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Sample records for factor val66met polymorphism

  1. Association of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism with Primary Dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li-Fen; Shen, Horng-Der; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), the most prevalent menstrual cycle-related problem in women of reproductive age, is associated with negative moods. Whether the menstrual pain and negative moods have a genetic basis remains unknown. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the production of central sensitization and contributes to chronic pain conditions. BDNF has also been implicated in stress-related mood disorders. We screened and genotyped the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) in 99 Taiwanese (Asian) PDMs (20–30 years old) and 101 age-matched healthy female controls. We found that there was a significantly higher frequency of the Met allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism in the PDM group. Furthermore, BDNF Met/Met homozygosity had a significantly stronger association with PDM compared with Val carrier status. Subsequent behavioral/hormonal assessments of sub-groups (PDMs = 78, controls = 81; eligible for longitudinal multimodal neuroimaging battery studies) revealed that the BDNF Met/Met homozygous PDMs exhibited a higher menstrual pain score (sensory dimension) and a more anxious mood than the Val carrier PDMs during the menstrual phase. Although preliminary, our study suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with PDM in Taiwanese (Asian) people, and BDNF Met/Met homozygosity may be associated with an increased risk of PDM. Our data also suggest the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism as a possible regulator of menstrual pain and pain-related emotions in PDM. Absence of thermal hypersensitivity may connote an ethnic attribution. The presentation of our findings calls for further genetic and neuroscientific investigations of PDM. PMID:25383981

  2. Effects of brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Abode-Iyamah, Kingsley O; Stoner, Kirsten E; Grossbach, Andrew J; Viljoen, Stephanus V; McHenry, Colleen L; Petrie, Michael A; Dahdaleh, Nader S; Grosland, Nicole M; Shields, Richard K; Howard, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    Cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) is the leading cause of spinal cord related disability in the elderly. It results from degenerative narrowing of the spinal canal, which causes spinal cord compression. This leads to gait instability, loss of dexterity, weakness, numbness and urinary dysfunction. There has been indirect data that implicates a genetic component to CSM. Such a finding may contribute to the variety in presentation and outcome in this patient population. The Val66Met polymorphism, a mutation in the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, has been implicated in a number of brain and psychological conditions, and here we investigate its role in CSM. Ten subjects diagnosed with CSM were enrolled in this prospective study. Baseline clinical evaluation using the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scale, Nurick and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) were collected. Each subject underwent objective testing with gait kinematics, as well as hand functioning using the Purdue Peg Board. Blood samples were analyzed for the BDNF Val66Met mutation. The prevalence of the Val66Met mutation in this study was 60% amongst CSM patients compared to 32% in the general population. Individuals with abnormal Met allele had worse baseline mJOA and Nurick scores. Moreover, baseline gait kinematics and hand functioning testing were worse compared to their wild type counterpart. BDNF Val66Met mutation has a higher prevalence in CSM compared to the general population. Those with BDNF mutation have a worse clinical presentation compared to the wild type counterpart. These findings suggest implication of the BDNF mutation in the development and severity of CSM. PMID:26461908

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism, human memory, and synaptic neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; McKay, Nicole S; Thompson, Christopher S; Hamm, Jeffrey P; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Some people have much better memory than others, and there is compelling evidence that a considerable proportion of this variation in memory ability is genetically inherited. A form of synaptic plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) is the principal candidate mechanism underlying memory formation in neural circuits, and it might be expected, therefore, that a genetic influence on the degree of LTP might in turn influence memory abilities. Of the genetic variations thought to significantly influence mnemonic ability in humans, the most likely to have its effect via LTP is a single nucleotide polymorphism affecting brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF (Val66Met)]. However, although it is likely that BDNF influences memory via a modulation of acute plasticity (i.e., LTP), BDNF also has considerable influence on structural development of neural systems. Thus, the influence of BDNF (Val66Met) on mnemonic performance via influences of brain structure as well as function must also be considered. In this brief review, we will describe the phenomenon of LTP and its study in non-human animals. We will discuss the relatively recent attempts to translate this work to studies in humans. We will describe how this has enabled investigation of the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on LTP, on brain structure, and on memory performance.

  4. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism, human memory, and synaptic neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; McKay, Nicole S; Thompson, Christopher S; Hamm, Jeffrey P; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Some people have much better memory than others, and there is compelling evidence that a considerable proportion of this variation in memory ability is genetically inherited. A form of synaptic plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) is the principal candidate mechanism underlying memory formation in neural circuits, and it might be expected, therefore, that a genetic influence on the degree of LTP might in turn influence memory abilities. Of the genetic variations thought to significantly influence mnemonic ability in humans, the most likely to have its effect via LTP is a single nucleotide polymorphism affecting brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF (Val66Met)]. However, although it is likely that BDNF influences memory via a modulation of acute plasticity (i.e., LTP), BDNF also has considerable influence on structural development of neural systems. Thus, the influence of BDNF (Val66Met) on mnemonic performance via influences of brain structure as well as function must also be considered. In this brief review, we will describe the phenomenon of LTP and its study in non-human animals. We will discuss the relatively recent attempts to translate this work to studies in humans. We will describe how this has enabled investigation of the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on LTP, on brain structure, and on memory performance. PMID:26263066

  5. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism moderates early deprivation effects on attention problems.

    PubMed

    Gunnar, Megan R; Wenner, Jennifer A; Thomas, Kathleen M; Glatt, Charles E; McKenna, Morgan C; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-11-01

    Adverse early care is associated with attention regulatory problems, but not all so exposed develop attention problems. In a sample of 612 youth (girls = 432, M = 11.82 years, SD = 1.5) adopted from institutions (e.g., orphanages) in 25 countries, we examined whether the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene moderates attention problems associated with the duration of institutional care. Parent-reported attention problem symptoms were collected using the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire. DNA was genotyped for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (rs6265) single nucleotide polymorphism. Among youth from Southeast (SE) Asia, the predominant genotype was valine/methionine (Val/Met), whereas among youth from Russia/Europe and Caribbean/South America, the predominant genotype was Val/Val. For analysis, youth were grouped as carrying Val/Val or Met/Met alleles. Being female, being from SE Asia, and being younger when adopted were associated with fewer attention regulatory problem symptoms. Youth carrying at least one copy of the Met allele were more sensitive to the duration of deprivation, yielding an interaction that followed a differential susceptibility pattern. Thus, youth with Val/Met or Met/Met genotypes exhibited fewer symptoms than Val/Val genotypes when adoption was very early and more symptoms when adoption occurred later in development. Similar patterns were observed when SE Asian youth and youth from other parts of the world were analyzed separately. PMID:23062292

  6. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P; Bousman, Chad A

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene-environment-depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required. PMID:27621711

  7. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M.; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P.; Bousman, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene–environment–depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required. PMID:27621711

  8. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M.; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P.; Bousman, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene–environment–depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required.

  9. An Association Study of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism and Amphetamine Response

    PubMed Central

    Flanagin, Brody A.; Cook, Edwin H.; de Wit, Harriet

    2008-01-01

    Although genetic factors are known to be important in addiction, no candidate genes have yet been consistently linked to drug use or abuse. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been implicated in the behavioral response to psychomotor stimulants and potentiates neurotransmitters that are strongly linked to addiction, is a logical candidate gene to study. Using a drug challenge approach, we tested for association between BDNF G196A (val66met) genotype and subjective responses to amphetamine (AMPH). Healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, crossover design in which they received placebo, 10 mg, and 20 mg oral d-amphetamine in random order. Subjective and physical responses to ingestion of AMPH were measured at thirty minute intervals after drug ingestion. Each subject was genotyped for the BDNF G196A polymorphism and grouped and analyzed accordingly. The effects of AMPH on ratings of arousal, energy, and heart rate were compared in subjects with the val/val genotype (N = 67) and the subjects with either the val/met or met/met genotypes (N = 32). AMPH produced less pronounced self-ratings of arousal and energy, yet higher increases in heart rate, in the val/met and met/met compared to the val/val group. These results suggest that BDNF is related to the subjective and physical response to low doses of AMPH. PMID:16823800

  10. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese heroin-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Po See; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-02-02

    BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of long-term heroin use. Thus, we investigated the relationships between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentrations and the BDNF Val66Met nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in heroin-dependent patients. The pretreatment expression levels of plasma BDNF and the BDNF Val66Met SNP in 172 heroin-dependent patients and 102 healthy controls were checked. BDNF levels were significantly lower in patients (F = 52.28, p < 0.0001), but the distribution of the SNP was not significantly different. Nor were plasma BDNF levels significantly different between Met/Met, Met/Val, and Val/Val carriers in each group, which indicated that the BDNF Val66Met SNP did not affect plasma BDNF levels in our participants. In heroin-dependent patients, plasma BDNF levels were negatively correlated with the length of heroin dependency. Long-term (>15 years) users had significantly lower plasma BDNF levels than did short-term (<5 years) users. We conclude that plasma BDNF concentration in habitual heroin users are not affected by BDNF Val66Met gene variants, but by the length of the heroin dependency.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism affects sympathetic tone in a gender-specific way.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Chang, Hsin-An; Chen, Tien-Yu; Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan

    2014-09-01

    The Val/Val genotype of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphism (Val66Met) has been reported to affect human anxiety-related phenotypes. Substantial research has demonstrated that anxiety is associated with sympathetic activation, while sex steroid hormones have been shown to exert differential actions in regulating BDNF expression. Thus, we examined whether the BDNF variant modulates autonomic function in a gender-dependent manner. From 708 adults initially screened for medical and psychiatric illnesses, a final cohort of 583 drug-free healthy Han Chinese (355 males, 228 females; age 34.43±8.42 years) was recruited for BDNF genotyping (Val/Val: 136, 23.3%, Val/Met: 294, 50.4%, and Met/Met: 153, 26.2%). Time- and frequency-domain analyses of heart rate variability (HRV) were used to assess autonomic outflow to the heart. Significant genotype-by-gender interaction effects were found on HRV indices. Even after adjusting for possible confounders, male participants bearing the Val/Val genotype had significant increases in low frequency (LF), LF% and LF/high frequency (HF) ratio, indicating altered sympathovagal balance with increased sympathetic modulation, compared to male Met/Met homozygotes. Females, however, showed an opposite but non-significant pattern. These results suggest that the studied BDNF polymorphism is associated with sympathetic control in a gender-specific way. The findings here support the view that male subjects with the Val/Val genotype have increased risk of anxiety by association with sympathetic activation.

  12. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with early-onset bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Nassan, Malik; Croarkin, Paul E; Luby, Joan L; Veldic, Marin; Joshi, Paramjit T; McElroy, Susan L; Post, Robert M; Walkup, John T; Cercy, Kelly; Geske, Jennifer; Wagner, Karen D; Cuellar-Barboza, Alfredo B; Casuto, Leah; Lavebratt, Catharina; Schalling, Martin; Jensen, Peter S; Biernacka, Joanna M; Frye, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met (rs6265) functional polymorphism has been implicated in early-onset bipolar disorder. However, results of studies are inconsistent. We aimed to further explore this association. Methods DNA samples from the Treatment of Early Age Mania (TEAM) and Mayo Clinic Bipolar Disorder Biobank were investigated for association of rs6265 with early-onset bipolar disorder. Bipolar cases were classified as early onset with the definition of first manic or depressive episode at age ≤ 19 years (versus adult-onset cases at age > 19 years). After quality control, 69 TEAM early-onset bipolar disorder cases, 725 Mayo Clinic bipolar disorder cases (including 189 early onset cases), and 764 controls were included in the analysis of association, assessed with logistic regression assuming log-additive allele effects. Results Comparison of TEAM cases with controls suggested association of early-onset bipolar disorder with the rs6265 minor allele [odds ratio (OR) = 1.55, p = 0.04]. Although comparison of early-onset adult bipolar disorder cases from Mayo Clinic versus controls was not statistically significant, the OR estimate indicated the same direction of effect (OR = 1.21, p = 0.19). When the early-onset TEAM and Mayo Clinic early-onset adult groups were combined and compared with the control group, the association of the minor allele rs6265 was statistically significant (OR = 1.30, p = 0.04). Conclusions These preliminary analyses of a relatively small sample with early-onset bipolar disorder are suggestive that functional variation in BDNF is implicated in bipolar disorder risk and may have a more significant role in early-onset expression of the disorder. PMID:26528762

  13. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Turkish Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Onder; Basay, Burge Kabukcu; Buber, Ahmet; Basay, Omer; Alacam, Huseyin; Bacanlı, Ali; Yılmaz, Şenay Görücü; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Ercan, Eyup Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects different areas of life. We aimed to evaluate the associations between the Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ADHD and to assess the effect of the BDNF polymorphism on the neurocognitive profile and clinical symptomatology in ADHD. Methods Two hundred one ADHD cases and 99 typically developing subjects (TD) between the ages of 8 and 15 years were involved in the study. All subjects were evaluated using a complete neuropsychological battery, Child Behavior Checklist, the Teacher's Report Form (TRF) and the DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorders Rating Scale-teacher and parent forms. Results The GG genotype was significantly more frequent in the patients with ADHD than in the TD controls, and the GG genotype was also significantly more frequent in the ADHD-combined (ADHD-C) subtype patients than in the TDs. However, there were no significant associations of the BDNF polymorphism with the ADHD subtypes or neurocognitive profiles of the patients. The teacher-assessed hyperactivity and inattention symptom count and the total score were higher, and the appropriately behaving subtest score of the TRF was lower in the GG genotypes than in the GA and AA (i.e., the A-containing) genotypes. Conclusion We found a positive association between the BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism and ADHD, and this association was observed specifically in the ADHD-C subtype and not the ADHD-predominantly inattentive subtype. Our findings support that the Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF gene might be involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Furthermore Val66Met polymorphism of BDNF gene may be more closely associated with hyperactivity rather than inattention. PMID:27757130

  14. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Val66Met Polymorphism and Risk of Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis of Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Kheirollahi, Majid; Kazemi, Elahe; Ashouri, Saeideh

    2016-01-01

    According to evidences from previous family and association studies, it has been claimed that genetic factors are involved in the neuropathogenesis of Schizophrenia disorder. Whether the Val66Met variant of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene plays any roles in the pathogenesis of this syndrome or could be a potential biomarker for prognosis of this disorder has been a long-standing controversial issue. We performed a meta-analysis restricted to case-control studies and searched Pubmed, PsychInfo, and Google scholar using keywords including 'association,' 'Val66Met,' 'BDNF,' and 'schizophrenia' published up to May 1, 2015. A total of 39 studies for schizophrenia were combined by fixed- and random-effects models. The pooled results from the schizophrenia sample indicated no significant evidence for the association of Val/Val and Val/Met genotypes of BDNF gene with schizophrenia, but it was observed that there is an association between Met/Met polymorphism and schizophrenia in Asian, European, and Chinese populations, this means that the risk of schizophrenia in Asian, European, and Chinese populations with Met/Met genotype is, respectively, 9, 26, and 9%. There was a significant association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and schizophrenia in our meta-analysis study. We cannot rule out the possibility that other polymorphisms in the BDNF gene are involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In addition, more studies should be conducted on the polymorphisms in other genes to elucidate their possible roles in schizophrenia.

  15. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and its implication in executive functions in adult offspring of alcohol-dependent probands.

    PubMed

    Benzerouk, Farid; Gierski, Fabien; Gorwood, Philip; Ramoz, Nicolas; Stefaniak, Nicolas; Hübsch, Bérengère; Kaladjian, Arthur; Limosin, Frédéric

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of executive functions (EFs) mediated by the prefrontal lobe is regarded as a cognitive endophenotype of alcohol dependence, being observed both in probands and in healthy offspring. Given its impact on the anatomy of the prefrontal cortex, the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism may well be involved in this specific endophenotype. Forty-six healthy adult children of alcoholics (HACA) and 82 healthy controls (HC) took part in the study. All the participants were assessed with the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies, and their family histories of alcohol and substance use were assessed with the Family Informant Schedule and Criteria. The Trail Making Test, Arithmetic Switching Task, Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were administered to assess EFs. An overall executive factor score was calculated using factorial analyses. Genotyping of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was performed using the TaqMan® allelic discrimination assay. HACA had significantly lower EFs performance than HC. Genetic analysis showed that BDNF genotype distributions were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the HACA and HC. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between the two groups. Participants with the Met allele performed significantly more poorly than participants with the Val allele, and a group by allele interaction was observed, the BDNF Met allele being associated with a poorer executive factor score in the HACA group. These results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may contribute to alcohol dependence vulnerability via lower EFs performance. PMID:23582695

  17. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val(66)Met polymorphism differentially predicts hippocampal function in medication-free patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, D P; Ianni, A M; Wei, S-M; Kohn, P D; Kolachana, B; Apud, J; Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F

    2013-06-01

    A Val(66)Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impairs activity-dependent BDNF release in cultured hippocampal neurons and predicts impaired memory and exaggerated basal hippocampal activity in healthy humans. Several clinical genetic association studies along with multi-modal evidence for hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia indirectly suggest a relationship between schizophrenia and genetically determined BDNF function in the hippocampus. To directly test this hypothesized relationship, we studied 47 medication-free patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 74 healthy comparison individuals with genotyping for the Val(66)Met SNP and [(15)O]H(2)O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure resting and working memory-related hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In patients, harboring a Met allele was associated with significantly less hippocampal rCBF. This finding was opposite to the genotype effect seen in healthy participants, resulting in a significant diagnosis-by-genotype interaction. Exploratory analyses of interregional resting rCBF covariation revealed a specific and significant diagnosis-by-genotype interaction effect on hippocampal-prefrontal coupling. A diagnosis-by-genotype interaction was also found for working memory-related hippocampal rCBF change, which was uniquely attenuated in Met allele-carrying patients. Thus, both task-independent and task-dependent hippocampal neurophysiology accommodates a Met allelic background differently in patients with schizophrenia than in control subjects. Potentially consistent with the hypothesis that cellular sequelae of the BDNF Val(66)Met SNP interface with aspects of schizophrenic hippocampal and frontotemporal dysfunction, these results warrant future investigation to understand the contributions of unique patient trait or state variables to these robust interactions.

  18. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met Polymorphism Differentially Predicts Hippocampal Function in Medication-Free Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Daniel Paul; Ianni, Angela M.; Wei, Shau-Ming; Kohn, Philip D.; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Apud, José; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Berman, Karen F.

    2012-01-01

    A Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene impairs activity-dependent BDNF release in cultured hippocampal neurons and predicts impaired memory and exaggerated basal hippocampal activity in healthy humans. Several clinical genetic association studies, along with multi-modal evidence for hippocampal dysfunction in schizophrenia indirectly suggest a relationship between schizophrenia and genetically-determined BDNF function in the hippocampus. To directly test this hypothesized relationship, we studied 47 medication-free patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 74 healthy comparison individuals with genotyping for the Val66Met SNP and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) to measure resting and working memory-related hippocampal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). In patients, harboring a Met allele was associated with significantly less hippocampal rCBF. This finding was opposite to the genotype effect seen in healthy participants, resulting in a significant diagnosis-by-genotype interaction. Exploratory analyses of interregional resting rCBF covariation revealed a specific and significant diagnosis-by-genotype interaction effect on hippocampal-prefrontal coupling. A diagnosis-by-genotype interaction was also found for working-memory related hippocampal rCBF change, which was uniquely attenuated in Met allele-carrying patients. Thus, both task-independent and task-dependent hippocampal neurophysiology accommodates a Met allelic background differently in patients with schizophrenia than in control subjects. Potentially consistent with the hypothesis that cellular sequelae of the BDNF Val66Met SNP interface with aspects of schizophrenic hippocampal and frontotemporal dysfunction, these results warrant future investigation to understand the contributions of unique patient trait or state variables to these robust interactions. PMID:23319002

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism influences the association of the methylome with maternal anxiety and neonatal brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Pan, Hong; Tuan, Ta Anh; Teh, Ai Ling; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; McEwen, Lisa M; Li, Yue; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Kobor, Michael S; Qiu, Anqi; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2015-02-01

    Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.

  20. Association between obesity and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism Val66Met in individuals with bipolar disorder in Mexican population

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Marín, Mirna Edith; Genis-Mendoza, Alma Delia; Tovilla-Zarate, Carlos Alfonso; Lanzagorta, Nuria; Escamilla, Michael; Nicolini, Humberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been considered as an important candidate gene in bipolar disorder (BD); this association has been derived from several genetic and genome-wide studies. A polymorphic variant of the BDNF (Val66Met) confers some differences in the clinical presentation of affective disorders. In this study, we evaluated a sample population from Mexico City to determine whether the BDNF (rs6265) Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the body mass index (BMI) of patients with BD. Methods This association study included a sample population of 357 individuals recruited in Mexico City. A total of 139 participants were diagnosed with BD and 137 were classified as psychiatrically healthy controls (all individuals were interviewed and evaluated by the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was performed in 96-well plates using the TaqMan Universal Thermal Cycling Protocol. After the PCR end point was reached, fluorescence intensity was measured in a 7,500 real-time PCR system and evaluated using the SDS v2.1 software, results were analyzed with Finetti and SPSS software. Concerning BMI stratification, random groups were defined as follows: normal <25 kg/m2, overweight (Ow) =25.1–29.9 kg/m2, and obesity (Ob) >30 kg/m2. Results In the present work, we report the association of a particular BMI phenotype with the presence of the Val66Met allele in patients with BD (P=0.0033 and odds ratio [95% confidence interval] =0.332 [157–0.703]), and correlated the risk for valine allele carriers with Ow and Ob in patients with BD. Conclusion We found that the methionine allele confers a lower risk of developing Ow and Ob in patients with BD. We also confirmed that the G polymorphism represents a risk of developing Ow and Ob in patients with BD. In future studies, the haplotype analysis should provide additional evidence

  1. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism modulates the effects of parental rearing on personality traits in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, A; Matsumoto, Y; Shibuya, N; Sadahiro, R; Kamata, M; Goto, K; Otani, K

    2011-06-01

    There is a growing body of data suggesting that gene-environment interaction is critical in the characterization of personality traits; however, previous studies have not taken into consideration variability in parental rearing as an environmental factor. In this study, we examined the effects of the interaction between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on personality traits in 710 healthy Japanese subjects. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. Assessment of personality traits was performed by the temperament and character inventory (TCI), which has seven dimensions, i.e. novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence. Parental rearing has significant main effects on some TCI dimensions, but no significant main effects of the BDNF genotype on the TCI scores were found. The interaction between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI had significant effects on harm avoidance and self-directedness of the TCI. Post hoc analyses showed that decreased maternal care was correlated with increased harm avoidance and decreased self-directedness, and for both personality traits the partial correlation coefficient was highest in the Met/Met genotype group and lowest in the Val/Val genotype group and the value of the Val/Met genotype group was in the middle. Data from this study suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates the effects of parental rearing, especially maternal care, on harm avoidance and self-directedness in healthy subjects.

  2. Gender-specific Associations of the Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism with Neurocognitive and Clinical Features in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Ju-Yeon; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Seon-Young; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore associations of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with cognitive functioning and psychopathology in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We included 133 subjects meeting the DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia who were in the post-acute stage of the disease. BDNF Val66Met genotypes were identified via polymerase chain reaction. The computerized neurocognitive function battery, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and the Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic Treatment (SWN-K) were administered. Gender-stratified sub-analysis was also conducted to identify gender-specific patterns in the findings. Results In male patients, no significant difference in any measure by BDNF genotype was evident. In female patients, scores on the CDSS and total PANSS and all subscales were significantly higher in valine (Val) carriers. In addition, scores on the SOFAS and SWN-K were significantly lower in Val carriers. In terms of neurocognitive measures, female patients with the Val allele had significantly poorer reaction times and fewer correct responses on the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Trail Making Test (Parts A and B). After adjustment of PANSS total scores and log-transformed CDSS scores, CPT outcomes were significantly poorer in female patients with than in those without the Val allele. Conclusion Gender-specific associations of the Val allele with poor neurocognitive function and more severe psychopathology were evident. Further studies are required to explore the mechanisms of these differences and the potential utility of the BDNF genotype as a predictor of outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27489381

  3. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism differentially affects performance on subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III).

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Thompson, Christopher S; McKay, Nicole S; Waldie, Karen E; Kirk, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence brain structure and function, as well as cognitive abilities. They are most influential in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively. Recall and recognition are forms of memory proposed to have different neural substrates, with recall having a greater dependence on the PFC and hippocampus. This study aimed to determine whether the BDNF val(66)met or COMT val(158)met polymorphisms differentially affect recall and recognition, and whether these polymorphisms interact. A sample of 100 healthy adults was assessed on recall and familiarity-based recognition using the Faces and Family Pictures subscales of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III). COMT genotype did not affect performance on either task. The BDNF polymorphism (i.e., met carriers relative to val homozygotes) was associated with poorer recall ability, while not influencing recognition. Combining subscale scores in memory tests such as the WMS might obscure gene effects. Our results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between recall and familiarity-based recognition in neurogenetics research.

  4. Combined effects of the BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and environment risk factors on psoriasis vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Quan, Cheng; Zhu, Kun-Ju; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Zhong; Liu, Huan; Zhu, Cheng-Yao; Li, Ke-Shen; Fan, Yi-Ming; Zheng, Jie

    2014-10-01

    Smoking, alcohol consumption and higher body mass index (BMI) are well established risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with the clinical traits of the disease. And the genetic influences on these three risk factors indeed exist. Previously studies have demonstrated these risk factors related genetic variants may also play a role in the development of risk factors-related diseases. Then we performed a hospital-based study in order to evaluate the combined effect of the risk factors and their related polymorphism rs6265 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) risk and clinic traits. The case-control study involved 660 subjects including 345 cases and 315 controls in Chinese Han population. The variant of rs6265 was typed by SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (Applied Biosystems Co., USA). We confirmed that higher BMI (≥25), smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors for PV, and the estimated ORs were 1.63(95 % confidence interval (CI); 1.12-2.37), 2.09(95 % CI; 1.44-3.03) and 1.65(95 % CI; 1.15-2.37) respectively. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between case and control. However, we found combined effect of rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI (≥25) increased risk of PV (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.28; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 3.19; 95 % CI, 1.37-7.45; P < 0.05) and clinically severity of PV (OR = 2.71; 95 % CI, 1.09-6.72; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 1.25; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.40; P < 0.05). But none such significant combined effect was observed between others genotype (AA and AG) and other risk factors. In conclusions, the combined effect of BDNF rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI may increases the risk and clinical severity of PV in Chinese Han population.

