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Sample records for factor rbp-j-mediated signaling

  1. Transcription factor RBP-J-mediated signalling regulates basophil immunoregulatory function in mouse asthma model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Shuo-Yao; He, Ya-Long; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Chang-Gui

    2017-09-01

    Basophils (BA) play an important role in the promotion of aberrant T helper type 2 (Th2) immune responses in asthma. It is not only the effective cell, but also modulates the initiation of Th2 immune responses. We earlier demonstrated that Notch signalling regulates the biological function of BAin vitro. However, whether this pathway plays the same role in vivo is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Notch signalling on BA function in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation in a murine model of asthma. Bone marrow BA were prepared by bone marrow cell culture in the presence of recombinant interleukin-3 (rIL-3; 300 pg/ml) for 7 days, followed by isolation of the CD49b(+) microbeads. The recombination signal binding protein J (RBP-J(-/-) ) BA were co-cultured with T cells, and the supernatant and the T-cell subtypes were examined. The results indicated disruption of the capacity of BA for antigen presentation alongside an up-regulation of the immunoregulatory function. This was possibly due to the low expression of OX40L in the RBP-J(-/-) BA. Basophils were adoptively transferred to ovalbumin-sensitized recipient mice, to establish an asthma model. Lung pathology, cytokine profiles of brobchoalveolar fluid, airway hyperactivity and the absolute number of Th1/Th2 cells in lungs were determined. Overall, our results indicate that the RBP-J-mediated Notch signalling is critical for BA-dependent immunoregulation. Deficiency of RBP-J influences the immunoregulatory functions of BA, which include activation of T cells and their differentiation into T helper cell subtypes. The Notch signalling pathway is a potential therapeutic target for BA-based immunotherapy against asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Down-regulation of RBP-J mediated by microRNA-133a suppresses dendritic cells and functions as a potential tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuren; Han, Dong; Fan, Weimin

    2016-12-10

    In recent years, immunotherapy for the treatment of tumors have been established. Dendritic cells (DCs) are extremely efficient and professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), which are an important target for immune therapeutic interventions in cancer. In present study, we investigated whether RBP-J signaling regulated by miR-133a was involved in the DCs mediated tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma. DCs were isolated from 30 osteosarcoma patients and 30 healthy subjects. Mouse macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 were cultured and osteosarcoma mouse model with injection of murine osteosarcoma cell line S180 were established. In osteosarcoma patients, miR-133a expression level of DCs was increased, and RBP-J expression in mRNA and protein levels were decreased. MiR-133a inhibitor promoted maturation and activation of DCs in osteosarcoma patients. In osteosarcoma mouse model, miR-133a mimic suppressed the maturation and activation of spleen DCs, while miR-133a inhibitor promoted them. Overexpression of miR-133a decreased therapeutic effect of DCs on osteosarcoma mice. In RAW264.7 cells, miR-133a was observed to target RBP-J and regulate its expression. MiR-133a mimic inhibited the maturation of DCs in cells exposed to LPS, the effect of which was reversed by overexpression of RBP-J. RBP-J mediated by miR-133a probably contributed to the regulation of DCs maturation and activation in osteosarcoma, which functioned as a therapeutic target for the immunotherapy in cancers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Evolutionary origin of rhizobium Nod factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Streng, Arend; op den Camp, Rik; Bisseling, Ton

    2011-01-01

    For over two decades now, it is known that the nodule symbiosis between legume plants and nitrogen fixing rhizobium bacteria is set in motion by the bacterial signal molecule named nodulation (Nod) factor.1 Upon Nod factor perception a signaling cascade is activated that is also essential for endomycorrhizal symbiosis (Fig. 1). This suggests that rhizobium co-opted the evolutionary far more ancient mycorrhizal signaling pathway in order to establish an endosymbiotic interaction with legumes.2 As arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of the Glomeromycota phylum can establish a symbiosis with the vast majority of land plants, it is most probable that this signaling cascade is wide spread in the plant kingdom.3 However, Nod factor perception generally is considered to be unique to legumes. Two recent breakthroughs on the evolutionary origin of rhizobium Nod factor signaling demonstrate that this is not the case.4,5 The purification of Nod factor-like molecules excreted by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices and the role of the LysM-type Nod factor receptor PaNFP in the non-legume Parasponia andersonii provide novel understanding on the evolution of rhizobial Nod factor signaling. PMID:21904113

  4. An unnatural PIP simulates growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Swan, Laura

    2009-11-25

    In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Laketa et al. describe the synthesis of a membrane permeant phosphoinositide lipid that acts to stimulate PI(3,4,5)P(3)-dependent signaling without the need of growth factor stimulation.

  5. The Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The signaling component of the mammalian Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) family is comprised of eighteen secreted proteins that interact with four signaling tyrosine kinase FGF receptors (FGFRs). Interaction of FGF ligands with their signaling receptors is regulated by protein or proteoglycan cofactors and by extracellular binding proteins. Activated FGFRs phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues that mediate interaction with cytosolic adaptor proteins and the RAS-MAPK, PI3K-AKT, PLCγ, and STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Four structurally related intracellular non-signaling FGFs interact with and regulate the family of voltage gated sodium channels. Members of the FGF family function in the earliest stages of embryonic development and during organogenesis to maintain progenitor cells and mediate their growth, differentiation, survival, and patterning. FGFs also have roles in adult tissues where they mediate metabolic functions, tissue repair, and regeneration, often by reactivating developmental signaling pathways. Consistent with the presence of FGFs in almost all tissues and organs, aberrant activity of the pathway is associated with developmental defects that disrupt organogenesis, impair the response to injury, and result in metabolic disorders, and cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25772309

  6. Some Factors Affecting Time Reversal Signal Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevorovsky, Z.; Kober, J.

    Time reversal (TR) ultrasonic signal processing is now broadly used in a variety of applications, and also in NDE/NDT field. TR processing is used e.g. for S/N ratio enhancement, reciprocal transducer calibration, location, identification, and reconstruction of unknown sources, etc. TR procedure in con-junction with nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy NEWS is also useful for sensitive detection of defects (nonlinearity presence). To enlarge possibilities of acoustic emission (AE) method, we proposed the use of TR signal reconstruction ability for detected AE signals transfer from a structure with AE source onto a similar remote model of the structure (real or numerical), which allows easier source analysis under laboratory conditions. Though the TR signal reconstruction is robust regarding the system variations, some small differences and changes influence space-time TR focus and reconstruction quality. Experiments were performed on metallic parts of both simple and complicated geometry to examine effects of small changes of temperature or configuration (body shape, dimensions, transducers placement, etc.) on TR reconstruction quality. Results of experiments are discussed in this paper. Considering mathematical similarity between TR and Coda Wave Interferometry (CWI), prediction of signal reconstruction quality was possible using only the direct propagation. The results show how some factors like temperature or stress changes may deteriorate the TR reconstruction quality. It is also shown that sometimes the reconstruction quality is not enhanced using longer TR signal (S/N ratio may decrease).

  7. Growth factors, nutrient signaling, and cardiovascular aging

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Longo, Valter D.

    2012-01-01

    Growth factors regulated by specific macronutrients have been shown to promote aging and accelerate mortality in the great majority of the organisms studied. In particular, the enzymes activated by growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) in mammals and their orthologs in simple model organisms represent perhaps the best-understood proteins involved in the aging process. Dietary restriction (DR), which reduces the level of IGF-I and of other growth factors, has been associated with protection from diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases and deficiencies in GH signaling and IGF-I are strongly associated with protection from cancer and diabetes in both mice and humans, but their role in cardiac function and cardiovascular diseases is controversial. Here we review the link between growth factors, cardiac function and heart disease with focus on the cardioprotective and sensitizing effect of growth factors in both model organisms and humans. PMID:22499903

  8. Epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Shvartsman, Stanislav; Wiley, H. S.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2004-08-01

    Abstract: A peptide purified from the salivary gland of a mouse was shown few years ago to accelerate incisor eruption and eyelid opening in newborn mice, and was named epidermal growth factor (EGF). The members of this family of peptide growth factors had been identified in numerous physiological and pathological contexts. EGF binds to a cell surface EGF receptor, which induces a biochemical modification (phosphorylation) of the receptor's cytoplasmic tail. There is a growing consensus in the research community that, in addition to cellular and molecular studies, the dynamics of the EGFR network and its operation must be examined in tissues. A key challenge is to integrate the existing molecular and cellular information into a system-level description of the EGFR network at the tissue and organism level. In this paper, the two examples of EGFR signaling in tissues are described, and the recent efforts to model EGFR autocrine loops, which is a predominant mode of EGFR activation in vivo, are summarized.

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Metabolic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Vera J. M.; Sancar, Gencer; Liu, Weilin; van Zutphen, Tim; Struik, Dicky; Yu, Ruth T.; Atkins, Annette R.; Evans, Ronald M.; Jonker, Johan W.; Downes, Michael Robert

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is a growing health problem. Obesity is strongly associated with several comorbidities, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, certain cancers, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, which all reduce life expectancy and life quality. Several drugs have been put forward in order to treat these diseases, but many of them have detrimental side effects. The unexpected role of the family of fibroblast growth factors in the regulation of energy metabolism provides new approaches to the treatment of metabolic diseases and offers a valuable tool to gain more insight into metabolic regulation. The known beneficial effects of FGF19 and FGF21 on metabolism, together with recently discovered similar effects of FGF1 suggest that FGFs and their derivatives carry great potential as novel therapeutics to treat metabolic conditions. To facilitate the development of new therapies with improved targeting and minimal side effects, a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of FGFs is needed. In this review, we will discuss what is currently known about the physiological roles of FGF signaling in tissues important for metabolic homeostasis. In addition, we will discuss current concepts regarding their pharmacological properties and effector tissues in the context of metabolic disease. Also, the recent progress in the development of FGF variants will be reviewed. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive overview of the current concepts and consensuses regarding FGF signaling in metabolic health and disease and to provide starting points for the development of FGF-based therapies against metabolic conditions. PMID:26834701

  10. Tunable signal processing through modular control of transcription factor translocation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Nan; Budnik, Bogdan A; Gunawardena, Jeremy; O'Shea, Erin K

    2013-01-25

    Signaling pathways can induce different dynamics of transcription factor (TF) activation. We explored how TFs process signaling inputs to generate diverse dynamic responses. The budding yeast general stress-responsive TF Msn2 acted as a tunable signal processor that could track, filter, or integrate signals in an input-dependent manner. This tunable signal processing appears to originate from dual regulation of both nuclear import and export by phosphorylation, as mutants with one form of regulation sustained only one signal-processing function. Versatile signal processing by Msn2 is crucial for generating distinct dynamic responses to different natural stresses. Our findings reveal how complex signal-processing functions are integrated into a single molecule and provide a guide for the design of TFs with "programmable" signal-processing functions.

  11. Communication with a growing family: diffusible signal factor (DSF) signaling in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; Dow, J Maxwell

    2011-03-01

    Many pathogenic bacteria use cell-cell signaling to regulate the expression of factors contributing to virulence. Bacteria produce signals of diverse structural classes. The signal molecule known as diffusible signal factor (DSF) is a cis-unsaturated fatty acid that was first described in the plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris. Recent work has shown that structurally related molecules produced by the unrelated bacteria Burkholderia cenocepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate virulence, biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance in these important human pathogens. Furthermore, DSF family signals have been shown to be involved in interspecies signaling that modulates bacterial behavior. An understanding of these diverse signaling mechanisms could suggest strategies for interference, with consequences for disease control. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in the Developing Neuroendocrine Hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Pei-San; Brooks, Leah R.; Rochester, Johanna R.; Kavanaugh, Scott I.; Chung, Wilson C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is pivotal to the formation of numerous central regions. Increasing evidence suggests FGF signaling also directs the development of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus, a collection of neuroendocrine neurons originating primarily within the nose and the ventricular zone of the diencephalon. This review outlines evidence for a role of FGF signaling in the prenatal and postnatal development of several hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems. The emphasis is placed on the nasally derived gonadotropin- releasing hormone neurons, which depend on neurotrophic cues from FGF signaling throughout the neurons' lifetime. Although less is known about neuroendocrine neurons derived from the diencephalon, recent studies suggest they also exhibit variable levels of dependence on FGF signaling. Overall, FGF signaling provides a broad spectrum of cues that ranges from genesis, cell survival/death, migration, morphological changes, to hormone synthesis in the neuroendocrine hypothalamus. Abnormal FGF signaling will deleteriously impact multiple hypothalamic neuroendocrine systems, resulting in the disruption of diverse physiological functions. PMID:21129392

  13. Transforming growth factor β signaling in uterine development and function.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinglei

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily is evolutionarily conserved and plays fundamental roles in cell growth and differentiation. Mounting evidence supports its important role in female reproduction and development. TGFBs1-3 are founding members of this growth factor family, however, the in vivo function of TGFβ signaling in the uterus remains poorly defined. By drawing on mouse and human studies as a main source, this review focuses on the recent progress on understanding TGFβ signaling in the uterus. The review also considers the involvement of dysregulated TGFβ signaling in pathological conditions that cause pregnancy loss and fertility problems in women.

  14. An integrated signal transduction network of macrophage migration inhibitory factor.

    PubMed

    Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Variar, Prathyaksha; Advani, Jayshree; Nair, Bipin; Shankar, Subramanian; Gowda, Harsha; Saussez, Sven; Chatterjee, Aditi; Prasad, T S Keshava

    2016-06-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a glycosylated multi-functional protein that acts as an enzyme as well as a cytokine. MIF mediates its actions through a cell surface class II major histocompatibility chaperone, CD74 and co-receptors such as CD44, CXCR2, CXCR4 or CXCR7. MIF has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Although MIF is a molecule of biomedical importance, a public resource of MIF signaling pathway is currently lacking. In view of this, we carried out detailed data mining and documentation of the signaling events pertaining to MIF from published literature and developed an integrated reaction map of MIF signaling. This resulted in the cataloguing of 68 molecules belonging to MIF signaling pathway, which includes 24 protein-protein interactions, 44 post-translational modifications, 11 protein translocation events and 8 activation/inhibition events. In addition, 65 gene regulation events at the mRNA levels induced by MIF signaling have also been catalogued. This signaling pathway has been integrated into NetPath ( http://www.netpath.org ), a freely available human signaling pathway resource developed previously by our group. The MIF pathway data is freely available online in various community standard data exchange formats. We expect that data on signaling events and a detailed signaling map of MIF will provide the scientific community with an improved platform to facilitate further molecular as well as biomedical investigations on MIF.

  15. Endosomal Signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Stimulates Signal Transduction Pathways Leading to Cell Survival

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Pennock, Steven; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2002-01-01

    In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to generate endosomal signals without plasma membrane signaling. In this paper, we report the establishment of a system to specifically activate epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) when it endocytoses into endosomes. We treated cells with EGF in the presence of AG-1478, a specific EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and monensin, which blocks the recycling of EGFR. This treatment led to the internalization of nonactivated EGF-EGFR complexes into endosomes. The endosome-associated EGFR was then activated by removing AG-1478 and monensin. During this procedure we did not observe any surface EGFR phosphorylation. We also achieved specific activation of endosome-associated EGFR without using monensin. By using this system, we provided original evidence demonstrating that (i) the endosome can serve as a nucleation site for the formation of signaling complexes, (ii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to activate the major signaling pathways leading to cell proliferation and survival, and (iii) endosomal EGFR signaling is sufficient to suppress apoptosis induced by serum withdrawal. PMID:12242303

  16. Brassinosteroid signal transduction from receptor kinases to transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Wuk; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are growth-promoting steroid hormones in plants. Genetic studies in Arabidopsis illustrated the essential roles of BRs in a wide range of developmental processes and helped identify many genes involved in BR biosynthesis and signal transduction. Recently, proteomic studies identified missing links. Together, these approaches established the BR signal transduction cascade, which includes BR perception by the BRI1 receptor kinase at the cell surface, activation of BRI1/BAK1 kinase complex by transphosphorylation, subsequent phosphorylation of the BSK kinases, activation of the BSU1 phosphatase, dephosphorylation and inactivation of the BIN2 kinase, and accumulation of unphosphorylated BZR transcription factors in the nucleus. Mass spectrometric analyses are providing detailed information on the phosphorylation events involved in each step of signal relay. Thus, the BR signaling pathway provides a paradigm for understanding receptor kinase-mediated signal transduction as well as tools for the genetic improvement of the productivity of crop plants.

  17. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in skeletal development and disease

    PubMed Central

    Ornitz, David M.; Marie, Pierre J.

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways are essential regulators of vertebrate skeletal development. FGF signaling regulates development of the limb bud and formation of the mesenchymal condensation and has key roles in regulating chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and bone and mineral homeostasis. This review updates our review on FGFs in skeletal development published in Genes & Development in 2002, examines progress made on understanding the functions of the FGF signaling pathway during critical stages of skeletogenesis, and explores the mechanisms by which mutations in FGF signaling molecules cause skeletal malformations in humans. Links between FGF signaling pathways and other interacting pathways that are critical for skeletal development and could be exploited to treat genetic diseases and repair bone are also explored. PMID:26220993

  18. Fibroblast growth factor signaling during early vertebrate development.

    PubMed

    Böttcher, Ralph T; Niehrs, Christof

    2005-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been implicated in diverse cellular processes including apoptosis, cell survival, chemotaxis, cell adhesion, migration, differentiation, and proliferation. This review presents our current understanding on the roles of FGF signaling, the pathways employed, and its regulation. We focus on FGF signaling during early embryonic processes in vertebrates, such as induction and patterning of the three germ layers as well as its function in the control of morphogenetic movements.

  19. Burkholderia Diffusible Signal Factor Signals to Francisella novicida To Disperse Biofilm and Increase Siderophore Production.

    PubMed

    Dean, Scott N; Chung, Myung-Chul; van Hoek, Monique L

    2015-10-01

    In many bacteria, the ability to modulate biofilm production relies on specific signaling molecules that are either self-produced or made by neighboring microbes within the ecological niche. We analyzed the potential interspecies signaling effect of the Burkholderia diffusible signal factor (BDSF) on Francisella novicida, a model organism for Francisella tularensis, and demonstrated that BDSF both inhibits the formation and causes the dispersion of Francisella biofilm. Specificity was demonstrated for the cis versus the trans form of BDSF. Using transcriptome sequencing, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and activity assays, we found that BDSF altered the expression of many F. novicida genes, including genes involved in biofilm formation, such as chitinases. Using a chitinase inhibitor, the antibiofilm activity of BDSF was also shown to be chitinase dependent. In addition, BDSF caused an increase in RelA expression and increased levels of (p)ppGpp, leading to decreased biofilm production. These results support our observation that exposure of F. novicida to BDSF causes biofilm dispersal. Furthermore, BDSF upregulated the genes involved in iron acquisition (figABCD), increasing siderophore production. Thus, this study provides evidence for a potential role and mechanism of diffusible signal factor (DSF) signaling in the genus Francisella and suggests the possibility of interspecies signaling between Francisella and other bacteria. Overall, this study suggests that in response to the interspecies DSF signal, F. novicida can alter its gene expression and regulate its biofilm formation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Teven, Chad M; Farina, Evan M; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R

    2014-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development.

  1. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in development and skeletal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Teven, Chad M.; Farina, Evan M.; Rivas, Jane; Reid, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and their receptors serve many functions in both the developing and adult organism. Humans contain 18 FGF ligands and four FGF receptors (FGFR). FGF ligands are polypeptide growth factors that regulate several developmental processes including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and migration, morphogenesis, and patterning. FGF-FGFR signaling is also critical to the developing axial and craniofacial skeleton. In particular, the signaling cascade has been implicated in intramembranous ossification of cranial bones as well as cranial suture homeostasis. In the adult, FGFs and FGFRs are crucial for tissue repair. FGF signaling generally follows one of three transduction pathways: RAS/MAP kinase, PI3/AKT, or PLCγ. Each pathway likely regulates specific cellular behaviors. Inappropriate expression of FGF and improper activation of FGFRs are associated with various pathologic conditions, unregulated cell growth, and tumorigenesis. Additionally, aberrant signaling has been implicated in many skeletal abnormalities including achondroplasia and craniosynostosis. The biology and mechanisms of the FGF family have been the subject of significant research over the past 30 years. Recently, work has focused on the therapeutic targeting and potential of FGF ligands and their associated receptors. The majority of FGF-related therapy is aimed at age-related disorders. Increased understanding of FGF signaling and biology may reveal additional therapeutic roles, both in utero and postnatally. This review discusses the role of FGF signaling in general physiologic and pathologic embryogenesis and further explores it within the context of skeletal development. PMID:25679016

  2. The statistical mechanics of complex signaling networks: nerve growth factor signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, K. S.; Hill, C. C.; Calero, G. A.; Myers, C. R.; Lee, K. H.; Sethna, J. P.; Cerione, R. A.

    2004-10-01

    The inherent complexity of cellular signaling networks and their importance to a wide range of cellular functions necessitates the development of modeling methods that can be applied toward making predictions and highlighting the appropriate experiments to test our understanding of how these systems are designed and function. We use methods of statistical mechanics to extract useful predictions for complex cellular signaling networks. A key difficulty with signaling models is that, while significant effort is being made to experimentally measure the rate constants for individual steps in these networks, many of the parameters required to describe their behavior remain unknown or at best represent estimates. To establish the usefulness of our approach, we have applied our methods toward modeling the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced differentiation of neuronal cells. In particular, we study the actions of NGF and mitogenic epidermal growth factor (EGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Through a network of intermediate signaling proteins, each of these growth factors stimulates extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) phosphorylation with distinct dynamical profiles. Using our modeling approach, we are able to predict the influence of specific signaling modules in determining the integrated cellular response to the two growth factors. Our methods also raise some interesting insights into the design and possible evolution of cellular systems, highlighting an inherent property of these systems that we call 'sloppiness.'

  3. A comprehensive pathway map of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Kanae; Matsuoka, Yukiko; Funahashi, Akira; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2005-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway is one of the most important pathways that regulate growth, survival, proliferation, and differentiation in mammalian cells. Reflecting this importance, it is one of the best-investigated signaling systems, both experimentally and computationally, and several computational models have been developed for dynamic analysis. A map of molecular interactions of the EGFR signaling system is a valuable resource for research in this area. In this paper, we present a comprehensive pathway map of EGFR signaling and other related pathways. The map reveals that the overall architecture of the pathway is a bow-tie (or hourglass) structure with several feedback loops. The map is created using CellDesigner software that enables us to graphically represent interactions using a well-defined and consistent graphical notation, and to store it in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML). PMID:16729045

  4. Signaling Mechanisms for Activation of Extracytoplasmic Function (ECF) Sigma Factors

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Benjamin E.; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary A variety of mechanisms are used to signal extracytoplasmic conditions to the cytoplasm. These mechanisms activate extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors which recruit RNA-polymerase to specific genes in order to express appropriate proteins in response to the changing environment. The two best understood ECF signaling pathways regulate σE-mediated expression of periplasmic stress response genes in Escherichia coli and FecI-mediated expression of iron-citrate transport genes in E. coli. Homologues from other Gram-negative bacteria suggest that these two signaling mechanisms and variations on these mechanisms may be the general schemes by which ECF sigma factors are regulated in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:17673165

  5. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in mammalian tooth development.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ying; Prochazka, Jan; Goodwin, Alice F; Klein, Ophir D

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the central role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling in mammalian tooth development. The FGF family consists of 22 members, most of which bind to four different receptor tyrosine kinases, which in turn signal through a cascade of intracellular proteins. This signaling regulates a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and cell mobility. FGF signaling first becomes important in the presumptive dental epithelium at the initiation stage of tooth development, and subsequently, it controls the invagination of the dental epithelium into the underlying mesenchyme. Later, FGFs are critical in tooth shape formation and differentiation of ameloblasts and odontoblasts, as well as in the development and homeostasis of the stem cell niche that fuels the continuously growing mouse incisor. In addition, FGF signaling is critical in human teeth, as mutations in genes encoding FGF ligands or receptors result in several congenital syndromes characterized by alterations in tooth number, morphology or enamel structure. The parallel roles of FGF signaling in mouse and human tooth development demonstrate the conserved importance of FGF signaling in mammalian odontogenesis.

  6. Application of homomorphic signal processing to stress wave factor analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karagulle, H.; Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The stress wave factor (SWF) signal, which is the output of an ultrasonic testing system where the transmitting and receiving transducers are coupled to the same face of the test structure, is analyzed in the frequency domain. The SWF signal generated in an isotropic elastic plate is modelled as the superposition of successive reflections. The reflection which is generated by the stress waves which travel p times as a longitudinal (P) wave and s times as a shear (S) wave through the plate while reflecting back and forth between the bottom and top faces of the plate is designated as the reflection with p, s. Short-time portions of the SWF signal are considered for obtaining spectral information on individual reflections. If the significant reflections are not overlapped, the short-time Fourier analysis is used. A summary of the elevant points of homomorphic signal processing, which is also called cepstrum analysis, is given. Homomorphic signal processing is applied to short-time SWF signals to obtain estimates of the log spectra of individual reflections for cases in which the reflections are overlapped. Two typical SWF signals generated in aluminum plates (overlapping and non-overlapping reflections) are analyzed.

  7. Characterization of a diffusible signaling factor from Xylella fastidiosa.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Ellen D; Ionescu, Michael; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Yokota, Kenji; Trauner, Dirk; Lindow, Steven

    2013-01-08

    Cell-cell signaling in Xylella fastidiosa has been implicated in the coordination of traits enabling colonization in plant hosts as well as insect vectors. This cell density-dependent signaling has been attributed to a diffusible signaling factor (DSF) produced by the DSF synthase RpfF. DSF produced by related bacterial species are unsaturated fatty acids, but that of X. fastidiosa was thought to be different from those of other taxa. We describe here the isolation and characterization of an X. fastidiosa DSF (XfDSF) as 2(Z)-tetradecenoic acid. This compound was isolated both from recombinant Erwinia herbicola expressing X. fastidiosa rpfF and from an X. fastidiosa rpfC deletion mutant that overproduces DSF. Since an rpfF mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and underexpresses the hemagglutinin-like protein-encoding genes hxfA and hxfB, we demonstrate that these traits can be restored by ca. 0.5 µM XfDSF but not by myristic acid, the fully saturated tetradecenoic acid. A phoA-based X. fastidiosa biosensor that assesses DSF-dependent expression of hxfA or hxfB revealed a high level of molecular specificity of DSF signaling. X. fastidiosa causes diseases in many important plants, including grape, where it incites Pierce's disease. Virulence of X. fastidiosa for grape is coordinated by cell-cell signaling molecules, designated DSF (Diffusible Signaling Factor). Mutants blocked in DSF production are hypervirulent for grape, suggesting that virulence is suppressed upon DSF accumulation and that disease could be controlled by artificial elevation of the DSF level in plants. In this work, we describe the isolation of the DSF produced by X. fastidiosa and the verification of its biological activity as an antivirulence factor. We also have developed X. fastidiosa DSF biosensors to evaluate the specificity of cell-cell signaling to be investigated.

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signalling in cancer: rapidly emerging signalling landscape.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Ammad Ahmad; Siddik, Zahid H

    2015-07-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-mediated signalling has emerged as one of the most extensively and deeply studied biological mechanism reported to be involved in regulation of growth and survival of different cell types. However, overwhelmingly increasing scientific evidence is also emphasizing on dysregulation of spatio-temporally controlled PDGF-induced signalling as a basis for cancer development. We partition this multi-component review into recently developing understanding of dysregulation PDGF signalling in different cancers, how PDGF receptors are quantitatively controlled by microRNAs. Moreover, we also summarize most recent advancements in therapeutic targeting of PDGFR as evidenced by preclinical studies. Better understanding of the PDGF-induced intracellular signalling in different cancers will be helpful in catalysing the transition from a segmented view of cancer biology to a conceptual continuum.

  9. Signaling factor interactions with polysaccharide aggregates of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    DeSalvo, Stephen C; Liu, Yating; Choudhary, Geetika Sanjay; Ren, Dacheng; Nangia, Shikha; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2015-02-17

    Biofilms are surface-attached colonies of bacteria embedded in an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Inside the eukaryotic hosts, bacterial biofilms interact with the host cells through signaling factors (SFs). These signaling processes play important roles in the interaction between bacteria and host cells and the outcome of infections and symbiosis. However, how host immune factors diffuse through biofilms is not well understood. Here, we describe synergistic molecular dynamics and experimental approaches for studying the translocation of signaling factors through polysaccharide chain aggregates present in the extracellular matrix of bacterial biofilms. The effect of polysaccharide chain degradation on the energetics of SF-EPS interactions was examined by simulating an EPS consisting of various polysaccharide chain lengths. It is shown that the SF stabilization energy, defined as the average potential of mean force difference between the environments outside and within the matrix, increases linearly with decreasing chain length. This effect has been explained based on the changes in the polysaccharide configurations around the SF. Specifically, shorter chains are packed tightly around the SF, promoting favorable SF-EPS interactions, while longer chains are packed loosely resulting in screening of interactions with neighboring chains. We further investigated the translocation of SFs through the host cell membrane using molecular dynamics simulations. Further, simulations predict the existence of energy barriers greater than 1000 kJ mol(-1) associated with the translocation of the signaling factors necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) across the lipid bilayer. The agreement of computational and experimental findings motivates future computational studies using a more detailed description of the EPS aimed at understanding the role of the extracellular matrix on biofilm drug resistance.

  10. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ann-Lii; Shen, Ying-Chun; Zhu, Andrew X

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the primary type of liver cancer, and both the age-adjusted incidence and mortality of HCC have steadily increased in recent years. Advanced HCC is associated with a very poor survival rate. Despite accumulating data regarding the risk factors for HCC, the mechanisms that contribute to HCC tumorigenesis remain poorly understood. Signaling through the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is involved in fibrosis and its progression to cirrhosis of the liver, which is a risk factor for the development of HCC. Furthermore, several alterations in FGF/FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling correlate with the outcomes of HCC patients, suggesting that signaling through this family of proteins contributes to the development or progression of HCC tumors. Currently, there are no established systemic treatments for patients with advanced HCC in whom sorafenib treatment has failed or who were unable to tolerate it. Recently, several multikinase inhibitors that target FGFRs have demonstrated some early evidence of antitumor activity in phase I/II trials. Therefore, this review discusses the molecular implications of FGFR-mediated signaling in HCC and summarizes the clinical evidence for novel FGFR-targeted therapies for HCC currently being studied in clinical trials.

  11. Mechanotransduction and Growth Factor Signalling to Engineer Cellular Microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Cipitria, Amaia; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Engineering cellular microenvironments involves biochemical factors, the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the interaction with neighbouring cells. This progress report provides a critical overview of key studies that incorporate growth factor (GF) signalling and mechanotransduction into the design of advanced microenvironments. Materials systems have been developed for surface-bound presentation of GFs, either covalently tethered or sequestered through physico-chemical affinity to the matrix, as an alternative to soluble GFs. Furthermore, some materials contain both GF and integrin binding regions and thereby enable synergistic signalling between the two. Mechanotransduction refers to the ability of the cells to sense physical properties of the ECM and to transduce them into biochemical signals. Various aspects of the physics of the ECM, i.e. stiffness, geometry and ligand spacing, as well as time-dependent properties, such as matrix stiffening, degradability, viscoelasticity, surface mobility as well as spatial patterns and gradients of physical cues are discussed. To conclude, various examples illustrate the potential for cooperative signalling of growth factors and the physical properties of the microenvironment for potential applications in regenerative medicine, cancer research and drug testing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Platelet-activating factor: receptors and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Chao, W; Olson, M S

    1993-06-15

    During the past two decades, studies describing the chemistry and biology of PAF have been extensive. This potent phosphoacylglycerol exhibits a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological effects in various cells and tissues. PAF acts, through specific receptors and a variety of signal transduction systems, to elicit diverse biochemical responses. Several important future directions can be enumerated for the characterization of PAF receptors and their attendant signalling mechanisms. The recent cloning and sequence analysis of the gene for the PAF receptor will allow a number of important experimental approaches for characterizing the structure and analysing the function of the various domains of the receptor. Using molecular genetic and immunological technologies, questions relating to whether there is receptor heterogeneity, the precise mechanism(s) for the regulation of the PAF receptor, and the molecular details of the signalling mechanisms in which the PAF receptor is involved can be explored. Another area of major significance is the examination of the relationship between the signalling response(s) evoked by PAF binding to its receptor and signalling mechanisms activated by a myriad of other mediators, cytokines and growth factors. A very exciting recent development in which PAF receptors undoubtedly play a role is in the regulation of the function of various cellular adhesion molecules. Finally, there remain many incompletely characterized physiological and pathophysiological situations in which PAF and its receptor play a crucial signalling role. Our laboratory has been active in the elucidation of several tissue responses in which PAF exhibits major autocoid signalling responses, e.g. hepatic injury and inflammation, acute and chronic pancreatitis, and cerebral stimulation and/or trauma. As new experimental strategies are developed for characterizing the fine structure of the molecular mechanisms involved in tissue injury and inflammation, the

  13. Neurodevelopmental effects of insulin-like growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    O’Kusky, John; Ye, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling greatly impacts the development and growth of the central nervous system (CNS). IGF-I and IGF-II, two ligands of the IGF system, exert a wide variety of actions both during development and in adulthood, promoting the survival and proliferation of neural cells. The IGFs also influence the growth and maturation of neural cells, augmenting dendritic growth and spine formation, axon outgrowth, synaptogenesis, and myelination. Specific IGF actions, however, likely depend on cell type, developmental stage, and local microenvironmental milieu within the brain. Emerging research also indicates that alterations in IGF signaling likely contribute to the pathogenesis of some neurological disorders. This review summarizes experimental studies and shed light on the critical roles of IGF signaling, as well as its mechanisms, during CNS development. PMID:22710100

  14. Signal Transduction by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Sina; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are master regulators of vascular development and of blood and lymphatic vessel function during health and disease in the adult. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of action of this family of five mammalian ligands, which act through three receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In addition, coreceptors like neuropilins (NRPs) and integrins associate with the ligand/receptor signaling complex and modulate the output. Therapeutics to block several of the VEGF signaling components have been developed with the aim to halt blood vessel formation, angiogenesis, in diseases that involve tissue growth and inflammation, such as cancer. In this review, we outline the current information on VEGF signal transduction in relation to blood and lymphatic vessel biology. PMID:22762016

  15. Autocrine motility factor modulates EGF-mediated invasion signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Dhong Hyo; Zhang, Tianpeng; Balan, Vitaly; Yi, Wang; Ha, Seung-Wook; Xie, Youming; Raz, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Autocrine motility factor (AMF) enhances invasion by breast cancer cells, but how its secretion and effector signaling are controlled in the tumor microenvironment is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated these issues with a chimeric AMF that is secreted at high levels through a canonical ER/Golgi pathway. Using this tool, we found that AMF enhances tumor cell motility by activating AKT/ERK, altering actin organization and stimulating β-catenin/TCF and AP-1 transcription. EGF enhanced secretion of AMF through its casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation. RNAi-mediated attenuation of AMF expression inhibited EGF-induced invasion by suppressing ERK signaling. Conversely, exogenous AMF overcame the inhibitory effect of EGFR inhibitor gefitinib on invasive motility by activating HER2 signaling. Taken together, our findings show how AMF modulates EGF-induced invasion while affecting acquired resistance to cytotoxic drugs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24576828

  16. DELLA-mediated gibberellin signalling regulates Nod factor signalling and rhizobial infection

    PubMed Central

    Fonouni-Farde, Camille; Tan, Sovanna; Baudin, Maël; Brault, Mathias; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S.; Niebel, Andreas; Frugier, Florian; Diet, Anouck

    2016-01-01

    Legumes develop symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria to form nitrogen-fixing nodules. Bacterial Nod factors (NFs) and plant regulatory pathways modulating NF signalling control rhizobial infections and nodulation efficiency. Here we show that gibberellin (GA) signalling mediated by DELLA proteins inhibits rhizobial infections and controls the NF induction of the infection marker ENOD11 in Medicago truncatula. Ectopic expression of a constitutively active DELLA protein in the epidermis is sufficient to promote ENOD11 expression in the absence of symbiotic signals. We show using heterologous systems that DELLA proteins can interact with the nodulation signalling pathway 2 (NSP2) and nuclear factor-YA1 (NF-YA1) transcription factors that are essential for the activation of NF responses. Furthermore, MtDELLA1 can bind the ERN1 (ERF required for nodulation 1) promoter and positively transactivate its expression. Overall, we propose that GA-dependent action of DELLA proteins may directly regulate the NSP1/NSP2 and NF-YA1 activation of ERN1 transcription to regulate rhizobial infections. PMID:27586842

  17. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carlton M

    2011-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) consist of four signaling family members and one nonsignaling "decoy" receptor, Fgfr-like 1 (Fgfrl1), all of which are expressed in the developing kidney. Several studies have shown that exogenous fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) affect growth and maturation of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and ureteric bud (UB) in cultured tissues. Transgenic and conditional knockout approaches in whole animals have shown that Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 (predominantly the IIIc isoform) in kidney mesenchyme are critical for early MM and UB formation. Conditional deletion of the ligand, Fgf8, in nephron precursors or global deletion of Fgfrl1 interrupts nephron formation. Fgfr2 (likely the IIIb isoform signaling downstream of Fgf7 and Fgf10) is critical for ureteric morphogenesis. Moreover, Fgfr2 appears to act independently of Frs2α (the major signaling adapter for Fgfrs) in regulating UB branching. Loss of Fgfr2 in the MM leads to many kidney and urinary tract anomalies, including vesicoureteral reflux. Thus Fgfr signaling is critical for patterning of virtually all renal lineages at early and later stages of development.

  18. Body size regulation and insulin-like growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Seogang

    2013-07-01

    How animals achieve their specific body size is a fundamental, but still largely unresolved, biological question. Over the past decades, studies on the insect model system have provided some important insights into the process of body size determination and highlighted the importance of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling. Fat body, the Drosophila counterpart of liver and adipose tissue, senses nutrient availability and controls larval growth rate by modulating peripheral insulin signaling. Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I produced from liver and muscle promotes postnatal body growth in mammals. Organismal growth is tightly coupled with the process of sexual maturation wherein the sex steroid hormone attenuates body growth. This review summarizes some important findings from Drosophila and mammalian studies that shed light on the general mechanism of animal size determination.

  19. Diffusible signal factor-dependent cell-cell signaling and virulence in the nosocomial pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

    PubMed

    Fouhy, Yvonne; Scanlon, Karl; Schouest, Katherine; Spillane, Charles; Crossman, Lisa; Avison, Matthew B; Ryan, Robert P; Dow, J Maxwell

    2007-07-01

    The genome of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia encodes a cell-cell signaling system that is highly related to the diffusible signal factor (DSF)-dependent system of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris. Here we show that in S. maltophilia, DSF signaling controls factors contributing to the virulence and antibiotic resistance of this important nosocomial pathogen.

  20. Signaling with homeoprotein transcription factors in development and throughout adulthood.

    PubMed

    Prochiantz, A

    2013-09-01

    The concept of homeoprotein transduction as a novel signaling pathway has dramatically evolved since it was first proposed in 1991. It is now well established in several biological systems from plants to mammals. In this review, the different steps that have led to this unexpected observation are recalled and the developmental and physiological models that have allowed us (and a few others) to consolidate the original hypothesis are described. Because homeoprotein signaling is active in plants and animals it is proposed that it has predated the separation between animals and plants and is thus very ancient. This may explain why the basic phenomenon of homeoprotein transduction is so minimalist, requiring no specific receptors or transduction pathways beside those offered by mitochondria, organelles present in all eukaryotic cells. Indeed complexity has been added in the course of evolution and the conservation of homeoprotein transduction is discussed in the context of its synergy with bona fide signaling mechanism that may have added robustness to this primitive cell communication device. The same synergy possibly explains why homeoprotein signaling is important both in embryonic development and in adult functions fulfilled by signaling entities (e.g. growth factors) themselves active throughout development and in the adult. The cell biological mechanism of homeoprotein transfer is also discussed. Although it is clear that many questions are still in want of precise answers, it appears that the sequences responsible both for secretion and internalization are in the DNA-binding domain and very highly conserved among most homeoproteins. On this basis, it is proposed that this signaling pathway is likely to imply as many as 200 proteins that participate in a myriad of developmental and physiological pathways.

  1. Characterization of a Diffusible Signaling Factor from Xylella fastidiosa

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Ellen D.; Ionescu, Michael; Chatterjee, Subhadeep; Yokota, Kenji; Trauner, Dirk; Lindow, Steven

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell-cell signaling in Xylella fastidiosa has been implicated in the coordination of traits enabling colonization in plant hosts as well as insect vectors. This cell density-dependent signaling has been attributed to a diffusible signaling factor (DSF) produced by the DSF synthase RpfF. DSF produced by related bacterial species are unsaturated fatty acids, but that of X. fastidiosa was thought to be different from those of other taxa. We describe here the isolation and characterization of an X. fastidiosa DSF (XfDSF) as 2(Z)-tetradecenoic acid. This compound was isolated both from recombinant Erwinia herbicola expressing X. fastidiosa rpfF and from an X. fastidiosa rpfC deletion mutant that overproduces DSF. Since an rpfF mutant is impaired in biofilm formation and underexpresses the hemagglutinin-like protein-encoding genes hxfA and hxfB, we demonstrate that these traits can be restored by ca. 0.5 µM XfDSF but not by myristic acid, the fully saturated tetradecenoic acid. A phoA-based X. fastidiosa biosensor that assesses DSF-dependent expression of hxfA or hxfB revealed a high level of molecular specificity of DSF signaling. PMID:23300249

  2. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Proliferation Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Ping; Wang, Zhixiang

    2017-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly upregulated in cancers such as in non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic colorectal cancer, glioblastoma, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer. Various mechanisms mediate the upregulation of EGFR activity, including common mutations and truncations to its extracellular domain, such as in the EGFRvIII truncations, as well as to its kinase domain, such as the L858R and T790M mutations, or the exon 19 truncation. These EGFR aberrations over-activate downstream pro-oncogenic signaling pathways, including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK MAPK and AKT-PI3K-mTOR pathways. These pathways then activate many biological outputs that are beneficial to cancer cell proliferation, including their chronic initiation and progression through the cell cycle. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms that regulate EGFR signal transduction, including the EGFR structure and its mutations, ligand binding and EGFR dimerization, as well as the signaling pathways that lead to G1 cell cycle progression. We focus on the induction of CYCLIN D expression, CDK4/6 activation, and the repression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor proteins (CDKi) by EGFR signaling pathways. We also discuss the successes and challenges of EGFR-targeted therapies, and the potential for their use in combination with CDK4/6 inhibitors. PMID:28513565

  3. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carlton M

    2011-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) are expressed throughout the developing kidney. Several early studies have shown that exogenous fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) affect growth and maturation of the metanephric mesenchyme (MM) and ureteric bud (UB). Transgenic mice that over-express a dominant negative receptor isoform develop renal aplasia/severe dysplasia, confirming the importance of Fgfrs in renal development. Furthermore, global deletion of Fgf7, Fgf10, and Fgfr2IIIb (isoform that binds Fgf7 and Fgf10) in mice leads to small kidneys with fewer collecting ducts and nephrons. Deletion of Fgfrl1, a receptor lacking intracellular signaling domains, causes severe renal dysgenesis. Conditional targeting of Fgf8 from the MM interrupts nephron formation. Deletion of Fgfr2 from the UB results in severe ureteric branching and stromal mesenchymal defects, although loss of Frs2α (major signaling adapter for Fgfrs) in the UB causes only mild renal hypoplasia. Deletion of both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 in the MM results in renal aplasia with defects in MM formation and initial UB elongation and branching. Loss of Fgfr2 in the MM leads to many renal and urinary tract anomalies as well as vesicoureteral reflux. Thus, Fgfr signaling is critical for patterning of virtually all renal lineages at early and later stages of development.

  4. Hydrogen peroxide sensing, signaling and regulation of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Marinho, H. Susana; Real, Carla; Cyrne, Luísa; Soares, Helena; Antunes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mechanisms by which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) modulates the activity of transcription factors in bacteria (OxyR and PerR), lower eukaryotes (Yap1, Maf1, Hsf1 and Msn2/4) and mammalian cells (AP-1, NRF2, CREB, HSF1, HIF-1, TP53, NF-κB, NOTCH, SP1 and SCREB-1) are reviewed. The complexity of regulatory networks increases throughout the phylogenetic tree, reaching a high level of complexity in mammalians. Multiple H2O2 sensors and pathways are triggered converging in the regulation of transcription factors at several levels: (1) synthesis of the transcription factor by upregulating transcription or increasing both mRNA stability and translation; (ii) stability of the transcription factor by decreasing its association with the ubiquitin E3 ligase complex or by inhibiting this complex; (iii) cytoplasm–nuclear traffic by exposing/masking nuclear localization signals, or by releasing the transcription factor from partners or from membrane anchors; and (iv) DNA binding and nuclear transactivation by modulating transcription factor affinity towards DNA, co-activators or repressors, and by targeting specific regions of chromatin to activate individual genes. We also discuss how H2O2 biological specificity results from diverse thiol protein sensors, with different reactivity of their sulfhydryl groups towards H2O2, being activated by different concentrations and times of exposure to H2O2. The specific regulation of local H2O2 concentrations is also crucial and results from H2O2 localized production and removal controlled by signals. Finally, we formulate equations to extract from typical experiments quantitative data concerning H2O2 reactivity with sensor molecules. Rate constants of 140 M−1 s−1 and ≥1.3 × 103 M−1 s−1 were estimated, respectively, for the reaction of H2O2 with KEAP1 and with an unknown target that mediates NRF2 protein synthesis. In conclusion, the multitude of H2O2 targets and mechanisms provides an opportunity for highly

  5. Transforming Growth FactorSignaling Pathway Activation in Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    ENGLER, CHRISTOPH; CHAKRAVARTI, SHUKTI; DOYLE, JEFFERSON; EBERHART, CHARLES G.; MENG, HUAN; STARK, WALTER J.; KELLIHER, CLARE; JUN, ALBERT S.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the presence of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) pathway markers in the epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas. DESIGN Retrospective, comparative case series of laboratory specimens. METHODS Immunohistochemistry results for TGFβ2, total TGFβ, mothers against decacentaplegic homolog (Smad) 2, and phosphorylated Smad2 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of keratoconus patient corneas and normal corneas from human autopsy eyes. Keratoconus patient corneas were divided in two groups, depending on their severity based on keratometer readings and pachymetry. Autopsy controls were age-matched with the keratoconus cases. Immunohistochemistry signal quantification was performed using automated software. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed on total ribonucleic acid of epithelium of keratoconus patient corneas and autopsy control corneas. RESULTS Immunohistochemistry quantification showed a significant increase in mean signal in the group of severe keratoconus cases compared with normal corneas for TGFβ2 and phosphorylated Smad2 (P < .05). Immunohistochemistry analysis using antibodies against total TGFβ and Smad2 did not show any significant increase in the keratoconus cases versus the autopsy controls. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction exhibited elevated messenger ribonucleic acid levels of Smad2 and TGFβ2 in severe keratoconus corneal epithelium. CONCLUSIONS This work shows increased TGFβ pathway markers in severe keratoconus cases and provides the rationale for investigating TGFβ signaling further in the pathophysiology of keratoconus. PMID:21310385

  6. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Cell Survival Signaling Requires Phosphatidylcholine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Crook, Matt; Upadhyay, Awani; Ido, Liyana J.; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Identification of pro-cell survival signaling pathways has implications for cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disease. We show that the Caenorhabditis elegans epidermal growth factor receptor LET-23 (LET-23 EGFR) has a prosurvival function in counteracting excitotoxicity, and we identify novel molecular players required for this prosurvival signaling. uv1 sensory cells in the C. elegans uterus undergo excitotoxic death in response to activation of the OSM-9/OCR-4 TRPV channel by the endogenous agonist nicotinamide. Activation of LET-23 EGFR can effectively prevent this excitotoxic death. We investigate the roles of signaling pathways known to act downstream of LET-23 EGFR in C. elegans and find that the LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway, but not the IP3 receptor pathway, is required for efficient LET-23 EGFR activity in its prosurvival function. However, activation of LET-60 Ras/MAPK pathway does not appear to be sufficient to fully mimic LET-23 EGFR activity. We screen for genes that are required for EGFR prosurvival function and uncover a role for phosphatidylcholine biosynthetic enzymes in EGFR prosurvival function. Finally, we show that exogenous application of phosphatidylcholine is sufficient to prevent some deaths in this excitotoxicity model. Our work implicates regulation of lipid synthesis downstream of EGFR in cell survival and death decisions. PMID:27605519

  7. Argos inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by ligand sequestration.

    PubMed

    Klein, Daryl E; Nappi, Valerie M; Reeves, Gregory T; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Lemmon, Mark A

    2004-08-26

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has critical functions in development and in many human cancers. During development, the spatial extent of EGFR signalling is regulated by feedback loops comprising both well-understood activators and less well-characterized inhibitors. In Drosophila melanogaster the secreted protein Argos functions as the only known extracellular inhibitor of EGFR, with clearly identified roles in multiple stages of development. Argos is only expressed when the Drosophila EGFR (DER) is activated at high levels, and downregulates further DER signalling. Although there is ample genetic evidence that Argos inhibits DER activation, the biochemical mechanism has not been established. Here we show that Argos inhibits DER signalling without interacting directly with the receptor, but instead by sequestering the DER-activating ligand Spitz. Argos binds tightly to the EGF motif of Spitz and forms a 1:1 (Spitz:Argos) complex that does not bind DER in vitro or at the cell surface. Our results provide an insight into the mechanism of Argos function, and suggest new strategies for EGFR inhibitor design.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  9. Host Factors and Cancer Progression: Biobehavioral Signaling Pathways and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lutgendorf, Susan K.; Sood, Anil K.; Antoni, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas evidence for the role of psychosocial factors in cancer initiation has been equivocal, support continues to grow for links between psychological factors such as stress, depression, and social isolation and progression of cancer. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies show that stress- related processes can impact pathways implicated in cancer progression, including immuno-regulation, angiogenesis, and invasion. Contributions of systemic factors, such as stress hormones to the crosstalk between tumor and stromal cells, appear to be critical in modulating downstream signaling pathways with important implications for disease progression. Inflammatory pathways may also be implicated in fatigue and other factors related to quality of life. Although substantial evidence supports a positive effect of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in cancer, the clinical evidence for efficacy of stress-modulating psychosocial interventions in slowing cancer progression remains inconclusive, and the biobehavioral mechanisms that might explain such effects are still being established. This article reviews research findings to date and outlines future avenues of research in this area. PMID:20644093

  10. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    PubMed

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  11. Transcription factors and target genes of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Aramburu, Jose; Berga-Bolaños, Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Almost 30 years ago pioneering work by the laboratories of Harald von Boehmer and Susumo Tonegawa provided the first indications that developing thymocytes could assemble a functional TCRβ chain-containing receptor complex, the pre-TCR, before TCRα expression. The discovery and study of the pre-TCR complex revealed paradigms of signaling pathways in control of cell survival and proliferation, and culminated in the recognition of the multifunctional nature of this receptor. As a receptor integrated in a dynamic developmental process, the pre-TCR must be viewed not only in the light of the biological outcomes it promotes, but also in context with those molecular processes that drive its expression in thymocytes. This review article focuses on transcription factors and target genes activated by the pre-TCR to drive its different outcomes.

  12. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bates, Carlton M

    2007-03-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) are expressed in the ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme of the developing kidney. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that exogenous fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) increase growth and maturation of the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. Deletion of fgf7, fgf10, and fgfr2IIIb (the receptor isoform that binds Fgf7 and Fgf10) in mice lead to smaller kidneys with fewer collecting ducts and nephrons. Overexpression of a dominant negative receptor isoform in transgenic mice has revealed more striking defects including renal aplasia or severe dysplasia. Moreover, deletion of many fgf ligands and receptors in mice results in early embryonic lethality, making it difficult to determine their roles in kidney development. Recently, conditional targeting approaches revealed that deletion of fgf8 from the metanephric mesenchyme interrupts nephron formation. Furthermore, deletion of fgfr2 from the ureteric bud resulted in both ureteric bud branching and stromal mesenchymal patterning defects. Deletion of both fgfr1 and fgfr2 in the metanephric mesenchyme resulted in renal aplasia, characterized by defects in metanephric mesenchyme formation and initial ureteric bud elongation and branching. Thus, Fgfr signaling is critical for growth and patterning of all renal lineages at early and later stages of kidney development.

  13. Spatial signalling mediated by the transforming growth factorsignalling pathway during tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin-Yu; Sun, Ke; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Tan, Jia-Li; Pi, Cai-Xia; Wan, Mian; Peng, Yi-Ran; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Tooth development relies on sequential and reciprocal interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and it is continuously regulated by a variety of conserved and specific temporal-spatial signalling pathways. It is well known that suspensions of tooth germ cells can form tooth-like structures after losing the positional information provided by the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. However, the particular stage in which the tooth germ cells start to form tooth-like structures after losing their positional information remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the reassociation of tooth germ cells suspension from different morphological stages during tooth development and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in this process. Four tooth morphological stages were designed in this study. The results showed that tooth germ cells formed odontogenic tissue at embryonic day (E) 14.5, which is referred to as the cap stage, and they formed tooth-like structures at E16.5, which is referred to as the early bell stage, and E18.5, which is referred to as the late bell stage. Moreover, the transforming growth factorsignalling pathway might play a role in this process. PMID:27982023

  14. Spatial signalling mediated by the transforming growth factorsignalling pathway during tooth formation.

    PubMed

    He, Xin-Yu; Sun, Ke; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Tan, Jia-Li; Pi, Cai-Xia; Wan, Mian; Peng, Yi-Ran; Ye, Ling; Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2016-12-16

    Tooth development relies on sequential and reciprocal interactions between the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues, and it is continuously regulated by a variety of conserved and specific temporal-spatial signalling pathways. It is well known that suspensions of tooth germ cells can form tooth-like structures after losing the positional information provided by the epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. However, the particular stage in which the tooth germ cells start to form tooth-like structures after losing their positional information remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the reassociation of tooth germ cells suspension from different morphological stages during tooth development and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in this process. Four tooth morphological stages were designed in this study. The results showed that tooth germ cells formed odontogenic tissue at embryonic day (E) 14.5, which is referred to as the cap stage, and they formed tooth-like structures at E16.5, which is referred to as the early bell stage, and E18.5, which is referred to as the late bell stage. Moreover, the transforming growth factorsignalling pathway might play a role in this process.

  15. Coagulation factor V mediates inhibition of tissue factor signaling by activated protein C in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hai Po H.; Kerschen, Edward J.; Basu, Sreemanti; Hernandez, Irene; Zogg, Mark; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J.; Toso, Raffaella; Rezaie, Alireza R.; Fernández, José A.; Camire, Rodney M.; Ruf, Wolfram; Griffin, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The key effector molecule of the natural protein C pathway, activated protein C (aPC), exerts pleiotropic effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. Coagulation-independent cell signaling by aPC appears to be the predominant mechanism underlying its highly reproducible therapeutic efficacy in most animal models of injury and infection. In this study, using a mouse model of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis, we demonstrate marked disease stage–specific effects of the anticoagulant and cell signaling functions of aPC. aPC resistance of factor (f)V due to the R506Q Leiden mutation protected against detrimental anticoagulant effects of aPC therapy but also abrogated the anti-inflammatory and mortality-reducing effects of the signaling-selective 5A-aPC variant that has minimal anticoagulant function. We found that procofactor V (cleaved by aPC at R506) and protein S were necessary cofactors for the aPC-mediated inhibition of inflammatory tissue-factor signaling. The anti-inflammatory cofactor function of fV involved the same structural features that govern its cofactor function for the anticoagulant effects of aPC, yet its anti-inflammatory activities did not involve proteolysis of activated coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. These findings reveal a novel biological function and mechanism of the protein C pathway in which protein S and the aPC-cleaved form of fV are cofactors for anti-inflammatory cell signaling by aPC in the context of endotoxemia and infection. PMID:26341257

  16. Sulfatase modifying factor 1-mediated fibroblast growth factor signaling primes hematopoietic multilineage development.

    PubMed

    Buono, Mario; Visigalli, Ilaria; Bergamasco, Roberta; Biffi, Alessandra; Cosma, Maria Pia

    2010-08-02

    Self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are balanced by the concerted activities of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Wnt, and Notch pathways, which are tuned by enzyme-mediated remodeling of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) activates the Sulf1 and Sulf2 sulfatases that remodel the HSPGs, and is mutated in patients with multiple sulfatase deficiency. Here, we show that the FGF signaling pathway is constitutively activated in Sumf1(-/-) HSCs and hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs). These cells show increased p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase levels, which in turn promote beta-catenin accumulation. Constitutive activation of FGF signaling results in a block in erythroid differentiation at the chromatophilic erythroblast stage, and of B lymphocyte differentiation at the pro-B cell stage. A reduction in mature myeloid cells and an aberrant development of T lymphocytes are also seen. These defects are rescued in vivo by blocking the FGF pathway in Sumf1(-/-) mice. Transplantation of Sumf1(-/-) HSPCs into wild-type mice reconstituted the phenotype of the donors, suggesting a cell autonomous defect. These data indicate that Sumf1 controls HSPC differentiation and hematopoietic lineage development through FGF and Wnt signaling.

  17. Intraspecies signaling involving the diffusible signal factor BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) influences virulence in Burkholderia cenocepacia.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; McCarthy, Yvonne; Watt, Steven A; Niehaus, Karsten; Dow, J Maxwell

    2009-08-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia produces a diffusible fatty acid signal molecule, cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF), that has been implicated in interspecies and interkingdom communication. Here, we show that BDSF also acts as an intraspecies signal in B. cenocepacia to control factors contributing to virulence of this major opportunistic pathogen.

  18. Nerve growth factor signaling in prostate health and disease.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Nicola; Bodei, Serena; Zani, Danilo; Simeone, Claudio; Cunico, Sergio Cosciani; Missale, Cristina; Spano, Pierfranco; Sigala, Sandra

    2010-06-01

    The prostate is one of the most abundant sources of nerve growth factor (NGF) in different species, including humans. NGF and its receptors are implicated in the control of prostate cell proliferation and apoptosis and it can either support or suppress cell growth. The co-expression of both NGF receptors, p75(NGFR) and tropomyosin-related kinase A (trkA), represents a crucial condition for the antiproliferative effect of NGF; indeed, p75(NGFR) is progressively lost during prostate tumorigenesis and its disappearance represents a malignancy marker of prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa). Interestingly, a dysregulation of NGF signal transduction was found in a number of human tumors. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the role of NGF and its receptors in prostate and in PCa. Conclusions bring to the hypothesis that the NGF network could be a candidate for future pharmacological manipulation in the PCa therapy: in particular the re-expression of p75(NTR) and/or the negative modulation of trkA could represent a target to induce apoptosis and to reduce proliferation and invasiveness of PCa.

  19. Requirement of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor–Associated Factor (Traf)6 in Interleukin 17 Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Schwandner, Ralf; Yamaguchi, Kyoko; Cao, Zhaodan

    2000-01-01

    Signaling through its widely distributed cell surface receptor, interleukin (IL)-17 enhances the transcription of genes encoding proinflammatory molecules. Although it has been well documented that IL-17 activates the transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), the upstream signaling events are largely unknown. Here we report the requirement of tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated factor (TRAF)6 in IL-17–induced NF-κB and JNK activation. In embryonic fibroblasts (EFs) derived from TRAF6 knockout mice, IL-17 failed to activate the IκB kinases (IKKs) and JNK. Consequently, IL-17–induced IL-6 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 expression in the TRAF6-deficient cells was abolished. Lack of TRAF6 appeared to be the sole defect responsible for the observed failure to respond to IL-17, because transient transfection of TRAF6 expression plasmid into the TRAF6-deficient cells restored IL-17–induced NF-κB activation in a luciferase reporter assay. Furthermore, the levels of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) on the TRAF6-deficient EFs were comparable to those on the wild-type control cells. Defect in IL-17 response was not observed in TRAF2-deficient EFs. Moreover, when TRAF6 and IL-17R were coexpressed in 293 cells, TRAF6 coimmunoprecipitated with IL-17R. Together, these results indicate that TRAF6, but not TRAF2, is a crucial component in the IL-17 signaling pathway leading to proinflammatory responses. PMID:10748240

  20. Autotaxin-mediated lipid signaling intersects with LIF and BMP signaling to promote the naive pluripotency transcription factor program

    PubMed Central

    Kime, Cody; Sakaki-Yumoto, Masayo; Goodrich, Leeanne; Hayashi, Yohei; Sami, Salma; Derynck, Rik; Asahi, Michio; Panning, Barbara; Yamanaka, Shinya; Tomoda, Kiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Developmental signaling molecules are used for cell fate determination, and understanding how their combinatorial effects produce the variety of cell types in multicellular organisms is a key problem in biology. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and ascorbic acid (AA) efficiently converts mouse primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) into naive PSCs. Signaling by the lipid LPA through its receptor LPAR1 and downstream effector Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) cooperated with LIF signaling to promote this conversion. BMP4, which also stimulates conversion to naive pluripotency, bypassed the need for exogenous LPA by increasing the activity of the extracellular LPA-producing enzyme autotaxin (ATX). We found that LIF and LPA-LPAR1 signaling affect the abundance of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which induces a previously unappreciated Kruppel-like factor (KLF)2-KLF4-PR domain 14 (PRDM14) transcription factor circuit key to establish naive pluripotency. AA also affects this transcription factor circuit by controlling PRDM14 expression. Thus, our study reveals that ATX-mediated autocrine lipid signaling promotes naive pluripotency by intersecting with LIF and BMP4 signaling. PMID:27738243

  1. Diversification of Neu differentiation factor and epidermal growth factor signaling by combinatorial receptor interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Pinkas-Kramarski, R; Soussan, L; Waterman, H; Levkowitz, G; Alroy, I; Klapper, L; Lavi, S; Seger, R; Ratzkin, B J; Sela, M; Yarden, Y

    1996-01-01

    The ErbB family includes two receptors, ErbB-1 and ErbB-3, that respectively bind to epidermal growth factor and Neu differentiation factor, and an orphan receptor, ErbB-2. Unlike ErbB-1 and ErbB-2, the intrinsic tyrosine kinase of ErbB-3 is catalytically impaired. By using interleukin-3-dependent cells that ectopically express the three ErbB proteins or their combinations, we found that ErbB-3 is devoid of any biological activity but both ErbB-1 and ErbB-2 can reconstitute its extremely potent mitogenic activity. Transactivation of ErbB-3 correlates with heterodimer formation and is reflected in receptor phosphorylation and the transregulation of ligand affinity. Inter-receptor interactions enable graded proliferative and survival signals: heterodimers are more potent than homodimers, and ErbB-3-containing complexes, especially the ErbB-2/ErbB-3 heterodimer, are more active than ErbB-1 complexes. Nevertheless, ErbB-1 signaling displays dominance over ErbB-3 when the two receptors are coexpressed. Although all receptor combinations activate the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and c-Jun kinase, they differ in their rate of endocytosis and in coupling to intervening signaling proteins. It is conceivable that combinatorial receptor interactions diversify signal transduction and confer double regulation, in cis and in trans, of the superior mitogenic activity of the kinase-defective ErbB-3. Images PMID:8665853

  2. Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Signaling Suppresses Renal Crystal Formation

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Kazumi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yasui, Takahiro; Naiki, Taku; Hamamoto, Shuzo; Ando, Ryosuke; Mizuno, Kentaro; Kawai, Noriyasu; Tozawa, Keiichi; Asano, Kenichi; Tanaka, Masato; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kohri, Kenjiro

    2014-01-01

    We recently reported evidence suggesting that migrating macrophages (Mϕs) eliminate renal crystals in hyperoxaluric mice. Mϕs can be inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2), and colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) mediates polarization to the M2Mϕ phenotype. M2Mϕs promote renal tissue repair and regeneration, but it is not clear whether these cells are involved in suppressing renal crystal formation. We investigated the role of M2Mϕs in renal crystal formation during hyperoxaluria using CSF-1–deficient mice, which lack M2Mϕs. Compared with wild-type mice, CSF-1–deficient mice had significantly higher amounts of renal calcium oxalate crystal deposition. Treatment with recombinant human CSF-1 increased the expression of M2-related genes and markedly decreased the number of renal crystals in both CSF-1–deficient and wild-type mice. Flow cytometry of sorted renal Mϕs showed that CSF-1 deficiency resulted in a smaller population of CD11b+F4/80+CD163+CD206hi cells, which represent M2-like Mϕs. Additionally, transfusion of M2Mϕs into CSF-1–deficient mice suppressed renal crystal deposition. In vitro phagocytosis assays with calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals showed a higher rate of crystal phagocytosis by M2-polarized Mϕs than M1-polarized Mϕs or renal tubular cells. Gene array profiling showed that CSF-1 deficiency resulted in disordered M2- and stone-related gene expressions. Collectively, our results provide compelling evidence for a suppressive role of CSF-1 signaling in renal crystal formation. PMID:24578130

  3. Diffusible signal factor-dependent quorum sensing in pathogenic bacteria and its exploitation for disease control.

    PubMed

    Dow, J M

    2017-01-01

    Cell-to-cell signals of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids of differing chain length and branching pattern. DSF signalling has been described in diverse bacteria to include plant and human pathogens where it acts to regulate functions such as biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance and the production of virulence factors. DSF family signals can also participate in interspecies signalling with other bacteria and interkingdom signalling such as with the yeast Candida albicans. Interference with DSF signalling may afford new opportunities for the control of bacterial disease. Such strategies will depend in part on detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying the processes of signal synthesis, perception and turnover. Here, I review both recent progress in understanding DSF signalling at the molecular level and prospects for translating this knowledge into approaches for disease control. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Signal- and Listener- Based Factors in Complex Auditory Pattern Perception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-09-23

    auditory stimuli, or perhaps only on auditory signals from one ear, or only on signals with certain properties (e.g., musical sounds ), etc. To the extent...investigated various aspects of complex auditory perception. These research efforts largely focussed on perception of speech sounds , and provided...research effort made significant progress in clarifying how human listeners decode very .complex sounds . 20. OISTRIUTIONAVAILAILITY OP ABSTRACT 21

  5. FGF Signaling and Dietary Factors in the Prostate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    Signaling 3. Mohammadi, M., Dionne, C. A., Li, W., Li, N., Spivak , T., Honegger, A. M., 25. Spruck, C. H., de Miguel, M. P., Smith, A. P., Ryan, A., Stein...Hadari, Y. R., Spivak -Kroizman, T., Schilling, J., Bar-Sagi, D., 27. Sgambato, A., Cittadini, A., Faraglia, B., and Weinstein, I. B. (2000) J. Cell

  6. Targeting fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling inhibits prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shu; Shao, Longjiang; Yu, Wendong; Gavine, Paul; Ittmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Extensive correlative studies in human prostate cancer (PCa) as well as studies in vitro and in mouse models indicate that FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling plays an important role in PCa progression. In this study, we employed a probe compound for an FGFR inhibitor which potently inhibits FGFR1-3 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4. The purpose of this study is to determine if targeting FGFR signaling from all four FGFRs will have in vitro activities consistent with inhibition of tumor progression and will inhibit tumor progression in vivo. Experimental Design Effects of AZ8010 on FGFR signaling and invasion were analyzed using immortalized normal prostate epithelial (PNT1a) cells and PNT1a overexpressing FGFR-1 or FGFR-4. The effect of AZ8010 on invasion and proliferation in vitro was also evaluated in PCa cell lines. Finally, the impact of AZ8010 on tumor progression in vivo was evaluated using a VCaP xenograft model. Results AZ8010 completely inhibits FGFR-1 and significantly inhibits FGFR-4 signaling at 100 nM, which is an achievable in vivo concentration. These results in marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation and invasion in PNT1a cells expressing FGFR-1 and FGFR-4 and all PCa cell lines tested. Treatment in vivo completely inhibited VCaP tumor growth and significantly inhibited angiogenesis and proliferation and increased cell death in treated tumors. This was associated with marked inhibition of ERK phosphorylation in treated tumors. Conclusions Targeting FGFR signaling is a promising new approach to treating aggressive PCa. PMID:22573348

  7. Mechanistic duality of transcription factor function in phytochrome signaling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phytochrome (phy) family of sensory photoreceptors (phyA–E in Arabidopsis) elicit changes in gene expression after light-induced migration to the nucleus, where they interact with basic helix–loop–helix transcription factors, such as phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3). The mechanism by whic...

