenced by…

  4. Collaborative Degree Programs: A Facilitational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offerman, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Interviews with 10 faculty participating in a collaborative bachelors' degree program involving 5 nursing schools identified elements of the program's success: initial agreement, faculty control, initial curriculum focus, management of ambiguity, iterative process, objective facilitation, institutional autonomy, and assertive conflict management.…

  5. Dynamic Flexibility and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Lew; Jones, David

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments are described which investigated whether results obtained in studies of static flexibility tranfer to dynamic flexibility. In both experiments, subjects were assigned to a group receiving proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training, ballistic stretching technique training or a control group. Results are presented and…

  6. Guide to Resources for ESL Literacy Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaber-Katz, Elaine; Zettel, Kathryn

    This resource guide, for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) literacy facilitators, reviews a variety of resources for ESL literacy. The guide contains three sections. The first section cites four books that provide a theoretical context for literacy work: "Ah-Hah! A New Approach to Popular Education" (Gatt-Fly); "Approaches and Methods in Language…

  7. Facilitating Engagement by Differentiating Independent Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

    2009-01-01

    The authors provide teachers with a rationale for engaging students in independent reading using a differentiated approach. By profiling types of readers, sharing observational tools, and offering teaching suggestions for each type of reader the authors give practical suggestions to facilitate reading engagement and make independent reading more…

  8. Effective tactile noise facilitates visual perception.

    PubMed

    Lugo, J E; Doti, R; Faubert, J

    2012-01-01

    The fulcrum principle establishes that a subthreshold excitatory signal (entering in one sense) that is synchronous with a facilitation signal (entering in a different sense) can be increased (up to a resonant-like level) and then decreased by the energy and frequency content of the facilitating signal. As a result, the sensation of the signal changes according to the excitatory signal strength. In this context, the sensitivity transitions represent the change from subthreshold activity to a firing activity in multisensory neurons. Initially the energy of their activity (supplied by the weak signals) is not enough to be detected but when the facilitating signal enters the brain, it generates a general activation among multisensory neurons, modifying their original activity. In our opinion, the result is an integrated activation that promotes sensitivity transitions and the signals are then perceived. In other words, the activity created by the interaction of the excitatory signal (e.g., visual) and the facilitating signal (tactile noise) at some specific energy, produces the capability for a central detection of an otherwise weak signal. In this work we investigate the effect of an effective tactile noise on visual perception. Specifically we show that tactile noise is capable of decreasing luminance modulated thresholds.

  9. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  10. Using Assistive Technology To Facilitate Cooperative Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Brian R.; Rivera, Diane Pedrotty

    This conference paper describes the cooperative learning structure; presents the elements of cooperative learning; discusses how to plan, implement, and evaluate using the cooperative learning structure; introduces assistive technology services for students with disabilities; and examines how devices and services can be used to facilitate active…

  11. Student Teaching as a Facilitator of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ladd; And Others

    This paper describes an experience that illustrates how change can be facilitated through the cooperation of elementary school principals, college supervisors, and interested classroom teachers. In the change strategy used, the elementary school principal and the college supervisor combined forces and served as change agents. The school principal…

  12. Grief Support Group Curriculum: Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    This handbook is designed for facilitators of grief support groups for mourning children. The first chapter discusses the history, philosophy, and format of a specific curriculum - the Mourning Child curriculum. This curriculum, originally written in 1986 and later expanded and revised, has been used with hundreds of children. Chapter two covers…

  13. Supervisor Behaviours that Facilitate Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…

  14. Infant Day Care Facilitates Preschool Social Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared play, social, and attachment behaviors of 71 preschool children who had entered infant day care at varying ages and received varying amounts of day care. Concluded that continuous infant day care in quality centers appears to facilitate preschool social behavior and does not negatively affect attachment behavior. (NH)

  15. Videoconferencing: A New Opportunity to Facilitate Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Cheryl; Ming, Kavin

    2015-01-01

    The use of distance learning techniques as a means of delivering instruction in higher education classrooms has become increasingly popular with the growing diversity of today's college students. Videoconferencing has been used as a tool to facilitate the simultaneous communication of individuals across varying geographic regions through the use…

  16. Perceived Benefits of Human Sexuality Peer Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Scott M.; Hartzell, Rose M.; Sherwood, Catherine M.

    2008-01-01

    Peer education, facilitation, and counseling programs are commonly utilized in primary and secondary prevention programs within colleges and universities. In addition, peer-based human sexuality discussions have been used as an adjunct to traditional human sexuality pedagogic programs over the last 20 years. Whereas ample evidence suggests that…

  17. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  18. Body Posture Facilitates Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Katinka; Kaschak, Michael P.; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2007-01-01

    We assessed potential facilitation of congruent body posture on access to and retention of autobiographical memories in younger and older adults. Response times were shorter when body positions during prompted retrieval of autobiographical events were similar to the body positions in the original events than when body position was incongruent.…

  19. Career Planning for Minority Women. Facilitator's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Stanlie M., Ed.