  5. Preventing the Return of Fear Using Reconsolidation Update Mechanisms Depends on the Met-Allele of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Asthana, Manish Kumar; Brunhuber, Bettina; Mühlberger, Andreas; Reif, Andreas; Schneider, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Background: Memory reconsolidation is the direct effect of memory reactivation followed by stabilization of newly synthesized proteins. It has been well proven that neural encoding of both newly and reactivated memories requires synaptic plasticity. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been extensively investigated regarding its role in the formation of synaptic plasticity and in the alteration of fear memories. However, its role in fear reconsolidation is still unclear; hence, the current study has been designed to investigate the role of the BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. Methods: An auditory fear-conditioning paradigm was conducted, which comprised of three stages (acquisition, reactivation, and spontaneous recovery). One day after fear acquisition, the experimental group underwent reactivation of fear memory followed by the extinction training (reminder group), whereas the control group (non-reminder group) underwent only extinction training. On day 3, both groups were subjected to spontaneous recovery of earlier learned fearful memories. The treat-elicited defensive response due to conditioned threat was measured by assessing the skin conductance response to the conditioned stimulus. All participants were genotyped for rs6265. Results: The results indicate a diminishing effect of reminder on the persistence of fear memory only in the Met-allele carriers, suggesting a moderating effect of the BDNF polymorphism in fear memory reconsolidation. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a new role for BDNF gene variation in fear memory reconsolidation in humans. PMID:26721948

  6. Effects of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on brain metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cunlu; Wang, Zhenhua; Fan, Ming; Liu, Bing; Song, Ming; Zhen, Xiantong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2010-08-23

    Earlier studies showed that the Val66Met polymorphisms of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor differentially affect gray matter volume and brain region activities. This study used resting positron emission tomography to investigate the relationship between the polymorphisms of Val66Met and the regional cerebral metabolic rate in the brain. We analyzed the positron emission tomography images of 215 patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and found significant differences in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, prefrontal cortex, and inferior parietal lobule when comparing Met carriers with noncarriers among both the normal controls and those with mild cognitive impairment. For those with Alzheimer's disease, we also found additional differences in the bilateral insula between the carriers and noncarriers.

  7. Sex-specific association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and plasma BDNF with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a drug-naïve Han Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Haimei; Liu, Lu; Tang, Yilang; Ji, Ning; Yang, Li; Qian, Qiujin; Wang, Yufeng

    2014-07-30

    A functional polymorphism of the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) (Val66Met) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It also has an impact on peripheral BDNF levels in psychiatric disorders. This study examined the association of Val66Met with plasma BDNF level of ADHD in Han Chinese children (170 medication - naïve ADHD patients and 155 unaffected controls, aged 6-16 years). The Val allele was showed a higher frequency in females with ADHD (n=84) than controls (P=0.029) from the case-control association study. The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the mean plasma BDNF levels of ADHD patients were significantly higher than that of controls (P=0.001). We performed both total sample and sex stratified analyses to investigate the effect of Val66Met genotype on the plasma BDNF levels, but only a trend of association was found in females with ADHD (n=84), with a tendency of lower plasma BDNF level in Val allele carriers than Met/Met genotype carriers (P=0.071). Our results suggested a sex-specific association between BDNF and ADHD. Furthermore, there was a possible sex-specific relationship between the BDNF Val66Met genotype and plasma BDNF levels. However, further studies are required to elucidate the role of BDNF in ADHD.

  8. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Is Associated with Self-Reported Empathy

    PubMed Central

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Bagramian, Anaït; Labrecque, Alexandre; Racine, Marion; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is an important driver of human social behaviors and presents genetic roots that have been studied in neuroimaging using the intermediate phenotype approach. Notably, the Val66Met polymorphism of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been identified as a potential target in neuroimaging studies based on its influence on emotion perception and social cognition, but its impact on self-reported empathy has never been documented. Using a neurogenetic approach, we investigated the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and self-reported empathy (Davis’ Interpersonal Reactivity Index; IRI) in a sample of 110 young adults. Our results indicate that the BDNF genotype is significantly associated with the linear combination of the four facets of the IRI, one of the most widely used self-reported empathy questionnaire. Crucially, the effect of BDNF Val66Met goes beyond the variance explained by two polymorphisms of the oxytocin transporter gene previously associated with empathy and its neural underpinnings (OXTR rs53576 and rs2254298). These results represent the first evidence suggesting a link between the BDNF gene and self-reported empathy and warrant further studies of this polymorphism due to its potential clinical significance. PMID:26901829

  9. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Is Associated with Self-Reported Empathy.

    PubMed

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Bagramian, Anaït; Labrecque, Alexandre; Racine, Marion; Chagnon, Yvon C; Jackson, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is an important driver of human social behaviors and presents genetic roots that have been studied in neuroimaging using the intermediate phenotype approach. Notably, the Val66Met polymorphism of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been identified as a potential target in neuroimaging studies based on its influence on emotion perception and social cognition, but its impact on self-reported empathy has never been documented. Using a neurogenetic approach, we investigated the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and self-reported empathy (Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index; IRI) in a sample of 110 young adults. Our results indicate that the BDNF genotype is significantly associated with the linear combination of the four facets of the IRI, one of the most widely used self-reported empathy questionnaire. Crucially, the effect of BDNF Val66Met goes beyond the variance explained by two polymorphisms of the oxytocin transporter gene previously associated with empathy and its neural underpinnings (OXTR rs53576 and rs2254298). These results represent the first evidence suggesting a link between the BDNF gene and self-reported empathy and warrant further studies of this polymorphism due to its potential clinical significance. PMID:26901829

  10. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Is Associated with Self-Reported Empathy.

    PubMed

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Bagramian, Anaït; Labrecque, Alexandre; Racine, Marion; Chagnon, Yvon C; Jackson, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is an important driver of human social behaviors and presents genetic roots that have been studied in neuroimaging using the intermediate phenotype approach. Notably, the Val66Met polymorphism of the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been identified as a potential target in neuroimaging studies based on its influence on emotion perception and social cognition, but its impact on self-reported empathy has never been documented. Using a neurogenetic approach, we investigated the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and self-reported empathy (Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index; IRI) in a sample of 110 young adults. Our results indicate that the BDNF genotype is significantly associated with the linear combination of the four facets of the IRI, one of the most widely used self-reported empathy questionnaire. Crucially, the effect of BDNF Val66Met goes beyond the variance explained by two polymorphisms of the oxytocin transporter gene previously associated with empathy and its neural underpinnings (OXTR rs53576 and rs2254298). These results represent the first evidence suggesting a link between the BDNF gene and self-reported empathy and warrant further studies of this polymorphism due to its potential clinical significance.

  11. Val66Met BDNF polymorphism is associated with Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Vivian; Schumacher-Schuh, Artur F; Rieck, Mariana; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Rieder, Carlos R M; Hutz, Mara H

    2016-02-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. Besides characteristic PD motor features, the disease has important non-motor characteristics such as cognitive impairment. The role of genetic factors in cognitive impairment associated with PD is still unclear. In this study, we examined whether BDNF Val66Met was associated with impaired cognition in Parkinson's disease. One hundred and seventy five patients with a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease were included. Global cognitive abilities of the patients were measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Poisson Regression models were used to test for association between 66Met carriers and cognitive impairment controlling for covariates. Carriers of at least one BDNF 66Met allele presented a higher prevalence of cognitive impairment (p=0.005 RR=1.45 IC=95% [1.1-1.8]). These results suggest a role for BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cognitive impairment in PD. PMID:26806863

  12. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Val66Met) and Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms Modulate Plasticity in Inhibitory Control Performance Over Time but Independent of Inhibitory Control Training.

    PubMed

    Enge, Sören; Fleischhauer, Monika; Gärtner, Anne; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported training-induced improvements in executive function tasks and also observed transfer to untrained tasks. However, the results are mixed and there is a large interindividual variability within and across studies. Given that training-related performance changes would require modification, growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity potentially explaining such changes is needed. In the present study, a pre-post-follow-up design (N = 122) and a 3-weeks training of two response inhibition tasks (Go/NoGo and Stop-Signal) was employed and genetic variation (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined. Because Serotonin (5-HT) signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic variation in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was also addressed. The overall results show that the kind of training (i.e., adaptive vs. non-adaptive) did not evoke genotype-dependent differences. However, in the Go/NoGo task, better inhibition performance (lower commission errors) were observed for BDNF Val/Val genotype carriers compared to Met-allele ones supporting similar findings from other cognitive tasks. Additionally, a gene-gene interaction suggests a more impulsive response pattern (faster responses accompanied by higher commission error rates) in homozygous l-allele carriers relative to those with the s-allele of 5-HTTLPR. This, however, is true only in the presence of the Met-allele of BDNF, while the Val/Val genotype seems to compensate for such non-adaptive responding. Intriguingly, similar results were obtained for the Stop-Signal task. Here, differences emerged at post-testing, while no differences were observed at T1. In sum, although no genotype-dependent differences between the relevant training groups emerged

  13. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Val66Met) and Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Polymorphisms Modulate Plasticity in Inhibitory Control Performance Over Time but Independent of Inhibitory Control Training

    PubMed Central

    Enge, Sören; Fleischhauer, Monika; Gärtner, Anne; Reif, Andreas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Strobel, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Several studies reported training-induced improvements in executive function tasks and also observed transfer to untrained tasks. However, the results are mixed and there is a large interindividual variability within and across studies. Given that training-related performance changes would require modification, growth or differentiation at the cellular and synaptic level in the brain, research on critical moderators of brain plasticity potentially explaining such changes is needed. In the present study, a pre-post-follow-up design (N = 122) and a 3-weeks training of two response inhibition tasks (Go/NoGo and Stop-Signal) was employed and genetic variation (Val66Met) in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promoting differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity was examined. Because Serotonin (5-HT) signaling and the interplay of BDNF and 5-HT are known to critically mediate brain plasticity, genetic variation in the 5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was also addressed. The overall results show that the kind of training (i.e., adaptive vs. non-adaptive) did not evoke genotype-dependent differences. However, in the Go/NoGo task, better inhibition performance (lower commission errors) were observed for BDNF Val/Val genotype carriers compared to Met-allele ones supporting similar findings from other cognitive tasks. Additionally, a gene-gene interaction suggests a more impulsive response pattern (faster responses accompanied by higher commission error rates) in homozygous l-allele carriers relative to those with the s-allele of 5-HTTLPR. This, however, is true only in the presence of the Met-allele of BDNF, while the Val/Val genotype seems to compensate for such non-adaptive responding. Intriguingly, similar results were obtained for the Stop-Signal task. Here, differences emerged at post-testing, while no differences were observed at T1. In sum, although no genotype-dependent differences between the relevant training groups emerged

  14. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  15. Association between Val66Met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene Polymorphism and Post-Treatment Relapse in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.; Strobbe, Stephen; Ilgen, Mark; Matsumoto, Halina; Nowosad, Izabela; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Burmeister, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between genetic markers of central serotonin and dopamine function, and risk for post-treatment relapse, in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods The study included 154 patients from addiction treatment programs in Poland, who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. After assessing demographics, severity of alcohol use, suicidality, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness, and severity of alcohol use at baseline, patients were followed for approximately one year to evaluate treatment outcomes. Genetic polymorphisms in several genes (TPH2, SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A, COMT, BDNF) were tested as predictors of relapse (defined as any drinking during follow-up) while controlling for baseline measures. Results Of 154 eligible patients, 123 (80%) completed follow-up and 48% (n = 59) of these individuals relapsed. Patients with the Val allele in the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism and the Met allele in the Val158Met COMT polymorphism were more likely to relapse. Only the BDNF Val/Val genotype predicted post-treatment relapse (OR = 2.62; p = 0.019), and time to relapse (OR = 2.57; p = 0.002), after adjusting for baseline measures and other significant genetic markers. When the analysis was restricted to patients with a family history of alcohol dependence (n = 73), the associations between the BDNF Val/Val genotype and relapse (OR = 5.76, p = 0.0045) and time to relapse (HR = 4.93, p = 0.001) were even stronger. Conclusions The Val66Met BDNF gene polymorphism was associated with a higher risk and earlier occurrence of relapse among patients treated for alcohol dependence. The study suggests a relationship between genetic markers and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence. Because a large number of statistical tests were conducted for this study and the literature on genetics and relapse is so novel, the results should be considered as hypothesis generating and need to be replicated in independent studies

  16. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on white matter microstructure in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-02-01

    The BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val(66)Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val(66)Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  17. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on White Matter Microstructure in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tost, Heike; Alam, Tajvar; Geramita, Matthew; Rebsch, Christine; Kolachana, Bhaskar; Dickinson, Dwight; Verchinski, Beth A; Lemaitre, Herve; Barnett, Alan S; Trampush, Joey W; Weinberger, Daniel R; Marenco, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, a possible risk variant for mental disorders, is a potent modulator of neural plasticity in humans and has been linked to deficits in gray matter structure, function, and cognition. The impact of the variant on brain white matter structure, however, is controversial and remains poorly understood. Here, we used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the effects of BDNF Val66Met genotype on white matter microstructure in a sample of 85 healthy Caucasian adults. We demonstrate decreases of fractional anisotropy and widespread increases in radial diffusivity in Val/Val homozygotes compared with Met-allele carriers, particularly in prefrontal and occipital pathways. These data provide an independent confirmation of prior imaging genetics work, are consistent with complex effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on human brain structure, and may serve to generate hypotheses about variation in white matter microstructure in mental disorders associated with this variant. PMID:23132269

  18. The functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects functions of pre-attentive visual sensory memory processes.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Schneider, Daniel; Epplen, Jörg T; Arning, Larissa

    2011-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is involved in nerve growth and survival. Especially, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene, Val66Met, has gained a lot of attention, because of its effect on activity-dependent BDNF secretion and its link to impaired memory processes. We hypothesize that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may have modulatory effects on the visual sensory (iconic) memory performance. Two hundred and eleven healthy German students (106 female and 105 male) were included in the data analysis. Since BDNF is also discussed to be involved in the pathogenesis of depression, we additionally tested for possible interactions with depressive mood. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly influenced iconic-memory performance, with the combined Val/Met-Met/Met genotype group revealing less time stability of information stored in iconic memory than the Val/Val group. Furthermore, this stability was positively correlated with depressive mood exclusively in the Val/Val genotype group. Thus, these results show that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has an effect on pre-attentive visual sensory memory processes.

  19. An association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and impulsivity in methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Tao, Jingyan; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Ying; Sun, Yeming; Li, Liren; Xu, Ke; Han, Bin; Lu, Yuling; Sun, Haiwei; Wei, Youdan; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Zou, Shengzhen; Wu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jiajia; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2014-10-17

    Recent studies showed an association between a functional polymorphism of BDNF gene (Val66Met) and the susceptibility to methamphetamine addiction. We hypothesized that this polymorphism was associated with methamphetamine abuse and impulsivity in methamphetamine-abuse patients. The polymorphism was genotyped in 200 methamphetamine-abuse patients and 219 healthy controls. The association of the Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene and impulsivity in 138 methamphetamine abusers were assessed using Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11(BIS-11) Chinese version. The relationship between the polymorphism and age of onset of methamphetamine abuse was also examined. Our results showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distributions between the methamphetamine abusers and controls. Within the methamphetamine-abuse group, subjects carried the Met allele had significantly higher attentional impulsivity scores of BIS compared to those with the Val/Val genotype. The Met allele was also associated with earlier age onset of methamphetamine use. Our findings suggest that the BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism may influence attentional impulsivity in methamphetamine abusers. Moreover, the BDNF Val66Met gene polymorphism may contribute to onset age of methamphetamine use.

  20. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Modulates Sleep Intensity: EEG Frequency- and State-Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Valérie; Klein, Carina; Bodenmann, Sereina; Schäfer, Nikolaus; Berger, Wolfgang; Brugger, Peter; Landolt, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: EEG slow waves are the hallmark of deep NREM sleep and may reflect the restorative functions of sleep. Evidence suggests that increased sleep slow waves after sleep deprivation reflect plastic synaptic processes, and that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is causally involved in their homeostatic regulation. The functional Val66Met polymorphism of the gene encoding pro-BDNF causes impaired activity-dependent secretion of mature BDNF protein. We investigated whether this polymorphism contributes to the pronounced inter-individual variation in sleep slow wave activity (SWA) in humans. Setting: Sleep laboratory in temporal isolation unit. Participants: Eleven heterozygous Met allele carriers and 11 individually sex- and age-matched Val/Val homozygotes. Interventions: Forty hours prolonged wakefulness. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance, subjective state, and waking and sleep EEG in baseline and after sleep deprivation were studied. Val/Val homozygotes showed better response accuracy than Met allele carriers on a verbal 2-back working memory task. This difference did not reflect genotype-dependent differences in sleepiness, well-being, or sustained attention. In baseline and recovery nights, deep stage 4 sleep and NREM sleep intensity as quantified by EEG SWA (0.75-4.5 Hz) were higher in Val/Val compared to Val/Met genotype. Similar to sleep deprivation, the difference was most pronounced in the first NREM sleep episode. By contrast, increased activity in higher EEG frequencies (> 6 Hz) in wakefulness and REM sleep was distinct from the effects of prolonged wakefulness. Conclusion: BDNF contributes to the regulation of sleep slow wave oscillations, suggesting that genetically determined variation in neuronal plasticity modulates NREM sleep intensity in humans. Citation: Bachmann V; Klein C; Bodenmann S; Schäfer N; Berger W; Brugger P; Landolt HP. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism modulates sleep intensity: EEG frequency- and state

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Carlino, Davide; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Baj, Gabriele; Kulak, Karolina; d'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Cappellani, Stefania; Gasparini, Paolo; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs) are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Panic Disorder (PAD). Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes. PMID:26539329

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels in genetically isolated populations: gender-specific association with anxiety disorder subtypes but not with anxiety levels or Val66Met polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Carlino, Davide; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Baj, Gabriele; Kulak, Karolina; d’Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Cappellani, Stefania; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety disorders (ADs) are disabling chronic disorders with exaggerated behavioral response to threats. This study was aimed at testing the hypothesis that ADs may be associated with reduced neurotrophic activity, particularly of Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and determining possible effects of genetics on serum BDNF concentrations. In 672 adult subjects from six isolated villages in North-Eastern Italy with high inbreeding, we determined serum BDNF levels and identified subjects with different ADs subtypes such as Social and Specific Phobias (PHSOC, PHSP), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), and Panic Disorder (PAD). Analysis of the population as a whole or individual village showed no significant correlation between serum BDNF levels and Val66Met polymorphism and no association with anxiety levels. Stratification of subjects highlighted a significant decrease in serum BDNF in females with GAD and males with PHSP. This study indicates low heritability and absence of any impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on circulating concentrations of BDNF. Our results show that BDNF is not a general biomarker of anxiety but serum BDNF levels correlate in a gender-specific manner with ADs subtypes. PMID:26539329

  3. Dosage effects of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on cortical surface area and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yuanchao; Liu, Bing; Long, Haixia; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-02-12

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that leads to a valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) in BDNF is correlated with differences in cognitive and memory functions, as well as with several neurological and psychiatric disorders. MRI studies have already shown that this genetic variant contributes to changes in cortical thickness and volume, but whether the Val66Met polymorphism affects the cortical surface area of healthy subjects remains unclear. Here, we used multimodal MRI to study whether this polymorphism would affect the cortical morphology and resting-state functional connectivity of a large sample of healthy Han Chinese human subjects. An SNP-wise general linear model analysis revealed a "dosage effect" of the Met allele, specifically a stepwise increase in cortical surface area of the right anterior insular cortex with increasing numbers of the Met allele. Moreover, we found enhanced functional connectivity between the anterior insular and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices that was linked with the dosage of the Met allele. In conclusion, these data demonstrated a "dosage effect" of BDNF Val66Met on normal cortical structure and function, suggesting a new path for exploring the mechanisms underlying the effects of genotype on cognition. PMID:24523553

  4. Association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with HPA and SAM axis reactivity to psychological and physical stress

    PubMed Central

    Tsuru, Jusen; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Kawano, Aimi; Ikeda, Rie; Ando, Tomoko; Oshita, Harumi; Aizawa, Saeko; Masuda, Koji; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2014-01-01

    Background Decreased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in enhanced stress responses. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with psychological changes; for example, carriers of the Met allele exhibit increased harm avoidance as well as a higher prevalence of depression and anxiety disorder. Methods To analyze the effects of BDNF Val66Met on stress responses, we tested 226 university students (88 women and 138 men) using a social stress procedure (Trier Social Stress Test [TSST]) and an electrical stimulation stress test. Stress indices were derived from repeated measurements of salivary α-amylase, salivary cortisol, heart rate, and psychological testing during the stress tests. All subjects were genotyped for the Val66Met polymorphism (G196A). Results A significant three-way interaction (time [3 levels] × BDNF [Val/Val, Val/Met, Met/Met]; P<0.05) was demonstrated that revealed different salivary cortisol responses in the TSST but not in electrical stimulation. Met/Met women had stronger cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Met/Met men exhibited stronger salivary cortisol responses than Val/Met and Val/Val individuals in the TSST. Conclusion These results indicate that a common, functionally significant polymorphism in BDNF had different effects on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical axis reactivity but not on sympathetic adrenomedullary reactivity in TSST and electrical stimulation tests. PMID:25419135

  5. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the functional connectivity dynamics of pain modulatory systems in primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shyh-Yuh; Chao, Hsiang-Tai; Tu, Cheng-Hao; Lin, Ming-Wei; Li, Wei-Chi; Low, Intan; Shen, Horng-Der; Chen, Li-Fen; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), menstrual pain without an organic cause, is a prevailing problem in women of reproductive age. We previously reported alterations of structure and functional connectivity (FC) in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) of PDM subjects. Given that the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts as a pain modulator within the PAG and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism contributes towards susceptibility to PDM, the present study of imaging genetics set out to investigate the influence of, firstly, the BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism and, secondly, the genotype-pain interplays on the descending pain modulatory systems in the context of PAG-seeded FC patterning. Fifty-six subjects with PDM and 60 controls participated in the current study of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the menstruation and peri-ovulatory phases; in parallel, blood samples were taken for genotyping. Our findings indicate that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with the diverse functional expressions of the descending pain modulatory systems. Furthermore, PAG FC patterns in pain-free controls are altered in women with PDM in a genotype-specific manner. Such resilient brain dynamics may underpin the individual differences and shed light on the vulnerability for chronic pain disorders of PDM subjects. PMID:27010666

  6. The Met-genotype of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism is associated with reduced Stroop interference in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2012-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by impairments of executive functions that rely on the functional integrity of fronto-striatal networks. This integrity is modulated by the release of neurotrophins like the brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Here, we investigate effects of the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on interference processing in 131 healthy elderly subjects using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a Stroop task, participants had to indicate the name or the colour of colour-words while colour was either compatible or incompatible with the name. We show that susceptibility to Stroop-interference is affected by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism: the Met-allele carriers showed better performance and enhanced N450 in interference trials. Other processes necessary to prepare and allocate cognitive resources to a particular task were not affected by BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, underlining the specificity of the observed effects. The observed performance and ERP difference is possibly due to dopamine related effects of BDNF in fronto-striatal networks, where it putatively mediates a shift in the balance of the direct and indirect pathway involved in inhibitory functions.

  7. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  8. The Met-allele of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism enhances task switching in elderly.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2011-12-01

    In this study we examined the relevance of the functional brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism as a modulator of task-switching performance in healthy elderly by using behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Task switching was examined in a cue-based and a memory-based paradigm. Val/Val carriers were generally slower, showed enhanced reaction time variability and higher error rates, particularly during memory-based task switching than the Met-allele individuals. On a neurophysiological level these dissociative effects were reflected by variations in the N2 and P3 ERP components. The task switch-related N2 was increased while the P3 was decreased in Met-allele carriers, while the Val/Val genotype group revealed the opposite pattern of results. In cue-based task-switching no behavioral and ERP differences were seen between the genotypes. These data suggest that superior memory-based task-switching performance in elderly Met-allele carriers may emerge due to more efficient response selection processes. The results implicate that under special circumstances the Met-allele renders cognitive processes more efficient than the Val/Val genotype in healthy elderly, corroborating recent findings in young subjects.

  9. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  10. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  11. Paradoxical visuomotor adaptation to reversed visual input is predicted by BDNF Val66Met polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Brian; Treister, Andrew; Humphrey, Melanie; Abedi, Garen; Cramer, Steven C.; Brewer, Alyssa A.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most abundant neurotrophin in the brain, influencing neural development, plasticity, and repair (Chen et al., 2004; Thoenen, 1995). The BDNF gene contains a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) called Val66Met. The Met allele interferes with intracellular BDNF-trafficking, decreases activity-dependent BDNF secretion, and consequently is often associated with a shift from plasticity to stability in neural circuits (Egan et al., 2003). We investigated the behavioral consequences of the presence of the Met allele by comparing how 40 heterozygous subjects with the Val/Met genotype and 35 homozygous subjects with the Val/Val genotype performed on visuomotor tasks (reaching and navigation) under two conditions: normal vision and completely left-right reversed vision. As expected, subjects did not differ in their short-term ability to learn the tasks with normal vision (p = 0.58). Intuitively, it would be expected that homozygous Val/Val subjects with a propensity for greater BDNF-induced activity-dependent plasticity would learn new tasks more quickly than heterozygous Val/Met subjects with decreased BDNF secretion (Gilbert, Li, & Piech, 2009). However, we found the opposite here. When short-term mechanisms of visuomotor adaptation were engaged to compensate for the misalignment of visual and somatomotor information created by the left-right reversal of vision, heterozygous Val/Met subjects learned significantly more quickly than their homozygous Val/Val counterparts (p = 0.027). Our results demonstrate the paradoxical finding that the presence of the Met allele, which is thought to promote cortical stability, here improves immediate visuomotor adaptation to left–right-reversed visual input. PMID:25104829

  12. Association between the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Chronicity of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yujin; Lim, Shinn Won; Kim, Soo Yeon; Chung, Jae Won; Kim, Jinwoo; Myung, Woojae; Song, Jihae; Kim, Seonwoo; Carroll, Bernard J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Both clinical and biological factors influence the course of depressive disorders. This study tested for associations between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene at the Val66Met locus and the course of major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods Three hundred ten Korean subjects (209 patients, 101 controls) were genotyped for rs6265 at nucleotide 196 (G/A), which produces an amino acid substitution at codon 66 (Val66Met) of the gene for BDNF. Course of illness was evaluated both by chronicity of current episode (episode duration >24 months) and by the lifetime history of recurrences. Results Patients with the Met/Met BDNF genotype had a significantly higher rate of chronic depression than all others. There was a significant dose effect of the Met allele on chronicity. Compared with the Val/Val genotype, the relative risk of chronicity was 1.67 for the Val/Met genotype, and 2.58 for the Met/Met genotype. Lifetime history of recurrent episodes was not related to BDNF genotypes but was significantly associated with younger age of onset and with a history of depression in first degree relatives. Conclusion BDNF genotyping may be informative for anticipating chronicity in major depression. PMID:23482723

  13. Interaction effect between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing for interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Ryoichi, Sadahiro; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Enokido, Masanori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2012-12-30

    Interpersonal sensitivity is defined as undue and excessive awareness of, and sensitivity to, the behaviour and feelings of others and is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In a twin study, it was suggested that this personality trait was characterised by both genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity in 725 healthy Japanese subjects. Assessment of interpersonal sensitivity was performed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. The BDNF polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no main effect of the BDNF genotype on the IPSM score, while the PBI factors except maternal care had significant main effect on the IPSM score. There was significant interaction effect between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI on the IPSM score. Post-hoc analysis of simple slopes showed that the negative relationship between the IPSM score and maternal care was strongest and significant in the Met/Met genotype group, intermediate in the Val/Met genotype group and weakest in the Val/Val genotype group. The present study suggests that the interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing, especially maternal care, influences interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

  14. Interaction effect between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing for interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Ryoichi, Sadahiro; Kamata, Mitsuhiro; Enokido, Masanori; Goto, Kaoru; Otani, Koichi

    2012-12-30

    Interpersonal sensitivity is defined as undue and excessive awareness of, and sensitivity to, the behaviour and feelings of others and is one of the vulnerable factors to depression. In a twin study, it was suggested that this personality trait was characterised by both genetic and environmental factors. In the present study, we examined the effects of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing on interpersonal sensitivity in 725 healthy Japanese subjects. Assessment of interpersonal sensitivity was performed by the Japanese version of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), which consists of the care and protection factors. The BDNF polymorphism was detected by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. There was no main effect of the BDNF genotype on the IPSM score, while the PBI factors except maternal care had significant main effect on the IPSM score. There was significant interaction effect between the BDNF genotype and maternal care of the PBI on the IPSM score. Post-hoc analysis of simple slopes showed that the negative relationship between the IPSM score and maternal care was strongest and significant in the Met/Met genotype group, intermediate in the Val/Met genotype group and weakest in the Val/Val genotype group. The present study suggests that the interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and parental rearing, especially maternal care, influences interpersonal sensitivity in healthy subjects. PMID:22542952

  15. What keeps a body moving? The brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and intrinsic motivation to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E; Bryan, Angela D; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals who are intrinsically motivated to exercise are more likely to do so consistently. In previous research, those with at least one copy of the methionine (met) allele in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF; rs6265) had greater increases in positive mood and lower perceived exertion during exercise. This study examined whether genotype for BDNF is also related to intrinsic motivation, measured by self-report during a treadmill exercise session and a free-choice behavioral measure (continuing to exercise given the option to stop) among 89 regular exercisers (age M = 23.58, SD = 3.95). Those with at least one copy of the met allele reported greater increases in intrinsic motivation during exercise and were more likely to continue exercising when given the option to stop (55 vs. 33%). Results suggest that underlying genetic factors may partially influence perceptions of inherent rewards associated with exercise and might inform the development of individually targeted interventions. PMID:24805993

  16. What keeps a body moving? The brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and intrinsic motivation to exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Caldwell Hooper, Ann E; Bryan, Angela D; Hagger, Martin S

    2014-12-01

    Individuals who are intrinsically motivated to exercise are more likely to do so consistently. In previous research, those with at least one copy of the methionine (met) allele in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF; rs6265) had greater increases in positive mood and lower perceived exertion during exercise. This study examined whether genotype for BDNF is also related to intrinsic motivation, measured by self-report during a treadmill exercise session and a free-choice behavioral measure (continuing to exercise given the option to stop) among 89 regular exercisers (age M = 23.58, SD = 3.95). Those with at least one copy of the met allele reported greater increases in intrinsic motivation during exercise and were more likely to continue exercising when given the option to stop (55 vs. 33%). Results suggest that underlying genetic factors may partially influence perceptions of inherent rewards associated with exercise and might inform the development of individually targeted interventions.