  8. The Host Plant Metabolite Glucose Is the Precursor of Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) Family Signals in Xanthomonas campestris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. 13C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence. PMID:25681189

  9. The host plant metabolite glucose is the precursor of diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signals in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Liu, Xiaoling; Wu, Ji'en; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Chunyan; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2015-04-01

    Plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (diffusible signal factor [DSF]) as a cell-cell communication signal to regulate biofilm dispersal and virulence factor production. Previous studies have demonstrated that DSF biosynthesis is dependent on the presence of RpfF, an enoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) hydratase, but the DSF synthetic mechanism and the influence of the host plant on DSF biosynthesis are still not clear. We show here that exogenous addition of host plant juice or ethanol extract to the growth medium of X. campestris pv. campestris could significantly boost DSF family signal production. It was subsequently revealed that X. campestris pv. campestris produces not only DSF but also BDSF (cis-2-dodecenoic acid) and another novel DSF family signal, which was designated DSF-II. BDSF was originally identified in Burkholderia cenocepacia to be involved in regulation of motility, biofilm formation, and virulence in B. cenocepacia. Functional analysis suggested that DSF-II plays a role equal to that of DSF in regulation of biofilm dispersion and virulence factor production in X. campestris pv. campestris. Furthermore, chromatographic separation led to identification of glucose as a specific molecule stimulating DSF family signal biosynthesis in X. campestris pv. campestris. (13)C-labeling experiments demonstrated that glucose acts as a substrate to provide a carbon element for DSF biosynthesis. The results of this study indicate that X. campestris pv. campestris could utilize a common metabolite of the host plant to enhance DSF family signal synthesis and therefore promote virulence.

  10. Diffusible signal factor family signals provide a fitness advantage to Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris in interspecies competition.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Jien; Yin, Wenfang; Li, Peng; Zhou, Jianuan; Chen, Shaohua; He, Fei; Cai, Jun; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Diffusible signal factor (DSF) represents a new class of widely conserved quorum sensing signals, which regulates various biological functions through intra- or interspecies signaling. The previous studies identified that there is an antagonistic interaction between Xanthomonas and Bacillus species bacteria in natural ecosystem, but the detailed molecular mechanism of interspecies competition is not clear. This study showed that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) interfered with morphological transition and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis in mixed cultures, whereas abrogation of the DSF synthase RpfF reduced the interference. DSF inhibited B. thuringiensis cell division and sporulation through modulation of ftsZ, which encodes an important cell division protein in bacterial cells. In addition, RpfF is essential for production of six DSF-family signals in Xcc, which employ the same signaling pathways to regulate biological functions in Xcc and play similar effects on reduction of cell division, sporulation and antibiotic resistance of B. thuringiensis. Furthermore, abrogation of RpfF decreased the competitive capability of Xcc against B. thuringiensis on the surface of Chinese cabbage leaves. Our findings provide new insights into the role of DSF-family signals in interspecies competition and depict molecular mechanisms with which Xcc competes with B. thuringiensis. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Vascular Endothelial growth factor signaling in hypoxia and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Anand, Vidhu; Roy, Sabita

    2014-01-01

    Infection, cancer and cardiovascular diseases are the major causes for morbidity and mortality in the United States according to the Center for Disease Control. The underlying etiology that contributes to the severity of these diseases is either hypoxia induced inflammation or inflammation resulting in hypoxia. Therefore, molecular mechanisms that regulate hypoxia-induced adaptive responses in cells are important areas of investigation. Oxygen availability is sensed by molecular switches which regulate synthesis and secretion of growth factors and inflammatory mediators. As a consequence, tissue microenvironment is altered by reprogramming metabolic pathways, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, pH homeostasis to facilitate tissue remodeling. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is the central mediator of hypoxic response. HIF regulates several hundred genes and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the primary target genes. Understanding the regulation of HIF and its influence on inflammatory response offers unique opportunities for drug development to modulate inflammation and ischemia in pathological conditions. PMID:24610033

  12. Networks of WRKY transcription factors in defense signaling.

    PubMed

    Eulgem, Thomas; Somssich, Imre E

    2007-08-01

    Members of the complex family of WRKY transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with plant immune responses. Recently genetic evidence directly proving their significance as positive and negative regulators of disease resistance has accumulated. WRKY genes were shown to be functionally connected forming a transcriptional network composed of positive and negative feedback loops and feed-forward modules. Within a web of partially redundant elements some WRKY factors hold central positions mediating fast and efficient activation of defense programs. A key mechanism triggering strong immune responses appears to be based on the inactivation of defense-suppressing WRKY proteins.

  13. Signaling factors in stem cell-mediated repair of infarcted myocardium.

    PubMed

    Vandervelde, S; van Luyn, M J A; Tio, R A; Harmsen, M C

    2005-08-01

    Myocardial infarction leads to scar formation and subsequent reduced cardiac performance. The ultimate therapy after myocardial infarction would pursue stem cell-based regeneration. The aim of stem cell-mediated cardiac repair embodies restoration of cardiac function by regeneration of healthy myocardial tissue, which is accomplished by neo-angiogenesis and cardiogenesis. A major reservoir of adult autologous stem cells distal from the heart is the bone marrow. Adequate regulation of signaling between the bone marrow, the peripheral circulation and the infarcted myocardium is important in orchestrating the process of mobilization, homing, incorporation, survival, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells, that leads to myocardial regeneration. In this review, we discuss key signaling factors, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, which are involved in orchestrating the stem cell driven repair process. We focus on signaling factors known for their mobilizing and chemotactic abilities (SDF-1, G-CSF, SCF, IL-8, VEGF), signaling factors that are expressed after myocardial infarction involved in the patho-physiological healing process (TNF-alpha, IL-8, IL-10, HIF-1alpha, VEGF, G-CSF) and signaling factors that are involved in cardiogenesis and neo-angiogenesis (VEGF, EPO, TGF-beta, HGF, HIF-1alpha, IL-8). The future therapeutic application and capacity of secreted factors to modulate tissue repair after myocardial infarction relies on the intrinsic potency of factors and on the optimal localization and timing of a combination of signaling factors to stimulate stem cells in their niche to regenerate the infarcted heart.

  14. Ubiquitin signals proteolysis-independent stripping of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Ndoja, Ada; Cohen, Robert E; Yao, Tingting

    2014-03-20

    Ubiquitination of transcription activators has been reported to regulate transcription via both proteolytic and nonproteolytic routes, yet the function of the ubiquitin (Ub) signal in the nonproteolytic process is poorly understood. By use of the heterologous transcription activator LexA-VP16 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we show that monoubiquitin fusion of the activator prevents stable interactions between the activator and DNA, leading to transcription inhibition without activator degradation. We identify the AAA(+) ATPase Cdc48 and its cofactors as the Ub receptor responsible for extracting the monoubiquitinated activator from DNA. Our results suggest that deubiquitination of the activator is critical for transcription activation. These findings with LexA-VP16 extend in both yeast and mammalian cells to native transcription activators Met4 and R-Smads, respectively, that are known to be oligo-ubiquitinated. The results illustrate a role for Ub and Cdc48 in transcriptional regulation and gene expression that is independent of proteolysis.

  15. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling regulates transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ)-dependent smooth muscle cell phenotype modulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Qin, Lingfeng; Li, Guangxin; Tellides, George; Simons, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in normal blood vessels exist in a highly differentiate state characterized by expression of SMC-specific contractile proteins (“contractile phenotype”). Following blood vessel injury in vivo or when cultured in vitro in the presence of multiple growth factors, SMC undergo a phenotype switch characterized by the loss of contractile markers and appearance of expression of non-muscle proteins (“proliferative phenotype”). While a number of factors have been reported to modulate this process, its regulation remains uncertain. Here we show that induction of SMC FGF signaling inhibits TGFβ signaling and converts contractile SMCs to the proliferative phenotype. Conversely, inhibition of SMC FGF signaling induces TGFβ signaling converting proliferating SMCs to the contractile phenotype, even in the presence of various growth factors in vitro or vascular injury in vivo. The importance of this signaling cross-talk is supported by in vivo data that show that an SMC deletion of a pan-FGF receptor adaptor Frs2α (fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 alpha) in mice profoundly reduces neointima formation and vascular remodelling following carotid artery ligation. These results demonstrate that FGF-TGFβ signaling antagonism is the primary regulator of the SMC phenotype switch. Manipulation of this cross-talk may be an effective strategy for treatment of SMC-proliferation related diseases. PMID:27634335

  16. [Therapeutic target for endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor signaling in diabetic vascular complication].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    Vascular tone is tightly regulated by endothelium-derived factors. These include relaxing factors (EDRFs) such as nitric oxide (NO), hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), and contracting factors (EDCFs). Although EDHF is a prominent vasodilator, particularly in smaller arteries, little attention has been paid to the potential role of EDHF responses in diabetes. EDHF signaling may involve various factors, including several diffusible factors and non-diffusible factors (e.g., gap junctions). It has been demonstrated that the alterations in EDHF relaxation seen in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats may be attributable to an increase in phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3) activity, leading to a reduction in the action of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), and consequently the activity of protein kinase A (PKA) is decreased in such arteries. Moreover, it has been suggested that the imbalance between EDRFs and EDCFs is present in mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic rats and the EDHF relaxation can be partly reversed by suppression of EDCF signaling. Indeed, chronic treatment with metformin, eicosapentaenoic acid, or thromboxane synthase inhibitor can reduce EDCF signaling and normalize EDHF signaling in mesenteric arteries from type 2 diabetic rats. Although the improvement or restoration of EDHF responses has not been the direct subject of any pharmaceutical effort, increasing cAMP/PKA signaling (e.g., by inhibiting PDE3 activity) or reducing EDCFs signaling has potential as an interesting therapeutic target in diabetic vasculopathy.

  17. KRÜPPEL-LIKE FACTOR 9 AND REGULATION OF ENDOMETRIAL ESTROGEN RECEPTOR-ALPHA SIGNALING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endometrial cancer risk is linked to aberrant estrogen receptor-alpha (ER alpha) signaling caused by increased ER alpha activation due to hyper-estrogenic environments or mutations in growth-regulatory factors. We had shown that ER alpha signaling is attenuated by the Sp1-related transcription facto...

  18. Growth Factor Signaling and Memory Formation: Temporal and Spatial Integration of a Molecular Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Ashley M.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor (GF) signaling is critically important for developmental plasticity. It also plays a crucial role in adult plasticity, such as that required for memory formation. Although different GFs interact with receptors containing distinct types of kinase domains, they typically signal through converging intracellular cascades (e.g.,…

  19. Growth Factor Signaling and Memory Formation: Temporal and Spatial Integration of a Molecular Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopec, Ashley M.; Carew, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Growth factor (GF) signaling is critically important for developmental plasticity. It also plays a crucial role in adult plasticity, such as that required for memory formation. Although different GFs interact with receptors containing distinct types of kinase domains, they typically signal through converging intracellular cascades (e.g.,…

  20. Sgk3 links growth factor signaling to maintenance of progenitor cells in the hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Laura; Okada, Hitoshi; Pasolli, Hilda Amalia; Wakeham, Andrew; You-Ten, Annick Itie; Mak, Tak W; Fuchs, Elaine

    2005-08-15

    Tyrosine kinase growth factor receptor signaling influences proliferation, survival, and apoptosis. Hair follicles undergo cycles of proliferation and apoptotic regression, offering an excellent paradigm to study how this transition is governed. Several factors are known to affect the hair cycle, but it remains a mystery whether Akt kinases that are downstream of growth factor signaling impact this equilibrium. We now show that an Akt relative, Sgk (serum and glucocorticoid responsive kinase) 3, plays a critical role in this process. Hair follicles of mice lacking Sgk3 fail to mature normally. Proliferation is reduced, apoptosis is increased, and follicles prematurely regress. Maintenance of the pool of transiently amplifying matrix cells is impaired. Intriguingly, loss of Sgk3 resembles the gain of function of epidermal growth factor signaling. Using cultured primary keratinocytes, we find that Sgk3 functions by negatively regulating phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase signaling. Our results reveal a novel and important function for Sgk3 in controlling life and death in the hair follicle.

  1. Supramolecular Nanofibers Enhance Growth Factor Signaling by Increasing Lipid Raft Mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, Christina J.; Sur, Shantanu; Lee, Sungsoo S.; Yu, Jeong Min; Zhou, Yan; Snead, Malcolm L.; Stupp, Samuel I.

    2016-04-12

    The nanostructures of self-assembling biomaterials have been previously designed to tune the release of growth factors in order to optimize biological repair and regeneration. We report here on the discovery that weakly cohesive peptide nanostructures in terms of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, when combined with low concentrations of osteogenic growth factor, enhance both BMP-2 and Wnt mediated signaling in myoblasts and bone marrow stromal cells, respectively. Conversely, analogous nanostructures with enhanced levels of internal hydrogen bonding and cohesion lead to an overall reduction in BMP-2 signaling. We propose that the mechanism for enhanced growth factor signaling by the nanostructures is related to their ability to increase diffusion within membrane lipid rafts. The phenomenon reported here could lead to new nanomedicine strategies to mediate growth factor signaling for translational targets.

  2. Neurodegenerative signaling factors and mechanisms in Parkinson's pathology.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Joshi, Neeraj; Singh, Sarika

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive degenerative disorder of central nervous system which is mainly characterized by selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostrial pathway. Clinical symptoms of this devastating disease comprise motor impairments such as resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability and rigidity. Current medications only provide symptomatic relief but fail to halt the dopaminergic neuronal death. While the etiology of dopaminergic neuronal death is not fully understood, combination of various molecular mechanisms seems to play a critical role. Studies from experimental animal models have provided crucial insights into the molecular mechanisms in disease pathogenesis and recognized possible targets for therapeutic interventions. Recent findings implicate the involvement of abnormal protein accumulation and phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and deregulated kinase signaling as key molecular mechanisms affecting the normal function as well survival of dopaminergic neurons. Here we discuss the relevant findings on the PD pathology related mechanisms and recognition of the cell survival mechanisms which could be used as targets for neuroprotective strategies in preventing this devastating disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. GIV/girdin links vascular endothelial growth factor signaling to Akt survival signaling in podocytes independent of nephrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Honghui; Misaki, Taro; Taupin, Vanessa; Eguchi, Akiko; Ghosh, Pradipta; Farquhar, Marilyn G

    2015-02-01

    Podocytes are critically involved in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier and are key targets of injury in many glomerular diseases. Chronic injury leads to progressive loss of podocytes, glomerulosclerosis, and renal failure. Thus, it is essential to maintain podocyte survival and avoid apoptosis after acute glomerular injury. In normal glomeruli, podocyte survival is mediated via nephrin-dependent Akt signaling. In several glomerular diseases, nephrin expression decreases and podocyte survival correlates with increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. How VEGF signaling contributes to podocyte survival and prevents apoptosis remains unknown. We show here that Gα-interacting, vesicle-associated protein (GIV)/girdin mediates VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling and compensates for nephrin loss. In puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis (PAN), GIV expression increased, GIV was phosphorylated by VEGFR2, and p-GIV bound and activated Gαi3 and enhanced downstream Akt2, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), and mammalian target of rapamycin complex-2 (mTORC2) signaling. In GIV-depleted podocytes, VEGF-induced Akt activation was abolished, apoptosis was triggered, and cell migration was impaired. These effects were reversed by introducing GIV but not a GIV mutant that cannot activate Gαi3. Our data indicate that after PAN injury, VEGF promotes podocyte survival by triggering assembly of an activated VEGFR2/GIV/Gαi3 signaling complex and enhancing downstream PI3K/Akt survival signaling. Because of its important role in promoting podocyte survival, GIV may represent a novel target for therapeutic intervention in the nephrotic syndrome and other proteinuric diseases.

  4. Connective tissue growth factor induces cardiac hypertrophy through Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hayata, Nozomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Iwakura, Tomohiko; Obana, Masanori; Takai, Mika; Mohri, Tomomi; Nonen, Shinpei; Maeda, Makiko; Azuma, Junichi

    2008-05-30

    In the process of cardiac remodeling, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is secreted from cardiac myocytes. Though CTGF is well known to promote fibroblast proliferation, its pathophysiological effects in cardiac myocytes remain to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the biological effects of CTGF in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Cardiac myocytes stimulated with full length CTGF and its C-terminal region peptide showed the increase in cell surface area. Similar to hypertrophic ligands for G-protein coupled receptors, such as endothelin-1, CTGF activated amino acid uptake; however, CTGF-induced hypertrophy is not associated with the increased expression of skeletal actin or BNP, analyzed by Northern-blotting. CTGF treatment activated ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, JNK and Akt. The inhibition of Akt by transducing dominant-negative Akt abrogated CTGF-mediated increase in cell size, while the inhibition of MAP kinases did not affect the cardiac hypertrophy. These findings indicate that CTGF is a novel hypertrophic factor in cardiac myocytes.

  5. Transcription factor-mediated cell-to-cell signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao; Kumar, Dhinesh; Chen, Huan; Wu, Shuwei; Kim, Jae-Yean

    2014-04-01

    Plant cells utilize mobile transcription factors to transmit intercellular signals when they perceive environmental stimuli or initiate developmental programmes. Studies on these novel cell-to-cell signals have accumulated multiple pieces of evidence showing that non-cell-autonomous transcription factors play pivotal roles in most processes related to the formation and development of plant organs. Recent studies have explored the evolution of mobile transcription factors and proposed mechanisms for their trafficking through plasmodesmata, where a selective system exists to facilitate this process. Mobile transcription factors contribute to the diversity of the intercellular signalling network, which is also established by peptides, hormones, and RNAs. Crosstalk between mobile transcription factors and other intercellular molecules leads to the development of complex biological signalling networks in plants. The regulation of plasmodesmata appears to have been another major step in controlling the intercellular trafficking of transcription factors based on studies of many plasmodesmal components. Furthermore, diverse omics approaches are being successfully applied to explore a large number of candidate transcription factors as mobile signals in plants. Here, we review these fascinating discoveries to integrate current knowledge of non-cell-autonomous transcription factors.

  6. An integrated and disease-oriented growth factor-regulated signal transduction network.

    PubMed

    Erol, A

    2013-01-01

    The importance of Akt, Erk, and their downstream effectors-mediated signaling is indisputable for the proliferation of cell. Growth factor-induced activation of Akt and Erk pathways interacts with each other to regulate proliferation. However, an instructive model, wiring the crucial signaling nodes working in cellular growth and division, is still absent or controversial. Although growth factor-mediated mTORC1 regulation is defined considerably, debates still exist formTORC2. TSC1-TSC2 complex integrates both nutrient and mitogenic signals coming from growth factor receptors. Growth factor-induced PI3K/Akt- and Ras/Erk-mediated TSC2 inhibition is well defined. However, the interaction between TSC complex and new molecules such as Pin1 and DAPK requires further clarifications. Furthermore, the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway also intersects with the growth factor signaling at TSC1/TSC2 junction. Therefore, the aim of this perspective paper is to suggest an integrated model, linking growth factor-activated crucial signaling nodes in order to supply key molecular connections to degenerative diseases.

  7. An ERF Transcription Factor in Medicago truncatula That Is Essential for Nod Factor Signal Transduction[W

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Patrick H.; Jakab, Júlia; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Starker, Colby G.; Doll, Jake; Kaló, Péter; Prabhu, Radhika; Marsh, John F.; Mitra, Raka M.; Kereszt, Attila; Dudas, Brigitta; VandenBosch, Kathryn; Long, Sharon R.; Cook, Doug R.; Kiss, Gyorgy B.; Oldroyd, Giles E.D.

    2007-01-01

    Rhizobial bacteria activate the formation of nodules on the appropriate host legume plant, and this requires the bacterial signaling molecule Nod factor. Perception of Nod factor in the plant leads to the activation of a number of rhizobial-induced genes. Putative transcriptional regulators in the GRAS family are known to function in Nod factor signaling, but these proteins have not been shown to be capable of direct DNA binding. Here, we identify an ERF transcription factor, ERF Required for Nodulation (ERN), which contains a highly conserved AP2 DNA binding domain, that is necessary for nodulation. Mutations in this gene block the initiation and development of rhizobial invasion structures, termed infection threads, and thus block nodule invasion by the bacteria. We show that ERN is necessary for Nod factor–induced gene expression and for spontaneous nodulation activated by the calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, DMI3, which is a component of the Nod factor signaling pathway. We propose that ERN is a component of the Nod factor signal transduction pathway and functions downstream of DMI3 to activate nodulation gene expression. PMID:17449807

  8. The best-laid plans go oft awry: synaptogenic growth factor signaling in neuropsychiatric disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Aislinn J.; Umemori, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Growth factors play important roles in synapse formation. Mouse models of neuropsychiatric diseases suggest that defects in synaptogenic growth factors, their receptors, and signaling pathways can lead to disordered neural development and various behavioral phenotypes, including anxiety, memory problems, and social deficits. Genetic association studies in humans have found evidence for similar relationships between growth factor signaling pathways and neuropsychiatric phenotypes. Accumulating data suggest that dysfunction in neuronal circuitry, caused by defects in growth factor-mediated synapse formation, contributes to the susceptibility to multiple neuropsychiatric diseases, including epilepsy, autism, and disorders of thought and mood (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively). In this review, we will focus on how specific synaptogenic growth factors and their downstream signaling pathways might be involved in the development of neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:24672476

  9. Glutamine metabolism links growth factor signaling to the regulation of autophagy.

    PubMed

    van der Vos, Kristan E; Coffer, Paul J

    2012-12-01

    Activation of the PI3K-AKT1-FOXO module by growth factors increases survival and stress resistance. We identified the gene encoding glutamine synthetase (GLUL, glutamate-ammonia ligase) as a novel transcriptional target of this signaling cascade. Growth factor removal increases glutamine synthetase expression and activity through activation of FOXO transcription factors. Surprisingly, increased levels of glutamine synthetase inhibit MTOR signaling by blocking its lysosomal translocation. Furthermore, FOXO activation induces autophagosome formation and autophagic flux in a glutamine synthetase-dependent manner. This may be important for maintaining cell survival during conditions of growth factor and nutrient deprivation since inhibition of autophagy induces cell death. These studies reveal that glutamine metabolism can play an important regulatory role in the regulation of autophagy by growth factor signaling. In addition, the induction of autophagy by FOXO-mediated glutamine synthetase expression might contribute to the tumor suppressive function of FOXOs.

  10. Signal transduction induced in endothelial cells by growth factor receptors involved in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Erhard; Schweighofer, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Summary New vessel formation during development and in the adult is triggered by concerted signals of largely endothelial-specific receptors for ligands of the VEGF, angiopoietin and ephrin families. The signals and genes induced by these receptors operate in the context of additional signals transduced by non-endothelial specific growth factor receptors, inflammatory cytokine receptors as well as adhesion molecules. We summarize here available data on characteristic signaling of the VEGF receptor-2 and the current state of knowledge regarding the additional different receptor tyrosine kinases of the VEGF, Tie and Ephrin receptor families. Furthermore, the potential cross-talk with signals induced by other growth factors and inflammatory cytokines as well as the modulation by VE-cadherin is discussed. PMID:17334501

  11. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor induces sequestration of extracellular signal-related kinases and selective attenuation of specific epidermal growth factor-mediated signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Habib, Amyn A; Chun, Soo Jin; Neel, Benjamin G; Vartanian, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Increased expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in cancer and correlates with neoplastic progression. Although the biology of this receptor has been the subject of intense investigation, surprisingly little is known about how increased expression of the wild-type EGFR affects downstream signal transduction in cells. We show that increasing the expression of the receptor results in dramatic shifts in signaling with attenuation of EGF-induced Ras, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERKs), and Akt activation, as well as amplification of STAT1 and STAT3 signaling. In this study, we focus on the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling and present evidence suggesting that the mechanism of attenuated ERK signaling in EGFR-overexpressing cells is a sequestration of ERKs at the cell membrane in EGFR-containing complexes. Increased expression of the EGFR results in an aberrant localization of ERKs to the cell membrane. Furthermore, ERKs become associated with the EGFR in a physical complex in EGFR-overexpressing cells but not in control cells. The EGFR-ERK association is detected in unstimulated cells or on exposure to a low concentration of EGF; under these conditions, ERK activation is minimal. Exposure of these cells to saturating concentrations of EGF results in a decreased membrane localization of ERKs, a concomitant dissociation of ERKs from the EGFR, and restores ERK activation. A similar association can be detected between the EGFR and MEK1 in receptor-overexpressing cells, suggesting that multiple components of the ERK signaling pathway may become trapped in complexes with the EGFR. These findings can be demonstrated in cells transfected to express high levels of the EGFR as well as in cancer cells which naturally overexpress the EGFR and, thus, may be representative of altered EGFR signaling in human cancer.

  12. Mechanisms of fibroblast growth factor signaling in the ovarian follicle.

    PubMed

    Price, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have been shown to alter growth and differentiation of reproductive tissues in a variety of species. Within the female reproductive tract, the effects of FGFs have been focused on the ovary, and the most studied one is FGF2, which stimulates granulosa cell proliferation and decreases differentiation (decreased steroidogenesis). Other FGFs have also been implicated in ovarian function, and this review summarizes the effects of members of two subfamilies on ovarian function; the FGF7 subfamily that also contains FGF10, and the FGF8 subfamily that also contains FGF18. There are data to suggest that FGF8 and FGF18 have distinct actions on granulosa cells, despite their apparent similar receptor binding properties. Studies of non-reproductive developmental biology also indicate that FGF8 is distinct from FGF18, and that FGF7 is also distinct from FGF10 despite similar receptor binding properties. In this review, the potential mechanisms of differential action of FGF7/FGF10 and FGF8/FGF18 during organogenesis will be reviewed and placed in the context of follicle development. A model is proposed in which FGF8 and FGF18 differentially activate receptors depending on the properties of the extracellular matrix in the follicle. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  13. Nerve growth factor signal transduction in mature pig oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Althaus, H H; Hempel, R; Klöppner, S; Engel, J; Schmidt-Schultz, T; Kruska, L; Heumann, R

    1997-12-01

    It has previously been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) is of functional significance for mature pig oligodendrocytes (OLs) in culture. The present data give evidence for the expression of TrkA, the so-called high-affinity NGF receptor, and of p75NTR, the so-called low-affinity NGF receptor. TrkA is upregulated during culturing, in contrast to the p75 receptor. Exposure of OLs to NGF induces an autophosphorylation of TrkA via its intrinsic tyrosine kinase. K-252a inhibits the TrkA autophosphorylation, which reduces the OL process formation to control levels. To the tyrosine-phosphorylated sites of TrkA several proteins, such as phospholipase C-gamma1, the adaptor protein SHC, the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SH-PTP2 (SYP) associate via their SH2 phosphotase SH-PTP2 domain. The association of SHC to TrkA is shown by co-immunoprecipitation. Indirect evidence for a possible activation of PLC-gamma1 is given by an NGF-induced increase of oligodendroglial [Ca2+]i. Downstream from TrkA, a mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, which includes Erk1 and Erk2, is operating. An in-gel myelin basic protein kinase assay revealed that NGF activates predominantly Erk1. Finally, it is shown that NGF stimulates expression of c-fos.

  14. Growth factor signaling alters the morphology of the zebrafish ethmoid plate.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Brian J; Parsons, Trish E; Weinberg, Seth M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Szabo-Rogers, Heather L

    2017-02-28

    Craniofacial development relies on coordinated tissue interactions that allow for patterning and growth of the face. We know a priori that the Wingless, fibroblast growth factor, Hedgehog and transforming growth factor-beta growth factor signaling pathways are required for the development of the face, but how they contribute to the shape of the face is largely untested. Here, we test how each signaling pathway contributes to the overall morphology of the zebrafish anterior neurocranium. We tested the contribution of each signaling pathway to the development of the ethmoid plate during three distinct time periods: the time of neural crest migration [10 hour post fertilization (hpf)]; once the neural crest is resident in the face (20 hpf); and finally at the time at which the cartilaginous condensations are being initiated (48 hpf). Using geometric morphometric analysis, we conclude that each signaling pathway contributes to the shape, size and morphology of the ethmoid plate in a dose-, and time-dependent fashion.

  15. Regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking by Src and Eps8.

    PubMed

    Auciello, Giulio; Cunningham, Debbie L; Tatar, Tulin; Heath, John K; Rappoport, Joshua Z

    2013-01-15

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) mediate a wide spectrum of cellular responses that are crucial for development and wound healing. However, aberrant FGFR activity leads to cancer. Activated growth factor receptors undergo stimulated endocytosis, but can continue to signal along the endocytic pathway. Endocytic trafficking controls the duration and intensity of signalling, and growth factor receptor signalling can lead to modifications of trafficking pathways. We have developed live-cell imaging methods for studying FGFR dynamics to investigate mechanisms that coordinate the interplay between receptor trafficking and signal transduction. Activated FGFR enters the cell following recruitment to pre-formed clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, FGFR activation stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis; FGF treatment increases the number of CCPs, including those undergoing endocytosis, and this effect is mediated by Src and its phosphorylation target Eps8. Eps8 interacts with the clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery and depletion of Eps8 inhibits FGFR trafficking and immediate Erk signalling. Once internalized, FGFR passes through peripheral early endosomes en route to recycling and degredative compartments, through an Src- and Eps8-dependent mechanism. Thus Eps8 functions as a key coordinator in the interplay between FGFR signalling and trafficking. This work provides the first detailed mechanistic analysis of growth factor receptor clustering at the cell surface through signal transduction and endocytic trafficking. As we have characterised the Src target Eps8 as a key regulator of FGFR signalling and trafficking, and identified the early endocytic system as the site of Eps8-mediated effects, this work provides novel mechanistic insight into the reciprocal regulation of growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking.

  16. Regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking by Src and Eps8

    PubMed Central

    Auciello, Giulio; Cunningham, Debbie L.; Tatar, Tulin; Heath, John K.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) mediate a wide spectrum of cellular responses that are crucial for development and wound healing. However, aberrant FGFR activity leads to cancer. Activated growth factor receptors undergo stimulated endocytosis, but can continue to signal along the endocytic pathway. Endocytic trafficking controls the duration and intensity of signalling, and growth factor receptor signalling can lead to modifications of trafficking pathways. We have developed live-cell imaging methods for studying FGFR dynamics to investigate mechanisms that coordinate the interplay between receptor trafficking and signal transduction. Activated FGFR enters the cell following recruitment to pre-formed clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). However, FGFR activation stimulates clathrin-mediated endocytosis; FGF treatment increases the number of CCPs, including those undergoing endocytosis, and this effect is mediated by Src and its phosphorylation target Eps8. Eps8 interacts with the clathrin-mediated endocytosis machinery and depletion of Eps8 inhibits FGFR trafficking and immediate Erk signalling. Once internalized, FGFR passes through peripheral early endosomes en route to recycling and degredative compartments, through an Src- and Eps8-dependent mechanism. Thus Eps8 functions as a key coordinator in the interplay between FGFR signalling and trafficking. This work provides the first detailed mechanistic analysis of growth factor receptor clustering at the cell surface through signal transduction and endocytic trafficking. As we have characterised the Src target Eps8 as a key regulator of FGFR signalling and trafficking, and identified the early endocytic system as the site of Eps8-mediated effects, this work provides novel mechanistic insight into the reciprocal regulation of growth factor receptor signalling and trafficking. PMID:23203811

  17. A Hox complex activates and potentiates the Epidermal Growth Factor signaling pathway to specify Drosophila oenocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guolun; Gutzwiller, Lisa; Li-Kroeger, David; Gebelein, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Hox transcription factors specify distinct cell types along the anterior-posterior axis of metazoans by regulating target genes that modulate signaling pathways. A well-established example is the induction of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) signaling by an Abdominal-A (Abd-A) Hox complex during the specification of Drosophila hepatocyte-like cells (oenocytes). Previous studies revealed that Abd-A is non-cell autonomously required to promote oenocyte fate by directly activating a gene (rhomboid) that triggers EGF secretion from sensory organ precursor (SOP) cells. Neighboring cells that receive the EGF signal initiate a largely unknown pathway to promote oenocyte fate. Here, we show that Abd-A also plays a cell autonomous role in inducing oenocyte fate by activating the expression of the Pointed-P1 (PntP1) ETS transcription factor downstream of EGF signaling. Genetic studies demonstrate that both PntP1 and PntP2 are required for oenocyte specification. Moreover, we found that PntP1 contains a conserved enhancer (PntP1OE) that is activated in oenocyte precursor cells by EGF signaling via direct regulation by the Pnt transcription factors as well as a transcription factor complex consisting of Abd-A, Extradenticle, and Homothorax. Our findings demonstrate that the same Abd-A Hox complex required for sending the EGF signal from SOP cells, enhances the competency of receiving cells to select oenocyte cell fate by up-regulating PntP1. Since PntP1 is a downstream effector of EGF signaling, these findings provide insight into how a Hox factor can both trigger and potentiate the EGF signal to promote an essential cell fate along the body plan.

  18. Interspecies signalling via the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia diffusible signal factor influences biofilm formation and polymyxin tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Robert P; Fouhy, Yvonne; Garcia, Belen Fernandez; Watt, Steven A; Niehaus, Karsten; Yang, Liang; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Dow, J Maxwell

    2008-04-01

    Interspecies signalling through the action of diffusible signal molecules can influence the behaviour of organisms growing in polymicrobial communities. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa occur ubiquitously in the environment and can be found together in diverse niches including the rhizosphere of plants and the cystic fibrosis lung. In mixed species biofilms, S. maltophilia substantially influenced the architecture of P. aeruginosa structures, which developed as extended filaments. This effect depended upon the synthesis of the diffusible signal factor (DSF) by S. maltophilia and could be mimicked by the addition of synthetic DSF. This response of P. aeruginosa to DSF required PA1396, a sensor kinase with an input domain of related amino acid sequence to the sensory input domain of RpfC, which is responsible for DSF perception in xanthomonads. Mutation of PA1396 or addition of DSF to P. aeruginosa led to increased levels of a number of proteins with roles in bacterial stress tolerance, including those implicated in resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides. This effect was associated with increased tolerance to polymyxins. Homologues of PA1396 occur in a number of phytopathogenic and plant-associated pseudomonads, suggesting that modulation of bacterial behaviour through DSF-mediated interspecies signalling with xanthomonads is a phenomenon that occurs widely.

  19. Nuclear factor-κB signaling contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragm weakness*.

    PubMed

    Smuder, Ashley J; Hudson, Matthew B; Nelson, W Bradley; Kavazis, Andreas N; Powers, Scott K

    2012-03-01

    Although mechanical ventilation is a life-saving measure for patients in respiratory failure, prolonged mechanical ventilation results in diaphragmatic weakness attributable to fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Therefore, identifying the signaling pathways responsible for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness is important. In this context, it is established that oxidative stress is required for mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness to occur. Numerous redox-sensitive signaling pathways exist in muscle including the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB. Although it has been suggested that nuclear factor-κB contributes to proteolytic signaling in inactivity-induced atrophy in locomotor muscles, the role that nuclear factor-κB plays in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that nuclear factor-κB activation plays a key signaling role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness and that oxidative stress is required for nuclear factor-κB activation. Cause and effect was determined by independently treating mechanically ventilated animals with either a specific nuclear factor-κB inhibitor (SN50) or a clinically relevant antioxidant (curcumin). Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activity partially attenuated both mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Further, treatment with the antioxidant curcumin prevented mechanical ventilation-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB in the diaphragm and rescued the diaphragm from both mechanical ventilation-induced atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that nuclear factor-κB activation plays a significant signaling role in mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic weakness and that oxidative stress is an upstream activator of nuclear factor-κB. Finally, our results suggest that prevention of mechanical ventilation

  20. Signal transduction pathways and transcription factors triggered by arsenic trioxide in leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sumi, Daigo; Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2010-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) is widely used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Several lines of evidence have indicated that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} affects signal transduction and transactivation of transcription factors, resulting in the stimulation of apoptosis in leukemia cells, because some transcription factors are reported to associate with the redox condition of the cells, and arsenicals cause oxidative stress. Thus, the disturbance and activation of the cellular signaling pathway and transcription factors due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation during arsenic exposure may explain the ability of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} to induce a complete remission in relapsed APL patients. In this report, we review recent findings on ROS generation and alterations in signal transduction and in transactivation of transcription factors during As{sub 2}O{sub 3} exposure in leukemia cells.

  1. Signaling by the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily in B-cell biology and disease.

    PubMed

    Rickert, Robert C; Jellusova, Julia; Miletic, Ana V

    2011-11-01

    Members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) participate prominently in B-cell maturation and function. In particular, B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) play critical roles in promoting B-cell survival at distinct stages of development by engaging a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) and/or BAFF. CD40 is also essential for directing the humoral response to T-cell-dependent antigens. Signaling by the TNFRSF is mediated primarily, albeit not exclusively, via the TNFR-associated factor (TRAF) proteins and activation of the canonical and/or non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathways. Dysregulated signaling by TNFRSF members can promote B-cell survival and proliferation, causing autoimmunity and neoplasia. In this review, we present a current understanding of the functions of and distinctions between APRIL/BAFF signaling by their respective receptors expressed on particular B-cell subsets. These findings are compared and contrasted with CD40 signaling, which employs similar signaling conduits to achieve distinct cellular outcomes in the context of the germinal center response. We also underscore how new findings and conceptual insights into TNFRSF signaling are facilitating the understanding of B-cell malignancies and autoimmune diseases.

  2. MAPK signaling promotes axonal degeneration by speeding the turnover of the axonal maintenance factor NMNAT2

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lauren J; Summers, Daniel W; Sasaki, Yo; Brace, EJ; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Injury-induced (Wallerian) axonal degeneration is regulated via the opposing actions of pro-degenerative factors such as SARM1 and a MAPK signal and pro-survival factors, the most important of which is the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 that inhibits activation of the SARM1 pathway. Here we investigate the mechanism by which MAPK signaling facilitates axonal degeneration. We show that MAPK signaling promotes the turnover of the axonal survival factor NMNAT2 in cultured mammalian neurons as well as the Drosophila ortholog dNMNAT in motoneurons. The increased levels of NMNAT2 are required for the axonal protection caused by loss of MAPK signaling. Regulation of NMNAT2 by MAPK signaling does not require SARM1, and so cannot be downstream of SARM1. Hence, pro-degenerative MAPK signaling functions upstream of SARM1 by limiting the levels of the essential axonal survival factor NMNAT2 to promote injury-dependent SARM1 activation. These findings are consistent with a linear molecular pathway for the axonal degeneration program. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22540.001 PMID:28095293

  3. Chemokines induce axon outgrowth downstream of Hepatocyte Growth Factor and TCF/β-catenin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Deepshikha; Náger, Mireia; Camats, Judith; David, Monica; Benguria, Alberto; Dopazo, Ana; Cantí, Carles; Herreros, Judit

    2013-01-01

    Axon morphogenesis is a complex process regulated by a variety of secreted molecules, including morphogens and growth factors, resulting in the establishment of the neuronal circuitry. Our previous work demonstrated that growth factors [Neurotrophins (NT) and Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF)] signal through β-catenin during axon morphogenesis. HGF signaling promotes axon outgrowth and branching by inducing β-catenin phosphorylation at Y142 and transcriptional regulation of T-Cell Factor (TCF) target genes. Here, we asked which genes are regulated by HGF signaling during axon morphogenesis. An array screening indicated that HGF signaling elevates the expression of chemokines of the CC and CXC families. In line with this, CCL7, CCL20, and CXCL2 significantly increase axon outgrowth in hippocampal neurons. Experiments using blocking antibodies and chemokine receptor antagonists demonstrate that chemokines act downstream of HGF signaling during axon morphogenesis. In addition, qPCR data demonstrates that CXCL2 and CCL5 expression is stimulated by HGF through Met/b-catenin/TCF pathway. These results identify CC family members and CXCL2 chemokines as novel regulators of axon morphogenesis downstream of HGF signaling. PMID:23641195

  4. Signaling and Transcription Factors during Inner Ear Development: The Generation of Hair Cells and Otic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Héctor; Abelló, Gina; Giraldez, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Integration between cell signals and bHLH transcription factors plays a prominent role during the development of hair cells of the inner ear. Hair cells are the sensory receptors of the inner ear, responsible for the mechano-transduction of sound waves into electrical signals. They derive from multipotent progenitors that reside in the otic placode. Progenitor commitment is the result of cell signaling from the surrounding tissues that result in the restricted expression of SoxB1 transcription factors, Sox2 and Sox3. In turn, they induce the expression of Neurog1 and Atoh1, two bHLH factors that specify neuronal and hair cell fates, respectively. Neuronal and hair cell development, however, do not occur simultaneously. Hair cell development is prevented during neurogenesis and prosensory stages, resulting in the delay of hair cell development with respect to neuron production. Negative interactions between Neurog1 and Atoh1, and of Atoh1 with other bHLH factors driven by Notch signaling, like Hey1 and Hes5, account for this delay. In summary, the regulation of Atoh1 and hair cell development relies on interactions between cell signaling and bHLH transcription factors that dictate cell fate and timing decisions during development. Interestingly, these mechanisms operate as well during hair cell regeneration after damage and during stem cell directed differentiation, making developmental studies instrumental for improving therapies for hearing impairment. PMID:28393066

  5. Ethylene Response Factors: A Key Regulatory Hub in Hormone and Stress Signaling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Maren; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is essential for many developmental processes and a key mediator of biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants. The ethylene signaling and response pathway includes Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs), which belong to the transcription factor family APETALA2/ERF. It is well known that ERFs regulate molecular response to pathogen attack by binding to sequences containing AGCCGCC motifs (the GCC box), a cis-acting element. However, recent studies suggest that several ERFs also bind to dehydration-responsive elements and act as a key regulatory hub in plant responses to abiotic stresses. Here, we review some of the recent advances in our understanding of the ethylene signaling and response pathway, with emphasis on ERFs and their role in hormone cross talk and redox signaling under abiotic stresses. We conclude that ERFs act as a key regulatory hub, integrating ethylene, abscisic acid, jasmonate, and redox signaling in the plant response to a number of abiotic stresses.

  6. Insulin-like growth factor and epidermal growth factor signaling in breast cancer cell growth: focus on endocrine resistant disease.

    PubMed

    Voudouri, Kallirroi; Berdiaki, Aikaterini; Tzardi, Maria; Tzanakakis, George N; Nikitovic, Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer for women worldwide with a lifetime risk amounting to a staggering total of 10%. It is well established that the endogenous synthesis of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) polypeptide growth factors are closely correlated to malignant transformation and all the steps of the breast cancer metastatic cascade. Numerous studies have demonstrated that both estrogens and growth factors stimulate the proliferation of steroid-dependent tumor cells, and that the interaction between these signaling pathways occurs at several levels. Importantly, the majority of breast cancer cases are estrogen receptor- (ER-) positive which have a more favorable prognosis and pattern of recurrence with endocrine therapy being the backbone of treatment. Unfortunately, the majority of patients progress to endocrine therapy resistant disease (acquired resistance) whereas a proportion of patients may fail to respond to initial therapy (de novo resistance). The IGF-I and EGF downstream signaling pathways are closely involved in the process of progression to therapy resistant disease. Modifications in the bioavailability of these growth factors contribute critically to disease progression. In the present review therefore, we will discuss in depth how IGF and EGF signaling participate in breast cancer pathogenesis and progression to endocrine resistant disease.

  7. Convergence of Protein Kinase C and JAK-STAT Signaling on Transcription Factor GATA-4

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Paradis, Pierre; Aries, Anne; Komati, Hiba; Lefebvre, Chantal; Wang, Hao; Nemer, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII), a potent vasoactive hormone, acts on numerous organs via G-protein-coupled receptors and elicits cell-specific responses. At the level of the heart, AII stimulation alters gene transcription and leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Numerous intracellular signaling pathways are activated in this process; however, which of these directly link receptor activation to transcriptional regulation remains undefined. We used the atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) gene (NPPA) as a marker to elucidate the signaling cascades involved in AII transcriptional responses. We show that ANF transcription is activated directly by the AII type 1 receptor and precedes the development of myocyte hypertrophy. This response maps to STAT and GATA binding sites, and the two elements transcriptionally cooperate to mediate signaling through the JAK-STAT and protein kinase C (PKC)-GATA-4 pathways. PKC phosphorylation enhances GATA-4 DNA binding activity, and STAT-1 functionally and physically interacts with GATA-4 to synergistically activate AII and other growth factor-inducible promoters. Moreover, GATA factors are able to recruit STAT proteins to target promoters via GATA binding sites, which are sufficient to support synergy. Thus, STAT proteins can act as growth factor-inducible coactivators of tissue-specific transcription factors. Interactions between STAT and GATA proteins may provide a general paradigm for understanding cell specificity of cytokine and growth factor signaling. PMID:16260600

  8. Tcra enhancer activation by inducible transcription factors downstream of pre-TCR signaling.

    PubMed

    del Blanco, Beatriz; García-Mariscal, Alberto; Wiest, David L; Hernández-Munain, Cristina

    2012-04-01

    The Tcra enhancer (Eα) is essential for pre-TCR-mediated activation of germline transcription and V(D)J recombination. Eα is considered an archetypical enhanceosome that acts through the functional synergy and cooperative binding of multiple transcription factors. Based on dimethylsulfate genomic footprinting experiments, there has been a long-standing paradox regarding Eα activation in the absence of differences in enhancer occupancy. Our data provide the molecular mechanism of Eα activation and an explanation of this paradox. We found that germline transcriptional activation of Tcra is dependent on constant phospholipase Cγ, as well as calcineurin- and MAPK/ERK-mediated signaling, indicating that inducible transcription factors are crucially involved. NFAT, AP-1, and early growth response factor 1, together with CREB-binding protein/p300 coactivators, bind to Eα as part of an active enhanceosome assembled during pre-TCR signaling. We favor a scenario in which the binding of lymphoid-restricted and constitutive transcription factors to Eα prior to its activation forms a regulatory scaffold to recruit factors induced by pre-TCR signaling. Thus, the combinatorial assembly of tissue- and signal-specific transcription factors dictates the Eα function. This mechanism for enhancer activation may represent a general paradigm in tissue-restricted and stimulus-responsive gene regulation.

  9. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor signaling prevents muscle fiber growth during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Sugg, Kristoffer B; Korn, Michael A; Sarver, Dylan C; Markworth, James F; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-03-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptors alpha and beta (PDGFRα and PDGFRβ) mark fibroadipogenic progenitor cells/fibroblasts and pericytes in skeletal muscle, respectively. While the role that these cells play in muscle growth and development has been evaluated, it was not known whether the PDGF receptors activate signaling pathways that control transcriptional and functional changes during skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To evaluate this, we inhibited PDGFR signaling in mice subjected to a synergist ablation muscle growth procedure, and performed analyses 3 and 10 days after induction of hypertrophy. The results from this study indicate that PDGF signaling is required for fiber hypertrophy, extracellular matrix production, and angiogenesis that occur during muscle growth.

  10. Signal-dependent dynamics of transcription factor translocation controls gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Nan; O'Shea, Erin K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Information about environmental stimuli is often transmitted using common signalling molecules, but the mechanisms that ensure signalling specificity are not entirely known. Here we show that the identities and intensities of different stresses are transmitted by modulation of the amplitude, duration or frequency of nuclear translocation of the budding yeast general stress responsive transcription factor Msn2. Through artificial control of the dynamics of Msn2 translocation, we reveal how distinct dynamical schemes differentially affect reporter gene expression. Using a simple model, we predict stress-induced reporter gene expression from single-cell translocation dynamics. We then demonstrate that the response of natural target genes to dynamical modulation of Msn2 translocation is influenced by differences in the kinetics of promoter transitions and transcription factor binding properties. Thus, multiple environmental signals can trigger qualitatively different dynamics of a single transcription factor, and influence gene expression patterns. PMID:22179789

  11. FGFR-4 Arg388 enhances prostate cancer progression via extracellular signal-related kinase and serum response factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wendong; Feng, Shu; Dakhova, Olga; Creighton, Chad J.; Cai, Yi; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Rile; Frolov, Anna; Ayala, Gustavo; Ittmann, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Increased expression of FGFR-4 and its ligands have been linked to lethal prostate cancer (PCa). Furthermore, a germline polymorphism in the FGFR-4 gene, resulting in arginine at codon 388 (Arg388) instead of glycine (Gly388), is associated with aggressive disease. The FGFR-4 Arg388 variant results in increased receptor stability, sustained receptor activation and increased motility and invasion compared to Gly388. However, the impact of sustained signaling on cellular signal transduction pathways is unknown. Experimental Design Expression microarray analysis of immortalized prostatic epithelial cells lines expressing FGFR-4 Arg388 or Gly388 was used to establish a gene signature associated with FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. Transient transfection of reporters and inhibitors were used to establish the pathways activated by FGFR-4 Arg388 expression. The impact of pathway knockdown in vitro and in an orthotopic model was assessed using inhibitors and/or shRNA. Results Expression of the FGFR-4 Arg388 protein leads to increased activity of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway, increased activity of serum response factor (SRF) and AP1 and transcription of multiple genes which are correlated with aggressive clinical behavior in PCa. Increased expression of SRF is associated with biochemical recurrence in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. Consistent with these observations, knockdown of FGFR-4 Arg388 in PCa cells decreases proliferation and invasion in vitro and primary tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Conclusions These studies define a signal transduction pathway downstream of FGFR-4 Arg388 that acts via ERK and SRF to promote prostate cancer progression. PMID:21622724

  12. Epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates adipocyte differentiation via secretion of adipogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giacomo; Proserpio, Valentina; Lichtenberger, Beate Maria; Natsuga, Ken; Sinclair, Rodney; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Watt, Fiona M.

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the hair follicle growth cycle and oscillation in the thickness of the underlying adipocyte layer are synchronized. Although factors secreted by adipocytes are known to regulate the hair growth cycle, it is unclear whether the epidermis can regulate adipogenesis. We show that inhibition of epidermal Wnt/β-catenin signaling reduced adipocyte differentiation in developing and adult mouse dermis. Conversely, ectopic activation of epidermal Wnt signaling promoted adipocyte differentiation and hair growth. When the Wnt pathway was activated in the embryonic epidermis, there was a dramatic and premature increase in adipocytes in the absence of hair follicle formation, demonstrating that Wnt activation, rather than mature hair follicles, is required for adipocyte generation. Epidermal and dermal gene expression profiling identified keratinocyte-derived adipogenic factors that are induced by β-catenin activation. Wnt/β-catenin signaling-dependent secreted factors from keratinocytes promoted adipocyte differentiation in vitro, and we identified ligands for the bone morphogenetic protein and insulin pathways as proadipogenic factors. Our results indicate epidermal Wnt/β-catenin as a critical initiator of a signaling cascade that induces adipogenesis and highlight the role of epidermal Wnt signaling in synchronizing adipocyte differentiation with the hair growth cycle. PMID:24706781

  13. Differential usage of signal transduction pathways defines two types of serum response factor target gene.

    PubMed

    Gineitis, D; Treisman, R

    2001-07-06

    Activation of the transcription factor serum response factor (SRF) is dependent on Rho-controlled changes in actin dynamics. We used pathway-specific inhibitors to compare the roles of actin dynamics, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in signaling either to SRF itself or to four cellular SRF target genes. Serum, lysophosphatidic acid, platelet-derived growth factor, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) each activated transcription of a stably integrated SRF reporter gene dependent on functional RhoA GTPase. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase-ERK kinase (MEK) signalling reduced activation of the SRF reporter by all stimuli by about 50%, except for PMA, which was effectively blocked. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase slightly reduced reporter activation by serum and lysophosphatidic acid but substantially inhibited activation by platelet-derived growth factor and PMA. Reporter induction by all stimuli was absolutely dependent on actin dynamics. Regulation of the SRF (srf) and vinculin (vcl) genes was similar to that of the SRF reporter gene; activation by all stimuli was Rho-dependent and required actin dynamics but was largely independent of MEK activity. In contrast, activation of fos and egr1 occurred independently of RhoA and actin polymerization but was almost completely dependent on MEK activation. These results show that at least two classes of SRF target genes can be distinguished on the basis of their relative sensitivity to RhoA-actin and MEK-ERK signaling pathways.

  14. Abscisic acid coordinates nod factor and cytokinin signaling during the regulation of nodulation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yiliang; Kalo, Peter; Yendrek, Craig; Sun, Jongho; Liang, Yan; Marsh, John F; Harris, Jeanne M; Oldroyd, Giles E D

    2008-10-01

    Nodulation is tightly regulated in legumes to ensure appropriate levels of nitrogen fixation without excessive depletion of carbon reserves. This balance is maintained by intimately linking nodulation and its regulation with plant hormones. It has previously been shown that ethylene and jasmonic acid (JA) are able to regulate nodulation and Nod factor signal transduction. Here, we characterize the nature of abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of nodulation. We show that application of ABA inhibits nodulation, bacterial infection, and nodulin gene expression in Medicago truncatula. ABA acts in a similar manner as JA and ethylene, regulating Nod factor signaling and affecting the nature of Nod factor-induced calcium spiking. However, this action is independent of the ethylene signal transduction pathway. We show that genetic inhibition of ABA signaling through the use of a dominant-negative allele of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 leads to a hypernodulation phenotype. In addition, we characterize a novel locus of M. truncatula, SENSITIVITY TO ABA, that dictates the sensitivity of the plant to ABA and, as such, impacts the regulation of nodulation. We show that ABA can suppress Nod factor signal transduction in the epidermis and can regulate cytokinin induction of the nodule primordium in the root cortex. Therefore, ABA is capable of coordinately regulating the diverse developmental pathways associated with nodule formation and can intimately dictate the nature of the plants' response to the symbiotic bacteria.

  15. Emerging Roles of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Sarah E; Lee, Nam Y

    2017-03-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus affecting about one third of diabetic adults. Despite its prevalence, treatment options are limited and often implemented only in the later stages of the disease. To date, the pathogenesis of DR has been extensively characterized in the context of elevated glucose, insulin, and VEGF signaling, although a growing number of other growth factors and molecules, including transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) are being recognized as important contributors and/or therapeutic targets. Here, we review the complex roles of TGF-β signaling in DR pathogenesis and progression. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 486-489, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Insights into the Transforming Growth FactorSignaling Pathway in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Carole Yolande; Javelaud, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a pleiotropic growth factor with broad tissue distribution that plays critical roles during embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, and cancer. While its cytostatic activity on normal epithelial cells initially defined TGF-β signaling as a tumor suppressor pathway, there is ample evidence indicating that TGF-β is a potent pro-tumorigenic agent, acting via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms to promote peri-tumoral angiogenesis, together with tumor cell migration, immune escape, and dissemination to metastatic sites. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the implication of TGF-β signaling in melanoma. PMID:23717002

  17. An Integrated Model of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Trafficking and Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Resat, Haluk; Ewald, Jonathan A.; Dixon, David A.; Wiley, H. Steven

    2003-01-01

    Endocytic trafficking of many types of receptors can have profound effects on subsequent signaling events. Quantitative models of these processes, however, have usually considered trafficking and signaling independently. Here, we present an integrated model of both the trafficking and signaling pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) using a probability weighted-dynamic Monte Carlo simulation. Our model consists of hundreds of distinct endocytic compartments and ∼13,000 reactions/events that occur over a broad spatio-temporal range. By using a realistic multicompartment model, we can investigate the distribution of the receptors among cellular compartments as well as their potential signal transduction characteristics. Our new model also allows the incorporation of physiochemical aspects of ligand-receptor interactions, such as pH-dependent binding in different endosomal compartments. To determine the utility of this approach, we simulated the differential activation of the EGFR by two of its ligands, epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α). Our simulations predict that when EGFR is activated with TGF-α, receptor activation is biased toward the cell surface whereas EGF produces a signaling bias toward the endosomal compartment. Experiments confirm these predictions from our model and simulations. Our model accurately predicts the kinetics and extent of receptor downregulation induced by either EGF or TGF-α. Our results suggest that receptor trafficking controls the compartmental bias of signal transduction, rather than simply modulating signal magnitude. Our model provides a new approach to evaluating the complex effect of receptor trafficking on signal transduction. Importantly, the stochastic and compartmental nature of the simulation allows these models to be directly tested by high-throughput approaches, such as quantitative image analysis. PMID:12885624

  18. Functional Significance of the Signal Peptides of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Receptors.

    PubMed

    Schülein, Ralf; Gibert, Arthur; Rutz, Claudia

    2017-02-23

    The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) receptors belong to the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and must be transported to the plasma membrane to function properly. The first step of the intracellular transport of GPCRs is their insertion into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This process is mediated by the translocon complex of the ER membrane and the signal sequences of the receptors. Most GPCRs possess signal sequences which form part of the mature proteins, the so called signal anchor sequences (usually transmembrane domain 1). The CRF receptors possess instead signal sequences at their extreme N tails which were thought to be cleaved off following integration of the receptors into the ER membrane (signal peptides, SPs, also called cleaved signal sequences). Recent work, however, showed that not all subtypes of CRF receptors stick to this rule. Whereas the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) and the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2b (CRF2(b)R) possess conventional SPs which are indeed cleaved off following ER insertion, the SP of the cortictropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2(a)R) remains uncleaved. It forms a unique N-terminal domain (pseudo signal peptide, PSP) which has surprising functions beyond the ER level. Its presence not only influences expression levels at the plasma membrane but also receptor homodimerisation and, as a consequence, G protein selectivity. In this mini-review, we summarize the progress in understanding the functions of SPs of CRF receptors. Recent data also allow deriving hypotheses for a physiological significance of these sequences. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Insulin-like growth factor-1 suppresses the Myostatin signaling pathway during myogenic differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Retamales, A.; Zuloaga, R.; Valenzuela, C.A.; Gallardo-Escarate, C.; Molina, A.; Valdés, J.A.

    2015-08-21

    Myogenic differentiation is a complex and well-coordinated process for generating mature skeletal muscle fibers. This event is autocrine/paracrine regulated by growth factors, principally Myostatin (MSTN) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1). Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates that exerts its inhibitory function by activating Smad transcription factors. In contrast, IGF-1 promotes the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. This study reports on a novel functional crosstalk between the IGF-1 and MSTN signaling pathways, as mediated through interaction between PI3K/Akt and Smad3. Stimulation of skeletal myoblasts with MSTN resulted in a transient increase in the pSmad3:Smad3 ratio and Smad-dependent transcription. Moreover, MSTN inhibited myod gene expression and myoblast fusion in an Activin receptor-like kinase/Smad3-dependent manner. Preincubation of skeletal myoblasts with IGF-1 blocked MSTN-induced Smad3 activation, promoting myod expression and myoblast differentiation. This inhibitory effect of IGF-1 on the MSTN signaling pathway was dependent on IGF-1 receptor, PI3K, and Akt activities. Finally, immunoprecipitation assay analysis determined that IGF-1 pretreatment increased Akt and Smad3 interaction. These results demonstrate that the IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway may inhibit MSTN signaling during myoblast differentiation, providing new insight to existing knowledge on the complex crosstalk between both growth factors. - Highlights: • IGF-1 inhibits Myostatin canonical signaling pathway through IGF-1R/PI3K/Akt pathway. • IGF-1 promotes myoblast differentiation through a direct blocking of Myostatin signaling pathway. • IGF-1 induces the interaction of Akt with Smad3 in skeletal myoblast.