    This facilitator's manual consists of guidelines and materials for use in conducting a workshop dealing with career planning for minority women. Covered in the first half of the manual are the following aspects of implementing the workshop: background on the need for and development of the workshop, a workshop outline and time schedule, the…

  20. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  1. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  2. Facilitating Sustainable Professional Development through Lesson Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jodie; Back, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    Developing sustainable professional development which facilitates teachers of mathematics to develop effective mathematics pedagogy has been a key aim in recent years. This paper examines how lesson study can be used with networks of teachers as a vehicle to promote and sustain professional development. Drawing on findings from a year-long study…

  3. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  4. Supervisor Behaviours that Facilitate Training Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Sue; Di Milia, Lee; Cameron, Roslyn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the supervisor behaviours that employees found to be helpful and unhelpful in facilitating training transfer. The study aims to provide rich qualitative data from the employee's perspective. Design/methodology/approach: This study utilises a cross-sectional design. A case study and a qualitative…

  5. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  6. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  7. 36 CFR 1192.2 - Equivalent facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Equivalent facilitation. 1192.2 Section 1192.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION...

  8. Infant-Directed Speech Facilitates Word Segmentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Hill, Emily A.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2005-01-01

    There are reasons to believe that infant-directed (ID) speech may make language acquisition easier for infants. However, the effects of ID speech on infants' learning remain poorly understood. The experiments reported here assess whether ID speech facilitates word segmentation from fluent speech. One group of infants heard a set of nonsense…

  9. How Academic Teachers Perceive and Facilitate Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjørner, Thomas; Kofoed, Lise Busk

    2013-01-01

    We will present a case study result from a cross-disciplinary education called Medialogy, which is taught in the Technical and Science Faculty at Aalborg University. The aim of Medialogy is to facilitate creativity within technical solutions. The intention of this paper is to answer the following: how do the Medialogy teachers perceive creativity…

  10. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  11. Facilitating Team Learning through Transformational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raes, Elisabeth; Decuyper, Stefan; Lismont, Bart; Van den Bossche, Piet; Kyndt, Eva; Demeyere, Sybille; Dochy, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates when and how teams engage in team learning behaviours (TLB). More specifically, it looks into how different leadership styles facilitate TLB by influencing the social conditions that proceed them. 498 healthcare workers from 28 nursery teams filled out a questionnaire measuring the concepts leadership style, TLB, social…

  12. Facilitation of Retention by White Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumeister, Alfred A.; Kistler, Doris

    1975-01-01

    This study attempted to determine if white noise (an arousing stimulus), when presented at the time of recall, facilitates performance of second and fifth grade students, and if this effect generalizes across different kinds of learning tasks. Findings indicate that white noise produces improvements in performance in both age groups. (GO)

  13. International Collaborative Learning--The Facilitation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clear, A. G.

    International collaborative learning is becoming more viable through a variety of Internet enabled software products. Group Support Systems appear to offer promise. But it is not well understood how to facilitate the teaching and learning process in electronic environments. If education is to involve an interactive process of collaborative inquiry…

  14. 31 CFR 538.206 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 538.206 Section 538.206 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  15. 31 CFR 537.205 - Prohibited facilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Prohibited facilitation. 537.205 Section 537.205 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS...

  16. Antidisialoganglioside/granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor fusion protein facilitates neutrophil antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and depends on FcgammaRII (CD32) and Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) for enhanced effector cell adhesion and azurophil granule exocytosis.

    PubMed

    Metelitsa, Leonid S; Gillies, Stephen D; Super, Michael; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Reynolds, C Patrick; Seeger, Robert C