  17. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Maternal Parenting Influencing Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Belsky, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.

  18. The interaction effect between BDNF val66met polymorphism and obesity on executive functions and frontal structure.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Iturria, Idoia; Garolera, Maite; Pueyo, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Hernan, Imma; García-García, Isabel; Sánchez-Garre, Consuelo; Vernet-Vernet, María; Sender-Palacios, María José; Narberhaus, Ana; Ariza, Mar; Junqué, Carme; Jurado, María Ángeles

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide. Previous research has shown a relationship between obesity and both executive functioning alterations and frontal cortex volume reductions. The Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met polymorphism, involved in eating behavior, has also been associated with executive functions and prefrontal cortex volume, but to date it has not been studied in relation to obesity. Our aim is to elucidate whether the interaction between the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor val66met polymorphism and obesity status influences executive performance and frontal-subcortical brain structure. Sixty-one volunteers, 34 obese and 27 controls, age range 12-40, participated in the study. Participants were assigned to one of two genotype groups (met allele carriers, n = 16, or non-carriers, n = 45). Neuropsychological assessment comprised the Trail Making Test, the Stroop Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, all tasks that require response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a Siemens TIM TRIO 3T scanner and images were analyzed using the FreeSurfer software. Analyses of covariance controlling for age and intelligence showed an effect of the obesity-by-genotype interaction on perseverative responses on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test as well as on precentral and caudal middle frontal cortical thickness: obese met allele carriers showed more perseverations on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and lower frontal thickness than obese non-carriers and controls. In conclusion, the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor may play an important role in executive functioning and frontal brain structure in obesity.

  19. Ebbinghaus revisited: influences of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on backward serial recall are modulated by human aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Chen; Chicherio, Christian; Nyberg, Lars; von Oertzen, Timo; Nagel, Irene E; Papenberg, Goran; Sander, Thomas; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory. In a sample of 948 younger and older adults, we investigated whether a common Val66Met missense polymorphism (rs6265) in the BDNF gene affects the serial position curve--a fundamental phenomenon of associative memory identified by Hermann Ebbinghaus more than a century ago. We found a BDNF polymorphism effect for backward recall in older adults only, with Met-allele carriers (i.e., individuals with reduced BDNF signaling) recalling fewer items than Val homozygotes. This effect was specific to the primacy and middle portions of the serial position curve, where intralist interference and associative demands are especially high. The poorer performance of older Met-allele carriers reflected transposition errors, whereas no genetic effect was found for omissions. These findings indicate that effects of the BDNF polymorphism on episodic memory are most likely to be observed when the associative and executive demands are high. Furthermore, the findings are in line with the hypothesis that the magnitude of genetic effects on cognition is greater when brain resources are reduced, as is the case in old age.

  20. Ebbinghaus revisited: influences of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on backward serial recall are modulated by human aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Chen; Chicherio, Christian; Nyberg, Lars; von Oertzen, Timo; Nagel, Irene E; Papenberg, Goran; Sander, Thomas; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars

    2010-10-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which underlies learning and memory. In a sample of 948 younger and older adults, we investigated whether a common Val66Met missense polymorphism (rs6265) in the BDNF gene affects the serial position curve--a fundamental phenomenon of associative memory identified by Hermann Ebbinghaus more than a century ago. We found a BDNF polymorphism effect for backward recall in older adults only, with Met-allele carriers (i.e., individuals with reduced BDNF signaling) recalling fewer items than Val homozygotes. This effect was specific to the primacy and middle portions of the serial position curve, where intralist interference and associative demands are especially high. The poorer performance of older Met-allele carriers reflected transposition errors, whereas no genetic effect was found for omissions. These findings indicate that effects of the BDNF polymorphism on episodic memory are most likely to be observed when the associative and executive demands are high. Furthermore, the findings are in line with the hypothesis that the magnitude of genetic effects on cognition is greater when brain resources are reduced, as is the case in old age. PMID:19925205

  1. BDNF pro-peptide actions facilitate hippocampal LTD and are altered by the common BDNF polymorphism Val66Met

    PubMed Central

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Lume, Maria; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Hara, Tomoko; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Takahashi, Masami; Shiosaka, Sadao; Itami, Chiaki; Uegaki, Koichi; Saarma, Mart; Kojima, Masami

    2015-01-01

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursor proteins and subsequently processed into their mature form by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in simultaneous removal of a pro-peptide. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of the pro-peptide of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and first showed that the pro-peptide is expressed and secreted in hippocampal tissues and cultures, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the BDNF pro-peptide directly facilitates hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), requiring the activation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR. The BDNF pro-peptide also enhances NMDA-induced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor endocytosis, a mechanism crucial for LTD expression. Thus, the BDNF pro-peptide is involved in synaptic plasticity that regulates a mechanism responsible for promoting LTD. The well-known BDNF polymorphism valine for methionine at amino acid position 66 (Val66Met) affects human memory function. Here, the BDNF pro-peptide with Met mutation completely inhibits hippocampal LTD. These findings demonstrate functional roles for the BDNF pro-peptide and a naturally occurring human BDNF polymorphism in hippocampal synaptic depression. PMID:26015580

  2. BDNF pro-peptide actions facilitate hippocampal LTD and are altered by the common BDNF polymorphism Val66Met.

    PubMed

    Mizui, Toshiyuki; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Kumanogoh, Haruko; Lume, Maria; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Hara, Tomoko; Yamawaki, Shigeto; Takahashi, Masami; Shiosaka, Sadao; Itami, Chiaki; Uegaki, Koichi; Saarma, Mart; Kojima, Masami

    2015-06-01

    Most growth factors are initially synthesized as precursor proteins and subsequently processed into their mature form by proteolytic cleavage, resulting in simultaneous removal of a pro-peptide. However, compared with that of mature form, the biological role of the pro-peptide is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the biological role of the pro-peptide of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and first showed that the pro-peptide is expressed and secreted in hippocampal tissues and cultures, respectively. Interestingly, we found that the BDNF pro-peptide directly facilitates hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), requiring the activation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors and the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR). The BDNF pro-peptide also enhances NMDA-induced α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor endocytosis, a mechanism crucial for LTD expression. Thus, the BDNF pro-peptide is involved in synaptic plasticity that regulates a mechanism responsible for promoting LTD. The well-known BDNF polymorphism valine for methionine at amino acid position 66 (Val66Met) affects human memory function. Here, the BDNF pro-peptide with Met mutation completely inhibits hippocampal LTD. These findings demonstrate functional roles for the BDNF pro-peptide and a naturally occurring human BDNF polymorphism in hippocampal synaptic depression. PMID:26015580

  3. Variant BDNF (Val66Met) polymorphism contributes to developmental and estrous-stage-specific expression of anxiety-like behavior in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Kevin G.; Chuang, Jocelyn; Spencer-Segal, Joanna L.; Amso, Dima; Altemus, Margaret; McEwen, Bruce S.; Lee, Francis S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Most anxiety and depressive disorders are twice as common in women compared to men and the sex difference in prevalence typically emerges during adolescence. Hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle and during the postpartum and peri-menopausal periods are associated with increased risk for anxiety and depression symptoms. In humans and animals, reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been associated with increased expression of affective pathology. Recently, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met), which reduces BDNF bioavailability, has been identified in humans and associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although BDNF expression can be directly influenced by estrogen and progesterone, the potential impact of the BDNF Val66Met SNP on sensitivity to reproductive hormone changes remains an open question. Approach As a predictive model, we used female mice in which the human SNP (BDNF Val66Met) was inserted into the mouse BDNF gene. Using standard behavioral paradigms, we tested the impact of this SNP on age and estrous-cycle specific expression of anxiety-like behaviors. Results Mice homozygous for the BDNF Val66Met SNP begin to exhibit increased anxiety-like behaviors over prepubertal and early adult development, show significant fluctuations in anxiety-like behaviors over the estrous cycle, and as adults differ from wild-type mice by showing significant fluctuations in anxiety-like behaviors over the estrous cycle, specifically more anxiety-like behaviors during the estrus phase. Conclusions These findings have implications regarding the potential role of this SNP in contributing to developmental and reproductive hormone-dependent changes in affective disorders in humans. PMID:22552045

  4. Higher reward value of starvation imagery in anorexia nervosa and association with the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Clarke, J; Ramoz, N; Fladung, A-K; Gorwood, P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that abnormalities of the reward system contribute to onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Next to cues coding for overweight, other research suggest cues triggering the proposed starvation dependence to be pivotally involved in the AN pathogenesis. We assessed the characteristics of the cognitive, emotional and physiologic response toward disease-specific pictures of female body shapes, in adult AN patients compared with healthy control (HC) women. Frequency and amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR) in 71 patients with AN and 20 HC were registered during processing of stimuli of three weight categories (over-, under- and normal weight). We then assessed the role of the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism as a potential intermediate factor. AN patients reported more positive feelings during processing of underweight stimuli and more negative feelings for normal- and overweight stimuli. The SCR showed a group effect (P=0.007), AN patients showing overall higher frequency of the response. SCR within patients was more frequent during processing of underweight stimuli compared with normal- and overweight stimuli. The Met allele of the BDNF gene was not more frequent in patients compared with controls, but was associated to an increased frequency of SCR (P=0.008) in response to cues for starvation. A higher positive value of starvation, rather than more negative one of overweight, might more accurately define females with AN. The Met allele of the BDNF gene could partly mediate the higher reward value of starvation observed in AN. PMID:27271855

  5. Higher reward value of starvation imagery in anorexia nervosa and association with the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, J; Ramoz, N; Fladung, A-K; Gorwood, P

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies support the idea that abnormalities of the reward system contribute to onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Next to cues coding for overweight, other research suggest cues triggering the proposed starvation dependence to be pivotally involved in the AN pathogenesis. We assessed the characteristics of the cognitive, emotional and physiologic response toward disease-specific pictures of female body shapes, in adult AN patients compared with healthy control (HC) women. Frequency and amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR) in 71 patients with AN and 20 HC were registered during processing of stimuli of three weight categories (over-, under- and normal weight). We then assessed the role of the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism as a potential intermediate factor. AN patients reported more positive feelings during processing of underweight stimuli and more negative feelings for normal- and overweight stimuli. The SCR showed a group effect (P=0.007), AN patients showing overall higher frequency of the response. SCR within patients was more frequent during processing of underweight stimuli compared with normal- and overweight stimuli. The Met allele of the BDNF gene was not more frequent in patients compared with controls, but was associated to an increased frequency of SCR (P=0.008) in response to cues for starvation. A higher positive value of starvation, rather than more negative one of overweight, might more accurately define females with AN. The Met allele of the BDNF gene could partly mediate the higher reward value of starvation observed in AN. PMID:27271855

  6. Effects of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism on Gray Matter Volume in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Teruo; Fukui, Kento; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Yokota, Susumu; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    The Val66Met polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is associated with psychiatric disorders and regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in adults. However, the relationship between BDNF and rGMV in children has not been clarified. In this 3-year cross-sectional/longitudinal (2 time points) study, we investigated the effects of BDNF genotypes on rGMV in 185 healthy Japanese children aged 5.7–18.4 using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses. We found that the volume of the right cuneus in Met homozygotes (Met/Met) was greater than in Val homozygotes (Val/Val) in both exams, and the left insula and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex volumes were greater in Val homozygotes versus Met homozygotes in Exam l. In addition, Met homozygous subjects exhibited higher processing speed in intelligence indices than Val homozygotes and Val/Met heterozygotes at both time points. Longitudinal analysis showed that the left temporoparietal junction volume of Val/Met heterozygotes increased more substantially over the 3-year study period than in Val homozygotes, and age-related changes were observed for the Val/Met genotype. Our findings suggest that the presence of 2 Met alleles may have a positive effect on rGMV at the developmental stages analyzed in this study. PMID:26830347

  7. A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis Reveal BDNF Val66Met Is a Possible Risk Factor for PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Bruenig, Dagmar; Lurie, Janine; Morris, Charles P.; Harvey, Wendy; Lawford, Bruce; Young, Ross McD

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that develops in some people after exposure to a traumatic event. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is highly expressed in the mammalian brain and is thought to be involved in learning and memory processes. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in the BDNF gene, rs6265 (Val66Met), has been hypothesised to be associated with PTSD. Association studies examining the Val66Met polymorphism and PTSD have been inconclusive, likely due to the variability in type of trauma exposure analysed. Vietnam veterans (n = 257) screened for PTSD and controlled for trauma exposure were genotyped for BDNF Val66Met. The association was not significant so we incorporated our data into a meta-analysis to obtain greater statistical power. A comprehensive search of more than 1237 articles revealed eight additional studies suitable for meta-analysis (n = 3625). A random-effects meta-analysis observed a potential protective factor of the Val/Val genotype. After removing two studies with violation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, findings for the Val/Val genotype reached significance. Subgroup analyses confirmed a trend for this finding. Limitations of some studies that inform this meta-analysis include poorly screened controls and a lack of examination of population stratification. Effectively designed studies should inform this line of research in the future. PMID:27413557

  8. Enhanced Extinction of Cocaine Seeking in Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Knock-In Mice

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Lisa A.; Lee, Francis S.; Blendy, Julie A.; Pierce, R. Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The Val66Met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene results in alterations in fear extinction behavior in both human populations and mouse models. However, it is not clear whether this polymorphism plays a similar role in extinction of appetitive behaviors. Therefore, we examined operant learning and extinction of both food and cocaine self-administration behavior in an inbred genetic knock-in mouse strain expressing the variant Bdnf. These mice provide a unique opportunity to relate alterations in aversive and appetitive extinction learning as well as provide insight into how human genetic variation can lead to differences in behavior. BDNFMet/Met mice exhibited a severe deficit in operant learning as evidenced by an inability to learn the food self-administration task. Therefore, extinction experiments were performed comparing wildtype (BDNFVal/Val) animals to mice heterozygous for the Met allele (BDNFVal/Met), which did not differ in food or cocaine self-administration behavior. In contrast to the deficit in fear extinction previously demonstrated in these mice, we found that BDNFVal/Met mice exhibited more rapid extinction of cocaine responding compared to wildtype mice. No differences were found between the genotypes in the extinction of food self-administration behavior or the reinstatement of cocaine seeking, indicating the effect is specific to extinction of cocaine responding. These results suggest that the molecular mechanisms underlying aversive and appetitive extinction are distinct from one another and BDNF may play opposing roles in the two phenomena. PMID:22394056

  9. The Effects of BDNF Val66Met Gene Polymorphism on Serum BDNF and Cognitive Function in Methamphetamine-Dependent Patients and Normal Controls: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Su, Hang; Tao, Jingyan; Zhang, Jie; Xie, Ying; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Yu; Han, Bin; Lu, Yuling; Sun, Haiwei; Wei, Youdan; Zou, Shengzhen; Wu, Wenxiu; Zhang, Jiajia; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xiangyang; He, Jincai

    2015-10-01

    Studies suggest that a functional polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met) may contribute to methamphetamine dependence. We hypothesized that this polymorphism had a role in cognitive deficits in methamphetamine-dependent patients and in the relationship of serum BDNF with cognitive impairments. We conducted a case-control study by assessing 194 methamphetamine-dependent patients and 378 healthy volunteers without history of drug use on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the presence of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and serum BDNF levels. We showed no significant differences in genotype and allele distributions between the methamphetamine-dependent patients and controls. Some aspects of cognitive function significantly differed in the 2 groups. The serum BDNF levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls. In the patients, partial correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between serum BDNF and the delayed memory index score. The RBANS scores showed statistically significant BDNF level × genotype interaction. Further regression analyses showed a significant positive association between BDNF levels and the RBANS total score, immediate memory or attention index among Val homozygote patients, whereas a significant negative association of BDNF levels with the RBANS total score, visuospatial/constructional, or language index was found among Met/Val heterozygous patients. We demonstrated significant impairment on some aspects of cognitive function and increased BDNF levels in methamphetamine-dependent patients as well as genotypic differences in the relationships between BDNF levels and RBANS scores on the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism only in these patients.

  10. EEG alpha power as an intermediate measure between brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met and depression severity in patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zoon, Harriët F A; Veth, C P M; Arns, Martijn; Drinkenburg, W H I M; Talloen, Willem; Peeters, Pieter J; Kenemans, J L

    2013-06-01

    Major depressive disorder has a large impact on patients and society and is projected to be the second greatest global burden of disease by 2020. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is considered to be one of the important factors in the etiology of major depressive disorder. In a recent study, alpha power was found to mediate between BDNF Met and subclinical depressed mood. The current study looked at a population of patients with major depressive disorder (N = 107) to examine the association between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, resting state EEG alpha power, and depression severity. For this purpose, repeated-measures analysis of variance, partial correlation, and multiple linear models were used. Results indicated a negative association between parietal-occipital alpha power in the eyes open resting state and depression severity. In addition, Met/Met patients showed lower global absolute alpha power in the eyes closed condition compared with Val-carriers. These findings are in accordance with the previously uncovered pathway between BDNF Val66Met, resting state EEG alpha power, and depression severity. Additional research is needed for the clarification of this tentative pathway and its implication in personalized treatment of major depressive disorder.

  11. BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly affects d' in verbal recognition memory at short and long delays.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Terry E; Iudicello, Jennifer; Russo, Christine; Elvevåg, Brita; Straub, Richard; Egan, Michael F; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-01-01

    A functional polymorphism at the val66met locus in the BDNF gene has significant effects on the pro-form of the protein in intracellular trafficking and activity-dependent, but not constitutive, secretion. These differences are thought to underlie several findings in humans related to this polymorphism, including markers of neuronal viability, BOLD activation in medial temporal lobe regions, and some aspects of behavior. However, many important questions remain about the impact of BDNF on various mnemonic subprocesses at the behavioral level. In this study, we examined the impact of the val/met polymorphism in a verbal recognition memory paradigm involving manipulation of depth of encoding and differential delays for recall and analyses of hits for previously presented target words and correct rejections of foils. Twenty-four human val homozygous individuals and 24 met carrier individuals comprised the sample. All were healthy controls. IQ between the groups was equivalent. In the encoding phase of the study, words were presented and encoded either by a decision as to whether they were living or nonliving ("deep") or if they contained the letter "A" (shallow). After this phase, recognition was tested immediately, half an hour, and 24h later. BDNF genotype had significant effects on hits and discriminability (d'), accounting for at least 10% of the variance, but not on correct rejections or beta. BDNF did not interact with level of encoding, nor did it interact with delay. In sum, BDNF genotypes impacted "hits" in a recognition memory paradigm, findings consistent with the general notion that BDNF plays a prominent role in memory subprocesses thought to engage the medial temporal lobe. PMID:17988784

  12. Identifying genetic predictors of depression risk: 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms are associated with rumination and co-rumination in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Lindsey B.; McGeary, John E.; Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite research supporting moderate heritability of depression, efforts to replicate candidate gene associations to depression have yielded inconsistent results. We tested whether Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR exhibit utility as genetic markers of depression risk, testing for replicable associations to cognitive and interpersonal endophenotypes of depression (rumination and co-rumination), and further exploring developmental and sex moderation. Method: In Study I, 228 youth (ages 8–14) of mothers with or without a history of MDD during the child's lifetime were recruited from the community. Replication tests were carried out in Study II, a sample of 87 youth with similar recruitment. Results: In Study I, the Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was associated with rumination in adolescents, but not children, such that adolescents homozygous for the Val allele reported higher rumination levels. Further, a cumulative genetic score (CGS) (Val66Val and 5-HTTLPR) predicted higher levels of co-rumination, specifically among adolescent girls. Both genetic associations maintained significance after covarying for current depressive symptomology, and the other endophenotype. Finally, both genetic associations exhibited similar effect sizes in Study II, although results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Results replicate a previously reported association between the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val allele and rumination in adolescents, and provide preliminary support for a CGS predictive of co-rumination in adolescent girls. The current study indicates that candidate genes may demonstrate utility as consistent genetic markers of depression risk when focused on specific phenotypes, and supports the need to explore potential differential effects of developmental stage and sex. However, given the small sample sizes and possibility of chance findings, these results should be interpreted with caution pending replication. PMID:24312122

  13. Genotypes Do Not Confer Risk For Delinquency ut Rather Alter Susceptibility to Positive and Negative Environmental Factors: Gene-Environment Interactions of BDNF Val66Met, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA-uVNTR

    PubMed Central

    Comasco, Erika; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Oreland, Lars; Åslund, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous evidence of gene-by-environment interactions associated with emotional and behavioral disorders is contradictory. Differences in findings may result from variation in valence and dose of the environmental factor, and/or failure to take account of gene-by-gene interactions. The present study investigated interactions between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF Val66Met), the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA-uVNTR) polymorphisms, family conflict, sexual abuse, the quality of the child-parent relationship, and teenage delinquency. Methods: In 2006, as part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland, Sweden, 1 337 high-school students, aged 17–18 years, anonymously completed questionnaires and provided saliva samples for DNA analyses. Results: Teenage delinquency was associated with two-, three-, and four-way interactions of each of the genotypes and the three environmental factors. Significant four-way interactions were found for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × family conflicts and for BDNF Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR×MAOA-uVNTR × sexual abuse. Further, the two genotype combinations that differed the most in expression levels (BDNF Val66Met Val, 5-HTTLPR LL, MAOA-uVNTR LL [girls] and L [boys] vs BDNF Val66Met Val/Met, 5-HTTLPR S/LS, MAOA-uVNTR S/SS/LS) in interaction with family conflict and sexual abuse were associated with the highest delinquency scores. The genetic variants previously shown to confer vulnerability for delinquency (BDNF Val66Met Val/Met × 5-HTTLPR S × MAOA-uVNTR S) were associated with the lowest delinquency scores in interaction with a positive child-parent relationship. Conclusions: Functional variants of the MAOA-uVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and BDNF Val66Met, either alone or in interaction with each other, may be best conceptualized as modifying sensitivity to environmental factors that confer either risk or protection for teenage delinquency. PMID

  14. Post-traumatic stress disorder risk and brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiao-Xia; Hu, Xian-Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which regulates neuronal survival, growth differentiation, and synapse formation, is known to be associated with depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the molecular mechanism for those mental disorders remains unknown. Studies have shown that BDNF is associated with PTSD risk and exaggerated startle reaction (a major arousal manifestation of PTSD) in United States military service members who were deployed during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The frequency of the Met/Met in BDNF gene was greater among those with PTSD than those without PTSD. Among individuals who experienced fewer lifetime stressful events, the Met carriers have significantly higher total and startle scores on the PTSD Checklist than the Val/Val carriers. In addition, subjects with PTSD showed higher levels of BDNF in their peripheral blood plasma than the non-probable-PTSD controls. Increased BDNF levels and startle response were observed in both blood plasma and brain hippocampus by inescapable tail shock in rats. In this paper, we reviewed these data to discuss BDNF as a potential biomarker for PTSD risk and its possible roles in the onset of PTSD. PMID:27014593

  15. Duration-dependent effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on anodal tDCS induced motor cortex plasticity in older adults: a group and individual perspective

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Rohan; Hinder, Mark R.; Fujiyama, Hakuei; Gomez, Rapson; Carson, Richard G.; Summers, Jeffery J.