  20. Apical Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling: Regulation of Stretch-dependent Exocytosis in Bladder Umbrella Cells

    PubMed Central

    Balestreire, Elena M.

    2007-01-01

    The apical surface of polarized epithelial cells receives input from mediators, growth factors, and mechanical stimuli. How these stimuli are coordinated to regulate complex cellular functions such as polarized membrane traffic is not understood. We analyzed the requirement for growth factor signaling and mechanical stimuli in umbrella cells, which line the mucosal surface of the bladder and dynamically insert and remove apical membrane in response to stretch. We observed that stretch-stimulated exocytosis required apical epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor activation and that activation occurred in an autocrine manner downstream of heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor cleavage. Long-term changes in apical exocytosis depended on protein synthesis, which occurred upon EGF receptor-dependent activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Our results indicate a novel physiological role for the EGF receptor that couples upstream mechanical stimuli to downstream apical EGF receptor activation that may regulate apical surface area changes during bladder filling. PMID:17287395

  1. Signaling proteins and transcription factors in normal and malignant early B cell development.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Reyes-León, Adriana; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M

    2011-01-01

    B cell development starts in bone marrow with the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell lineage. In murine models, the IL-7 and preBCR receptors, and the signaling pathways and transcription factors that they regulate, control commitment and maintenance along the B cell pathway. E2A, EBF1, PAX5, and Ikaros are among the most important transcription factors controlling early development and thereby conditioning mice homeostatic B cell lymphopoiesis. Importantly, their gain or loss of function often results in malignant development in humans, supporting conserved roles for these transcription factors. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of pediatric cancer, and it is characterized by unpaired early B cell development resulting from genetic lesions in these critical signaling pathways and transcription factors. Fine mapping of these genetic abnormalities is allowing more specific treatments, more accurately predicting risk profiles for this disease, and improving survival rates.

  2. Signaling Proteins and Transcription Factors in Normal and Malignant Early B Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Vera, Patricia; Reyes-León, Adriana; Fuentes-Pananá, Ezequiel M.

    2011-01-01

    B cell development starts in bone marrow with the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors to the B cell lineage. In murine models, the IL-7 and preBCR receptors, and the signaling pathways and transcription factors that they regulate, control commitment and maintenance along the B cell pathway. E2A, EBF1, PAX5, and Ikaros are among the most important transcription factors controlling early development and thereby conditioning mice homeostatic B cell lymphopoiesis. Importantly, their gain or loss of function often results in malignant development in humans, supporting conserved roles for these transcription factors. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common cause of pediatric cancer, and it is characterized by unpaired early B cell development resulting from genetic lesions in these critical signaling pathways and transcription factors. Fine mapping of these genetic abnormalities is allowing more specific treatments, more accurately predicting risk profiles for this disease, and improving survival rates. PMID:22046564

  3. The epidermal growth factor receptor family as a central element for cellular signal transduction and diversification.

    PubMed

    Prenzel, N; Fischer, O M; Streit, S; Hart, S; Ullrich, A

    2001-03-01

    Homeostasis of multicellular organisms is critically dependent on the correct interpretation of the plethora of signals which cells are exposed to during their lifespan. Various soluble factors regulate the activation state of cellular receptors which are coupled to a complex signal transduction network that ultimately generates signals defining the required biological response. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family of receptor tyrosine kinases represents both key regulators of normal cellular development as well as critical players in a variety of pathophysiological phenomena. The aim of this review is to give a broad overview of signal transduction networks that are controlled by the EGFR superfamily of receptors in health and disease and its application for target-selective therapeutic intervention. Since the EGFR and HER2 were recently identified as critical players in the transduction of signals by a variety of cell surface receptors, such as G-protein-coupled receptors and integrins, our special focus is the mechanisms and significance of the interconnectivity between heterologous signalling systems.

  4. Regulation of pancreatic islet beta-cell mass by growth factor and hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Chang, Yongchang

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction and destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells is a hallmark of diabetes. Better understanding of cellular signals in beta cells will allow development of therapeutic strategies for diabetes, such as preservation and expansion of beta-cell mass and improvement of beta-cell function. During the past several decades, the number of studies analyzing the molecular mechanisms, including growth factor/hormone signaling pathways that impact islet beta-cell mass and function, has increased exponentially. Notably, somatolactogenic hormones including growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and their receptors (GHR, PRLR, and IGF-1R) are critically involved in beta-cell growth, survival, differentiation, and insulin secretion. In this chapter, we focus more narrowly on GH, PRL, and IGF-1 signaling, and GH-IGF-1 cross talk. We also discuss how these signaling aspects contribute to the regulation of beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis. In particular, our novel findings of GH-induced formation of GHR-JAK2-IGF-1R protein complex and synergistic effects of GH and IGF-1 on beta-cell signaling, proliferation, and antiapoptosis lead to a new concept that IGF-1R may serve as a proximal component of GH/GHR signaling.

  5. Transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression through activation of the Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Reimunde, Francisco Manuel; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Lamas, Santiago

    2004-11-01

    Expression of the endothelin-1 gene is subject to complex regulation by different factors, among which transforming growth factor-beta is one of the most important. We have analyzed the mechanism by which transforming growth factor-beta increases endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional activation of the endothelin-1 promoter accounted for the transforming growth factor-beta-induced increase in endothelin-1 mRNA levels. Two DNA elements within the promoter are responsible for this effect: a Smad binding element and a proximal activator protein-1 site. Mutation of both elements abolished transforming growth factor-beta responsiveness. Overexpression of the Smad3 isoform strongly potentiates transforming growth factor-beta- induced endothelin-1 promoter activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression by a functional cooperation between Smads and activator protein-1 through activation of the Smad signaling pathway.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor in glioma: signal transduction, neuropathology, imaging, and radioresistance.

    PubMed

    Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Burma, Sandeep; Zhao, Dawen; Habib, Amyn A

    2010-09-01

    Aberrant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling is common in cancer. Increased expression of wild type and mutant EGFR is a widespread feature of diverse types of cancer. EGFR signaling in cancer has been the focus of intense investigation for decades primarily for two reasons. First, aberrant EGFR signaling is likely to play an important role in the pathogenesis of cancer, and therefore, the mechanisms of EGFR-mediated oncogenic signaling are of interest. Second, the EGFR signaling system is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. EGFR gene amplification and overexpression are a particularly striking feature of glioblastoma (GBM), observed in approximately 40% of tumors. GBM is the most common primary malignant tumor of the central nervous system in adults. In approximately 50% of tumors with EGFR amplification, a specific EGFR mutant (EGFRvIII, also known as EGFR type III, de2-7, Delta EGFR) can be detected. This mutant is highly oncogenic and is generated from a deletion of exons 2 to 7 of the EGFR gene, which results in an in-frame deletion of 267 amino acids from the extracellular domain of the receptor. EGFRvIII is unable to bind ligand, and it signals constitutively. Although EGFRvIII has the same signaling domain as the wild type receptor, it seems to generate a distinct set of downstream signals that may contribute to an increased tumorigenicity. In this review, we discuss recent progress in key aspects of EGFR signaling in GBM, focusing on neuropathology, signal transduction, imaging of the EGFR, and the role of the EGFR in mediating resistance to radiation therapy in GBM.

  7. Wnt signaling induces gene expression of factors associated with bone destruction in lung and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Rachelle W.; Merkel, Alyssa R.; Page, Jonathan M.; Ruppender, Nazanin S.; Guelcher, Scott A.; Sterling, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is an important regulator of bone destruction in bone metastatic tumors. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) stimulates PTHrP production in part through the transcription factor Gli2, which is regulated independent of the Hedgehog signaling pathway in osteolytic cancer cells. However, inhibition of TGF-β in vivo does not fully inhibit tumor growth in bone or tumor-induced bone destruction, suggesting other pathways are involved. While Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 in development, the role of Wnt signaling in bone metastasis is unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether Wnt signaling regulates Gli2 expression in tumor cells that induce bone destruction. We report here that Wnt activation by β-catenin/T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) over-expression or lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment increased Gli2 and PTHrP expression in osteolytic cancer cells. This was mediated through the TCF and Smad binding sites within the Gli2 promoter as determined by promoter mutation studies, suggesting cross-talk between TGF-β and Wnt signaling. Culture of tumor cells on substrates with bone-like rigidity increased Gli2 and PTHrP production, enhanced autocrine Wnt activity and led to an increase in the TCF/Wnt signaling reporter (TOPFlash), enriched β-catenin nuclear accumulation, and elevated Wnt-related genes by PCR-array. Stromal cells serve as an additional paracrine source of Wnt ligands and enhanced Gli2 and PTHrP mRNA levels in MDA-MB-231 and RWGT2 cells in vitro and promoted tumor-induced bone destruction in vivo in a β-catenin/Wnt3a-dependent mechanism. These data indicate that a combination of matrix rigidity and stromal-secreted factors stimulate Gli2 and PTHrP through Wnt signaling in osteolytic breast cancer cells, and there is significant cross-talk between the Wnt and TGF-β signaling pathways. This suggests that the Wnt signaling pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for inhibiting tumor cell response to the bone

  8. Differential Effects of Myopathy-Associated Caveolin-3 Mutants on Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brauers, Eva; Dreier, Agnes; Roos, Andreas; Wormland, Berthold; Weis, Joachim; Krüttgen, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Caveolin-3 is an important scaffold protein of cholesterol-rich caveolae. Mutations of caveolin-3 cause hereditary myopathies that comprise remarkably different pathologies. Growth factor signaling plays an important role in muscle physiology; it is influenced by caveolins and cholesterol-rich rafts and might thus be affected by caveolin-3 dysfunction. Prompted by the observation of a marked chronic peripheral neuropathy in a patient suffering from rippling muscle disease due to the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation and because TrkA is expressed by neuronal cells and skeletal muscle fibers, we performed a detailed comparative study on the effect of pathogenic caveolin-3 mutants on the signaling and trafficking of the TrkA nerve growth factor receptor and, for comparison, of the epidermal growth factor receptor. We found that the R26Q mutant slightly and the P28L strongly reduced nerve growth factor signaling in TrkA-transfected cells. Surface biotinylation experiments revealed that the R26Q caveolin-3 mutation markedly reduced the internalization of TrkA, whereas the P28L did not. Moreover, P28L expression led to increased, whereas R26Q expression decreased, epidermal growth factor signaling. Taken together, we found differential effects of the R26Q and P28L caveolin-3 mutants on growth factor signaling. Our findings are of clinical interest because they might help explain the remarkable differences in the degree of muscle lesions caused by caveolin-3 mutations and also the co-occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in the R26Q caveolinopathy case presented. PMID:20472890

  9. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling as therapeutic targets in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yashiro, Masakazu; Matsuoka, Tasuku

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) regulate a variety of cellular functions, from embryogenesis to adult tissue homeostasis. FGFR signaling also plays significant roles in the proliferation, invasion, and survival of several types of tumor cells. FGFR-induced alterations, including gene amplification, chromosomal translocation, and mutations, have been shown to be associated with the tumor initiation and progression of gastric cancer, especially in diffuse-type cancers. Therefore, the FGFR signaling pathway might be one of the therapeutic targets in gastric cancer. This review aims to provide an overview of the role of FGFR signaling in tumorigenesis, tumor progression, proliferation, and chemoresistance. We also discuss the accumulating evidence that demonstrates the effectiveness of using clinical therapeutic agents to inhibit FGFR signaling for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:26937130

  10. The ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor links redox, hormone and sugar signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Foyer, Christine H; Kerchev, Pavel I; Hancock, Robert D

    2012-02-01

    The cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) hub processes information from metabolism and the environment and so regulates plant growth and defense through integration with the hormone signaling network. One key pathway of redox control involves interactions with ABSCISIC ACID (ABA). Accumulating evidence suggests that the ABA-INSENSITIVE-4 (ABI4) transcription factor plays a key role in transmitting information concerning the abundance of ascorbate and hence the ability of cells to buffer oxidative challenges. ABI4 is required for the ascorbate-dependent control of growth, a process that involves enhancement of salicylic acid (SA) signaling and inhibition of jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathways. Low redox buffering capacity reinforces SA- JA- interactions through the mediation of ABA and ABI4 to fine-tune plant growth and defense in relation to metabolic cues and environmental challenges. Moreover, ABI4-mediated pathways of sugar sensitivity are also responsive to the abundance of ascorbate, providing evidence of overlap between redox and sugar signaling pathways.

  11. Growth factor and signaling pathways and their relevance to prostate cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wozney, Jocelyn L; Antonarakis, Emmanuel S

    2014-09-01

    Treatments that target the androgen axis represent an effective strategy for patients with advanced prostate cancer, but the disease remains incurable and new therapeutic approaches are necessary. Significant advances have recently occurred in our understanding of the growth factor and signaling pathways that are active in prostate cancer. In conjunction with this, many new targeted therapies with sound preclinical rationale have entered clinical development and are being tested in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Some of the most relevant pathways currently being exploited for therapeutic gain are HGF/c-Met signaling, the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, Hedgehog signaling, the endothelin axis, Src kinase signaling, the IGF pathway, and angiogenesis. Here, we summarize the biological basis for the use of selected targeted agents and the results from available clinical trials of these drugs in men with prostate cancer.

  12. E2F1 transcription factor and its impact on growth factor and cytokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Ertosun, Mustafa Gokhan; Hapil, Fatma Zehra; Osman Nidai, Ozes

    2016-10-01

    E2F1 is a transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The transactivation capacity of E2F1 is regulated by pRb. In its hypophosphorylated form, pRb binds and inactivates DNA binding and transactivating functions of E2F1. The growth factor stimulation of cells leads to activation of CDKs (cyclin dependent kinases), which in turn phosphorylate Rb and hyperphosphorylated Rb is released from E2F1 or E2F1/DP complex, and free E2F1 can induce transcription of several genes involved in cell cycle entry, induction or inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, growth factors and cytokines generally utilize E2F1 to direct cells to either fate. Furthermore, E2F1 regulates expressions of various cytokines and growth factor receptors, establishing positive or negative feedback mechanisms. This review focuses on the relationship between E2F1 transcription factor and cytokines (IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-6, TGF-beta, G-CSF, LIF), growth factors (EGF, KGF, VEGF, IGF, FGF, PDGF, HGF, NGF), and interferons (IFN-α, IFN-β and IFN-γ).

  13. The TEAD/TEF family of transcription factor Scalloped mediates Hippo signaling in organ size control.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Ren, Fangfang; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yongbin; Wang, Bing; Jiang, Jin

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway governs cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis by controlling key regulatory genes that execute these processes; however, the transcription factor of the pathway has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped (Sd) acts together with the coactivator Yorkie (Yki) to regulate Hpo pathway-responsive genes. Sd and Yki form a transcriptional complex whose activity is inhibited by Hpo signaling. Sd overexpression enhances, whereas its inactivation suppresses, tissue overgrowth caused by Yki overexpression or tumor suppressor mutations in the Hpo pathway. Inactivation of Sd diminishes Hpo target gene expression and reduces organ size, whereas a constitutively active Sd promotes tissue overgrowth. Sd promotes Yki nuclear localization, whereas Hpo signaling retains Yki in the cytoplasm by phosphorylating Yki at S168. Finally, Sd recruits Yki to the enhancer of the pathway-responsive gene diap1, suggesting that diap1 is a direct transcriptional target of the Hpo pathway.

  14. Adaptive and Innate Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Impact Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Latency and Reactivation▿

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Sariah J.; Mott, Kevin R.; Wechsler, Steven L.; Flavell, Richard A.; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency. PMID:21880769

  15. Adaptive and innate transforming growth factor beta signaling impact herpes simplex virus 1 latency and reactivation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sariah J; Mott, Kevin R; Wechsler, Steven L; Flavell, Richard A; Town, Terrence; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2011-11-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play important protective roles by combating herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a key negative cytokine regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Yet, it is unknown whether TGF-β signaling in either immune compartment impacts HSV-1 replication and latency. We undertook genetic approaches to address these issues by infecting two different dominant negative TGF-β receptor type II transgenic mouse lines. These mice have specific TGF-β signaling blockades in either T cells or innate cells. Mice were ocularly infected with HSV-1 to evaluate the effects of restricted innate or adaptive TGF-β signaling during acute and latent infections. Limiting innate cell but not T cell TGF-β signaling reduced virus replication in the eyes of infected mice. On the other hand, blocking TGF-β signaling in either innate cells or T cells resulted in decreased latency in the trigeminal ganglia of infected mice. Furthermore, inhibiting TGF-β signaling in T cells reduced cell lysis and leukocyte infiltration in corneas and trigeminal ganglia during primary HSV-1 infection of mice. These findings strongly suggest that TGF-β signaling, which generally functions to dampen immune responses, results in increased HSV-1 latency.

  16. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  17. Sulfs are regulators of growth factor signaling for satellite cell differentiation and muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Langsdorf, Aliete; Do, Anh-Tri; Kusche-Gullberg, Marion; Emerson, Charles P; Ai, Xingbin

    2007-11-15

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are required during muscle regeneration for regulating extracellular signaling pathways. HSPGs interact with growth factors and receptors through heparan sulfate (HS) chains. However, the regulatory mechanisms that control HS sulfation to affect the growth factor-dependent proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells are yet unknown. Here we report the essential functions of extracellular HS 6-O-endosulfatases (Sulfs) during muscle regeneration. We show that quiescent and activated satellite cells differentially express mouse Sulf1 (MSulf1) and MSulf2. MSulfs are not required for the formation of skeletal muscles and satellite cells, but they have redundant, essential roles to promote muscle regeneration, as MSulf double mutant mice exhibit delayed myogenic differentiation and prolonged Pax7 expression after cardiotoxin-induced skeletal muscle injury, while single MSulf knockouts regenerate normally. HS structural analysis demonstrates that Sulfs are regulatory HS-modifying enzymes that control HS 6-O-desulfation of activated satellite cells. Mechanistically, we show that MSulfs repress FGF2 signaling in activated satellite cells, leading us to propose that MSulfs are growth factor signaling sensors to control the proliferation to differentiation switch of satellite cells to initiate differentiation during regeneration. Our results establish Sulfs as essential regulators of HS-dependent growth factor signaling in the adult muscle stem cell niche.

  18. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  19. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  20. MECHANISMS OF ZN-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MECHANISMS OF Zn-INDUCED SIGNAL INITIATION THROUGH THE EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR)
    James M. Samet*, Lee M. Graves? and Weidong Wu?. *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, ORD, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, and ?Center for Environmental Medicine, University of North C...

  1. The Drosophila Mitochondrial Translation Elongation Factor G1 Contains a Nuclear Localization Signal and Inhibits Growth and DPP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Trivigno, Catherine; Haerry, Theodor E.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the human mitochondrial elongation factor G1 (EF-G1) are recessive lethal and cause death shortly after birth. We have isolated mutations in iconoclast (ico), which encodes the highly conserved Drosophila orthologue of EF-G1. We find that EF-G1 is essential during fly development, but its function is not required in every tissue. In contrast to null mutations, missense mutations exhibit stronger, possibly neomorphic phenotypes that lead to premature death during embryogenesis. Our experiments show that EF-G1 contains a secondary C-terminal nuclear localization signal. Expression of missense mutant forms of EF-G1 can accumulate in the nucleus and cause growth and patterning defects and animal lethality. We find that transgenes that encode mutant human EF-G1 proteins can rescue ico mutants, indicating that the underlying problem of the human disease is not just the loss of enzymatic activity. Our results are consistent with a model where EF-G1 acts as a retrograde signal from mitochondria to the nucleus to slow down cell proliferation if mitochondrial energy output is low. PMID:21364917

  2. Mutations in the signal sequence of prepro-alpha-factor inhibit both translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum and processing by signal peptidase in yeast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Allison, D S; Young, E T

    1989-01-01

    The effects of five single-amino-acid substitution mutations within the signal sequence of yeast prepro-alpha-factor were tested in yeast cells. After short pulse-labelings, virtually all of the alpha-factor precursor proteins from a wild-type gene were glycosylated and processed by signal peptidase. In contrast, the signal sequence mutations resulted in the accumulation of mostly unglycosylated prepro-alpha-factor after a short labeling interval, indicating a defect in translocation of the protein into the endoplasmic reticulum. Confirming this interpretation, unglycosylated mutant prepro-alpha-factor in cell extracts was sensitive to proteinase K and therefore in a cytosolic location. The signal sequence mutations reduced the rate of translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum by as much as 25-fold or more. In at least one case, mutant prepro-alpha-factor molecules were translocated almost entirely posttranslationally. Four of the five mutations also reduced the rate of proteolytic processing by signal peptidase in vivo, even though the signal peptide alterations are not located near the cleavage site. This study demonstrates that a single-amino-acid substitution mutation within a eucaryotic signal peptide can affect both translocation and proteolytic processing in vivo and may indicate that the recognition sequences for translocation and processing overlap within the signal peptide. Images PMID:2513481

  3. Blocking Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Inhibits Tumor Growth, Lymphangiogenesis, and Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Larrieu-Lahargue, Frédéric; Welm, Alana L.; Bouchecareilh, Marion; Alitalo, Kari; Li, Dean Y.; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Auguste, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor receptor (FGFR) activity plays crucial roles in tumor growth and patient survival. However, FGF (Fibroblast Growth Factor) signaling as a target for cancer therapy has been under-investigated compared to other receptor tyrosine kinases. Here, we studied the effect of FGFR signaling inhibition on tumor growth, metastasis and lymphangiogenesis by expressing a dominant negative FGFR (FGFR-2DN) in an orthotopic mouse mammary 66c14 carcinoma model. We show that FGFR-2DN-expressing 66c14 cells proliferate in vitro slower than controls. 66c14 tumor outgrowth and lung metastatic foci are reduced in mice implanted with FGFR-2DN-expressing cells, which also exhibited better overall survival. We found 66c14 cells in the lumen of tumor lymphatic vessels and in lymph nodes. FGFR-2DN-expressing tumors exhibited a decrease in VEGFR-3 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3) or podoplanin-positive lymphatic vessels, an increase in isolated intratumoral lymphatic endothelial cells and a reduction in VEGF-C (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C) mRNA expression. FGFs may act in an autocrine manner as the inhibition of FGFR signaling in tumor cells suppresses VEGF-C expression in a COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) or HIF1-α (hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α) independent manner. FGFs may also act in a paracrine manner on tumor lymphatics by inducing expression of pro-lymphangiogenic molecules such as VEGFR-3, integrin α9, prox1 and netrin-1. Finally, in vitro lymphangiogenesis is impeded in the presence of FGFR-2DN 66c14 cells. These data confirm that both FGF and VEGF signaling are necessary for the maintenance of vascular morphogenesis and provide evidence that targeting FGFR signaling may be an interesting approach to inhibit tumor lymphangiogenesis and metastatic spread. PMID:22761819

  4. TetR hybrid transcription factors report cell signaling and are inhibited by doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Michael B; Busch, Johanna; Singh, Rajesh; Abel, Ted

    2005-10-01

    We developed a bigenic reporter system composed of a hybrid transcription factor that combines the regulatory and activation domains of either Elk-1 or cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) with the DNA binding, dimerization, and regulatory domains from a synthetic variant of the bacterial Tet repressor (TetR). The novel hybrid transcription factor TetR-Elk-1 was regulated by MAPK ERK kinase 1 (MEK-1) overexpression, and TetR-CREB was regulated by protein kinase A (PKA) overexpression or elevation of cyclic AMP levels. These hybrid transcription factors could be useful reporters of cell signaling pathways because, unlike previous GAL4 hybrid reporters, TetR hybrid transcription factors are inhibited by the administration of doxycycline. We validated this system in cell culture transfection experiments utilizing luciferase assays to monitor reporter gene expression and Western blot analysis to monitor transcription factor expression and phosphorylation levels. This system may be useful in creating temporally restricted windows of response to cell signaling and may be of value in the advancement of methods used to study signal transduction.

  5. Pioneer factors, genetic competence, and inductive signaling: programming liver and pancreas progenitors from the endoderm.

    PubMed

    Zaret, K S; Watts, J; Xu, J; Wandzioch, E; Smale, S T; Sekiya, T

    2008-01-01

    The endoderm is a multipotent progenitor cell population in the embryo that gives rise to the liver, pancreas, and other cell types and provides paradigms for understanding cell-type specification. Studies of isolated embryo tissue cells and genetic approaches in vivo have defined fibroblast growth factor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (FGF/MAPK) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways that induce liver and pancreatic fates in the endoderm. In undifferentiated endoderm cells, the FoxA and GATA transcription factors are among the first to engage silent genes, helping to endow competence for cell-type specification. FoxA proteins can bind their target sites in highly compacted chromatin and open up the local region for other factors to bind; hence, they have been termed "pioneer factors." We recently found that FoxA proteins remain bound to chromatin in mitosis, as an epigenetic mark. In embryonic stem cells, which lack FoxA, FoxA target sites can be occupied by FoxD3, which in turn helps to maintain a local demethylation of chromatin. By these means, a cascade of Fox factors helps to endow progenitor cells with the competence to activate genes in response to tissue-inductive signals. Understanding such epigenetic mechanisms for transcriptional competence coupled with knowledge of the relevant signals for cell-type specification should greatly facilitate efforts to predictably differentiate stem cells to liver and pancreatic fates.

  6. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2-10 months for known ADRs and 19-44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0-122.5 days and 185.5-306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release.

  7. Factors Affecting the Timing of Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Imai, Shungo; Uehara, Keiko; Maruyama, Junya; Shimizu, Mikiko; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors affecting the timing of signal detection by comparing variations in reporting time of known and unknown ADRs after initial drug release in the USA. Data on adverse event reactions (AERs) submitted to U.S. FDA was used. Six ADRs associated with 6 drugs (rosuvastatin, aripiprazole, teriparatide, telithromycin, exenatide, varenicline) were investigated: Changes in the proportional reporting ratio, reporting odds ratio, and information component as indexes of signal detection were followed every 3 months after each drugs release, and the time for detection of signals was investigated. The time for the detection of signal to be detected after drug release in the USA was 2–10 months for known ADRs and 19–44 months for unknown ones. The median lag time for known and unknown ADRs was 99.0–122.5 days and 185.5–306.0 days, respectively. When the FDA released advisory information on rare but potentially serious health risks of an unknown ADR, the time lag to report from the onset of ADRs to the FDA was shorter. This study suggested that one factor affecting signal detection time is whether an ADR was known or unknown at release. PMID:26641634

  8. Fibroblast growth factor 2 can replace ectodermal signaling for feather development.

    PubMed

    Song, H; Wang, Y; Goetinck, P F

    1996-09-17

    The initiation and morphogenesis of cutaneous appendages depend on a series of reciprocal signaling events between the epithelium and mesenchyme of the embryonic skin. In the development of feather germs, early dermal signals induce the formation of epidermal placodes that in turn signal the mesoderm to form dermal condensations immediately beneath them. We find a spatially and temporally restricted pattern of transcription for the genes that encode fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF receptor (FGFR) 1 in developing feather germs of the chicken embryo. FGF-2 expression is restricted to the epidermal placodes, whereas FGFR-1 expression is limited to the dermal condensations. Transcription of these genes could not be detected in skins of scaleless (sc/sc) embryos that fail to develop feathers as a result of an ectodermal defect. Treatment of sc/sc skins with FGF-2 results in the formation of feathers at the site of application of the growth factor and the induced feathers express FGFR-1 in their dermal condensations. Thus, we have established FGF-2 as an epidermal signal in early feather germ formation. The observation that FGF-2 can rescue the mutant phenotype of sc/sc embryos suggests that FGF-2 either is, or is downstream from, the signal that the sc/sc mutant ectoderm fails to generate.

  9. Fibroblast growth factor 2 can replace ectodermal signaling for feather development.

    PubMed Central

    Song, H; Wang, Y; Goetinck, P F

    1996-01-01

    The initiation and morphogenesis of cutaneous appendages depend on a series of reciprocal signaling events between the epithelium and mesenchyme of the embryonic skin. In the development of feather germs, early dermal signals induce the formation of epidermal placodes that in turn signal the mesoderm to form dermal condensations immediately beneath them. We find a spatially and temporally restricted pattern of transcription for the genes that encode fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 2 and FGF receptor (FGFR) 1 in developing feather germs of the chicken embryo. FGF-2 expression is restricted to the epidermal placodes, whereas FGFR-1 expression is limited to the dermal condensations. Transcription of these genes could not be detected in skins of scaleless (sc/sc) embryos that fail to develop feathers as a result of an ectodermal defect. Treatment of sc/sc skins with FGF-2 results in the formation of feathers at the site of application of the growth factor and the induced feathers express FGFR-1 in their dermal condensations. Thus, we have established FGF-2 as an epidermal signal in early feather germ formation. The observation that FGF-2 can rescue the mutant phenotype of sc/sc embryos suggests that FGF-2 either is, or is downstream from, the signal that the sc/sc mutant ectoderm fails to generate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8816784

  10. Transforming Growth Factor-β and Endoglin Signaling Orchestrate Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Valluru, Manoj; Staton, Carolyn A.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Brown, Nicola J.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological wound healing is a complex process requiring the temporal and spatial co-ordination of various signaling networks, biomechanical forces, and biochemical signaling pathways in both hypoxic and non-hypoxic conditions. Although a plethora of factors are required for successful physiological tissue repair, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) expression has been demonstrated throughout wound healing and shown to regulate many processes involved in tissue repair, including production of ECM, proteases, protease inhibitors, migration, chemotaxis, and proliferation of macrophages, fibroblasts of the granulation tissue, epithelial and capillary endothelial cells. TGF-β mediates these effects by stimulating signaling pathways through a receptor complex which contains Endoglin. Endoglin is expressed in a broad spectrum of proliferating and stem cells with elevated expression during hypoxia, and regulates important cellular functions such as proliferation and adhesion via Smad signaling. This review focuses on how the TGF-β family and Endoglin, regulate stem cell availability, and modulate cellular behavior within the wound microenvironment, includes current knowledge of the signaling pathways involved, and explores how this information may be applicable to inflammatory and/or angiogenic diseases such as fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and metastatic cancer. PMID:22164144

  11. Targeting insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuzhe; Yee, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF) signaling systems are implicated in breast cancer biology. Thus, disrupting IGF/insulin signaling has been shown to have promise in a number of preclinical models. However, human clinical trials have been less promising. Despite evidence of some activity in early phase trials, randomized phase III studies have thus far been unable to show a benefit of blocking IGF signaling in combination with conventional strategies. In breast cancer, combination anti IGF/insulin signaling agents with hormone therapy has not yet proven to have benefit. This inability to translate the preclinical findings into useful clinical strategies calls attention to the need for a deeper understanding of this complex pathway. Development of predictive biomarkers and optimal inhibitory strategies of the IGF/insulin system should yield better clinical strategies. Furthermore, unraveling the interaction between the IGF/insulin pathway and other critical signaling pathways in breast cancer biology, namely estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways, provides additional new concepts in designing combination therapies. In this review, we will briefly summarize the current strategies targeting the IGF/insulin system, discuss the possible reasons of success or failure of the existing therapies, and provide potential future direction for research and clinical trials. PMID:23054135

  12. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in kidney and lower urinary tract development.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kenneth A; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Bates, Carlton M

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and FGF ligands are highly expressed in the developing kidney and lower urinary tract. Several classic studies showed many effects of exogenous FGF ligands on embryonic renal tissues in vitro and in vivo. Another older landmark publication showed that mice with a dominant negative Fgfr fragment had severe renal dysplasia. Together, these studies revealed the importance of FGFR signaling in kidney and lower urinary tract development. With the advent of modern gene targeting techniques, including conditional knockout approaches, several publications have revealed critical roles for FGFR signaling in many lineages of the kidney and lower urinary tract at different stages of development. FGFR signaling has been shown to be critical for early metanephric mesenchymal patterning, Wolffian duct patterning including induction of the ureteric bud, ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, nephron progenitor survival and nephrogenesis, and bladder mesenchyme patterning. FGFRs pattern these tissues by interacting with many other growth factor signaling pathways. Moreover, the many genetic Fgfr and Fgf animal models have structural defects mimicking numerous congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract seen in humans. Finally, many studies have shown how FGFR signaling is critical for kidney and lower urinary tract patterning in humans.

  13. Processing of cell-surface signalling anti-sigma factors prior to signal recognition is a conserved autoproteolytic mechanism that produces two functional domains.

    PubMed

    Bastiaansen, Karlijn C; Otero-Asman, Joaquín R; Luirink, Joen; Bitter, Wilbert; Llamas, María A

    2015-09-01

    Cell-surface signalling (CSS) enables Gram-negative bacteria to transduce an environmental signal into a cytosolic response. This regulatory cascade involves an outer membrane receptor that transmits the signal to an anti-sigma factor in the cytoplasmic membrane, allowing the activation of an extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor. Recent studies have demonstrated that RseP-mediated proteolysis of the anti-sigma factors is key to σ(ECF) activation. Using the Pseudomonas aeruginosa FoxR anti-sigma factor, we show here that RseP is responsible for the generation of an N-terminal tail that likely contains pro-sigma activity. Furthermore, it has been reported previously that this anti-sigma factor is processed in two separate domains prior to signal recognition. Here, we demonstrate that this process is common in these types of proteins and that the processing event is probably due to autoproteolytic activity. The resulting domains interact and function together to transduce the CSS signal. However, our results also indicate that this processing event is not essential for activity. In fact, we have identified functional CSS anti-sigma factors that are not cleaved prior to signal perception. Together, our results indicate that CSS regulation can occur through both complete and initially processed anti-sigma factors.

  14. Inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling promotes epiblast formation in mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Sabitri; Heindryckx, Björn; Van der Jeught, Margot; Neupane, Jitesh; O'Leary, Thomas; Lierman, Sylvie; De Vos, Winnok H; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana; Deroo, Tom; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-02-15

    Early lineage segregation in preimplantation embryos and maintenance of pluripotency in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are both regulated by specific signaling pathways. Small molecules have been shown to modulate these signaling pathways. We examined the influence of several small molecules and growth factors on second-lineage segregation of the inner cell mass toward hypoblast and epiblast lineage during mouse embryonic preimplantation development. We found that the second-lineage segregation is influenced by activation or inhibition of the transforming growth factor (TGF)β pathway. Inhibition of the TGFβ pathway from the two-cell, four-cell, and morula stages onward up to the blastocyst stage significantly increased the epiblast cell proliferation. The epiblast formed in the embryos in which TGFβ signaling was inhibited was fully functional as demonstrated by the potential of these epiblast cells to give rise to pluripotent ESCs. Conversely, activating the TGFβ pathway reduced epiblast formation. Inhibition of the glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 pathway and activation of bone morphogenetic protein 4 signaling reduced the formation of both epiblast and hypoblast cells. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway and of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway did not influence the second-lineage segregation in mouse embryos. The simultaneous inhibition of three pathways--TGFβ, GSK3β, and the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinases (Erk)--significantly enhanced the proliferation of epiblast cells than that caused by inhibition of either TGFβ pathway alone or by combined inhibition of the GSK3β and FGF/Erk pathways only.

  15. Dynamics of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling in Wound Healing and Scarring

    PubMed Central

    Finnson, Kenneth W.; McLean, Sarah; Di Guglielmo, Gianni M.; Philip, Anie

    2013-01-01

    Significance Wound healing is an intricate biological process in which the skin, or any other tissue, repairs itself after injury. Normal wound healing relies on the appropriate levels of cytokines and growth factors to ensure that cellular responses are mediated in a coordinated manner. Among the many growth factors studied in the context of wound healing, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is thought to have the broadest spectrum of effects. Recent Advances Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway have been elucidated, and the role of TGF-β in wound healing has been well characterized. Targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway using therapeutic agents to improve wound healing and/or reduce scarring has been successful in pre-clinical studies. Critical Issues Although TGF-β isoforms (β1, β2, β3) signal through the same cell surface receptors, they display distinct functions during wound healing in vivo through mechanisms that have not been fully elucidated. The challenge of translating preclinical studies targeting the TGF-β signaling pathway to a clinical setting may require more extensive preclinical research using animal models that more closely mimic wound healing and scarring in humans, and taking into account the spatial, temporal, and cell-type–specific aspects of TGF-β isoform expression and function. Future Directions Understanding the differences in TGF-β isoform signaling at the molecular level and identification of novel components of the TGF-β signaling pathway that critically regulate wound healing may lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for treatment of impaired wound healing and pathological scarring. PMID:24527343

  16. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Angela; Leong, Daniel J.; He, Zhiyong; Xu, Lin; Liu, Lidi; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M.; Hardin, John A.; Cobelli, Neil J.; Sun, Hui B.

    2016-01-01

    Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark), orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. PMID:27941690

  17. Procyanidins Mitigate Osteoarthritis Pathogenesis by, at Least in Part, Suppressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Angela; Leong, Daniel J; He, Zhiyong; Xu, Lin; Liu, Lidi; Kim, Sun Jin; Hirsh, David M; Hardin, John A; Cobelli, Neil J; Sun, Hui B

    2016-12-09

    Procyanidins are a family of plant metabolites that have been suggested to mitigate osteoarthritis pathogenesis in mice. However, the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine whether procyanidins mitigate traumatic injury-induced osteoarthritis (OA) disease progression, and whether procyanidins exert a chondroprotective effect by, at least in part, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling. Procyanidins (extracts from pine bark), orally administered to mice subjected to surgery for destabilization of the medial meniscus, significantly slowed OA disease progression. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that procyanidin treatment reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and effectors in OA pathogenesis that are regulated by vascular endothelial growth factor. Procyanidin-suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor expression was correlated with reduced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 in human OA primary chondrocytes. Moreover, components of procyanidins, procyanidin B2 and procyanidin B3 exerted effects similar to those of total procyanidins in mitigating the OA-related gene expression profile in the primary culture of human OA chondrocytes in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factor. Together, these findings suggest procyanidins mitigate OA pathogenesis, which is mediated, at least in part, by suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

  18. Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Vipul; Shukla, Ashima; Joshi, Shantaram S; Lu, Runqing

    2016-07-05

    Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4-/-Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4-/-Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4-/-Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development.

  19. Pleiotropic functions of fibroblast growth factor signaling in embryonic mammary gland development.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, Han-Sung; Lu, Pengfei

    2013-06-01

    The mammary gland is an ectodermal appendage and a defining feature of mammals. Consistent with it being a recent evolutionary novelty, many of the molecules essential for the ontogeny and morphogenesis of various vertebrate organs, including those in the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathway, are co-opted for induction, maintenance and morphogenesis of the mammary glands. Understanding the mechanism whereby FGF signaling regulates the fundamental cell behavior during normal mammary gland develop may facilitate determination of the consequences of its deregulation during breast cancer progression.

  20. Transforming growth factorsignaling is constantly shaping memory T-cell population

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chaoyu; Zhang, Nu

    2015-01-01

    The long-term maintenance of memory T cells is essential for successful vaccines. Both the quantity and the quality of the memory T-cell population must be maintained. The signals that control the maintenance of memory T cells remain incompletely identified. Here we used two genetic models to show that continuous transforming growth factorsignaling to antigen-specific T cells is required for the differentiation and maintenance of memory CD8+ T cells. In addition, both infection-induced and microbiota-induced inflammation impact the phenotypic and functional identity of memory CD8+ T cells. PMID:26283373

  1. Nanoconjugation prolongs endosomal signaling of the epidermal growth factor receptor and enhances apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, L.; Xu, F.; Reinhard, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF mediated apoptosis at effective concentrations that do not induce apoptosis in the case of free EGF. Overall, these findings indicate nanoconjugation as a rational strategy for modifying signaling that acts by modulating the temporo-spatial distribution of the activated EGF-EGFR ligand-receptor complex.It is becoming increasingly clear that intracellular signaling can be subject to strict spatial control. As the covalent attachment of a signaling ligand to a nanoparticle (NP) impacts ligand-receptor binding, uptake, and trafficking, nanoconjugation provides new opportunities for manipulating intracellular signaling in a controlled fashion. To establish the effect of nanoconjugation on epidermal growth factor (EGF) mediated signaling, we investigate here the intracellular fate of nanoconjugated EGF (NP-EGF) and its bound receptor (EGFR) by quantitative correlated darkfield/fluorescence microscopy and density-based endosomal fractionation. We demonstrate that nanoconjugation prolongs the dwell time of phosphorylated receptors in the early endosomes and that the retention of activated EGFR in the early endosomes is accompanied by an EGF

  2. The glucose-sensing transcription factor MLX promotes myogenesis via myokine signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Liam C.; Xu, Beisi; Finkelstein, David; Fan, Yiping; Carroll, Patrick A.; Cheng, Pei-Feng; Eisenman, Robert N.; Demontis, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic stress and changes in nutrient levels modulate many aspects of skeletal muscle function during aging and disease. Growth factors and cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, known as myokines, are important signaling factors, but it is largely unknown whether they modulate muscle growth and differentiation in response to nutrients. Here, we found that changes in glucose levels increase the activity of the glucose-responsive transcription factor MLX (Max-like protein X), which promotes and is necessary for myoblast fusion. MLX promotes myogenesis not via an adjustment of glucose metabolism but rather by inducing the expression of several myokines, including insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), whereas RNAi and dominant-negative MLX reduce IGF2 expression and block myogenesis. This phenotype is rescued by conditioned medium from control muscle cells and by recombinant IGF2, which activates the myogenic kinase Akt. Importantly, MLX-null mice display decreased IGF2 induction and diminished muscle regeneration in response to injury, indicating that the myogenic function of MLX is manifested in vivo. Thus, glucose is a signaling molecule that regulates myogenesis and muscle regeneration via MLX/IGF2/Akt signaling. PMID:26584623

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals converge on the Runx1/CBFβ transcription factor for nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Siyi; O'Donovan, Kevin J; Turner, Eric E; Zhong, Jian; Ginty, David D

    2015-01-01

    The generation of diverse neuronal subtypes involves specification of neural progenitors and, subsequently, postmitotic neuronal differentiation, a relatively poorly understood process. Here, we describe a mechanism whereby the neurotrophic factor NGF and the transcription factor Runx1 coordinate postmitotic differentiation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors, a major nociceptor subtype. We show that the integrity of a Runx1/CBFβ holocomplex is crucial for NGF-dependent nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. NGF signals through the ERK/MAPK pathway to promote expression of Cbfb but not Runx1 prior to maturation of nonpeptidergic nociceptors. In contrast, transcriptional initiation of Runx1 in nonpeptidergic nociceptor precursors is dependent on the homeodomain transcription factor Islet1, which is largely dispensable for Cbfb expression. Thus, an NGF/TrkA-MAPK-CBFβ pathway converges with Islet1-Runx1 signaling to promote Runx1/CBFβ holocomplex formation and nonpeptidergic nociceptor maturation. Convergence of extrinsic and intrinsic signals to control heterodimeric transcription factor complex formation provides a robust mechanism for postmitotic neuronal subtype specification. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10874.001 PMID:26418744

  4. Receptor Signaling Directs Global Recruitment of Pre-existing Transcription Factors to Inducible Elements

    PubMed Central

    Cockerill, Peter N.

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression programs are largely regulated by the tissue-specific expression of lineage-defining transcription factors or by the inducible expression of transcription factors in response to specific stimuli. Here I will review our own work over the last 20 years to show how specific activation signals also lead to the wide-spread re-distribution of pre-existing constitutive transcription factors to sites undergoing chromatin reorganization. I will summarize studies showing that activation of kinase signaling pathways creates open chromatin regions that recruit pre-existing factors which were previously unable to bind to closed chromatin. As models I will draw upon genes activated or primed by receptor signaling in memory T cells, and genes activated by cytokine receptor mutations in acute myeloid leukemia. I also summarize a hit-and-run model of stable epigenetic reprograming in memory T cells, mediated by transient Activator Protein 1 (AP-1) binding, which enables the accelerated activation of inducible enhancers. PMID:28018147

  5. Deletion of ocular transforming growth factor β signaling mimics essential characteristics of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Braunger, Barbara M; Leimbeck, Sarah V; Schlecht, Anja; Volz, Cornelia; Jägle, Herbert; Tamm, Ernst R

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of blindness, is characterized by a distinct phenotype. The molecular causes of the phenotype are not sufficiently clear. Here, we report that deletion of transforming growth factor β signaling in the retinal microenvironment of newborn mice induces changes that largely mimic the phenotype of nonproliferative and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in humans. Lack of transforming growth factor β signaling leads to the formation of abundant microaneurysms, leaky capillaries, and retinal hemorrhages. Retinal capillaries are not covered by differentiated pericytes, but by a coat of vascular smooth muscle-like cells and a thickened basal lamina. Reactive microglia is found in close association with retinal capillaries. In older animals, loss of endothelial cells and the formation of ghost vessels are observed, findings that correlate with the induction of angiogenic molecules and the accumulation of retinal hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, indicating hypoxia. Consequently, retinal and vitreal neovascularization occurs, a scenario that leads to retinal detachment, vitreal hemorrhages, neuronal apoptosis, and impairment of sensory function. We conclude that transforming growth factor β signaling is required for the differentiation of retinal pericytes during vascular development of the retina. Lack of differentiated pericytes initiates a scenario of structural and functional changes in the retina that mimics those of diabetic retinopathy strongly indicating a common mechanism. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The glucose-sensing transcription factor MLX promotes myogenesis via myokine signaling.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Liam C; Xu, Beisi; Finkelstein, David; Fan, Yiping; Carroll, Patrick A; Cheng, Pei-Feng; Eisenman, Robert N; Demontis, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic stress and changes in nutrient levels modulate many aspects of skeletal muscle function during aging and disease. Growth factors and cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, known as myokines, are important signaling factors, but it is largely unknown whether they modulate muscle growth and differentiation in response to nutrients. Here, we found that changes in glucose levels increase the activity of the glucose-responsive transcription factor MLX (Max-like protein X), which promotes and is necessary for myoblast fusion. MLX promotes myogenesis not via an adjustment of glucose metabolism but rather by inducing the expression of several myokines, including insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), whereas RNAi and dominant-negative MLX reduce IGF2 expression and block myogenesis. This phenotype is rescued by conditioned medium from control muscle cells and by recombinant IGF2, which activates the myogenic kinase Akt. Importantly, MLX-null mice display decreased IGF2 induction and diminished muscle regeneration in response to injury, indicating that the myogenic function of MLX is manifested in vivo. Thus, glucose is a signaling molecule that regulates myogenesis and muscle regeneration via MLX/IGF2/Akt signaling.

  7. Synchronization of Developmental Processes and Defense Signaling by Growth Regulating Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyi; Rice, J. Hollis; Chen, Nana; Baum, Thomas J.; Hewezi, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Growth regulating factors (GRFs) are a conserved class of transcription factor in seed plants. GRFs are involved in various aspects of tissue differentiation and organ development. The implication of GRFs in biotic stress response has also been recently reported, suggesting a role of these transcription factors in coordinating the interaction between developmental processes and defense dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms by which GRFs mediate the overlaps between defense signaling and developmental pathways are elusive. Here, we report large scale identification of putative target candidates of Arabidopsis GRF1 and GRF3 by comparing mRNA profiles of the grf1/grf2/grf3 triple mutant and those of the transgenic plants overexpressing miR396-resistant version of GRF1 or GRF3. We identified 1,098 and 600 genes as putative targets of GRF1 and GRF3, respectively. Functional classification of the potential target candidates revealed that GRF1 and GRF3 contribute to the regulation of various biological processes associated with defense response and disease resistance. GRF1 and GRF3 participate specifically in the regulation of defense-related transcription factors, cell-wall modifications, cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling, and secondary metabolites accumulation. GRF1 and GRF3 seem to fine-tune the crosstalk between miRNA signaling networks by regulating the expression of several miRNA target genes. In addition, our data suggest that GRF1 and GRF3 may function as negative regulators of gene expression through their association with other transcription factors. Collectively, our data provide new insights into how GRF1 and GRF3 might coordinate the interactions between defense signaling and plant growth and developmental pathways. PMID:24875638

  8. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  9. The transcription factor FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to maintain the identity of ovarian granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Georges, Adrien; L'Hôte, David; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Legois, Bérangère; Zider, Alain; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-11-04

    FOXL2 is a lineage determining transcription factor in the ovary, but its direct targets and modes of action are not fully characterized. In this study, we explore the targets of FOXL2 and five nuclear receptors in murine primary follicular cells. We found that FOXL2 is required for normal gene regulation by steroid receptors, and we show that estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) is the main vector of estradiol signaling in these cells. Moreover, we found that FOXL2 directly modulates Esr2 expression through a newly identified intronic element. Interestingly, we found that FOXL2 repressed the testis-determining gene Sox9 both independently of estrogen signaling and through the activation of ESR2 expression. Altogether, we show that FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to establish a coherent feed-forward loop repressing Sox9. This sheds a new light on the role of FOXL2 in ovarian maintenance and function.

  10. Extracellular modulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling through heparan sulfate proteoglycans in mammalian development.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Isao; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu

    2013-08-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling plays crucial roles in multiple cellular processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration during mammalian embryogenesis. In the extracellular matrix, as well as at the cell surface, the movement of FGF ligands to target cells and the subsequent complex formations with their receptors are positively and negatively controlled extracellularly by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) such as syndecans, glypicans, and perlecan. Additionally, spreading of HSPGs by cleavage with sheddases such as proteinases and heparanases, and the overall length and sulfation level of specific heparan sulfate structures further generate a great diversity of FGF signaling outcomes. This review presents our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of FGF signaling in extracellular spaces through HSPGs in mammalian development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Connective Tissue Disorders and Cardiovascular Complications: The indomitable role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Jason B.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Marfan Syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) represent heritable connective tissue disorders that cosegregate with a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects (thoracic aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse/regurgitation, and aortic dilatation with regurgitation). This pattern of cardiovascular defects appears to be expressed along a spectrum of severity in many heritable connective tissue disorders and raises suspicion of a relationship between the normal development of connective tissues and the cardiovascular system. Given the evidence of increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in MFS and LDS, this signaling pathway may represent the common link in this relationship. To further explore this hypothetical link, this chapter will review the TGF-β signaling pathway, heritable connective tissue syndromes related to TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) mutations, and discuss the pathogenic contribution of TGF-β to these syndromes with a primary focus on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24443024

  12. Hypoxia inducible factor signaling modulates susceptibility to mycobacterial infection via a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Elks, Philip M; Brizee, Sabrina; van der Vaart, Michiel; Walmsley, Sarah R; van Eeden, Fredericus J; Renshaw, Stephen A; Meijer, Annemarie H

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a current major world-health problem, exacerbated by the causative pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotic treatment. Mtb is able to counteract the bactericidal mechanisms of leukocytes to survive intracellularly and develop a niche permissive for proliferation and dissemination. Understanding of the pathogenesis of mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis (TB) remains limited, especially for early infection and for reactivation of latent infection. Signaling via hypoxia inducible factor α (HIF-α) transcription factors has previously been implicated in leukocyte activation and host defence. We have previously shown that hypoxic signaling via stabilization of Hif-1α prolongs the functionality of leukocytes in the innate immune response to injury. We sought to manipulate Hif-α signaling in a well-established Mycobacterium marinum (Mm) zebrafish model of TB to investigate effects on the host's ability to combat mycobacterial infection. Stabilization of host Hif-1α, both pharmacologically and genetically, at early stages of Mm infection was able to reduce the bacterial burden of infected larvae. Increasing Hif-1α signaling enhanced levels of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in neutrophils prior to infection and was able to reduce larval mycobacterial burden. Conversely, decreasing Hif-2α signaling enhanced RNS levels and reduced bacterial burden, demonstrating that Hif-1α and Hif-2α have opposing effects on host susceptibility to mycobacterial infection. The antimicrobial effect of Hif-1α stabilization, and Hif-2α reduction, were demonstrated to be dependent on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling at early stages of infection. Our findings indicate that induction of leukocyte iNOS by stabilizing Hif-1α, or reducing Hif-2α, aids the host during early stages of Mm infection. Stabilization of Hif-1α therefore represents a potential target for therapeutic

  13. Molecular and cellular factors control signal transduction via switchable allosteric modulator proteins (SAMPs).

    PubMed

    Babel, Heiko; Bischofs, Ilka B

    2016-04-27

    Rap proteins from Bacilli directly target response regulators of bacterial two-component systems and modulate their activity. Their effects are controlled by binding of signaling peptides to an allosteric site. Hence Raps exemplify a class of monomeric signaling receptors, which we call switchable allosteric modulator proteins (SAMPs). These proteins have potential applications in diverse biomedical and biotechnical settings, but a quantitative understanding of the impact of molecular and cellular factors on signal transduction is lacking. Here we introduce mathematical models that elucidate how signals are propagated though the network upon receptor stimulation and control the level of active response regulator. Based on a systematic parameter analysis of the models, we show that key features of the dose-response behavior at steady state are controlled either by the molecular properties of the modulator or the signaling context. In particular, we find that the biochemical activity (i.e. non-enzymatic vs. enzymatic) and allosteric properties of the modulator control the response amplitude. The Hill coefficient and the EC50 are controlled in addition by the relative ligand affinities. By tuning receptor properties, either graded or more switch-like (memory-less) response functions can be fashioned. Furthermore, we show that other contextual factors (e.g. relative concentrations of network components and kinase activity) have a substantial impact on the response, and we predict that there exists a modulator concentration which is optimal for response amplitude. We discuss data on Rap-Phr systems in B. subtilis to show how our models can contribute to an integrated view of SAMP signaling by combining biochemical, structural and physiological insights. Our results also suggest that SAMPs could be evolved or engineered to implement diverse response behaviors. However-without additional regulatory controls-they can generate rather variable cellular outputs.

  14. Comparative biology of sperm factors and fertilization-induced calcium signals across the animal kingdom.

    PubMed

    Kashir, Junaid; Deguchi, Ryusaku; Jones, Celine; Coward, Kevin; Stricker, Stephen A

    2013-10-01

    Fertilization causes mature oocytes or eggs to increase their concentrations of intracellular calcium ions (Ca²⁺) in all animals that have been examined, and such Ca²⁺ elevations, in turn, provide key activating signals that are required for non-parthenogenetic development. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Ca²⁺ transients produced during fertilization in mammals and other taxa are triggered by soluble factors that sperm deliver into oocytes after gamete fusion. Thus, for a broad-based analysis of Ca²⁺ dynamics during fertilization in animals, this article begins by summarizing data on soluble sperm factors in non-mammalian species, and subsequently reviews various topics related to a sperm-specific phospholipase C, called PLCζ, which is believed to be the predominant activator of mammalian oocytes. After characterizing initiation processes that involve sperm factors or alternative triggering mechanisms, the spatiotemporal patterns of Ca²⁺ signals in fertilized oocytes or eggs are compared in a taxon-by-taxon manner, and broadly classified as either a single major transient or a series of repetitive oscillations. Both solitary and oscillatory types of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals are typically propagated as global waves that depend on Ca²⁺ release from the endoplasmic reticulum in response to increased concentrations of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP₃). Thus, for taxa where relevant data are available, upstream pathways that elevate intraoocytic IP3 levels during fertilization are described, while other less-common modes of producing Ca²⁺ transients are also examined. In addition, the importance of fertilization-induced Ca²⁺ signals for activating development is underscored by noting some major downstream effects of these signals in various animals.

  15. Soluble klotho binds monosialoganglioside to regulate membrane microdomains and growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, George; An, Sung-Wan; Al-Juboori, Saif I.; Nischan, Nicole; Yoon, Joonho; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Hilgemann, Donald W.; Xie, Jian; Luby-Phelps, Kate; Kohler, Jennifer J.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Huang, Chou-Long

    2017-01-01

    Soluble klotho, the shed ectodomain of the antiaging membrane protein α-klotho, is a pleiotropic endocrine/paracrine factor with no known receptors and poorly understood mechanism of action. Soluble klotho down-regulates growth factor-driven PI3K signaling, contributing to extension of lifespan, cardioprotection, and tumor inhibition. Here we show that soluble klotho binds membrane lipid rafts. Klotho binding to rafts alters lipid organization, decreases membrane’s propensity to form large ordered domains for endocytosis, and down-regulates raft-dependent PI3K/Akt signaling. We identify α2-3-sialyllactose present in the glycan of monosialogangliosides as targets of soluble klotho. α2-3-Sialyllactose is a common motif of glycans. To explain why klotho preferentially targets lipid rafts we show that clustering of gangliosides in lipid rafts is important. In vivo, raft-dependent PI3K signaling is up-regulated in klotho-deficient mouse hearts vs. wild-type hearts. Our results identify ganglioside-enriched lipid rafts to be receptors that mediate soluble klotho regulation of PI3K signaling. Targeting sialic acids may be a general mechanism for pleiotropic actions of soluble klotho. PMID:28069944

  16. Changes in insulin-like growth factor signaling alter phenotypes in Fragile X Mice.

    PubMed

    Wise, T L

    2017-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of intellectual disability that is usually caused by expansion of a polymorphic CGG repeat in the 5' untranslated region of the X-linked FMR1 gene, which leads to hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing. Two non-neurological phenotypes of FXS are enlarged testes and connective tissue dysplasia, which could be caused by alterations in a growth factor signaling pathway. FXS patients also frequently have autistic-like symptoms, suggesting that the signaling pathways affected in FXS may overlap with those affected in autism. Identifying these pathways is important for both understanding the effects of FMR1 inactivation and developing treatments for both FXS and autism. Here we show that decreasing the levels of the insulin-like growth factor (Igf) receptor 1 corrects a number of phenotypes in the mouse model of FXS, including macro-orchidism, and that increasing the levels of IGF2 exacerbates the seizure susceptibility phenotype. These results suggest that the pathways altered by the loss of the FMR1-encoded protein (FMRP) may overlap with the pathways affected by changes in Igf signaling or that one or more of the proteins that play a role in Igf signaling could interact with FMRP. They also indicate a new set of potential targets for drug treatment of FXS and autism spectrum disorders. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  17. Attenuation of the Transforming Growth Factor β –Signaling Pathway in Chronic Venous Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Pastar, Irena; Stojadinovic, Olivera; Krzyzanowska, Agata; Barrientos, Stephan; Stuelten, Christina; Zimmerman, Karen; Blumenberg, Miroslav; Brem, Harold; Tomic-Canic, Marjana

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) is important in inflammation, angiogenesis, reepithelialization and connective tissue regeneration during wound healing. We analyzed components of TGFβ signaling pathway in biopsies from 10 patients with nonhealing venous ulcers (VUs). Using comparative genomics of transcriptional profiles of VUs and TGFβ-treated keratinocytes, we found deregulation of TGFβ target genes in VUs. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemical analysis, we found suppression of TGFβ RI, TGFβ RII and TGFβ RIII, and complete absence of phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2) in VU epidermis. In contrast, pSmad2 was induced in the cells of the migrating epithelial tongue of acute wounds. TGFβ-inducible transcription factors (GADD45β , ATF3 and ZFP36L1) were suppressed in VUs. Likewise, genes suppressed by TGFβ (FABP5, CSTA and S100A8) were induced in nonhealing VUs. An inhibitor of Smad signaling, Smad7 was also downregulated in VUs. We conclude that TGFβ signaling is functionally blocked in VUs by downregulation of TGFβ receptors and attenuation of Smad signaling resulting in deregulation of TGFβ target genes and consequent hyperproliferation. These data suggest that application of exogenous TGFβ may not be a beneficial treatment for VUs. PMID:20069132

  18. Signal-induced functions of the transcription factor TFII-I.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda L

    2007-01-01

    We have learned a great deal over the last several years about the molecular mechanisms that govern cell growth, cell division and cell death. Normal cells pass through cell cycle (growth) and divide in response to mitogenic signals that are transduced through their cognate cell surface receptors to the nucleus. Despite the fact that cellular growth and division are mechanistically distinct steps, they are usually coordinately regulated, which is critical for normal cellular proliferation. The precise mechanistic basis for this coordinated regulation is unclear. TFII-I is a unique, signal-induced multifunctional transcription factor that is activated upon a variety of signaling pathways and appears to participate in distinct phases of cell growth. For instance, TFII-I is required for growth factor-induced transcriptional activation of the c-fos gene, which is essential for cell cycle entry. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of TFII-I exhibit opposing but necessary functions for mitogen-induced transcriptional activation of c-fos. Besides transcriptional activation of the c-fos proto-oncogene and eventual entry into cell cycle, TFII-I also appears to have a role in later phases of the cell cycle and cell division. Here we discuss how a multitude of signaling inputs target TFII-I isoforms, which may exert their functions in distinct phases of the cell cycle and play a key role in the coordinated regulation of cellular proliferation.

  19. Reduction of Nup107 attenuates the growth factor signaling in the senescent cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Young; Kang, Hyun Tae; Choi, Hae Ri; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Decreased expression of Nup107 in aged cells and organs. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 results in impaired nuclear translocation of p-ERK. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 affects downstream effectors of ERK signaling. {yields} Depletion of Nup107 inhibits cell proliferation of oligodendroglioma cells. -- Abstract: Hypo-responsiveness to growth factors is a fundamental feature of cellular senescence. In this study, we found markedly decreased level of Nup107, a key scaffold protein in nuclear pore complex assembly, in senescent human diploid fibroblasts as well as in organs of aged mice. Depletion of Nup107 by specific siRNA in young human diploid fibroblasts prevented the effective nuclear translocation of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) following epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation, and decreased the expression of c-Fos in consequence. The disturbances in ERK signaling in Nup107 depleted cells closely mirror the similar changes in senescent cells. Knockdown of Nup107 in anaplastic oligodendroglioma cells caused cell death, rather than growth retardation, indicating a greater sensitivity to Nup107 depletion in cancer cells than in normal cells. These findings support the notion that Nup107 may contribute significantly to the regulation of cell fate in aged and transformed cells by modulating nuclear trafficking of signal molecules.

  20. Antagonism of nerve growth factor-TrkA signaling and the relief of pain.

    PubMed

    Mantyh, Patrick W; Koltzenburg, Martin; Mendell, Lorne M; Tive, Leslie; Shelton, David L

    2011-07-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However, in the adult NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization after tissue injury. The authors outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. The authors also document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events and how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue after significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF.

  1. Signaling pathway factors expression in renal tissue of apoE-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is regarded as one of the major plasma lipoproteins, and it plays an important role in the transport and metabolism of lipids. apoE can be found in multiple tissues, such as liver, kidney, jejunum, urinary bladder, ileum, colon, brain, adrenal glands, lung, ovary, spleen, pancreas, and testis, etc. As a secreted protein, it plays an important role in the systemic lipoprotein metabolism and vascular wall homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. apoE-knockout (apoE(-/-)) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis and renal diseases. However, no review summed up the signaling pathway factors expression in renal tissue of apoE-knockout mice. The literatures were searched extensively and this review was performed to review the signaling pathway factors expression in renal tissue of apoE-knockout mice.