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), which is increased by the addition of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We sought to determine whether PMN ADCC also would be increased by the addition of an antibody/GM-CSF fusion protein and whether this would be associated with the up-regulation and activation of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and with azurophil granule exocytosis. ADCC against LA-N-1 human neuroblastoma cells was evaluated with 4-hour calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) microcytotoxicity assay, electron microscopy, and multi-parameter flow cytometry. With the calcein-AM assay, LA-N-1 cell survival was 10%, 55%, and 75% when PMN ADCC was mediated by the antidisialoganglioside (anti-GD2) immunocytokine hu14.18/GM-CSF, by monoclonal antibody (mAb) hu14.18 mixed with GM-CSF, and by hu14.18 alone. Function-blocking mAbs demonstrated that FcgammaRII and FcgammaRIII were required for ADCC with hu14.18 alone or mixed with GM-CSF, but that only FcgammaRII was required for ADCC with hu14.18/GM-CSF. ADCC mediated by hu14.18 and hu14.18/GM-CSF was Mac-1 dependent. Electron microscopy demonstrated the greatest PMN adhesion, spreading, and lysis of targets with hu14.18/GM-CSF. Monoclonal antibodies blocking Mac-1 function allowed the tethering of PMN to targets with hu14.18/GM-CSF but prevented adhesion, spreading, and cytolysis. Flow cytometry showed that hu14.18 with or without GM-CSF and hu14.18/GM-CSF all mediated Mac-1-dependent PMN-target cell conjugate formation but that GM-CSF was required for the highest expression and activation of Mac-1, as evidenced by the mAb24-defined beta(2)-integrin activation epitope. Hu14.18/GM-CSF induced the highest sustained azurophil granule exocytosis, almost exclusively in PMNs with activated Mac-1. Thus, hu14.18/GM-CSF facilitates PMN ADCC against neuroblastoma cells associated with FcgammaRII and Mac-1-dependent enhanced adhesion and degranulation.

  17. Facilitated communication and authorship: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Balandin, Susan; Hemsley, Bronwyn; Iacono, Teresa; Probst, Paul; von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    Facilitated Communication (FC) is a technique whereby individuals with disabilities and communication impairments allegedly select letters by typing on a keyboard while receiving physical support, emotional encouragement, and other communication supports from facilitators. The validity of FC stands or falls on the question of who is authoring the typed messages--the individual with a disability or the facilitator. The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) formed an Ad Hoc Committee on FC and charged this committee to synthesize the evidence base related to this question in order to develop a position statement. The purpose of this paper is to report this synthesis of the extant peer-reviewed literature on the question of authorship in FC. A multi-faceted search was conducted including electronic database searches, ancestry searches, and contacting selected authors. The authors considered synopses of systematic reviews, and systematic reviews, which were supplemented with individual studies not included in any prior reviews. Additionally, documents submitted by the membership were screened for inclusion. The evidence was classified into articles that provided (a) quantitative experimental data related to the authorship of messages, (b) quantitative descriptive data on the output generated through FC without testing of authorship, (c) qualitative descriptive data on the output generated via FC without testing of authorship, and (d) anecdotal reports in which writers shared their perspectives on FC. Only documents with quantitative experimental data were analyzed for authorship. Results indicated unequivocal evidence for facilitator control: messages generated through FC are authored by the facilitators rather than the individuals with disabilities. Hence, FC is a technique that has no validity.

  18. Examining Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to School Social Work Practice with Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, James P.

    2014-01-01

    School social workers are at the forefront of serving homeless children and youths as they pursue education. Because of the negative impact homelessness can have on academic outcomes for children, understanding what factors are perceived to either hinder or facilitate practice and what factors might influence perceptions of practice with this…

  19. Barriers and facilitators of sports in Dutch Paralympic athletes: An explorative study.

    PubMed

    Jaarsma, E A; Geertzen, J H B; de Jong, R; Dijkstra, P U; Dekker, R

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight in barriers and facilitators of sports in paralympic athletes. An online questionnaire was distributed through the Netherlands Olympic Committee and National Sports Confederation to determine personal and environmental barriers and facilitators of sports participation. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health model and theory of planned behavior were used to respectively categorize the results in environmental and personal factors, and attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control. Seventy-six Dutch Paralympic athletes completed the questionnaire (51% response rate). Barriers and facilitators experienced by ambulant and wheelchair athletes were compared. Most frequently mentioned personal barrier was dependency of others (22%), while most frequently mentioned environmental barrier was lack of sports facilities (30%). Wheelchair athletes mentioned more barriers (median = 3, interquartile range: 0.5-6), than ambulant athletes (median = 1.0,interquartile range:0.0-3.0, P = 0.023). One-third of the athletes did not experience any barriers. Most frequently mentioned personal facilitators to initiate sports participation were fun (78%), health (61%), and competition (53%). Most frequently mentioned environmental facilitator was social support (40%). This study indicated that barriers of sport were mostly environmental, while facilitators were usually personal factors. Attitude and subjective norm were considered the most important components for intention to participation in sports. The facilitators outweighed the barriers and kept the athletes being active in sports. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A qualitative study of barriers and facilitators of the charge nurse role.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Lynne M; Yoder, Linda H

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the barriers and facilitators to the role of charge nurse at a medical center. The authors interviewed 42 nursing personnel, including charge nurses (12), head nurses (10), staff nurses (11), and supervisory personnel (9). A total of 24 barriers and facilitators in three categories were identified: personal (11), interpersonal (8), and organizational (5). These factors could be used to inform developmental coaching and educational programs for charge nurses.