    2015-01-01

    The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism and stimulation duration are thought to play an important role in modulating motor cortex plasticity induced by non-invasive brain stimulation (NBS). In the present study we sought to determine whether these factors interact or exert independent effects in older adults. Fifty-four healthy older adults (mean age = 66.85 years) underwent two counterbalanced sessions of 1.5 mA anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS), applied over left M1 for either 10 or 20 min. Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticospinal excitability (CSE) before and every 5 min for 30 min following atDCS. On a group level, there was an interaction between stimulation duration and BDNF genotype, with Met carriers (n = 13) showing greater post-intervention potentiation of CSE compared to Val66Val homozygotes homozygotes (n = 37) following 20 min (p = 0.002) but not 10 min (p = 0.219) of stimulation. Moreover, Met carriers, but not Val/Val homozygotes, exhibited larger responses to TMS (p = 0.046) after 20 min atDCS, than following 10 min atDCS. On an individual level, two-step cluster analysis revealed a considerable degree of inter-individual variability, with under half of the total sample (42%) showing the expected potentiation of CSE in response to atDCS across both sessions. Intra-individual variability in response to different durations of atDCS was also apparent, with one-third of the total sample (34%) exhibiting LTP-like effects in one session but LTD-like effects in the other session. Both the inter-individual (p = 0.027) and intra-individual (p = 0.04) variability was associated with BDNF genotype. In older adults, the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism along with stimulation duration appears to play a role in modulating tDCS-induced motor cortex plasticity. The results may have implications for the design of NBS protocols for healthy and diseased aged populations. PMID

  16. Effects of Mind-Body Training on Personality and Behavioral Activation and Inhibition System According to BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ye-Ha; Lee, Ul Soon; Jang, Joon Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Objective It has been known that mind-body training (MBT) can affect personality and behavior system as well as emotional well-being, but different effects of MBT on them has not been reported according to BDNF genetic polymorphism. Methods Healthy subjects consisted of 64 subjects and the MBT group who practiced meditation regularly consisted of 72 practitioners. Participants completed neuroticism-extraversion-openness (NEO) Five-Factor Inventory and Behavioral Activation System/Behavioral Inhibition System (BAS/BIS) scales. All subjects were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Results In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the increased Extraversion (p=0.033) and the increased Openness to Experience (p=0.004) compared to the control group. Also, in the same Met/Met carriers, MBT group exhibited the increase of Extraversion (p=0.008), the reduction of Neuroticism (p=0.002), and the increase of Openness to Experience (p=0.008) compared to the control group. In the same genotypes of the BDNF Val/Val+Val/Met group, MBT group showed the decreased BAS-Reward Responsiveness (p=0.016) and the decrease of BIS (p=0.004) compared to the control group. In the BDNF Met/Met group, MBT group increased BAS-Fun Seeking (p=0.045) and decreased BIS (p=0.013) compared to the control group. Conclusion MBT would differently contribute to NEO personality and BAS/BIS according to BDNF genetic polymorphism, compensating for different vulnerable traits based on each genotype. PMID:27247601

  17. Preliminary study of anxiety symptoms, family dysfunction, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genotype in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Chang, Kiki D; Hallmayer, Joachim; Howe, Meghan E; Kim, Eunjoo; Hong, Seung Chul; Singh, Manpreet K

    2015-02-01

    Several genetic and environmental factors place youth offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BD) at high risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Recent studies suggest that anxiety symptoms, even at subclinical levels, have been associated with an increased risk for developing BD. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene has been implicated in the pathophysiology of both BD and anxiety disorders. We aimed to explore whether anxiety in BD offspring was associated with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. 64 BD offspring (mean age: 13.73 (S.D. 3.45) M = 30, F = 34) and 51 HC (mean age: 13.68 (S.D. 2.68) M = 23, F = 28) were compared on presence of the met allele and on scores from the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC). To assess family function, we used the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES-IV). The Baron & Kenny method was the statistical approach used to examine the moderating effects between variables. BD offspring showed higher levels of overall anxiety than did the HC group. BD offspring with the val/val genotype showed higher levels of anxiety than BD offspring with other genotypes. No significant levels of anxiety or its association with BDNF genotype were found in the HC group. BD offspring group showed significantly more family dysfunction when compared with the HC group and the family dysfunction moderated the association between the BDNF genotype and anxiety symptoms. This study demonstrated the potential interplay of three factors: BD offspring, anxiety symptoms and family dysfunction.

  18. The Interacting Effect of the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism and Stressful Life Events on Adolescent Depression Is Not an Artifact of Gene-Environment Correlation: Evidence from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Confounding introduced by gene-environment correlation (rGE) may prevent one from observing a true gene-environment interaction (G × E) effect on psychopathology. The present study investigated the interacting effect of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and stressful life events (SLEs) on adolescent depression while controlling for the…

  19. A Novel Interaction between Tryptophan Hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) Gene Polymorphism (rs4570625) and BDNF Val66Met Predicts a High-Risk Emotional Phenotype in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Latsko, Maeson S.; Gilman, T. Lee; Matt, Lindsey M.; Nylocks, K. Maria; Coifman, Karin G.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Poor inhibitory processing of negative emotional content is central to many psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety. Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that core aspects of emotion-inhibitory processing are largely inherited and as such may represent a key intermediate or risk-related phenotype for common affective diseases (e.g., unipolar depressive, anxiety disorders). The current study employed a candidate-gene approach in order to most effectively examine this complex behavioral phenotype. We examined the novel interaction between BDNF (Val66Met) and TPH2 (rs4570625) polymorphisms and their influence on behavioral inhibition of negative emotion in two independent investigations of healthy adults. BDNF Met carriers consistently report greater symptoms of affective disease and display corresponding behavioral rigidity, while TPH2 T carriers display poor inhibitory processing. These genotypes are traditionally perceived as ‘risk’ genotypes when compared to their respective major Val and G homozygous genotypes, but evidence is mixed. Recent studies in humans and mutant mouse models suggest biological epistasis between BDNF and genes involved in serotonin regulation. Moreover, polymorphisms in the TPH2 gene may have greater influence on serotonergic function than other more commonly studied polymorphisms (e.g., 5-HTTLPR). We observed consistent evidence across two different emotion-inhibition paradigms, one with high internal validity (Study 1, n = 119) and one with high ecological validity (Study 2, n = 115) that the combination of Val/Val and G/G genotypes was clearly associated with impaired inhibition of negative emotional content. This was followed by individuals carrying the BDNF—Met allele (including Met/Val and Met/Met) when combined with the TPH2—T allele (including T/G and T/T combinations). The consistency of these results across tasks and studies suggests that these two groups may be particularly vulnerable to the most common

  20. BDNF val66met genotype and schizotypal personality traits interact to influence probabilistic association learning.

    PubMed

    Skilleter, Ashley Jayne; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Moustafa, Ahmed Abdelhalim; Gendy, Rasha; Chan, Mico; Arifin, Nur; Mitchell, Philip Bowden; Weickert, Thomas Wesley

    2014-11-01

    The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism rs6265 influences learning and may represent a risk factor for schizophrenia. Healthy people with high schizotypal personality traits display cognitive deficits that are similar to but not as severe as those observed in schizophrenia and they can be studied without confounds of antipsychotics or chronic illness. How genetic variation in BDNF may impact learning in individuals falling along the schizophrenia spectrum is unknown. We predicted that schizotypal personality traits would influence learning and that schizotypal personality-based differences in learning would vary depending on the BDNF val66met genotype. Eighty-nine healthy adults completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and a probabilistic association learning test. Blood samples were genotyped for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. An ANOVA was performed with BDNF genotype (val homozygotes and met-carriers) and SPQ score (high/low) as grouping variables and probabilistic association learning as the dependent variable. Participants with low SPQ scores (fewer schizotypal personality traits) showed significantly better learning than those with high SPQ scores. BDNF met-carriers displaying few schizotypal personality traits performed best, whereas BDNF met-carriers displaying high schizotypal personality traits performed worst. Thus, the BDNF val66met polymorphism appears to influence probabilistic association learning differently depending on the extent of schizotypal personality traits displayed.

  1. Relationship between the COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met Polymorphisms, Childhood Trauma and Psychotic Experiences in an Adolescent General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Hugh; Kelleher, Ian; Flannery, Padraig; Clarke, Mary C.; Lynch, Fionnuala; Harley, Michelle; Connor, Dearbhla; Fitzpatrick, Carol; Morris, Derek W.; Cannon, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychotic experiences occur at a much greater prevalence in the population than psychotic disorders. There has been little research to date, however, on genetic risk for this extended psychosis phenotype. We examined whether COMT or BDNF genotypes were associated with psychotic experiences or interacted with childhood trauma in predicting psychotic experiences. Method Psychiatric interviews and genotyping for COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met were carried out on two population-based samples of 237 individuals aged 11-15 years. Logistic regression was used to examine for main effects by genotype and childhood trauma, controlling for important covariates. This was then compared to a model with a term for interaction between genotype and childhood trauma. Where a possible interaction was detected, this was further explored in stratified analyses. Results While childhood trauma showed a borderline association with psychotic experiences, COMT-Val158Met and BDNF-Val66Met genotypes were not directly associated with psychotic experiences in the population. Testing for gene x environment interaction was borderline significant in the case of COMT-Val158Met with individuals with the COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype, who had been exposed to childhood trauma borderline significantly more likely to report psychotic experiences than those with Val-Met or Met-Met genotypes. There was no similar interaction by BDNF-Val66Met genotype. Conclusion The COMT-Val158Met Val-Val genotype may be a genetic moderator of risk for psychotic experiences in individuals exposed to childhood traumatic experiences. PMID:24224001

  2. BDNF Val66Met is Associated with Introversion and Interacts with 5-HTTLPR to Influence Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sutin, Angelina R; Deiana, Barbara; Balaci, Lenuta; Sanna, Serena; Olla, Nazario; Maschio, Andrea; Uda, Manuela; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schlessinger, David; Costa, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurotransmission, and has been linked to neuroticism, a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders. A recent genome-wide association (GWA) scan, however, found the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265) associated with extraversion but not with neuroticism. In this study, we examine the links between BDNF and personality traits, assessed using the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), in a sample from SardiNIA (n=1560) and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA; n=1131). Consistent with GWA results, we found that BDNF Met carriers were more introverted. By contrast, in both samples and in a meta-analysis inclusive of published data (n=15251), we found no evidence for a main effect of BDNF Val66Met on neuroticism. Finally, on the basis of recent reports of an epistatic effect between BDNF and the serotonin transporter, we explored a Val66Met × 5-HTTLPR interaction in a larger SardiNIA sample (n=2333). We found that 5-HTTLPR LL carriers scored lower on neuroticism in the presence of the BDNF Val variant, but scored higher on neuroticism in the presence of the BDNF Met variant. Our findings support the association between the BDNF Met variant and introversion and suggest that BDNF interacts with the serotonin transporter gene to influence neuroticism. PMID:20042999

  3. Genetic susceptibility to family environment: BDNF Val66met and 5-HTTLPR influence depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Elizabeth D; Hammen, Constance L; Najman, Jake M; Brennan, Patricia A

    2014-12-01

    Functional genetic polymorphisms associated with Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and serotonin (5-HTTLPR) have demonstrated associations with depression in interaction with environmental stressors. In light of evidence for biological connections between BDNF and serotonin, it is prudent to consider genetic epistasis between variants in these genes in the development of depressive symptoms. The current study examined the effects of val66met, 5-HTTLPR, and family environment quality on youth depressive symptoms in adolescence and young adulthood in a longitudinal sample oversampled for maternal depression history. A differential susceptibility model was tested, comparing the effects of family environment on depression scores across different levels of a cumulative plasticity genotype, defined as presence of both, either, or neither plasticity alleles (defined here as val66met Met and 5-HTTLPR 'S'). Cumulative plasticity genotype interacted with family environment quality to predict depression among males and females at age 15. After age 15, however, the interaction of cumulative plasticity genotype and early family environment quality was only predictive of depression among females. Results supported a differential susceptibility model at age 15, such that plasticity allele presence was associated with more or less depressive symptoms depending on valence of the family environment, and a diathesis-stress model of gene-environment interaction after age 15. These findings, although preliminary because of the small sample size, support prior results indicating interactive effects of 5-HTTLPR, val66met, and environmental stress, and suggest that family environment may have a stronger influence on genetically susceptible women than men.

  4. Differential effects of BDNF val(66)met in repetitive associative learning paradigms.

    PubMed

    Freundlieb, Nils; Backhaus, Winifried; Brüggemann, Norbert; Gerloff, Christian; Klein, Christine; Pinnschmidt, Hans O; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2015-09-01

    In healthy young subjects, the brain derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) val(66)met polymorphism negatively affects behavioural outcome in short-term motor cortex or hippocampus-based learning paradigms. In repetitive training paradigms over several days this effect can be overcome, in tests involving other brain areas even positive effects were found. To further specify the role of this polymorphism in cognitive processes, we used an associative vocabulary learning paradigm over four consecutive days and tested 38 young healthy subjects and 29 healthy elderly subjects. As a control paradigm, we designed a nonverbal haptic Braille letter-learning paradigm based on the same principles. Behavioural outcome was then associated with the BDNF-genotype. In the vocabulary learning task, met carrier (met/val and met/met) benefitted more from the repetitive training than val/val subjects. This was paralleled by a higher reduction of delayed answers during the course of the study, an effect that was also present in the haptic paradigm. However, in a group of healthy elderly subjects, no similar tendency was found. We conclude that the BDNF val(66)met polymorphism alters highly circumscribed answer behaviours in young healthy subjects. This might partly explain the high variability of previously published results.

  5. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysmnesia and the Role of BDNF Val66Met SNP

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haitao; Zhang, Tong; Wen, Mei; Sun, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on dysmnesia and the impact of brain nucleotide neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). This study investigated the impact of low-frequency rTMS on post-stroke dysmnesia and the impact of BDNF Val66Met SNP. Material/Methods Forty patients with post-stroke dysmnesia were prospectively randomized into the rTMS and sham groups. BDNF Val66Met SNP was determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Loewenstein Occupational Therapy of Cognitive Assessment (LOTCA), and Rivermead Behavior Memory Test (RBMT) scores, as well as plasma BDNF concentrations, were measured at baseline and at 3 days and 2 months post-treatment. Results MoCA, LOTCA, and RBMT scores were higher after rTMS. Three days after treatment, BDNF decreased in the rTMS group but it increased in the sham group (P<0.05). Two months after treatment, RMBT scores in the rTMS group were higher than in the sham group, but not MoCA and LOTCA scores. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS may improve after-stoke memory through various pathways, which may involve polymorphisms and several neural genes, but not through an increase in BDNF levels. PMID:25770310

  6. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  7. Plasma BDNF Concentration, Val66Met Genetic Variant, and Depression-Related Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; Martin, Bronwen; Ansari, David; Tanaka, Toshiko; Ferrucci, Luigi; Maudsley, Stuart; Mattson, Mark P.; Costa, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis, and BDNF plasma and serum levels have been associated with depression, Alzheimer's disease, and other psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In a relatively large community sample, drawn from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), we examine whether BDNF plasma concentration is associated with the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene (n = 335) and with depression-related personality traits assessed with the NEO-PI-R (n = 391). Plasma concentration of BDNF was not associated with the Val66Met variant in either men or women. However, in men, but not in women, BDNF plasma level was associated with personality traits linked to depression. Contrary to the notion that low BDNF is associated with negative outcomes, we found lower plasma levels in men who score lower on depression and vulnerability to stress (two facets of Neuroticism) and higher on Conscientiousness and Extraversion. These findings challenge the prevailing hypothesis that lower peripheral levels of BDNF are a marker of depression. PMID:20345896

  8. Toward a unified biological hypothesis for the BDNF Val66Met-associated memory deficits in humans: a model of impaired dendritic mRNA trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Baj, Gabriele; Carlino, Davide; Gardossi, Lucia; Tongiorgi, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) represents promotesa key molecule for the survival and differentiation of specific populations of neurons in the central nervous system. BDNF also regulates plasticity-related processes underlying memory and learning. A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs6265 has been identified on the coding sequence of human BDNF located at 11p13. The SNP rs6265 is a single base mutation with an adenine instead of a guanine at position 196 (G196A), resulting in the amino acid substitution Val66Met. This polymorphism only exists in humans and has been associated with a plethora of effects ranging from molecular, cellular and brain structural modifications in association with deficits in social and cognitive functions. To date, the literature on Val66Met polymorphism describes a complex and often conflicting pattern of effects. In this review, we attempt to provide a unifying model of the Val66Met effects. We discuss the clinical evidence of the association between Val66Met and memory deficits, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved including the reduced transport of BDNF mRNA to the dendrites as well as the reduced processing and secretion of BDNF protein through the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:24198753

  9. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  10. BDNF val66met affects hippocampal volume and emotion-related hippocampal memory activity.

    PubMed

    Molendijk, M L; van Tol, M-J; Penninx, B W J H; van der Wee, N J A; Aleman, A; Veltman, D J; Spinhoven, P; Elzinga, B M

    2012-01-31

    The val(66)met polymorphism on the BDNF gene has been reported to explain individual differences in hippocampal volume and memory-related activity. These findings, however, have not been replicated consistently and no studies to date controlled for the potentially confounding impact of early life stress, such as childhood abuse, and psychiatric status. Using structural and functional MRI, we therefore investigated in 126 depressed and/or anxious patients and 31 healthy control subjects the effects of val(66)met on hippocampal volume and encoding activity of neutral, positive and negative words, while taking into account childhood abuse and psychiatric status. Our results show slightly lower hippocampal volumes in carriers of a met allele (n=54) relative to val/val homozygotes (n=103) (P=0.02, effect size (Cohen's d)=0.37), which appeared to be independent of childhood abuse and psychiatric status. For hippocampal encoding activity, we found a val(66)met-word valence interaction (P=0.02) such that carriers of a met allele showed increased levels of activation in response to negative words relative to activation in the neutral word condition and relative to val/val homozygotes. This, however, was only evident in the absence of childhood abuse, as abused val/val homozygotes showed hippocampal encoding activity for negative words that was comparable to that of carriers of a met allele. Neither psychiatric status nor memory accuracy did account for these associations. In conclusion, BDNF val(66)met has a significant impact on hippocampal volume independently of childhood abuse and psychiatric status. Furthermore, early adverse experiences such as childhood abuse account for individual differences in hippocampal encoding activity of negative stimuli but this effect manifests differently as a function of val(66)met.

  11. BDNF serum levels, but not BDNF Val66Met genotype, are correlated with personality traits in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandra; Zanardini, Roberta; Bonvicini, Cristian; Sartori, Riccardo; Pedrini, Laura; Gennarelli, Massimo; Bocchio-Chiavetto, Luisella

    2011-08-01

    Consisting evidence in animal models has suggested that alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) brain expression and release are involved in the pathogenesis of mental illnesses, such as, mood, anxiety, and eating disorders. This hypothesis is supported by data emerging from biochemical studies on serum BDNF levels and genetic studies on the functional polymorphism Val66Met in the BDNF gene in patients and control subjects. Anxiety-related personality traits are associated with several mental disorders. However, they are also measurable in non-affected subjects and, so, may represent a useful "endophenotype" to study the biological correlation of the vulnerability factors in the general population. In this study, we analyzed putative correlations in subjects unaffected by mental disorders between personality traits, serum BDNF levels (N = 107), and the BDNF Val66Met genotype (N = 217). Furthermore, we tested the possible interactions between these variables. A significant correlation has been observed between high scores of harm avoidance (HA) measured by the temperament and character inventory (TCI), and low BDNF serum concentration (r = -0.253, P = 0.009). In addition, an association has been evidenced between low BDNF levels in serum and the BDNF Val/Val genotype (P = 0.021). By analyzing putative concomitant effects of different variables on HA scores in a regression model, we observed a significant correlation only with BDNF serum concentrations (P = 0.022). The study results suggest that a decrease in serum BDNF concentrations may represent a biochemical marker associated with anxiety personality traits also retrievable in the general population.

  12. BDNF Val66Met modifies the risk of childhood trauma on obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Hemmings, Sian Megan Joanna; Lochner, Christine; van der Merwe, Lize; Cath, Danielle C; Seedat, Soraya; Stein, Dan J

    2013-12-01

    Childhood trauma has been linked to the development of later psychopathology, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although evidence exists to suggest that genetic and environmental factors are involved in the aetiology of OCD, little attention has been paid to the interactions that exist between genes and environment. The aim of this study was to investigate gene-by-environment interactions between childhood trauma and the BDNF Val66Met variant in patients with OCD. Childhood trauma was assessed in 134 OCD patients and 188 controls using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Linear regression models were used for statistical analyses. Gene-environment interactions were estimated by including a combined genotype and CTQ score in the models as interaction terms. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, CTQ minimisation-denial score and home language by including them in the logistic regression models as covariates. Childhood trauma, specifically emotional abuse and neglect, increased the odds of having OCD significantly (p < 0.001). Although no significant association was observed between BDNF Val66Met and the development of OCD, interaction analysis indicated that the BDNF Met-allele interacted with childhood emotional abuse to increase the risk of OCD significantly in a dose-dependent manner (p = 0.024). To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to investigate gene-environment interactions in OCD, and the findings indicate the importance of collating genetic and environmental variables in future studies.

  13. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals.

  14. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

  15. BDNF-Val66Met variant and adolescent stress interact to promote susceptibility to anorexic behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Madra, M; Zeltser, L M

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need to identify therapeutic targets for anorexia nervosa (AN) because current medications do not impact eating behaviors that drive AN's high mortality rate. A major obstacle to developing new treatments is the lack of animal models that recapitulate the pattern of disease onset typically observed in human populations. Here we describe a translational mouse model to study interactions between genetic, psychological and biological risk factors that promote anorexic behavior. We combined several factors that are consistently associated with increased risk of AN—adolescent females, genetic predisposition to anxiety imposed by the BDNF-Val66Met gene variant, social isolation stress and caloric restriction (CR). Approximately 40% of the mice with all of these risk factors will exhibit severe self-imposed dietary restriction, sometimes to the point of death. We systematically varied the risk factors outlined above to explore how they interact to influence anorexic behavior. We found that the Val66Met genotype markedly increases the likelihood and severity of abnormal feeding behavior triggered by CR, but only when CR is imposed in the peri-pubertal period. Incidence of anorexic behavior in our model is dependent on juvenile exposure to social stress and can be extinguished by adolescent handling, but is discordant from anxiety-like behavior. Thus, this study characterized gene × environment interactions during adolescence that could be the underlying driver of abnormal eating behavior in certain AN patients, and represents a promising system to identify possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:27045846

  16. COMT Val158Met, but not BDNF Val66Met, is associated with white matter abnormalities of the temporal lobe in patients with first-episode, treatment-naïve major depressive disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Kenji; Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakeda, Shingo; Kishi, Taro; Abe, Osamu; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Katsuki, Asuka; Hori, Hikaru; Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Watanabe, Keita; Ide, Satoru; Ueda, Issei; Moriya, Junji; Iwata, Nakao; Korogi, Yukunori; Kubicki, Marek; Nakamura, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the association between the Val158Met polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene, the Val66Met polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, and white matter changes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and healthy subjects using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We studied 30 patients with MDD (17 males and 13 females, with mean age ± standard deviation [SD] =44±12 years) and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls (17 males and 13 females, aged 44±13 years). Using DTI analysis with a tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) approach, we investigated the differences in fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity distribution among the three groups (patients with the COMT gene Val158Met, those with the BDNF gene Val66Met, and the healthy subjects). In a voxel-wise-based group comparison, we found significant decreases in fractional anisotropy and axial diffusivity within the temporal lobe white matter in the Met-carriers with MDD compared with the controls (P<0.05). No correlations in fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, or radial diffusivity were observed between the MDD patients and the controls, either among those with the BDNF Val/Val genotype or among the BDNF Met-carriers. These results suggest an association between the COMT gene Val158Met and the white matter abnormalities found in the temporal lobe of patients with MDD. PMID:25061303

  17. Lack of neural compensatory mechanisms of BDNF val66met met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gomar, Jesus J; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Huey, Edward D; Davies, Peter; Goldberg, Terry E

    2016-03-01

    Compromises in compensatory neurobiologic mechanisms due to aging and/or genetic factors (i.e., APOE gene) may influence brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism effects on temporal lobe morphometry and memory performance. We studied 2 cohorts from Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative: 175 healthy subjects and 222 with prodromal and established Alzheimer's disease. Yearly structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive performance assessments were carried out over 3 years of follow-up. Both cohorts had similar BDNF Val/Val and Met allele carriers' (including both Val/Met and Met/Met individuals) distribution. In healthy subjects, a significant trend for thinner posterior cingulate and precuneus cortices was detected in Met carriers compared to Val homozygotes in APOE E4 carriers, with large and medium effect sizes, respectively. The mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease cohort showed a longitudinal decline in entorhinal thickness in BDNF Met carriers compared to Val/Val in APOE E4 carriers, with effect sizes ranging from medium to large. In addition, an effect of BDNF genotype was found in APOE E4 carriers for episodic memory (logical memory and ADAS-Cog) and semantic fluency measures, with Met carriers performing worse in all cases. These findings suggest a lack of compensatory mechanisms in BDNF Met carriers and APOE E4 carriers in healthy and pathological aging. PMID:26923413

  18. On the genetics of loss aversion: An interaction effect of BDNF Val66Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1a.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Gesine; Montag, Christian; Markett, Sebastian; Reuter, Martin

    2015-12-01

    Loss aversion is the tendency to overweight losses compared with gains in decision situations. Several studies have investigated the neurobiological background of this phenomenon and it was found that activation in the mesolimbic-mesocortical dopamine system during a gambling decision correlates with loss aversion. In a behavioral experiment with N = 143 subjects, the present study investigates the influence of 2 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the BDNF gene (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) and ANKK1 gene (DRD2 Taq1a/ANKK1 polymorphism), that are known to affect the dopamine system, on loss aversion. Additionally, associations of alexithymia, a personality construct describing the disability to consciously experience emotions in the self, with loss aversion and with the mentioned polymorphisms were assessed using the TAS-20 questionnaire, to replicate associations that have been reported before. Results revealed a significant interaction effect of the 2 polymorphisms on loss aversion. Carriers of the genetic constellation 66Met+/A1+ had the lowest loss aversion scores, compared with all other allelic groups. According to the literature this allelic configuration is characterized by a relatively low D2/3 receptor binding in the striatum and an impaired activity-dependent secretion of BDNF. This is the first study showing that loss aversion is related to naturally occurring differences in dopamine function. PMID:26501178

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene polymorphism predicts interindividual variation in the sleep electroencephalogram.

    PubMed

    Guindalini, Camila; Mazzotti, Diego R; Castro, Laura S; D'Aurea, Carolina V R; Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Bittencourt, Lia R A; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the homeostatic regulation of sleep. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the Val66Met functional polymorphism of the BDNF gene on sleep and sleep EEG parameters in a large population-based sample. In total 337 individuals participating in the São Paulo Epidemiologic Sleep Study were selected for analysis. None of the participants had indications of a sleep disorder, as measured by full-night polysomnography and questionnaire. Spectral analysis of the EEG was carried out in all individuals using fast Fourier transformation of the oscillatory signals for each EEG electrode. Sleep and sleep EEG parameters in individuals with the Val/Val genotype were compared with those in Met carriers (Val/Met and Met/Met genotypes). After correction for multiple comparisons and for potential confounding factors, Met carriers showed decreased spectral power in the alpha band in stage one and decreased theta power in stages two and three of nonrapid-eye-movement sleep, at the central recording electrode. No significant influence on sleep macrostructure was observed among the genotype groups. Thus, the Val66Met polymorphism seems to modulate the electrical activity of the brain, predicting interindividual variation of sleep EEG parameters. Further studies of this and other polymorphic variants in potential candidate genes will help the characterization of the molecular basis of sleep. PMID:24700661

  20. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) Gene Polymorphisms with Anxiety, ADHD and Tics in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Roohi, Jasmin; Devincent, Carla J.; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 ("COMT") and rs6265 ("BDNF") as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both "COMT" (p = 0.06) and "BDNF" (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher…

  1. Association of COMT (Val158Met) and BDNF (Val66Met) gene polymorphisms with anxiety, ADHD and tics in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J; Kirsch, Sarah; Hatchwell, Eli

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the study is to examine rs4680 (COMT) and rs6265 (BDNF) as genetic markers of anxiety, ADHD, and tics. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for a total sample of 67 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both COMT (p = 0.06) and BDNF (p = 0.07) genotypes were marginally significant for teacher ratings of social phobia (etap (2) = 0.06). Analyses also indicated associations of BDNF genotype with parent-rated ADHD (p = 0.01, etap (2) = 0.10) and teacher-rated tics (p = 0.04; etap (2) = 0.07). There was also evidence of a possible interaction (p = 0.02, etap (2) = 0.09) of BDNF genotype with DAT1 3' VNTR with tic severity. BDNF and COMT may be biomarkers for phenotypic variation in ASD, but these preliminary findings remain tentative pending replication with larger, independent samples.