  2. Genetic Analysis of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in the Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Choi, I.; Banerjee, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    The development of eyes in Drosophila involves intricate epithelial reorganization events for accurate positioning of cells and proper formation and organization of ommatidial clusters. We demonstrate that Branchless (Bnl), the fibroblast growth factor ligand, regulates restructuring events in the eye disc primordium from as early as the emergence of clusters from a morphogenetic front to the cellular movements during pupal eye development. Breathless (Btl) functions as the fibroblast growth factor receptor to mediate Bnl signal, and together they regulate expression of DE-cadherin, Crumbs, and Actin. In addition, in the eye Bnl regulates the temporal onset and extent of retinal basal glial cell migration by activating Btl in the glia. We hypothesized that the Bnl functions in the eye are Hedgehog dependent and represent novel aspects of Bnl signaling not explored previously. PMID:22384378

  3. Antagonism of Nerve Growth Factor-TrkA Signaling and the Relief of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Mantyh, Patrick W.; Koltzenburg, Martin; Mendell, Lorne M.; Tive, Leslie; Shelton, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However in the adult, NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization following tissue injury. Here we outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. Further, we document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events as well as how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue following significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF. PMID:21602663

  4. CrkII signals from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras.

    PubMed Central

    Kizaka-Kondoh, S; Matsuda, M; Okayama, H

    1996-01-01

    A rat fibroblast mutant defective in oncogenic transformation and signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras has been isolated. The mutant contains dominant negative-type point mutations in the C-terminal SH3 domain of one crkII gene. Among the adapters tested, the mutant is complemented only by crkII cDNA. Expression of the mutated crkII in parent cells generates the phenotype indistinguishable from the mutant cell. Yet overexpression or reduced expression of Grb2 in the mutant before and after complementation with crkII have little effect on its phenotype. We conclude that adapter molecules are highly specific and that the oncogenic growth signal from epidermal growth factor receptor to Ras is predominantly mediated by CrkII in rat fibroblast. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8901553

  5. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling rewrites the glucocorticoid transcriptome via glucocorticoid receptor phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lambert, W Marcus; Xu, Chong-Feng; Neubert, Thomas A; Chao, Moses V; Garabedian, Michael J; Jeanneteau, Freddy D

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal glucocorticoid and neurotrophin signaling has been implicated in numerous psychiatric disorders. However, the impact of neurotrophic signaling on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent gene expression is not understood. We therefore examined the impact of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling on GR transcriptional regulatory function by gene expression profiling in primary rat cortical neurons stimulated with the selective GR agonist dexamethasone (Dex) and BDNF, alone or in combination. Simultaneous treatment with BDNF and Dex elicited a unique set of GR-responsive genes associated with neuronal growth and differentiation and also enhanced the induction of a large number of Dex-sensitive genes. BDNF via its receptor TrkB enhanced the transcriptional activity of a synthetic GR reporter, suggesting a direct effect of BDNF signaling on GR function. Indeed, BDNF treatment induces the phosphorylation of GR at serine 155 (S155) and serine 287 (S287). Expression of a nonphosphorylatable mutant (GR S155A/S287A) impaired the induction of a subset of BDNF- and Dex-regulated genes. Mechanistically, BDNF-induced GR phosphorylation increased GR occupancy and cofactor recruitment at the promoter of a BDNF-enhanced gene. GR phosphorylation in vivo is sensitive to changes in the levels of BDNF and TrkB as well as stress. Therefore, BDNF signaling specifies and amplifies the GR transcriptome through a coordinated GR phosphorylation-dependent detection mechanism.

  6. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling in Pheochromocytoma: Turning the Rudder in the Right Direction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many solid tumors, including pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL), are characterized by a (pseudo)hypoxic signature. (Pseudo)hypoxia has been shown to promote both tumor progression and resistance to therapy. The major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response are hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). High levels of HIFs lead to transcription of hypoxia-responsive genes, which are involved in tumorigenesis. PHEOs and PGLs are catecholamine-producing tumors arising from sympathetic- or parasympathetic-derived chromaffin tissue. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in understanding the metabolic disturbances present in PHEO and PGL, especially because of the identification of some disease-susceptibility genes. To date, fifteen PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes have been identified. Based on the main transcription signatures of the mutated genes, PHEOs and PGLs have been divided into two clusters, pseudohypoxic cluster 1 and cluster 2, rich in kinase receptor signaling and protein translation pathways. Although these two clusters seem to show distinct signaling pathways, recent data suggest that both clusters are interconnected by HIF signaling as the important driver in their tumorigenesis, and mutations in most PHEO and PGL susceptibility genes seem to affect HIF-α regulation and its downstream signaling pathways. HIF signaling appears to play an important role in the development and growth of PHEOs and PGLs, which could suggest new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these tumors. PMID:23940289

  7. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling pathway regulates liver homeostasis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Mei; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Wen-Pin

    2013-04-01

    In mammals, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling controls liver specification and regulates the metabolism of lipids, cholesterol, and bile acids. FGF signaling also promotes hepatocyte proliferation, and helps detoxify hepatotoxin during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. However, the function of Fgf in zebrafish liver is not yet well understood, specifically for postnatal homeostasis. The current study analyzed the expression of fgf receptors (fgfrs) in the liver of zebrafish. We then investigated the function of Fgf signaling in the zebrafish liver by expressing a dominant-negative Fgf receptor in hepatocytes (lfabp:dnfgfr1-egfp, lf:dnfr). Histological analysis showed that our genetic intervention resulted in a small liver size with defected medial expansion of developing livers in transgenic (Tg) larvae. Morphologically, the liver lobe of lf:dnfr adult fish was shorter than that of control. Ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes was observed in fish as young as 3 months. Further examination revealed the development of hepatic steatosis and cholestasis. In adult Tg fish, we unexpectedly observed increased liver-to-body-weight ratios, with higher percentages of proliferating hepatocytes. Considering all these findings, we concluded that as in mammals, in adult zebrafish the metabolism of lipid and bile acids in the liver are regulated by Fgf signaling. Disruption of the Fgf signal-mediated metabolism might indirectly affect hepatocyte proliferation.

  8. Regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling by inducible feedback inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Segatto, Oreste; Anastasi, Sergio; Alemà, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    Signalling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) controls morphogenesis and/or homeostasis of several tissues from worms to mammals. The correct execution of these programmes requires the generation of EGFR signals of appropriate strength and duration. This is obtained through a complex circuitry of positive and negative feedback regulation. Feedback inhibitory mechanisms restrain EGFR activity in time and space, which is key to ensuring that receptor outputs are commensurate to the cell and tissue needs. Here, we focus on the emerging field of inducible negative feedback regulation of the EGFR in mammals. In mammalian cells, four EGFR inducible feedback inhibitors (IFIs), namely LRIG1, RALT (also known as MIG6 and ERRFI1), SOCS4 and SOCS5, have been discovered recently. EGFR IFIs are expressed de novo in the context of early or delayed transcriptional responses triggered by EGFR activation. They all bind to the EGFR and suppress receptor signalling through several mechanisms, including catalytic inhibition and receptor downregulation. Here, we review the mechanistic basis of IFI signalling and rationalise the function of IFIs in light of gene-knockout studies that assign LRIG1 and RALT an essential role in restricting cell proliferation. Finally, we discuss how IFIs might participate in system control of EGFR signalling and highlight the emerging roles for IFIs in the suppression of EGFR-driven tumorigenesis.

  9. Targeting the Transforming Growth FactorSignaling Pathway in Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Nagathihalli S

    2009-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in diverse cellular processes. TGF-β switches its role from tumor suppressor in normal or dysplastic cells to a tumor promoter in advanced cancers. It is widely believed that Smad-dependent pathway is involved in TGF-β tumor suppressive functions, whereas activation of Smad-independent pathways coupled with the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TGF-β is important for its pro-oncogenic functions. TGF-β signaling has been considered as a very suitable therapeutic target. The discovery of oncogenic actions of TGF-β has generated a great deal of enthusiasm for developing TGF-β signaling inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. The challenge is to identify the group of patients where targeted tumors are not only refractory to TGF-β-induced tumor suppressor functions but also responsive to tumor promoting effects of TGF-β. TGF-β pathway inhibitors including small and large molecules have now entered clinical trials. Preclinical studies with these inhibitors have shown promise in a variety of different tumor models. Here we emphasize on the mechanisms of signaling and specific targets of the TGF-β pathway that are critical effectors of tumor progression and invasion. This report also focuses on the therapeutic intervention of TGF-β signaling in human cancers. PMID:20001556

  10. Mechanisms of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yingquan; Qiao, Mingqi

    2013-03-25

    The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor signal transduction pathway plays an important role in the mechanism of action of antidepressant drugs and has dominated recent studies on the pathogenesis of depression. In the present review we summarize the known roles of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP response element-binding protein and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the pathogenesis of depression and in the mechanism of action of antidepressant medicines. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein/brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway has potential to be used as a biological index to help diagnose depression, and as such it is considered as an important new target in the treatment of depression.

  11. Basic aspects of tumor cell fatty acid-regulated signaling and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Comba, Andrea; Lin, Yi-Hui; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Fernandez-Zapico, Martín Ernesto; Pasqualini, Marìa Eugenia

    2011-12-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge and experimental research about the mechanisms by which fatty acids and their derivatives control specific gene expression involved during carcinogenesis. Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P-450, seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. Their regulation may be carried out either through direct binding to DNA as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors or via modulation in an indirect manner of signaling pathway molecules (e.g., protein kinase C) and other transcription factors (nuclear factor kappa B and sterol regulatory element binding protein). Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole body lipid metabolism.

  12. Three WRKY transcription factors additively repress abscisic acid and gibberellin signaling in aleurone cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liyuan; Gu, Lingkun; Ringler, Patricia; Smith, Stanley; Rushton, Paul J; Shen, Qingxi J

    2015-07-01

    Members of the WRKY transcription factor superfamily are essential for the regulation of many plant pathways. Functional redundancy due to duplications of WRKY transcription factors, however, complicates genetic analysis by allowing single-mutant plants to maintain wild-type phenotypes. Our analyses indicate that three group I WRKY genes, OsWRKY24, -53, and -70, act in a partially redundant manner. All three showed characteristics of typical WRKY transcription factors: each localized to nuclei and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that they all bind to W-boxes, including those present in their own promoters. Quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the expression levels of the three WRKY genes varied in the different tissues tested. Particle bombardment-mediated transient expression analyses indicated that all three genes repress the GA and ABA signaling in a dosage-dependent manner. Combination of all three WRKY genes showed additive antagonism of ABA and GA signaling. These results suggest that these WRKY proteins function as negative transcriptional regulators of GA and ABA signaling. However, different combinations of these WRKY genes can lead to varied strengths in suppression of their targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EGFL7: a unique angiogenic signaling factor in vascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Nichol, Donna; Stuhlmann, Heidi

    2012-02-09

    EGFL7 is a secreted angiogenic factor that is highly conserved in vertebrates. Most secreted angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF and fibroblast growth factor-2, are mainly expressed by non-endothelial cell types such as fibroblasts. In contrast, EGFL7 is unique because it is almost exclusively expressed by and acts on endothelial cells. Egfl7 expression is highest when the endothelium is in an active, proliferating state. This factor acts as a chemoattractant for endothelial cells and binds to components of the extracellular matrix. In vivo, Egfl7 is important for regulating tubulogenesis in zebrafish and for controlling vascular patterning and integrity in mice. Its function in blood vessel development is mediated, at least in part, through modulation of Notch signaling. In this review, we summarize the findings that support a role for Egfl7 in developmental and postnatal angiogenesis and describe the EGFL7-signaling pathways that underlie these processes. In addition, we discuss a potential role for EGFL7 in vascular repair and its possible use as a therapeutic target for treatment of hypoxia-induced injury. Finally, we consider EGFL7 action during tumorigenesis and its potential as an antiangiogenic agent.

  14. Neutron Detector Signal Processing to Calculate the Effective Neutron Multiplication Factor of Subcritical Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Talamo, Alberto; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-06-01

    This report describes different methodologies to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor of subcritical assemblies by processing the neutron detector signals using MATLAB scripts. The subcritical assembly can be driven either by a spontaneous fission neutron source (e.g. californium) or by a neutron source generated from the interactions of accelerated particles with target materials. In the latter case, when the particle accelerator operates in a pulsed mode, the signals are typically stored into two files. One file contains the time when neutron reactions occur and the other contains the times when the neutron pulses start. In both files, the time is given by an integer representing the number of time bins since the start of the counting. These signal files are used to construct the neutron count distribution from a single neutron pulse. The built-in functions of MATLAB are used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor through the application of the prompt decay fitting or the area method to the neutron count distribution. If the subcritical assembly is driven by a spontaneous fission neutron source, then the effective multiplication factor can be evaluated either using the prompt neutron decay constant obtained from Rossi or Feynman distributions or the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method.

  15. Signalling of the BCR is regulated by a lipid rafts-localised transcription factor, Bright

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Christian; Kim, Dongkyoon; Ippolito, Gregory C; Naqvi, Hassan R; Probst, Loren; Mathur, Shawn; Rosas-Acosta, German; Wilson, Van G; Oldham, Athenia L; Poenie, Martin; Webb, Carol F; Tucker, Philip W

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of BCR signalling strength is crucial for B-cell development and function. Bright is a B-cell-restricted factor that complexes with Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and its substrate, transcription initiation factor-I (TFII-I), to activate immunoglobulin heavy chain gene transcription in the nucleus. Here we show that a palmitoylated pool of Bright is diverted to lipid rafts of resting B cells where it associates with signalosome components. After BCR ligation, Bright transiently interacts with sumoylation enzymes, blocks calcium flux and phosphorylation of Btk and TFII-I and is then discharged from lipid rafts as a Sumo-I-modified form. The resulting lipid raft concentration of Bright contributes to the signalling threshold of B cells, as their sensitivity to BCR stimulation decreases as the levels of Bright increase. Bright regulates signalling independent of its role in IgH transcription, as shown by specific dominant-negative titration of rafts-specific forms. This study identifies a BCR tuning mechanism in lipid rafts that is regulated by differential post-translational modification of a transcription factor with implications for B-cell tolerance and autoimmunity. PMID:19214191

  16. An adaptive line enhancement method for UWB proximity fuze signal processing based on correlation matrix estimation with time delay factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Huang, Zhonghua

    2016-10-01

    Signal processing for an ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver involves some challenges: it requires high real-time performance; the output signal is mixed with broadband noise; and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decreases with increased detection range. The adaptive line enhancement method is used to filter the output signal of the ultra-wideband radio fuze receiver, and thus suppress the wideband noise from the output signal of the receiver and extract the target characteristic signal. The filter input correlation matrix estimation algorithm is based on the delay factor of an adaptive line enhancer. The proposed adaptive algorithm was used to filter and reduce noise in the output signal from the fuze receiver. Simulation results showed that the SNR of the output signal after adaptive noise reduction was improved by 20 dB, which was higher than the SNR of the output signal after finite impulse response (FIR) filtering of around 10 dB.

  17. Activation of the epidermal growth factor signalling pathway by tissue plasminogen activator in pancreas cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hurtado, Mariano; Lozano, Juan José; Castellanos, Elisabeth; López‐Fernández, Luis A; Harshman, Keith; Martínez‐A, Carlos; Ortiz, Angel R; Thomson, Timothy M; Paciucci, Rosanna

    2007-01-01

    Background Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the major activator of plasminogen in plasma. This serine protease is overexpressed by exocrine pancreas tumour cells, where it promotes tumour cell proliferation, growth, and invasion. Here we have explored the signalling pathways used by tPA to activate the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods Transcriptional profiling on cDNA micro arrays was used to analyse the pattern of gene expression in response to tPA compared to the response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). Results were confirmed using different biochemical assays in which specific kinase inhibitors or RNA interference were used. Results Transcriptional profiling showed that tPA modulates the expression of a set of genes commonly regulated by EGF, but distinct from the major set of genes modulated by PDGF. This suggested that tPA and EGF share common signalling pathways, a conclusion supported by further experimental evidence. Firstly, we found that tPA induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of the EGFR. Secondly, specific EGFR kinase inhibitors, but not PDGFR kinase inhibitors, abolished the tPA induced phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 kinases and cell proliferation. The mitogenic activity of tPA was also inhibited by siRNA depletion of EGFR, thus confirming the involvement of this receptor in tPA triggered signalling. Thirdly, we show that the signalling and mitogenic effects of tPA require its proteolytic activity, the activity of the metalloprotease‐9 and active hb‐EGF. Conclusion Our results suggest that tPA induces proliferation by triggering a proteolytic cascade that sequentially activates plasmin, metalloprotease‐9 (MMP‐9) and hb‐EGF. These events are required to activate the EGFR signalling pathway and cell proliferation. PMID:17452424

  18. Activation of MAPK/ERK signaling by Burkholderia pseudomallei cycle inhibiting factor (Cif).

    PubMed

    Ng, Mei Ying; Wang, Mei; Casey, Patrick J; Gan, Yunn-Hwen; Hagen, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL) and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif can function as a potent activator of MAPK/ERK signaling without significant activation of other signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Importantly, we found that the ability of Cif to activate ERK is dependent on its deamidase activity, but independent of Cullin E3 ligase inhibition. This suggests that apart from Nedd8, other cellular targets of Cif-dependent deamidation exist. We provide evidence that the mechanism involved in Cif-mediated ERK activation is dependent on recruitment of the Grb2-SOS1 complex to the plasma membrane. Further investigation revealed that Cif appears to modify the phosphorylation status of SOS1 in a region containing the CDC25-H and proline-rich domains. It is known that prolonged Cullin E3 ligase inhibition leads to cellular apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ERK activation is an important mechanism to counter the pro-apoptotic effects of Cif. Indeed, we show that Cif dependent ERK activation promotes phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, thereby potentially conferring a pro-survival signal. In summary, we identified a novel deamidation-dependent mechanism of action of the B. pseudomallei virulence factor Cif/CHBP to activate MAPK/ERK signaling. Our study demonstrates that bacterial proteins such as Cif can serve as useful molecular tools to uncover novel aspects of mammalian signaling pathways.

  19. Activation of MAPK/ERK signaling by Burkholderia pseudomallei cycle inhibiting factor (Cif)

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Mei Ying; Wang, Mei; Casey, Patrick J.; Gan, Yunn-Hwen; Hagen, Thilo

    2017-01-01

    Cycle inhibiting factors (Cifs) are virulence proteins secreted by the type III secretion system of some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria including Burkholderia pseudomallei. Cif is known to function to deamidate Nedd8, leading to inhibition of Cullin E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRL) and consequently induction of cell cycle arrest. Here we show that Cif can function as a potent activator of MAPK/ERK signaling without significant activation of other signaling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases. Importantly, we found that the ability of Cif to activate ERK is dependent on its deamidase activity, but independent of Cullin E3 ligase inhibition. This suggests that apart from Nedd8, other cellular targets of Cif-dependent deamidation exist. We provide evidence that the mechanism involved in Cif-mediated ERK activation is dependent on recruitment of the Grb2-SOS1 complex to the plasma membrane. Further investigation revealed that Cif appears to modify the phosphorylation status of SOS1 in a region containing the CDC25-H and proline-rich domains. It is known that prolonged Cullin E3 ligase inhibition leads to cellular apoptosis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ERK activation is an important mechanism to counter the pro-apoptotic effects of Cif. Indeed, we show that Cif dependent ERK activation promotes phosphorylation of the proapoptotic protein Bim, thereby potentially conferring a pro-survival signal. In summary, we identified a novel deamidation-dependent mechanism of action of the B. pseudomallei virulence factor Cif/CHBP to activate MAPK/ERK signaling. Our study demonstrates that bacterial proteins such as Cif can serve as useful molecular tools to uncover novel aspects of mammalian signaling pathways. PMID:28166272

  20. Transforming growth factorsignalling: role and consequences of Smad linker region phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kamato, Danielle; Burch, Micah L; Piva, Terrence J; Rezaei, Hossein Babaahmadi; Rostam, Muhamad Ashraf; Xu, Suowen; Zheng, Wenhua; Little, Peter J; Osman, Narin

    2013-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a secreted homodimeric protein that plays an important role in regulating various cellular responses including cell proliferation and differentiation, extracellular matrix production, embryonic development and apoptosis. Disruption of the TGF-β signalling pathway is associated with diverse disease states including cancer, renal and cardiac fibrosis and atherosclerosis. At the cell surface TGF-β complex consists of two type I and two type II transmembrane receptors (TβRI and TβRII respectively) which have serine/threonine kinase activity. Upon TGF-β engagement TβRII phosphorylates TβRI which in turn phosphorylates Smad2/3 on two serine residues at their C-terminus which enables binding to Smad4 to form heteromeric Smad complexes that enter the nucleus to initiate gene transcription including for extracellular matrix proteins. TGF-β signalling is also known to activate other serine/threonine kinase signalling that results in the phosphorylation of the linker region of Smad2. The Smad linker region is defined as the domain which lies between the MH1 and MH2 domains of a Smad protein. Serine/threonine kinases that are known to phosphorylate the Smad linker region include mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular-signal regulated kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 kinase, the tyrosine kinase Src, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase, cyclin-dependent kinases, rho-associated protein kinase, calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3. This review will cover the role of Smad linker region phosphorylation downstream of TGF-β signalling in vascular cells. Key factors including the identification of the kinases that phosphorylate individual Smad residues, the upstream agents that activate these kinases, the cellular location of the phosphorylation event and the importance of the linker region in regulation and expression of genes induced by TGF-β are covered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All

  1. The ERF11 Transcription Factor Promotes Internode Elongation by Activating Gibberellin Biosynthesis and Signaling1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Zhang, Zhong-Lin; Tyler, Ludmila; Yusuke, Jikumaru; Qiu, Kai; Lumba, Shelley; Desveaux, Darrell; McCourt, Peter; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) plays a key role in promoting stem elongation in plants. Previous studies show that GA activates its signaling pathway by inducing rapid degradation of DELLA proteins, GA signaling repressors. Using an activation-tagging screen in a reduced-GA mutant ga1-6 background, we identified AtERF11 to be a novel positive regulator of both GA biosynthesis and GA signaling for internode elongation. Overexpression of AtERF11 partially rescued the dwarf phenotype of ga1-6. AtERF11 is a member of the ERF (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR) subfamily VIII-B-1a of ERF/AP2 transcription factors in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Overexpression of AtERF11 resulted in elevated bioactive GA levels by up-regulating expression of GA3ox1 and GA20ox genes. Hypocotyl elongation assays further showed that overexpression of AtERF11 conferred elevated GA response, whereas loss-of-function erf11 and erf11 erf4 mutants displayed reduced GA response. In addition, yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, and transient expression assays showed that AtERF11 enhances GA signaling by antagonizing the function of DELLA proteins via direct protein-protein interaction. Interestingly, AtERF11 overexpression also caused a reduction in the levels of another phytohormone ethylene in the growing stem, consistent with recent finding showing that AtERF11 represses transcription of ethylene biosynthesis ACS genes. The effect of AtERF11 on promoting GA biosynthesis gene expression is likely via its repressive function on ethylene biosynthesis. These results suggest that AtERF11 plays a dual role in promoting internode elongation by inhibiting ethylene biosynthesis and activating GA biosynthesis and signaling pathways. PMID:27255484

  2. Zinc-finger transcription factor Slug contributes to the function of the stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Losada, Jesus; Sánchez-Martín, Manuel; Rodríguez-García, Arancha; Sánchez, Maria Luz; Orfao, Alberto; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2002-08-15

    The stem cell factor c-kit signaling pathway (SCF/c-kit) has been previously implicated in normal hematopoiesis, melanogenesis, and gametogenesis through the formation and migration of c-kit(+) cells. These biologic functions are also determinants in epithelial-mesenchymal transitions during embryonic development governed by the Snail family of transcription factors. Here we show that the activation of c-kit by SCF specifically induces the expression of Slug, a Snail family member. Slug mutant mice have a cell-intrinsic defect with pigment deficiency, gonadal defect, and impairment of hematopoiesis. Kit(+) cells derived from Slug mutant mice exhibit migratory defects similar to those of c-kit(+) cells derived from SCF and c-kit mutant mice. Endogenous Slug is expressed in migratory c-kit(+) cells purified from control mice but is not present in c-kit(+) cells derived from SCF mutant mice or in bone marrow cells from W/W(v) mice, though Slug is present in spleen c-kit(+) cells of W/W(v) (mutants expressing c-kit with reduced surface expression and activity). SCF-induced migration was affected in primary c-kit(+) cells purified from Slug-/- mice, providing evidence for a role of Slug in the acquisition of c-kit(+) cells with ability to migrate. Slug may thus be considered a molecular target that contributes to the biologic specificity to the SCF/c-kit signaling pathway, opening up new avenues for stem cell mobilization.

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is altered in the forebrain of Engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zunino, G; Messina, A; Sgadò, P; Baj, G; Casarosa, S; Bozzi, Y

    2016-06-02

    Engrailed-2 (En2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain regions has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). En2 knockout (En2(-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a significant loss of GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus and neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial factor for the postnatal development of forebrain GABAergic neurons, and altered GABA signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD. Here we sought to determine whether interneuron loss in the En2(-/-) forebrain might be related to altered expression of BDNF and its signaling receptors. We first evaluated the expression of different BDNF mRNA isoforms in the neocortex and hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and En2(-/-) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a marked down-regulation of several splicing variants of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex but not hippocampus of adult En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT controls. Accordingly, levels of mature BDNF protein were lower in the neocortex but not hippocampus of En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT. Increased levels of phosphorylated TrkB and decreased levels of p75 receptor were also detected in the neocortex of mutant mice. Accordingly, the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and RhoA, two genes regulated via p75 was significantly altered in forebrain areas of mutant mice. These data indicate that BDNF signaling alterations might be involved in the anatomical changes observed in the En2(-/-) forebrain and suggest a pathogenic role of altered BDNF signaling in this mouse model of ASD.

  4. Glypican-1 controls brain size through regulation of fibroblast growth factor signaling in early neurogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jen, Yi-Huei Linda; Musacchio, Michele; Lander, Arthur D

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for multiple families of growth factors that regulate animal cell proliferation, differentiation and patterning. Elimination of heparan sulfate during brain development is known to produce severe structural abnormalities. Here we investigate the developmental role played by one particular HSPG, glypican-1 (Gpc1), which is especially abundant on neuronal cell membranes, and is the major HSPG of the adult rodent brain. Results Mice with a null mutation in Gpc1 were generated and found to be viable and fertile. The major phenotype associated with Gpc1 loss is a highly significant reduction in brain size, with only subtle effects on brain patterning (confined to the anterior cerebellum). The brain size difference emerges very early during neurogenesis (between embryonic days 8.5 and 9.5), and remains roughly constant throughout development and adulthood. By examining markers of different signaling pathways, and the differentiation behaviors of cells in the early embryonic brain, we infer that Gpc1-/- phenotypes most likely result from a transient reduction in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. Through the analysis of compound mutants, we provide strong evidence that Fgf17 is the FGF family member through which Gpc1 controls brain size. Conclusion These data add to a growing literature that implicates the glypican family of HSPGs in organ size control. They also argue that, among heparan sulfate-dependent signaling molecules, FGFs are disproportionately sensitive to loss of HSPGs. Finally, because heterozygous Gpc1 mutant mice were found to have brain sizes half-way between homozygous and wild type, the data imply that endogenous HSPG levels quantitatively control growth factor signaling, a finding that is both novel and relevant to the general question of how the activities of co-receptors are exploited during development. PMID:19732411

  5. RhoA Modulates Smad Signaling during Transforming Growth Factor-β-induced Smooth Muscle Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shiyou; Crawford, Michelle; Day, Regina M.; Briones, Victorino R.; Leader, Jennifer E.; Jose, Pedro A.; Lechleider, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We recently reported that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β induced the neural crest stem cell line Monc-1 to differentiate into a spindle-like contractile smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype and that Smad signaling played an important role in this phenomenon. In addition to Smad signaling, other pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phosphoinositol-3 kinase, and RhoA have also been shown to mediate TGF-β actions. The objectives of this study were to examine whether these signaling pathways contribute to TGF-β-induced SMC development and to test whether Smad signaling cross-talks with other pathway(s) during SMC differentiation induced by TGF-β. We demonstrate here that RhoA signaling is critical to TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation. RhoA kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y27632 significantly blocks the expression of multiple SMC markers such as smooth muscle α-actin, SM22α, and calponin in TGF-β-treated Monc-1 cells. In addition, Y27632 reversed the cell morphology and abolished the contractility of TGF-β-treated cells. RhoA signaling was activated as early as 5 min following TGF-β addition. Dominant negative RhoA blocked nuclear translocation of Smad2 and Smad3 because of the inhibition of phosphorylation of both Smads and inhibited Smad-dependent SBE promoter activity, whereas constitutively active RhoA significantly enhanced SBE promoter activity. Consistent with these results, C3 exotoxin, an inhibitor of RhoA activation, significantly attenuated SBE promoter activity and inhibited Smad nuclear translocation. Taken together, these data point to a new role for RhoA as a modulator of Smad activation while regulating TGF-β-induced SMC differentiation. PMID:16317010

  6. Modeling Cellular Noise Underlying Heterogeneous Cell Responses in the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Kazunari; Shindo, Yuki; Takahashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity, which plays an essential role in biological phenomena, such as drug resistance and migration, is considered to arise from intrinsic (i.e., reaction kinetics) and extrinsic (i.e., protein variability) noise in the cell. However, the mechanistic effects of these types of noise to determine the heterogeneity of signal responses have not been elucidated. Here, we report that the output of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling activity is modulated by cellular noise, particularly by extrinsic noise of particular signaling components in the pathway. We developed a mathematical model of the EGF signaling pathway incorporating regulation between extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear pore complex (NPC), which is necessary for switch-like activation of the nuclear ERK response. As the threshold of switch-like behavior is more sensitive to perturbations than the graded response, the effect of biological noise is potentially critical for cell fate decision. Our simulation analysis indicated that extrinsic noise, but not intrinsic noise, contributes to cell-to-cell heterogeneity of nuclear ERK. In addition, we accurately estimated variations in abundance of the signal proteins between individual cells by direct comparison of experimental data with simulation results using Apparent Measurement Error (AME). AME was constant regardless of whether the protein levels varied in a correlated manner, while covariation among proteins influenced cell-to-cell heterogeneity of nuclear ERK, suppressing the variation. Simulations using the estimated protein abundances showed that each protein species has different effects on cell-to-cell variation in the nuclear ERK response. In particular, variability of EGF receptor, Ras, Raf, and MEK strongly influenced cellular heterogeneity, while others did not. Overall, our results indicated that cellular heterogeneity in response to EGF is strongly driven by extrinsic noise, and that such heterogeneity

  7. Decoupling the Functional Pleiotropy of Stem Cell Factor by Tuning c-Kit Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chia Chi M; Chhabra, Akanksha; Starkl, Philipp; Schnorr, Peter-John; Wilmes, Stephan; Moraga, Ignacio; Kwon, Hye-Sook; Gaudenzio, Nicolas; Sibilano, Riccardo; Wehrman, Tom S; Gakovic, Milica; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Tiffany, Matthew R; Ring, Aaron M; Piehler, Jacob; Weissman, Irving L; Galli, Stephen J; Shizuru, Judith A; Garcia, K Christopher

    2017-03-09

    Most secreted growth factors and cytokines are functionally pleiotropic because their receptors are expressed on diverse cell types. While important for normal mammalian physiology, pleiotropy limits the efficacy of cytokines and growth factors as therapeutics. Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor that acts through the c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase to elicit hematopoietic progenitor expansion but can be toxic when administered in vivo because it concurrently activates mast cells. We engineered a mechanism-based SCF partial agonist that impaired c-Kit dimerization, truncating downstream signaling amplitude. This SCF variant elicited biased activation of hematopoietic progenitors over mast cells in vitro and in vivo. Mouse models of SCF-mediated anaphylaxis, radioprotection, and hematopoietic expansion revealed that this SCF partial agonist retained therapeutic efficacy while exhibiting virtually no anaphylactic off-target effects. The approach of biasing cell activation by tuning signaling thresholds and outputs has applications to many dimeric receptor-ligand systems.

  8. The scatter factor signaling pathways as therapeutic associated target in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Accornero, P; Pavone, L M; Baratta, M

    2010-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are key regulators of critical cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, neo-vascularization, and tissue repair. In addition to their importance in the regulation of normal physiology, aberrant expression of certain RTKs has also been associated to the development and progression of many types of cancer. c-Met and RON are two RTKs with closely related sequences, structural homology, and similar functional properties. Both these receptors, once activated by their respective ligands, the Hepatocyte Growth Factor/Scatter Factor (HGF/SF1) and the Macrophage Stimulating Protein/Scatter Factor 2 (MSP/SF2), can induce cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Soon after its discovery in the mid-1980s, c-Met attracted a great interest because of its role in modulating cell motility. Moreover, the causal role for c-Met activating mutations in human cancer propelled an intensive drug discovery effort throughout academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies. While c-Met is now a well-accepted target for anticancer drug design, less is known about the role of RON in cancer and less has been done to target this receptor. In this review we will discuss the biological relevance of c-Met and RON, their deregulation in human cancers and the progress, so far, in identifying c-Met and RON signaling inhibitors. Finally, we will focus on the development of therapeutic strategies and drug efficacy studies based on interfering the scatter factor signaling pathways.

  9. Stromal-derived factor 1 signalling regulates radial and tangential migration in the developing cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Liapi, Anastasia; Pritchett, James; Jones, Owen; Fujii, Nobutaka; Parnavelas, John G; Nadarajah, Bagirathy

    2008-01-01

    Stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1), a known chemoattractant, and its receptor CXCR4 are widely expressed in the developing and adult cerebral cortex. Recent studies have highlighted potential roles for SDF-1 during early cortical development. In view of the current findings, our histological analysis has revealed a distinct pattern of SDF-1 expression in the developing cerebral cortex at a time when cell proliferation and migration are at peak. To determine the role of chemokine signalling during early cortical development, embryonic rat brain slices were exposed to a medium containing secreted SDF-1 to perturb the endogenous levels of chemokine. Alternatively, brain slices were treated with 40 muM of T140 or AMD3100, known antagonists of CXCR4. Using these experimental approaches, we demonstrate that chemokine signalling is imperative for the maintenance of the early cortical plate. In addition, we provide evidence that both neurogenesis and radial migration are concomitantly regulated by this signalling system. Conversely, interneurons, although not dependent on SDF-1 signalling to transgress the telencephalic boundary, require the chemokine to maintain their tangential migration. Collectively, our results demonstrate that SDF-1 with its distinct pattern of expression is essential and uniquely positioned to regulate key developmental events that underlie the formation of the cerebral cortex.

  10. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    PubMed Central

    Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-01-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process. PMID:26959229

  11. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  12. Noise and interlocking signaling pathways promote distinct transcription factor dynamics in response to different stresses

    PubMed Central

    Petrenko, Natalia; Chereji, Raˇzvan V.; McClean, Megan N.; Morozov, Alexandre V.; Broach, James R.

    2013-01-01

    All cells perceive and respond to environmental stresses through elaborate stress-sensing networks. Yeast cells sense stress through diverse signaling pathways that converge on the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4, which respond by initiating rapid, idiosyncratic cycles into and out of the nucleus. To understand the role of Msn2/4 nuclear localization dynamics, we combined time-lapse studies of Msn2-GFP localization in living cells with computational modeling of stress-sensing signaling networks. We find that several signaling pathways, including Ras/protein kinase A, AMP-activated kinase, the high-osmolarity response mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein phosphatase 1, regulate activation of Msn2 in distinct ways in response to different stresses. Moreover, we find that bursts of nuclear localization elicit a more robust transcriptional response than does sustained nuclear localization. Using stochastic modeling, we reproduce in silico the responses of Msn2 to different stresses, and demonstrate that bursts of localization arise from noise in the signaling pathways amplified by the small number of Msn2 molecules in the cell. This noise imparts diverse behaviors to genetically identical cells, allowing cell populations to “hedge their bets” in responding to an uncertain future, and to balance growth and survival in an unpredictable environment. PMID:23615444

  13. AMPA receptor-induced local brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling mediates motor recovery after stroke.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Andrew N; Overman, Justine J; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2011-03-09

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery.

  14. Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling towards Proliferation: Modeling and Logic Inference Using Forward and Backward Search.

    PubMed

    Riesco, Adrián; Santos-Buitrago, Beatriz; De Las Rivas, Javier; Knapp, Merrill; Santos-García, Gustavo; Talcott, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, pathways define complex interaction networks where multiple molecular elements are involved in a series of controlled reactions producing responses to specific biomolecular signals. These biosystems are dynamic and there is a need for mathematical and computational methods able to analyze the symbolic elements and the interactions between them and produce adequate readouts of such systems. In this work, we use rewriting logic to analyze the cellular signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its cell surface receptor (EGFR) in order to induce cellular proliferation. Signaling is initiated by binding the ligand protein EGF to the membrane-bound receptor EGFR so as to trigger a reactions path which have several linked elements through the cell from the membrane till the nucleus. We present two different types of search for analyzing the EGF/proliferation system with the help of Pathway Logic tool, which provides a knowledge-based development environment to carry out the modeling of the signaling. The first one is a standard (forward) search. The second one is a novel approach based on narrowing, which allows us to trace backwards the causes of a given final state. The analysis allows the identification of critical elements that have to be activated to provoke proliferation.

  15. Multipronged attenuation of macrophage-colony stimulating factor signaling by Epstein-Barr virus BARF1

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Ann Hye-Ryong; Chang, Rhoda Ahn; Chen, Xiaoyan; Longnecker, Richard; He, Xiaolin

    2014-10-02

    The ubiquitous EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is associated with several types of cancers. The EBV genome encodes an early gene product, BARF1, which contributes to pathogenesis, potentially through growth-altering and immune-modulating activities, but the mechanisms for such activities are poorly understood. We have determined the crystal structure of BARF1 in complex with human macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), a hematopoietic cytokine with pleiotropic functions in development and immune response. BARF1 and M-CSF form a high-affinity, stable, ring-like complex in both solution and the crystal, with a BARF1 hexameric ring surrounded by three M-CSF dimers in triangular array. The binding of BARF1 to M-CSF dramatically reduces but does not completely abolish M-CSF binding and signaling through its cognate receptor FMS. A three-pronged down-regulation mechanism is proposed to explain the biological effect of BARF1 on M-CSF:FMS signaling. These prongs entail control of the circulating and effective local M-CSF concentration, perturbation of the receptor-binding surface of M-CSF, and imposition of an unfavorable global orientation of the M-CSF dimer. Each prong may reduce M-CSF:FMS signaling to a limited extent but in combination may alter M-CSF:FMS signaling dramatically. The downregulating mechanism of BARF1 underlines a viral modulation strategy, and provides a basis for understanding EBV pathogenesis.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling in Physiology and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Belov, Artur A.; Mohammadi, Moosa

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) signal in a paracrine or endocrine fashion to mediate a myriad of biological activities, ranging from issuing developmental cues, maintaining tissue homeostasis, and regulating metabolic processes. FGFs carry out their diverse functions by binding and dimerizing FGF receptors (FGFRs) in a heparan sulfate (HS) cofactor- or Klotho coreceptor-assisted manner. The accumulated wealth of structural and biophysical data in the past decade has transformed our understanding of the mechanism of FGF signaling in human health and development, and has provided novel concepts in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Among these contributions are the elucidation of HS-assisted receptor dimerization, delineation of the molecular determinants of ligand–receptor specificity, tyrosine kinase regulation, receptor cis-autoinhibition, and tyrosine trans-autophosphorylation. These structural studies have also revealed how disease-associated mutations highjack the physiological mechanisms of FGFR regulation to contribute to human diseases. In this paper, we will discuss the structurally and biophysically derived mechanisms of FGF signaling, and how the insights gained may guide the development of therapies for treatment of a diverse array of human diseases. PMID:23732477

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling towards Proliferation: Modeling and Logic Inference Using Forward and Backward Search

    PubMed Central

    Riesco, Adrián; Santos-Buitrago, Beatriz; De Las Rivas, Javier; Knapp, Merrill; Talcott, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, pathways define complex interaction networks where multiple molecular elements are involved in a series of controlled reactions producing responses to specific biomolecular signals. These biosystems are dynamic and there is a need for mathematical and computational methods able to analyze the symbolic elements and the interactions between them and produce adequate readouts of such systems. In this work, we use rewriting logic to analyze the cellular signaling of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its cell surface receptor (EGFR) in order to induce cellular proliferation. Signaling is initiated by binding the ligand protein EGF to the membrane-bound receptor EGFR so as to trigger a reactions path which have several linked elements through the cell from the membrane till the nucleus. We present two different types of search for analyzing the EGF/proliferation system with the help of Pathway Logic tool, which provides a knowledge-based development environment to carry out the modeling of the signaling. The first one is a standard (forward) search. The second one is a novel approach based on narrowing, which allows us to trace backwards the causes of a given final state. The analysis allows the identification of critical elements that have to be activated to provoke proliferation. PMID:28191459

  18. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor RABGEF1 regulates keratinocyte-intrinsic signaling to maintain skin homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Marichal, Thomas; El Abbas, Sophie; Sibilano, Riccardo; Zurek, Oliwia; Reber, Laurent L.; Pirottin, Dimitri; Kim, Jinah; Chambon, Pierre; Roers, Axel; Antoine, Nadine; Kawakami, Yuko; Bureau, Fabrice; Tam, See-Ying; Tsai, Mindy

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes form a structural and immune barrier that is essential for skin homeostasis. However, the mechanisms that regulate epidermal barrier function are incompletely understood. Here we have found that keratinocyte-specific deletion of the gene encoding RAB guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 (RABGEF1, also known as RABEX-5) severely impairs epidermal barrier function in mice and induces an allergic cutaneous and systemic phenotype. RABGEF1-deficient keratinocytes exhibited aberrant activation of the intrinsic IL-1R/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway and MYD88-dependent abnormalities in expression of structural proteins that contribute to skin barrier function. Moreover, ablation of MYD88 signaling in RABGEF1-deficient keratinocytes or deletion of Il1r1 restored skin homeostasis and prevented development of skin inflammation. We further demonstrated that epidermal RABGEF1 expression is reduced in skin lesions of humans diagnosed with either atopic dermatitis or allergic contact dermatitis as well as in an inducible mouse model of allergic dermatitis. Our findings reveal a key role for RABGEF1 in dampening keratinocyte-intrinsic MYD88 signaling and sustaining epidermal barrier function in mice, and suggest that dysregulation of RABGEF1 expression may contribute to epidermal barrier dysfunction in allergic skin disorders in mice and humans. Thus, RABGEF1-mediated regulation of IL-1R/MYD88 signaling might represent a potential therapeutic target. PMID:27820702

  19. Noise and interlocking signaling pathways promote distinct transcription factor dynamics in response to different stresses.

    PubMed

    Petrenko, Natalia; Chereji, Razvan V; McClean, Megan N; Morozov, Alexandre V; Broach, James R

    2013-06-01

    All cells perceive and respond to environmental stresses through elaborate stress-sensing networks. Yeast cells sense stress through diverse signaling pathways that converge on the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4, which respond by initiating rapid, idiosyncratic cycles into and out of the nucleus. To understand the role of Msn2/4 nuclear localization dynamics, we combined time-lapse studies of Msn2-GFP localization in living cells with computational modeling of stress-sensing signaling networks. We find that several signaling pathways, including Ras/protein kinase A, AMP-activated kinase, the high-osmolarity response mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and protein phosphatase 1, regulate activation of Msn2 in distinct ways in response to different stresses. Moreover, we find that bursts of nuclear localization elicit a more robust transcriptional response than does sustained nuclear localization. Using stochastic modeling, we reproduce in silico the responses of Msn2 to different stresses, and demonstrate that bursts of localization arise from noise in the signaling pathways amplified by the small number of Msn2 molecules in the cell. This noise imparts diverse behaviors to genetically identical cells, allowing cell populations to "hedge their bets" in responding to an uncertain future, and to balance growth and survival in an unpredictable environment.

  20. ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR4 regulates actin dynamics during innate immune signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Henty-Ridilla, Jessica L; Li, Jiejie; Day, Brad; Staiger, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    Conserved microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) are sensed by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) on cells of plants and animals. MAMP perception typically triggers rearrangements to actin cytoskeletal arrays during innate immune signaling. However, the signaling cascades linking PRR activation by MAMPs to cytoskeleton remodeling are not well characterized. Here, we developed a system to dissect, at high spatial and temporal resolution, the regulation of actin dynamics during innate immune signaling in plant cells. Within minutes of MAMP perception, we detected changes to single actin filament turnover in epidermal cells treated with bacterial and fungal MAMPs. These MAMP-induced alterations phenocopied an ACTIN DEPOLYMERIZING FACTOR4 (ADF4) knockout mutant. Moreover, actin arrays in the adf4 mutant were unresponsive to a bacterial MAMP, elf26, but responded normally to the fungal MAMP, chitin. Together, our data provide strong genetic and cytological evidence for the inhibition of ADF activity regulating actin remodeling during innate immune signaling. This work is the first to directly link an ADF/cofilin to the cytoskeletal rearrangements elicited directly after pathogen perception in plant or mammalian cells.

  1. Pincher, a pinocytic chaperone for nerve growth factor/TrkA signaling endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yufang; Akmentin, Wendy; Toledo-Aral, Juan Jose; Rosenbaum, Julie; Valdez, Gregorio; Cabot, John B.; Hilbush, Brian S.; Halegoua, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Acentral tenet of nerve growth factor (NGF) action that is poorly understood is its ability to mediate cytoplasmic signaling, through its receptor TrkA, that is initiated at the nerve terminal and conveyed to the soma. We identified an NGF-induced protein that we termed Pincher (pinocytic chaperone) that mediates endocytosis and trafficking of NGF and its receptor TrkA. In PC12 cells, overexpression of Pincher dramatically stimulated NGF-induced endocytosis of TrkA, unexpectedly at sites of clathrin-independent macropinocytosis within cell surface ruffles. Subsequently, a system of Pincher-containing tubules mediated the delivery of NGF/TrkA-containing vesicles to cytoplasmic accumulations. These vesicles selectively and persistently mediated TrkA-erk5 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. A dominant inhibitory mutant form of Pincher inhibited the NGF-induced endocytosis of TrkA, and selectively blocked TrkA-mediated cytoplasmic signaling of erk5, but not erk1/2, kinases. Our results indicate that Pincher mediates pinocytic endocytosis of functionally specialized NGF/TrkA endosomes with persistent signaling potential. PMID:12011113

  2. The Endothelial Transcription Factor ERG Promotes Vascular Stability and Growth through Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Birdsey, Graeme M.; Shah, Aarti V.; Dufton, Neil; Reynolds, Louise E.; Osuna Almagro, Lourdes; Yang, Youwen; Aspalter, Irene M.; Khan, Samia T.; Mason, Justin C.; Dejana, Elisabetta; Göttgens, Berthold; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan; Gerhardt, Holger; Adams, Ralf H.; Randi, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Blood vessel stability is essential for embryonic development; in the adult, many diseases are associated with loss of vascular integrity. The ETS transcription factor ERG drives expression of VE-cadherin and controls junctional integrity. We show that constitutive endothelial deletion of ERG (ErgcEC-KO) in mice causes embryonic lethality with vascular defects. Inducible endothelial deletion of ERG (ErgiEC-KO) results in defective physiological and pathological angiogenesis in the postnatal retina and tumors, with decreased vascular stability. ERG controls the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by promoting β-catenin stability, through signals mediated by VE-cadherin and the Wnt receptor Frizzled-4. Wnt signaling is decreased in ERG-deficient endothelial cells; activation of Wnt signaling with lithium chloride, which stabilizes β-catenin levels, corrects vascular defects in ErgcEC-KO embryos. Finally, overexpression of ERG in vivo reduces permeability and increases stability of VEGF-induced blood vessels. These data demonstrate that ERG is an essential regulator of angiogenesis and vascular stability through Wnt signaling. PMID:25584796

  3. KRIT1 protein depletion modifies endothelial cell behavior via increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Peter V; Kuebel, Julia M; Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2014-11-21

    Disruption of endothelial cell-cell contact is a key event in many cardiovascular diseases and a characteristic of pathologically activated vascular endothelium. The CCM (cerebral cavernous malformation) family of proteins (KRIT1 (Krev-interaction trapped 1), PDCD10, and CCM2) are critical regulators of endothelial cell-cell contact and vascular homeostasis. Here we show novel regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling in KRIT1-depleted endothelial cells. Loss of KRIT1 and PDCD10, but not CCM2, increases nuclear β-catenin signaling and up-regulates VEGF-A protein expression. In KRIT1-depleted cells, increased VEGF-A levels led to increased VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) activation and subsequent alteration of cytoskeletal organization, migration, and barrier function and to in vivo endothelial permeability in KRIT1-deficient animals. VEGFR2 activation also increases β-catenin phosphorylation but is only partially responsible for KRIT1 depletion-dependent disruption of cell-cell contacts. Thus, VEGF signaling contributes to modifying endothelial function in KRIT1-deficient cells and microvessel permeability in Krit1(+/-) mice; however, VEGF signaling is likely not the only contributor to disrupted endothelial cell-cell contacts in the absence of KRIT1.

  4. Assessing movement factors in upper limb kinematics decoding from EEG signals.

    PubMed

    Úbeda, Andrés; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Azorín, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen the rapid development of upper limb kinematics decoding techniques by performing intracortical recordings of brain signals. However, the use of non-invasive approaches to perform similar decoding procedures is still in its early stages. Recent studies show that there is a correlation between electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and hand-reaching kinematic parameters. From these studies, it could be concluded that the accuracy of upper limb kinematics decoding depends, at least partially, on the characteristics of the performed movement. In this paper, we have studied upper limb movements with different speeds and trajectories in a controlled environment to analyze the influence of movement variability in the decoding performance. To that end, low frequency components of the EEG signals have been decoded with linear models to obtain the position of the volunteer's hand during performed trajectories grasping the end effector of a planar manipulandum. The results confirm that it is possible to obtain kinematic information from low frequency EEG signals and show that decoding performance is significantly influenced by movement variability and tracking accuracy as continuous and slower movements improve the accuracy of the decoder. This is a key factor that should be taken into account in future experimental designs.

  5. Assessing Movement Factors in Upper Limb Kinematics Decoding from EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Úbeda, Andrés; Hortal, Enrique; Iáñez, Eduardo; Perez-Vidal, Carlos; Azorín, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The past decades have seen the rapid development of upper limb kinematics decoding techniques by performing intracortical recordings of brain signals. However, the use of non-invasive approaches to perform similar decoding procedures is still in its early stages. Recent studies show that there is a correlation between electroencephalographic (EEG) signals and hand-reaching kinematic parameters. From these studies, it could be concluded that the accuracy of upper limb kinematics decoding depends, at least partially, on the characteristics of the performed movement. In this paper, we have studied upper limb movements with different speeds and trajectories in a controlled environment to analyze the influence of movement variability in the decoding performance. To that end, low frequency components of the EEG signals have been decoded with linear models to obtain the position of the volunteer’s hand during performed trajectories grasping the end effector of a planar manipulandum. The results confirm that it is possible to obtain kinematic information from low frequency EEG signals and show that decoding performance is significantly influenced by movement variability and tracking accuracy as continuous and slower movements improve the accuracy of the decoder. This is a key factor that should be taken into account in future experimental designs. PMID:26020525

  6. MTMR4 Attenuates Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ) Signaling by Dephosphorylating R-Smads in Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Junjing; Pan, Lei; Qin, Xincheng; Chen, Hua; Xu, Youli; Chen, Yeguang; Tang, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Homeostasis of Smad phosphorylation at its C-terminal SXS motif is essential for transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Whereas it is known that TGFβ signaling can be terminated by phosphatases, which dephosphorylate R-Smads in the nucleus, it is unclear whether there are any cytoplasmic phosphatase(s) that can attenuate R-Smad phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we demonstrate that myotubularin-related protein 4 (MTMR4), a FYVE domain-containing dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DSP), attenuates TGFβ signaling by reducing the phosphorylation level of R-Smads in early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous MTMR4 interacts with phosphorylated R-Smads, and that this interaction is correlated with dephosphorylation of R-Smads. Further analysis showed that overexpression of MTMR4 resulted in the sequestration of activated Smad3 in the early endosomes, thus reducing its nuclear translocation. However, both point mutations at the conserved catalytic site of the phosphatase (MTMR4-C407S) and small interference RNA of endogenous Mtmr4 expression led to sustained Smad3 activation. This work therefore suggests that MTMR4 plays an important role in preventing the overactivation of TGFβ signaling by dephosphorylating activated R-Smads that have been trafficked to early endosomes. PMID:20061380

  7. MTMR4 attenuates transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling by dephosphorylating R-Smads in endosomes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junjing; Pan, Lei; Qin, Xincheng; Chen, Hua; Xu, Youli; Chen, Yeguang; Tang, Hong

    2010-03-12

    Homeostasis of Smad phosphorylation at its C-terminal SXS motif is essential for transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling. Whereas it is known that TGFbeta signaling can be terminated by phosphatases, which dephosphorylate R-Smads in the nucleus, it is unclear whether there are any cytoplasmic phosphatase(s) that can attenuate R-Smad phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Here we demonstrate that myotubularin-related protein 4 (MTMR4), a FYVE domain-containing dual-specificity protein phosphatase (DSP), attenuates TGFbeta signaling by reducing the phosphorylation level of R-Smads in early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments showed that endogenous MTMR4 interacts with phosphorylated R-Smads, and that this interaction is correlated with dephosphorylation of R-Smads. Further analysis showed that overexpression of MTMR4 resulted in the sequestration of activated Smad3 in the early endosomes, thus reducing its nuclear translocation. However, both point mutations at the conserved catalytic site of the phosphatase (MTMR4-C407S) and small interference RNA of endogenous Mtmr4 expression led to sustained Smad3 activation. This work therefore suggests that MTMR4 plays an important role in preventing the overactivation of TGFbeta signaling by dephosphorylating activated R-Smads that have been trafficked to early endosomes.

  8. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by Endocytosis and Intracellular Trafficking

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, Patrick; Schooler, Kevin; Wiley, H S.

    2001-06-01

    Ligand activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) leads to its rapid internalization and eventual delivery to lysosomes. This process is thought to be a mechanism to attenuate signaling, but signals could potentially be generated following endocytosis. To directly evaluate EGFR signaling during receptor trafficking, we developed a technique to rapidly and selectively isolate internalized EGFR and associated molecules using reversibly-biotinylated anti-EGFR antibodies. In addition, we developed antibodies specific to tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR. Using a combination of fluorescence imaging and affinity precipitation approaches, we evaluated the state of EGFR activation and substrate association during trafficking in epithelial cells. We found that following internalization, EGFR remained active in the early endosomes. However, receptors were inactivated prior to degradation, apparently due to ligand removal from endosomes. Adapter molecules, such as Shc, were associated with EGFR both at the cell surface and within endosomes. Some molecules, such as Grb2, were primarily found associated with surface EGFR, while others, such as Eps8, were only found with intracellular receptors. During the inactivation phase, c-Cbl became EGFR-associated, consistent with its postulated role in receptor attenuation. We conclude that the association of the EGFR with different proteins is compartment-specific . In addition, ligand loss is the proximal cause of EGFR inactivation. Thus, regulated trafficking could potentially influence the pattern as well as the duration of signal transduction.

  9. SOX9: a stem cell transcriptional regulator of secreted niche signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Kadaja, Meelis; Keyes, Brice E; Lin, Mingyan; Pasolli, H Amalia; Genander, Maria; Polak, Lisa; Stokes, Nicole; Zheng, Deyou; Fuchs, Elaine

    2014-02-15

    Hair follicles (HFs) undergo cyclical periods of growth, which are fueled by stem cells (SCs) at the base of the resting follicle. HF-SC formation occurs during HF development and requires transcription factor SOX9. Whether and how SOX9 functions in HF-SC maintenance remain unknown. By conditionally targeting Sox9 in adult HF-SCs, we show that SOX9 is essential for maintaining them. SOX9-deficient HF-SCs still transition from quiescence to proliferation and launch the subsequent hair cycle. However, once activated, bulge HF-SCs begin to differentiate into epidermal cells, which naturally lack SOX9. In addition, as HF-SC numbers dwindle, outer root sheath production is not sustained, and HF downgrowth arrests prematurely. Probing the mechanism, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to identify SOX9-dependent transcriptional changes and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify SOX9-bound genes in HF-SCs. Intriguingly, a large cohort of SOX9-sensitive targets encode extracellular factors, most notably enhancers of Activin/pSMAD2 signaling. Moreover, compromising Activin signaling recapitulates SOX9-dependent defects, and Activin partially rescues them. Overall, our findings reveal roles for SOX9 in regulating adult HF-SC maintenance and suppressing epidermal differentiation in the niche. In addition, our studies expose a role for SCs in coordinating their own behavior in part through non-cell-autonomous signaling within the niche.

  10. Antiangiogenic mechanisms of PJ-8, a novel inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shiu-Wen; Lien, Jin-Cherng; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Huang, Tur-Fu

    2012-05-01

    Angiogenesis occurs not only during tissue growth and development but also during wound healing and tumor progression. Angiogenesis is a balanced process controlled by proangiogenic and antiangiogenic molecules. As a critical factor in the induction of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has become an attractive target for antiangiogenic and cancer therapeutic agents. In an effort to develop novel inhibitors to block VEGF signaling, we selected Pj-8, a benzimidazole derivative, and investigated its inhibitory mechanisms in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Pj-8 concentration-dependently inhibited VEGF-induced proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs. Pj-8 also suppressed VEGF-induced microvessel sprouting from aortic rings ex vivo and suppressed neovascularization of implanted matrigel plugs in vivo. Pj-8 inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) 2 and the downstream protein kinases, including Akt, focal adhesion kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and Src. Results from in vitro kinase assay further demonstrated that Pj-8 suppressed the kinase activity of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1). Using xenograft tumor angiogenesis model, Pj-8 markedly eliminated tumor-associated angiogenesis. Taken together, our findings suggest that Pj-8 inhibits VEGF and tumor cells MDA-MB-231-induced angiogenesis, and it may be a potential drug candidate in anticancer therapy. Downregulation of VEGFR2-mediated signaling may contribute to its antiangiogenic actions.

  11. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Signaling Axis Meets p53 Genome Protection Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Haim; Sarfstein, Rive; LeRoith, Derek; Bruchim, Ilan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and experimental evidence indicate that the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are important mediators in the biochemical chain of events that lead from a phenotypically normal to a neoplastic cell. The IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), which mediates the biological actions of IGF1 and IGF2, exhibits potent pro-survival and antiapoptotic activities. The IGF1R is highly expressed in most types of cancer and is regarded as a promising therapeutic target in oncology. p53 is a transcription factor with tumor suppressor activity that is usually activated in response to DNA damage and other forms of cellular stress. On the basis of its protective activities, p53 is commonly regarded as the guardian of the genome. We provide evidence that the IGF signaling axis and p53 genome protection pathways are tightly interconnected. Wild-type, but not mutant, p53 suppresses IGF1R gene transcription, leading to abrogation of the IGF signaling network, with ensuing cell cycle arrest. Gain-of-function, or loss-of-function, mutations of p53 in tumor cells may disrupt its inhibitory activity, thus generating oncogenic molecules capable of transactivating the IGF1R gene. The interplay between the IGF1 and p53 pathways is also of major relevance in terms of metabolic regulation, including glucose transport and glycolysis. A better understanding of the complex physical and functional interactions between these important signaling pathways will have major basic and translational relevance. PMID:27446805

  12. HTLV-1 bZIP factor enhances TGF-β signaling through p300 coactivator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tiejun; Satou, Yorifumi; Sugata, Kenji; Miyazato, Paola; Green, Patrick L; Imamura, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao

    2011-08-18

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is an oncogenic retrovirus that is etiologically associated with adult T-cell leukemia. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ), which is encoded by the minus strand of the provirus, is involved in both regulation of viral gene transcription and T-cell proliferation. We showed in this report that HBZ interacted with Smad2/3, and enhanced transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad transcriptional responses in a p300-dependent manner. The N-terminal LXXLL motif of HBZ was responsible for HBZ-mediated TGF-β signaling activation. In a serial immunoprecipitation assay, HBZ, Smad3, and p300 formed a ternary complex, and the association between Smad3 and p300 was markedly enhanced in the presence of HBZ. In addition, HBZ could overcome the repression of the TGF-β response by Tax. Finally, HBZ expression resulted in enhanced transcription of Pdgfb, Sox4, Ctgf, Foxp3, Runx1, and Tsc22d1 genes and suppression of the Id2 gene; such effects were similar to those by TGF-β. In particular, HBZ induced Foxp3 expression in naive T cells through Smad3-dependent TGF-β signaling. Our results suggest that HBZ, by enhancing TGF-β signaling and Foxp3 expression, enables HTLV-1 to convert infected T cells into regulatory T cells, which is thought to be a critical strategy for virus persistence.

  13. Nerve Growth Factor Signaling from Membrane Microdomains to the Nucleus: Differential Regulation by Caveolins

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Ambre; Yu, Lingli; Guili, Vincent; Reynaud, Florie; Ding, Yindi; Ma, Ji; Jullien, Jérôme; Koubi, David; Gauthier, Emmanuel; Cluet, David; Falk, Julien; Castellani, Valérie; Yuan, Chonggang; Rudkin, Brian B.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane microdomains or “lipid rafts” have emerged as essential functional modules of the cell, critical for the regulation of growth factor receptor-mediated responses. Herein we describe the dichotomy between caveolin-1 and caveolin-2, structural and regulatory components of microdomains, in modulating proliferation and differentiation. Caveolin-2 potentiates while caveolin-1 inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling and subsequent cell differentiation. Caveolin-2 does not appear to impair NGF receptor trafficking but elicits prolonged and stronger activation of MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), Rsk2 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2), and CREB (cAMP response element binding protein). In contrast, caveolin-1 does not alter initiation of the NGF signaling pathway activation; rather, it acts, at least in part, by sequestering the cognate receptors, TrkA and p75NTR, at the plasma membrane, together with the phosphorylated form of the downstream effector Rsk2, which ultimately prevents CREB phosphorylation. The non-phosphorylatable caveolin-1 serine 80 mutant (S80V), no longer inhibits TrkA trafficking or subsequent CREB phosphorylation. MC192, a monoclonal antibody towards p75NTR that does not block NGF binding, prevents exit of both NGF receptors (TrkA and p75NTR) from lipid rafts. The results presented herein underline the role of caveolin and receptor signaling complex interplay in the context of neuronal development and tumorigenesis. PMID:28338624

  14. Transient anabolic effects accompany epidermal growth factor receptor signal activation in articular cartilage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Signals from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have typically been considered to provide catabolic activities in articular cartilage, and accordingly have been suggested to have a causal role in osteoarthritis progression. The aim of this study was to determine in vivo roles for endogenous EGFR signal activation in articular cartilage. Methods Transgenic mice with conditional, limb-targeted deletion of the endogenous intracellular EGFR inhibitor Mig-6 were generated using CreLoxP (Mig-6-flox; Prx1Cre) recombination. Histology, histochemical staining and immunohistochemistry were used to confirm activation of EGFR signaling in the articular cartilage and joints, and to analyze phenotypic consequences of Mig-6 loss on articular cartilage morphology, proliferation, expression of progenitor cell markers, presence of chondrocyte hypertrophy and degradation of articular cartilage matrix. Results The articular cartilage of Mig-6-conditional knockout (Mig-6-cko) mice was dramatically and significantly thicker than normal articular cartilage at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Mig-6-cko articular cartilage contained a population of chondrocytes in which EGFR signaling was activated, and which were three to four times more proliferative than normal Mig-6-flox articular chondrocytes. These cells expressed high levels of the master chondrogenic regulatory factor Sox9, as well as high levels of putative progenitor cell markers including superficial zone protein (SZP), growth and differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) and Notch1. Expression levels were also high for activated β-catenin and the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mediators phospho-Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3). Anabolic effects of EGFR activation in articular cartilage were followed by catabolic events, including matrix degradation, as determined by accumulation of aggrecan cleavage fragments, and onset of hypertrophy as determined by type × collagen expression. By 16 weeks of age, the articular cartilage of

  15. Ceramide sphingolipid signaling mediates Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-dependent toxicity via caspase signaling in dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral midbrain selectively degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) in part because their oxidative environment in the substantia nigra (SN) may render them vulnerable to neuroinflammatory stimuli. Chronic inhibition of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) with dominant-negative TNF inhibitors protects DA neurons in rat models of parkinsonism, yet the molecular mechanisms and pathway(s) that mediate TNF toxicity remain(s) to be clearly identified. Here we investigated the contribution of ceramide sphingolipid signaling in TNF-dependent toxicity. Results Ceramide dose-dependently reduced the viability of DA neuroblastoma cells and primary DA neurons and pharmacological inhibition of sphingomyelinases (SMases) with three different inhibitors during TNF treatment afforded significant neuroprotection by attenuating increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and decreases in Akt phosphorylation. Using lipidomics mass spectrometry we confirmed that TNF treatment not only promotes generation of ceramide, but also leads to accumulation of several atypical deoxy-sphingoid bases (DSBs). Exposure of DA neuroblastoma cells to atypical DSBs in the micromolar range reduced cell viability and inhibited neurite outgrowth and branching in primary DA neurons, suggesting that TNF-induced de novo synthesis of atypical DSBs may be a secondary mechanism involved in mediating its neurotoxicity in DA neurons. Conclusions We conclude that TNF/TNFR1-dependent activation of SMases generates ceramide and sphingolipid species that promote degeneration and caspase-dependent cell death of DA neurons. Ceramide and atypical DSBs may represent novel drug targets for development of neuroprotective strategies that can delay or attenuate the progressive loss of nigral DA neurons in patients with PD. PMID:22973882

  16. A novel bipartite nuclear localization signal with an atypically long linker in DOF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Jonas; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Ruzicic, Slobodan

    2010-05-01

    Large molecules require a nuclear localization signal (NLS) for translocation into the nucleus. Classical NLSs are rich in basic amino acids and they represent three groups, based on their structural features: SV40 T-antigen-type, yeast mating factor Matalpha-2-type, and bipartite NLSs. DNA-binding-with-one-finger (DOF) transcription factors play important roles in plants, and although their nuclear localization has been demonstrated in several cases, public protein localization prediction tools fail to detect NLS motifs in these proteins. Here, we demonstrate that an atypical bipartite NLS with a 17 amino acid long linker between its flanking basic regions directs Arabidopsis thaliana DOF proteins to the cell nucleus. The novel bipartite NLS is highly conserved in plant DOF transcription factors, including the single DOF protein in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  17. The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Parrott, David L; Adhikari, Emma; Fraser, Nisa; Sieburth, Leslie E

    2016-07-01

    The bypass1 (bps1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) produces a root-sourced compound (the bps signal) that moves to the shoot and is sufficient to arrest growth of a wild-type shoot; however, the mechanism of growth arrest is not understood. Here, we show that the earliest shoot defect arises during germination and is a failure of bps1 mutants to maintain their shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding suggested that the bps signal might affect expression or function of SAM regulatory genes, and we found WUSCHEL (WUS) expression to be repressed in bps1 mutants. Repression appears to arise from the mobile bps signal, as the bps1 root was sufficient to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in wild-type shoots. Normally, WUS is regulated by a balance between positive regulation by cytokinin (CK) and negative regulation by CLAVATA (CLV). In bps1, repression of WUS was independent of CLV, and, instead, the bps signal down-regulates CK responses. Cytokinin treatment of bps1 mutants restored both WUS expression and activity, but only in the rib meristem. How the bps signal down-regulates CK remains unknown, though the bps signal was sufficient to repress expression of one CK receptor (AHK4) and one response regulator (AHP6). Together, these data suggest that the bps signal pathway has the potential for long-distance regulation through modification of CK signaling and altering gene expression. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes in vitro mitral valve interstitial cell repair through transforming growth factor-β/Smad signaling.