  2. Relationship between a BDNF gene polymorphism and the brain volume in treatment-naive patients with major depressive disorder: A VBM analysis of brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Ide, Satoru; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Yoshimura, Reiji; Abe, Osamu; Hayashi, Kenji; Ueda, Issei; Kishi, Taro; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Iwata, Nakao; Nakamura, Jun; Korogi, Yukunori

    2015-08-30

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) relates to basic neuronal functions, such as cell survival, axonal outgrowth, and dendritic growth. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene may affect genetic susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD). We prospectively investigated the relationship between the Val66Met BDNF genotype and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) findings for first episode and drug-naïve MDD patients and healthy subjects (HS). Participants comprised 38 MDD patients and 42 age- and sex-matched HS were divided into groups based on their BDNF genotype. The effects of diagnosis and genotype, as well as the genotype-diagnosis interaction, in relation to brain morphology were evaluated using a voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. Among the Met-carriers, the volume of the left middle frontal gyrus (composition of the prefrontal cortex [PFC]) was significantly smaller for MDD patients than for the HS, i.e., there was a significant genotype-diagnosis interaction effect on brain morphology noted in the left PFC. The BDNF polymorphism was associated with atrophy of the PFC in MDD patients, which suggests that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may play an important role in the pathogenesis of early stages of MDD.

  3. Preservation of general intelligence following traumatic brain injury: contributions of the Met66 brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick; Forbes, Chad; Krueger, Frank; Goldman, David; Grafman, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes survival and synaptic plasticity in the human brain. The Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF gene interferes with intracellular trafficking, packaging, and regulated secretion of this neurotrophin. The human prefrontal cortex (PFC) shows lifelong neuroplastic adaption implicating the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism in the recovery of higher-order executive functions after traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, we examined the effect of this BDNF polymorphism on the preservation of general intelligence following TBI. We genotyped a sample of male Vietnam combat veterans (n = 156) consisting of a frontal lobe lesion group with focal penetrating head injuries for the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism. Val/Met did not differ from Val/Val genotypes in general cognitive ability before TBI. However, we found substantial average differences between these groups in general intelligence (≈ half a standard deviation or 8 IQ points), verbal comprehension (6 IQ points), perceptual organization (6 IQ points), working memory (8 IQ points), and processing speed (8 IQ points) after TBI. These results support the conclusion that Val/Met genotypes preserve general cognitive functioning, whereas Val/Val genotypes are largely susceptible to TBI. PMID:24586380

  4. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels as a possible predictor of psychopathology in healthy twins at high and low risk for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Vinberg, Maj; Miskowiak, Kamilla; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2014-01-01

    Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is a potential biomarker of affective disorder. However, longitudinal studies evaluating a potential predictive role of BDNF on subsequent psychopathology are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF alone or in interaction with the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predict onset of affective disorder in healthy individuals at heritable risk for affective disorder. In a high-risk study, we assessed whole blood levels of BDNF in 234 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twins with or without a co-twin history of affective disorder (high and low risk twins, respectively). Participants were followed up longitudinally with questionnaires at 6-month intervals for mean seven years and then reassessed with a personal interview to obtain information about whether they had developed psychiatric illness. At follow-up 36 participants (15.4%) had developed psychiatric disorder. Cox regression analysis revealed that BDNF levels at baseline were not associated with onset of illness in this explorative study. Further, two-way interactions between BDNF levels and the Val66Met polymorphism or between familial risk and the Val66Met polymorphism did not predict illness onset.

  5. The presence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the BDNF gene affects the rate of locomotor adaptation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Helm, Erin E; Tyrell, Christine M; Pohlig, Ryan T; Brady, Lucas D; Reisman, Darcy S

    2016-02-01

    Induction of neural plasticity through motor learning has been demonstrated in animals and humans. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, is thought to play an integral role in modulation of central nervous system plasticity during learning and motor skill recovery. Thirty percent of humans possess a single-nucleotide polymorphism on the BDNF gene (Val66Met), which has been linked to decreased activity-dependent release of BDNF. Presence of the polymorphism has been associated with altered cortical activation, short-term plasticity and altered skill acquisition, and learning in healthy humans. The impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on motor learning post-stroke has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism in learning of a novel locomotor task in subjects with chronic stroke. It was hypothesized that subjects with the polymorphism would have an altered rate and magnitude of adaptation to a novel locomotor walking paradigm (the split-belt treadmill), compared to those without the polymorphism. The rate of adaptation was evaluated as the reduction in gait asymmetry during the first 30 (early adaptation) and last 100 (late adaptation) strides. Twenty-seven individuals with chronic stroke participated in a single session of split-belt treadmill walking and tested for the polymorphism. Step length and limb phase were measured to assess adaptation of spatial and temporal parameters of walking. The rate of adaptation of step length asymmetry differed significantly between those with and without the polymorphism, while the amount of total adaptation did not. These results suggest that chronic stroke survivors, regardless of presence or absence of the polymorphism, are able to adapt their walking pattern over a period of trial-and-error practice; however, the presence of the polymorphism influences the rate at which this is achieved. PMID:26487176

  6. Identification of Pro- and Mature Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, AL; Ozdener, H; Utermohlen, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective Growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are polypeptides that are involved in the maintenance, survival, and death of central and peripheral cells. Numerous growth factors have been identified in saliva and are thought to promote wound healing and maintenance of the oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to determine if BDNF is also found in human saliva. Methods Whole, unstimulated saliva samples (n=30) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using an anti-human BDNF antibody. Proteolytic cleavage products were similarly assessed following the incubation of pooled saliva with N-glycanase F and plasmin. Subjects genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results These experiments revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands at 14, 32 and 34 kD, corresponding to mature (mBDNF) and proBDNF, as well as a truncated pro-form at 24 kD. Not every sample contained all forms of BDNF. Treatment with N-glycanase and plasmin reduced the size of the higher molecular weight bands, confirming the glycosylated pro-form of BDNF. mBDNF was detected significantly less often in subjects with the Val66Met SNP, compared to those without the polymorphism (X2 = 4.05; P<0.05). Conclusions While the function of salivary BDNF still requires elucidation, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use saliva in lieu of blood in future studies of BDNF and the Val66Met polymorphism. PMID:19467646

  7. Polymorphisms in the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene Influence Memory and Processing Speed One Month after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Anna L.; Flashman, Laura A.; Rhodes, C. Harker; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.; Moore, Jason H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in cognition, as well as neural survival and plasticity. There are several common polymorphisms in the BDNF gene, one of which (rs6265) is an extensively studied non-synonymous coding polymorphism (Val66Met) which has been linked to cognitive performance in healthy controls and some clinical populations. We hypothesized that the Met allele of rs6265 would be associated with poorer cognitive performance in individuals with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury, and that other polymorphisms in the BDNF gene would also affect cognition. Genotype at 9 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the BDNF gene, and measures of speed of information processing, learning, and memory were assessed in 75 patients with mTBI and 38 healthy subjects. Consistent with previous reports, the Met allele of rs6265 was associated with cognition (slower processing speed) in the entire group. Two other SNPs were associated with processing speed in the mTBI group, but both are in linkage disequilibrium with rs6265, and neither remained significant after adjustment for rs6265 status. Within the mTBI group, but not the controls, 4 SNPs, but not rs6265, were associated with memory measures. These associations were not affected by adjustment for rs6265 status. Polymorphisms in BDNF influence cognitive performance shortly after mTBI. The results raise the possibility that a functional polymorphism other than rs6265 may contribute to memory function after mTBI. PMID:22188054

  8. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway, life stress, and chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain

    PubMed Central

    Milaneschi, Yuri; Jansen, Rick; Elzinga, Bernet M; Dekker, Joost; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) disturbances and life stress, both independently and in interaction, have been hypothesized to induce chronic pain. We examined whether (a) the BDNF pathway (val66met genotype, gene expression, and serum levels), (b) early and recent life stress, and (c) their interaction are associated with the presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain. Methods Cross-sectional data are from 1646 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. The presence and severity of chronic multi-site musculoskeletal pain were determined using the Chronic Pain Grade (CPG) questionnaire. The BDNF val66met polymorphism, BDNF gene expression, and BDNF serum levels were measured. Early life stress before the age of 16 was assessed by calculating a childhood trauma index using the Childhood Trauma Interview. Recent life stress was assessed as the number of recent adverse life events using the List of Threatening Events Questionnaire. Results Compared to val66val, BDNF met carriers more often had chronic pain, whereas no differences were found for BDNF gene expression and serum levels. Higher levels of early and recent stress were both associated with the presence and severity of chronic pain (p < 0.001). No interaction effect was found for the BDNF pathway with life stress in the associations with chronic pain presence and severity. Conclusions This study suggests that the BDNF gene marks vulnerability for chronic pain. Although life stress did not alter the impact of BDNF on chronic pain, it seems an independent factor in the onset and persistence of chronic pain. PMID:27145806

  9. Characterizing the Role of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Genetic Variation in Alzheimer’s Disease Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Honea, Robyn A.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Perea, Rodrigo D.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Goate, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that neurotrophins, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), may impact aging and Alzheimer’s Disease. However, traditional genetic association studies have not found a clear relationship between BDNF and AD. Our goal was to test whether BDNF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) impact Alzheimer’s Disease-related brain imaging and cognitive markers of disease. We completed an imaging genetics study on 645 Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants (ND=175, MCI=316, AD=154) who had cognitive, brain imaging, and genetics data at baseline and a subset of those with brain imaging data at two years. Samples were genotyped using the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip. 13 SNPs in BDNF were identified in the dataset following quality control measures (rs6265(Val66Met), rs12273363, rs11030094, rs925946, rs1050187, rs2203877, rs11030104, rs11030108, rs10835211, rs7934165, rs908867, rs1491850, rs1157459). We analyzed a subgroup of 8 SNPs that were in low linkage disequilibrium with each other. Automated brain morphometric measures were available through ADNI investigators, and we analyzed baseline cognitive scores, hippocampal and whole brain volumes, and rates of hippocampal and whole brain atrophy and rates of change in the ADAS-Cog over one and two years. Three out of eight BDNF SNPs analyzed were significantly associated with measures of cognitive decline (rs1157659, rs11030094, rs11030108). No SNPs were significantly associated with baseline brain volume measures, however six SNPs were significantly associated with hippocampal and/or whole brain atrophy over two years (rs908867, rs11030094, rs6265, rs10501087, rs1157659, rs1491850). We also found an interaction between the BDNF Val66Met SNP and age with whole brain volume. Our imaging-genetics analysis in a large dataset suggests that while BDNF genetic variation is not specifically associated with a diagnosis of AD, it appears to play a role in AD-related brain

  10. Analysis of functional polymorphisms in three synaptic plasticity-related genes (BDNF, COMT AND UCHL1) in Alzheimer's disease in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Forero, Diego A; Benítez, Bruno; Arboleda, Gonzalo; Yunis, Juan J; Pardo, Rodrigo; Arboleda, Humberto

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, it has been proposed that synaptic dysfunction may be an important etiological factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This hypothesis has important implications for the analysis of AD genetic risk in case-control studies. In the present work, we analyzed common functional polymorphisms in three synaptic plasticity-related genes (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF Val66Met; catechol-O-methyl transferase, COMT Val158; ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydroxylase, UCHL1 S18Y) in a sample of 102 AD cases and 168 age and sex matched controls living in Bogotá, Colombia. There was not association between UCHL1 polymorphism and AD in our sample. We have found an initial association with BDNF polymorphism in familial cases and with COMT polymorphism in male and sporadic patients. These initial associations were lost after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Unadjusted results may be compatible with the expected functional effect of variations in these genes on pathological memory and cognitive dysfunction, as has been implicated in animal and cell models and also from neuropsychological analysis of normal subjects carriers of the AD associated genotypes. An exploration of functional variants in these and in other synaptic plasticity-related genes (a synaptogenomics approach) in independent larger samples will be important to discover new genes associated with AD.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurocognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anthony O; Mantini, Andrew M; Fridberg, Daniel J; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-03-30

    Studies suggest that the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism is associated with the incidence of schizophrenia and neurocognitive functioning. These associations appear to be however somewhat mixed. We conducted two separate meta-analyses to investigate (1) the association between the Val66Met polymorphism and neurocognition in people with schizophrenia and (2) the association between peripheral expression of BDNF and neurocognitive phenotypes. For the first aim, we identified 12 studies and 67 comparisons of Met allele carriers and Val homozygotes. These comparisons included 1890 people with schizophrenia (men=1465, women=553), of whom 972 were Met allele carriers and 918 were Val homozygotes. For the second aim, we identified five studies and 25 correlations of peripheral BDNF and neurocognitive scores. The meta-analysis for the second aim included 414 people with schizophrenia (men=292, women=170). First, we found non-significant difference between the genotype groups on most neurocognitive domains. Second, correlations between peripheral BDNF and neurocognitive phenotypes were minimal but we obtained significant effects for the reasoning and problem-solving domains; thus, higher levels of BDNF expression corresponded to better performance on reasoning/problem-solving tasks. The meta-analyses did not robustly establish an association between BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and neurocognition in schizophrenia.

  12. BDNF gene polymorphisms and haplotypes in relation to cognitive performance in Polish healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Wiłkość, Monika; Szałkowska, Agnieszka; Skibińska, Maria; Zając-Lamparska, Ludmiła; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    The brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that plays an important role in the cell survival, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptic plasticity. BDNF gene polymorphisms, 'functional Val66Met mainly, were shown to influence human brain structure and cognition. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between twelve BDNF gene variants and their haplotypes and cognitive performance measured using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Trail Making Test (TMT), the Stroop Test which are to a large extent connected with prefrontal cortex activity. Our sample consisted of 460 healthy participants from Polish population. We detected possible association between five BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030101, rs10835210, rs2049046, rs2030324, rs2883187) and TMT_A. Additionally, one haplotype block made from eleven BDNF variants (rs2883187, rs1401635, rs2049046, rs2030324, rs11030101, rs10835210, rs1013402, rs1401635, rs1013402), as significant linkage disequilibrium appeared. We discovered possible relationships of CACCGCGTACG and CACCGCGTACG haplotypes with TMT_A and TMT_B performance respectively. Our results confirmed the involvement of BDNF in the regulation of psychomotor speed, working memory and executive function in healthy subjects measured by a task engaging visuoperceptual abilities. PMID:27102917

  13. Neural Activation in Humans during a Simple Motor Task Differs between BDNF Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Grön, Georg; Sim, Eun-Jin; Stingl, Julia C.; Kammer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism has been linked to decreased synaptic plasticity involved in motor learning tasks. We investigated whether individual differences in this polymorphism may promote differences in neural activity during a two-alternative forced-choice motor performance. In two separate sessions, the BOLD signal from 22 right-handed healthy men was measured during button presses with the left and right index finger upon visual presentation of an arrow. 11 men were Val66Val carriers (ValVal group), the other 11 men carried either the Val66Met or the Met66Met polymorphism (Non-ValVal group). Reaction times, resting and active motor thresholds did not differ between ValVal and Non-ValVal groups. Compared to the ValVal group the Non-ValVal group showed significantly higher BOLD signals in the right SMA and motor cingulate cortex during motor performance. This difference was highly consistent for both hands and across all four sessions. Our finding suggests that this BDNF polymorphism may not only influence complex performance during motor learning but is already associated with activation differences during rather simple motor tasks. The higher BOLD signal observed in Non-ValVal subjects suggests the presence of cumulative effects of the polymorphism on the motor system, and may reflect compensatory functional activation mediating equal behavioral performance between groups. PMID:24828051

  14. BDNF/TRKB/P75NTR polymorphisms and their consequences on antidepressant efficacy in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Colle, Romain; Deflesselle, Eric; Martin, Séverine; David, Denis J; Hardy, Patrick; Taranu, Adéla; Falissard, Bruno; Verstuyft, Céline; Corruble, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    We propose an extensive review of the literature about BDNF/TRKB/P75NTR polymorphisms and their consequences on antidepressant efficacy in depressed patients. Five genome-wide association studies and 30 association studies were included. Twenty seven studies focused on the Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265), the Met allele being associated with a higher antidepressant efficacy only in Asian patients. Other BDNF/TRKB/P75NTR polymorphisms (BDNF: rs7103411, rs7124442, rs908867, rs2049046, rs61888800, rs10501087, rs1491850; TRKB: rs10868223, rs11140778, rs1565445, rs1659412; P75NTR: rs2072446) were reported to be associated with antidepressant efficacy but these results were not replicated. Finally, there are 15 positive studies among 30 studies regarding BDNF/TRKB/P75NTR polymorphisms. The only SNP which benefits of at least three positive studies is the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265). Consequently, with a lack of good and consistent studies, the clinical utility of BDNF in treatment selection is far from clear. We propose several recommendations for further studies.

  15. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype is associated with brain gray and white matter tissue volumes recovery in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mon, A.; Durazzo, T. C.; Gazdzinski, S.; Hutchison, K. E.; Pennington, D.; Meyerhoff, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have linked the methionine (Met) allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ) gene to abnormal regional brain volumes in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. However, no neuroimaging studies assessed the effects of this allele on brain morphology in alcohol use disorders and its demonstrated change during abstinence from alcohol. Here we assessed the effects of the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism on regional brain tissue volumes and their recovery during short-term abstinence in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals. 3D T1 weighted magnetic resonance images from 62 individuals were acquired at 1.5 T at one week of abstinence from alcohol; 41 of the participants were rescanned at 5 weeks of abstinence. The images were segmented into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid and parcellated into regional volumes. The BDNF genotype was determined from blood samples using the TaqMan technique. Alcohol-dependent Val (Valine)/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes had similar regional brain volumes at either time point. However, Val homozygotes had significant GM volume increases, while Val/Met heterozygotes increased predominantly in WM volumes over the scan interval. Longitudinal increases in GM but not WM volumes were related to improvements in neurocognitive measures during abstinence. The findings suggest that functionally significant brain tissue volume recovery during abstinence from alcohol is influenced by BDNF genotype. PMID:22989210

  17. Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shih-Heng; Chu, Chun-Hsieh; Huang, San-Yuan; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Wang, Chen-Lin; Wang, Liang-Jen; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2014-02-01

    Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.

  18. Promoting neuroplasticity for motor rehabilitation after stroke: considering the effects of aerobic exercise and genetic variation on brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    Mang, Cameron S; Campbell, Kristin L; Ross, Colin J D; Boyd, Lara A

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of motor function after stroke involves relearning motor skills and is mediated by neuroplasticity. Recent research has focused on developing rehabilitation strategies that facilitate such neuroplasticity to maximize functional outcome poststroke. Although many molecular signaling pathways are involved, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has emerged as a key facilitator of neuroplasticity involved in motor learning and rehabilitation after stroke. Thus, rehabilitation strategies that optimize BDNF effects on neuroplasticity may be especially effective for improving motor function poststroke. Two potential poststroke rehabilitation strategies that consider the importance of BDNF are the use of aerobic exercise to enhance brain function and the incorporation of genetic information to individualize therapy. Converging evidence demonstrates that aerobic exercise increases BDNF production and consequently enhances learning and memory processes. Nevertheless, a common genetic variant reduces activity-dependent secretion of the BDNF protein. Thus, BDNF gene variation may affect response to motor rehabilitation training and potentially modulate the effects of aerobic exercise on neuroplasticity. This perspective article discusses evidence that aerobic exercise promotes neuroplasticity by increasing BDNF production and considers how aerobic exercise may facilitate the acquisition and retention of motor skills for poststroke rehabilitation. Next, the impact of the BDNF gene val66met polymorphism on motor learning and response to rehabilitation is explored. It is concluded that the effects of aerobic exercise on BDNF and motor learning may be better exploited if aerobic exercise is paired more closely in time with motor training. Additionally, information about BDNF genotype could provide insight into the type and magnitude of effects that aerobic exercise may have across individuals and potentially help guide an individualized prescription of aerobic exercise

  19. Interactions between childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and serotonin transporter polymorphisms on depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Kate L; Strauss, John; Michael Bagby, R; Stewart, Jeremy G; Larocque, Cherie; Mazurka, Raegan; Ravindran, Arun; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine E; Rector, Neil A; Kennedy, James

    2015-09-30

    This study represents the first replication of the BDNF Val66Met ⁎ 5-HTTLPR ⁎ childhood maltreatment effect on self-reported depression symptoms using a rigorous maltreatment interview. Participants included a community sample of 339 adolescents/young adults (age 12-33; 265 female). In the context of childhood neglect, among BDNF Met-carriers, s-allele carriers of 5-HTTLPR reported significantly higher depression than l/l homozygotes, whereas a differential relation of 5-HTTLPR genotype to depression was not seen among BDNF Val/Val homozygotes. PMID:26070769

  20. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  1. Missense Mutation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Alters Neurocognitive Performance in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Ramli, Norlisah; Waran, Vicknes; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2016-01-01

    remained impaired in most domains across the timepoints, although delayed signs of recovery were noted to be significant in the domains attention and overall cognition. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated the role of the BDNF rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism in influencing specific neurocognitive outcomes in patients with mTBI. Findings were more detrimentally profound among Met allele carriers. PMID:27438599

  2. Missense Mutation of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Alters Neurocognitive Performance in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Vairavan; Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran; Ahmad-Annuar, Azlina; Ramli, Norlisah; Waran, Vicknes; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Ganesan, Dharmendra

    2016-01-01

    remained impaired in most domains across the timepoints, although delayed signs of recovery were noted to be significant in the domains attention and overall cognition. In conclusion, the current study has demonstrated the role of the BDNF rs6265 Val66Met polymorphism in influencing specific neurocognitive outcomes in patients with mTBI. Findings were more detrimentally profound among Met allele carriers. PMID:27438599

  3. New polymorphic variants of human blood clotting factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Surin, V.L.; Luk`yanenko, A.V.; Tagiev, A.F.; Smirnova, O.V.; Plutalov, O.V.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1995-04-01

    The polymorphism of Alu-repeats, which are located in the introns of the human factor IX gene (copies 1-3), was studied. To identify polymorphic variants, direct sequencing of PCR products that contained appropriate repeats was used. In each case, 20 unrelated X chromosomes were studied. A polymorphic Dra I site was found near the 3{prime}-end of Alu copy 3 within the region of the polyA tract. A PCR-based testing system with internal control of restriction hydrolysis was suggested. Testing 81 unrelated X chromosomes revealed that the frequency of the polymorphic Dra I site is 0.23. Taq I polymorphism, which was revealed in Alu copy 4 of factor IX gene in our previous work, was found to be closely linked to Dra I polymorphism. Studies in linkage between different types of polymorphisms of the factor IX gene revealed the presence of a rare polymorphism in intron a that was located within the same minisatellite region as the known polymorphic insertion 50 bp/Dde I. However, the size of the insertion in our case was 26 bp. Only one polymorphic variant was found among over 150 unrelated X chromosomes derived from humans from Moscow and its vicinity. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for dyslipidemia in children.

    PubMed

    Santos, Izabela R; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Sousa, Marinez O; Ferreira, Cláudia N; Gomes, Karina B

    2013-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important etiological factor for development of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of deaths in adults. Given the growing global epidemic of dyslipidemia, lipoprotein metabolism disorders have become an important health problem not only in adulthood, but have also emerged as an increasingly risk factor in childhood. Although several genome-wide association studies in multiple large population-based cohorts of adults and meta-analyses have identified susceptibility genes or loci, especially in lipid-related traits, it is of great importance to evaluate genetic predisposition at an early age. Recent findings suggest that the identification of polymorphisms in the metabolism of lipids in childhood may help fight subclinical atherosclerosis and its progression to cardiovascular complications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review genetic polymorphisms as risk factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. PMID:27625842

  5. Genetic polymorphisms as a risk factor for dyslipidemia in children

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Izabela R.; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Sousa, Marinez O.; Ferreira, Cláudia N.; Gomes, Karina B.

    2013-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is an important etiological factor for development of cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of deaths in adults. Given the growing global epidemic of dyslipidemia, lipoprotein metabolism disorders have become an important health problem not only in adulthood, but have also emerged as an increasingly risk factor in childhood. Although several genome-wide association studies in multiple large population-based cohorts of adults and meta-analyses have identified susceptibility genes or loci, especially in lipid-related traits, it is of great importance to evaluate genetic predisposition at an early age. Recent findings suggest that the identification of polymorphisms in the metabolism of lipids in childhood may help fight subclinical atherosclerosis and its progression to cardiovascular complications in adulthood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review genetic polymorphisms as risk factors associated with dyslipidemia in children and adolescents. PMID:27625842

  6. Common mitochondrial polymorphisms as risk factor for endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Czarnecka, Anna M; Klemba, Aleksandra; Semczuk, Andrzej; Plak, Katarzyna; Marzec, Barbara; Krawczyk, Tomasz; Kofler, Barbara; Golik, Pawel; Bartnik, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although the molecular genetics of this disease has been in the focus of many research laboratories for the last 20 years, relevant prognostic and diagnostic markers are still missing. At the same time mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer during the last two decades. It is therefore very likely that the mitochondrial genotype is one of the cancer susceptibility factors. To investigate the presence of mtDNA somatic mutations and distribution of inherited polymorphisms in endometrial adenocarcinoma patients we analyzed the D-loop sequence of cancer samples and their corresponding normal tissues and moreover performed mitochondrial haplogroup analysis. We detected 2 somatic mutation and increased incidence of mtDNA polymorphisms, in particular 16223C (80% patients, p = 0.005), 16126C (23%, p = 0.025) and 207A (19%, p = 0.027). Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that endometrial carcinoma population haplogroup distribution differs from the Polish population and that haplogroup H (with its defining polymorphism - C7028T) is strongly underrepresented (p = 0.003), therefore might be a cancer-protective factor. Our report supports the notion that mtDNA polymorphisms establish a specific genetic background for endometrial adenocarcinoma development and that mtDNA analysis may result in the development of new molecular tool for cancer detection. PMID:19863780

  7. Complement factor H polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Albert O; Ritter, Robert; Abel, Kenneth J; Manning, Alisa; Panhuysen, Carolien; Farrer, Lindsay A

    2005-04-15

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common, late-onset, and complex trait with multiple risk factors. Concentrating on a region harboring a locus for AMD on 1q25-31, the ARMD1 locus, we tested single-nucleotide polymorphisms for association with AMD in two independent case-control populations. Significant association (P = 4.95 x 10(-10)) was identified within the regulation of complement activation locus and was centered over a tyrosine-402 --> histidine-402 protein polymorphism in the gene encoding complement factor H. Possession of at least one histidine at amino acid position 402 increased the risk of AMD 2.7-fold and may account for 50% of the attributable risk of AMD.

  8. Candidate-gene approach in posttraumatic stress disorder after urban violence: association analysis of the genes encoding serotonin transporter, dopamine transporter, and BDNF.

    PubMed

    Valente, Nina Leão Marques; Vallada, Homero; Cordeiro, Quirino; Miguita, Karen; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Mari, Jair Jesus; Mello, Marcelo Feijó

    2011-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, disabling anxiety disorder marked by behavioral and physiologic alterations which commonly follows a chronic course. Exposure to a traumatic event constitutes a necessary, but not sufficient, factor. There is evidence from twin studies supporting a significant genetic predisposition to PTSD. However, the precise genetic loci still remain unclear. The objective of the present study was to identify, in a case-control study, whether the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism (rs6265), the dopamine transporter (DAT1) three prime untranslated region (3'UTR) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), and the serotonin transporter (5-HTTPRL) short/long variants are associated with the development of PTSD in a group of victims of urban violence. All polymorphisms were genotyped in 65 PTSD patients as well as in 34 victims of violence without PTSD and in a community control group (n = 335). We did not find a statistical significant difference between the BDNF val66met and 5-HTTPRL polymorphism and the traumatic phenotype. However, a statistical association was found between DAT1 3'UTR VNTR nine repeats and PTSD (OR = 1.82; 95% CI, 1.20-2.76). This preliminary result confirms previous reports supporting a susceptibility role for allele 9 and PTSD.

  9. Impact of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF polymorphisms on response to sertraline versus transcranial direct current stimulation: implications for the serotonergic system.

    PubMed

    Brunoni, A R; Kemp, A H; Shiozawa, P; Cordeiro, Q; Valiengo, L C L; Goulart, A C; Coprerski, B; Lotufo, P A; Brunoni, D; Perez, A B A; Fregni, F; Benseñor, I M

    2013-11-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been intensively investigated as a non-pharmacological treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD). While many studies have examined the genetic predictors of antidepressant medications, this issue remains to be investigated for tDCS. In the current study, we evaluated whether the BDNF Val66Met and the 5-HTT (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms were associated with tDCS antidepressant response. We used data from a factorial trial that evaluated the efficacy of tDCS and sertraline and enrolled 120 moderate-to-severe, antidepressant-free participants. In the present study, we used analyses of variance to evaluate whether the BDNF (Val/Val vs. Met-carries) and 5-HTTLPR alleles (long/long vs short-carriers) were predictors of tDCS (active/sham) and sertraline (sertraline/placebo) response. Analyses were conducted on the polymorphisms separately and also on their interaction. Genotype frequencies were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. BDNF polymorphism was not associated with treatment response. We found that 5-HTTLPR predicted tDCS effects as long/long homozygotes displayed a larger improvement comparing active vs. sham tDCS, while short-allele carriers did not. A dose-response relationship between active-sham differences with the long allele was also suggested. These results strengthen the role of the serotonergic system in the tDCS antidepressant effects and expand previous findings that reported that tDCS mechanisms of action partially involve serotonergic receptors. Therefore, we hypothesize that tDCS is a neuromodulation technique that acts over depression through the modulation of serotonergic system and that tDCS "top-down" antidepressant effects might not be optimal in brain networks with a hyperactive amygdala inducing bottom-up effects, such as occurs in short-carriers.

  10. Transcription factor 4 gene rs9960767 polymorphism in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ozel, Mavi Deniz; Onder, Mehmet Emin; Sazci, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor protein, which initiates neuronal differentiation and is primarily expressed during nervous system development. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism and bipolar disorder, which is highly heritable. DNA isolation was performed on 95 patients with bipolar disorder and 108 healthy control subjects to examine the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method designed in our laboratory. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test within the 95% confidence interval. Odds ratios were calculated and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was verified for all control subjects and patients. The A allele frequency was 95.8% in the patients and 94.4% in the control subjects, and 4.2% in the patients and 5.6% in the control subjects for the C allele. The genotype frequencies of the TCF4 gene rs9960767 variant were as follows: AA, 91.6% and AC, 8.4% in patients with bipolar (CC genotype was not observed in cases); AA, 89.8%; AC, 9.3% and CC, 0.9% in the control subjects. No statistically significant difference was identified between the patients and control subjects (χ2=0.937; P=0.626). In addition, gender specific analysis was performed, although no significant association was found according to the gender distrubition. All patients and control subjects were in HWE (P>0.05). Statistical analysis of the data indicates that the TCF4 gene rs9960767 polymorphism is not an independent risk factor for bipolar disorder in the overall population or in terms of gender; however, an increased population size would improve the statistical power. Furthermore, additional gene variants that are specifically involved in neuronal development may be analyzed for revealing the complex genetic architecture of bipolar disorder. An

  11. Transcription factor 4 gene rs9960767 polymorphism in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ozel, Mavi Deniz; Onder, Mehmet Emin; Sazci, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor 4 (TCF4) gene encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor protein, which initiates neuronal differentiation and is primarily expressed during nervous system development. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association of the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism and bipolar disorder, which is highly heritable. DNA isolation was performed on 95 patients with bipolar disorder and 108 healthy control subjects to examine the TCF4 rs9960767 polymorphism. Genotypic and allelic frequencies were determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method designed in our laboratory. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 test within the 95% confidence interval. Odds ratios were calculated and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was verified for all control subjects and patients. The A allele frequency was 95.8% in the patients and 94.4% in the control subjects, and 4.2% in the patients and 5.6% in the control subjects for the C allele. The genotype frequencies of the TCF4 gene rs9960767 variant were as follows: AA, 91.6% and AC, 8.4% in patients with bipolar (CC genotype was not observed in cases); AA, 89.8%; AC, 9.3% and CC, 0.9% in the control subjects. No statistically significant difference was identified between the patients and control subjects (χ2=0.937; P=0.626). In addition, gender specific analysis was performed, although no significant association was found according to the gender distrubition. All patients and control subjects were in HWE (P>0.05). Statistical analysis of the data indicates that the TCF4 gene rs9960767 polymorphism is not an independent risk factor for bipolar disorder in the overall population or in terms of gender; however, an increased population size would improve the statistical power. Furthermore, additional gene variants that are specifically involved in neuronal development may be analyzed for revealing the complex genetic architecture of bipolar disorder. An

  12. Shame and Guilt-Proneness in Adolescents: Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Szentágotai-Tătar, Aurora; Chiș, Adina; Vulturar, Romana; Dobrean, Anca; Cândea, Diana Mirela; Miu, Andrei C.

    2015-01-01

    Rooted in people’s preoccupation with how they are perceived and evaluated, shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that play adaptive roles in social behavior, but can also contribute to psychopathology when dysregulated. Shame and guilt-proneness develop during childhood and adolescence, and are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that are little known to date. This study investigated the effects of early traumatic events and functional polymorphisms in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene and the serotonin transporter gene promoter (5-HTTLPR) on shame and guilt in adolescents. A sample of N = 271 healthy adolescents between 14 and 17 years of age filled in measures of early traumatic events and proneness to shame and guilt, and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. Results of moderator analyses indicated that trauma intensity was positively associated with guilt-proneness only in carriers of the low-expressing Met allele of BDNF Val66Met. This is the first study that identifies a gene-environment interaction that significantly contributes to guilt proneness in adolescents, with potential implications for developmental psychopathology. PMID:26230319

  13. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    PubMed Central

    Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the entire BDNF pathway. We examined the effects of CM, BDNF (genotype, gene expression and protein level) and their interactions on hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) morphology. Data were collected from patients with depression and/or an anxiety disorder and healthy subjects within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 289). CM was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview. BDNF Val66Met genotype, gene expression and serum protein levels were determined in blood and T1 MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Regional brain morphology was assessed using FreeSurfer. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Amygdala volume was lower in maltreated individuals. This was more pronounced in maltreated met-allele carriers. The expected positive relationship between BDNF gene expression and volume of the amygdala is attenuated in maltreated subjects. Finally, decreased cortical thickness of the ACC was identified in maltreated subjects with the val/val genotype. CM was associated with altered brain morphology, partly in interaction with multiple levels of the BNDF pathway. Our results suggest that CM has different effects on brain morphology in met-carriers and val-homozygotes and that CM may disrupt the neuroprotective effect of BDNF. PMID:27405617

  14. Brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) and personality traits: the modifying effect of season of birth and sex.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, A; Gaysina, D; Kutlumbetova, Yu; Kanzafarova, R; Malykh, S; Lobaskova, M; Khusnutdinova, E

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits are complex phenotypes influenced by interactions of multiple genetic variants of small effect and environmental factors. It has been suggested that the brain derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF) is involved in personality traits. Season of birth (SOB) has also been shown to affect personality traits due to its influences on brain development during prenatal and early postnatal periods. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of BDNF on personality traits; and the modifying effects of SOB and sex on associations between BDNF and personality traits. A sample of 1018 young adults (68% women; age range 17-25years) of Caucasian origin from the Russian Federation was assessed on personality traits (Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Self-directedness, Cooperativeness, Self-transcendence) with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125 (TCI-125). Associations between personality traits and 12 BDNF SNPs were tested using linear regression models. The present study demonstrated the effect of rs11030102 on Persistence in females only (PFDR=0.043; r(2)=1.3%). There were significant interaction effects between Val66Met (rs6265) and SOB (PFDR=0.048, r(2)=1.4%), and between rs2030323 and SOB (PFDR=0.042, r(2)=1.3%), on Harm Avoidance. Our findings provide evidence for the modifying effect of SOB on the association between BDNF and Harm Avoidance, and for the modifying effect of sex on the association between BDNF and Persistence.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism in heart failure/cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, Lou; Iyengar, Srinivas

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by activated macrophages. It has been shown to stimulate the release of endothelial cytokines and NO, increase vascular permeability, decrease contractility, and induce a prothrombotic state. The most studied TNF-a gene mutation in heart disease is a gamma to alpha substitution, which occurs when 308 nucleotides move upstream from the transcription initiation site in the TNF promoter and has been associated with elevated levels of TNF-alpha. The TNF1 allele (wild type) contains gamma at this site, while the TNF2 allele has an alpha substitution at the site. The TNF2 allele is a more powerful transcriptional activator, therefore leading to higher TNF-alpha levels. Most of the studies to date have failed to conclusively show any link between the polymorphism and heart disease, both coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure. PMID:15591843

  16. No evidence of association between BDNF gene variants and age-at-onset of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Di Maria, Emilio; Marasco, Antonella; Tartari, Marzia; Ciotti, Paola; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Novelli, Giuseppe; Bellone, Emilia; Cattaneo, Elena; Mandich, Paola

    2006-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a late-onset, autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion. The number of repeats on the HD chromosome explains most of the variability in age of onset, but genetic factors other than the HD gene are responsible for part of the residual variance. Based on the role played by the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in neurodysfunction and neurodegeneration in HD, we searched for novel polymorphisms in the neuron restrictive silencer element located in the BDNF promoter. Then, the effect of the Val66Met variant in determining age of onset was tested in a large sample of HD carriers by using a multivariate regression approach. The CAG repeat number accounted for 62% of the variance. After correction for the predominant effect of the CAG expansion, no multiple regression model provided evidence of association between the Val66Met genotype and variation in age-at-onset. Additional studies are warranted to further investigate BDNF as genetic modifier of the HD phenotype. PMID:16905325

  17. Polymorphisms in Factor II and Factor V thrombophilia genes among Circassians in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, R; Arafat, A; Hakooz, N; Al-Abbadi, Z; Yousef, Al-Motassem; El Khateeb, M; Quadan, F

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Genetic factors are one component of thrombosis. We studied the prevalence of two mutations that are known risk factors in the pathogenesis of arterial and venous thrombosis in the genetically isolated Circassian population in Jordan. Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden single nucleotide polymorphisms were analysed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 104 random unrelated subjects from the Circassian population in Jordan. The prevalence rates among the Circassian population in Jordan for Factor II G20210A was 12.2% and for Factor V Leiden was 7.7%. We have shown that the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and that the prevalences of both mutations are within the range of other ethnic groups. This is the first study to describe Circassian health related genetic characteristics in Jordan. Such population-based studies will contribute to understanding the interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. It will remain to be seen whether carriers of Factor II G20210A and Factor V Leiden are more likely to develop thrombosis. This issue should be studied in the future to determine the need for screening of these mutations particularly in thrombophilia patients.

  18. Polymorphism of clotting factors in Hungarian patients with Raynaud's phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Amir-Houshang; Szomják, Edit; Balogh, Emese; András, Csilla; Kovács, Dóra; Acs, Judit; Csiki, Zoltán

    2011-01-01

    Patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon may have a genetically determined risk for clotting factors that predispose them to aberrant microvascular thrombosis. We investigated the prevalence of factor V substitution of G to A at position 1691 (FVLeiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T mutations in these patients. Two hundred (158 women, 42 men, mean age of 42.4 ± 13.7 years) consecutive patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and 200 age-sex-matched healthy controls of Hungarian origin were included in a case-control study. The prevalence of methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T homozygous among patients was significantly lower than in the control group (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0.2-0.9, P < 0.05). The prevalence of other thrombosis-associated alleles did not differ between patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon and control subjects. FVLeiden, prothrombin G20210A, and polymorphism, prothrombin G20210A mutations have no apparent effect on the etiology of primary Raynaud's phenomenon.

  19. Polymorphism of the human factor H-related gene (FHR-1) and of factor H in a West African individual

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.G.; Skerka, C.; Zipfel, P.F.

    1995-03-01

    The human factor H-related 1 (FHR-1) protein is structurally and immunogenically related to the regulatory complement protein factor H (FH). Polymorphism of the FHR-1 gene is indicated by the nucleotide differences as described by the five cDNA clones isolated so far. In order to further analyze this polymorphism we identified PCR-primers which allow the simultaneous amplification of FHR-1 and FH alleles in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). By DNA sequence analysis, two novel FHR-1 variants and one as yet unrecognized FH allele could be characterized in an individual from Benin, West Africa. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Association of severe micropenis with Gly146Ala polymorphism in the gene for steroidogenic factor-1.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuka; Okada, Michiyo; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2005-08-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) regulates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the androgen biosynthesis, and SF-1 Gly146Ala polymorphism is known to reduce the transactivation function by approximately 20%. To examine whether the Gly146Ala polymorphism constitutes a susceptibility factor for the development of micropenis (MP), we analyzed this polymorphism in a total of 52 patients with micropenis (T-MP) consisting of 30 patients with severe MP below -2.5 SD (S-MP) and 22 patients with mild MP from -2.1 SD to -2.5 SD (M-MP), together with 115 control males. The Ala allele, the Ala/Gly genotype, and the Ala/Ala plus Ala/Gly genotype frequencies were significantly higher in the S-MP patients than in the control males, whereas the allele and the genotype frequencies were comparable between the M-MP patients and the control males. The results suggest that the SF-1 Gly146Ala polymorphism may constitute a susceptibility factor for the development of S-MP, and that M-MP can be regarded as a normal variation in terms of the polymorphism effect.

  1. A Delta-Sarcoglycan Gene Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Garduño, Martín H.; Pérez-Martínez, Ramón A.; Ruiz, Victor M.; Herrera-Tepatlán, Esteban; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Jiménez-Vaca, Ana L.; Minauro-Sanmiguel, Fernando; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The C allele of c.−94C>G polymorphism of the delta-sarcoglycan gene was associated as a risk factor for coronary spasm in Japanese patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Aim: We evaluated whether the c.−94C>G polymorphism can be a risk factor for HCM in Mexican patients. Methods: The polymorphism was genotyped and the risk was estimated in 35 HCM patients and 145 healthy unrelated individuals. Data of this polymorphism reported in Mexican Amerindian populations were included. Results: The C allele frequency in HCM patients was higher with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.37, and the risk for the CC genotype increased to 5.0. The analysis with Mexican Amerindian populations showed that the C allele frequency was significantly higher in HCM patients with an OR of 2.96 and for CC genotype the risk increased to 7.60. Conclusions: The C allele of the c.−94C>G polymorphism is a risk factor for HCM, which is increased by the Amerindian component and can play an important role in the etiology and progression of disease in Mexican patients. PMID:22524166

  2. ENOS-G894T polymorphism is a risk factor for essential hypertension in China.

    PubMed

    Men, Chen; Tang, Kangting; Lin, Gang; Li, Jian; Zhan, Yiyang

    2011-06-01

    Vascular endothelial cells produce nitric oxide (NO), which contributes to the regulation of blood pressure and regional blood flow. Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are associated with coronary artery disease; however, associations between polymorphism (G894T) of the eNOS gene and essential hypertension remain unclear. This study was designed to investigate the association between a eNOS-G894T polymorphism and essential hypertension (EH). A total of 190 Chinese EH patients (EH group) and 94 healthy participants (control group) were included in the study. eNOS-G894T was determined using multi-polymerase chain reaction and polymorphisms in eNOS-G894T were genotyped using gene chip technology. Patients carrying eNOS GT + TT genotypes had a higher risk of EH than those carrying the GG genotype (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.05-7.60, P = 0.033). The EH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the T-allele compared with controls (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.34-9.07; P = 0.007). eNOS-894T was found to be significantly associated with EH in the dominant genetic model. Thus, the study demonstrated a significant and independent association between a eNOS-G894T polymorphism and EH in the Chinese patients. The study also showed that eNOS-G894T polymorphism is a risk factor for EH in Chinese patients. PMID:21793305

  3. Association of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Gene Polymorphisms with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Iran

    PubMed Central

    NADERI, Nosratollah; FARNOOD, Alma; DADAEI, Tahereh; HABIBI, Manijeh; BALAII, Hedie; FIROUZI, Farzad; MAHBAN, Aydin; SOLTANI, Masoumeh; ZALI, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology, in which genetic factors, seem to play an important role in the disease predisposition and course. Assessment of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms in many populations showed a possible association with IBD. Considering the genetic variety in different ethnic groups, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association of five important single nucleo-tide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of (TNF-α) gene with IBD in Iran. Methods In this case-control study, 156 Ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, 50 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients and 200 sex and age matched healthy controls of Iranian origin were enrolled. The study was performed during a two year period (2008–2010) at Taleghani Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. DNA samples were evaluated for (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms (including -1031, -863, -857, -308 and -238) by PCR and RFLP methods. Results The frequency of the mutant allele of -1031 polymorphism was significantly higher in Iranian patients with Crohn’s disease compared to healthy controls (P=0.01, OR=1.92; 95% CI: 1.14-3.23). None of the other evaluated polymorphisms demonstrated a significant higher frequency of mutant alleles in Iranian IBD patients compared to controls. Conclusion Among the five assessed (SNPs), only -1031 polymorphism of (TNF-α) gene may play a role in disease susceptibility for Crohn’s disease in Iran. This pattern of distribution of (TNF-α) gene polymorphisms could be specific in this population. PMID:26060764

  4. The Role of BDNF Genotype, Parental Depression, and Relationship Discord in Predicting Early-Emerging Negative Emotionality

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Klein, Daniel N.; Dougherty, Lea R.; Olino, Thomas M.; Dyson, Margaret W.; Durbin, C. Emily; Sheikh, Haroon I.; Singh, Shiva M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene is a plausible candidate for early-emerging negative emotionality (NE), and evidence suggests that the effects of this gene may be especially salient in the context of familial risk for child maladjustment. We therefore examined whether the BDNF val66met polymorphism was associated with child NE in the context of parental depression and relationship discord. A sample of 413 three-year-old children was assessed for NE using standardized laboratory measures. Parents completed clinical interviews and a measure of marital satisfaction. Children with at least one BDNF met allele exhibited elevated NE when a parent had a history of depressive disorder, or when relationship discord was present. In contrast, this allele was associated with especially low NE when parent depression was absent, and when the parental relationship was not discordant. Findings suggest that the BDNF met allele confers increased child sensitivity to both positive and negative familial influences. PMID:20921572

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and psoriasis susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y H; Song, G G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore whether vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms confer susceptibility to psoriasis. Meta-analyses were conducted to examine the associations between the +405 C/G, -460 C/T, -1154 A/G, and -2578 A/C polymorphisms of VEGF and psoriasis using allele contrast and recessive, dominant, and additive models. Seven studies on VEGF polymorphisms and psoriasis involving 1956 subjects (psoriasis patients 665, controls 1291) were included in this meta-analysis. We observed no association between psoriasis and the VEGF +405 C allele in all study subjects (odds ratio = 0.984, 95% confidence interval = 0.754-1.285, P = 0.906), but stratification by ethnicity indicated a significant association between the VEGF +405 C allele and psoriasis in Asians (odds ratio = 0.762, 95% confidence interval = 0.628-0.923, P = 0.005). In addition, we observed a significant association between the VEGF -460 C allele and psoriasis in Europeans (odds ratio = 0.807, 95% confidence interval = 0.672-0.968, P = 0.021). Meta-analyses of the -1154 A/G polymorphism also revealed a significant association with psoriasis in Europeans. However, the VEGF -2578 A/C polymorphism showed no association in all subjects or in Europeans or Asians. This meta-analysis suggests the VEGF +405 C/G polymorphism confers susceptibility to psoriasis in Asians, and that the -460 C/T and -1154 A/G polymorphisms confer susceptibility to psoriasis in Europeans. PMID:26600499

  6. Acute Otitis Media Severity: Association with Cytokine Gene polymorphisms and other Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, David P.; Grady, James J.; Diego, Alejandro; Matalon, Reuben; Revai, Krystal; Patel, Janak A.; Han, Yimei; Chonmaitree, Tasnee

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously shown an association between polymorphisms of proinflammatory cytokine genes and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infection and acute otitis media. It has not been known whether polymorphisms or risk factors are associated with the severity of acute otitis media. Objective To evaluate the influences of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and other risk factors on severity of acute otitis media following upper respiratory infection. Methods In a prospective, longitudinal study, children aged 6-35 months were followed for one year for occurrences of upper respiratory tract infection and acute otitis media. Children were studied for TNFα-308, interleukin (IL)- 6-174 and IL-1 ß+3953 polymorphisms, taking into account age, gender, race, family history of otitis, tobacco smoke exposure, breast feeding, day of upper respiratory tract infection at the time of diagnosis and pneumococcal vaccine status. Symptoms and signs of acute otitis media were graded according to a validated scale. The association between acute otitis media clinical severity, polymorphic genotypes, and risk factors was analyzed using statistical models that account for multiple episodes of acute otitis media per child. Results A total of 295 episodes of acute otitis media in 128 subjects were included. More severe acute otitis media symptoms were associated with young age (P=0.01), family history of acute otitis media (P=0.002), tobacco smoke exposure (P=0.008), and early diagnosis of otitis after onset of upper respiratory tract infection (P=0.02). Among children with a bulging or perforated tympanic membrane (206 episodes, 104 subjects), those who had the IL- 1 ß+3953 polymorphism, experienced higher symptom scores (P<0.02). Conclusion This is the first report of the association between risk factors and acute otitis media severity. Risk factors such as tobacco smoke exposure and a positive family history appear to be more significantly associated with

  7. CREB1 gene polymorphisms combined with environmental risk factors increase susceptibility to major depressive disorder (MDD)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Wang, Lin; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Ma, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most severe psychiatric disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of CREB1 gene polymorphisms on risk of developing MDD and the joint effects of gene-environment interactions. Genotyping was performed by Taqman allelic discrimination assay among 586 patients and 586 healthy controls. A significant impact on rs6740584 genotype distribution was found for childhood trauma (P = 0.015). We did not find an association of CREB1 polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility. However, we found a significantly increased risk associated with the interactions of CREB1 polymorphisms and drinking (OR = 11.67, 95% CI = 2.52-54.18; OR = 11.52, 95% CI = 2.55-51.95 for rs11904814; OR = 4.18, 95% CI = 1.87-9.38; OR = 5.02, 95% CI = 2.27-11.14 for rs6740584; OR = 7.58, 95% CI = 2.05-27.98; OR = 7.59, 95% CI = 2.12-27.14 for rs2553206; OR = 8.37, 95% CI = 3.02-23.23; OR = 7.84, 95% CI = 2.93-20.98 for rs2551941). We also noted that CREB polymorphisms combined with family harmony and childhood trauma conferred increased susceptibility for MDD. In conclusion, polymorphisms in the CREB gene may not be independently associated with MDD risk, but they are likely to confer increased susceptibility by interacting with environmental risk factors in the Chinese population. PMID:25755794

  8. Platelet Derived Growth Factor-B and Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Polymorphisms in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kumudesh; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Khan, M Salman; Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2015-01-01

    Gall bladder cancer (GBC) is a gastro-intestinal cancer with high prevalence among north Indian women. Platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGFB) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) may play roles in the etiology of GBC through the inflammation-hyperplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma pathway. To study the association of PDGFB and HER2 polymorphisms with risk of GBC, 200 cases and 300 controls were considered. PDGFB +286A>G and +1135A>C polymorphisms were investigated with an amplification refractory mutation system and the HER2 Ile655Val polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant risk associations for PDGFB +286 GG (OR=5.25) and PDGFB +1135 CC (OR=3.19) genotypes were observed for GBC. Gender wise stratification revealed susceptibility for recessive models of PDGFB +1135A>C (OR=3.00) and HER2 Ile655Val (OR=2.52) polymorphisms among female GBC cases. GBC cases with gall stones were predisposed to homozygous +286 GG and +1135 CC genotypes. Significant risk associations were found for ACIle (OR=1.48), GAVal (OR=1.70), GAIle (OR=2.00) haplotypes with GBC cases and GCIle haplotype with female GBC cases (OR=10.37, P=<0.0001). Pair-wise linkage disequilibrium revealed negative associations among variant alleles. On multi-dimensional reduction analysis, a three factor model revealed significant gene-gene interaction for PDGFB +286A>G, PDGFB +1135A>C and HER2 Ile165Val SNPs with GBC. Protein-protein interaction showed significant association of PDGFB and HER2 with the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26320430

  9. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms as Risk and Severity Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Sillers, Laura; Malley, Karen; James-Newton, Laura; Parks, Christine G.; Cooper, Glinda S.; Pandey, Janardan P.; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study TNFα and IL-1 cytokine polymorphisms as possible risk and protective factors, define their relative importance and examine these as severity factors in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (DM). Methods TNFα and IL-1 cytokine polymorphism and HLA typing were performed in 221 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM and compared to 203 ethnically matched healthy volunteers. Results The genotypes TNFα -308AG (odds ratio [OR] 3.6), TNFα -238GG (OR 3.5), and IL-1α+4845TT (OR 2.2) were risk factors, and TNFα -308GG (OR 0.26) as well as TNFα -238AG (OR 0.22) were protective for the development of juvenile DM. Carriage of a single copy of the TNFα -308A (OR 3.8) and IL-1β+3953T (OR 1.7) alleles were risk factors and TNFα -238A (OR 0.29) and IL-1α+4845G (OR 0.46) were protective for juvenile DM. Random Forests classification analysis showed HLA DRB1*03 and TNFα -308A to have highest relative importance as risk factors for juvenile DM compared to the other alleles (Gini scores 100% and 90.7%, respectively). TNFα -308AA (OR 7.3) was a risk factor, and carriage of the TNFα-308G (OR 0.14) and IL1α-889T (OR 0.41) alleles were protective for the development of calcinosis. TNFα-308AA (OR 7.0) was a possible risk factor, and carriage of the TNFα-308G allele (OR 0.14) was protective for the development of ulcerations. None of the studied TNFα, IL-1α and IL-β polymorphisms were associated with disease course, severity at diagnosis, or gender. Conclusions TNFα and IL-1 genetic polymorphisms contribute to the development of juvenile DM and may also be indicators of disease severity. PMID:19035492

  10. Q192R paraoxonase1 polymorphism is a risk factor for cataract in Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Baig, Amena; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rehman, Ata-ur; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-05-01

    Cataract, the lens opacity, is among major causes of blindness in Pakistani population. In recent past, oxidative stress is suggested to play crucial role in loss of transparency. Along with other antioxidants, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has also shown decreased activity in patients suffering from cataract. The aim of current study was to examine the possible association of PON polymorphism with predisposition of cataract formation in local population. The study was conducted on 51 cataract patients and 50 control subjects considering all ethical issues. DNA was extracted from whole blood and PON1 polymorphism was identified using tetra primer ARMS-PCR method for both positions L55M and Q192R. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR results revealed that association between L55M polymorphism and cataract was insignificant while 192R genotype PON1 frequency was higher among the people suffering from cataract (78.4%) as compared to control subjects (56%), (odds ratio=2.857, confidence interval=1.197-6.820). Hence, R allele is likely to be a risk factor for cataract with allele frequency (82.3%) and (odds ratio=4.552, confidence interval=1.716-12.073, p-value=0.002). PON1 Q192R polymorphism is likely to be a risk factor for cataract development in Pakistani population while PON1 L55M was not found to be associated with cataract. PMID:27166546

  11. Q192R paraoxonase1 polymorphism is a risk factor for cataract in Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Baig, Amena; Zohaib, Muhammad; Rehman, Ata-ur; Zarina, Shamshad

    2016-05-01

    Cataract, the lens opacity, is among major causes of blindness in Pakistani population. In recent past, oxidative stress is suggested to play crucial role in loss of transparency. Along with other antioxidants, Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has also shown decreased activity in patients suffering from cataract. The aim of current study was to examine the possible association of PON polymorphism with predisposition of cataract formation in local population. The study was conducted on 51 cataract patients and 50 control subjects considering all ethical issues. DNA was extracted from whole blood and PON1 polymorphism was identified using tetra primer ARMS-PCR method for both positions L55M and Q192R. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR results revealed that association between L55M polymorphism and cataract was insignificant while 192R genotype PON1 frequency was higher among the people suffering from cataract (78.4%) as compared to control subjects (56%), (odds ratio=2.857, confidence interval=1.197-6.820). Hence, R allele is likely to be a risk factor for cataract with allele frequency (82.3%) and (odds ratio=4.552, confidence interval=1.716-12.073, p-value=0.002). PON1 Q192R polymorphism is likely to be a risk factor for cataract development in Pakistani population while PON1 L55M was not found to be associated with cataract.