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Gotlieb, Avrum I

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 both promote repair in valve interstitial cell (VIC) injury models; however, the relationship between TGF-β and FGF-2 in wound repair are not well understood. VIC confluent monolayers were wounded by mechanical injury and incubated separately or in combination with FGF-2, neutralizing antibody to FGF-2, neutralizing antibody to TGF-β, and betaglycan antibody for 24 hours after wounding. Phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) was localized at the wound edge (WE) and at the monolayer away from the WE. Down-regulation of pSmad2/3 protein expression via small-interfering RNA transfection was performed. The extent of wound closure was monitored for up to 96 hours. FGF-2 incubation resulted in a significant increase in nuclear pSmad2/3 staining at the WE. Neutralizing antibody to TGF-β alone or with FGF-2 present resulted in a similar significant decrease in pSmad2/3. Neutralizing antibody to FGF-2 alone or with FGF-2 present showed a similar significant decrease in pSmad2/3; however, significantly more staining was observed than treatment with neutralizing antibody to TGF-β. Incubation with betaglycan antibody inhibited FGF-2-mediated pSmad2/3 signaling. Wound closure corresponded with pSmad2/3 staining at the WE. Down-regulation of pSmad2/3 via small-interfering RNA transfection significantly reduced the extent to which FGF-2 promoted wound closure. Fibroblast growth factor-2 promotes in vitro VIC wound repair, at least in part, through the TGF-β/Smad2/3 signaling pathway.

  19. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  20. Autocrine epidermal growth factor signaling stimulates directionally persistent mammary epithelial cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Maheshwari, Gargi; Wiley, H Steven ); Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2001-12-24

    Autocrine receptor/ligand signaling loops were first identified in tumor cells, where it was found that transformation of cells resulted in overexpression of certain growth factors leading to unregulated proliferation of the tumor cells (Sporn and Todaro, 1980). However, in the ensuing decades autocrine signaling has been found to operate in numerous physiological situations (Sporn and Roberts, 1992), including wound healing (Tokumaru et al., 2000), angiogenesis (Seghezzi et al., 1998), and tissue organization during development (Wasserman and Freeman, 1998) and reproductive cycles (Xie et al., 1997). Although it is becoming evident that autocrine loops play crucial roles in regulation of cell function within tissue contexts, it is unclear whether their effects on cell responses are different from the effects of the same ligand presented in exogenous or paracrine manner.

  1. Antagonism between retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor signaling during limb development.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Thomas J; Zhao, Xianling; Sandell, Lisa L; Evans, Sylvia M; Trainor, Paul A; Duester, Gregg

    2013-05-30

    The vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) provides patterning information during vertebrate embryogenesis, but the mechanism through which RA influences limb development is unclear. During patterning of the limb proximodistal axis (upper limb to digits), avian studies suggest that a proximal RA signal generated in the trunk antagonizes a distal fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal. However, mouse and zebrafish genetic studies suggest that loss of RA suppresses forelimb initiation. Here, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that limb proximodistal patterning is not RA dependent, thus indicating that RA-FGF antagonism does not occur along the proximodistal axis of the limb. Instead, our studies show that RA-FGF antagonism acts prior to limb budding along the anteroposterior axis of the trunk lateral plate mesoderm to provide a patterning cue that guides formation of the forelimb field. These findings reconcile disparate ideas regarding RA-FGF antagonism and provide insight into how endogenous RA programs the early embryo.

  2. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; George, Suraj Konnath; Shi, Ping; Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Amin, Hesham M.

    2017-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling system plays key roles in the establishment and progression of different types of cancer. In agreement with this idea, substantial evidence has shown that the type I IGF receptor (IGF-IR) and its primary ligand IGF-I are important for maintaining the survival of malignant cells of hematopoietic origin. In this review, we discuss current understanding of the role of IGF-IR signaling in cancer with a focus on the hematological neoplasms. We also address the emergence of IGF-IR as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of different types of cancer including plasma cell myeloma, leukemia, and lymphoma. PMID:27661006

  3. Journal Impact Factor Shapes Scientists’ Reward Signal in the Prospect of Publication

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Rademacher, Lena; Schäfer, Theo Alexander Jose; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The incentive structure of a scientist’s life is increasingly mimicking economic principles. While intensely criticized, the journal impact factor (JIF) has taken a role as the new currency for scientists. Successful goal-directed behavior in academia thus requires knowledge about the JIF. Using functional neuroimaging we examined how the JIF, as a powerful incentive in academia, has shaped the behavior of scientists and the reward signal in the striatum. We demonstrate that the reward signal in the nucleus accumbens increases with higher JIF during the anticipation of a publication and found a positive correlation with the personal publication record (pJIF) supporting the notion that scientists have incorporated the predominant reward principle of the scientific community in their reward system. The implications of this behavioral adaptation within the ecological niche of the scientist’s habitat remain unknown, but may also have effects which were not intended by the community. PMID:26555725

  4. A novel role for farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase in fibroblast growth factor-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, John F; Martinez, Shawndra D; Mickey, Gregory; Maher, Pamela A

    2002-01-01

    Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyses the formation of a key cellular intermediate in isoprenoid metabolic pathways. Here we describe a novel role for this enzyme in fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signalling. We demonstrate the binding of FPPS to FGF receptors (FGFRs) using the yeast two-hybrid assay, pull-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation. The interaction between FPPS and FGFR is regulated by the cellular metabolic state and by treatment with FGF-2. Overexpression of FPPS inhibits FGF-2-induced cell proliferation, accompanied by a failure of the FGF-2-mediated induction of cyclins D1 and E. Overexpression of FPPS in fibroblasts also promotes increased farnesylation of Ras, and temporally extends FGF-2-stimulated activation of the Ras/ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) cascade. These data suggest that, in addition to its role in isoprenoid biosynthesis, FPPS may function as a modulator of the cellular response to FGF treatment. PMID:12020352

  5. Directed random walks and constraint programming reveal active pathways in hepatocyte growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kittas, Aristotelis; Delobelle, Aurélien; Schmitt, Sabrina; Breuhahn, Kai; Guziolowski, Carito; Grabe, Niels

    2016-01-01

    An effective means to analyze mRNA expression data is to take advantage of established knowledge from pathway databases, using methods such as pathway-enrichment analyses. However, pathway databases are not case-specific and expression data could be used to infer gene-regulation patterns in the context of specific pathways. In addition, canonical pathways may not always describe the signaling mechanisms properly, because interactions can frequently occur between genes in different pathways. Relatively few methods have been proposed to date for generating and analyzing such networks, preserving the causality between gene interactions and reasoning over the qualitative logic of regulatory effects. We present an algorithm (MCWalk) integrated with a logic programming approach, to discover subgraphs in large-scale signaling networks by random walks in a fully automated pipeline. As an exemplary application, we uncover the signal transduction mechanisms in a gene interaction network describing hepatocyte growth factor-stimulated cell migration and proliferation from gene-expression measured with microarray and RT-qPCR using in-house perturbation experiments in a keratinocyte-fibroblast co-culture. The resulting subgraphs illustrate possible associations of hepatocyte growth factor receptor c-Met nodes, differentially expressed genes and cellular states. Using perturbation experiments and Answer Set programming, we are able to select those which are more consistent with the experimental data. We discover key regulator nodes by measuring the frequency with which they are traversed when connecting signaling between receptors and significantly regulated genes and predict their expression-shift consistently with the measured data. The Java implementation of MCWalk is publicly available under the MIT license at: https://bitbucket.org/akittas/biosubg. © 2015 FEBS.

  6. Interactions between Nitric Oxide and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Signaling Pathways in Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Nels; van der Vliet, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Induction and activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthases (NOS) and excessive production of NO are common features of almost all diseases associated with infection and acute or chronic inflammation, although the contribution of NO to the pathophysiology of these diseases is highly multifactorial and often still a matter of controversy. Because of its direct impact on tissue oxygenation and cellular oxygen (O2) consumption and redistribution, the ability of NO to regulate various aspects of hypoxia-induced signaling has received widespread attention. Conditions of tissue hypoxia and the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) have been implicated in hypoxia or in cancer biology, but are also being increasingly recognized as important features of acute and chronic inflammation. Thus, the activation of HIF transcription factors has been increasingly implicated in inflammatory diseases, and recent studies have indicated its critical importance in regulating phagocyte function, inflammatory mediator production, and regulation of epithelial integrity and repair processes. Finally, HIF also appears to contribute to important features of tissue fibrosis and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, processes that are associated with tissue remodeling in various non-malignant chronic inflammatory disorders. In this review, we briefly summarize the current state of knowledge with respect to the general mechanisms involved in HIF regulation and the impact of NO on HIF activation. Secondly, we will summarize the major recent findings demonstrating a role for HIF signaling in infection, inflammation, and tissue repair and remodeling, and will address the involvement of NO. The growing interest in hypoxia-induced signaling and its relation with NO biology is expected to lead to further insights into the complex roles of NO in acute or chronic inflammatory diseases and may point to the importance of HIF signaling as key feature of NO-mediated events during these disorders. PMID

  7. Impairment of Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling in Caveolin-1-deficient Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Rafael; Valverde, Ángela M.; Llorente Izquierdo, Cristina; González-Rodríguez, Águeda; Boscá, Lisardo; Martín-Sanz, Paloma

    2010-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main structural protein of caveolae and plays an important role in various cellular processes such as vesicular transport, cholesterol homeostasis, and signal transduction pathways. The expression and functional role of Cav-1 have been reported in liver and in hepatocyte cell lines, in human cirrhotic liver, and in hepatocellular carcinomas. Previous studies demonstrated that Cav-1 was dispensable for liver regeneration, because Cav-1−/− animals survived and fully regenerated liver function and size after partial hepatectomy. In this study, we have investigated the mechanisms by which the lack of Cav-1 accelerates liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. The data show that transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is impaired in regenerating liver of Cav-1−/− mice and in hepatocytes derived from these animals. TGF-β receptors I and II do not colocalize in the same membrane fraction in the hepatocytes derived from Cav-1−/− mice, as Smad2/3 signaling decreased in the absence of Cav-1 at the time that the transcriptional corepressor SnoN accumulates. Accordingly, the expression of TGF-β target genes, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, is decreased due to the presence of the high levels of SnoN. Moreover, hepatocyte growth factor inhibited TGF-β signaling in the absence of Cav-1 by increasing SnoN expression. Taken together, these data might help to unravel why Cav-1-deficient mice exhibit an accelerated liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and add new insights on the molecular mechanisms controlling the initial commitment to hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:19966340

  8. Structural and Functional Characterization of Diffusible Signal Factor Family Quorum-Sensing Signals Produced by Members of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Ji'en; Eberl, Leo; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that Burkholderia cenocepacia produces the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signal cis-2-dodecenoic acid (C12:Δ2, also known as BDSF), which is involved in the regulation of virulence. In this study, we determined whether C12:Δ2 production is conserved in other members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) by using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and bioassays. Our results show that five Bcc species are capable of producing C12:Δ2 as a sole DSF family signal, while four species produce not only C12:Δ2 but also a new DSF family signal, which was identified as cis,cis-11-methyldodeca-2,5-dienoic acid (11-Me-C12:Δ2,5). In addition, we demonstrate that the quorum-sensing signal cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (11-Me-C12:Δ2), which was originally identified in Xanthomonas campestris supernatants, is produced by Burkholderia multivorans. It is shown that, similar to 11-Me-C12:Δ2 and C12:Δ2, the newly identified molecule 11-Me-C12:Δ2,5 is a potent signal in the regulation of biofilm formation, the production of virulence factors, and the morphological transition of Candida albicans. These data provide evidence that DSF family molecules are highly conserved bacterial cell-cell communication signals that play key roles in the ecology of the organisms that produce them. PMID:20511428

  9. Structural and functional characterization of diffusible signal factor family quorum-sensing signals produced by members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Wu, Ji'en; Eberl, Leo; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2010-07-01

    Previous work has shown that Burkholderia cenocepacia produces the diffusible signal factor (DSF) family signal cis-2-dodecenoic acid (C(12):Delta(2), also known as BDSF), which is involved in the regulation of virulence. In this study, we determined whether C(12):Delta(2) production is conserved in other members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) by using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, and bioassays. Our results show that five Bcc species are capable of producing C(12):Delta(2) as a sole DSF family signal, while four species produce not only C(12):Delta(2) but also a new DSF family signal, which was identified as cis,cis-11-methyldodeca-2,5-dienoic acid (11-Me-C(12):Delta(2,5)). In addition, we demonstrate that the quorum-sensing signal cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid (11-Me-C(12):Delta(2)), which was originally identified in Xanthomonas campestris supernatants, is produced by Burkholderia multivorans. It is shown that, similar to 11-Me-C(12):Delta(2) and C(12):Delta(2), the newly identified molecule 11-Me-C(12):Delta(2,5) is a potent signal in the regulation of biofilm formation, the production of virulence factors, and the morphological transition of Candida albicans. These data provide evidence that DSF family molecules are highly conserved bacterial cell-cell communication signals that play key roles in the ecology of the organisms that produce them.

  10. Novel alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways: secreted factors and interactions with the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Papay, Robert; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Gaivin, Robert J; de la Motte, Carol A; Plow, Edward F; Perez, Dianne M

    2006-07-01

    alpha1-Adrenergic receptor (alpha1-ARs) subtypes (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D) regulate multiple signal pathways, such as phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases. We employed oligonucleotide microarray technology to explore the effects of both short- (1 h) and long-term (18 h) activation of the alpha1A-AR to enable RNA changes to occur downstream of earlier well characterized signaling pathways, promoting novel couplings. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies confirmed that PKC was a critical regulator of alpha1A-AR-mediated gene expression, and secreted interleukin (IL)-6 also contributed to gene expression alterations. We next focused on two novel signaling pathways that might be mediated through alpha1A-AR stimulation because of the clustering of gene expression changes for cell adhesion/motility (syndecan-4 and tenascin-C) and hyaluronan (HA) signaling. We confirmed that alpha1-ARs induced adhesion in three cell types to vitronectin, an interaction that was also integrin-, FGF7-, and PKC-dependent. alpha1-AR activation also inhibited cell migration, which was integrin- and PKC-independent but still required secretion of FGF7. alpha1-AR activation also increased the expression and deposition of HA, a glycosaminoglycan, which displayed two distinct structures: pericellular coats and long cable structures, as well as increasing expression of the HA receptor, CD44. Long cable structures of HA can bind leukocytes, which this suggests that alpha1-ARs may be involved in proinflammatory responses. Our results indicate alpha1-ARs induce the secretion of factors that interact with the extracellular matrix to regulate cell adhesion, motility and proinflammatory responses through novel signaling pathways.

  11. ZAS3 accentuates transforming growth factor β signaling in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yakovich, Adam J; Jiang, Bo; Allen, Carl E; Du, Jianguo; Wu, Lai-Chu; Barnard, John A

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, the ZAS family of transcription factors activates or represses transcription depending on the cellular context. In the current study, we explored the interaction between ZAS3 and TGFβ1 signaling in epithelial cells using HEK293 cells and the intestinal epithelial cell line, RIE-1. Endogenous ZAS3 expression was detected in each cell line and the small intestine of mice. Additionally, endogenous ZAS3 expression was increased in both whole cell and nuclear lysates by TGFβ1 and in vivo in TGFβ-overexpressing mice, indicating a potential interaction between ZAS3 and TGFβ. ZAS3 transfection enhanced TGFβ1 activation of a luciferase reporter in both HEK293 and RIE-1 cells. Analysis of truncated ZAS3 constructs revealed a 155 amino acid, N-terminal sequence between amino acids 106 and 261 that was required for enhancement of TGFβ1-mediated transcription. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments with nuclear extracts from TGFβ1-stimulated HEK293 cells revealed an association between ZAS3 and the Smad complex. Additionally, transfected ZAS3 decreased the association between the Smad complex and the TGFβ transcriptional repressors Ski and SnoN, indicating a possible mechanism for the enhancement of transcription by exogenous ZAS3. These observations were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis of ZAS domains homologous with Smad-interacting domains in Ski and SnoN. Finally, ZAS3 transfection enhanced the TGFβ1-mediated induction of α-smooth muscle actin in HEK293 cells, indicating that ZAS3 plays a functional role in TGFβ signaling. In conclusion, we have identified an interaction between ZAS3 and Smad proteins that enhances TGFβ signaling. Since TGFβ signaling is primarily known as a negatively regulated pathway, the enhancement of signaling by ZAS3 has novel implications for understanding TGFβ biology.

  12. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) involvement in successful growth hormone (GH) signaling in GH transduction defect.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulou, Eirini; Rojas-Gil, Andrea Paola; Karvela, Alexia; Spiliotis, Bessie E

    2017-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) transduction defect (GHTD) is a growth disorder with impaired signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation mediated by overexpression of cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS), which causes increased growth hormone receptor (GHR) degradation. This study investigated the role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the restoration of normal GH signaling in GHTD. Protein expression, cellular localization and physical contact of proteins of the GH and EGF signaling pathways were studied by Western immunoblotting, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. These were performed in fibroblasts of one GHTD patient (P) and one control child (C) at the basal state and after induction with human GH (hGH) 200 μg/L (GH200), either with or without silencing of CIS mRNA, and after induction with hGH 1000 μg/L (GH1000) or 50 ng/mL EGF. The membrane availability of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and the activated EGFR (pEGFR) was increased in P only after simultaneous GH200 and silencing of CIS mRNA or with GH1000, whereas this occurred in C after GH200 alone. After EGF induction, the membrane localization of GHR, STAT3 and that of EGFR were increased in P more than in C. In conclusion, in GHTD, the EGFR seems to participate in successful GH signaling, but induction of GHTD fibroblasts with a higher dose of hGH is needed. The EGF/EGFR pathway, in contrast to the GH/GHR pathway, seems to function normally in P and is more primed compared to C. The involvement of the EGFR in successful GH signaling may explain the catch-up growth seen in the Ps when exogenous hGH is administered.

  13. Profiling of anti-fibrotic signaling by hepatocyte growth factor in renal fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Schievenbusch, Stephanie; Strack, Ingo; Scheffler, Melanie; Wennhold, Kerstin; Maurer, Julia; Nischt, Roswitha; Dienes, Hans Peter; Odenthal, Margarete

    2009-07-17

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional growth factor affecting cell proliferation and differentiation. Due to its mitogenic potential, HGF plays an important role in tubular repair and regeneration after acute renal injury. However, recent reports have shown that HGF also acts as an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic factor, affecting various cell types such as renal fibroblasts and triggering tubulointerstitial fibrosis of the kidney. The present study provides evidence that HGF stimulation of renal fibroblasts results in the activation of both the Erk1/2 and the Akt pathways. As previously shown, Erk1/2 phosphorylation results in Smad-linker phosphorylation, thereby antagonizing cellular signals induced by TGF{beta}. By siRNA mediated silencing of the Erk1/2-Smad linkage, however, we now demonstrate that Akt signaling acts as an auxiliary pathway responsible for the anti-fibrotic effects of HGF. In order to define the anti-fibrotic function of HGF we performed comprehensive expression profiling of HGF-stimulated renal fibroblasts by microarray hybridization. Functional cluster analyses and quantitative PCR assays indicate that the HGF-stimulated pathways transfer the anti-fibrotic effects in renal interstitial fibroblasts by reducing expression of extracellular matrix proteins, various chemokines, and members of the CCN family.

  14. Bacterial factors exploit eukaryotic Rho GTPase signaling cascades to promote invasion and proliferation within their host

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    Actin cytoskeleton is a main target of many bacterial pathogens. Among the multiple regulation steps of the actin cytoskeleton, bacterial factors interact preferentially with RhoGTPases. Pathogens secrete either toxins which diffuse in the surrounding environment, or directly inject virulence factors into target cells. Bacterial toxins, which interfere with RhoGTPases, and to some extent with RasGTPases, catalyze a covalent modification (ADPribosylation, glucosylation, deamidation, adenylation, proteolysis) blocking these molecules in their active or inactive state, resulting in alteration of epithelial and/or endothelial barriers, which contributes to dissemination of bacteria in the host. Injected bacterial virulence factors preferentially manipulate the RhoGTPase signaling cascade by mimicry of eukaryotic regulatory proteins leading to local actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, which mediates bacterial entry into host cells or in contrast escape to phagocytosis and immune defense. Invasive bacteria can also manipulate RhoGTPase signaling through recognition and stimulation of cell surface receptor(s). Changes in RhoGTPase activation state is sensed by the innate immunity pathways and allows the host cell to adapt an appropriate defense response. PMID:25203748

  15. A membrane-bound NAC transcription factor as an integrator of biotic and abiotic stress signals.

    PubMed

    Seo, Pil Joon; Park, Chung-Mo

    2010-05-01

    Transcription factors are central components of gene regulatory networks that mediate virtually all aspects of growth and developmental processes in biological systems. The activity of transcription factors is regulated at multiple steps, such as gene transcription, posttranscriptional RNA processing, posttranslational modification, protein-protein interactions, and controlled protein turnover. Controlled activation of dormant, membrane-bound transcription factor (MTF) is an intriguing regulatory mechanism that ensures quick transcriptional responses to environmental fluctuations in plants, in which various stress hormones serve as signaling mediators. NTL6 is proteolytically activated upon exposure to cold and induces expression of the Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes. The membrane-mediated cold signaling in inducing pathogen resistance is considered to be an adaptive strategy that protects plants against infection by hydrophilic pathogens frequently occurring during cold season. We found that NTL6 also mediates abscisic acid (ABA) regulation of abiotic stress responses in Arabidopsis. NTL6 is proteolytically activated by ABA. Transgenic plants overexpressing a nuclear NTL6 form (35S:6ΔC) exhibited a hypersensitive response to ABA and high salinity in seed germination. Taken together, these observations indicate that NTL6 plays an integrative role in plant responses to both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

  16. Involvement of nuclear factor {kappa}B in platelet CD40 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hachem, Ahmed; Yacoub, Daniel; Zaid, Younes; Mourad, Walid; Merhi, Yahye

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer sCD40L induces TRAF2 association to CD40 and NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation downstream of CD40L/CD40 signaling is independent of p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer I{kappa}B{alpha} is required for sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of aggregation. -- Abstract: CD40 ligand (CD40L) is a thrombo-inflammatory molecule that predicts cardiovascular events. Platelets constitute the major source of soluble CD40L (sCD40L), which has been shown to potentiate platelet activation and aggregation, in a CD40-dependent manner, via p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Rac1 signaling. In many cells, the CD40L/CD40 dyad also induces activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B). Given that platelets contain NF-{kappa}B, we hypothesized that it may be involved in platelet CD40 signaling and function. In human platelets, sCD40L induces association of CD40 with its adaptor protein the tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 2 and triggers phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, which are abolished by CD40L blockade. Inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation without affecting p38 MAPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation has no effect on I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation, indicating a divergence in the signaling pathway originating from CD40 upon its ligation. In functional studies, inhibition of I{kappa}B{alpha} phosphorylation reverses sCD40L-induced platelet activation and potentiation of platelet aggregation in response to a sub-threshold concentration of collagen. This study demonstrates that the sCD40L/CD40 axis triggers NF-{kappa}B activation in platelets. This signaling pathway plays a critical role in platelet activation and aggregation upon sCD40L stimulation and may represent an important target against thrombo

  17. Modulation of Mitochondrial Antiviral Signaling by Human Herpesvirus 8 Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Keun Young

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial lipid raft-like microdomains, experimentally also termed mitochondrial detergent-resistant membrane fractions (mDRM), play a role as platforms for recruiting signaling molecules involved in antiviral responses such as apoptosis and innate immunity. Viruses can modulate mitochondrial functions for their own survival and replication. However, viral regulation of the antiviral responses via mDRM remains incompletely understood. Here, we report that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) gene product viral interferon regulatory factor 1 (vIRF-1) is targeted to mDRM during virus replication and negatively regulates the mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated antiviral responses. The N-terminal region of vIRF-1 interacts directly with membrane lipids, including cardiolipin. In addition, a GxRP motif within the N terminus of vIRF-1, conserved in the mDRM-targeting region of mitochondrial proteins, including PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) and MAVS, was found to be important for vIRF-1 association with mitochondria. Furthermore, MAVS, which has the potential to promote vIRF-1 targeting to mDRM possibly by inducing cardiolipin exposure on the outer membrane of mitochondria, interacts with vIRF-1, which, in turn, inhibits MAVS-mediated antiviral signaling. Consistent with these results, vIRF-1 targeting to mDRM contributes to promotion of HHV-8 productive replication and inhibition of associated apoptosis. Combined, our results suggest novel molecular mechanisms for negative-feedback regulation of MAVS by vIRF-1 during virus replication. IMPORTANCE Successful virus replication is in large part achieved by the ability of viruses to counteract apoptosis and innate immune responses elicited by infection of host cells. Recently, mitochondria have emerged to play a central role in antiviral signaling. In particular, mitochondrial lipid raft-like microdomains appear to function as platforms in cell apoptosis signaling. However, viral regulation

  18. Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling by cbl-b

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-18

    2367-2377. 4. Keane. M. M., Ett.enbe’l’ S. A., Nau, M. N., Banerjee, P., Cuello , M., Penainger, J., and Lipkowitz, S. (1999) OncogeM 1& 3365-3375. 5...DegradationoftheEpidermalGrowtbFactorReceptorSignaling Complex Seth A. Ettenberg*t, Alessandra Magnificot, Mauricio Cuello *, Marion M. Nau*, Yalfa R...Lopez. M.. Rosnet. 0 .. and Birnbaum. D. (1998) In’ J OncoI13(6), 1159-1161 7. Keane. M. M.. Ellenberg. S. A.. Nau. M. N.. Banerjee. P.. Cuello . M

  19. Fibroblast Growth Factor 10-Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2b Mediated Signaling Is Not Required for Adult Glandular Stomach Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Frederic G.; Ford, Henri R.; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C.

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis. PMID:23133671

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 10-fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b mediated signaling is not required for adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speer, Allison L; Al Alam, Denise; Sala, Frederic G; Ford, Henri R; Bellusci, Saverio; Grikscheit, Tracy C

    2012-01-01

    The signaling pathways that are essential for gastric organogenesis have been studied in some detail; however, those that regulate the maintenance of the gastric epithelium during adult homeostasis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) and its main receptor, Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b (FGFR2b), in adult glandular stomach homeostasis. We first showed that mouse adult glandular stomach expressed Fgf10, its receptors, Fgfr1b and Fgfr2b, and most of the other FGFR2b ligands (Fgf1, Fgf7, Fgf22) except for Fgf3 and Fgf20. Fgf10 expression was mesenchymal whereas FGFR1 and FGFR2 expression were mostly epithelial. Studying double transgenic mice that allow inducible overexpression of Fgf10 in adult mice, we showed that Fgf10 overexpression in normal adult glandular stomach increased epithelial proliferation, drove mucous neck cell differentiation, and reduced parietal and chief cell differentiation. Although a similar phenotype can be associated with the development of metaplasia, we found that Fgf10 overexpression for a short duration does not cause metaplasia. Finally, investigating double transgenic mice that allow the expression of a soluble form of Fgfr2b, FGF10's main receptor, which acts as a dominant negative, we found no significant changes in gastric epithelial proliferation or differentiation in the mutants. Our work provides evidence, for the first time, that the FGF10-FGFR2b signaling pathway is not required for epithelial proliferation and differentiation during adult glandular stomach homeostasis.

  1. Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Associated Factor 2 Signaling Provokes Adverse Cardiac Remodeling in the Adult Mammalian Heart

    PubMed Central

    Divakaran, Vijay G.; Evans, Sarah; Topkara, Veli K.; Diwan, Abhinav; Burchfield, Jana; Gao, Feng; Dong, Jianwen; Tzeng, Huei-Ping; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Barger, Philip M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily ligands that provoke a dilated cardiac phenotype signal through a common scaffolding protein termed TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2); however, virtually nothing is known with regard to TRAF2 signaling in the adult mammalian heart. Methods and Results We generated multiple founder lines of mice with cardiac restricted overexpression of TRAF2 and characterized the phenotype of mice with higher expression levels of TRAF2 (MHC-TRAF2HC). MHC-TRAF2HC transgenic mice developed a time-dependent increase in cardiac hypertrophy, LV dilation and adverse LV remodeling, and a significant decrease in LV +dP/dt and −dP/dt when compared to littermate (LM) controls (p < 0.05 compared to LM). During the early phases of LV remodeling there was a significant increase in total matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity that corresponded with a decrease in total myocardial fibrillar collagen content. As the MHC-TRAF2HC mice aged, there was a significant decrease in total MMP activity accompanied by an increase in total fibrillar collagen content and an increase in myocardial tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 levels. There was a significant increase in NF-κB activation at 4 – 12 weeks and JNK activation at 4 weeks in the MHCs TRAF2HC mice. Transciptional profiling revealed that > 95% of the hypertrophic/dilated cardiomyopathy-related genes that were significantly upregulated genes in the MHC-TRAF2HC hearts contained κB elements in their promoters. Conclusions These results show for the first time that targeted overexpression of TRAF2 is sufficient to mediate adverse cardiac remodeling in the heart. PMID:23493088

  2. Binding Mode Analysis of Zerumbone to Key Signal Proteins in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Ayesha; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam Hj.; Abdullah, Rasedee; Karjiban, Roghayeh Abedi; Lee, Vannajan Sanghiran

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Several signaling pathways have been implicated as causative and progression agents. The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α protein plays a dual role in promoting and inhibiting cancer depending largely on the pathway initiated by the binding of the protein to its receptor. Zerumbone, an active constituent of Zingiber zerumbet, Smith, is known to act on the tumor necrosis factor pathway upregulating tumour necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) death receptors and inducing apoptosis in cancer cells. Zerumbone is a sesquiterpene that is able to penetrate into the hydrophobic pockets of proteins to exert its inhibiting activity with several proteins. We found a good binding with the tumor necrosis factor, kinase κB (IKKβ) and the Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) component proteins along the TNF pathway. Our results suggest that zerumbone can exert its apoptotic activities by inhibiting the cytoplasmic proteins. It inhibits the IKKβ kinase that activates the NF-κB and also binds to the NF-κB complex in the TNF pathway. Blocking both proteins can lead to inhibition of cell proliferating proteins to be downregulated and possibly ultimate induction of apoptosis. PMID:25629232

  3. Connective tissue growth factor expression and Smad signaling during mouse heart development and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M; Feijen, Alie; Korving, Jeroen; Korchynskyi, Olexander; Larsson, Jonas; Karlsson, Stefan; ten Dijke, Peter; Lyons, Karen M; Goldschmeding, Roel; Doevendans, Pieter; Mummery, Christine L

    2004-11-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is reported to be a target gene of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in vitro. Its physiological role in angiogenesis and skeletogenesis during mouse development has been described recently. Here, we have mapped expression of CTGF mRNA during mouse heart development, postnatal adult life, and after experimental myocardial infarction. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between CTGF and the BMP/TGFbeta signaling pathway in particular during heart development in mutant mice. Postnatally, CTGF expression in the heart became restricted to the atrium. Strikingly, 1 week after myocardial infarction, when myocytes have disappeared from the infarct zone, CTGF and TGFbeta expression as well as activated forms of TGFbeta but not BMP, Smad effector proteins are colocalized exclusively in the fibroblasts of the scar tissue, suggesting possible cooperation between CTGF and TGFbeta during the pathological fibrotic response.

  4. Cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and aromatase signaling in inflammation and mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Nuvoli, Barbara; Galati, Rossella

    2013-06-01

    Malignant mesothelioma or mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that develops from transformed cells originating in the mesothelium, the protective lining that covers many of the internal organs of the body. It is directly linked to asbestos exposure, which acts as a carcinogen by initiating the carcinogenic process. Because of their shape, asbestos fibers can cross the membrane barriers inside the body and cause inflammatory and fibrotic reactions. Such reactions are believed to be the mechanism by which asbestos fibers may trigger malignant mesothelioma in the pleural membrane around the lungs. Carcinogens are known to modulate the transcription factors, antiapoptotic proteins, proapoptotic proteins, protein kinases, cell-cycle proteins, cell adhesion molecules, COX-2, and growth factor signaling pathways. This article reviews recent studies regarding some malignant mesothelioma molecular targets not only for cancer prevention but also for cancer therapy. ©2013 AACR

  5. Tiam1 as a signaling mediator of nerve growth factor-dependent neurite outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Shirazi Fard, Shahrzad; Kele, Julianna; Vilar, Marçal; Paratcha, Gustavo; Ledda, Fernanda

    2010-03-19

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation requires the activation of members of the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the molecular mechanisms through which NGF regulates cytoskeletal changes and neurite outgrowth are not totally understood. In this work, we identify the Rac1-specific guanine exchange factor (GEF) Tiam1 as a novel mediator of NGF/TrkA-dependent neurite elongation. In particular, we report that knockdown of Tiam1 causes a significant reduction in Rac1 activity and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF. Physical interaction between Tiam1 and active Ras (Ras-GTP), but not tyrosine phosphorylation of Tiam1, plays a central role in Rac1 activation by NGF. In addition, our findings indicate that Ras is required to associate Tiam1 with Rac1 and promote Rac1 activation upon NGF stimulation. Taken together, these findings define a novel molecular mechanism through which Tiam1 mediates TrkA signaling and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF.

  6. Optimal experimental design in an epidermal growth factor receptor signalling and down-regulation model.

    PubMed

    Casey, F P; Baird, D; Feng, Q; Gutenkunst, R N; Waterfall, J J; Myers, C R; Brown, K S; Cerione, R A; Sethna, J P

    2007-05-01

    We apply the methods of optimal experimental design to a differential equation model for epidermal growth factor receptor signalling, trafficking and down-regulation. The model incorporates the role of a recently discovered protein complex made up of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, Cbl, the guanine exchange factor (GEF), Cool-1 (beta -Pix) and the Rho family G protein Cdc42. The complex has been suggested to be important in disrupting receptor down-regulation. We demonstrate that the model interactions can accurately reproduce the experimental observations, that they can be used to make predictions with accompanying uncertainties, and that we can apply ideas of optimal experimental design to suggest new experiments that reduce the uncertainty on unmeasurable components of the system.

  7. Transcription factors as potential participants in the signal transduction pathway of boron deficiency

    PubMed Central

    González-Fontes, Agustín; Rexach, Jesús; Quiles-Pando, Carlos; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Boron (B) plays a well-known structural role in the cell wall, however the way of perceiving B deficiency by roots and transmitting this environmental signal to the nucleus to elicit a response is not well established. It is known that the direct interaction between Ca2+ sensors and transcription factors (TFs) is a necessary step to regulate the expression of downstream target genes in some signaling pathways. Interestingly, B deprivation affected gene expressions of several TFs belonging to MYB, WRKY, and bZIP families, as well as expressions of Ca2+-related genes such as several CML (calmodulin-like protein) and CPK (Ca2+-dependent protein kinase) genes. Taken together, these results suggest that B deficiency could affect the expression of downstream target genes by alteration of a calcium signaling pathway in which the interaction between CMLs and/or CPKs with TFs (activator or repressor) would be a crucial step, which would explain why some genes are upregulated whereas others are repressed upon B deprivation. PMID:23989264

  8. The endothelial transcription factor ERG mediates Angiopoietin-1-dependent control of Notch signalling and vascular stability

    PubMed Central

    Shah, A. V.; Birdsey, G. M.; Peghaire, C.; Pitulescu, M. E.; Dufton, N. P.; Yang, Y.; Weinberg, I.; Osuna Almagro, L.; Payne, L.; Mason, J. C.; Gerhardt, H.; Adams, R. H.; Randi, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Notch and Angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)/Tie2 pathways are crucial for vascular maturation and stability. Here we identify the transcription factor ERG as a key regulator of endothelial Notch signalling. We show that ERG controls the balance between Notch ligands by driving Delta-like ligand 4 (Dll4) while repressing Jagged1 (Jag1) expression. In vivo, this regulation occurs selectively in the maturing plexus of the mouse developing retina, where Ang1/Tie2 signalling is active. We find that ERG mediates Ang1-dependent regulation of Notch ligands and is required for the stabilizing effects of Ang1 in vivo. We show that Ang1 induces ERG phosphorylation in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt-dependent manner, resulting in ERG enrichment at Dll4 promoter and multiple enhancers. Finally, we demonstrate that ERG directly interacts with Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and β-catenin and is required for Ang1-dependent β-catenin recruitment at the Dll4 locus. We propose that ERG coordinates Ang1, β-catenin and Notch signalling to promote vascular stability. PMID:28695891

  9. Transcription factors as potential participants in the signal transduction pathway of boron deficiency.

    PubMed

    González-Fontes, Agustín; Rexach, Jesús; Quiles-Pando, Carlos; Herrera-Rodríguez, M Begoña; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Navarro-Gochicoa, M Teresa

    2013-11-01

    Boron (B) plays a well-known structural role in the cell wall, however the way of perceiving B deficiency by roots and transmitting this environmental signal to the nucleus to elicit a response is not well established. It is known that the direct interaction between Ca2+ sensors and transcription factors (TFs) is a necessary step to regulate the expression of downstream target genes in some signaling pathways. Interestingly, B deprivation affected gene expressions of several TFs belonging to MYB, WRKY, and bZIP families, as well as expressions of Ca2+ -related genes such as several CML (calmodulin-like protein) and CPK (Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase) genes. Taken together, these results suggest that B deficiency could affect the expression of downstream target genes by alteration of a calcium signaling pathway in which the interaction between CMLs and/or CPKs with TFs (activator or repressor) would be a crucial step, which would explain why some genes are upregulated whereas others are repressed upon B deprivation.

  10. Differential Phosphoproteomics of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling: Identification of Src Family Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation Events

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Activation of signal transduction by the receptor tyrosine kinase, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), results in a cascade of protein−protein interactions that rely on the occurrence of specific tyrosine phosphorylation events. One such protein recruited to the activated receptor complex is the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Src, which is involved in both initiation and termination of further signaling events. To gain a further understanding of the tyrosine phosphorylation events that occur during FGF signaling, with a specific focus on those that are dependent on Src family kinase (SFK) activity, we have applied SILAC combined with chemical inhibition of SFK activity to search for phosphorylation events that are dependent on SFK activity in FGF stimulated cells. In addition, we used a more targeted approach to carry out high coverage phosphopeptide mapping of one Src substrate protein, the multifunctional adaptor Dok1, and to identify SFK-dependent Dok1 binding partners. From these analyses we identify 80 SFK-dependent phosphorylation events on 40 proteins. We further identify 18 SFK-dependent Dok1 interactions and 9 SFK-dependent Dok1 phosphorylation sites, 6 of which had not previously been known to be SFK-dependent. PMID:20225815

  11. Synergistic interaction between the fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathways in lens cells.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Bruce A; Musil, Linda S

    2015-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play a central role in two processes essential for lens transparency--fiber cell differentiation and gap junction-mediated intercellular communication (GJIC). Using serum-free primary cultures of chick lens epithelial cells (DCDMLs), we investigated how the FGF and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways positively cooperate to regulate lens development and function. We found that culturing DCDMLs for 6 d with the BMP blocker noggin inhibits the canonical FGF-to-ERK pathway upstream of FRS2 activation and also prevents FGF from stimulating FRS2- and ERK-independent gene expression, indicating that BMP signaling is required at the level of FGF receptors. Other experiments revealed a second type of BMP/FGF interaction by which FGF promotes expression of BMP target genes as well as of BMP4. Together these studies reveal a novel mode of cooperation between the FGF and BMP pathways in which BMP keeps lens cells in an optimally FGF-responsive state and, reciprocally, FGF enhances BMP-mediated gene expression. This interaction provides a mechanistic explanation for why disruption of either FGF or BMP signaling in the lens leads to defects in lens development and function.

  12. The DELLA-CONSTANS Transcription Factor Cascade Integrates Gibberellic Acid and Photoperiod Signaling to Regulate Flowering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houping; Pan, Jinjing; Li, Yang; Lou, Dengji; Hu, Yanru; Yu, Diqiu

    2016-09-01

    Gibberellin (GA) and photoperiod pathways have recently been demonstrated to collaboratively modulate flowering under long days (LDs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this collaboration remain largely unclear. In this study, we found that GA-induced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) under LDs was dependent on CONSTANS (CO), a critical transcription factor positively involved in photoperiod signaling. Mechanistic investigation revealed that DELLA proteins, a group of crucial repressors in GA signaling, physically interacted with CO. The DELLA-CO interactions repressed the transcriptional function of CO protein. Genetic analysis demonstrated that CO acts downstream of DELLA proteins to regulate flowering. Disruption of CO rescued the earlier flowering phenotype of the gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 mutant (dellap), while a gain-of-function mutation in GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a member of the DELLA gene) repressed the earlier flowering phenotype of CO-overexpressing plants. In addition, the accumulation of DELLA proteins and mRNAs was rhythmic, and REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 protein was noticeably decreased in the long-day afternoon, a time when CO protein is abundant. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the DELLA-CO cascade inhibits CO/FT-mediated flowering under LDs, which thus provide evidence to directly integrate GA and photoperiod signaling to synergistically modulate flowering under LDs. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  13. Supraspinal brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling: a novel mechanism for descending pain facilitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Robbins, Meredith T; Wei, Feng; Zou, Shiping; Dubner, Ronald; Ren, Ke

    2006-01-04

    In the adult mammalian brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is critically involved in long-term synaptic plasticity. Here, we show that supraspinal BDNF-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling contributes to pain facilitation. We show that BDNF-containing neurons in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), the central structure for pain modulation, project to and release BDNF in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), a relay between the PAG and spinal cord. BDNF in PAG and TrkB phosphorylation in RVM neurons are upregulated after inflammation. Intra-RVM sequestration of BDNF and knockdown of TrkB by RNA interference attenuate inflammatory pain. Microinjection of BDNF (10-100 fmol) into the RVM facilitates nociception, which is dependent on NMDA receptors (NMDARs). In vitro studies with RVM slices show that BDNF induces tyrosine phosphorylation of the NMDAR NR2A subunit in RVM via a signal transduction cascade involving IP(3), PKC, and Src. The supraspinal BDNF-TrkB signaling represents a previously unknown mechanism underlying the development of persistent pain. Our findings also caution that application of BDNF for recovery from CNS disorders could lead to undesirable central pain.

  14. The transcription factor FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to maintain the identity of ovarian granulosa cells

    PubMed Central

    Georges, Adrien; L'Hôte, David; Todeschini, Anne Laure; Auguste, Aurélie; Legois, Bérangère; Zider, Alain; Veitia, Reiner A

    2014-01-01

    FOXL2 is a lineage determining transcription factor in the ovary, but its direct targets and modes of action are not fully characterized. In this study, we explore the targets of FOXL2 and five nuclear receptors in murine primary follicular cells. We found that FOXL2 is required for normal gene regulation by steroid receptors, and we show that estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) is the main vector of estradiol signaling in these cells. Moreover, we found that FOXL2 directly modulates Esr2 expression through a newly identified intronic element. Interestingly, we found that FOXL2 repressed the testis-determining gene Sox9 both independently of estrogen signaling and through the activation of ESR2 expression. Altogether, we show that FOXL2 mobilizes estrogen signaling to establish a coherent feed-forward loop repressing Sox9. This sheds a new light on the role of FOXL2 in ovarian maintenance and function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04207.001 PMID:25369636

  15. Sprouty2 controls proliferation of palate mesenchymal cells via fibroblast growth factor signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, Kaori; Taketomi, Takaharu; Yoshizaki, Keigo; Arai, Shinsaku; Sanui, Terukazu; Yoshiga, Daigo; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Nakamura, Seiji

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} Sprouty2-deficient mice exhibit cleft palate as a result of failure of palatal shelf elevation. {yields} We examined palate cell proliferation in Sprouty2-deficient mice. {yields} Palate mesenchymal cell proliferation was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice. {yields} Sprouty2 plays roles in murine palatogenesis by regulating cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Cleft palate is one of the most common craniofacial deformities. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays a central role in reciprocal interactions between adjacent tissues during palatal development, and the FGF signaling pathway has been shown to be inhibited by members of the Sprouty protein family. In this study, we report the incidence of cleft palate, possibly caused by failure of palatal shelf elevation, in Sprouty2-deficient (KO) mice. Sprouty2-deficient palates fused completely in palatal organ culture. However, palate mesenchymal cell proliferation estimated by Ki-67 staining was increased in Sprouty2 KO mice compared with WT mice. Sprouty2-null palates expressed higher levels of FGF target genes, such as Msx1, Etv5, and Ptx1 than WT controls. Furthermore, proliferation and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) activation in response to FGF was enhanced in palate mesenchymal cells transfected with Sprouty2 small interfering RNA. These results suggest that Sprouty2 regulates palate mesenchymal cell proliferation via FGF signaling and is involved in palatal shelf elevation.

  16. Quantitative analysis of transient and sustained transforming growth factorsignaling dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zi, Zhike; Feng, Zipei; Chapnick, Douglas A; Dahl, Markus; Deng, Difan; Klipp, Edda; Moustakas, Aristidis; Liu, Xuedong

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cells can decode the concentration of extracellular transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and transduce this cue into appropriate cell fate decisions. How variable TGF-β ligand doses quantitatively control intracellular signaling dynamics and how continuous ligand doses are translated into discontinuous cellular fate decisions remain poorly understood. Using a combined experimental and mathematical modeling approach, we discovered that cells respond differently to continuous and pulsating TGF-β stimulation. The TGF-β pathway elicits a transient signaling response to a single pulse of TGF-β stimulation, whereas it is capable of integrating repeated pulses of ligand stimulation at short time interval, resulting in sustained phospho-Smad2 and transcriptional responses. Additionally, the TGF-β pathway displays different sensitivities to ligand doses at different time scales. While ligand-induced short-term Smad2 phosphorylation is graded, long-term Smad2 phosphorylation is switch-like to a small change in TGF-β levels. Correspondingly, the short-term Smad7 gene expression is graded, while long-term PAI-1 gene expression is switch-like, as is the long-term growth inhibitory response. Our results suggest that long-term switch-like signaling responses in the TGF-β pathway might be critical for cell fate determination. PMID:21613981

  17. Analytical expressions for the gate utilization factors of passive multiplicity counters including signal build-up

    SciTech Connect

    Croft, Stephen; Evans, Louise G; Schear, Melissa A

    2010-01-01

    In the realm of nuclear safeguards, passive neutron multiplicity counting using shift register pulse train analysis to nondestructively quantify Pu in product materials is a familiar and widely applied technique. The approach most commonly taken is to construct a neutron detector consisting of {sup 3}He filled cylindrical proportional counters embedded in a high density polyethylene moderator. Fast neutrons from the item enter the moderator and are quickly slowed down, on timescales of the order of 1-2 {micro}s, creating a thermal population which then persists typically for several 10's {micro}s and is sampled by the {sup 3}He detectors. Because the initial transient is of comparatively short duration it has been traditional to treat it as instantaneous and furthermore to approximate the subsequent capture time distribution as exponential in shape. With these approximations simple expressions for the various Gate Utilization Factors (GUFs) can be obtained. These factors represent the proportion of time correlated events i.e. Doubles and Triples signal present in the pulse train that is detected by the coincidence gate structure chosen (predelay and gate width settings of the multiplicity shift register). More complicated expressions can be derived by generalizing the capture time distribution to multiple time components or harmonics typically present in real systems. When it comes to applying passive neutron multiplicity methods to extremely intense (i.e. high emission rate and highly multiplying) neutron sources there is a drive to use detector types with very fast response characteristics in order to cope with the high rates. In addition to short pulse width, detectors with a short capture time profile are also desirable so that a short coincidence gate width can be set in order to reduce the chance or Accidental coincidence signal. In extreme cases, such as might be realized using boron loaded scintillators, the dieaway time may be so short that the build

  18. Loss of Dlg-1 in the Mouse Lens Impairs Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, SungKyoung; Griep, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination of cell proliferation, differentiation and survival is essential for normal development and maintenance of tissues in the adult organism. Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways and planar cell polarity pathways are two regulators of many developmental processes. We have previously shown through analysis of mice conditionally null in the lens for the planar cell polarity gene (PCP), Dlg-1, that Dlg-1 is required for fiber differentiation. Herein, we asked if Dlg-1 is a regulator of the Fibroblast growth factor receptor (Fgfr) signaling pathway, which is known to be required for fiber cell differentiation. Western blot analysis of whole fiber cell extracts from control and Dlg-1 deficient lenses showed that levels of the Fgfr signaling intermediates pErk, pAkt, and pFrs2α, the Fgfr target, Erm, and the fiber cell specific protein, Mip26, were reduced in the Dlg-1 deficient fiber cells. The levels of Fgfr2 were decreased in Dlg-1 deficient lenses compared to controls. Conversely, levels of Fgfr1 in Dlg-1 deficient lenses were increased compared to controls. The changes in Fgfr levels were found to be specifically in the triton insoluble, cytoskeletal associated fraction of Dlg-1 deficient lenses. Immunofluorescent staining of lenses from E13.5 embryos showed that expression levels of pErk were reduced in the transition zone, a region of the lens that exhibits PCP, in the Dlg-1 deficient lenses as compared to controls. In control lenses, immunofluorescent staining for Fgfr2 was observed in the epithelium, transition zone and fibers. By E13.5, the intensity of staining for Fgfr2 was reduced in these regions of the Dlg-1 deficient lenses. Thus, loss of Dlg-1 in the lens impairs Fgfr signaling and leads to altered levels of Fgfrs, suggesting that Dlg-1 is a modulator of Fgfr signaling pathway at the level of the receptors and that Dlg-1 regulates fiber cell differentiation through its role in PCP. PMID:24824078

  19. Brefeldin A-Inhibited Guanine Nucleotide-Exchange Factor 1 (BIG1) Governs the Recruitment of Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor-Associated Factor 2 (TRAF2) to Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 (TNFR1) Signaling Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Takuya; Tsuchida, Mei; Kogue, Yosuke; Spadini, Christian; Hirata, Yusuke; Matsuzawa, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a critical mediator of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) signaling. However, the regulatory mechanisms of TRAF2 are not fully understood. Here we show evidence that TRAF2 requires brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factor 1 (BIG1) to be recruited into TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) signaling complexes. In BIG1 knockdown cells, TNF-α-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation was attenuated and the sensitivity to TNF-α-induced apoptosis was increased. Since these trends correlated well with those of TRAF2 deficient cells as previously demonstrated, we tested whether BIG1 functions as an upstream regulator of TRAF2 in TNFR1 signaling. As expected, we found that knockdown of BIG1 suppressed TNF-α-dependent ubiquitination of TRAF2 that is required for JNK activation, and impaired the recruitment of TRAF2 to the TNFR1 signaling complex (complex I). Moreover, we found that the recruitment of TRAF2 to the death-inducing signaling complex termed complex II was also impaired in BIG1 knockdown cells. These results suggest that BIG1 is a key component of the machinery that drives TRAF2 to the signaling complexes formed after TNFR1 activation. Thus, our data demonstrate a novel and unexpected function of BIG1 that regulates TNFR1 signaling by targeting TRAF2. PMID:27834853

  20. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Platelet (PF-4) Factor 4 Inputs Modulate Human Microvascular Endothelial Signaling in a Three-Dimensional Matrix Migration Context*

    PubMed Central

    Hang, Ta-Chun; Tedford, Nathan C.; Reddy, Raven J.; Rimchala, Tharathorn; Wells, Alan; White, Forest M.; Kamm, Roger D.; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis is under complex regulation in adult organisms, particularly as it often occurs in an inflammatory post-wound environment. As such, there are many impacting factors that will regulate the generation of new blood vessels which include not only pro-angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, but also angiostatic factors. During initial postwound hemostasis, a large initial bolus of platelet factor 4 is released into localized areas of damage before progression of wound healing toward tissue homeostasis. Because of its early presence and high concentration, the angiostatic chemokine platelet factor 4, which can induce endothelial anoikis, can strongly affect angiogenesis. In our work, we explored signaling crosstalk interactions between vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet factor 4 using phosphotyrosine-enriched mass spectrometry methods on human dermal microvascular endothelial cells cultured under conditions facilitating migratory sprouting into collagen gel matrices. We developed new methods to enable mass spectrometry-based phosphorylation analysis of primary cells cultured on collagen gels, and quantified signaling pathways over the first 48 h of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor in the presence or absence of platelet factor 4. By observing early and late signaling dynamics in tandem with correlation network modeling, we found that platelet factor 4 has significant crosstalk with vascular endothelial growth factor by modulating cell migration and polarization pathways, centered around P38α MAPK, Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn, along with FAK. Interestingly, we found EphA2 correlational topology to strongly involve key migration-related signaling nodes after introduction of platelet factor 4, indicating an influence of the angiostatic factor on this ambiguous but generally angiogenic signal in this complex environment. PMID:24023389

  1. Conditional ablation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-TrkB signaling impairs striatal neuron development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Yui, Daishi; Luikart, Bryan W; McKay, Renée M; Li, Yanjiao; Rubenstein, John L; Parada, Luis F

    2012-09-18

    Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are associated with the physiology of the striatum and the loss of its normal functioning under pathological conditions. The role of BDNF and its downstream signaling in regulating the development of the striatum has not been fully investigated, however. Here we report that ablation of Bdnf in both the cortex and substantia nigra depletes BDNF in the striatum, and leads to impaired striatal development, severe motor deficits, and postnatal lethality. Furthermore, striatal-specific ablation of TrkB, the gene encoding the high-affinity receptor for BDNF, is sufficient to elicit an array of striatal developmental abnormalities, including decreased anatomical volume, smaller neuronal nucleus size, loss of dendritic spines, reduced enkephalin expression, diminished nigral dopaminergic projections, and severe deficits in striatal dopamine signaling through DARPP32. In addition, TrkB ablation in striatal neurons elicits a non-cell-autonomous reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase protein level in the axonal projections of substantia nigral dopaminergic neurons. Thus, our results establish an essential function for TrkB in regulating the development of striatal neurons.

  2. FGF10: A multifunctional mesenchymal-epithelial signaling growth factor in development, health, and disease.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2016-04-01

    The FGF family comprises 22 members with diverse functions in development and health. FGF10 specifically activates FGFR2b in a paracrine manner with heparan sulfate as a co-factor. FGF10and FGFR2b are preferentially expressed in the mesenchyme and epithelium, respectively. FGF10 is a mesenchymal signaling molecule in the epithelium. FGF10 knockout mice die shortly after birth due to the complete absence of lungs as well as fore- and hindlimbs. FGF10 is also essential for the development of multiple organs. The phenotypes of Fgf10 knockout mice are very similar to those of FGFR2b knockout mice, indicating that FGF10 acts as a ligand that is specific to FGFR2b in mouse multi-organ development. FGF10 also plays roles in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, the repair of tissue injury, and embryonic stem cell differentiation. In humans, FGF10 loss-of-function mutations result in inherited diseases including aplasia of lacrimal and salivary gland, lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. FGF10 is also involved in the oncogenicity of pancreatic and breast cancers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGF10 are also potential risk factors for limb deficiencies, cleft lip and palate, and extreme myopia. These findings indicate that FGF10 is a crucial paracrine signal from the mesenchyme to epithelium for development, health, and disease. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Stem cell factor-KIT signalling plays a pivotal role in regulating pigmentation in mammalian hair.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Akira; Sriwiriyanont, Penkanok; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Azumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Visscher, Marty O; Takema, Yoshinori; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Boissy, Raymond E

    2009-05-01

    Hair greying is one of the most distinct but least comprehended features of senescence. The signalling of stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor KIT has been documented to regulate essential roles in the maintenance of embryonic melanocyte lineages and postnatal cutaneous melanogenesis, although little is known about its detailed mechanisms in postnatal hair pigmentation. To address this, anagen human hair follicles and C57BL/6 murine pelage were analysed in this study. Molecular biological analyses of murine follicular skin indicated a significant increase of membrane-bound SCF expression, reaching its peak 8-16 days after anagen induction in concert with the escalation of cutaneous tyrosinase activity and corresponding pigmentation. Administration of KIT-neutralizing antibody abolished MITF and tyrosinase expressions, resulting in a reversible hair depigmentation in murine regenerated hair and human hair organ culture. Quantitative RT-PCR of human hair follicles indicated that KIT expression as well as the expression of several melanogenic factors, including MITF, was significantly lower in unpigmented than in pigmented follicles. Taken together, these data revealed a pivotal role of SCF-KIT signalling in the maintenance of human hair follicle melanogenesis during the anagen cycle and its involvement in physiological ageing of the hair follicle pigmentary unit.

  4. The role of Zic transcription factors in regulating hindbrain retinoic acid signaling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The reiterated architecture of cranial motor neurons aligns with the segmented structure of the embryonic vertebrate hindbrain. Anterior-posterior identity of cranial motor neurons depends, in part, on retinoic acid signaling levels. The early vertebrate embryo maintains a balance between retinoic acid synthetic and degradative zones on the basis of reciprocal expression domains of the retinoic acid synthesis gene aldhehyde dehydrogenase 1a2 (aldh1a2) posteriorly and the oxidative gene cytochrome p450 type 26a1 (cyp26a1) in the forebrain, midbrain, and anterior hindbrain. Results This manuscript investigates the role of zinc finger of the cerebellum (zic) transcription factors in regulating levels of retinoic acid and differentiation of cranial motor neurons. Depletion of zebrafish Zic2a and Zic2b results in a strong downregulation of aldh1a2 expression and a concomitant reduction in activity of a retinoid-dependent transgene. The vagal motor neuron phenotype caused by loss of Zic2a/2b mimics a depletion of Aldh1a2 and is rescued by exogenously supplied retinoic acid. Conclusion Zic transcription factors function in patterning hindbrain motor neurons through their regulation of embryonic retinoic acid signaling. PMID:23937294

  5. FGF15/FGFR4 integrates growth factor signaling with hepatic bile acid metabolism and insulin action.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong-Ju; Osborne, Timothy F

    2009-04-24

    The current studies show FGF15 signaling decreases hepatic forkhead transcription factor 1 (FoxO1) activity through phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase-dependent phosphorylation. The bile acid receptor FXR (farnesoid X receptor) activates expression of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 15 in the intestine, which acts through hepatic FGFR4 to suppress cholesterol-7alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and limit bile acid production. Because FoxO1 activity and CYP7A1 gene expression are both increased by fasting, we hypothesized CYP7A1 might be a FoxO1 target gene. Consistent with recently reported results, we show CYP7A1 is a direct target of FoxO1. Additionally, we show that the PI 3-kinase pathway is key for both the induction of CYP7A1 by fasting and the suppression by FGF15. FGFR4 is the major hepatic FGF receptor isoform and is responsible for the hepatic effects of FGF15. We also show that expression of FGFR4 in liver was decreased by fasting, increased by insulin, and reduced by streptozotocin-induced diabetes, implicating FGFR4 as a primary target of insulin regulation. Because insulin and FGF both target the PI 3-kinase pathway, these observations suggest FoxO1 is a key node in the convergence of FGF and insulin signaling pathways and functions as a key integrator for the regulation of glucose and bile acid metabolism.

  6. Opposing Roles for Interferon Regulatory Factor-3 (IRF-3) and Type I Interferon Signaling during Plague

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ami A.; Lee-Lewis, Hanni; Anderson, Deborah M.

    2012-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFN-I) broadly control innate immunity and are typically transcriptionally induced by Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRFs) following stimulation of pattern recognition receptors within the cytosol of host cells. For bacterial infection, IFN-I signaling can result in widely variant responses, in some cases contributing to the pathogenesis of disease while in others contributing to host defense. In this work, we addressed the role of type I IFN during Yersinia pestis infection in a murine model of septicemic plague. Transcription of IFN-β was induced in vitro and in vivo and contributed to pathogenesis. Mice lacking the IFN-I receptor, Ifnar, were less sensitive to disease and harbored more neutrophils in the later stage of infection which correlated with protection from lethality. In contrast, IRF-3, a transcription factor commonly involved in inducing IFN-β following bacterial infection, was not necessary for IFN production but instead contributed to host defense. In vitro, phagocytosis of Y. pestis by macrophages and neutrophils was more effective in the presence of IRF-3 and was not affected by IFN-β signaling. This activity correlated with limited bacterial growth in vivo in the presence of IRF-3. Together the data demonstrate that IRF-3 is able to activate pathways of innate immunity against bacterial infection that extend beyond regulation of IFN-β production. PMID:22911267

  7. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  8. Hedgehog signaling contributes to basic fibroblast growth factor-regulated fibroblast migration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhong Xin; Sun, Cong Cong; Ting Zhu, Yu; Wang, Ying; Wang, Tao; Chi, Li Sha; Cai, Wan Hui; Zheng, Jia Yong; Zhou, Xuan; Cong, Wei Tao; Li, Xiao Kun; Jin, Li Tai

    2017-03-28

    Fibroblast migration is a central process in skin wound healing, which requires the coordination of several types of growth factors. bFGF, a well-known fibroblast growth factor (FGF), is able to accelerate fibroblast migration; however, the underlying mechanism of bFGF regulation fibroblast migration remains unclear. Through the RNA-seq analysis, we had identified that the hedgehog (Hh) canonical pathway genes including Smoothened (Smo) and Gli1, were regulated by bFGF. Further analysis revealed that activation of the Hh pathway via up-regulation of Smo promoted fibroblast migration, invasion, and skin wound healing, but which significantly reduced by GANT61, a selective antagonist of Gli1/Gli2. Western blot analyses and siRNA transfection assays demonstrated that Smo acted upstream of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-β-catenin to promote cell migration. Moreover, RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analyses revealed that Hh pathway genes including Smo and Gli1 were under control of β-catenin, suggesting that β-catenin turn feedback activates Hh signaling. Taken together, our analyses identified a new bFGF-regulating mechanism by which Hh signaling regulates human fibroblast migration, and the data presented here opens a new avenue for the wound healing therapy.