  12. Interactions of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism with Environmental Factors on Hypertension Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shujun; Yang, Boyi; Zhi, Xueyuan; Wang, Yanxun; Wei, Jian; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is considered to be the result of genes, environment, and their interactions. Among them age, sex, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and being overweight/obesity are well documented environmental determinants, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism is nominated as a potential genetic candidate. However, the synergistic effect of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism with these environmental factors on the risk of hypertension has received little attention. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism, environmental factors, and their interactions with hypertension predisposition in a Northern Chinese Han population. A total of 708 participants were enrolled in the study. The genotypes of the MTHFR C677T were determined by a TaqMan assay. We found that participants of an older age, being overweight/obesity, with a smoking habit, drinking habit, or carrying the 677T allele were at an increased risk of hypertension. Additionally, there existed marginally significant interactions of the polymorphism with age and overweight/obesity. However, future large, well-designed studies in Chinese and other populations, as well as mechanistic studies, are still needed to validate our findings, especially considering that the interactions observed in our study were only marginally significant. PMID:27322299

  13. Frequencies of VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms associated with factor VIII gene in Singapore

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, I.; Lai, P.S.; Ouah, T.C.

    1994-09-01

    The allelic frequency of any polymorphism within a population determines its usefulness for genetic counselling. This is important in populations of non-Caucasian origin as RFLPs may significantly differ among ethnic groups. We report a study of five intragenic polymorphisms in factor VIII gene carried out in Singapore. The three PCR-based RFLP markers studied were Intron 18/Bcl I, Intron 19/Hind III and Intron 22/Xba I. In an analysis of 148 unrelated normal X chromosomes, the allele frequencies were found to be A1 = 0.18, A2 = 0.82 (Bcl I RFLP), A1 = 0.80, A2 = 0.20 (Hind III RFLP) and A1 = 0.58, and A2 = 0.42 (Xba I RFLP). The heterozygosity rates of 74 females analyzed separately were 31%, 32% and 84.2%, respectively. Linkage disequilibrium was also observed to some degree between Bcl I and Hind III polymorphism in our population. We have also analyzed a sequence polymorphism in Intron 7 using hybridization with radioactive-labelled {sup 32}P allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. This polymorphism was not very polymorphic in our population with only 2% of 117 individuals analyzed being informative. However, the use of a hypervariable dinucleotide repeat sequence (VNTR) in Intron 13 showed that 25 of our of 27 (93%) females were heterozygous. Allele frequencies ranged from 1 to 55 %. We conclude that a viable strategy for molecular analysis of Hemophilia A families in our population should include the use of Intron 18/Bcl I and Intron 22/Xba I RFLP markers and the Intron 13 VNTR marker.

  14. Estrogen Receptor Alpha Polymorphisms, Estradiol Level, and Occurrence of Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Gujski, Mariusz; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Łyszcz, Robert; Owoc, Jakub; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between interaction of polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (Erα) and estradiol (E2), and the occurrence of selected atherosclerosis risk factors in postmenopausal women without the diagnosis of a cardiovascular disease. Material/Methods The study covered 210 women, a minimum of 2 years after menopause, with FSH >30 mlU/ml, aged 50–60 years, with no chronic diseases diagnosed. In the women examined, the levels of estradiol, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined, as well as height, waist circumference (W), hip circumference (R), and arterial hypertension. The BMI and W/H ratio were calculated. Genotyping of the ER-α polymorphism was performed using a polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzymes (PCR-RFLP). The alleles of the XbaI polymorphism were defined as A and G: heterozygote AG, wild type GG and homozygote AA. The alleles of PvuII polymorphism were defined as T and C: heterozygote TC, homozygote TT, and wild type CC. Results The concentration of endogenous estradiol and ERα XbaI and PuvII polymorphisms as independent parameters did not significantly affect the BMI, waist circumference, W/H ratio, levels of CHOL, HDL, LDL, TG, or LDL/HDL, nor the systole and diastole in the postmenopausal women in the study. Conclusions The presented study suggests that ERα XbaI AA polymorphism may intensify the beneficial effect of estradiol on the distribution of fatty tissue after menopause; ERα XbaI GG and PuvII TC genotypes may intensify the beneficial effect of estradiol on HDL level; ERα PuvII TT genotype unfavorably modifies the relation between concentration of estradiol and systolic pressure after menopause. PMID:25836047

  15. Apolipoprotein A1 gene polymorphisms as risk factors for hypertension and obesity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Mazzotti, Diego Robles; Furuya, Tatiane Katsue; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Araujo, Lara Quirino; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília

    2009-12-01

    Several polymorphisms in apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) gene have been associated with metabolic diseases. Increased transcription efficiency was observed in -75A allele carriers compared to -75G allele homozygotes. +83C allele was associated with higher body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio in type II diabetes subjects. -75G/A and +83C/T polymorphisms were analyzed by RFLP-PCR in 334 individuals from a Brazilian elderly cohort. APOA1 polymorphisms were associated with age-related morbidities, as well as with triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, creatinine, urea, albumin, glycated hemoglobin and fasting glucose serum levels. Allele frequencies were 0.102 and 0.21, respectively, for -75A and +83T. -75G allele showed significant association with hypertension (P = 0.001). An association between +83C allele and obesity was observed (P = 0.040) and this allele also showed an association with hypertension in the presence of cardiovascular disease (P = 0.047). Moreover, +83T allele was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin values (P = 0.026). To our knowledge, there is no data associating this polymorphism with glycated hemoglobin. Furthermore, individuals carrying AT haplotype have lower risk for developing hypertension (P = 0.0002), while GT haplotype carriers present decreased risk to develop obesity comparing to GC haplotype (P = 0.025). APOA1 polymorphisms analysis may be a useful tool to identify risk factors for subjects and families and clarify the physiopathological role of these polymorphisms in age-related diseases, such as hypertension and obesity.

  16. Correlation of genetic polymorphism of vascular endothelial growth factor gene with susceptibility to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; Zhou, X; Gao, F; Qi, Z; Zhang, Z; Guo, Y

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study is to study the correlation of genetic polymorphism of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene with susceptibility to primary lung cancer. A total of 414 patients with primary lung cancer and 338 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this case-control study from September 2008 to October 2011. Gene identification with PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism) was used to detect in white blood cells from the subjects the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of VEGF gene, including +405G/C, -460 T/C, -1154G/A, -2578C/A sites. Association of genotypes or haplotypes with susceptibility of lung cancer was analyzed with unconditional logistic regression adjusted by gender and age. Smoking was significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Gene phenotypic analysis demonstrated that C allele of +405G/C in VEGF gene was significantly associated increased risk of lung cancer in males (P=0.0094, odds ratio=1.634.3), as that with carrying GCTC haplotype (odds ratio=1.349), whereas carrying GACG had decreased risk for lung cancer (odds ratio=0.044). No relationship existed between 460 T/C, -1154G/A, -2578C/A alleles of VEGF gene and risk of lung cancer. VEGF gene polymorphism may have a role in the development of lung cancer.

  17. Factor XIII-A subunit Val34Leu polymorphism in fatal hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Antalfi, B; Pongrácz, E; Csiki, Z; Mezei, Z A; Shemirani, A H

    2013-02-01

    Blood coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) plays a key role in the protection of fibrin clot against fibrinolysis, in the cross-linking of fibrin and its mechanical strength. The role of the FXIII-A subunit Val34Leu polymorphism with fatal primary intracerebral hemorrhages (PICH) has not been studied. We evaluated retrospectively the prevalence of this polymorphism in stroke patients with fatal PICH and population control matched for age and gender. The prevalence of this polymorphism was determined for patients with fatal PICH (n = 98, female/male: 41/57) and controls. DNA was obtained from peripheral white blood cells in case of controls and from paraffin-embedded tissue sections in case of fatal PICH. The odds for increasing the risk of PICH against the control group were 5.429, 3.286, and 7.661 for total, female, and male patients, respectively. The Leu34Leu homozygous variant of the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism significantly increased the risk of fatal PICH stroke in men. PMID:22909010

  18. Interleukin-6 gene promoter polymorphisms and cardiovascular risk factors. A family study.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Guzmán, Iris Paola; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Flores-Alfaro, Eugenia; Salgado-Goytia, Lorenzo; Salgado-Bernabé, Aralia Berenice; Parra-Rojas, Isela

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine involved in inflammatory process, as well as in glucose and lipid metabolism. Several studies of the biological relevance of IL-6 gene polymorphisms have indicated a relationship with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess whether the -174 G/C and -572 G/C of IL-6 gene polymorphisms are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican families. Ninety members of 30 Mexican families, in which an index case (proband) had obesity, were included in the study. We evaluated the body composition by bioelectrical impedance. Peripheral blood samples were collected to determine biochemical and hematological parameters. High sensitivity C- reactive protein levels were measurement for nephelometric analysis. Screening for both polymorphisms studied was performed by PCR-RFLP. In the parents, both polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium. The genotypes -174 GC/CC were associated with T2D (OR=1.23, IC(95%) 1.01-1.5) and highest levels of hsCRP (p=0.02), whereas genotype -572 GG was associated with T2D (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.04-1.47) with an inflammatory state determined by the increase in the leukocyte count (OR=1.24, IC(95%) 1.02-1.51). The genotypes -174 GC/CC and -572 GG may confer susceptibility for the development of subclinical inflammation and type 2 diabetes in Mexican families.

  19. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 G801A polymorphism and the risk factors for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Andrzej; Misztal, Matthew; Sowińska, Anna; Jagodziński, Paweł P

    2015-06-01

    Although certain studies have demonstrated no association between the stromal cell‑derived factor‑1 (SDF1‑3') G801A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and cervical carcinoma, the interactions between the SDF1‑3' G801A SNP and contraceptive use, menopausal status, parity and tobacco smoking remain to be fully elucidated. Using polymerase chain reaction‑restriction fragment length polymorphism, the distribution of SDF1‑3' G801A genotypes in patients with cervical cancer (n=462) against control groups (n=497) was investigated. Logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, tobacco smoking and menopausal status, did not identify the SDF1‑3' G801A polymorphism as a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for patients with the A/G, vs. G/G genotype was 1.203, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.909‑1.591 (P=0.196). The adjusted OR for the A/A, vs. G/G genotype was 1.296 (95% CI=0.930‑1.807; P=0.125) and for the A/A or A/G, vs. G/G genotype was 1.262 (95% CI=0.964‑1.653; P=0.090)]. The P‑value of the χ2 test of the trend observed for the SDF1‑3' G801A polymorphism was at the borderline of being statistically significant (ptrend=0.0484). Stratified analyses between the distribution of the SDF1‑3' G801A genotypes and cervical cancer risks demonstrated that this polymorphism may be a risk factor for patients with a positive history of tobacco smoking (1.778; 95% CI=1.078‑2.934; P=0.0235). These findings suggested that the SDF1‑3' G801A polymorphism may be a genetic risk factor for cervical cancer in patients with a positive history of tobacco smoking.

  20. The association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lili; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important candidate genes for the development of endometriosis, and VEGF genetic polymorphisms might be potentially associated with endometriosis risk. However, the results still remain controversial. The objective of this study aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore a better understanding of the effects of VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism on the risk of endometriosis. A total of eleven eligible studies were eventually identified in this meta-analysis, including 2829 endometriosis cases and 2947 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis was detected in all genetic models (for homozygote comparison [CC versus vs. GG]: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.67–2.19, P = 0.537; for heterozygote comparison [CG vs. GG]: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.86–1.56, P = 0.348; for dominant comparison CC/CG vs. GG: OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93–1.30, P = 0.263; for recessive comparison [CC vs. CG/GG]: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.73–1.47, P = 0.857; allele comparison [C vs. G]: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70–1.40, P = 0.962). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicities, there was no significant association between VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis risk in Asians and/or Caucasians under all genetic models (all P-values >0.05). No publication bias was observed in this study. This meta-analysis supports that the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism is not significant associated with the risk of endometriosis. PMID:25573961

  1. Renin-angiotensin system gene polymorphisms as risk factors for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Živković, Maja; Kolaković, Ana; Stojković, Ljiljana; Dinčić, Evica; Kostić, Smiljana; Alavantić, Dragan; Stanković, Aleksandra

    2016-04-15

    The components of renin-angiotensin system, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II and angiotensin II receptor type 1 and 2 (AT1R and AT2R), are expressed in the central nervous system and leukocytes and proposed to be involved in the inflammation and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). ACE I/D, AT1R 1166A/C and AT2R -1332A/G are functional polymorphisms associated with phenotypes of diverse chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between ACE I/D, AT1R 1166A/C and AT2R -1332A/G gene polymorphisms and MS in Serbian population. A total of 470 MS patients and 478 controls participated in the study. Allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for genotyping of the ACE polymorphism. The AT1R and AT2R genotyping was done by duplex PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Both ACE homozygotes, II and DD, were significantly overrepresented in MS patients, compared to controls (χ(2) test p=0.03). Neither genotype nor allele frequencies of AT1R 1166A/C polymorphism were significantly different between patients and controls. Significant overrepresentation of AT2R -1332 AA genotype in female patients, compared to female controls, was detected (OR=1.67, 95%CI=1.13-2.49, χ(2) test p=0.01), suggesting that this genotype could be a gender-specific genetic risk factor for MS.

  2. The association between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Gong, Lili; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ling

    2015-09-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important candidate genes for the development of endometriosis, and VEGF genetic polymorphisms might be potentially associated with endometriosis risk. However, the results still remain controversial. The objective of this study aimed to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore a better understanding of the effects of VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism on the risk of endometriosis. A total of eleven eligible studies were eventually identified in this meta-analysis, including 2829 endometriosis cases and 2947 controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association between the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and the risk of endometriosis was detected in all genetic models (for homozygote comparison [CC versus vs. GG]: OR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.67-2.19, P = 0.537; for heterozygote comparison [CG vs. GG]: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 0.86-1.56, P = 0.348; for dominant comparison CC/CG vs. GG: OR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.93-1.30, P = 0.263; for recessive comparison [CC vs. CG/GG]: OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.73-1.47, P = 0.857; allele comparison [C vs. G]: OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.70-1.40, P = 0.962). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicities, there was no significant association between VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism and endometriosis risk in Asians and/or Caucasians under all genetic models (all P-values >0.05). No publication bias was observed in this study. This meta-analysis supports that the VEGF +405G>C genetic polymorphism is not significant associated with the risk of endometriosis.

  3. Factor XIII-A subunit Val34Leu polymorphism in fatal atherothrombotic ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Shemirani, Amir-Houshang; Antalfi, Bálint; Pongrácz, Endre; Mezei, Zoltán András; Bereczky, Zsuzsanna; Csiki, Zoltán

    2014-06-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) is a regulator of fibrinolysis and clot firmness. Val34Leu polymorphism of its potentially active A subunit (FXIII-A) leads to faster activation of FXIII, influences clot structure and provides a moderate protection against coronary artery disease. The effect of FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism on the risk of atherothrombotic ischemic stroke (AIS) has been investigated in a few studies with contradictory results. In all previous studies, only patients surviving AIS were enrolled and sex-specific effects were not explored. In this retrospective multicenter cohort, we investigated the effect of FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism on the risk of fatal AIS in women and men. DNA isolation and genetic determinations in the case of 316 patients who died of AIS were carried out on paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. Genetic analyses for population controls, patients with history of AIS and sex-matched controls were performed on extracted genomic DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. The prevalence of homozygous wild-type, and heterozygous genotypes, Leu34 carriers and Leu34 allele was not different significantly between the patients with fatal AIS and their respective controls. Logistic regression analysis with age as co-variant demonstrated that in women, homozygous presentation of Leu34 allele represented a more than three-fold increased risk of AIS with fatal outcome. The results demonstrate that FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism does not influence the occurrence of AIS, but has an effect on the severity of its outcome. This effect is sex-specific and in homozygous women, the prothrombotic/antifibrinolytic effects of FXIII-A Val34Leu polymorphism seem to prevail. PMID:24686102

  4. Extensive genetic polymorphism in the human tumor necrosis factor region and relation to extended HLA haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Jongeneel, C V; Briant, L; Udalova, I A; Sevin, A; Nedospasov, S A; Cambon-Thomsen, A

    1991-01-01

    We have identified three polymorphic microsatellites (which we call TNFa, TNFb, and TNFc) within a 12-kilobase region of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) that includes the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) locus. TNFc is located within the first intron of the TNF-beta gene and has only 2 alleles. TNFa and TNFb are 3.5 kilobases upstream (telomeric) of the TNF-beta gene and have at least 13 and 7 alleles, respectively. TNFa, -b, and -c alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with alleles at other loci within the MHC, including class I, class II, and class III. TNFa, -b, and -c alleles are also associated with extended HLA haplotypes. These TNF polymorphisms will allow a thorough genetic analysis of the involvement of TNF in MHC-linked pathologies. Images PMID:1946393

  5. Glutathione S Transferases Polymorphisms Are Independent Prognostic Factors in Lupus Nephritis Treated with Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Verstuyft, Céline; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Hummel, Aurélie; Le Guern, Véronique; Sacré, Karim; Meyer, Olivier; Daugas, Eric; Goujard, Cécile; Sultan, Audrey; Lobbedez, Thierry; Galicier, Lionel; Pourrat, Jacques; Le Hello, Claire; Godin, Michel; Morello, Rémy; Lambert, Marc; Hachulla, Eric; Vanhille, Philippe; Queffeulou, Guillaume; Potier, Jacky; Dion, Jean-Jacques; Bataille, Pierre; Chauveau, Dominique; Moulis, Guillaume; Farge-Bancel, Dominique; Duhaut, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Bernadette; Deroux, Alban; Manuzak, Jennifer; Francès, Camille; Aumaitre, Olivier; Bezanahary, Holy; Becquemont, Laurent; Bienvenu, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate association between genetic polymorphisms of GST, CYP and renal outcome or occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in lupus nephritis (LN) treated with cyclophosphamide (CYC). CYC, as a pro-drug, requires bioactivation through multiple hepatic cytochrome P450s and glutathione S transferases (GST). Methods We carried out a multicentric retrospective study including 70 patients with proliferative LN treated with CYC. Patients were genotyped for polymorphisms of the CYP2B6, CYP2C19, GSTP1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes. Complete remission (CR) was defined as proteinuria ≤0.33g/day and serum creatinine ≤124 µmol/l. Partial remission (PR) was defined as proteinuria ≤1.5g/day with a 50% decrease of the baseline proteinuria value and serum creatinine no greater than 25% above baseline. Results Most patients were women (84%) and 77% were Caucasian. The mean age at LN diagnosis was 41 ± 10 years. The frequency of patients carrying the GST null genotype GSTT1-, GSTM1-, and the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype were respectively 38%, 60% and 44%. In multivariate analysis, the Ile→105Val GSTP1 genotype was an independent factor of poor renal outcome (achievement of CR or PR) (OR = 5.01 95% CI [1.02–24.51]) and the sole factor that influenced occurrence of ADRs was the GSTM1 null genotype (OR = 3.34 95% CI [1.064–10.58]). No association between polymorphisms of cytochrome P450s gene and efficacy or ADRs was observed. Conclusion This study suggests that GST polymorphisms highly impact renal outcome and occurrence of ADRs related to CYC in LN patients. PMID:27002825

  6. Association of Factor V Leiden Gene Polymorphism With Arteriovenous Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Allon, Michael; Zhang, Li; Maya, Ivan D.; Bray, Molly S.; Fernandez, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Dialysis grafts fail due to recurrent stenosis and thrombosis. Vasoactive and pro-thrombotic substances affecting intimal hyperplasia or thrombosis may modify graft outcomes. Study design Genetic polymorphisms association study of patients enrolled in a multi-center, randomized clinical trial. Setting and participants 354 Dialysis Access Consortium (DAC) Study patients receiving a new graft with DNA samples obtained. Subjects were randomized to treatment with aspirin+dipyridamole vs placebo. Predictor DNA sequence polymorphisms for the following candidate genes and their interaction with the study intervention: methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), Factor V (F5), transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), Klotho, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Outcome Graft failure (>50% stenosis, angioplasty, thrombosis, surgical intervention or permanent loss of function). Results During a median patient follow-up of 34.3 months, 304 grafts failed. After adjusting for clinical factors (patient age, gender, access location, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, baseline aspirin use, body mass index, timing of graft placement, and study treatment) and genetic ancestral background, SNP rs6019 of the Factor V gene was significantly associated with graft failure in a dominant model (HR of 1.70 [95% CI, 1.32–2.19; p<0.001] for G/C and G/G genotypes vs C/C genotypes). There was no significant association between graft failure and polymorphisms of MTHFR, HO-1, TGF-β1, Klotho, NOS, or ACE. Limitations Small sample size Conclusion Factor V Leiden is associated with an increased risk of graft failure. Anticoagulation may reduce graft failure in patients with the G/C or G/G genotypes. PMID:22281051

  7. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with prognostic features of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is differently expressed in breast cancer, and its presence may favor cancer progression. We hypothesized that two EGFR functional polymorphisms, a (CA)n repeat in intron 1, and a single nucleotide polymorphism, R497K, may affect EGFR expression and breast cancer clinical profile. Methods The study population consisted of 508 Brazilian women with unilateral breast cancer, and no distant metastases. Patients were genotyped for the (CA)n and R497K polymorphisms, and the associations between (CA)n polymorphism and EGFR transcript levels (n = 129), or between either polymorphism and histopathological features (n = 505) were evaluated. The REMARK criteria of tumor marker evaluation were followed. Results (CA)n lengths ranged from 14 to 24 repeats, comprehending 11 alleles and 37 genotypes. The most frequent allele was (CA)16 (0.43; 95% CI = 0.40–0.46), which was set as the cut-off length to define the Short allele. Variant (CA)n genotypes had no significant effect in tumoral EGFR mRNA levels, but patients with two (CA)n Long alleles showed lower chances of being negative for progesterone receptor (ORadjusted = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.19–0.91). The evaluation of R497K polymorphism indicated a frequency of 0.21 (95% CI = 0.19 – 0.24) for the variant (Lys) allele. Patients with variant R497K genotypes presented lower proportion of worse lymph node status (pN2 or pN3) when compared to the reference genotype Arg/Arg (ORadjusted = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.17–0.59), which resulted in lower tumor staging (ORadjusted = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.19-0.63), and lower estimated recurrence risk (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.30-0.81). The combined presence of both EGFR polymorphisms (Lys allele of R497K and Long/Long (CA)n) resulted in lower TNM status (ORadjusted = 0.22; 95% CI = 0.07-0.75) and lower ERR (OR = 0.25; 95% CI = 0.09-0.71). When tumors were stratified according to biological

  8. Analysis of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene promoter polymorphisms in early osseointegrated implant failure.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Maria Cristina Leme Godoy; Campos, Maria Isabela Guimarães; Souza, Ana Paula; Scarel-Caminaga, Raquel Mantuaneli; Mazzonetto, Renato; Line, Sergio Roberto Peres

    2004-09-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 is a multifunctional cytokine involved in extracellular matrix deposition, reduction of inflammation, and promotion of wound healing. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of human transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene, C-509T and G-800A, have been shown to increase the transcriptional activity of this cytokine and have been associated with a variety of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between these single nucleotide polymorphisms and the early implant failure. A sample of 68 nonsmoking patients was divided into two groups: a test group comprising 28 patients with one or more early failed implants and a control group consisting of 40 individuals with one or more healthy implants. Genomic DNA from oral mucosa was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism. The significance of the differences in observed frequencies of single nucleotide polymorphisms was assessed using the chi square test and Fisher's exact test. The cited single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor-beta 1 were analyzed in combination as haplotype using the computer program ARLEQUIN. The authors did not observe significant differences in the allele and genotypes to both single nucleotide polymorphisms of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene (C-509T and G-800A) between control and early implant failure groups. The distribution of the haplotypes arranged as allele and genotypes were similar between control and test groups. These results indicate that C-509T and G-800A polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene are not associated separately or in haplotype combinations with early implant failure, suggesting that the presence of those single nucleotide polymorphisms alone do not constitute a genetic risk factor for early implant failure in the Brazilian population. PMID:15359164

  9. Association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and nerve growth factor gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to migraine

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Salih; Varol, Sefer; Ozdemir, Hasan H; Agacayak, Elif; Aydın, Birsen; Kapan, Oktay; Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Tunc, Saban; Cevik, Mehmet Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Migraine is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Migraine pathophysiology is very complex. Genetic factors play a major role in migraine. Neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), play an important role in central nervous system functioning, development, and modulation of pain. This study investigates whether polymorphisms in the BDNF and NGF genes are associated with migraine disease in a Turkish case–control population. Overall, 576 subjects were investigated (288 patients with migraine and 288 healthy controls) for the following polymorphisms: rs6265(G/A), rs8192466(C/T), rs925946(G/T), rs2049046(A/T), and rs12273363(T/C) in the BDNF gene, and rs6330(C/T), rs11466112(C/T), rs11102930(C/A), and rs4839435(G/A) in the NGF gene using 5′-exonuclease allelic discrimination assays. We found no differences in frequency of the analyzed eight polymorphisms between migraine and control groups. However, the frequency of minor A alleles of rs6265 in BDNF gene was borderline significant in the patients compared with the healthy controls (P=0.049; odds ratios [ORs] [95% confidence intervals {CIs}] =0.723 [0.523–0.999]). Moreover, when the migraine patients were divided into two subgroups, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO), the minor TT genotype of rs6330 in NGF was significantly higher in MA patients than in MO patients (P=0.036) or healthy controls (P=0.026), and this disappeared after correction for multiple testing. Also, the rs6330*T minor allele was more common in the MA group than in the MO group or controls (P=0.011, ORs [95% CIs] =1.626 [1.117–2.365] or P=0.007, ORs [95% CIs] =1.610 [1.140–2.274], respectively). In conclusion, this is the first clinical study to evaluate the association between BDNF and NGF polymorphisms in migraine patients compared with health controls. Our findings suggest that the NGF rs6330*T minor allele might be nominated as a risk

  10. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -376 polymorphism and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis: an Egyptian study.