  9. The signal transducer and activator of transcription factors lodge in immunopathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Zare, F; Dehghan-Manshadi, M; Mirshafiey, A

    2015-12-23

    Rheumatoid arthritisis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that affects ~1-2% of the world's population and damages synovial joints. RA is characterized by inflammation, autoantibody production, cartilage and bone destruction and synovial hyperplasia. Inflammation induces systemic and articular synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 that play essential roles in joint and other organ damage in this disease. Considering the role of signal transducer and activator of transcription factors (STATs) in signaling of these cytokines, these proteins may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA. The expression and activity of STATs can contribute to the onset, progression and severity of RA. All STAT family members (STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5a, STAT5b, and STAT6) have been associated with autoimmune diseases, as highlighted in several studies. In this review we aim to describe the immunobiology of STATs and its family members and the role of these proteins in the immunopathogenesis of RA.

  10. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  11. Transcription factor TLX1 controls retinoic acid signaling to ensure spleen development

    PubMed Central

    Lenti, Elisa; Farinello, Diego; Penkov, Dmitry; Castagnaro, Laura; Lavorgna, Giovanni; Wuputra, Kenly; Tjaden, Naomi E. Butler; Bernassola, Francesca; Caridi, Nicoletta; Wagner, Michael; Kozinc, Katja; Niederreither, Karen; Blasi, Francesco; Pasini, Diego; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie spleen development and congenital asplenia, a condition linked to increased risk of overwhelming infections, remain largely unknown. The transcription factor TLX1 controls cell fate specification and organ expansion during spleen development, and Tlx1 deletion causes asplenia in mice. Deregulation of TLX1 expression has recently been proposed in the pathogenesis of congenital asplenia in patients carrying mutations of the gene-encoding transcription factor SF-1. Herein, we have shown that TLX1-dependent regulation of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism is critical for spleen organogenesis. In a murine model, loss of Tlx1 during formation of the splenic anlage increased RA signaling by regulating several genes involved in RA metabolism. Uncontrolled RA activity resulted in premature differentiation of mesenchymal cells and reduced vasculogenesis of the splenic primordium. Pharmacological inhibition of RA signaling in Tlx1-deficient animals partially rescued the spleen defect. Finally, spleen growth was impaired in mice lacking either cytochrome P450 26B1 (Cyp26b1), which results in excess RA, or retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10), which results in RA deficiency. Together, these findings establish TLX1 as a critical regulator of RA metabolism and provide mechanistic insights into the molecular determinants of human congenital asplenia. PMID:27214556

  12. Type I insulin-like growth factor receptor signaling in skeletal muscle regeneration and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Philippou, A; Halapas, A; Maridaki, M; Koutsilieris, M

    2007-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is able not only to increase its mass as an adaptation to mechanical loading generated by and imposed upon muscle but also to regenerate after damage, via its intrinsic regulation of gene transcription. Both cellular processes, muscle regeneration and hypertrophy, are mediated by the activation, proliferation and differentiation of muscle satellite cells and appear to be modulated by the mitotic and myogenic activity of locally produced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), which functions in an autocrine/paracrine mode. Differentiation of satellite cells into myoblasts involves the regulation of skeletal muscle-specific proteins belonging to the family of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs). The endocrine, autocrine and paracrine functions of IGF-1 are mediated through binding to the type I IGF receptor (IGF-1.R), which is a ligand-activated receptor tyrosine kinase. The binding of IGF-1 to IGF-1.R induces its autophosphorylation, which recruits specific cytoplasmic molecules containing the Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins (IRS). The recruitment of IRS proteins by IGF-1/IGF-1.R binding is a critical level at which the proliferative and differentiative actions of IGF-1 diverge. Specific signaling pathways downstream of IGF-1, potentially involved in the mitogenic and myogenic responses and mediating skeletal muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy following exercise-induced muscle overloading and damage, are discussed. A potential alternative activation of different signaling pathway(s) via a different receptor remains to be demonstrated.

  13. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    PubMed

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF.

  14. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  15. Oxidative Stress Promotes Ligand-independent and Enhanced Ligand-dependent Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Ozsoy, Hatice Z.; Sivasubramanian, Natarajan; Wieder, Eric D.; Pedersen, Steen; Mann, Douglas L.

    2008-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor 1 (TNFR1, p55) and 2 (TNFR2, p75) are characterized by several cysteine-rich modules in the extracellular domain, raising the possibility that redox-induced modifications of these cysteine residues might alter TNFR function. To test this possibility, we examined fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in 293T cells transfected with CFP- and YFP-tagged TNFRs exposed to the thiol oxidant diamide. Treatment with high concentrations of diamide (1 mm) resulted in an increase in the FRET signal that was sensitive to inhibition with the reducing agent dithiothreitol, suggesting that oxidative stress resulted in TNFR self-association. Treatment of cells with low concentrations of diamide (1 μm) that was not sufficient to provoke TNFR self-association resulted in increased TNF-induced FRET signals relative to the untreated cells, suggesting that oxidative stress enhanced ligand-dependent TNFR signaling. Similar findings were obtained when the TNFR1- and TNFR2-transfected cells were pretreated with a cell-impermeable oxidase, DsbA, that catalyzes disulfide bond formation between thiol groups on cysteine residues. The changes in TNFR self-association were functionally significant, because pretreating the HeLa cells and 293T cells resulted in increased TNF-induced NF-κB activation and TNF-induced expression of IκB and syndecan-4 mRNA levels. Although pretreatment with DsbA did not result in an increase in TNF binding to TNFRs, it resulted in increased TNF-induced activation of NF-κB, consistent with an allosteric modification of the TNFRs. Taken together, these results suggest that oxidative stress promotes TNFR receptor self-interaction and ligand-independent and enhanced ligand-dependent TNF signaling. PMID:18544535

  16. Presenilin 1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor turnover and signaling in the endosomal-lysosomal pathway.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Emanuela; Yoon, Il-Sang; Zheng, Hui; Kang, David E

    2007-10-26

    Mutations in the gene encoding presenilin 1 (PS1) cause the most aggressive form of early-onset familial Alzheimer disease. In addition to its well established role in Abeta production and Notch proteolysis, PS1 has been shown to mediate other physiological activities, such as regulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling, and trafficking of select membrane proteins and/or intracellular vesicles. In this study, we present evidence that PS1 is a critical regulator of a key signaling receptor tyrosine kinase, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Specifically, EGFR levels were robustly increased in fibroblasts deficient in both PS1 and PS2 (PS(-/-)) due to delayed turnover of EGFR protein. Stable transfection of wild-type PS1 but not PS2 corrected EGFR to levels comparable to PS(+/+) cells, while FAD PS1 mutations showed partial loss of activity. The C-terminal fragment of PS1 was sufficient to fully reduce EGFR levels. In addition, the rapid ligand-induced degradation of EGFR was markedly delayed in PS(-/-) cells, resulting in prolonged signal activation. Despite the defective turnover of EGFR, ligand-induced autophosphorylation, ubiquitination, and endocytosis of EGFR were not affected by the lack of PS1. Instead, the trafficking of EGFR from early endosomes to lysosomes was severely delayed by PS1 deficiency. Elevation of EGFR was also seen in brains of adult mice conditionally ablated in PS1 and in skin tumors associated with the loss of PS1. These findings demonstrate a critical role of PS1 in the trafficking and turnover of EGFR and suggest potential pathogenic effects of elevated EGFR as well as perturbed endosomal-lysosomal trafficking in cell cycle control and Alzheimer disease.

  17. Transforming growth factor-beta during carcinogenesis: the shift from epithelial to mesenchymal signaling.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Koichi; Okazaki, Kazuichi

    2006-04-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activates not only TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI) but also c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), changing unphosphorylated Smad3 to its phosphoisoforms: C-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). While the TbetaRI/pSmad3C pathway inhibits growth of normal epithelial cells, JNK/pSmad3L-mediated signaling is involved in invasion by activated mesenchymal cells. During sporadic human colorectal carcinogenesis, TGF-beta signaling confers a selective advantage on tumor cells by shifting from the TbetaRI/pSmad3C pathway characteristic of mature epithelial cells to the JNK/pSmad3L pathway, which is more characteristic of the state of flux shown by the activated mesenchymal cells. JNK acts as a regulator of TGF-beta signaling by increasing the basal level of pSmad3L available for action in the nuclei of the invasive adenocarcinoma, in the meantime shutting down TGF-beta-dependent nuclear activity of pSmad3C. Loss of epithelial homeostasis and acquisition of a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype are essential for tumor invasion. From the viewpoint of TGF-beta signaling, a key therapeutic aim in cancer would be restoration of the lost tumor suppressor function observed in normal colorectal epithelial cells at the expense of effects promoting aggressive behavior of the adenocarcinoma. Specific inhibitors of the JNK/pSmad3L pathway might prove useful in this respect. In the case of molecularly targeted therapy for human cancer, pSmad3L and pSmad3C could be assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the likely benefit from specific inhibition of the JNK/pSmad3L pathway.

  18. Microenvironmental stiffness enhances glioma cell proliferation by stimulating epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Vaibhavi; Rape, Andrew D; Ulrich, Theresa A; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling.

  19. Microenvironmental Stiffness Enhances Glioma Cell Proliferation by Stimulating Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Umesh, Vaibhavi; Rape, Andrew D.; Ulrich, Theresa A.; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    The aggressive and rapidly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM) is associated with profound tissue stiffening and genomic lesions in key members of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that increasing microenvironmental stiffness in culture can strongly enhance glioma cell behaviors relevant to tumor progression, including proliferation, yet it has remained unclear whether stiffness and EGFR regulate proliferation through common or independent signaling mechanisms. Here we test the hypothesis that microenvironmental stiffness regulates cell cycle progression and proliferation in GBM tumor cells by altering EGFR-dependent signaling. We began by performing an unbiased reverse phase protein array screen, which revealed that stiffness modulates expression and phosphorylation of a broad range of signals relevant to proliferation, including members of the EGFR pathway. We subsequently found that culturing human GBM tumor cells on progressively stiffer culture substrates both dramatically increases proliferation and facilitates passage through the G1/S checkpoint of the cell cycle, consistent with an EGFR-dependent process. Western Blots showed that increasing microenvironmental stiffness enhances the expression and phosphorylation of EGFR and its downstream effector Akt. Pharmacological loss-of-function studies revealed that the stiffness-sensitivity of proliferation is strongly blunted by inhibition of EGFR, Akt, or PI3 kinase. Finally, we observed that stiffness strongly regulates EGFR clustering, with phosphorylated EGFR condensing into vinculin-positive focal adhesions on stiff substrates and dispersing as microenvironmental stiffness falls to physiological levels. Our findings collectively support a model in which tissue stiffening promotes GBM proliferation by spatially and biochemically amplifying EGFR signaling. PMID:25000176

  20. Chromatin-Remodeling-Factor ARID1B Represses Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Vasileiou, Georgia; Ekici, Arif B.; Uebe, Steffen; Zweier, Christiane; Hoyer, Juliane; Engels, Hartmut; Behrens, Jürgen; Reis, André; Hadjihannas, Michel V.

    2015-01-01

    The link of chromatin remodeling to both neurodevelopment and cancer has recently been highlighted by the identification of mutations affecting BAF chromatin-remodeling components, such as ARID1B, in individuals with intellectual disability and cancer. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) remains unknown. Here, we show that ARID1B is a repressor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Through whole-transcriptome analysis, we find that in individuals with intellectual disability and ARID1B loss-of-function mutations, Wnt/β-catenin target genes are upregulated. Using cellular models of low and high Wnt/β-catenin activity, we demonstrate that knockdown of ARID1B activates Wnt/β-catenin target genes and Wnt/β-catenin-dependent transcriptional reporters in a β-catenin-dependent manner. Reciprocally, forced expression of ARID1B inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling downstream of the β-catenin destruction complex. Both endogenous and exogenous ARID1B associate with β-catenin and repress Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcription through the BAF core subunit BRG1. Accordingly, mutations in ARID1B leading to partial or complete deletion of its BRG1-binding domain, as is often observed in intellectual disability and cancers, compromise association with β-catenin, and the resultant ARID1B mutant proteins fail to suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Finally, knockdown of ARID1B in mouse neuroblastoma cells leads to neurite outgrowth through β-catenin. The data suggest that aberrations in chromatin-remodeling factors, such as ARID1B, might contribute to neurodevelopmental abnormalities and cancer through deregulation of developmental and oncogenic pathways, such as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:26340334

  1. Signaling of pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) in the Madeira cockroach Rhyparobia maderae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hongying; Yasar, Hanzey; Funk, Nico W; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²⁺ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²⁺ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²⁺ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²⁺ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²⁺ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K⁺ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K⁺ and Na⁺ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.

  2. Signaling of Pigment-Dispersing Factor (PDF) in the Madeira Cockroach Rhyparobia maderae

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Nico W.; Giese, Maria; Baz, El-Sayed; Stengl, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca2+ imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca2+ baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca2+ transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca2+ levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1–4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca2+ imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K+ currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K+ and Na+ channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance. PMID:25269074

  3. A serum factor that activates the phosphatidylinositol phosphate signaling system in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tigyi, G; Dyer, D; Matute, C; Miledi, R

    1990-01-01

    Blood sera from many vertebrate species elicit large oscillatory chloride currents in oocytes from the frog Xenopus laevis. Rabbit serum was active at dilutions as great as one part in 10 million. Intracellularly applied serum was ineffective, and externally applied serum failed to trigger oscillatory currents when the intracellular level of ionized calcium was prevented from rising by loading the oocyte with EGTA. The serum also caused an increase of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the oocyte. We conclude that serum contains a factor which activates a membrane receptor that is coupled to the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system. The active factor is a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60-70 kDa in gel permeation chromatography. Although the normal function of the serum factor is still unknown, it may have far-reaching implications, because it acts on the multifunctional phosphatidylinositol phosphate signaling system. Also, because of its great potency the serum factor and Xenopus oocytes are very useful for probing the operation of the phosphatidylinositol system. PMID:1689488

  4. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-10-09

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal {alpha}-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression.

  5. Basic Aspects of Tumor Cell Fatty Acid-Regulated Signaling and Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Comba, Andrea; Lin, Yi-Hui; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Valentich, Mirta Ana; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin Ernesto; Pasqualini, Marìa Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the current knowledge and experimental research about the mechanisms by which fatty acids and their derivatives control specific gene expression involved during carcinogenesis. Changes in dietary fatty acids, specifically the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) of the ω-3 and ω-6 families and some derived eicosanoids from lipoxygenases (LOXs), cyclooxygenases (COXs), and cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450), seem to control the activity of transcription factor families involved in cancer cell proliferation or cell death. Their regulation may be carried out either through direct binding to DNA as peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) or via modulation in an indirect manner of signaling pathway molecules (e.g., protein kinase C [PKC]) and other transcription factors (nuclear factor kappa B [NFκB] and sterol regulatory element binding protein [SREBP]). Knowledge of the mechanisms by which fatty acids control specific gene expression may identify important risk factors for cancer, and provide insight into the development of new therapeutic strategies for a better management of whole-body lipid metabolism. PMID:22048864

  6. Neuroprotective effects of physical activity on the brain: a closer look at trophic factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cristy; Baktir, Mehmet Akif; Srivatsan, Malathi; Salehi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    While the relationship between increased physical activity and cognitive ability has been conjectured for centuries, only recently have the mechanisms underlying this relationship began to emerge. Convergent evidence suggests that physical activity offers an affordable and effective method to improve cognitive function in all ages, particularly the elderly who are most vulnerable to neurodegenerative disorders. In addition to improving cardiac and immune function, physical activity alters trophic factor signaling and, in turn, neuronal function and structure in areas critical for cognition. Sustained exercise plays a role in modulating anti-inflammatory effects and may play a role in preserving cognitive function in aging and neuropathological conditions. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that myokines released by exercising muscles affect the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor synthesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a finding that could lead to the identification of new and therapeutically important mediating factors. Given the growing number of individuals with cognitive impairments worldwide, a better understanding of how these factors contribute to cognition is imperative, and constitutes an important first step toward developing non-pharmacological therapeutic strategies to improve cognition in vulnerable populations.

  7. Extracting signals robust to electrode number and shift for online simultaneous and proportional myoelectric control by factorization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Muceli, Silvia; Jiang, Ning; Farina, Dario

    2014-05-01

    Previous research proposed the extraction of myoelectric control signals by linear factorization of multi-channel electromyogram (EMG) recordings from forearm muscles. This paper further analyses the theoretical basis for dimensionality reduction in high-density EMG signals from forearm muscles. Moreover, it shows that the factorization of muscular activation patterns in weights and activation signals by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is robust with respect to the channel configuration from where the EMG signals are obtained. High-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the forearm muscles of six individuals. Weights and activation signals extracted offline from 10 channel configurations with varying channel numbers (6, 8, 16, 192 channels) were highly similar. Additionally, the method proved to be robust against electrode shifts in both transversal and longitudinal direction with respect to the muscle fibers. In a second experiment, six subjects directly used the activation signals extracted from high-density EMG for online goal-directed control tasks involving simultaneous and proportional control of two degrees-of-freedom of the wrist. The synergy weights for this control task were extracted from a reference configuration and activation signals were calculated online from the reference configuration as well as from the two shifted configurations, simulating electrode shift. Despite the electrode shift, the task completion rate, task completion time, and execution efficiency were generally not statistically different among electrode configurations. Online performances were also mostly similar when using either 6, 8, or 16 EMG channels. The robustness of the method to the number and location of channels, proved both offline and online, indicates that EMG signals recorded from forearm muscles can be approximated as linear instantaneous mixtures of activation signals and justifies the use of linear factorization algorithms for extracting, in a

  8. Factors affecting signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryan; Tham, Yih-Chung; Cheung, Carol Y; Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Lim, Sing-Hui; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2017-04-09

    To identify ocular factors that affect signal strength in spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Data from 1312 participants of the population-based Singapore Malay Eye Study-2 (SiMES-2) were included in the analysis. All participants underwent standardized ophthalmic examination, including measurements of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), refractive error, axial length, corneal curvature and presence of cataracts. Optic disc and macular cube scans were acquired using the Cirrus HD-OCT (software version 6.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA). Signal strength of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan was recorded for each study eye. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the associations between ocular factors and signal strength of the OCT scans. The mean (±SD) age of our study participants was 61 ± 9 years, and 44.6% were male. Mean optic disc scan signal strength was 7.90 ± 1.25, range = 0-10, while mean macular scan signal strength was 8.80 ± 1.27, range = 0-10. In multivariable regression analyses, poorer signal strength in optic disc and macular cube scans was each associated with older age (per decade, β = -0.373, p < 0.001; β = -0.373, p < 0.001, respectively), poorer BCVA (per logMAR line; β = -0.123, p < 0.001; β = -0.156, p < 0.001, respectively), greater degree of myopia (per negative dioptre of spherical equivalent; β = -0.112, p < 0.001; β = -0.117, p < 0.001, respectively), presence of cortical cataracts (β = -0.331, p < 0.001; β = -0.314, p < 0.001, respectively) and presence of posterior subcapsular cataracts (β = -0.910, p < 0.001; β = -0.797, p < 0.001, respectively). We found that older age, poorer BCVA, greater degree of myopia and presence of cortical and posterior subcapsular cataracts were associated with reduced signal strength in Cirrus SD-OCT. Our findings provide information on the barriers to obtaining good image

  9. Reduced Expression of the Epidermal Growth Factor Signaling System in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Armant, D. Randall; FRITZ, Rani; KILBURN, Brian A.; KIM, Yeon Mee; NIEN, Jyh Kae; MAIHLE, Nita J.; ROMERO, Roberto; LEACH, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Methods Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunocytochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N=76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Results Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p<0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p<0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p< 0.05). Discussion Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. PMID:25589361

  10. Reduced expression of the epidermal growth factor signaling system in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Armant, D R; Fritz, R; Kilburn, B A; Kim, Y M; Nien, J K; Maihle, N J; Romero, R; Leach, R E

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling system regulates trophoblast differentiation, and its disruption could contribute to perinatal disease. We hypothesized that this pathway is altered in preeclampsia, a disorder associated with trophoblast apoptosis and failure to invade and remodel the uterine spiral arteries. Six EGF family peptides and a truncated EGF receptor splice variant (p110/EGFR) were examined using immunohistochemistry in the trophoblast of placentas (N = 76) from women with preeclampsia, and compared to placentas from women of similar gestational age (GA) with preterm labor (PTL) or small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses, as well as normal term placentas. EGF, transforming growth factor-α (TGFA), and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HBEGF) were evaluated using ELISA in maternal plasma from another 20 pregnancies with or without preeclampsia. Cell death was evaluated in the HTR-8/SVneo human cytotrophoblast cell line using TUNEL to evaluate the protective effects of EGF peptides. Trophoblast HBEGF, TGFA, and EGF were significantly reduced in preeclampsia compared to PTL and SGA, while p110/EGFR accumulated significantly on the surface of the chorionic villi (p < 0.05). Plasma EGF levels were significantly decreased in preeclamptic patients, compared to non-preeclamptic patients (p < 0.05). HBEGF, EGF, TGFA, epiregulin, and betacellulin each blocked cytotrophoblast cell death in vitro (p < 0.05). Three members of the EGF family are dysregulated in placentas with preeclampsia, whereas p110/EGFR, a potential EGF receptor antagonist, is overexpressed. These findings are consistent with the concept that disruption of the EGF signaling system contributes to aberrant trophoblast development associated with preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Convergence of auxin and gibberellin signaling on the regulation of the GATA transcription factors GNC and GNL in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Zourelidou, Melina; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2013-08-06

    Plant growth is regulated by a complex network of signaling events. Points of convergence for the signaling cross-talk between the phytohormones auxin and gibberellin (GA), which partly control overlapping processes during plant development, are largely unknown. At the cellular level, auxin responses are controlled by members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) family of transcription factors as well as AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID INDUCIBLE (AUX/IAA) proteins that repress the activity of at least a subset of ARFs. Here, we show that the two paralogous GATA transcription factors GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED (GNC) and GNC-LIKE (GNL)/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1 (CGA1) are direct and critical transcription targets downstream from ARF2 in the control of greening, flowering time, and senescence. Mutants deficient in the synthesis or signaling of the phytohormone GA are also impaired in greening, flowering, and senescence, and interestingly, GNC and GNL were previously identified as important transcription targets of the GA signaling pathway. In line with a critical regulatory role for GNC and GNL downstream from both auxin and GA signaling, we show here that the constitutive activation of GA signaling is sufficient to suppress arf2 mutant phenotypes through repression of GNC and GNL. In addition, we show that GA promotes ARF2 protein abundance through a translation-dependent mechanism that could serve to override the autoinhibitory negative feedback regulation of ARF2 on its own transcription and thereby further promote GA signaling.

  12. Influence of growth and transcriptional factors, and signaling molecules on early human pituitary development.

    PubMed

    Bazina, Mirna; Vukojevic, Katarina; Roje, Damir; Saraga-Babic, Mirna

    2009-08-01

    Development and differentiation of the human pituitary gland was investigated in 6 human conceptuses 6-9 postovulatory weeks old, using immunohistochemical technique to investigate appearance of different developmental factors, and immunofluorescent double staining technique with Ki-67 to investigate proliferation. In the developing human pituitary gland, different developmental factors appeared in temporally and spatially restricted patterns, thus contributing to formation of different parts of the gland: adenohypophysis, neurohypophysis and associated mesenchyme. Some growth factors were not primarily involved in cell proliferation (TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA), but in differentiation of pituitary cells: TGF-ss, BMP-2/4 and GATA probably contributed to differentiation of cells in the mesenchyme at earlier stages, while their influence on differentiation of specific cell types in the adenohypophysis increased with development. At later developmental stages, those factors also influenced the differentiation of cells in the neurohypophysis. FGF-8 and FGF-10 probably participated both in the growth and differentiation of pituitary cells: while FGF-8 could act during early developmental stages, FGF-10 participated in the same processes at later stages of pituitary development. Expression of EGF and VEGF indicated their involvement in proliferation of initially differentiated pituitary cells, and in subsequent differentiation of some cell types in the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis. In the mesenchyme, expression of VEGF might be related to formation of new blood vessels as well. Precise patterns of appearance of growth and transcription factors, and signaling molecules in developing human pituitary gland seem to be important for cell proliferation, differentiation, and normal morphogenesis of the gland.

  13. Induction of PD-L1 expression by epidermal growth factor receptor–mediated signaling in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wencheng; Pang, Qingsong; Yan, Cihui; Wang, Qifeng; Yang, Jingsong; Yu, Shufei; Liu, Xiao; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping; Xiao, Zefen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway on the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells with EGFR overexpression. Methods Flow cytometry and Western blot methods were used to assess PD-L1 expression on ESCC cells when EGFR signaling pathway was activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF) with or without EGFR-specific inhibitor AG-1478, and then EGFR signaling array was applied to analyze the potential signaling pathways involved. Results This study found that PD-L1 expression increased significantly in an EGFR-dependent manner by the activation of EGFR signaling and decreased sharply when EGFR signaling was blocked. The upregulated expression of PD-L1 was not associated with EGFR-STAT3 signaling pathway, but may be affected by EGFR–PI3K–AKT, EGFR–Ras–Raf–Erk, and EGR–PLC-γ signaling pathways. Conclusion The expression of PD-L1 can be regulated by EGFR signaling activation in ESCC, which indicates an important role for EGFR-mediated immune escape and potential molecular pathways for EGFR-targeted therapy and immunotherapy. PMID:28243112

  14. Sparsity-enabled signal decomposition using tunable Q-factor wavelet transform for fault feature extraction of gearbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gaigai; Chen, Xuefeng; He, Zhengjia

    2013-12-01

    Localized faults in gearboxes tend to result in periodic shocks and thus arouse periodic responses in vibration signals. Feature extraction has always been a key problem for localized fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new fault feature extraction technique for gearboxes by using sparsity-enabled signal decomposition method. The sparsity-enabled signal decomposition method separates signals based on the oscillatory behavior of the signal rather than the frequency or scale. Thus, the fault feature can be nonlinearly extracted from vibration signals. During the implementation of the proposed method, tunable Q-factor wavelet transform, for which the Q-factor can be easily specified, is adopted to represent vibration signals in a sparse way, and then morphological component analysis (MCA) is employed to estimate and separate the distinct components. The corresponding optimization problem of MCA is solved by the split augmented Lagrangian shrinkage algorithm (SALSA). With the proposed method, vibration signals of the faulty gearbox can be nonlinearly decomposed into high-oscillatory component and low-oscillatory component which is the fault feature of gearboxes. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, this paper investigates the effect of two parameters pertinent to MCA and SALSA: the Lagrange multiplier and the penalty parameter. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by both the simulated and practical gearbox vibration signals. Results show the proposed method outperforms empirical mode decomposition and spectral kurtosis in extracting fault features of gearboxes.

  15. Transcription factors relevant to auxin signalling coordinate broad-spectrum metabolic shifts including sulphur metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Bettina; Witt, Isabell; Zanor, Maria Inés; Steinhauser, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    A systems approach has previously been used to follow the response behaviour of Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon sulphur limitation. A response network was reconstructed from a time series of transcript and metabolite profiles, integrating complex metabolic and transcript data in order to investigate a potential causal relationship. The resulting scale-free network allowed potential transcriptional regulators of sulphur metabolism to be identified. Here, three sulphur-starvation responsive transcription factors, IAA13, IAA28, and ARF-2 (ARF1-Binding Protein), all of which are related to auxin signalling, were selected for further investigation. IAA28 overexpressing and knock-down lines showed no major morphological changes, whereas IAA13- and ARF1-BP-overexpressing plants grew more slowly than the wild type. Steady-state metabolite levels and expression of pathway-relevant genes were monitored under normal and sulphate-depleted conditions. For all lines, changes in transcript and metabolite levels were observed, yet none of these changes could exclusively be linked to sulphur stress. Instead, up- or down-regulation of the transcription factors caused metabolic changes which in turn affected sulphur metabolism. Auxin-relevant transcription factors are thus part of a complex response pattern to nutrient starvation that serve as coordinators of the metabolic shifts driving sulphur homeostasis rather then as direct effectors of the sulphate assimilation pathway. This study provides the first evidence ever presented that correlates auxin-related transcriptional regulators with primary plant metabolism. PMID:18596113

  16. Cell-permeable iron inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling and tumor angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kir, Devika; Saluja, Manju; Modi, Shrey; Venkatachalam, Annapoorna; Schnettler, Erica; Roy, Sabita; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. Hypoxia in tumors drives this angiogenic response by stabilizing Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) and target genes like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). HIF stability is regulated by Prolylhydroxylases (PHD)-mediated modification. Iron is an important cofactor in regulating the enzymatic activity of PHDs. Reducing intracellular iron, for instance, mimics hypoxia and induces a pro-angiogenic response. It is hypothesized that increasing the intracellular iron levels will have an opposite, anti-angiogenic effect. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing iron homeostasis in endothelial cells using a unique form of iron, Ferric Ammonium Citrate (FAC). FAC is a cell-permeable form of iron, which can passively enter into cells bypassing the transferrin receptor mediated uptake of transferrin-bound iron. Our studies show that FAC does not decrease the levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in endothelial cells but inhibits the autocrine stimulation of VEGF-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) system by blocking receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. FAC inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation and sprouting. Finally, systemic administration of FAC inhibits VEGF and tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our studies show that cell-permeable iron attenuates VEGFR-2 mediated signaling and inhibits tumor angiogenesis. PMID:27589831

  17. Phytochrome Signaling Is Mediated by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Keisuke; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kataoka, Hideo; Hosaka, Masashi; Manabe, Ryo; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Phytochromes are red light (R) and far-red light (FR) receptors that play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. Phytochromes mainly function in the nucleus and regulate sets of genes by inhibiting negatively acting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors named PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Although R/FR photoreversible responses and phytochrome genes are well documented in diverse lineages of plants, the extent to which phytochrome signaling is mediated by gene regulation beyond angiosperms remains largely unclear. Here, we show that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, an emerging model basal land plant, has only one phytochrome gene, Mp-PHY, and only one PIF gene, Mp-PIF. These genes mediate typical low fluence responses, which are reversibly elicited by R and FR, and regulate gene expression. Mp-phy is light-stable and translocates into the nucleus upon irradiation with either R or FR, demonstrating that the single phytochrome Mp-phy exhibits combined biochemical and cell-biological characteristics of type I and type II phytochromes. Mp-phy photoreversibly regulates gemma germination and downstream gene expression by interacting with Mp-PIF and targeting it for degradation in an R-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms for light-dependent transcriptional regulation mediated by PIF transcription factors were established early in land plant evolution. PMID:27252292

  18. Phytochrome Signaling Is Mediated by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keisuke; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Kataoka, Hideo; Hosaka, Masashi; Manabe, Ryo; Nomoto, Mika; Tada, Yasuomi; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    Phytochromes are red light (R) and far-red light (FR) receptors that play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development. Phytochromes mainly function in the nucleus and regulate sets of genes by inhibiting negatively acting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors named PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) in Arabidopsis thaliana Although R/FR photoreversible responses and phytochrome genes are well documented in diverse lineages of plants, the extent to which phytochrome signaling is mediated by gene regulation beyond angiosperms remains largely unclear. Here, we show that the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, an emerging model basal land plant, has only one phytochrome gene, Mp-PHY, and only one PIF gene, Mp-PIF These genes mediate typical low fluence responses, which are reversibly elicited by R and FR, and regulate gene expression. Mp-phy is light-stable and translocates into the nucleus upon irradiation with either R or FR, demonstrating that the single phytochrome Mp-phy exhibits combined biochemical and cell-biological characteristics of type I and type II phytochromes. Mp-phy photoreversibly regulates gemma germination and downstream gene expression by interacting with Mp-PIF and targeting it for degradation in an R-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that the molecular mechanisms for light-dependent transcriptional regulation mediated by PIF transcription factors were established early in land plant evolution. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Injury and Disease.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Liam C; White, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines are an incredibly diverse group of secreted proteins with equally diverse functions. The actions of cytokines are mediated by the unique and sometimes overlapping receptors to which the soluble ligands bind. Classified within the interleukin-6 family of cytokines are leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin-M (OSM), cardiotrophin-1 (CT-1) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). These cytokines all bind to the leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) and gp130, and in some cases an additional receptor subunit, leading to activation of downstream kinases and transcriptional activators. LIFR is expressed on a broad range of cell types and can generate pleiotropic effects. In the context of skeletal muscle physiology, these cytokines have been shown to exert effects on motor neurons, inflammatory and muscle cells. From isolated cells through to whole organisms, manipulations of LIFR signaling cytokines have a wide range of outcomes influencing muscle cell growth, myogenic differentiation, response to exercise, metabolism, neural innervation and recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of muscle injury. This article will discuss the shared and distinct processes that LIFR cytokines regulate in a variety of experimental models with the common theme of skeletal muscle physiology.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor signalling induces loss of progesterone receptor in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Piasecka, Dominika; Kitowska, Kamila; Czaplinska, Dominika; Mieczkowski, Kamil; Mieszkowska, Magdalena; Turczyk, Lukasz; Skladanowski, Andrzej C.; Zaczek, Anna J.; Biernat, Wojciech; Kordek, Radzislaw; Romanska, Hanna M.; Sadej, Rafal

    2016-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGFR2), signalling via ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2), promotes progression of breast cancer (BCa). Loss of progesterone receptor (PR), whose activity in BCa cells can be stimulated by growth factor receptors (GFRs), is associated with poor patient outcome. Here we showed that FGF7/FGFR2 triggered phosphorylation of PR at Ser294, PR ubiquitination and subsequent receptor`s degradation via the 26S proteasome pathway in BCa cells. We further demonstrated that RSK2 mediated FGF7/FGFR2-induced PR downregulation. In addition, a strong synergistic effect of FGF7 and progesterone (Pg), reflected in the enhanced anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, was observed. Analysis of clinical material demonstrated that expression of PR inversely correlated with activated RSK (RSK-P) (p = 0.016). Patients with RSK-P(+)/PR(–) tumours had 3.629-fold higher risk of recurrence (p = 0.002), when compared with the rest of the cohort. Moreover, RSK-P(+)/PR(–) phenotype was shown as an independent prognostic factor (p = 0.006). These results indicate that the FGF7/FGFR2-RSK2 axis promotes PR turnover and activity, which may sensitize BCa cells to stromal stimuli and contribute to the progression toward steroid hormone negative BCa. PMID:27852068

  1. Cell-permeable iron inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 signaling and tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kir, Devika; Saluja, Manju; Modi, Shrey; Venkatachalam, Annapoorna; Schnettler, Erica; Roy, Sabita; Ramakrishnan, Sundaram

    2016-10-04

    Angiogenesis is important for tumor growth and metastasis. Hypoxia in tumors drives this angiogenic response by stabilizing Hypoxia Inducible Factors (HIF) and target genes like Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). HIF stability is regulated by Prolylhydroxylases (PHD)-mediated modification. Iron is an important cofactor in regulating the enzymatic activity of PHDs. Reducing intracellular iron, for instance, mimics hypoxia and induces a pro-angiogenic response. It is hypothesized that increasing the intracellular iron levels will have an opposite, anti-angiogenic effect. We tested this hypothesis by perturbing iron homeostasis in endothelial cells using a unique form of iron, Ferric Ammonium Citrate (FAC). FAC is a cell-permeable form of iron, which can passively enter into cells bypassing the transferrin receptor mediated uptake of transferrin-bound iron. Our studies show that FAC does not decrease the levels of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in endothelial cells but inhibits the autocrine stimulation of VEGF-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) system by blocking receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation. FAC inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation and sprouting. Finally, systemic administration of FAC inhibits VEGF and tumor cell-induced angiogenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our studies show that cell-permeable iron attenuates VEGFR-2 mediated signaling and inhibits tumor angiogenesis.

  2. Beyond receptors and signaling: epigenetic factors in the regulation of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Stuti; Jeffrey, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of innate immune cells with pathogens leads to changes in gene expression that elicit our body’s first line of defense against infection. Although signaling pathways and transcription factors have a central role, it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic factors, in the form of DNA or histone modifications, as well as noncoding RNAs, are critical for generating the necessary cell lineage as well as context-specific gene expression in diverse innate immune cell types. Much of the epigenetic landscape is set during cellular differentiation; however, pathogens and other environmental triggers also induce changes in histone modifications that can either promote tolerance or ‘train’ innate immune cells for a more robust antigen-independent secondary response. Here we review the important contribution of epigenetic factors to the initiation, maintenance and training of innate immune responses. In addition, we explore how pathogens have hijacked these mechanisms for their benefit and the potential of small molecules targeting chromatin machinery as a way to boost or subdue the innate immune response in disease. PMID:25559622

  3. Transcription factors relevant to auxin signalling coordinate broad-spectrum metabolic shifts including sulphur metabolism.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Bettina; Witt, Isabell; Zanor, Maria Inés; Steinhauser, Dirk; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Hesse, Holger; Hoefgen, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    A systems approach has previously been used to follow the response behaviour of Arabidopsis thaliana plants upon sulphur limitation. A response network was reconstructed from a time series of transcript and metabolite profiles, integrating complex metabolic and transcript data in order to investigate a potential causal relationship. The resulting scale-free network allowed potential transcriptional regulators of sulphur metabolism to be identified. Here, three sulphur-starvation responsive transcription factors, IAA13, IAA28, and ARF-2 (ARF1-Binding Protein), all of which are related to auxin signalling, were selected for further investigation. IAA28 overexpressing and knock-down lines showed no major morphological changes, whereas IAA13- and ARF1-BP-overexpressing plants grew more slowly than the wild type. Steady-state metabolite levels and expression of pathway-relevant genes were monitored under normal and sulphate-depleted conditions. For all lines, changes in transcript and metabolite levels were observed, yet none of these changes could exclusively be linked to sulphur stress. Instead, up- or down-regulation of the transcription factors caused metabolic changes which in turn affected sulphur metabolism. Auxin-relevant transcription factors are thus part of a complex response pattern to nutrient starvation that serve as coordinators of the metabolic shifts driving sulphur homeostasis rather then as direct effectors of the sulphate assimilation pathway. This study provides the first evidence ever presented that correlates auxin-related transcriptional regulators with primary plant metabolism.

  4. Differences and Similarities in TRAIL- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Necroptotic Signaling in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Philipp, Stephan; Fuchslocher Chico, Johaiber; Saggau, Carina; Fritsch, Jürgen; Föll, Alexandra; Plenge, Johannes; Arenz, Christoph; Pinkert, Thomas; Kalthoff, Holger; Trauzold, Anna; Schmitz, Ingo; Schütze, Stefan; Adam, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a type of regulated necrosis (RN) called necroptosis was identified to be involved in many pathophysiological processes and emerged as an alternative method to eliminate cancer cells. However, only a few studies have elucidated components of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis useful for anticancer therapy. Therefore, we have compared this type of cell death to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated necroptosis and found similar signaling through acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, the mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi, Atg5, and vacuolar H+-ATPase. Notably, executive mechanisms of both TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis are independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and depletion of p38α increases the levels of both types of cell death. Moreover, we found differences in signaling between TNF- and TRAIL-mediated necroptosis, e.g., a lack of involvement of ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and Atg16L1 in executive mechanisms of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis. Furthermore, we discovered indications of an altered involvement of mitochondrial components, since overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 protected Jurkat cells from TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis, and overexpression of Bcl-XL diminished only TRAIL-induced necroptosis in Colo357 cells. Furthermore, TRAIL does not require receptor internalization and endosome-lysosome acidification to mediate necroptosis. Taken together, pathways described for TRAIL-mediated necroptosis and differences from those for TNF-mediated necroptosis might be unique targets to increase or modify necroptotic signaling and eliminate tumor cells more specifically in future anticancer approaches. PMID:27528614

  5. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  6. Initial specification of the epibranchial placode in zebrafish embryos depends on the fibroblast growth factor signal.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masataka; Doi, Kazunao; Shimizu, Takashi; Hibi, Masahiko; Kikuchi, Yutaka; Yamasu, Kyo

    2007-02-01

    In vertebrates, cranial sensory ganglia are mainly derived from ectodermal placodes, which are focal thickenings at characteristic positions in the embryonic head. Here, we provide the first description of the early development of the epibranchial placode in zebrafish embryos using sox3 as a molecular marker. By the one-somite stage, we saw a pair of single sox3-expressing domains appear lateral to the future hindbrain. The sox3 domain, which is referred to here as the early lateral placode, is segregated during the early phase of segmentation to form a pax2a-positive medial area and a pax2a-negative lateral area. The medial area subsequently developed to form the otic placode, while the lateral area was further segregated along the anteroposterior axis, giving rise to four sox3-positive subdomains by 26 hr postfertilization. Given their spatial relationship with the expression of the markers for the epibranchial ganglion, as well as their positions and temporal changes, we propose that these four domains correspond to the facial, glossopharyngeal, vagal, and posterior lateral line placodes in an anterior-to-posterior order. The expression of sox3 in the early lateral placode was absent in mutants lacking functional fgf8, while implantation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) beads restored the sox3 expression. Using SU5402, which inhibits the FGF signal, we were able to demonstrate that formation of both the early lateral domains and later epibranchial placodes depends on the FGF signal operating at the beginning of somitogenesis. Together, these data provide evidence for the essential role of FGF signals in the development of the epibranchial placodes.

  7. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Tiam1: a Janus-faced molecule in cellular signaling.

    PubMed

    Boissier, P; Huynh-Do, U

    2014-03-01

    The Rho family of GTPases consists of several small proteins that have been described as molecular switches, playing important roles in a wide variety of fundamental cellular processes and in human diseases such as cancer. These proteins, active in the GTP conformation and inactive in the GDP form, are in turn regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), guanine nucleotide activating proteins (GAPs) and guanine dissociation inhibitors (GDIs). Two decades ago, Tiam1 (T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis) was identified as a GEF specific for Rac1 activation, but also for Cdc42 and in a lesser extent RhoA. Acting principally upstream of Rac1, Tiam1 is mainly involved in the regulation of Rac1 mediated signaling pathways including cytoskeletal activities, cell polarity, endocytosis and membrane trafficking, cell migration, adhesion and invasion, cell growth and survival, metastasis and carcinogenesis. However, given the large number of protein interaction domains found in its structure, it is possible that Tiam1 affects cellular processes in another way than through its GEF activity by interactions with other signaling proteins. Due to its functional diversity, Tiam1 is involved in multiple steps of tumorigenesis. As its name suggests, Tiam1 has been shown to increase T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis. It also promotes migration of fibroblasts, neuronal and cancer cells. On the contrary, Tiam1-induced cell adhesion has also been described, as opposed to cell migration. Moreover, studies indicate that Tiam1 is involved in both anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic mechanisms. While increasing evidence has demonstrated Tiam1's contribution to tumorigenesis and metastasis, others suggest that Tiam1 could have anti-cancer properties. In the present review, we discuss the current knowledge about the controversial roles of Tiam1 in cellular signaling. In particular, we will focus on Tiam1's regulation, its biological functions and implication in cancer. Copyright

  8. Transforming growth factorsignaling in hypertensive remodeling of porcine aorta

    PubMed Central

    Popovic, Natasa; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Neiger, Jessemy D.; Hu, Jin-Jia; Vannucci, Marina; Mo, Qianxing; Trzeciakowski, Jerome; Miller, Matthew W.; Fossum, Theresa W.; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2009-01-01

    A porcine aortic coarctation model was used to examine regulation of gene expression in early hypertensive vascular remodeling. Aortic segments were collected proximal (high pressure) and distal (low pressure) to the coarctation after 2 wk of sustained hypertension (mean arterial pressure > 150 mmHg). Porcine 10K oligoarrays used for gene expression profiling of the two regions of aorta revealed downregulation of cytoskeletal and upregulation of extracellular region genes relative to the whole genome. A genomic database search for transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) control elements showed that 19% of the genes that changed expression due to hypertension contained putative TGF-β control elements. Real-time RT-PCR and microarray analysis showed no change in expression of TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3, or bone morphogenetic proteins-2 and -4, yet immunohistochemical staining for phosphorylated SMAD2, an indicator of TGF-β signaling, and for phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8, an indicator of signaling through the bone morphogenetic proteins, showed the highest percentage of positively stained cells in the proximal aortic segments of occluded animals. For TGF-β signaling, this increase was significantly different than for sham-operated controls. Western blot analysis showed no difference in total TGF-β1 protein levels with respect to treatment or aortic segment. Immunohistochemistry showed that the protein levels of latency-associated peptide was decreased in proximal segments of occluded animals. Collectively, these results suggest that activation of TGF-β, but not altered expression, may be a major mechanism regulating early hypertensive vascular remodeling. PMID:19717726

  9. Transforming growth factorsignalling controls human breast cancer metastasis in a zebrafish xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Drabsch, Yvette; He, Shuning; Zhang, Long; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; ten Dijke, Peter

    2013-11-07

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway is known to control human breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the zebrafish xenograft assay is a robust and dependable animal model for examining the role of pharmacological modulators and genetic perturbation of TGF-β signalling in human breast tumour cells. We injected cancer cells into the embryonic circulation (duct of cuvier) and examined their invasion and metastasis into the avascular collagenous tail. Various aspects of the TGF-β signalling pathway were blocked by chemical inhibition, small interfering RNA (siRNA), or small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Analysis was conducted using fluorescent microscopy. Breast cancer cells with different levels of malignancy, according to in vitro and in vivo mouse studies, demonstrated invasive and metastatic properties within the embryonic zebrafish model that nicely correlated with their differential tumourigenicity in mouse models. Interestingly, MCF10A M2 and M4 cells invaded into the caudal hematopoietic tissue and were visible as a cluster of cells, whereas MDA MB 231 cells invaded into the tail fin and were visible as individual cells. Pharmacological inhibition with TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors or tumour specific Smad4 knockdown disturbed invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish xenograft model and closely mimicked the results we obtained with these cells in a mouse metastasis model. Inhibition of matrix metallo proteinases, which are induced by TGF-β in breast cancer cells, blocked invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. The zebrafish-embryonic breast cancer xenograft model is applicable for the mechanistic understanding, screening and development of anti-TGF-β drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  10. A role for auxin response factor 19 in auxin and ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jisheng; Dai, Xinhua; Zhao, Yunde

    2006-03-01

    Although auxin response factors (ARFs) are the first well-characterized proteins that bind to the auxin response elements, elucidation of the roles of each ARF gene in auxin responses and plant development has been challenging. Here we show that ARF19 and ARF7 not only participate in auxin signaling, but also play a critical role in ethylene responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots, indicating that the ARFs serve as a cross talk point between the two hormones. Both arf19 and arf7 mutants isolated from our forward genetic screens are auxin resistant and the arf19arf7 double mutant had stronger auxin resistance than the single mutants and displayed phenotypes not seen in the single mutants. Furthermore, we show that a genomic fragment of ARF19 not only complements arf19, but also rescues arf7. We conclude that ARF19 complements ARF7 at the protein level and that the ARF7 target sequences are also recognized by ARF19. Therefore, it is the differences in expression level/pattern and not the differences in protein sequences between the two ARFs that determines the relative contribution of the two ARFs in auxin signaling and plant development. In addition to being auxin resistant, arf19 has also ethylene-insensitive roots and ARF19 expression is induced by ethylene treatment. This work provides a sensitive genetic screen for uncovering auxin-resistant mutants including the described arf mutants. This study also provides a likely mechanism for coordination and integration of hormonal signals to regulate plant growth and development.

  11. Epileptic seizure detection in EEG signals using tunable-Q factor wavelet transform and bootstrap aggregating.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ahnaf Rashik; Siuly, Siuly; Zhang, Yanchun

    2016-12-01

    Epileptic seizure detection is traditionally performed by expert clinicians based on visual observation of EEG signals. This process is time-consuming, burdensome, reliant on expensive human resources, and subject to error and bias. In epilepsy research, on the other hand, manual detection is unsuitable for handling large data-sets. A computerized seizure identification scheme can eradicate the aforementioned problems, aid clinicians, and benefit epilepsy research. In this work, a new automated epilepsy diagnosis scheme based on Tunable-Q factor wavelet transform (TQWT) and bootstrap aggregating (Bagging) using Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is proposed. Until now, this is the first time spectral features in the TQWT domain in conjunction with Bagging are employed for epilepsy seizure identification to the best of the authors' knowledge. At first, we decompose the EEG signal segments into sub-bands using TQWT. We then extract various spectral features from the TQWT sub-bands. The suitability of spectral features in the TQWT domain is established through statistical measures and graphical analyses. Afterwards, Bagging is employed for epileptic seizure classification. The efficacy of Bagging in the proposed detection scheme is also studied in this research. The effects of various TQWT and Bagging parameters are investigated. The optimal choices of these parameters are also determined. The performance of the proposed scheme is studied using a publicly available benchmark EEG database for various classification cases that include inter-ictal (seizure-free interval), ictal (seizure) and healthy; seizure and non-seizure; ictal and inter-ictal; and seizure and healthy. In comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms, the performance of the proposed method is superior in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The seizure detection method proposed herein therefore can alleviate the burden of medical professionals of analyzing a large bulk of data by visual

  12. Colocalization recognition-activated cascade signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive detection of transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Desong; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaowen; Jiang, Wei

    2017-03-15

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences in the regulatory regions of genes to regulate the process of gene transcription. Their expression levels sensitively reflect cell developmental situation and disease state. TFs have become potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets of cancers and some other diseases. Hence, high sensitive detection of TFs is of vital importance for early diagnosis of diseases and drugs development. The traditional exonucleases-assisted signal amplification methods suffered from the false positives caused by incomplete digestion of excess recognition probes. Herein, based on a new recognition way-colocalization recognition (CR)-activated dual signal amplification, an ultrasensitive fluorescent detection strategy for TFs was developed. TFs-induced the colocalization of three split recognition components resulted in noticeable increases of local effective concentrations and hybridization of three split components, which activated the subsequent cascade signal amplification including strand displacement amplification (SDA) and exponential rolling circle amplification (ERCA). This strategy eliminated the false positive influence and achieved ultra-high sensitivity towards the purified NF-κB p50 with detection limit of 2.0×10(-13)M. Moreover, NF-κB p50 can be detected in as low as 0.21ngμL(-1) HeLa cell nuclear extracts. In addition, this proposed strategy could be used for the screening of NF-κB p50 activity inhibitors and potential anti-NF-κB p50 drugs. Finally, our proposed strategy offered a potential method for reliable detection of TFs in medical diagnosis and treatment research of cancers and other related diseases.

  13. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. PMID:26250517

  14. Mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling regulates palatal shelf elevation during secondary palate formation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Karuppaiah, Kannan; Ornitz, David M

    2015-11-01

    Palatal shelf elevation is an essential morphogenetic process during secondary palate closure and failure or delay of palatal shelf elevation is a common cause of cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Here, we studied the role of mesenchymal fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling during palate development by conditional inactivation of Fgfrs using a mesenchyme-specific Dermo1-Cre driver. We showed that Fgfr1 is expressed throughout the palatal mesenchyme and Fgfr2 is expressed in the medial aspect of the posterior palatal mesenchyme overlapping with Fgfr1. Mesenchyme-specific disruption of Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 affected palatal shelf elevation and resulted in cleft palate. We further showed that both Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 are expressed in mesenchymal tissues of the mandibular process but display distinct expression patterns. Loss of mesenchymal FGFR signaling reduced mandibular ossification and lower jaw growth resulting in abnormal tongue insertion in the oral-nasal cavity. We propose a model to explain how redundant Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 expression in the palatal and mandibular mesenchyme regulates shelf medial wall protrusion and growth of the mandible to coordinate the craniofacial tissue movements that are required for palatal shelf elevation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Band-pass processing in a GPCR signaling pathway selects for NFAT transcription factor activation.

    PubMed

    Sumit, M; Neubig, R R; Takayama, S; Linderman, J J

    2015-11-01

    Many biological processes are rhythmic and proper timing is increasingly appreciated as being critical for development and maintenance of physiological functions. To understand how temporal modulation of an input signal influences downstream responses, we employ microfluidic pulsatile stimulation of a G-protein coupled receptor, the muscarinic M3 receptor, in single cells with simultaneous real-time imaging of both intracellular calcium and NFAT nuclear localization. Interestingly, we find that reduced stimulation with pulses of ligand can give more efficient transcription factor activation, if stimuli are timed appropriately. Our experiments and computational analyses show that M3 receptor-induced calcium oscillations form a low pass filter while calcium-induced NFAT translocation forms a high pass filter. The combination acts as a band-pass filter optimized for intermediate frequencies of stimulation. We demonstrate that receptor desensitization and NFAT translocation rates determine critical features of the band-pass filter and that the band-pass may be shifted for different receptors or NFAT dynamics. As an example, we show that the two NFAT isoforms (NFAT4 and NFAT1) have shifted band-pass windows for the same receptor. While we focus specifically on the M3 muscarinic receptor and NFAT translocation, band-pass processing is expected to be a general theme that applies to multiple signaling pathways.

  16. On nonnegative matrix factorization algorithms for signal-dependent noise with application to electromyography data.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Karthik; Cheung, Vincent C K

    2014-06-01

    Nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) by the multiplicative updates algorithm is a powerful machine learning method for decomposing a high-dimensional nonnegative matrix V into two nonnegative matrices, W and H, where V ~ WH. It has been successfully applied in the analysis and interpretation of large-scale data arising in neuroscience, computational biology, and natural language processing, among other areas. A distinctive feature of NMF is its nonnegativity constraints that allow only additive linear combinations of the data, thus enabling it to learn parts that have distinct physical representations in reality. In this letter, we describe an information-theoretic approach to NMF for signal-dependent noise based on the generalized inverse gaussian model. Specifically, we propose three novel algorithms in this setting, each based on multiplicative updates, and prove monotonicity of updates using the EM algorithm. In addition, we develop algorithm-specific measures to evaluate their goodness of fit on data. Our methods are demonstrated using experimental data from electromyography studies, as well as simulated data in the extraction of muscle synergies, and compared with existing algorithms for signal-dependent noise.

  17. Transforming growth factor beta signaling in adult cardiovascular diseases and repair

    PubMed Central

    Doetschman, Thomas; Barnett, Joey V.; Runyan, Raymond B.; Camenisch, Todd D.; Heimark, Ronald L.; Granzier, Henk L.; Conway, Simon J.; Azhar, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    The majority of children with congenital heart disease now live into adulthood due to the remarkable surgical and medical advances that have taken place over the past half century. Because of this, the adults now represent the largest age group with adult cardiovascular diseases. They include patients with heart diseases that were not detected or not treated during childhood, those whose defects were surgically corrected but now need revision due to maladaptive responses to the procedure, those with exercise problems, and those with age-related degenerative diseases. Because adult cardiovascular diseases in this population are relatively new, they are not well understood. It is therefore necessary to understand the molecular and physiological pathways involved if we are to improve treatments. Since there is a developmental basis to adult cardiovascular disease, transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathways that are essential for proper cardiovascular development may also play critical roles in the homeostatic, repair and stress response processes involved in adult cardiovascular diseases. Consequently, we have chosen to summarize the current information on a subset of TGFβ ligand and receptor genes and related effector genes that when dysregulated are known to lead to cardiovascular diseases and adult cardiovascular deficiencies and/or pathologies. A better understanding of the TGFβ signaling network in cardiovascular disease and repair will impact genetic and physiologic investigations of cardiovascular diseases in elderly patients and lead to an improvement in clinical interventions. PMID:21953136

  18. GIPC participates in G protein signaling downstream of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Booth, Ronald A; Cummings, Cathy; Tiberi, Mario; Liu, X Johné

    2002-02-22

    Several recent studies have demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activation is abolished by pertussis toxin, suggesting that trimeric G proteins of the G(i) class are novel cellular targets of the IGF-1 signaling pathway. We report here that the intracellular domain of the Xenopus IGF-1 receptor is capable of binding to the Xenopus homolog of mammalian GIPC, a PDZ domain-containing protein previously identified as a binding partner of G(i)-specific GAP (RGS-GAIP). Binding of xGIPC to xIGF-1 receptor is independent of the kinase activity of the receptor and appears to require the PDZ domain of xGIPC. Injection of two C-terminal truncation mutants that retained the PDZ domain blocked IGF-1-induced Xenopus MAP kinase activation and oocyte maturation. While full-length xGIPC injection did not significantly alter insulin response, it greatly enhanced human RGS-GAIP in stimulating the insulin response in frog oocytes. This represents the first demonstration that GIPC x RGS-GAIP complex acts positively in IGF-1 receptor signal transduction.

  19. PPKs mediate direct signal transfer from phytochrome photoreceptors to transcription factor PIF3

    DOE PAGES

    Ni, Weimin; Xu, Shou-Ling; González-Grandío, Eduardo; ...

    2017-05-11

    Upon light-induced nuclear translocation, phytochrome (phy) sensory photoreceptors interact with, and induce rapid phosphorylation and consequent ubiquitin-mediated degradation of, transcription factors, called PIFs, thereby regulating target gene expression and plant development. Nevertheless, the biochemical mechanism of phy-induced PIF phosphorylation has remained ill-defined. Here in this paper we identify a family of nuclear protein kinases, designated Photoregulatory Protein Kinases (PPK1–4; formerly called MUT9-Like Kinases (MLKs)), that interact with PIF3 and phyB in a light-induced manner in vivo. Genetic analyses demonstrate that the PPKs are collectively necessary for the normal light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of PIF3. PPK1 directly phosphorylates PIF3 in vitro,more » with a phosphosite pattern that strongly mimics the light-induced pattern in vivo. These data establish that the PPKs are directly involved in catalysing the photoactivated-phy-induced phosphorylation of PIF3 in vivo, and thereby are critical components of a transcriptionally centred signalling hub that pleiotropically regulates plant growth and development in response to multiple signalling pathways.« less

  20. Noisy transcription factor NF-κB oscillations stabilize and sensitize cytokine signaling in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangstad, Sirin W.; Feldager, Cilie W.; Juul, Jeppe; Trusina, Ala

    2013-02-01

    NF-κB is a major transcription factor mediating inflammatory response. In response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, it exhibits a characteristic response—a pulse followed by noisy oscillations in concentrations of considerably smaller amplitude. NF-κB is an important mediator of cellular communication, as it is both activated by and upregulates production of cytokines, signals used by white blood cells to find the source of inflammation. While the oscillatory dynamics of NF-κB has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, the role of the noise and the lower secondary amplitude has not been addressed. We use a cellular automaton model to address these issues in the context of spatially distributed communicating cells. We find that noisy secondary oscillations stabilize concentric wave patterns, thus improving signal quality. Furthermore, both lower secondary amplitude as well as noise in the oscillation period might be working against chronic inflammation, the state of self-sustained and stimulus-independent excitations. Our findings suggest that the characteristic irregular secondary oscillations of lower amplitude are not accidental. On the contrary, they might have evolved to increase robustness of the inflammatory response and the system's ability to return to a pre-stimulated state.

  1. Diverse ETS transcription factors mediate FGF signaling in the Ciona anterior neural plate.

    PubMed

    Gainous, T Blair; Wagner, Eileen; Levine, Michael

    2015-03-15

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis is a marine invertebrate belonging to the sister group of the vertebrates, the tunicates. Its compact genome and simple, experimentally tractable embryos make Ciona well-suited for the study of cell-fate specification in chordates. Tunicate larvae possess a characteristic chordate body plan, and many developmental pathways are conserved between tunicates and vertebrates. Previous studies have shown that FGF signals are essential for neural induction and patterning at sequential steps of Ciona embryogenesis. Here we show that two different ETS family transcription factors, Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4, have partially redundant activities in the anterior neural plate of gastrulating embryos. Whereas Ets1/2 promotes pigment cell formation in lateral lineages, both Ets1/2 and Elk1/3/4 are involved in the activation of Myt1L in medial lineages and the restriction of Six3/6 expression to the anterior-most regions of the neural tube. We also provide evidence that photoreceptor cells arise from posterior regions of the presumptive sensory vesicle, and do not depend on FGF signaling. Cells previously identified as photoreceptor progenitors instead form ependymal cells and neurons of the larval brain. Our results extend recent findings on FGF-dependent patterning of anterior-posterior compartments in the Ciona central nervous system. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. The role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling in SARS coronavirus-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Thiagarajan; Frieman, Matthew B

    2017-07-01

    Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection. In this article, we summarize pulmonary fibrotic changes observed after a SARS-CoV infection, discuss the extent to which other respiratory viruses induce fibrosis, describe available animal models to study the development of SARS-CoV induced fibrosis and review evidence that pulmonary fibrosis is caused by a hyperactive host response to lung injury mediated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. We summarize work from our group and others indicating that inhibiting EGFR signaling may prevent an excessive fibrotic response to SARS-CoV and other respiratory viral infections and propose directions for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Activin A-Smad Signaling Mediates Connective Tissue Growth Factor Synthesis in Liver Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ze-Yang; Jin, Guan-Nan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yi-Min; Chen, Wei-Xun; Chen, Lin; Liang, Hui-Fang; Datta, Pran K; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-03-22

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated in chronic liver damage and may contribute to liver fibrosis. Our previous investigation reported that LPCs produced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), an inducer of liver fibrosis, yet the regulatory mechanism of the production of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs remains elusive. In this study, we report that Activin A is an inducer of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs. Here we show that expression of both Activin A and CTGF/CCN2 were upregulated in the cirrhotic liver, and the expression of Activin A positively correlates with that of CTGF/CCN2 in liver tissues. We go on to show that Activin A induced de novo synthesis of CTGF/CCN2 in LPC cell lines LE/6 and WB-F344. Furthermore, Activin A contributed to autonomous production of CTGF/CCN2 in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) via activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Smad2, 3 and 4 were all required for this induction. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the fibrotic role of LPCs in the liver and suggest that the Activin A-Smad-CTGF/CCN2 signaling in LPCs may be a therapeutic target of liver fibrosis.

  4. Roles of the pH signaling transcription factor PacC in Wangiella (Exophiala) dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qin; Szaniszlo, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    To study the function of the PacC transcription factor in Wangiella dermatitidis, a black, polymorphic fungal pathogen of humans with yeast-phase predominance, the PACC gene was cloned, sequenced, disrupted and expressed. Three zinc finger DNA-binding motifs were found at the N-terminus, and a signaling protease cleavage site at the C-terminus. PACC was more expressed at neutral-alkaline pH than at acidic pH. Truncation at about 40 residues of the coding sequence upstream of the conserved protease processing cleavage site of PacC affected growth on a nutrient-rich medium, increased sensitivity to Na+ stress, decreased yeast growth at neutral-alkaline pH, and repressed hyphal growth on a nutrient-poor medium at 25°C.Truncation at the coding sequence for the conserved signaling protease box of PacC impaired growth and reduced RNA expression of the class II chitin synthase gene at acidic pH. The results suggested that PacC is important not only for the adaptation of W. dermatitidis to different ambient pH conditions and Na+ stress conditions, but also for influencing yeast-hyphal transitions in this agent of phaeohyphomycosis. PMID:19501183

  5. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 signaling regulates the onset of oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Luke Y S; Denninger, Adam; Colvin, Jennifer S; Vyas, Aditee; Tole, Shubha; Ornitz, David M; Bansal, Rashmi

    2003-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling is essential for nervous system development. We have shown that, in the normal postnatal brain, the spatial and temporal expression pattern of FGFR3 parallels the appearance of differentiated oligodendrocytes and that in culture FGFR3 is expressed maximally at the critical stage in the lineage at which oligodendrocyte late progenitors (Pro-OLs) enter terminal differentiation. Therefore, FGFR3 expression is positioned ideally to have an impact on oligodendrocyte differentiation. In support of this we show that, during the onset and active phase of myelination in FGFR3-deficient mice, there are reduced numbers of differentiated oligodendrocytes in the forebrain, cerebellum, hindbrain, and spinal cord. Furthermore, myelination is delayed in parallel. Delay of oligodendrocyte differentiation also is observed in primary cell culture from this mutant. On the other hand, no differences are observed in the survival or proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors. This suggests that the decrease in the number of differentiated oligodendrocytes is attributable to a delay in the timing of their differentiation process. Astrocytes also express FGFR3, and in mice lacking FGFR3 there is an enhancement of the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in a region-specific manner. Thus our findings suggest that there are cell type- and region-specific functions for FGFR3 signaling and in particular emphasize a prominent role for FGFR3 as part of a system regulating the onset of oligodendrocyte terminal differentiation.

  6. FAIMS and Phosphoproteomics of Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling: Enhanced Identification of Multiply Phosphorylated Peptides.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Cunningham, Debbie L; Creese, Andrew J; Heath, John K; Cooper, Helen J

    2015-12-04

    We have applied liquid chromatography high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry tandem mass spectrometry (LC-FAIMS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to the investigation of site-specific phosphorylation in fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling. We have combined a SILAC approach with chemical inhibition by SU5402 (an FGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and dasatinib (a Src family kinase inhibitor). The results show that incorporation of FAIMS within the workflow results in (a) an increase in the relative proportion of phosphothreonine and phosphotyrosine sites identified, (b) an increase in phosphopeptide identifications from precursors with charge states ≥ +3 (with an associated increase in peptide length), and (c) an increase in the identification of multiply phosphorylated peptides. Approximately 20% of the phosphorylation sites identified via the FAIMS workflow had not been reported previously, and over 80% of those were from multiply phosphorylated peptides. Moreover, FAIMS provided access to a distinct set of phosphorylation sites regulated in response to SU5402 and dasatinib. The enhanced identification of multiply phosphorylated peptides was particularly striking in the case of sites regulated by SU5402. In addition to providing a compelling example of the complementarity of FAIMS in phosphoproteomics, the results provide a valuable resource of phosphorylation sites for further investigation of FGF signaling and trafficking.

  7. Activin A-Smad Signaling Mediates Connective Tissue Growth Factor Synthesis in Liver Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Ze-Yang; Jin, Guan-Nan; Wang, Wei; Sun, Yi-Min; Chen, Wei-Xun; Chen, Lin; Liang, Hui-Fang; Datta, Pran K.; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are activated in chronic liver damage and may contribute to liver fibrosis. Our previous investigation reported that LPCs produced connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2), an inducer of liver fibrosis, yet the regulatory mechanism of the production of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs remains elusive. In this study, we report that Activin A is an inducer of CTGF/CCN2 in LPCs. Here we show that expression of both Activin A and CTGF/CCN2 were upregulated in the cirrhotic liver, and the expression of Activin A positively correlates with that of CTGF/CCN2 in liver tissues. We go on to show that Activin A induced de novo synthesis of CTGF/CCN2 in LPC cell lines LE/6 and WB-F344. Furthermore, Activin A contributed to autonomous production of CTGF/CCN2 in liver progenitor cells (LPCs) via activation of the Smad signaling pathway. Smad2, 3 and 4 were all required for this induction. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the fibrotic role of LPCs in the liver and suggest that the Activin A-Smad-CTGF/CCN2 signaling in LPCs may be a therapeutic target of liver fibrosis. PMID:27011166

  8. On how a transcription factor can avoid its proteolytic activation in the absence of signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Espeso, Eduardo A.; Roncal, Tomás; Díez, Eliecer; Rainbow, Lynne; Bignell, Elaine; Álvaro, Josué; Suárez, Teresa; Denison, Steven H.; Tilburn, Joan; Arst, Herbert N.; Peñalva, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    In response to alkaline ambient pH, the Aspergillus nidulans PacC transcription factor mediating pH regulation of gene expression is activated by proteolytic removal of a negative-acting C–terminal domain. We demonstrate interactions involving the ∼150 C–terminal PacC residues and two regions located immediately downstream of the DNA binding domain. Our data indicate two full-length PacC conformations whose relative amounts depend upon ambient pH: one ‘open’ and accessible for processing, the other ‘closed’ and inaccessible. The location of essential determinants for proteolytic processing within the two more upstream interacting regions probably explains why the interactions prevent processing, whereas the direct involvement of the C–terminal region in processing-preventing interactions explains why C–terminal truncating mutations result in alkalinity mimicry and pH-independent processing. A mutant PacC deficient in pH signal response and consequent processing behaves as though locked in the ‘closed’ form. Single-residue substitutions, obtained as mutations bypassing the need for pH signal transduction, identify crucial residues in each of the three interactive regions and overcome the processing deficiency in the ‘permanently closed’ mutant. PMID:10675341

  9. Geraniol Suppresses Angiogenesis by Downregulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, Christine; Scheuer, Claudia; Parakenings, Julia; Menger, Michael D.; Laschke, Matthias W.

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol exerts several direct pharmacological effects on tumor cells and, thus, has been suggested as a promising anti-cancer compound. Because vascularization is a major precondition for tumor growth, we analyzed in this study the anti-angiogenic action of geraniol. In vitro, geraniol reduced the migratory activity of endothelial-like eEND2 cells. Western blot analyses further revealed that geraniol downregulates proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and upregulates cleaved caspase-3 (Casp-3) expression in eEND2 cells. Moreover, geraniol blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGFR-2 signal transduction, resulting in a suppression of downstream AKT and ERK signaling pathways. In addition, geraniol significantly reduced vascular sprout formation in a rat aortic ring assay. In vivo, geraniol inhibited the vascularization of CT26 tumors in dorsal skinfold chambers of BALB/c mice, which was associated with a smaller tumor size when compared to vehicle-treated controls. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed a decreased number of Ki67-positive cells and CD31-positive microvessels with reduced VEGFR-2 expression within geraniol-treated tumors. Taken together, these findings indicate that geraniol targets multiple angiogenic mechanisms and, therefore, is an attractive candidate for the anti-angiogenic treatment of tumors. PMID:26154255

  10. The Nuclear Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Network and its Role in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Toni M.; Iida, Mari; Li, Chunrong; Wheeler, Deric L.

    2012-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). EGFR activation via ligand binding results in signaling through various pathways ultimately resulting in cellular proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Aberrant expression or activity of EGFR has been strongly linked to the etiology of several human epithelial cancers including but not limited to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer, pancreatic cancer and brain cancer. Thus intense efforts have been made to inhibit the activity of EGFR by designing antibodies against the ligand binding domains (cetuximab and panitumumab) or small molecules against the tyrosine kinase domains (erlotinib, gefitinib, and lapatinib). Although targeting membrane bound EGFR has shown benefit a new and emerging role for the EGFR is now being elucidated. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge of the nuclear EGFR signaling network, including how it is trafficked to the nucleus, the functions it serves in the nucleus, and how these functions impact cancer progression, survival and response to chemotherapeutics. PMID:22127113

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early signals in root hair cells responding to rhizobial nodulation factors

    PubMed Central

    Quinto, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in supporting polar growth in pollen tubes, fucoid cells and root hair cells. However, there is limited evidence showing ROS changes during the earliest stages of the interaction between legume roots and rhizobia. We recently reported using Phaseolus vulgaris as a model system, the occurrence of a transient increase of ROS, within seconds, at the tip of actively growing root hair cells after treatment with Nod factors (NFs).1 This transient response is NFs-specific, and clearly distinct from the ROS changes induced by a fungal elicitor, with which sustained increases in ROS signal, is observed. Since ROS levels are transiently elevated after NFs perception, we propose that this ROS response is specific of the symbiotic interaction. Furthermore, the observed ROS changes correlate spatially and temporarily with the reported transient increases in calcium levels suggesting key roles for calcium and ROS during the early NF perception. PMID:19704506

  12. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as early signals in root hair cells responding to rhizobial nodulation factors.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Luis; Quinto, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in supporting polar growth in pollen tubes, fucoid cells and root hair cells. However, there is limited evidence showing ROS changes during the earliest stages of the interaction between legume roots and rhizobia. We recently reported using Phaseolus vulgaris as a model system, the occurrence of a transient increase of ROS, within seconds, at the tip of actively growing root hair cells after treatment with Nod factors (NFs).1 This transient response is NFs-specific, and clearly distinct from the ROS changes induced by a fungal elicitor, with which sustained increases in ROS signal, is observed. Since ROS levels are transiently elevated after NFs perception, we propose that this ROS response is specific of the symbiotic interaction. Furthermore, the observed ROS changes correlate spatially and temporarily with the reported transient increases in calcium levels suggesting key roles for calcium and ROS during the early NF perception.

  13. Palmitoylation of TEAD Transcription Factors Is Required for Their Stability and Function in Hippo Pathway Signaling.

    PubMed

    Noland, Cameron L; Gierke, Sarah; Schnier, Paul D; Murray, Jeremy; Sandoval, Wendy N; Sagolla, Meredith; Dey, Anwesha; Hannoush, Rami N; Fairbrother, Wayne J; Cunningham, Christian N

    2016-01-05

    The Hippo signaling pathway is responsible for regulating the function of TEAD family transcription factors in metazoans. TEADs, with their co-activators YAP/TAZ, are critical for controlling cell differentiation and organ size through their transcriptional activation of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation. Dysregulation of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in multiple forms of cancer. Here, we identify a novel form of regulation of TEAD family proteins. We show that human TEADs are palmitoylated at a universally conserved cysteine, and report the crystal structures of the human TEAD2 and TEAD3 YAP-binding domains in their palmitoylated forms. These structures show a palmitate bound within a highly conserved hydrophobic cavity at each protein's core. Our findings also demonstrate that this modification is required for proper TEAD folding and stability, indicating a potential new avenue for pharmacologically regulating the Hippo pathway through the modulation of TEAD palmitoylation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. New horizons at the caudal embryos: coordinated urogenital/reproductive organ formation by growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Economides, Aris; Yanagita, Motoko; Graf, Daniel; Yamada, Gen

    2009-10-01

    The cloaca/urogenital sinus and its adjacent region differentiate into the urogenital/reproductive organs. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS; including mermaid syndrome), a type of severe cloacal malformation displays hindlimb fusion and urogenital organ defects, thus suggesting that such defects are caused by several morphogenetic alterations during early development. The attenuation of bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling at the posterior primitive streak of embryos leads to the caudal dysmorphogenesis including the cloaca and fusion of both hindlimbs. Genetic tissue lineage studies indicate the presence of coordinated organogenesis. Hedgehog (HH)-responding cells derived from peri-cloacal mesenchyme (PCM) contribute to the urogenital/reproductive organs. These findings indicate the existence of developmental programs for the coordinated organogenesis of urogenital/reproductive tissues based on growth factor function and crosstalk.

  15. Signal Enhancement and Limiting Factors in Waveguides Containing Si Nanoclusters and Er3+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Urrios, Daniel; Daldosso, Nicola; García, Cristina; Pellegrino, Paolo; Garrido, Blas; Gourbilleau, Fabrice; Rizk, Richard; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2007-10-01

    Rib-loaded waveguides containing Er3+ ions coupled to Si nanoclusters (Si-nc) prepared by reactive magnetron co-sputtering have been studied with the aim of improving the optical amplification at 1.54 μm. A set of waveguides with different refractive indices has been fabricated by reducing the annealing duration to investigate the influence of the reorganization (quality) of the dielectric matrix and of the Si-nc clustering on the amplification of Er3+ signal. Insertion losses, photoluminescence, lifetime and pump/probe measurements have been carried out to characterize, understand and optimize the main factors that are preventing a net optical gain in these samples, i.e., low excitable erbium fraction through the nanoclusters, cooperative up-conversion and confined carrier absorption. Evidences of partial inversion of the Er3+ ions excited via Si-nc are presented.

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease: Is Inflammatory Signaling a Key Player?

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Sabbir, Mohammad Golam; Albensi, Benedict C

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become a significant medical and social concern within the last 30 years. TBI has acute devastating effects, and in many cases, seems to initiate long-term neurodegeneration. With advances in medical technology, many people are now surviving severe brain injuries and their long term consequences. Post trauma effects include communication problems, sensory deficits, emotional and behavioral problems, physical complications and pain, increased suicide risk, dementia, and an increased risk for chronic CNS diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this review, we provide an introduction to TBI and hypothesize how it may lead to neurodegenerative disease in general and AD in particular. In addition, we discuss the evidence that supports the hypothesis that TBI may lead to AD. In particular, we focus on inflammatory responses as key processes in TBI-induced secondary injury, with emphasis on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling.

  17. New horizons at the caudal embryos; coordinated urogenital/reproductive organ formation by growth factor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kentaro; Economides, Aris; Yanagita, Motoko; Graf, Daniel; Yamada, Gen

    2009-01-01

    Summary The cloaca/urogenital sinus and its adjacent region differentiate into the urogenital/reproductive organs. Caudal regression syndrome (CRS; including Mermaid syndrome), a type of severe cloacal malformation displays hindlimb fusion and urogenital organ defects, thus suggesting that such defects are caused by several morphogenetic alterations during early development. The attenuation of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (Bmp) signaling at the posterior primitive streak of embryos leads to the caudal dysmorphogenesis including the cloaca and fusion of both hindlimbs. Genetic tissue lineage studies indicate the presence of coordinated organogenesis. Hedgehog (HH)-responding cells derived from peri-cloacal mesenchyme (PCM) contribute to the urogenital/reproductive organs. These findings indicate the existence o f developmental programs for the coordinated organogenesis of urogenital/reproductive tissues based on growth factor function and crosstalk. PMID:19765973

  18. The RWP-RK factor GROUNDED promotes embryonic polarity by facilitating YODA MAP kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sangho; Palmer, Travis M; Lukowitz, Wolfgang

    2011-08-09

    The division of plant zygotes is typically asymmetric, generating daughter cells with different developmental fates. In Arabidopsis, the apical daughter cell produces the proembryo, whereas the basal daughter cell forms the mostly extraembryonic suspensor. Establishment of apical and basal fates is known to depend on the YODA (YDA) mitogen-associated protein (MAP) kinase cascade and WUSCHEL-LIKE HOMEOBOX (WOX) homeodomain transcription factors. Mutations in GROUNDED (GRD) cause anatomical defects implying a partial loss of developmental asymmetry in the first division. Subsequently, suspensor-specific WOX8 expression disappears while proembryo-specific ZLL expression expands in the mutants, revealing that basal fates are confounded. GRD encodes a small nuclear protein of the RWP-RK family and is broadly transcribed in the early embryo. Loss of GRD eliminates the dominant effects of hyperactive YDA variants, indicating that GRD is required for YDA-dependent signaling in the embryo. However, GRD function is not regulated via direct phosphorylation by MAP kinases, and forced expression of GRD does not suppress the effect of yda mutations. In a strong synthetic interaction, grd;wox8;wox9 triple mutants arrest as zygotes or one-cell embryos lacking apparent polarity. The predicted transcription factor GRD acts cooperatively with WOX homeodomain proteins to establish embryonic polarity in the first division. Like YDA, GRD promotes zygote elongation and basal cell fates. GRD function is required for YDA-dependent signaling but apparently not regulated by the YDA MAP kinase cascade. Similarity of GRD to Chlamydomonas MID suggests a conserved role for small RWP-RK proteins in regulating the transcriptional programs of generative cells and the zygote. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Piwi-like 2 mediates fibroblast growth factor signaling during gastrulation of zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jun; Sun, Huaqin; Deng, Wenqian; Li, Dan; Liu, Yanyan; Lu, Yilu; Liu, Yunqiang; Tao, Dachang; Zhang, Sizhong; Ma, Yongxin

    2010-09-01

    Piwi (P-element-induced wimpy testis) proteins have been shown to play important roles in maintenance of germ line stem cells, germ cell proliferation and differentiation, and control of Piwi-interacting RNAs (PiRNAs). PiRNAs comprise a broad class of small noncoding RNAs that function as an endogenous defense system against transposable elements. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signals, mediated partly by no tail gene (ntl), are responsible for patterning embryo and mesoderm formation. To understand the function of Piwi proteins, we used zebrafish as a model system. In zebrafish, piwi-like 2 gene (piwil2) is also required for germ cell differentiation and meiosis. Here we report that piwil2 knockdown is able to inhibit the expression of fibroblast growth factor 8a (fgf8a). In contrast, injection with piwil2 mRNA enhances fgf8a expression. Knockdown of piwil2 reduces the inductive effect of fgf8a on dorsalized phenotype, in which embryos extend to an oval shape at the end of epiboly stage. Coinjection with fgf8a and piwil2 mRNAs led to more seriously dorsalized phenotype than coinjection with fgf8a mRNA and piwil2-cMO. In addition, knockdown of piwil2 inhibits the inductive effect of fgf8a on ntl, whereas overexpression of piwil2 enhances the inductive effect of fgf8a on ntl. We also demonstrate that piwil2 positively regulates ntl expression at bud stage, while piwil2 negatively regulates ntl expression at 24 hours post-fertilization. Thus, the functional consequences of piwil2 expression vary during early development of zebrafish embryo. Taken together, we suggest that zebrafish piwil2 is a mediator of Fgf signals in gastrula period.

  20. Matriptase activation connects tissue factor-dependent coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sylvain M; Szabo, Roman; Lee, Melody; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Craik, Charles S; Bugge, Thomas H; Camerer, Eric

    2016-06-23

    The coagulation cascade is designed to sense tissue injury by physical separation of the membrane-anchored cofactor tissue factor (TF) from inactive precursors of coagulation proteases circulating in plasma. Once TF on epithelial and other extravascular cells is exposed to plasma, sequential activation of coagulation proteases coordinates hemostasis and contributes to host defense and tissue repair. Membrane-anchored serine proteases (MASPs) play critical roles in the development and homeostasis of epithelial barrier tissues; how MASPs are activated in mature epithelia is unknown. We here report that proteases of the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation transactivate the MASP matriptase, thus connecting coagulation initiation to epithelial proteolysis and signaling. Exposure of TF-expressing cells to factors (F) VIIa and Xa triggered the conversion of latent pro-matriptase to an active protease, which in turn cleaved the pericellular substrates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) and pro-urokinase. An activation pathway-selective PAR2 mutant resistant to direct cleavage by TF:FVIIa and FXa was activated by these proteases when cells co-expressed pro-matriptase, and matriptase transactivation was necessary for efficient cleavage and activation of wild-type PAR2 by physiological concentrations of TF:FVIIa and FXa. The coagulation initiation complex induced rapid and prolonged enhancement of the barrier function of epithelial monolayers that was dependent on matriptase transactivation and PAR2 signaling. These observations suggest that the coagulation cascade engages matriptase to help coordinate epithelial defense and repair programs after injury or infection, and that matriptase may contribute to TF-driven pathogenesis in cancer and inflammation.

  1. Divergent fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways in lung fibroblast subsets: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camp, Jordi; Morty, Rory E

    2015-10-15

    Lung fibroblasts play a key role in postnatal lung development, namely, the formation of the alveolar gas exchange units, through the process of secondary septation. Although evidence initially highlighted roles for fibroblasts in the production and remodeling of the lung extracellular matrix, more recent studies have described the presence of different fibroblast subsets in the developing lung. These subsets include myofibroblasts and lipofibroblasts and their precursors. These cells are believed to play different roles in alveologenesis and are localized to different regions of the developing septa. The precise roles played by these different fibroblast subsets remain unclear. Understanding the signaling pathways that control the discrete functions of these fibroblast subsets would help to clarify the roles and the regulation of lung fibroblasts during lung development. Here, we critically evaluate a recent report that described divergent fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling pathways in two different subsets of lung fibroblasts that express different levels of green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α promoter. The GFP expression was used as a surrogate for lipofibroblasts (GFP(low)) and myofibroblasts (GFP(high)). It was suggested that Fgf10/Fgf1 and Fgf18/Fgfr3 autocrine pathways may be operative in GFP(low) and GFP(high) cells, respectively, and that these pathways might regulate the proliferation and migration of different fibroblast subsets during alveologenesis. These observations lay important groundwork for the further exploration of FGF function during normal lung development, as well as in aberrant lung development associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

  2. Fibroblast Growth Factor Type 2 Signaling Is Critical for DNA Repair in Human Keratinocyte Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harfouche, Ghida; Vaigot, Pierre; Rachidi, Walid; Rigaud, Odile; Moratille, Sandra; Marie, Mélanie; Lemaitre, Gilles; Fortunel, Nicolas O; Martin, Michèle T

    2010-01-01

    Tissue stem cells must be endowed with superior maintenance and repair systems to ensure genomic stability over multiple generations, which would be less necessary in more differentiated cells. We previously reported that human keratinocyte stem cells were more resistant to ionizing radiation toxicity than their direct progeny, the keratinocyte progenitor cells. In the present study we addressed the mechanisms underlying this difference. Investigations of DNA repair showed that both single and double DNA strand breaks were repaired more rapidly and more efficiently in stem cells than in progenitors. As cell signaling is a key regulatory step in the management of DNA damage, a gene profiling study was performed. Data revealed that several genes of the fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF2) signaling pathway were induced by DNA damage in stem cells and not in progenitors. Furthermore, an increased content of the FGF2 protein was found in irradiated stem cells, both for the secreted and the cellular forms of the protein. To examine the role of endogenous FGF2 in DNA repair, stem cells were exposed to FGF2 pathway inhibitors. Blocking the FGF2 receptor (FGF receptor 1) or the kinase (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) resulted in a inhibition of single and double DNA strand-break repair in the keratinocyte stem cells. Moreover, supplementing the progenitor cells with exogenous FGF2 activated their DNA repair. We propose that, apart from its well-known role as a strong mitogen and prosurvival factor, FGF2 helps to maintain genomic integrity in stem cells by activating stress-induced DNA repair. Stem Cells 2010; 28:1639–1648. PMID:20681019

  3. Fibroblast growth factor type 2 signaling is critical for DNA repair in human keratinocyte stem cells.

    PubMed

    Harfouche, Ghida; Vaigot, Pierre; Rachidi, Walid; Rigaud, Odile; Moratille, Sandra; Marie, Mélanie; Lemaitre, Gilles; Fortunel, Nicolas O; Martin, Michèle T

    2010-09-01

    Tissue stem cells must be endowed with superior maintenance and repair systems to ensure genomic stability over multiple generations, which would be less necessary in more differentiated cells. We previously reported that human keratinocyte stem cells were more resistant to ionizing radiation toxicity than their direct progeny, the keratinocyte progenitor cells. In the present study we addressed the mechanisms underlying this difference. Investigations of DNA repair showed that both single and double DNA strand breaks were repaired more rapidly and more efficiently in stem cells than in progenitors. As cell signaling is a key regulatory step in the management of DNA damage, a gene profiling study was performed. Data revealed that several genes of the fibroblast growth factor type 2 (FGF2) signaling pathway were induced by DNA damage in stem cells and not in progenitors. Furthermore, an increased content of the FGF2 protein was found in irradiated stem cells, both for the secreted and the cellular forms of the protein. To examine the role of endogenous FGF2 in DNA repair, stem cells were exposed to FGF2 pathway inhibitors. Blocking the FGF2 receptor (FGF receptor 1) or the kinase (Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase 1) resulted in a inhibition of single and double DNA strand-break repair in the keratinocyte stem cells. Moreover, supplementing the progenitor cells with exogenous FGF2 activated their DNA repair. We propose that, apart from its well-known role as a strong mitogen and prosurvival factor, FGF2 helps to maintain genomic integrity in stem cells by activating stress-induced DNA repair.

  4. Nod factors and a diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi stimulate lateral root formation in Medicago truncatula via the DMI1/DMI2 signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Oláh, Boglárka; Brière, Christian; Bécard, Guillaume; Dénarié, Jean; Gough, Clare

    2005-10-01

    Legumes form two different types of intracellular root symbioses, with fungi and bacteria, resulting in arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen-fixing nodules, respectively. Rhizobial signalling molecules, called Nod factors, play a key role in establishing the rhizobium-legume association and genes have been identified in Medicago truncatula that control a Nod factor signalling pathway leading to nodulation. Three of these genes, the so-called DMI1, DMI2 and DMI3 genes, are also required for formation of mycorrhiza, indicating that the symbiotic pathways activated by both the bacterial and the fungal symbionts share common steps. To analyse possible cross-talk between these pathways we have studied the effect of treatment with Nod factors on mycorrhization in M. truncatula. We show that Nod factors increase mycorrhizal colonization and stimulate lateral root formation. The stimulation of lateral root formation by Nod factors requires both the same structural features of Nod factors and the same plant genes (NFP, DMI1, DMI2, DMI3 and NSP1) that are required for other Nod factor-induced symbiotic responses such as early nodulin gene induction and cortical cell division. A diffusible factor from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was also found to stimulate lateral root formation, while three root pathogens did not have the same effect. Lateral root formation induced by fungal signal(s) was found to require the DMI1 and DMI2 genes, but not DMI3. The idea that this diffusible fungal factor might correspond to a previously hypothesized mycorrhizal signal, the 'Myc factor', is discussed.

  5. Pioglitazone normalizes insulin signaling in the diabetic rat retina through reduction in tumor necrosis factor α and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Youde; Thakran, Shalini; Bheemreddy, Rajini; Ye, Eun-Ah; He, Hui; Walker, Robert J; Steinle, Jena J

    2014-09-19

    Dysfunctional insulin signaling is a key component of type 2 diabetes. Little is understood of the effects of systemic diabetes on retinal insulin signaling. A number of agents are used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes to normalize glucose levels and improve insulin signaling; however, little has been done to investigate the effects of these agents on retinal insulin signal transduction. We hypothesized that pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, would normalize retinal insulin signal transduction through reduced tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) activities in whole retina and retinal endothelial cells (REC) and Müller cells. To test this hypothesis, we used the BBZDR/Wor type 2 diabetic rat model, as well as REC and Müller cells cultured in normoglycemia and hyperglycemic conditions, to investigate the effects of pioglitazone on TNFα, SOCS3, and downstream insulin signal transduction proteins. We also evaluated pioglitazone's effects on retinal function using electroretinogram and markers of apoptosis. Data demonstrate that 2 months of pioglitazone significantly increased electroretinogram amplitudes in type 2 diabetic obese rats, which was associated with improved insulin receptor activation. These changes occurred in both REC and Müller cells treated with pioglitazone, suggesting that these two cell types are key to insulin resistance in the retina. Taken together, these data provide evidence of impaired insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes rats, which was improved by increasing PPARγ activity. Further investigations of PPARγ actions in the retina may provide improved treatment options.

  6. Laminar patterning in the developing neocortex by temporally coordinated fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Ashigaki, Shizuko; Takamatsu, Masako; Suzuki-Migishima, Rika; Ohbayashi, Norihiko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Takada, Shinji; Tanabe, Yasuto

    2004-10-06

    Laminar organization, a fundamental neural architecture in the CNS, is a prominent feature of the neocortex, where the cortical neurons in spatially distinct layers are generated from the common progenitors in a temporally distinct manner during development. Despite many advances in the characterization of the molecular mechanisms of the radial migration of cortical neurons, the way in which the early-late temporal sequence of cortical neuron generation is linked with the deep-superficial spatial sequence of cell body positioning remains obscure. Using in vivo electroporation-mediated gene transfer, we show here that the activities mediated by fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in cortical progenitors are critical for conferring proper migratory properties on nascent neuronal progeny. Furthermore, we provide supportive evidence that Pea3 subfamily members of Ets (Pea3-Ets) transcription factors mediate the activities of FGFR at the mid to late phase of neocortical development. In addition, using FGF18 knock-out mice, we demonstrate that FGF18 expressed by early-generated cortical neurons in the cortical plate is critical for the expression of Pea3-Ets transcription factors and that FGF18 is sufficient to induce their expressions. Our results thus imply that a feedback mechanism mediated by FGF signaling is involved in setting up the proper laminar positioning of cortical neurons; FGF18 derived from early-generated cortical neurons acts on the cortical progenitors expressing FGFRs and induces the expression of Pea3-Ets transcription factors that, in turn, confer proper migratory behaviors on nascent cortical progeny during the mid to late stages of neocortical development.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling Controls Liver Size in Mice With Humanized Livers

    PubMed Central

    Naugler, Willscott E.; Tarlow, Branden D.; Fedorov, Lev M.; Taylor, Matthew; Pelz, Carl; Li, Bin; Darnell, Jennifer; Grompe, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims The ratio of liver size to body weight (hepatostat) is tightly controlled, but little is known about how the physiologic functions of the liver help determine its size. Livers of mice repopulated with human hepatocytes (humanized livers) grow to larger than normal; the human hepatocytes do not recognize fibroblast growth factor-15 (FGF15) produced by mouse intestine. This results in upregulation of bile acid synthesis in the human hepatocytes and enlargement of the bile acid pool. We investigated whether abnormal bile acid signaling affects the hepatostat in mice. Methods We crossed Fah−/−, Rag2−/−, Il2r−/− mice with NOD mice to create FRGN mice, whose livers can be fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. We inserted the gene for human FGF19 (ortholog to mouse Fgf15), including regulatory sequences, into the FRGN mice to create FRGN19+ mice. Livers of FRGN19+ mice and their FRGN littermates were fully repopulated with human hepatocytes. Liver tissues were collected and bile acid pool sizes and RNA sequences were analyzed and compared with those of mice without humanized livers (controls). Results Livers were larger in FRGN mice with humanized livers (13% of body weight), compared to control FRGN mice; they also had much larger bile acid pools and aberrant bile acid signaling. Livers from FRGN19+ normalized to 7.8% of body weight, and their bile acid pool and signaling more closely resembled that of control FRGN19+ mice. RNA sequence analysis showed activation of the Hippo pathway, and immunohistochemical and transcription analyses revealed increased hepatocyte proliferation, but not apoptosis, in the enlarged humanized livers of FRGN mice. Cell sorting experiments showed that although healthy human liver does not produce FGF19, non-parenchymal cells from cholestatic livers produce FGF19. Conclusions In mice with humanized livers, expression of an FGF19 transgene corrects bile acid signaling defects, resulting in normalization of bile

  8. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-Frs2α signaling is critical for nephron progenitors.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Valeria; Walker, Kenneth A; Bushnell, Daniel; Schaefer, Caitlin; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Puri, Pawan; Bates, Carlton M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies using transgenic Pax3cre mice have revealed roles for fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) and Fgfr substrate 2α (Frs2α) signaling in early metanephric mesenchyme patterning and in ureteric morphogenesis. The role of Fgfr/Frs2α signaling in nephron progenitors is unknown. Thus, we generated mouse models using BAC transgenic Six2EGFPcre (Six2cre) mediated deletion of Fgfrs and/or Frs2α in nephron progenitors. Six2cre mediated deletion of Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 alone led to no obvious kidney defects. Six2creFgfr1(flox/flox)Fgfr2(flox/flox) (Fgfr1/2(NP-/-)) mice generate a discernable kidney; however, they develop nephron progenitor depletion starting at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and later demonstrate severe cystic dysplasia. To determine the role of Frs2α signaling downstream of Fgfr2 in Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) mice, we generated Six2cre(,)Fgfr1(flox/flox)Fgfr2(LR/LR) (Fgfr1(NP-/-)Fgfr2(LR/LR)) mice that have point mutations in the Frs2α binding site of Fgfr2. Like Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) mice, Fgfr1(NP-/-)Fgfr2(LR/LR) develop nephron progenitor depletion, but it does not start until E14.5 and older mice have less severe cystic dysplasia than Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) To determine the role of Frs2α alone in nephron progenitors, we generated Six2creFrs2'A(flox/flox) (Frs2a(NP-/-)) mice. Frs2a(NP-/-)mice also develop nephron progenitor depletion and renal cysts, although these occurred later and were less severe than in the other Six2cre mutant mice. The nephron progenitor loss in all Six2cre mutant lines was associated with decreased Cited1 expression and increased apoptosis versus controls. FAC-sorted nephron progenitors in Six2cre Frs2'A(flox/flox) mice demonstrated evidence of increased Notch activity versus controls, which likely drives the progenitor defects. Thus, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 have synergistic roles in maintaining nephron progenitors; furthermore, Fgfr signaling in nephron progenitors appears to be mediated predominantly by Frs2α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  9. Fibroblast growth factor receptor–Frs2α signaling is critical for nephron progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovanni, Valeria; Walker, Kenneth A.; Bushnell, Daniel; Schaefer, Caitlin; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Puri, Pawan; Bates, Carlton M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using transgenic Pax3cre mice have revealed roles for fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) and Fgfr substrate 2α (Frs2α) signaling in early metanephric mesenchyme patterning and in ureteric morphogenesis. The role of Fgfr/Frs2α signaling in nephron progenitors is unknown. Thus, we generated mouse models using BAC transgenic Six2EGFPcre (Six2cre) mediated deletion of Fgfrs and/or Frs2α in nephron progenitors. Six2cre mediated deletion of Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 alone led to no obvious kidney defects. Six2creFgfr1flox/floxFgfr2flox/flox (Fgfr1/2NP−/−) mice generate a discernable kidney; however, they develop nephron progenitor depletion starting at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and later demonstrate severe cystic dysplasia. To determine the role of Frs2α signaling downstream of Fgfr2 in Fgfr1/2NP−/− mice, we generated Six2cre,Fgfr1flox/floxFgfr2LR/LR (Fgfr1NP−/−Fgfr2LR/LR) mice that have point mutations in the Frs2α binding site of Fgfr2. Like Fgfr1/2NP−/− mice, Fgfr1NP−/−Fgfr2LR/LR develop nephron progenitor depletion, but it does not start until E14.5 and older mice have less severe cystic dysplasia than Fgfr1/2NP−/− To determine the role of Frs2α alone in nephron progenitors, we generated Six2creFrs2′Aflox/flox (Frs2aNP−/−) mice. Frs2aNP−/− mice also develop nephron progenitor depletion and renal cysts, although these occurred later and were less severe than in the other Six2cre mutant mice. The nephron progenitor loss in all Six2cre mutant lines was associated with decreased Cited1 expression and increased apoptosis versus controls. FAC-sorted nephron progenitors in Six2cre Frs2′Aflox/flox mice demonstrated evidence of increased Notch activity versus controls, which likely drives the progenitor defects. Thus, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 have synergistic roles in maintaining nephron progenitors; furthermore, Fgfr signaling in nephron progenitors appears to be mediated predominantly by Frs2α. PMID:25641696

  10. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Pathway: Modulation by Acupuncture in Telomerase Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dong; Wu, Qiang; Lin, Xiaoyang; Borlongan, Cesar V; He, Zhi-Xu; Tan, Jun; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase is a critical enzyme that is involved in aging and cancer and that is thought to be a part of multiple neurological diseases. To investigate the telomerase response in the brain to acupuncture, the study examined the levels of expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its downstream signaling molecules, including tyrosine kinase receptor Β (TrkB), p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2), and nuclear factor κΒ (NF-κΒ). Both telomerase-deficient (Terc⁻/⁻) mice (Terc⁻/⁻ group) and normal, wild-type (WT) mice (WT group) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 subgroups, 1 receiving acupuncture (acupuncture subgroup), 1 receiving sham acupuncture therapy (sham subgroup), and 1 receiving no treatment (control subgroup). The study occurred at the University of South Florida Health Byrd Alzheimer's Institute (Tampa, FL, USA). The 2 acupuncture subgroups received acupuncture at the stomach 36 (ST-36) position for 30 min/d for 4 d. For the 2 sham groups, the sham point was set at a location approximately 3 mm to the lateral side of the tail on the gluteus muscle following the same schedule. After 4 d, the mice were sacrificed, and the brain tissues were collected. The protein levels in the hippocampus and dentate gyrus (DG) of each mouse were determined by western blotting and immunostaining assays. The Terc⁻/⁻ group showed downregulated hippocampal BDNF expression compared with the WT mice. Acupuncture at ST-36 for 4 d upregulated BDNF, TrkB, p75NTR, Akt, and ERK1/2 in the DG and hippocampus of the telomerase-deficient mice, but that result was not seen in the WT mice with normally functioning telomerase. The use of acupuncture in pathologies associated with telomerase deficiencies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), may provide some benefit in terms of eliciting better clinical responses. The research team believes that result occurs

  11. Transforming growth factor β signaling upregulates the expression of human GDP-fucose transporter by activating transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp -330 and -268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  12. Transforming Growth Factor β Signaling Upregulates the Expression of Human GDP-Fucose Transporter by Activating Transcription Factor Sp1

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ma, Anna; Liu, Li

    2013-01-01

    GDP-fucose transporter plays a crucial role in fucosylation of glycoproteins by providing activated fucose donor, GDP-fucose, for fucosyltransferases in the lumen of the Golgi apparatus. Fucose-containing glycans are involved in many biological processes, which are essential for growth and development. Mutations in the GDP-fucose transporter gene cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency syndrome II, a disease characterized by slow growth, mental retardation and immunodeficiency. However, no information is available regarding its transcriptional regulation. Here, by using human cells, we show that TGF-β1 specifically induces the GDP-fucose transporter expression, but not other transporters tested such as CMP-sialic acid transporter, suggesting a diversity of regulatory pathways for the expression of these transporters. The regulatory elements that are responsive to the TGF-β1 stimulation are present in the region between bp −330 and −268 in the GDP-fucose transporter promoter. We found that this region contains two identical octamer GC-rich motifs (GGGGCGTG) that were demonstrated to be essential for the transporter expression. We also show that the transcription factor Sp1 specifically binds to the GC-rich motifs in vitro and Sp1 coupled with phospho-Smad2 is associated with the promoter region covering the Sp1-binding motifs in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. In addition, we further confirmed that Sp1 is essential for the GDP-fucose transporter expression stimulated by TGF-β1 using a luciferase reporter system. These results highlight the role of TGF-β signaling in regulation of the GDP-fucose transporter expression via activating Sp1. This is the first transcriptional study for any nucleotide sugar transporters that have been identified so far. Notably, TGF-β1 receptor itself is known to be modified by fucosylation. Given the essential role of GDP-fucose transporter in fucosylation, the finding that TGF-β1 stimulates the expression of

  13. Distinct effectors of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α signaling are required for cell survival during embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Van Stry, Melanie; Kazlauskas, Andrius; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Symes, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling is essential for normal embryonic development in many organisms, including frog, mouse, zebrafish, and sea urchin. The mode of action of PDGFR signaling during early development is poorly understood, however, mostly because inhibition of signaling through either the PDGFRα or PDGFRβ is embryonic lethal. In Xenopus embryos, disruption of PDGFRα signaling causes migrating anterior mesoderm cells to lose direction and undergo apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. To understand the mechanism of PDGFRα function in this process, we have analyzed all known effector-binding sites in vivo. By using a chemical inducer of dimerization to activate chimera PDGFRαs, we have identified a role for phospholipase Cγ (PLCγ) in protecting cells from death. PDGFRα-mediated cell survival requires PLCγ and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling, and that PDGFRα with binding sites for these two signaling factors is sufficient for this activity. Other effectors of PDGFRα signaling, Shf, SHP-2, and Crk, are not required for this process. Thus, our findings show that PDGFRα signaling through PLCγ and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase has a protective role in preventing apoptosis in early development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that small molecule inducers of dimerization provide a powerful system to manipulate receptor function in developing embryos. PMID:15919820

  14. The Pseudo Signal Peptide of the Corticotropin-releasing Factor Receptor Type 2A Prevents Receptor Oligomerization*

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Anke; Rutz, Claudia; Kreuchwig, Annika; Krause, Gerd; Wiesner, Burkhard; Schülein, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    N-terminal signal peptides mediate the interaction of native proteins with the translocon complex of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are cleaved off during early protein biogenesis. The corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2(a)R) possesses an N-terminal pseudo signal peptide, which represents a so far unique domain within the large protein family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In contrast to a conventional signal peptide, the pseudo signal peptide remains uncleaved and consequently forms a hydrophobic extension at the N terminus of the receptor. The functional consequence of the presence of the pseudo signal peptide is not understood. Here, we have analyzed the significance of this domain for receptor dimerization/oligomerization in detail. To this end, we took the CRF2(a)R and the homologous corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF1R) possessing a conventional cleaved signal peptide and conducted signal peptide exchange experiments. Using single cell and single molecule imaging methods (fluorescence resonance energy transfer and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy, respectively) as well as biochemical experiments, we obtained two novel findings; we could show that (i) the CRF2(a)R is expressed exclusively as a monomer, and (ii) the presence of the pseudo signal peptide prevents its oligomerization. Thus, we have identified a novel functional domain within the GPCR protein family, which plays a role in receptor oligomerization and which may be useful to study the functional significance of this process in general. PMID:22689579

  15. Hypoxia signaling regulates macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in stroke.

    PubMed

    Zis, Odysseus; Zhang, Si; Dorovini-Zis, Katerina; Wang, Lijuan; Song, Weihong

    2015-02-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifaceted cytokine involved in many processes, including cellular responses to ischemia/reperfusion injury in the heart and brain. This study was undertaken to determine whether human MIF expression is induced following cerebral ischemia and its role therein. To examine whether the induction of MIF gene expression was mediated by its transcriptional upregulation, the human MIF gene promoter was cloned and a luciferase assay was used to determine the presence of a hypoxia-responsive region in the human MIF promoter. We found that human MIF promoter activity was significantly upregulated by hypoxia. A functional hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-binding site was identified using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). MIF has a protective effect on cortical neurons under oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment. MIF significantly reduced OGD-induced cell death. To determine whether the expression of MIF in the human brain is altered following ischemia, brain sections from 10 stroke patients were examined with an antibody against MIF. Blood vessel endothelial cells in the peri-infarct region of ischemic brain displayed strong MIF immunoreactivity with no MIF immunoreactivity in control brains. Furthermore, we found that treatment of human brain endothelial cells with MIF had no effect on human monocyte adhesion to endothelium. Our study demonstrates that MIF gene expression is altered during stroke and dysregulation of the hypoxia signaling-induced MIF expression plays an important role in neuronal death in stroke.

  16. Transforming Growth FactorSignaling Guides the Differentiation of Innate Lymphoid Cells in Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Victor S; Cervantes-Barragan, Luisa; Robinette, Michelle L; Bando, Jennifer K; Wang, Yaming; Geiger, Theresa L; Gilfillan, Susan; Fuchs, Anja; Vivier, Eric; Sun, Joe C; Cella, Marina; Colonna, Marco

    2016-05-17

    The signals guiding differentiation of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) within tissues are not well understood. Salivary gland (SG) ILCs as well as liver and intestinal intraepithelial ILC1 have markers that denote tissue residency and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) imprinting. We deleted Tgfbr2 in cells expressing the ILC and NK marker NKp46 and found that SG ILCs were reduced in number. They lost distinct tissue markers, such as CD49a, and the effector molecules TRAIL and CD73. Expression of the transcription factor Eomes, which promotes NK cell differentiation, was elevated. Conversely, Eomes deletion in NKp46(+) cells enhanced TGF-β-imprinting of SG ILCs. Thus, TGF-β induces SG ILC differentiation by suppressing Eomes. TGF-β acted through a JNK-dependent, Smad4-independent pathway. Transcriptome analysis demonstrated that SG ILCs had characteristic of both NK cells and ILC1. Finally, TGF-β imprinting of SG ILCs was synchronized with SG development, highlighting the impact of tissue microenvironment on ILC development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Niacin inhibits vascular inflammation via downregulating nuclear transcription factor-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jilong; Guo, Shoudong; Zhai, Lei; Yao, Shutong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Gu, Jue; Qin, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of niacin on vascular inflammatory lesions in vivo and in vitro as well as its lipid-regulating mechanism. In vivo study revealed that niacin downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in plasma, suppressed protein expression of CD68 and NF-κB p65 in arterial wall, and attenuated oxidative stress in guinea pigs that have been fed high fat diet. In vitro study further confirmed that niacin decreased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited NF-κB p65 and notch1 protein expression in oxLDL-stimulated HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, niacin attenuated oxLDL-induced apoptosis of HUVECs as well. In addition, niacin significantly lessened lipid deposition in arterial wall, increased HDL-C and apoA levels and decreased TG and non-HDL-C levels in plasma, and upregulated the mRNA amount of cholesterol 7 α-hydroxylase A1 in liver of guinea pigs. These data suggest for the first time that niacin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro via downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, niacin also modulates plasma lipid by upregulating the expression of factors involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport.

  18. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling regulates PTEN expression and intestinal cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qingding; Zhou, Yuning; Jackson, Lindsey N.; Johnson, Sara M.; Chow, Chi-Wing; Evers, B. Mark

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) proteins are a family of transcription factors (NFATc1–c4) involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and adaptation. Previously we demonstrated that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or overexpression of PTEN enhanced intestinal cell differentiation. Here we show that treatment of intestinal-derived cells with the differentiating agent sodium butyrate (NaBT) increased PTEN expression, NFAT binding activity, and NFAT mRNA expression, whereas pretreatment with the NFAT signaling inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) blocked NaBT-mediated PTEN induction. Moreover, knockdown of NFATc1 or NFATc4, but not NFATc2 or NFATc3, attenuated NaBT-induced PTEN expression. Knockdown of NFATc1 decreased PTEN expression and increased the phosphorylation levels of Akt and downstream targets Foxo1 and GSK-3α/β. Furthermore, overexpression of NFATc1 or the NFATc4 active mutant increased PTEN and p27kip1 expression and decreased Akt phosphorylation. In addition, pretreatment with CsA blocked NaBT-mediated induction of intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) activity and villin and p27kip1 expression; knockdown of either NFATc1 or NFATc4 attenuated NaBT-induced IAP activity. We provide evidence showing that NFATc1 and NFATc4 are regulators of PTEN expression. Importantly, our results suggest that NFATc1 and NFATc4 regulation of intestinal cell differentiation may be through PTEN regulation. PMID:21148296

  19. Ethylene response factor 6 is a regulator of reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Kidd, Brendan N; Manners, John M; Schenk, Peer M

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  20. Tiam1 as a Signaling Mediator of Nerve Growth Factor-Dependent Neurite Outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Marçal; Paratcha, Gustavo; Ledda, Fernanda

    2010-01-01

    Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)-induced neuronal differentiation requires the activation of members of the Rho family of small GTPases. However, the molecular mechanisms through which NGF regulates cytoskeletal changes and neurite outgrowth are not totally understood. In this work, we identify the Rac1-specific guanine exchange factor (GEF) Tiam1 as a novel mediator of NGF/TrkA-dependent neurite elongation. In particular, we report that knockdown of Tiam1 causes a significant reduction in Rac1 activity and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF. Physical interaction between Tiam1 and active Ras (Ras-GTP), but not tyrosine phosphorylation of Tiam1, plays a central role in Rac1 activation by NGF. In addition, our findings indicate that Ras is required to associate Tiam1 with Rac1 and promote Rac1 activation upon NGF stimulation. Taken together, these findings define a novel molecular mechanism through which Tiam1 mediates TrkA signaling and neurite outgrowth induced by NGF. PMID:20333299

  1. The Transcription Factor IRF8 Activates Integrin-mediated TGFβ Signaling and Promotes Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Yuko; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Yoshii, Hiroaki; Kim, Daniel; Dey, Anup; Xiong, Huabao; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Yazawa, Itaru; O’Donovan, Michael J.; Maximova, Olga A.; Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C.; Ozato, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent epidemiological studies have identified interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) as a susceptibility factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, how IRF8 influences the neuroinflammatory disease has remained unknown. By studying the role of IRF8 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, we found that Irf8−/− mice are resistant to EAE. Furthermore, expression of IRF8 in antigen presenting cells (APCs, such as macrophages, dendritic cells and microglia), but not in T cells, facilitated disease onset and progression through multiple pathways. IRF8 enhanced αvβ8 integrin expression in APCs and activated TGFβ signaling leading to T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. IRF8 induced a cytokine milieu that favored growth and maintenance of Th1 and Th17 cells, by stimulating interleukin-12 (IL12) and IL23 production, but inhibiting IL27 during EAE. Finally, IRF8 activated microglia and exacerbated neuroinflammation. Together, this work provides mechanistic bases by which IRF8 contributes to the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:24485804

  2. The transcription factor IRF8 activates integrin-mediated TGF-β signaling and promotes neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuko; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Yoshii, Hiroaki; Kim, Daniel; Dey, Anup; Xiong, Huabao; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Yazawa, Itaru; O'Donovan, Michael J; Maximova, Olga A; Sharma, Suveena; Zhu, Jinfang; Wang, Hongsheng; Morse, Herbert C; Ozato, Keiko

    2014-02-20

    Recent epidemiological studies have identified interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) as a susceptibility factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, how IRF8 influences the neuroinflammatory disease has remained unknown. By studying the role of IRF8 in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, we found that Irf8(-/-) mice are resistant to EAE. Furthermore, expression of IRF8 in antigen-presenting cells (APCs, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and microglia), but not in T cells, facilitated disease onset and progression through multiple pathways. IRF8 enhanced αvβ8 integrin expression in APCs and activated TGF-β signaling leading to T helper 17 (Th17) cell differentiation. IRF8 induced a cytokine milieu that favored growth and maintenance of Th1 and Th17 cells, by stimulating interleukin-12 (IL-12) and IL-23 production, but inhibiting IL-27 during EAE. Finally, IRF8 activated microglia and exacerbated neuroinflammation. Together, this work provides mechanistic bases by which IRF8 contributes to the pathogenesis of MS.

  3. Niacin Inhibits Vascular Inflammation via Downregulating Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yanhong; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Jilong; Guo, Shoudong; Zhai, Lei; Yao, Shutong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Gu, Jue; Qin, Shucun

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effect of niacin on vascular inflammatory lesions in vivo and in vitro as well as its lipid-regulating mechanism. In vivo study revealed that niacin downregulated the levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6 and TNF-α) in plasma, suppressed protein expression of CD68 and NF-κB p65 in arterial wall, and attenuated oxidative stress in guinea pigs that have been fed high fat diet. In vitro study further confirmed that niacin decreased the secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α and inhibited NF-κB p65 and notch1 protein expression in oxLDL-stimulated HUVECs and THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, niacin attenuated oxLDL-induced apoptosis of HUVECs as well. In addition, niacin significantly lessened lipid deposition in arterial wall, increased HDL-C and apoA levels and decreased TG and non-HDL-C levels in plasma, and upregulated the mRNA amount of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase A1 in liver of guinea pigs. These data suggest for the first time that niacin inhibits vascular inflammation in vivo and in vitro via downregulating NF-κB signaling pathway. Furthermore, niacin also modulates plasma lipid by upregulating the expression of factors involved in the process of reverse cholesterol transport. PMID:24991087

  4. Ethylene Response Factor 6 Is a Regulator of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Sewelam, Nasser; Kazan, Kemal; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Kidd, Brendan N.; Manners, John M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in plant cells in response to diverse biotic and abiotic stresses as well as during normal growth and development. Although a large number of transcription factor (TF) genes are up- or down-regulated by ROS, currently very little is known about the functions of these TFs during oxidative stress. In this work, we examined the role of ERF6 (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR6), an AP2/ERF domain-containing TF, during oxidative stress responses in Arabidopsis. Mutant analyses showed that NADPH oxidase (RbohD) and calcium signaling are required for ROS-responsive expression of ERF6. erf6 insertion mutant plants showed reduced growth and increased H2O2 and anthocyanin levels. Expression analyses of selected ROS-responsive genes during oxidative stress identified several differentially expressed genes in the erf6 mutant. In particular, a number of ROS responsive genes, such as ZAT12, HSFs, WRKYs, MAPKs, RBOHs, DHAR1, APX4, and CAT1 were more strongly induced by H2O2 in erf6 plants than in wild-type. In contrast, MDAR3, CAT3, VTC2 and EX1 showed reduced expression levels in the erf6 mutant. Taken together, our results indicate that ERF6 plays an important role as a positive antioxidant regulator during plant growth and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:23940555

  5. SDN-1/syndecan regulates growth factor signaling in distal tip cell migrations in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Schwabiuk, Megan; Coudiere, Ludivine; Merz, David C

    2009-10-01

    Mutations in the sdn-1/syndecan gene act as genetic enhancers of the ventral-to-dorsal distal tip cell (DTC) migration defects caused by a weak allele of the netrin receptor gene unc-5. The sdn-1(ev697) allele was identified in a genetic screen for enhancers of unc-5 DTC migration defects, and carried a nonsense mutation predicted to truncate the SDN-1 protein prior to the transmembrane domain. The enhancement of unc-5 caused by an sdn-1 mutation was rescued by expression of wild-type sdn-1 in the hypodermis or nervous system rather than the DTCs, indicating a cell non-autonomous function of sdn-1. The enhancement was also partially reversed by mutations in the egl-17/FGF or egl-20/Wnt genes, suggesting that sdn-1 affects UNC-5 function through a mis-regulation of signaling in growth factor pathways. egl-20 reporter constructs exhibited increased and mis-localized EGL-20 distribution in sdn-1 mutants compared to wild-type animals. Finally, using loss of function mutations, we show that egl-17/Fgf and egl-20/Wnt are partially redundant in regulating the migration pattern of the posterior DTC, as double mutants exhibit significant frequencies of defects in migration phases along both the anteroposterior and dorsoventral axes. Together these results suggest that SDN-1 affects UNC-5 function by regulating the proper extracellular distribution of growth factors.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor signaling regulates Dach1 expression during skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Horner, A; Shum, L; Ayres, J A; Nonaka, K; Nuckolls, G H

    2002-09-01

    Dach1 is a mouse homologue of the Drosophila dachshund gene, which is a key regulator of cell fate determination during eye, leg, and brain development in the fly. We have investigated the expression and growth factor regulation of Dach1 during pre- and postnatal skeletal development in the mouse limb to understand better the function of Dach1. Dach1 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme of the early embryonic mouse limb bud and subsequently became restricted to the tips of digital cartilages. Dach1 protein was localized to postmitotic, prehypertrophic, and early hypertrophic chondrocytes during the initiation of ossification centers, but Dach1 was not expressed in growth plates that exhibited extensive ossification. Dach1 colocalized with Runx2/Cbfa1 in chondrocytes but not in the forming bone collar or primary spongiosa. Dach1 also colocalized with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p27 (Kip1) and p57 (Kip2) in chondrocytes of the growth plate and in the epiphysis before the formation of the secondary ossification center. Because fibroblast growth factors (FGF), bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), and hedgehog molecules (Hh) regulate skeletal patterning of the limb bud and chondrocyte maturation in developing endochondral bones, we investigated the regulation of Dach1 by these growth and differentiation factors. Expression of Dach1 in 11 days postcoitus mouse limb buds in organ culture was up-regulated by implanting beads soaked in FGF1, 2, 8, or 9 but not FGF10. BMP4-soaked beads down-regulated Dach1 expression, whereas Shh and bovine serum albumin had no effect. Furthermore, FGF4 or 8 could substitute for the apical ectodermal ridge in maintaining Dach1 expression in the limb buds. Immunolocalization of FGFR2 and FGFR3 revealed overlap with Dach1 expression during skeletal patterning and chondrocyte maturation. We conclude that Dach1 is a target gene of FGF signaling during limb skeletal development, and Dach1 may function as an intermediary in the FGF

  7. Diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF (diffusible signal factor) not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling, but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication. These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. Results In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal (cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid) and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness. The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. cereus is dosage-dependent. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B. cereus pathogenicity in an in vitro model. We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. PMID:24575808

  8. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling To Enhance Neurite Outgrowth in Developing Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew R.; Johnson, William M.; Pilat, Jennifer M.; Kiselar, Janna; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz, Alicia; Zigmond, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Neurite outgrowth is key to the formation of functional circuits during neuronal development. Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), increase neurite outgrowth in part by altering the function and expression of Ca2+-permeable cation channels. Here we report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is an intracellular Ca2+-permeable TRPV channel upregulated by NGF via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to augment neurite outgrowth. TRPV2 colocalized with Rab7, a late endosome protein, in addition to TrkA and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in neurites, indicating that the channel is closely associated with signaling endosomes. In line with these results, we showed that TRPV2 acts as an ERK substrate and identified the motifs necessary for phosphorylation of TRPV2 by ERK. Furthermore, neurite length, TRPV2 expression, and TRPV2-mediated Ca2+ signals were reduced by mutagenesis of these key ERK phosphorylation sites. Based on these findings, we identified a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ERK controls TRPV2-mediated Ca2+ signals in developing neurons and further establish TRPV2 as a critical intracellular ion channel in neuronal function. PMID:26416880

  9. Diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yinyue; Lim, Amy; Lee, Jasmine; Chen, Shaohua; An, Shuwen; Dong, Yi-Hu; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2014-02-27

    Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF (diffusible signal factor) not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling, but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication. These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal (cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid) and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness. The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. cereus is dosage-dependent. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B. cereus pathogenicity in an in vitro model. We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens.

  10. Common elements in interleukin 4 and insulin signaling pathways in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A D; Li, W; Lienhard, G E; Pacini, S; Gutkind, J S; Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F; Aaronson, S A

    1993-05-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) efficiently induced DNA synthesis in the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell lines FDC-P1 and FDC-P2. Although these factors could not individually sustain long-term growth of these lines, a combination of IL-4 with either insulin or IGF-I did support continuous growth. The principal tyrosine-phosphorylated substrate observed in FDC cells stimulated with IL-4, previously designated 4PS, was of the same size (170 kDa) as the major substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I. These substrates had phosphopeptides of the same size when analyzed by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and each tightly associated with the 85-kDa component of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase after factor stimulation. IRS-1, the principal substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I stimulation in nonhematopoietic cells, is similar in size to 4PS. However, anti-IRS-1 antibodies failed to efficiently precipitate 4PS, and some phosphopeptides generated by V8 protease digestion of IRS-1 were distinct in size from the phosphopeptides of 4PS. Nevertheless, IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I were capable of stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in FDC cells that expressed this substrate as a result of transfection. These findings indicate that (i) IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I use signal transduction pathways in FDC lines that have at least one major feature in common, the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS, and (ii) insulin and IGF-I stimulation of hematopoietic cell lines leads to the phosphorylation of a substrate that may be related to but is not identical to IRS-1.

  11. Cryptotanshinone deregulates unfolded protein response and eukaryotic initiation factor signaling in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Fen; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Klauck, Sabine M; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-02-15

    Unfolded protein responses (UPR) determine cell fate and are recognized as anticancer targets. In a previous research, we reported that cryptotanshinone (CPT) exerted cytotoxic effects toward acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells through mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we further investigated the role of UPR in CPT-induced cytotoxicity on acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells by applying tools of pharmacogenomics and bioinformatics. Gene expression profiling was performed by mRNA microarray hybridization. Potential transcription factor binding motifs were identified in the promoter regions of the deregulated genes by Cistrome software. Molecular docking on eIF-4A and PI3K was performed to investigate the inhibitory activity of CPT on translation initiation. CPT regulated genes related to UPR and eIF2 signaling pathways. The DNA-Damage-Inducible Transcript 3 (DDIT3) gene, which is activated as consequence of UPR malfunction during apoptosis, was induced and validated by in vitro experiments. Transcription factor binding motif analysis of the microarrary-retrieved deregulated genes in the promoter region emphasized the relevance of transcription factors, such as ATF2, ATF4 and XBP1, regulating UPR and cell apoptosis. Molecular docking suggested inhibitory effects of CPT by binding to eIF-4A and PI3K providing evidence for a role of CPT's in the disruption of protein synthesis. CPT triggered UPR and inhibited protein synthesis via eIF-mediated translation initiation, potentially supporting CPT-induced cytotoxic effects toward acute leukemia cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of approved and investigational drugs that inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Wen; Huang, Ruili; Khuc, Thai; Shou, David; Bullock, Joshua; Grooby, Suzanne; Griffin, Sue; Zou, Chaozhong; Little, Annette; Astley, Holly; Xia, Menghang

    2016-01-01

    One of the requirements for tumor development is blood supply, most often driven by hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Hypoxia induces the stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), which induces expression of an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The purpose of this study is to validate a new screening platform combined with orthogonal assays to rapidly identify HIF-1 inhibitors and to evaluate the effectiveness of approved drugs on modulating HIF-1 signaling. We generated an endogenous HIF-1α–NanoLuc luciferase reporter allele in the human HCT116 colon cancer cell line using genome editing and screened a panel of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to 960 druggable targets and approximately 2,500 drugs on a quantitative high-throughput screening (qHTS) platform. Selected compounds were further investigated with secondary assays to confirm their anti-HIF activity and to study their mode of action. The qHTS assay identified over 300 drugs that inhibited HIF-1α-NanoLuc expression. The siRNA screening results supported the effectiveness of several target-specific inhibitors. Moreover, the identified HIF-1 inhibitors, such as mycophenolate mofetil, niclosamide, and trametinib, were able to suppress cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Our study indicates that blocking the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways effectively inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1α accumulation and HIF-1α transactivation and that proteasome inhibitors induce accumulation and decrease transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These findings underline the importance of developing a battery of robust assay platforms and confirmation studies that focus on endogenous protein targets so that only relevant and reliable data will be taken into pre-clinical and clinical studies. PMID:26882567

  13. Interactions of signaling proteins, growth factors and other proteins with heparan sulfate: mechanisms and mysteries.

    PubMed

    Billings, Paul C; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Heparan sulfate (HS) is a component of cell surface and matrix-associated proteoglycans (HSPGs) that, collectively, play crucial roles in many physiologic processes including cell differentiation, organ morphogenesis and cancer. A key function of HS is to bind and interact with signaling proteins, growth factors, plasma proteins, immune-modulators and other factors. In doing so, the HS chains and HSPGs are able to regulate protein distribution, bio-availability and action on target cells and can also serve as cell surface co-receptors, facilitating ligand-receptor interactions. These proteins contain an HS/heparin-binding domain (HBD) that mediates their association and contacts with HS. HBDs are highly diverse in sequence and predicted structure, contain clusters of basic amino acids (Lys and Arg) and possess an overall net positive charge, most often within a consensus Cardin-Weintraub (CW) motif. Interestingly, other domains and residues are now known to influence protein-HS interactions, as well as interactions with other glycosaminoglycans, such as chondroitin sulfate. In this review, we provide a description and analysis of HBDs in proteins including amphiregulin, fibroblast growth factor family members, heparanase, sclerostin and hedgehog protein family members. We discuss HBD structural and functional features and important roles carried out by other protein domains, and also provide novel conformational insights into the diversity of CW motifs present in Sonic, Indian and Desert hedgehogs. Finally, we review progress in understanding the pathogenesis of a rare pediatric skeletal disorder, Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME), characterized by HS deficiency and cartilage tumor formation. Advances in understanding protein-HS interactions will have broad implications for basic biology and translational medicine as well as for the development of HS-based therapeutics.

  14. Common elements in interleukin 4 and insulin signaling pathways in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A D; Li, W; Lienhard, G E; Pacini, S; Gutkind, J S; Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F; Aaronson, S A

    1993-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) efficiently induced DNA synthesis in the IL-3-dependent murine myeloid cell lines FDC-P1 and FDC-P2. Although these factors could not individually sustain long-term growth of these lines, a combination of IL-4 with either insulin or IGF-I did support continuous growth. The principal tyrosine-phosphorylated substrate observed in FDC cells stimulated with IL-4, previously designated 4PS, was of the same size (170 kDa) as the major substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I. These substrates had phosphopeptides of the same size when analyzed by digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, and each tightly associated with the 85-kDa component of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase after factor stimulation. IRS-1, the principal substrate phosphorylated in response to insulin or IGF-I stimulation in nonhematopoietic cells, is similar in size to 4PS. However, anti-IRS-1 antibodies failed to efficiently precipitate 4PS, and some phosphopeptides generated by V8 protease digestion of IRS-1 were distinct in size from the phosphopeptides of 4PS. Nevertheless, IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I were capable of stimulating tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 in FDC cells that expressed this substrate as a result of transfection. These findings indicate that (i) IL-4, insulin, and IGF-I use signal transduction pathways in FDC lines that have at least one major feature in common, the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS, and (ii) insulin and IGF-I stimulation of hematopoietic cell lines leads to the phosphorylation of a substrate that may be related to but is not identical to IRS-1. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7683417

  15. Leukemia inhibitory factor and NGF regulate signal transducers and activators of transcription activation in sympathetic ganglia: convergence of cytokine- and neurotrophin-signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rajan, P; Gearan, T; Fink, J S

    1998-08-17

    We have used the response of the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) to axotomy to investigate interactions between neuropoietic cytokines and neurotrophins. Postganglionic sympathetic axotomy leads to a prolonged leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors. To study regulation of LIF-dependent activation of STAT proteins and to mimic the loss of target-derived NGF resulting from postganglionic axotomy in vivo, SCG were explanted into media lacking NGF and activation of STAT proteins was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Like postganglionic axotomy in vivo. STAT proteins were activated for up to 8 days after explantation of SCG in vitro. SCG cultured in the presence of NGF showed decreased STAT binding when compared to ganglia cultured in NGF-free media. This inhibition of STAT activation by NGF was only present in ganglia cultured for more than 5 days and was mimicked by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The serine kinase inhibitor H7 augmented the increase of STAT binding produced by explantation, suggesting the presence of a labile repressor of STAT activation in the SCG. These data indicated that the neuropoietic cytokine-signaling pathway interacts with neurotrophin and H7-sensitive-signaling pathways to regulate activation of STAT proteins in sympathetic neurons. Moreover, these data suggest that one of the mechanisms leading to prolonged activation of STAT proteins after postganglionic axotomy in vivo is loss of target-derived neurotrophins.

  16. Hedgehog signaling activates a positive feedback mechanism involving insulin-like growth factors to induce osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yu; Chen, Jianquan; Karner, Courtney M.; Long, Fanxin

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is essential for osteoblast differentiation in the endochondral skeleton during embryogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the osteoblastogenic role of Hh is not completely understood. Here, we report that Hh markedly induces the expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (Igf2) that activates the mTORC2-Akt signaling cascade during osteoblast differentiation. Igf2-Akt signaling, in turn, stabilizes full-length Gli2 through Serine 230, thus enhancing the output of transcriptional activation by Hh. Importantly, genetic deletion of the Igf signaling receptor Igf1r specifically in Hh-responding cells diminishes bone formation in the mouse embryo. Thus, Hh engages Igf signaling in a positive feedback mechanism to activate the osteogenic program. PMID:25825734

  17. Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) Receptor Signaling in the Central Nervous System: New Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Hauger, Richard L.; Risbrough, Victoria; Brauns, Olaf; Dautzenberg, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the related urocortin peptides mediate behavioral, cognitive, autonomic, neuroendocrine and immunologic responses to aversive stimuli by activating CRF1 or CRF2 receptors in the central nervous system and anterior pituitary. Markers of hyperactive central CRF systems, including CRF hypersecretion and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, have been identified in subpopulations of patients with anxiety, stress and depressive disorders. Because CRF receptors are rapidly desensitized in the presence of high agonist concentrations, CRF hypersecretion alone may be insufficient to account for the enhanced CRF neurotransmission observed in these patients. Concomitant dysregulation of mechanisms stringently controlling magnitude and duration of CRF receptor signaling also may contribute to this phenomenon. While it is well established that the CRF1 receptor mediates many anxiety- and depression-like behaviors as well as HPA axis stress responses, CRF2 receptor functions are not well understood at present. One hypothesis holds that CRF1 receptor activation initiates fear and anxiety-like responses, while CRF2 receptor activation re-establishes homeostasis by counteracting the aversive effects of CRF1 receptor signaling. An alternative hypothesis posits that CRF1 and CRF2 receptors contribute to opposite defensive modes, with CRF1 receptors mediating active defensive responses triggered by escapable stressors, and CRF2 receptors mediating anxiety- and depression-like responses induced by inescapable, uncontrollable stressors. CRF1 receptor antagonists are being developed as novel treatments for affective and stress disorders. If it is confirmed that the CRF2 receptor contributes importantly to anxiety and depression, the development of small molecule CRF2 receptor antagonists would be therapeutically useful. PMID:16918397

  18. Epigenetic Alterations Affecting Transcription Factors and Signaling Pathways in Stromal Cells of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Yotova, Iveta; Hsu, Emily; Do, Catherine; Gaba, Aulona; Sczabolcs, Matthias; Dekan, Sabine; Kenner, Lukas; Wenzl, Rene; Tycko, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by growth of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. Since its pathogenesis may involve epigenetic changes, we used Illumina 450K Methylation Beadchips to profile CpG methylation in endometriosis stromal cells compared to stromal cells from normal endometrium. We validated and extended the Beadchip data using bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq), and analyzed differential methylation (DM) at the CpG-level and by an element-level classification for groups of CpGs in chromatin domains. Genes found to have DM included examples encoding transporters (SLC22A23), signaling components (BDNF, DAPK1, ROR1, and WNT5A) and transcription factors (GATA family, HAND2, HOXA cluster, NR5A1, OSR2, TBX3). Intriguingly, among the TF genes with DM we also found JAZF1, a proto-oncogene affected by chromosomal translocations in endometrial stromal tumors. Using RNA-Seq we identified a subset of the DM genes showing differential expression (DE), with the likelihood of DE increasing with the extent of the DM and its location in enhancer elements. Supporting functional relevance, treatment of stromal cells with the hypomethylating drug 5aza-dC led to activation of DAPK1 and SLC22A23 and repression of HAND2, JAZF1, OSR2, and ROR1 mRNA expression. We found that global 5hmC is decreased in endometriotic versus normal epithelial but not stroma cells, and for JAZF1 and BDNF examined by oxidative bis-seq, found that when 5hmC is detected, patterns of 5hmC paralleled those of 5mC. Together with prior studies, these results define a consistent epigenetic signature in endometriosis stromal cells and nominate specific transcriptional and signaling pathways as therapeutic targets. PMID:28125717

  19. Effects of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling Inhibition on Human Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatta, Sumita S.; Wroblewski, Kristen E.; Agarwal, Kelly L.; Sit, Laura; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Karrison, Theodore; Bakris, George L.; Ratain, Mark J.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling increases red blood cell (RBC) counts, and erythropoiesis markers have been proposed to guide antiangiogenic therapy in humans. We analyzed RBC measurements in patients enrolled in three studies: a phase II trial of axitinib in thyroid cancer; a study of sorafenib in advanced solid tumors; and a randomized trial of fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and radiation with and without bevacizumab for head and neck cancer. In the sorafenib trial, plasma erythropoietin concentrations were measured at baseline, day 8, and day 35. Over the first 84 days of treatment, RBC counts increased for each day on sorafenib (2.7 M/μL [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5–3.9]) and axitinib (4.3 M/μL [95% CI, 2.2–6.5]). RBCs declined over the first 68 days of cytotoxic chemoradiotherapy alone (−12.8 M/μL per day [95% CI, −15.7 to −9.8]) but less so with added bevacizumab (−7.2 M/μL per day [95% CI, −9.5 to −4.9]). Erythropoietin levels increased, on average, by 9.5 mIU/mL between day 8 and day 35 of sorafenib exposure. No significant relationships between elevations in RBCs and changes in volume status or blood pressure or between elevations in erythropoietin and smoking status were found. VEGF signaling inhibition is associated with increased RBC and erythropoietin production in humans. The effects of these changes are subtle at physiologic doses and are unlikely to be clinically useful biomarkers for guiding the administration of or predicting treatment responses to VEGF pathway inhibitors. PMID:23900000

  20. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn; Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s(-1), respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases.

  1. Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 Genes Mediating Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quinolone Signal Degradation and Virulence Factor Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christine; Birmes, Franziska S.; Rückert, Christian; Kalinowski, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Rhodococcus erythropolis BG43 is able to degrade the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing signal molecules PQS (Pseudomonas quinolone signal) [2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone] and HHQ [2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone] to anthranilic acid. Based on the hypothesis that degradation of HHQ might involve hydroxylation to PQS followed by dioxygenolytic cleavage of the heterocyclic ring and hydrolysis of the resulting N-octanoylanthranilate, the genome was searched for corresponding candidate genes. Two gene clusters, aqdA1B1C1 and aqdA2B2C2, each predicted to code for a hydrolase, a flavin monooxygenase, and a dioxygenase related to 1H-3-hydroxy-4-oxoquinaldine 2,4-dioxygenase, were identified on circular plasmid pRLCBG43 of strain BG43. Transcription of all genes was upregulated by PQS, suggesting that both gene clusters code for alkylquinolone-specific catabolic enzymes. An aqdR gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, which was also inducible by PQS, is located adjacent to the aqdA2B2C2 cluster. Expression of aqdA2B2C2 in Escherichia coli conferred the ability to degrade HHQ and PQS to anthranilic acid; however, for E. coli transformed with aqdA1B1C1, only PQS degradation was observed. Purification of the recombinant AqdC1 protein verified that it catalyzes the cleavage of PQS to form N-octanoylanthranilic acid and carbon monoxide and revealed apparent Km and kcat values for PQS of ∼27 μM and 21 s−1, respectively. Heterologous expression of the PQS dioxygenase gene aqdC1 or aqdC2 in P. aeruginosa PAO1 quenched the production of the virulence factors pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and reduced the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine. Thus, the toolbox of quorum-quenching enzymes is expanded by new PQS dioxygenases. PMID:26319870

  2. Fibroblast growth factor signaling deficiencies impact female reproduction and kisspeptin neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Tata, Brooke K; Chung, Wilson C J; Brooks, Leah R; Kavanaugh, Scott I; Tsai, Pei-San

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling is essential for the development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system. Mice harboring deficiencies in Fgf8 or Fgf receptor 1 (Fgfr1) suffer a significant loss of GnRH neurons, but their reproductive phenotypes have not been examined. This study examined if female mice hypomorphic for Fgf8, Fgfr1, or both (compound hypomorphs) exhibited altered parameters of pubertal onset, estrous cyclicity, and fertility. Further, we examined the number of kisspeptin (KP)-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the anteroventral periventricular/periventricular nuclei (AVPV/PeV) of these mice to assess if changes in the KP system, which stimulates the GnRH system, could contribute to the reproductive phenotypes. Single hypomorphs (Fgfr1(+/-) or Fgf8(+/-)) had normal timing for vaginal opening (VO) but delayed first estrus. However, after achieving the first estrus, they underwent normal expression of estrous cycles. In contrast, the compound hypomorphs underwent early VO and normal first estrus, but had disorganized estrous cycles that subsequently reduced their fertility. KP immunohistochemistry on Postnatal Day 15, 30, and 60 transgenic female mice revealed that female compound hypomorphs had significantly more KP-ir neurons in the AVPV/PeV compared to their wild-type littermates, suggesting increased KP-ir neurons may drive early VO but could not maintain the cyclic changes in GnRH neuronal activity required for female fertility. Overall, these data suggest that Fgf signaling deficiencies differentially alter the parameters of female pubertal onset and cyclicity. Further, these deficiencies led to changes in the AVPV/PeV KP-ir neurons that may have contributed to the accelerated VO in the compound hypomorphs.

  3. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for normal mammary gland development and stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Pond, Adam C; Bin, Xue; Batts, Torey; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Rosen, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays an important role in embryonic stem cells and adult tissue homeostasis, but the function of FGFs in mammary gland stem cells is less well defined. Both FGFR1 and FGFR2 are expressed in basal and luminal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), suggesting that together they might play a role in mammary gland development and stem cell dynamics. Previous studies have demonstrated that the deletion of FGFR2 resulted only in transient developmental defects in branching morphogenesis. Using a conditional deletion strategy, we investigated the consequences of FGFR1 deletion alone and then the simultaneous deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in the mammary epithelium. FGFR1 deletion using a keratin 14 promoter-driven Cre-recombinase resulted in an early, yet transient delay in development. However, no reduction in functional outgrowth potential was observed following limiting dilution transplantation analysis. In contrast, a significant reduction in outgrowth potential was observed upon the deletion of both FGFR1 and FGFR2 in MECs using adenovirus-Cre. Additionally, using a fluorescent reporter mouse model to monitor Cre-mediated recombination, we observed a competitive disadvantage following transplantation of both FGFR1/R2-null MECs, most prominently in the basal epithelial cells. This correlated with the complete loss of the mammary stem cell repopulating population in the FGFR1/R2-attenuated epithelium. FGFR1/R2-null MECs were partially rescued in chimeric outgrowths containing wild-type MECs, suggesting the potential importance of paracrine mechanisms involved in the maintenance of the basal epithelial stem cells. These studies document the requirement for functional FGFR signaling in mammary stem cells during development. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Effects of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling inhibition on human erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Sumita S; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Agarwal, Kelly L; Sit, Laura; Cohen, Ezra E W; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Karrison, Theodore; Bakris, George L; Ratain, Mark J; Vokes, Everett E; Maitland, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling increases red blood cell (RBC) counts, and erythropoiesis markers have been proposed to guide antiangiogenic therapy in humans. We analyzed RBC measurements in patients enrolled in three studies: a phase II trial of axitinib in thyroid cancer; a study of sorafenib in advanced solid tumors; and a randomized trial of fluorouracil, hydroxyurea, and radiation with and without bevacizumab for head and neck cancer. In the sorafenib trial, plasma erythropoietin concentrations were measured at baseline, day 8, and day 35. Over the first 84 days of treatment, RBC counts increased for each day on sorafenib (2.7 M/μL [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.5-3.9]) and axitinib (4.3 M/μL [95% CI, 2.2-6.5]). RBCs declined over the first 68 days of cytotoxic chemoradiotherapy alone (-12.8 M/μL per day [95% CI, -15.7 to -9.8]) but less so with added bevacizumab (-7.2 M/μL per day [95% CI, -9.5 to -4.9]). Erythropoietin levels increased, on average, by 9.5 mIU/mL between day 8 and day 35 of sorafenib exposure. No significant relationships between elevations in RBCs and changes in volume status or blood pressure or between elevations in erythropoietin and smoking status were found. VEGF signaling inhibition is associated with increased RBC and erythropoietin production in humans. The effects of these changes are subtle at physiologic doses and are unlikely to be clinically useful biomarkers for guiding the administration of or predicting treatment responses to VEGF pathway inhibitors.

  5. Piperlongumine inhibits lung tumor growth via inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Son, Dong Ju; Gu, Sun Mi; Woo, Ju Rang; Ham, Young Wan; Lee, Hee Pom; Kim, Wun Jae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Piperlongumine has anti-cancer activity in numerous cancer cell lines via various signaling pathways. But there has been no study regarding the mechanisms of PL on the lung cancer yet. Thus, we evaluated the anti-cancer effects and possible mechanisms of PL on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vivo and in vitro. Our findings showed that PL induced apoptotic cell death and suppressed the DNA binding activity of NF-κB in a concentration dependent manner (0–15 μM) in NSCLC cells. Docking model and pull down assay showed that PL directly binds to the DNA binding site of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p50 subunit, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis showed that PL binds to p50 concentration-dependently. Moreover, co-treatment of PL with NF-κB inhibitor phenylarsine oxide (0.1 μM) or p50 siRNA (100 nM) augmented PL-induced inhibitory effect on cell growth and activation of Fas and DR4. Notably, co-treatment of PL with p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) partially abolished PL-induced cell growth inhibition and decreased the enhanced expression of Fas and DR4. In xenograft mice model, PL (2.5–5 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth of NSCLC dose-dependently. Therefore, these results indicated that PL could inhibit lung cancer cell growth via inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27198178

  6. DR3 signaling protects against cisplatin nephrotoxicity mediated by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Al-Lamki, Rafia S; Lu, WanHua; Finlay, Sarah; Twohig, Jason P; Wang, Eddie C Y; Tolkovsky, Aviva M; Bradley, John R

    2012-04-01

    The expression of death receptor 3 (DR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily, is up-regulated in human tubular epithelial cells (TECs) during renal injury, but its function in this setting remains unknown. We used cisplatin to induce renal injury in wild-type (DR3(+/+)) or congenitally deficient DR3(-/-) mice to examine the in vivo role of DR3. Cisplatin induced the expression of DR3, its ligand, TNF-like ligand 1A (TL1A), and TNF in TECs, as observed in human renal injury. Cisplatin increased apoptotic death of DR3(-/-) TECs by twofold compared with DR3(+/+) TECs, whereas it reduced the number of tubules expressing phospho-NF-κBp65(Ser276) by 50% at 72 hours. Similar degrees of induction of DR3, TL1A, and TNF, and changes in apoptosis and phospho-NF-κBp65(Ser276), were obtained in mouse kidney organ cultures treated with cisplatin for 3 hours, suggesting a direct effect on TECs. TNF was implicated in mediating cisplatin-induced tubular damage given that the in vivo co-administration of GM6001, an inhibitor of TNF maturation and release, significantly reduced TNF production and tubular damage. Moreover, TNF exacerbated, whereas TL1A reduced, cisplatin-induced apoptosis in the DR3(+/+) mouse proximal tubule cell line, TKPTS. Our data demonstrate that cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity is mitigated by DR3 signaling, suggesting that this occurs by antagonizing pro-apoptotic signals induced by TNF. Therefore, activating DR3 may be beneficial in reducing acute kidney injury. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein Expression Signatures for Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-mediated Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Matthew V.; Manning, H. Charles; Coffey, Robert J.; Liebler, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of cellular signaling networks typically involves targeted measurements of phosphorylated protein intermediates. However, phosphoproteomic analyses usually require affinity enrichment of phosphopeptides and can be complicated by artifactual changes in phosphorylation caused by uncontrolled preanalytical variables, particularly in the analysis of tissue specimens. We asked whether changes in protein expression, which are more stable and easily analyzed, could reflect network stimulation and inhibition. We employed this approach to analyze stimulation and inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by EGF and selective EGFR inhibitors. Shotgun analysis of proteomes from proliferating A431 cells, EGF-stimulated cells, and cells co-treated with the EGFR inhibitors cetuximab or gefitinib identified groups of differentially expressed proteins. Comparisons of these protein groups identified 13 proteins whose EGF-induced expression changes were reversed by both EGFR inhibitors. Targeted multiple reaction monitoring analysis verified differential expression of 12 of these proteins, which comprise a candidate EGFR inhibition signature. We then tested these 12 proteins by multiple reaction monitoring analysis in three other models: 1) a comparison of DiFi (EGFR inhibitor-sensitive) and HCT116 (EGFR-insensitive) cell lines, 2) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse xenograft DiFi and HCT116 tumors, and 3) in tissue biopsies from a patient with the gastric hyperproliferative disorder Ménétrier's disease who was treated with cetuximab. Of the proteins in the candidate signature, a core group, including c-Jun, Jagged-1, and Claudin 4, were decreased by EGFR inhibitors in all three models. Although the goal of these studies was not to validate a clinically useful EGFR inhibition signature, the results confirm the hypothesis that clinically used EGFR inhibitors generate characteristic protein expression changes. This work further outlines a prototypical

  8. Epigenetic Alterations Affecting Transcription Factors and Signaling Pathways in Stromal Cells of Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Yotova, Iveta; Hsu, Emily; Do, Catherine; Gaba, Aulona; Sczabolcs, Matthias; Dekan, Sabine; Kenner, Lukas; Wenzl, Rene; Tycko, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by growth of endometrial-like tissue outside the uterine cavity. Since its pathogenesis may involve epigenetic changes, we used Illumina 450K Methylation Beadchips to profile CpG methylation in endometriosis stromal cells compared to stromal cells from normal endometrium. We validated and extended the Beadchip data using bisulfite sequencing (bis-seq), and analyzed differential methylation (DM) at the CpG-level and by an element-level classification for groups of CpGs in chromatin domains. Genes found to have DM included examples encoding transporters (SLC22A23), signaling components (BDNF, DAPK1, ROR1, and WNT5A) and transcription factors (GATA family, HAND2, HOXA cluster, NR5A1, OSR2, TBX3). Intriguingly, among the TF genes with DM we also found JAZF1, a proto-oncogene affected by chromosomal translocations in endometrial stromal tumors. Using RNA-Seq we identified a subset of the DM genes showing differential expression (DE), with the likelihood of DE increasing with the extent of the DM and its location in enhancer elements. Supporting functional relevance, treatment of stromal cells with the hypomethylating drug 5aza-dC led to activation of DAPK1 and SLC22A23 and repression of HAND2, JAZF1, OSR2, and ROR1 mRNA expression. We found that global 5hmC is decreased in endometriotic versus normal epithelial but not stroma cells, and for JAZF1 and BDNF examined by oxidative bis-seq, found that when 5hmC is detected, patterns of 5hmC paralleled those of 5mC. Together with prior studies, these results define a consistent epigenetic signature in endometriosis stromal cells and nominate specific transcriptional and signaling pathways as therapeutic targets.

  9. Corticotropin-releasing factor family peptide signaling in feline bladder urothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hanna-Mitchell, Ann T; Wolf-Johnston, Amanda; Roppolo, James R; Buffington, Tony C A; Birder, Lori A

    2014-07-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a central role in the orchestration of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. The family of CRF-related peptides (CRF and paralogs: urocortin (Ucn)-I, -II, and -III) and associated receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2) are also expressed in peripheral tissues such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Local signaling may exert multiple effects of stress-induced exacerbation of many complex syndromes, including psoriasis and visceral hypersensitivity. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS), a chronic visceral pain syndrome characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, and pelvic pain, is reported to be exacerbated by stress. Functional changes in the epithelial lining of the bladder, a vital blood-urine barrier called the urothelium, may play a role in IC/PBS. This study investigated the expression and functional activity of CRF-related peptides in the urothelium of normal cats and cats with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC), a chronic idiopathic cystitis exhibiting similarities to humans diagnosed with IC/PBS. Western blots analysis showed urothelial (UT) expression of CRFR1 and CRFR2. Enzyme immunoassay revealed release of endogenous ligands (CRF and Ucn) by UT cells in culture. Evidence of functional activation of CRFR1 and CRFR2 by receptor-selective agonists (CRF and UCN3 respectively) was shown by i) the measurement of ATP release using the luciferin-luciferase assay and ii) the use of membrane-impermeant fluorescent dyes (FM dyes) for fluorescence microscopy to assess membrane exocytotic responses in real time. Our findings show evidence of CRF-related peptide signaling in the urothelium. Differences in functional responses between FIC and normal UT indicate that this system is altered in IC/PBS.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor signaling is required for early somatic gonad development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Leerberg, Dena M; Sano, Kaori; Draper, Bruce W

    2017-09-01

    The vertebrate ovary and testis develop from a sexually indifferent gonad. During early development of the organism, primordial germ cells (the gamete lineage) and somatic gonad cells coalesce and begin to undergo growth and morphogenesis to form this bipotential gonad. Although this aspect of development is requisite for a fertile adult, little is known about the genetic regulation of early gonadogenesis in any vertebrate. Here, we provide evidence that fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling is required for the early growth phase of a vertebrate bipotential gonad. Based on mutational analysis in zebrafish, we show that the Fgf ligand 24 (Fgf24) is required for proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis of the early somatic gonad, and as a result, most fgf24 mutants are sterile as adults. Additionally, we describe the ultrastructural elements of the early zebrafish gonad and show that distinct somatic cell populations can be identified soon after the gonad forms. Specifically, we show that fgf24 is expressed in an epithelial population of early somatic gonad cells that surrounds an inner population of mesenchymal somatic gonad cells that are in direct contact with the germ cells, and that fgf24 is required for stratification of the somatic tissue. Furthermore, based on gene expression analysis, we find that differentiation of the inner mesenchymal somatic gonad cells into functional cell types in the larval and early juvenile-stage gonad is dependent on Fgf24 signaling. Finally, we argue that the role of Fgf24 in zebrafish is functionally analogous to the role of tetrapod FGF9 in early gonad development.

  11. Targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling in therapeutics: implications for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Simon A; Beck, Paul L; MacDonald, Justin A

    2009-01-01

    In response to hypoxia, adaptive hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) signaling events are activated to increase oxygen transport, anaerobic energy production and protective pathways to minimize ischemic tissue damage. Although the activation and subsequent induction of gene transcription by HIF-1 is normally associated with hypoxia, it is now established that HIF-1 signaling can be triggered under inflammatory conditions. HIF-1 has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, allergic asthma, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the gastrointestinal tract, HIF-1-regulated gene products, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, intestinal trefoil factor and CD73, have been shown to provide protection in animal models of intestinal inflammation. Given the importance of HIF-1 signaling in the aforementioned diseases, there exists considerable interest in the development of methods to modulate HIF-1 expression as well as down-stream signaling events. This review examines HIF-1 signaling with a special focus on the gastrointestinal tract. The patents pertaining to the modulation of HIF-1 signaling are summarized, and their relevance to the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is discussed.

  12. Transforming growth factor β recruits persistent MAPK signaling to regulate long-term memory consolidation in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Shobe, Justin; Philips, Gary T; Carew, Thomas J

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we explore the mechanistic relationship between growth factor signaling and kinase activity that supports the protein synthesis-dependent phase of long-term memory (LTM) consolidation for sensitization ofAplysia Specifically, we examine LTM for tail shock-induced sensitization of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal (T-SW) reflex, a form of memory that requires both (i) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2; MAPK) activity within identified sensory neurons (SNs) that mediate the T-SW and (ii) the activation of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. We now report that repeated tail shocks that induce intermediate-term (ITM) and LTM for sensitization, also induce a sustained post-training phase of MAPK activity in SNs (lasting at least 1 h). We identified two mechanistically distinct phases of post-training MAPK: (i) an immediate phase that does not require ongoing protein synthesis or TGFβ signaling, and (ii) a sustained phase that requires both protein synthesis and extracellular TGFβ signaling. We find that LTM consolidation requires sustained MAPK, and is disrupted by inhibitors of protein synthesis and TGFβ signaling during the consolidation window. These results provide strong evidence that TGFβ signaling sustains MAPK activity as an essential mechanistic step for LTM consolidation.

  13. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-MET receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway: Diverse roles in modulating immune cell functions.

    PubMed

    Ilangumaran, Subburaj; Villalobos-Hernandez, Alberto; Bobbala, Diwakar; Ramanathan, Sheela

    2016-06-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) signaling via the MET receptor is essential for embryonic development and tissue repair. On the other hand, deregulated MET signaling promotes tumor progression in diverse types of cancers. Even though oncogenic MET signaling remains the major research focus, the HGF-MET axis has also been implicated in diverse aspects of immune cell development and functions. In the presence of other hematopoietic growth factors, HGF promotes the development of erythroid, myeloid and lymphoid lineage cells and thrombocytes. In monocytes and macrophages responding to inflammatory stimuli, induction of autocrine HGF-MET signaling can contribute to tissue repair via stimulating anti-inflammatory cytokine production. HGF-MET signaling can also modulate adaptive immune response by facilitating the migration of Langerhans cells and dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. However, MET signaling has also been shown to induce tolerogenic dendritic cells in mouse models of graft-versus-host disease and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. HGF-MET axis is also implicated in promoting thymopoiesis and the survival and migration of B lymphocytes. Recent studies have shown that MET signaling induces cardiotropism in activated T lymphocytes. Further understanding of the HGF-MET axis in the immune system would allow its therapeutic manipulation to improve immune cell reconstitution, restore immune homeostasis and to treat immuno-inflammatory diseases.

  14. Integrin α6β4 Promotes Autocrine Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Signaling to Stimulate Migration and Invasion toward Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF).

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brittany L; Chen, Min; Knifley, Teresa; Davis, Kelley A; Harrison, Susan M W; Stewart, Rachel L; O'Connor, Kathleen L

    2015-11-06

    Integrin α6β4 is up-regulated in pancreatic adenocarcinomas where it contributes to carcinoma cell invasion by altering the transcriptome. In this study, we found that integrin α6β4 up-regulates several genes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway, including amphiregulin (AREG), epiregulin (EREG), and ectodomain cleavage protease MMP1, which is mediated by promoter demethylation and NFAT5. The correlation of these genes with integrin α6β4 was confirmed in The Cancer Genome Atlas Pancreatic Cancer Database. Based on previous observations that integrin α6β4 cooperates with c-Met in pancreatic cancers, we examined the impact of EGFR signaling on hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-stimulated migration and invasion. We found that AREG and EREG were required for autocrine EGFR signaling, as knocking down either ligand inhibited HGF-mediated migration and invasion. We further determined that HGF induced secretion of AREG, which is dependent on integrin-growth factor signaling pathways, including MAPK, PI3K, and PKC. Moreover, matrix metalloproteinase activity and integrin α6β4 signaling were required for AREG secretion. Blocking EGFR signaling with EGFR-specific antibodies or an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor hindered HGF-stimulated pancreatic carcinoma cell chemotaxis and invasive growth in three-dimensional culture. Finally, we found that EGFR was phosphorylated in response to HGF stimulation that is dependent on EGFR kinase activity; however, c-Met phosphorylation in response to HGF was unaffected by EGFR signaling. Taken together, these data illustrate that integrin α6β4 stimulates invasion by promoting autocrine EGFR signaling through transcriptional up-regulation of key EGFR family members and by facilitating HGF-stimulated EGFR ligand secretion. These signaling events, in turn, promote pancreatic carcinoma migration and invasion.

  15. The GATA-type transcription factors GNC and GNL/CGA1 repress gibberellin signaling downstream from DELLA proteins and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTORS.

    PubMed

    Richter, René; Behringer, Carina; Müller, Isabel Karin; Schwechheimer, Claus

    2010-09-15

    The phytohormone gibberellin (GA) regulates various developmental processes in plants such as germination, greening, elongation growth, and flowering time. DELLA proteins, which are degraded in response to GA, repress GA signaling by inhibitory interactions with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) family transcription factors. How GA signaling is controlled downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators is, at present, unclear. Here, we characterize GNC (GATA, NITRATE-INDUCIBLE, CARBON-METABOLISM INVOLVED) and GNL/CGA1 (GNC-LIKE/CYTOKININ-RESPONSIVE GATA FACTOR1), two homologous GATA-type transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that we initially identified as GA-regulated genes. Our genetic analyses of loss-of-function mutants and overexpression lines establish that GNC and GNL are functionally redundant regulators of germination, greening, elongation growth and flowering time. We further show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that both genes are potentially direct transcription targets of PIF transcription factors, and that their expression is up-regulated in pif mutant backgrounds. In line with a key role of GNC or GNL downstream from DELLA and PIF signaling, we find that their overexpression leads to gene expression changes that largely resemble those observed in a ga1 biosynthesis mutant or a pif quadruple mutant. These findings, together with the fact that gnc and gnl loss-of-function mutations suppress ga1 phenotypes, support the hypothesis that GNC and GNL are important repressors of GA signaling downstream from the DELLA and PIF regulators.

  16. Role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and Wnt signaling in anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone on bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yurong; Hurley, Marja M.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis poses enormous health and economic burden worldwide. One of the very few anabolic agents for osteoporosis is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although great progress has been made since the FDA approved PTH in 2002, the detailed mechanisms of the bone anabolic effects of intermittent PTH treatment is still not well understood. PTH bone anabolic effect is regulated by extracellular factors. Maximal bone anabolic effect of PTH requires fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling, which might be mediated by transcription factor activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Maximal bone anabolic effect of PTH also requires Wnt signaling. Particularly, Wnt antagonists such as sclerostin, dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled related protein 1 (sFRP1) are promising targets to increase bone formation. Interestingly, FGF2 signaling modulates Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway in bone. Therefore, multiple signaling pathways utilized by PTH are cross talking and working together to promote bone formation. Extensive studies on the mechanisms of action of PTH will help to identify new pathways that regulate bone formation, to improve available agents to stimulate bone formation, and to identify potential new anabolic agents for osteoporosis. PMID:22378151

  17. Role of fibroblast growth factor 2 and Wnt signaling in anabolic effects of parathyroid hormone on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Fei, Yurong; Hurley, Marja M

    2012-11-01

    Osteoporosis poses enormous health and economic burden worldwide. One of the very few anabolic agents for osteoporosis is parathyroid hormone (PTH). Although great progress has been made since the FDA approved PTH in 2002, the detailed mechanisms of the bone anabolic effects of intermittent PTH treatment is still not well understood. PTH bone anabolic effect is regulated by extracellular factors. Maximal bone anabolic effect of PTH requires fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) signaling, which might be mediated by transcription factor activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Maximal bone anabolic effect of PTH also requires Wnt signaling. Particularly, Wnt antagonists such as sclerostin, dickkopf 1 (DKK1) and secreted frizzled related protein 1 (sFRP1) are promising targets to increase bone formation. Interestingly, FGF2 signaling modulates Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathway in bone. Therefore, multiple signaling pathways utilized by PTH are cross talking and working together to promote bone formation. Extensive studies on the mechanisms of action of PTH will help to identify new pathways that regulate bone formation, to improve available agents to stimulate bone formation, and to identify potential new anabolic agents for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Paracrine regulation of growth factor signaling by shed leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Wei; Holmlund, Camilla; Nilsson, Jonas; Inui, Shigeki; Lei, Ting; Itami, Satoshi; Henriksson, Roger; Hedman, Hakan

    2011-02-15

    Leucine-rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like domains 1 (LRIG1) is a recently discovered negative regulator of growth factor signaling. The LRIG1 integral membrane protein has been demonstrated to regulate various oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases, including epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR), by cell-autonomous mechanisms. Here, we investigated whether LRIG1 ectodomains were shed, and if LRIG1 could regulate cell proliferation and EGF signaling in a paracrine manner. Cells constitutively shed LRIG1 ectodomains in vitro, and shedding was modulated by known regulators of metalloproteases, including the ADAM17 specific inhibitor TAPI-2. Furthermore, shedding was enhanced by ectopic expression of Adam17. LRIG1 ectodomains appeared to be shed in vivo, as well, as demonstrated by immunoblotting of mouse and human tissue lysates. Ectopic expression of LRIG1 in lymphocytes suppressed EGF signaling in co-cultured fibroblastoid cells, demonstrating that shed LRIG1 ectodomains can function in a paracrine fashion. Purified LRIG1 ectodomains suppressed EGF signaling without any apparent downregulation of EGFR levels. Taken together, the results show that the LRIG1 ectodomain can be proteolytically shed and can function as a non-cell-autonomous regulator of growth factor signaling. Thus, LRIG1 or its ectodomain could have therapeutic potential in the treatment of growth factor receptor-dependent cancers.

  19. High mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling promotes progression of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yanqiu; Zhou, Tao; Gao, Yanjing; Zhang, Zongli; Li, Li; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wenna; Su, Lihui; Cheng, Baoquan

    2017-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 and toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway have been indicated to have oncogenic effects in many cancers. However, the role of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway in the development of gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were overexpressed in gastric cancer tumors compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. The overexpression of high mobility group box 1, toll-like receptor 4, and myeloid differentiation factor 88 were correlated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (p = 0.0068, p = 0.0063, p = 0.0173) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0272, p = 0.0382, and p = 0.0495). Furthermore, we observed that knockdown of high mobility group box 1 by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA suppressed the expression of toll-like receptor 4 and myeloid differentiation factor 88. Blockage of high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling by high mobility group box 1-small interfering RNA resulted in elevation of apoptotic ratio and inhibition of cell growth, migration, and invasion by upregulating Bax expression and downregulating Bcl-2, matrix metalloproteinase-2, nuclear factor kappa B/p65 expression, and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B/p65 in gastric cancer cells. Our findings suggest that high mobility group box 1/toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 signaling pathway may contribute to the development and progression of gastric cancer via the nuclear factor kappa B pathway and it also represents a novel potential therapeutic target for gastric cancer.

  20. Interferon-Regulatory Factor 5-Dependent Signaling Restricts Orthobunyavirus Dissemination to the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Hyde, Jennifer L; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Lucas, Tiffany; Pinto, Amelia K; Richner, Justin M; Gorman, Matthew J; Lazear, Helen M; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-10-14

    Interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) is a transcription factor that induces inflammatory responses after engagement and signaling by pattern recognition receptors. To define the role of IRF-5 during bunyavirus infection, we evaluated Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) pathogenesis and immune responses in primary cells and in mice with gene deletions in Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 or in Irf5 alone. Deletion of Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 together resulted in uncontrolled viral replication in the liver and spleen, hypercytokinemia, extensive liver injury, and an early-death phenotype. Remarkably, deletion of Irf5 alone resulted in meningoencephalitis and death on a more protracted timeline, 1 to 2 weeks after initial OROV or LACV infection. The clinical signs in OROV-infected Irf5(-/-) mice were associated with abundant viral antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in several regions of the brain. Circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets in Irf5(-/-) mice had higher levels of OROV RNA in vivo yet produced lower levels of type I IFN than wild-type (WT) cells. This result was supported by data obtained in vitro, since a deficiency of IRF-5 resulted in enhanced OROV infection and diminished type I IFN production in bone marrow-derived DCs. Collectively, these results indicate a key role for IRF-5 in modulating the host antiviral response in peripheral organs that controls bunyavirus neuroinvasion in mice. Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) are orthobunyaviruses that are transmitted by insects and cause meningitis and encephalitis in subsets of individuals in the Americas. Recently, we demonstrated that components of the type I interferon (IFN) induction pathway, particularly the regulatory transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7, have key protective roles during OROV infection. However, the lethality in Irf3(-/-) Irf7(-/-) (DKO) mice infected with OROV was not as rapid or

  1. Interferon-Regulatory Factor 5-Dependent Signaling Restricts Orthobunyavirus Dissemination to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Proenca-Modena, Jose Luiz; Hyde, Jennifer L.; Sesti-Costa, Renata; Lucas, Tiffany; Pinto, Amelia K.; Richner, Justin M.; Gorman, Matthew J.; Lazear, Helen M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Interferon (IFN)-regulatory factor 5 (IRF-5) is a transcription factor that induces inflammatory responses after engagement and signaling by pattern recognition receptors. To define the role of IRF-5 during bunyavirus infection, we evaluated Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) pathogenesis and immune responses in primary cells and in mice with gene deletions in Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 or in Irf5 alone. Deletion of Irf3, Irf5, and Irf7 together resulted in uncontrolled viral replication in the liver and spleen, hypercytokinemia, extensive liver injury, and an early-death phenotype. Remarkably, deletion of Irf5 alone resulted in meningoencephalitis and death on a more protracted timeline, 1 to 2 weeks after initial OROV or LACV infection. The clinical signs in OROV-infected Irf5−/− mice were associated with abundant viral antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in several regions of the brain. Circulating dendritic cell (DC) subsets in Irf5−/− mice had higher levels of OROV RNA in vivo yet produced lower levels of type I IFN than wild-type (WT) cells. This result was supported by data obtained in vitro, since a deficiency of IRF-5 resulted in enhanced OROV infection and diminished type I IFN production in bone marrow-derived DCs. Collectively, these results indicate a key role for IRF-5 in modulating the host antiviral response in peripheral organs that controls bunyavirus neuroinvasion in mice. IMPORTANCE Oropouche virus (OROV) and La Crosse virus (LACV) are orthobunyaviruses that are transmitted by insects and cause meningitis and encephalitis in subsets of individuals in the Americas. Recently, we demonstrated that components of the type I interferon (IFN) induction pathway, particularly the regulatory transcription factors IRF-3 and IRF-7, have key protective roles during OROV infection. However, the lethality in Irf3−/− Irf7−/− (DKO) mice infected with OROV

  2. Combined systemic elimination of MET and epidermal growth factor receptor signaling completely abolishes liver regeneration and leads to liver decompensation.

    PubMed

    Paranjpe, Shirish; Bowen, William C; Mars, Wendy M; Orr, Anne; Haynes, Meagan M; DeFrances, Marie C; Liu, Silvia; Tseng, George C; Tsagianni, Anastasia; Michalopoulos, George K

    2016-11-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases MET and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are critically involved in initiation of liver regeneration. Other cytokines and signaling molecules also participate in the early part of the process. Regeneration employs effective redundancy schemes to compensate for the missing signals. Elimination of any single extracellular signaling pathway only delays but does not abolish the process. Our present study, however, shows that combined systemic elimination of MET and EGFR signaling (MET knockout + EGFR-inhibited mice) abolishes liver regeneration, prevents restoration of liver mass, and leads to liver decompensation. MET knockout or simply EGFR-inhibited mice had distinct and signaling-specific alterations in Ser/Thr phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2, phosphatase and tensin homolog, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α, etc. In the combined MET and EGFR signaling elimination of MET knockout + EGFR-inhibited mice, however, alterations dependent on either MET or EGFR combined to create shutdown of many programs vital to hepatocytes. These included decrease in expression of enzymes related to fatty acid metabolism, urea cycle, cell replication, and mitochondrial functions and increase in expression of glycolysis enzymes. There was, however, increased expression of genes of plasma proteins. Hepatocyte average volume decreased to 35% of control, with a proportional decrease in the dimensions of the hepatic lobules. Mice died at 15-18 days after hepatectomy with ascites, increased plasma ammonia, and very small livers. MET and EGFR separately control many nonoverlapping signaling endpoints, allowing for compensation when only one of the signals is blocked, though the combined elimination of the signals is not tolerated; the results provide critical new information on interactive MET and EGFR signaling and the contribution of their combined absence to

  3. Patterns of deregulation of insulin growth factor signalling pathway in paediatric and adult gastrointestinal stromal tumours.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Chen, Junwei; Zhang, Lei; Hajdu, Mihai; Singer, Samuel; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2012-11-01

    Data regarding the patterns and the mechanisms of deregulation of the insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway in adult and paediatric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are limited. We investigated the expression profiling of the genes encoding the main components of the IGF signalling pathway in 131 GISTs (106 adults, 21 paediatric and four young adults) and 25 other soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) using an Affymetrix U133A platform. IGF2 was investigated for loss of imprinting (LOI) whereas IGF1R was analysed for copy number aberration and mutation. IGF2 was the most highly overexpressed gene of the IGF pathway in GIST. IGF2 expression was also significantly higher than in other STS. IGF2 expression was correlated to the age onset and mutational status of GIST. Indeed, IGF2 expression was significantly higher in the 'adult' group than in the 'paediatric' and 'young adult' groups. Among adult GIST, IGF2 expression was higher in tumours lacking Homo sapiens v-kit Hardy-Zuckerman 4 feline sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KIT) or alpha-type platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRA) mutations in comparison with mutated cases. A trend for a higher expression of IGF2 in resistant GIST in comparison to responsive GIST was also found. Overexpression of IGF2 was not related to LOI. Conversely, the expression of the IGF1R gene was significantly higher in the paediatric group than in the adult group. No copy number gains or mutations of IGF1R were observed. The IGF pathway is deregulated in GIST with distinct patterns according to age onset and mutational status. The IGF pathway may represent a therapeutic target in patients with primary or secondary resistance to imatinib. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; ...

    2015-08-10

    The plant hormone jasmonate plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Key mediators of jasmonate signalling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors in the resting state. In the presence of active jasmonate, JAZ proteins function as jasmonate co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins frommore » transcriptional repression. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. In this paper, we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partly unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the amino (N)-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Finally, our structural and functional studies elucidate a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway.« less

  5. Stem cell factor/c-Kit signalling in normal and androgenetic alopecia hair follicles.

    PubMed

    Randall, Valerie A; Jenner, Tracey J; Hibberts, Nigel A; De Oliveira, Isabel O; Vafaee, Tayyebeh

    2008-04-01

    Androgens stimulate many hair follicles to alter hair colour and size via the hair growth cycle; in androgenetic alopecia tiny, pale hairs gradually replace large, pigmented ones. Since stem cell factor (SCF) is important in embryonic melanocyte migration and maintaining adult rodent pigmentation, we investigated SCF/c-Kit signalling in human hair follicles to determine whether this was altered in androgenetic alopecia. Quantitative immunohistochemistry detected three melanocyte-lineage markers and c-Kit in four focus areas: the epidermis, infundibulum, hair bulb (where pigment is formed) and mid-follicle outer root sheath (ORS). Colocalisation confirmed melanocyte c-Kit expression; cultured follicular melanocytes also exhibited c-Kit. Few ORS cells expressed differentiated melanocyte markers or c-Kit, but NKI/beteb antibody, which also recognises early melanocyte-lineage antigens, identified fourfold more cells, confirmed by colocalisation. Occasional similar bulbar cells were seen. Melanocyte distribution, concentration and c-Kit expression were unaltered in balding follicles. Androgenetic alopecia cultured dermal papilla cells secreted less SCF, measured by ELISA, than normal cells. This identifies three types of melanocyte-lineage cells in human follicles. The c-Kit expression by dendritic, pigmenting, bulbar melanocytes and rounded, differentiated, non-pigmenting ORS melanocytes implicate SCF in maintaining pigmentation and migration into regenerating hair bulbs. Less differentiated, c-Kit-independent cells in the mid-follicle ORS stem cell niche and occasionally in the bulb, presumably a local reserve for long scalp hair growth, implicate other factors in activating stem cells. Androgens appear to reduce alopecia hair colour by inhibiting dermal papilla SCF production, impeding bulbar melanocyte pigmentation. These results may facilitate new treatments for hair colour changes in hirsutism, alopecia or greying.

  6. Decorin interferes with platelet-derived growth factor receptor signaling in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Horváth, Zsolt; Regös, Eszter; Kiss, Katalin; Schaff, Zsuzsa; Iozzo, Renato V.; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Decorin, a secreted small leucine-rich proteoglycan, acts as a tumor repressor in a variety of cancers, mainly by blocking the action of several receptor tyrosine kinases such the receptors for hepatocyte, epidermal and insulin-like growth factors. In the present study we investigated the effects of decorin in an experimental model of thioacetamide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis, and its potential role in modulating the signaling of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα). Genetic ablation of decorin led to enhanced tumor prevalence and higher tumor count as compared to wild-type animals. These findings correlated with decreased levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1 and concurrent activation (phosphorylation) of PDGFRα in the hepatocellular carcinomas generated in the decorin-null vis-à-vis wild-type mice. Notably, in normal liver PDGFRα localized primarily to the membrane of non-parenchymal cells, whereas in the malignant counterpart PDGFRα was expressed by the malignant cells at their cell surfaces. This process was facilitated by a genetic background lacking endogenous decorin. Double immunostaining of the proteoglycan and the receptor revealed only minor colocalization leading to the hypothesis that decorin would bind to the natural ligand PDGF rather than the receptor itself. Indeed, we found that decorin binds to PDGF using purified proteins and immune blot assays. Collectively, our findings support the idea that decorin acts as a secreted tumor repressor during hepatocarcinogenesis by hindering the action of another receptor tyrosine kinase such as the PDGFRα, and could be a novel therapeutic agent in the battle against liver cancer. PMID:23448253

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptor signaling ameliorates FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Wöhrle, Simon; Henninger, Christine; Bonny, Olivier; Thuery, Anne; Beluch, Noemie; Hynes, Nancy E; Guagnano, Vito; Sellers, William R; Hofmann, Francesco; Kneissel, Michaela; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a circulating factor secreted by osteocytes that is essential for phosphate homeostasis. In kidney proximal tubular cells FGF23 inhibits phosphate reabsorption and leads to decreased synthesis and enhanced catabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2 D3 ). Excess levels of FGF23 cause renal phosphate wasting and suppression of circulating 1,25(OH)2 D3 levels and are associated with several hereditary hypophosphatemic disorders with skeletal abnormalities, including X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (XLH) and autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR). Currently, therapeutic approaches to these diseases are limited to treatment with activated vitamin D analogues and phosphate supplementation, often merely resulting in partial correction of the skeletal aberrations. In this study, we evaluate the use of FGFR inhibitors for the treatment of FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic disorders using NVP-BGJ398, a novel selective, pan-specific FGFR inhibitor currently in Phase I clinical trials for cancer therapy. In two different hypophosphatemic mouse models, Hyp and Dmp1-null mice, resembling the human diseases XLH and ARHR, we find that pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs efficiently abrogates aberrant FGF23 signaling and normalizes the hypophosphatemic and hypocalcemic conditions of these mice. Correspondingly, long-term FGFR inhibition in Hyp mice leads to enhanced bone growth, increased mineralization, and reorganization of the disturbed growth plate structure. We therefore propose NVP-BGJ398 treatment as a novel approach for the therapy of FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic diseases. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Characterization of Amphioxus IFN Regulatory Factor Family Reveals an Archaic Signaling Framework for Innate Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaochun; Zheng, Tingting; Li, Peiyi; Yang, Rirong; Ruan, Jie; Huang, Shengfeng; Wu, Zhenxin; Xu, Anlong

    2015-12-15

    The IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family encodes transcription factors that play important roles in immune defense, stress response, reproduction, development, and carcinogenesis. Although the origin of the IRF family has been dated back to multicellular organisms, invertebrate IRFs differ from vertebrate IRFs in genomic structure and gene synteny, and little is known about their functions. Through comparison of multiple amphioxus genomes, in this study we suggested that amphioxus contains nine IRF members, whose orthologs are supposed to be shared among three amphioxus species. As the orthologs to the vertebrate IRF1 and IRF4 subgroups, Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense (bbt)IRF1 and bbtIRF8 bind the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and were upregulated when amphioxus intestinal cells were stimulated with poly(I:C). As amphioxus-specific IRFs, both bbtIRF3 and bbtIRF7 bind ISRE. When activated, they can be phosphorylated by bbtTBK1 and then translocate into nucleus for target gene transcription. As transcriptional repressors, bbtIRF2 and bbtIRF4 can inhibit the transcriptional activities of bbtIRF1, 3, 7, and 8 by competing for the binding of ISRE. Interestingly, amphioxus IRF2, IRF8, and Rel were identified as target genes of bbtIRF1, bbtIRF7, and bbtIRF3, respectively, suggesting a dynamic feedback regulation among amphioxus IRF and NF-κB. Collectively, to our knowledge we present for the first time an archaic IRF signaling framework in a basal chordate, shedding new insights into the origin and evolution of vertebrate IFN-based antiviral networks.

  9. Multiple nuclear localization signals function in the nuclear import of the transcription factor Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Melanie; Kawai, Yumiko; Yang, Jianqi; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Reddy, Sekhar P; Villalta, Fernando; Arinze, Ifeanyi J

    2008-04-04

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) mediates the transcriptional response of cells to oxidative stress and is translocated into the nucleus following, or concomitant with, its activation by electrophiles or reactive oxygen species. The mechanism of its translocation into the nucleus is not entirely elucidated. Here we have identified two novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) motifs in murine Nrf2, one located near the N-terminal region (amino acid residues 42-53) and the other (residues 587-593) located near the C-terminal region. Imaging of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged Nrf2 revealed that mutation(s) in any of these sequences resulted in decreased nuclear fluorescence intensity compared with the wild-type Nrf2 when Nrf2 activation was induced with the electrophile tert-butylhydroquinone. The mutations also impaired Nrf2-induced transactivation of antioxidant response element-driven reporter gene expression to the same extent as the Nrf2 construct bearing mutation in a previously identified bipartite NLS that maps at residues 494-511. When linked to GFP or to GFP-PEPCK-C each of the novel NLS motifs was sufficient to drive nuclear translocation of the fusion proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that importins alpha5 and beta1 associate with Nrf2, an interaction that was blocked by the nuclear import inhibitor SN50. SN50 also blocked tert-butylhydroquinone-induced nuclear fluorescence of GFP-Nrf2 in cells transfected with wild-type GFP-Nrf2. Overall these results reveal that multiple NLS motifs in Nrf2 function in its nuclear translocation in response to pro-oxidant stimuli and that the importin alpha-beta heterodimer nuclear import receptor system plays a critical role in the import process.

  10. Activation of the glutaredoxin-1 gene by Nuclear Factor kappa B enhances signaling

    PubMed Central

    Aesif, Scott W.; Kuipers, Ine; van der Velden, Jos; Tully, Jane E.; Guala, Amy S.; Anathy, Vikas; Sheely, Juliana I.; Reynaert, Niki L.; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; van der Vliet, Albert; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.

    2011-01-01

    The transcription factor, Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of inflammation and immunity, and is negatively regulated via S-glutathionylation. The inhibitory effect of S-glutathionylation is overcome by glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1), which under physiological conditions catalyses deglutathionylation and enhances NF-κB activation. The mechanisms whereby expression of the Glrx1 gene is regulated remain unknown. Here we examined the role of NF-κB in regulating activation of Glrx1. Transgenic mice which express a doxycyclin-inducible constitutively active version of inhibitory kappa B kinase-beta (CA-IKKβ) demonstrate elevated expression of Grx1. Transient transfection of CA-IKKβ also resulted in significant induction of Grx1. A 2kb region Glrx1 promoter that contains two putative NF-κB binding sites was activated by CA-IKKβ, RelA/p50, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed binding of RelA to the promoter of Glrx1 in response to LPS. Stimulation of C10 lung epithelial cells with LPS caused transient increases in Grx1 mRNA expression, and time-dependent increases in S-glutathionylation of IKKβ. Overexpression of Grx1 decreased S-glutathionylation of IKKβ, prolonged NF-κB activation, and increased levels of pro-inflammatory mediators. Collectively, this study demonstrates that the Glrx1 gene is positively regulated by NF-κB, and suggests a feed forward mechanism to promote NF-κB signaling by decreasing S-glutathionylation. PMID:21762778

  11. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; Zhang, Li; Lam, Vinh Q.; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Zhou, X. Edward; Chen, Jian; Brunzelle, Joseph; Griffin, Patrick R.; Zhou, Mingguo; Xu, H. Eric; Melcher, Karsten; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-08-10

    The plant hormone jasmonate plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development. Key mediators of jasmonate signalling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors in the resting state. In the presence of active jasmonate, JAZ proteins function as jasmonate co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins from transcriptional repression. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. In this paper, we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partly unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the amino (N)-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Finally, our structural and functional studies elucidate a dynamic molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway.

  12. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-12-01

    Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for antiangiogenesis treatment. However, most current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have antitumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit the kinase activity of purified VEGF receptor 2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit the VEGF receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprout formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor-bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the antiangiogenic activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the antiangiogenic activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well-tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment.

  13. Autocrine motility factor promotes HER2 cleavage and signaling in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Dhong Hyo; Nangia-Makker, Pratima; Balan, Vitaly; Hogan, Victor; Tait, Larry; Wang, Yi; Raz, Avraham

    2013-01-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is an effective targeted therapy in HER2 overexpressing human breast carcinoma. However, many HER2-positive patients initially or eventually become resistant to this treatment, so elucidating mechanisms of trastuzumab resistance that emerge in breast carcinoma cells is clinically important. Here we show that autocrine motility factor (AMF) binds to HER2 and induces cleavage to the ectodomain-deleted and constitutively active form p95HER2. Mechanistic investigations indicated that interaction of AMF with HER2 triggers HER2 phosphorylation and metalloprotease-mediated ectodomain shedding, activating PI3K and MAPK signaling and ablating the ability of trastuzumab to inhibit breast carcinoma cell growth. Further, we found that HER2 expression and AMF secretion were inversely related in breast carcinoma cells. Based on this evidence that AMF may contribute to HER2-mediated breast cancer progression, our findings suggest that AMF-HER2 interaction might be a novel target for therapeutic management of breast cancer patients whose disease is resistant to trastuzumab. PMID:23248119

  14. Preclinical evidence implicating corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in ethanol consumption and neuroadaptation

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, T. J.; Reed, C.; Pastor, R.

    2016-01-01

    The results of many studies support the influence of the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system on ethanol (EtOH) consumption and EtOH-induced neuroadaptations that are critical in the addiction process. This review summarizes the preclinical data in this area after first providing an overview of the components of the CRF system. This complex system involves hypothalamic and extra-hypothalamic mechanisms that play a role in the central and peripheral consequences of stressors, including EtOH and other drugs of abuse. In addition, several endogenous ligands and targets make up this system and show differences in their involvement in EtOH drinking and in the effects of chronic or repeated EtOH treatment. In general, genetic and pharmacological approaches paint a consistent picture of the importance of CRF signaling via type 1 CRF receptors (CRF1) in EtOH-induced neuroadaptations that result in higher levels of intake, encourage alcohol seeking during abstinence and alter EtOH sensitivity. Furthermore, genetic findings in rodents, non-human primates and humans have provided some evidence of associations of genetic polymorphisms in CRF-related genes with EtOH drinking, although additional data are needed. These results suggest that CRF1 antagonists have potential as pharmacotherapeutics for alcohol use disorders. However, given the broad and important role of these receptors in adaptation to environmental and other challenges, full antagonist effects may be too profound and consideration should be given to treatments with modulatory effects. PMID:25565358

  15. Discovery of an ergosterol-signaling factor that regulates Trypanosoma brucei growth[S

    PubMed Central

    Haubrich, Brad A.; Singha, Ujjal K.; Miller, Matthew B.; Nes, Craigen R.; Anyatonwu, Hosanna; Lecordier, Laurence; Patkar, Presheet; Leaver, David J.; Villalta, Fernando; Vanhollebeke, Benoit; Chaudhuri, Minu; Nes, W. David

    2015-01-01

    Ergosterol biosynthesis and homeostasis in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei was analyzed by RNAi silencing and inhibition of sterol C24β-methyltransferase (TbSMT) and sterol 14α-demethylase [TbSDM (TbCYP51)] to explore the functions of sterols in T. brucei growth. Inhibition of the amount or activity of these enzymes depletes ergosterol from cells at <6 fg/cell for procyclic form (PCF) cells or <0.01 fg/cell for bloodstream form (BSF) cells and reduces infectivity in a mouse model of infection. Silencing of TbSMT expression by RNAi in PCF or BSF in combination with 25-azalanosterol (AZA) inhibited parasite growth and this inhibition was restored completely by adding synergistic cholesterol (7.8 μM from lipid-depleted media) with small amounts of ergosterol (1.2 μM) to the medium. These observations are consistent with the proposed requirement for ergosterol as a signaling factor to spark cell proliferation while imported cholesterol or the endogenously formed cholesta-5,7,24-trienol act as bulk membrane components. To test the potential chemotherapeutic importance of disrupting ergosterol biosynthesis using pairs of mechanism-based inhibitors that block two enzymes in the post-squalene segment, parasites were treated with AZA and itraconazole at 1 μM each (ED50 values) resulting in parasite death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the ergosterol pathway is a prime drug target for intervention in T. brucei infection. PMID:25424002

  16. Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling decreases translation in Drosophila and mice

    PubMed Central

    Essers, Paul; Tain, Luke S.; Nespital, Tobias; Goncalves, Joana; Froehlich, Jenny; Partridge, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Down-regulation of insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) can increase lifespan in C. elegans, Drosophila and mice. In C. elegans, reduced IIS results in down-regulation of translation, which itself can extend lifespan. However, the effect of reduced IIS on translation has yet to be determined in other multicellular organisms. Using two long-lived IIS models, namely Drosophila lacking three insulin-like peptides (dilp2-3,5−/−) and mice lacking insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1−/−), and two independent translation assays, polysome profiling and radiolabeled amino acid incorporation, we show that reduced IIS lowers translation in these organisms. In Drosophila, reduced IIS decreased polysome levels in fat body and gut, but reduced the rate of protein synthesis only in the fat body. Reduced IIS in mice decreased protein synthesis rate only in skeletal muscle, without reducing polysomes in any tissue. This lowered translation in muscle was independent of Irs1 loss in the muscle itself, but a secondary effect of Irs1 loss in the liver. In conclusion, down-regulation of translation is an evolutionarily conserved response to reduced IIS, but the tissues in which it occurs can vary between organisms. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying lowered translation may differ in mice, possibly associated with the complexity of the regulatory processes. PMID:27452396

  17. Effects of Myoga on Memory and Synaptic Plasticity by Regulating Nerve Growth Factor-Mediated Signaling.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Geun; Lim, Soonmin; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Ae-Jung; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-02-01

    The flower bud of Zingiber mioga Roscoe, known as 'myoga' or Japanese ginger, has a pungent aroma and is commonly consumed as a spice, with pickles, or as a health supplement in Eastern Asia. Here, we evaluated the activity of myoga in the brain, focusing especially on nerve growth factor (NGF), which is believed to mediate synaptic plasticity, supporting learning and memory. In a rat primary hippocampal astrocyte culture system, treatment with myoga extract for 24 h significantly stimulated the production of NGF. In mice administered myoga extract for 14 days, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day treatment resulted in increased NGF levels in the hippocampus. Myoga extract treatment also regulated the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and cAMP response element-binding protein in the mouse hippocampus, leading to increased synaptic plasticity. In addition, it significantly increased novel object recognition time and spontaneous alternation, indicating improvement in learning and memory. These results suggest that myoga helps regulate NGF and synaptic plasticity, increasing memory ability.

  18. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haotian; Yang, Tianyu; Madakashira, Bhavani P; Thiels, Cornelius A; Bechtle, Chad A; Garcia, Claudia M; Zhang, Huiming; Yu, Kai; Ornitz, David M; Beebe, David C; Robinson, Michael L

    2008-06-15

    The vertebrate lens provides an excellent model to study the mechanisms that regulate terminal differentiation. Although fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are thought to be important for lens cell differentiation, it is unclear which FGF receptors mediate these processes during different stages of lens development. Deletion of three FGF receptors (Fgfr1-3) early in lens development demonstrated that expression of only a single allele of Fgfr2 or Fgfr3 was sufficient for grossly normal lens development, while mice possessing only a single Fgfr1 allele developed cataracts and microphthalmia. Profound defects were observed in lenses lacking all three Fgfrs. These included lack of fiber cell elongation, abnormal proliferation in prospective lens fiber cells, reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p27(kip1) and p57(kip2), increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins. Therefore, while signaling by FGF receptors is essential for lens fiber differentiation, different FGF receptors function redundantly.

  19. Multivariate standard addition method solved by net analyte signal calculation and rank annihilation factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Yousefinejad, Saeed

    2009-08-01

    This article describes the use of the net analyte signal (NAS) concept and rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) for building two different multivariate standard addition models called "SANAS" and "SARAF." In the former, by the definition of a new subspace, the NAS vector of the analyte of interest in an unknown sample as well as the NAS vectors of samples spiked with various amounts of the standard solutions are calculated and then their Euclidean norms are plotted against the concentration of added standard. In this way, a simple linear standard addition graph similar to that in univariate calibration is obtained, from which the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample and the analytical figures of merit are readily calculated. In the SARAF method, the concentration of the analyte in the unknown sample is varied iteratively until the contribution of the analyte in the response data matrix is completely annihilated. The proposed methods were evaluated by analyzing simulated absorbance data as well as by the analysis of two indicators in synthetic matrices as experimental data. The resultant predicted concentrations of unknown samples showed that the SANAS and SARAF methods both produced accurate results with relative errors of prediction lower than 5% in most cases.

  20. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor co-dependent signaling pathways in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Mischel, Paul S

    2017-09-11

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that is critical for normal development and function. EGFR is also amplified or mutated in a variety of cancers including in nearly 60% of cases of the highly lethal brain cancer glioblastoma (GBM). EGFR amplification and mutation reprogram cellular metabolism and broadly alter gene transcription to drive tumor formation and progression, rendering EGFR as a compelling drug target. To date, brain tumor patients have yet to benefit from anti-EGFR therapy due in part to an inability to achieve sufficient intratumoral drug levels in the brain, cultivating adaptive mechanisms of resistance. Here, we review an alternative set of strategies for targeting EGFR-amplified GBMs, based on identifying and targeting tumor co-dependencies shaped both by aberrant EGFR signaling and the brain's unique biochemical environment. These approaches may include highly brain-penetrant drugs from non-cancer pipelines, expanding the pharmacopeia and providing promising new treatments. We review the molecular underpinnings of EGFR-activated co-dependencies in the brain and the promising new treatments based on this strategy. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.