    PubMed

    Nada, Mona Abd el Fattah; Labib, Dalia Ahmed

    2011-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha, a proinflammatory cytokine, plays an important role in the clinical activity of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and the development of progression. Dysregulation in the expression of tumor necrosis factor gene had been suggested in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between tumor necrosis factor α-376 polymorphism with disease susceptibility and course of multiple sclerosis in Egyptian patients. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on 36 primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, 36 age- and sex-matched remitting relapsing multiple sclerosis patients (diagnosed according to McDonald's Diagnostic criteria) and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The GG genotype and the guanine allele (G) were detected significantly more often in the primary progressive (p = 0.02; p = 0.004, respectively) and remitting relapsing (p = 0.015; p = 0.024, respectively) multiple sclerosis groups as compared with the healthy control group. The G allele in the examined position in tumor necrosis factor alpha might have a role as regards susceptibility in both remitting relapsing and primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

  11. No association between polymorphisms/haplotypes of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia (PE) is the first worldwide cause of death in pregnant women, intra-uterine growth retardation, and fetal prematurity. Some vascular endothelial grown factor gene (VEGF) polymorphisms have been associated to PE and other pregnancy disturbances. We evaluated the associations between VEGF genotypes/haplotypes and PE in Mexican women. Methods 164 pregnant women were enrolled in a case-control study (78 cases and 86 normotensive pregnant controls). The rs699947 (-2578C/A), rs1570360 (-1154G/A), rs2010963 (+405G/C), and rs25648 (-7C/T), VEGF variants were discriminated using Polymerase Chain Reaction - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods or Taqman single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays. Results The proportions of the minor allele for rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs were 0.33, 0.2, 0.39, and 0.17 in controls, and 0.39, 0.23, 0.41, and 0.15 in cases, respectively (P values > 0.05). The most frequent haplotypes of rs699947, rs1570360, rs2010963, and rs25648 VEGF SNPs, were C-G-C-C and C-G-G-C with frequencies of 0.39, 0.21 in cases and 0.37, 0.25 in controls, respectively (P values > 0.05) Conclusion There was no evidence of an association between VEGF alleles, genotypes, or haplotypes frequencies and PE in our study. PMID:21575227

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter polymorphisms in Mexican patients with dengue fever.

    PubMed

    García-Trejo, Alma Rosa; Falcón-Lezama, Jorge A; Juárez-Palma, Lilia; Granados, Julio; Zúñiga-Ramos, Joaquín; Rangel, Hilda; Barquera, Rodrigo; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Ramos, Celso

    2011-01-01

    Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in patients with dengue have been reported. Various polymorphisms have been identified in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene that may affect its transcription. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between polymorphisms of TNF-α gene and the genetic susceptibility to dengue fever in a group of patients from Morelos State, Mexico. The TNF-α polymorphisms (positions -238 and -308) were determined by PCR-RFLP technique in 130 patients with dengue (85 with dengue fever and 45 with dengue hemorrhagic fever) and 169 healthy controls. The patients were selected from cases reported in Morelos State from 1997 to 2003. The whole group of dengue patients showed a decreased frequency of TNF-α -238 A allele when compared to healthy controls (p = 0.01, OR = 0.19, 95%CI = 0.02-0.78). When the analysis was made separately in dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever patients, the decreased frequency of TNF-α -238 A allele only remained significant in patients with DHF when compared to healthy controls (p = 0.034). This work suggests a possible association of TNF-α -238 A allele with protection to develop symptomatic disease.

  13. Interferon regulatory factor-1 polymorphisms are associated with the control of Plasmodium falciparum infection

    PubMed Central

    Mangano, Valentina D; Luoni, Gaia; Rockett, Kirk A; Sirima, Bienvenu S; Konaté, Amadou; Forton, Julian; Clark, Taane; Bancone, Germana; Akha, Elham Sadighi; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Modiano, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe the haplotypic structure of the Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 (IRF-1) locus in two West African ethnic groups, Fulani and Mossi, that differ in their susceptibility and immune response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Both populations showed significant associations between IRF-1 polymorphisms and carriage of P. falciparum infection, with different patterns of association that may reflect their different haplotypic architecture. Genetic variation at this locus does not therefore account for the Fulani-specific resistance to malaria while it could contribute to parasite clearance's ability in populations living in endemic areas. We then conducted a case-control study of three haplotype-tagging Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (htSNPs) in 370 hospitalized malaria patients (160 severe and 210 uncomplicated) and 410 healthy population controls, all from the Mossi ethnic group. All 3 htSNPs showed correlation with blood infection levels in malaria patients, and the rs10065633 polymorphism was associated with severe disease (p=0.02). These findings provide the first evidence of the involvement in malaria susceptibility of a specific locus within the 5q31 region, previously shown to be linked with P. falciparum infection levels. PMID:18200030

  14. MTHFR Genetic Polymorphism As a Risk Factor in Egyptian Mothers with Down Syndrome Children

    PubMed Central

    Meguid, Nagwa A.; Dardir, Ahmed A.; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; Awady, Mostafa K. El

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95–12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work. PMID:18057532

  15. MTHFR genetic polymorphism as a risk factor in Egyptian mothers with Down syndrome children.

    PubMed

    Meguid, Nagwa A; Dardir, Ahmed A; Khass, Mohamed; Hossieny, Lamia El; Ezzat, Afaf; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports linking Down syndrome (DS) to maternal polymorphisms at the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene locus have generated great interest among investigators in the field. The present study aimed at evaluation of MTHFR 677C/T and 1298A/C polymorphisms in the MTHFR gene as maternal risk factors for DS. Forty two mothers of proven DS outcomes and forty eight control mothers with normal offspring were included. Complete medical and nutritional histories for all mothers were taken with special emphasis on folate intake. Folic acid intake from food or vitamin supplements was significantly low (below the Recommended Daily Allowance) in the group of case mothers compared to control mothers. Frequencies of MTHFR 677T and MTHFR 1298C alleles were significantly higher among case mothers (32.1% and 57.1%, respectively) compared to control mothers (18.7% and 32.3%, respectively). Heterozygous and homozygous genotype frequencies of MTHFR at position 677 (CT and TT) were higher among case mothers than controls (40.5% versus 25% and 11.9% versus 6.2%, respectively) with an odds ratio of 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93-5.89) and 2.75 (95% CI 0.95-12.77), respectively. Interestingly, the homozygous genotype frequency (CC) at position 1298 was significantly higher in case mothers than in controls (33.3% versus 2.1% respectively) with an odds ratio of 31.5 (95% CI 3.51 to 282.33) indicating that this polymorphism may have more genetic impact than 677 polymorphism. Heterozygous genotype (AC) did not show significant difference between the two groups. We here report on the first pilot study of the possible genetic association between DS and MTHFR 1298A/C genotypes among Egyptians. Further extended studies are recommended to confirm the present work.

  16. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case–control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15–2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14–3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22–2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  17. PPAR α and PPAR γ Polymorphisms as risk factors for Dyslipidemia in a Chinese han population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The PPAR α and PPAR γ are the key messengers responsible for the translation of nutritional stimuli into changes for the expression of genes, particularly genes involved in lipid metabolism. However, the associations between PPAR α / γ polymorphisms and lipid serum levels in the general population were rarely studied, and the conclusions were conflicting. The objective was to investigate the associations of the PPAR α and PPAR γ polymorphisms with dyslipidemia. Methods 820 subjects were randomly selected from the Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province cohort populations. The logistic regression model was used to examine the association between these polymorphisms and dyslipidemia. SNPstats was used to explore the haplotype association analyses. Results In the codominant and log-additive models, rs1800206, rs1805192 and rs3856806 were all associated with dyslipidemia (P < 0.005). When the most common haplotype L-G (established by rs1800206, rs4253778) was treated as the reference group, the V-G haplotype was associated with dyslipidemia (P < 0.001), higher TC and TG levels (P < 0.01). Moreover, when compared to Pro-C haplotype (established by rs1805192, rs3856806), the Pro-T, Ala-C, Ala-T haplotypes were associated with dyslipidemia (p < 0.001). A-T haplotype was associated with higher TC levels, (p < 0.01), and the P-T, A-C, A-T haplotypes were associated with higher TG levels (p < 0.01). Conclusions PPAR α and PPAR γ polymorphisms and haplotypes may be the genetic risk factors for dyslipidemia. PMID:24460649

  18. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an Iranian population in southeast of Iran. This case-control study was done on 250 BC patients and 215 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR was used to genotype the polymorphisms. Our findings showed that VEGF rs699947 variant increased the risk of BC (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.15-2.54, P = 0.009, CA vs CC; OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.14-3.93, P = 0.021, AA vs CC; OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22-2.60, P = 0.004, CA+AA vs CC; OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12-1.92, P = 0.005, A vs C). The VEGF rs3025039, rs2010963, rs833061, and rs35569394 variants were not associated with risk/protection of BC. In conclusion, our results proposed that VEGF rs699947 polymorphism may increase the risk of BC development. Furthers studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are necessary to confirm our findings. PMID:27398026

  19. Association of tumor necrosis factor-α and -β gene polymorphisms in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meghaiseeb, Ebtissam Saleh; Al-Robayan, Abdulrahman A; Al-Otaibi, Mulfi Mubarak; Arfin, Misbahul; Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex, multifactorial, chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract in which immune dysregulation caused by genetic and/or environmental factors plays an important role. The aim of this case–control study was to evaluate the association of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) (308) and -β (+252) polymorphisms with susceptibility of IBD. A total of 379 Saudi subjects including 179 IBD patients (ulcerative colitis (UC) =84 and Crohn’s disease (CD) =95) and 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited. TNF-α and TNF-β genes were amplified using an amplification refractory mutation systems polymerase chain reaction methodology to detect TNF-α (−308) and -β (+252) polymorphisms. The frequency of the GA genotype of TNF-α (−308G/A) was higher, and the frequencies of the GG and AA genotypes were significantly lower in IBD patients compared with those in controls, indicating that genotype GA-positive individuals are susceptible to IBD and that the GG and AA genotypes exert a protective effect. The frequency of allele A of TNF-α (−308G/A) was significantly higher and that of allele G was lower in IBD patients compared with those in controls, indicating an association of allele A with IBD risk in Saudi patients. On stratification of IBD patients into UC and CD, an almost similar pattern was noticed in both the groups. The results of TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms showed a significant increase in the frequency of the GG genotype in IBD patients, suggesting a positive association of GG genotype with IBD risk. On stratification of IBD patients into UC and CD, the genotype GG of TNF-β was associated with susceptibility risk to UC but not CD. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes of both TNF-α and-β polymorphisms are not affected by sex or type of IBD (familial or sporadic). TNF-α (−308G/A) and TNF-β (+252A/G) polymorphisms are associated with risk of developing IBD in Saudi population

  20. Association analysis between polymorphisms in the conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) gene and cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Lohoff, Falk W.; Bloch, Paul J.; Ferraro, Thomas N.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Dackis, Charles A.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Cocaine induced neuroplasticity changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems are thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of cocaine dependence. Since neurotrophic factors have been observed to prevent/reverse and mimic cocaine-induced neurobiological changes in the brain, related genes are plausible candidates for susceptibility to cocaine dependence. The novel conserved dopamine neurotrophic factor protein (CDNF) promotes the survival, growth, and function of dopamine-specific neurons and is expressed in brain regions that undergo cocaine-induced neuroplasticity. In this study, we hypothesize that polymorphisms in the CDNF gene (CDNF/ARMETL1) contribute to increased risk for cocaine dependence. Cocaine dependent individuals (n=351) and unaffected controls (n=257) of African descent were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CDNF gene (rs11259365, rs7094179, rs7900873, rs2278871). We observed no significant differences in allele, genotype, or haplotype frequencies between cases and controls for any of the tested SNPs. Our study suggests that there is no association between variants in the CDNF gene and cocaine dependence. However, additional studies using larger sample sizes, comprehensive SNP coverage, and clinically homogenous populations are necessary before confidently excluding CDNF as a significant genetic risk factor for cocaine dependence. PMID:19429035

  1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion.

  2. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion. PMID:27621802

  3. [Polymorphism of genes of interleukin-1 family as factor of pathogenesis of nozokomialny pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Baygozina, E A; Dolgih, V T; Sovalkin, V I

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of research devoted to nosocomial pneumonia, so far there are no clear diagnostic criteria for it and predict the outcome of nosocomial pneumonia is based on the individual clinical, instrumental, laboratory and other parameters that are not related to each other as links in a single pathogenesis. External factors contributing to the development of the pneumonia and determine its prognosis, adequately lit, and the problem lies in the fact that no comprehensive clinical and pathophysiological approach to assessing the outcome of nosocomial pneumonia considering its immunogenetic features. One aspect of learning is nosocomial pneumonia appraisal of immune system, in particular, -- cytokines that have both diagnostic and prognostic value. As is known, the level of immune reactivity of the organism is fixed genetically, therefore, determines the importance polymorphisms of genes coding for the expression of cytokines as key participants in the intercellular interactions. In the present article we found that one of the factors immunopathogenesis of nosocomial pneumonia is a gene polymorphism IL-1β (-511) C-->T and IL-1RN. Genetic markers of risk of its development is the carrier of the allele C of gene IL-1β (-511) C->T. The severity and clinical features of the pneumonia associated with the presence of the genotype of the patients T allele of the gene IL-1β (-511) C-->T. Implementation of the pathogenetic action of this polymorphism is carried out due to overproduction of the cytokine IL-1β. Exposure to nosocomial pneumonia associated with haplotypes IL-1RN * 4-IL-1β (-511) C-->T gene of the same name cytokines having polar biological effects.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 gene polymorphism association with susceptibility to celiac disease in Italian patients.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque Maranhão, R M; Martins Esteves, F A; Crovella, S; Segat, L; Eleutério Souza, P R

    2015-12-09

    The aim of this research was to study polymorphisms in the genes encoding cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in patients with celiac disease (CD) antigens DQ2 (DQ2-positive) or DQ8 (DQ8-positive). We compared the results with healthy controls to determine whether any of the polymorphisms have a role in susceptibility to CD. A case-control of 192 patients with CD (96 DQ2-positive and 96 DQ8-positive) and 96 healthy controls from northeast Italy were included in the study. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Significant differences for the TNF-α(-308 G>A) polymorphism were observed when we compared the flowing groups: DQ2-positive with controls [odds ratio (OR) = 0.45, P = 0.0002]; DQ8-positive with controls (OR = 3.55, P < 0.0001); and DQ2-positive with DQ8-positive (OR = 0.12, P < 0.0001). We did not observe a statistically significant association between IL-6 (-174 G>C) polymorphism and CD (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that TNF-α(-308 G>A) polymorphism may play a role in susceptibility to CD in Italian patients.

  5. Heterozygote Advantage Probably Maintains Rhesus Factor Blood Group Polymorphism: Ecological Regression Study

    PubMed Central

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Rhesus factor polymorphism has been an evolutionary enigma since its discovery in 1939. Carriers of the rarer allele should be eliminated by selection against Rhesus positive children born to Rhesus negative mothers. Here I used an ecologic regression study to test the hypothesis that Rhesus factor polymorphism is stabilized by heterozygote advantage. The study was performed in 65 countries for which the frequencies of RhD phenotypes and specific disease burden data were available. I performed multiple multivariate covariance analysis with five potential confounding variables: GDP, latitude (distance from the equator), humidity, medical care expenditure per capita and frequencies of smokers. The results showed that the burden associated with many diseases correlated with the frequencies of particular Rhesus genotypes in a country and that the direction of the relation was nearly always the opposite for the frequency of Rhesus negative homozygotes and that of Rhesus positive heterozygotes. On the population level, a Rhesus-negativity-associated burden could be compensated for by the heterozygote advantage, but for Rhesus negative subjects this burden represents a serious problem. PMID:26811928

  6. Immunoglobulin Gene Polymorphisms are Susceptibility Factors for Clinical and Autoantibody Subgroups of the Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Rider, Lisa G.; Schiffenbauer, Adam; Targoff, Ira N.; Malley, Karen; Pandey, Janardan P.; Miller, Frederick W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate possible associations of GM and KM markers in European Americans (EA) and African Americans (AA) with adult and juvenile forms of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). Methods We performed serologic analyses of polymorphic determinants associated with immunoglobulin gamma heavy (GM) and kappa light chains (KM) in large populations of EA (n=514: 297 adults and 217 juveniles) and AA IIM patients (n=109: 73 adults and 50 juveniles) representing the major clinicopathologic and autoantibody groups. Results For EA dermatomyositis (DM) patients, the GM 3 23 5,13 phenotype was a risk factor for both adults (OR=2.2; Pc=0.020) and juveniles (OR=2.2; Pc=0.0013). Of interest, the GM 13 allotype was a risk factor for juvenile DM (JDM) for both EA (OR=3.9; Pc<0.0001) and AA (OR=4.8; Pc=0.033). However, the GM 1,3,17 5,13,21 phenotype was a risk factor for JDM in EA but not in AA. Among the IIM autoantibody groups, GM 3 23 5,13 was a risk factor for EA adults with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies (OR=3.4; Pc=0.0031), while the GM 3 allotype was protective for adults with anti-threonyl tRNA synthetase or anti-RNP autoantibodies (OR=0.1; Pc=0.047 and OR=0.2; Pc=0.034, respectively). In contrast, GM 6 was a risk factor for AA adults with anti-SRP autoantibodies (OR=7.5; Pc=0.041). Conclusions These data suggest that polymorphic alleles of GM and KM loci are differentially associated with IIM subgroups defined by age, ethnicity, clinical features and autoantibodies, and expand the list of immune response genes possibly important in the pathogenesis of myositis. PMID:18821675

  7. "Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC) = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC) = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD. PMID:25005003

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor gene polymorphisms and vitreous proteome changes in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Kelli H; Silva, Paolo S; Sun, Jennifer K

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic retinal diseases, particularly diabetic retinopathy, continue to significantly impact vision and remain a leading cause of vision loss in working-aged adults. Identifying specific genetic risk factors for ischemic-driven pathways that increase susceptibility to developing diabetic retinopathy is a priority to allow development of accurate risk assessment algorithms, employ earlier intervention, and design novel treatment strategies to reduce the associated visual complications. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the VEGF gene have been shown to influence the expression of the VEGF protein. Several studies suggest that SNPs in the VEGF gene mediate genetic predisposition to diabetic retinopathy. In addition, alterations in the vitreous proteome, including carbonic anhydrase mediated vascular permeability, have been found to be associated with sight-threatening proliferative diabetic retinopathy and macular edema. Inhibition of these factors could provide new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

  9. Uncoupling Protein 2 Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Adam; Pangilinan, Faith; VanderMeer, Julie; Molloy, Anne M.; Troendle, James; Conley, Mary; Kirke, Peadar N.; Scott, John M.; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Both environmental and genetic factors are involved in the etiology of neural tube defects (NTDs). Inadequate folate intake and obesity are important environmental risk factors. Several folate-related genetic variants have been identified as risk factors; however, little is known about how genetic variants relate to the increased risk seen in obese women. Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) is an attractive candidate to screen for NTD risk because of its possible role in obesity as well as energy metabolism, type-2 diabetes, and the regulation of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, a previous study found that a common UCP2 compound homozygous genotype was associated with a threefold increase in NTD risk. METHODS: We evaluated three polymorphisms, −866G>A, A55V, and the 3′UTR 45bp insertion/deletion, as risk factors for NTDs in Irish NTD cases (N=169), their mothers (N=163), their fathers (N=167) and normal control subjects (N=332). RESULTS: Allele and genotype frequencies were not significantly different when comparing NTD mothers, NTD fathers, or affected children to controls. Additionally, the previously reported risk genotype (combined homozygosity of 55VV and 3′UTR 45bp deletion/deletion) was not present at a higher frequency in any NTD group when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: In our Irish study population, UCP2 polymorphisms do not influence NTD risk. Moreover, the prevalence of this allele in other populations was similar to the Irish prevalence but far lower than reported in the previous NTD study, suggesting that this previous finding of an association with NTDs might have been due to an unrepresentative study sample. PMID:19137581

  10. Functional polymorphisms of macrophage migration inhibitory factor as predictors of morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Savva, Athina; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Roger, Thierry; Valls Serón, Mercedes; Le Roy, Didier; Ferwerda, Bart; van der Ende, Arie; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; van de Beek, Diederik; Calandra, Thierry

    2016-03-29

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent and critical type of bacterial meningitis. Because cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis, we examined whether functional polymorphisms of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were associated with morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis. Two functional MIF promoter polymorphisms, a microsatellite (-794 CATT5-8; rs5844572) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (-173 G/C; rs755622) were genotyped in a prospective, nationwide cohort of 405 patients with pneumococcal meningitis and in 329 controls matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. Carriages of the CATT7 and -173 C high-expression MIF alleles were associated with unfavorable outcome (P= 0.005 and 0.003) and death (P= 0.03 and 0.01). In a multivariate logistic regression model, shock [odds ratio (OR) 26.0, P= 0.02] and carriage of the CATT7 allele (OR 5.12,P= 0.04) were the main predictors of mortality. MIF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were associated with systemic complications and death (P= 0.0002). Streptococcus pneumoniae strongly up-regulated MIF production in whole blood and transcription activity of high-expression MIF promoter Luciferase reporter constructs in THP-1 monocytes. Consistent with these findings, treatment with anti-MIF immunoglogulin G (IgG) antibodies reduced bacterial loads and improved survival in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. The present study provides strong evidence that carriage of high-expression MIF alleles is a genetic marker of morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis and also suggests a potential role for MIF as a target of immune-modulating adjunctive therapy.

  11. Allelic associations of two polymorphic microsatellites in intron 40 of the human von Willebrand factor gene

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, S.D.J.; De Souza, K.T. ); De Andrade, M.; Chakraborty, R. )

    1994-01-18

    At intron 40 of the von Willebrand factor (vWF) gene, two GATA-repeat polymorphic sites exist that are physically separated by 212 bp. At the first site (vWF1 locus), seven segregating repeat alleles were observed in a Brazilian Caucasian population, and at the second (vWF2 locus) there were eight alleles, detected through PCR amplifications of this DNA region. Haplotype analysis of individuals revealed 36 different haplotypes in a sample of 338 chromosomes examined. Allele frequencies between generations and gender at each locus were not significantly different, and the genotype frequencies were consistent with their Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium between loci is highly significant with positive allele size association; that is, large alleles at the loci tend to occur together, and so do the same alleles. Variability at each locus appeared to have arisen in a stepwise fashion, suggesting replication slippage as a possible mechanism of production of new alleles. However, the authors observed an increased number of haplotypes, in contrast with the predictions of a stepwise production of variation in the entire region, suggesting some form of cooperative changes between loci that could be due to either gene conversion, or a common control mechanism of production of new variation at these repeat polymorphism sites. The high degree of polymorphism (gene diversity values of 72% and 78% at vWF1 and vWF2, respectively, and of 93% at the haplotype level) makes these markers informative for paternity testing, genetic counseling, and individual-identification purposes.

  12. Functional polymorphisms of macrophage migration inhibitory factor as predictors of morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Savva, Athina; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Valls Serón, Mercedes; Le Roy, Didier; Ferwerda, Bart; van der Ende, Arie; Bochud, Pierre-Yves; van de Beek, Diederik; Calandra, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal meningitis is the most frequent and critical type of bacterial meningitis. Because cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis, we examined whether functional polymorphisms of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) were associated with morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis. Two functional MIF promoter polymorphisms, a microsatellite (−794 CATT5–8; rs5844572) and a single-nucleotide polymorphism (−173 G/C; rs755622) were genotyped in a prospective, nationwide cohort of 405 patients with pneumococcal meningitis and in 329 controls matched for age, gender, and ethnicity. Carriages of the CATT7 and −173 C high-expression MIF alleles were associated with unfavorable outcome (P = 0.005 and 0.003) and death (P = 0.03 and 0.01). In a multivariate logistic regression model, shock [odds ratio (OR) 26.0, P = 0.02] and carriage of the CATT7 allele (OR 5.12, P = 0.04) were the main predictors of mortality. MIF levels in the cerebrospinal fluid were associated with systemic complications and death (P = 0.0002). Streptococcus pneumoniae strongly up-regulated MIF production in whole blood and transcription activity of high-expression MIF promoter Luciferase reporter constructs in THP-1 monocytes. Consistent with these findings, treatment with anti-MIF immunoglogulin G (IgG) antibodies reduced bacterial loads and improved survival in a mouse model of pneumococcal pneumonia and sepsis. The present study provides strong evidence that carriage of high-expression MIF alleles is a genetic marker of morbidity and mortality of pneumococcal meningitis and also suggests a potential role for MIF as a target of immune-modulating adjunctive therapy. PMID:26976591

  13. Polymorphisms in the tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene are not associated with ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Milly S; Cole, Vanessa J; Adams, Murray J; Baker, Ross I; Staton, Janelle M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether four previously described polymorphisms found within the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene are associated with free plasma TFPI levels or with TFPI activity as well as the risk of ischaemic stroke in stroke patients and control individuals. We conducted a case-control study of 162 first-ever ischaemic stroke cases and 170 randomly selected community control individuals. The TFPI genotype was determined for the T-287C, C-399T, Intron 7 C-33T, and Val264Met (G874A) polymorphisms. Free plasma TFPI and TFPI activity were measured during the first 7 days and 3-6 months after the acute stroke event. Free plasma TFPI levels were significantly lowered 3-6 months after stroke compared with levels observed in the patient group during the acute phase of the stroke (mean, 16.3 versus 22.46 ng/ml; P = 0.046) and among the control group (mean, 16.3 versus 22.79 ng/ml; P < 0.0001). Conversely, TFPI activity was significantly up-regulated during the acute phase (mean, 1.30 versus 1.11 U/ml; P = 0.0051) and remained elevated 3-6 months later (mean, 1.28 versus 1.11 U/ml; P = 0.03). The TFPI gene polymorphisms studied were not significantly associated with TFPI levels or activity, nor with the risk of ischaemic stroke. In conclusion, the TFPI activity and concentration in plasma varied significantly after an ischaemic stroke; however, these variations were not found to be due to the presence of any of the genetic mutations analysed in this study. Our results are consistent with the emerging model suggesting the lipoprotein-bound portion of TFPI has a significant influence on coagulation and diseases of haemostasis.

  14. Is the GSTM1 null polymorphism a risk factor in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma?

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Auta Viviane; Talbot, Teddy; Magalhães da Silva, Thiago; Almeida, Maria Clarinda; Menezes, Carlos Alberto; Di Pietro, Giuliano

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association of glutathione S-transferase (GST) GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes with the risk of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and clinical features of the disease. Methods We conducted a case-control study that included 87 Brazilian patients with POAG and 85 healthy controls matched for age, ethnicity, and sex, whose blood samples were genotyped for polymorphisms in GST genes using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods. Results The GSTM1 null polymorphism was significantly more common in the POAG than in the controls group (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.13–3.9; p=0.018). The combined GSTM1 null/GSTT1+ genotype and GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val or Val/Val was more prevalent in POAG patients, being a risk factor for POAG (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.16–4.9; p=0.016 and OR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.07–6.74; p=0.033, respectively). The GSTM1 null/GSTT1+ genotype were associated with higher levels of IOP of both eyes and with more severe defect of the right eye optic nerve. The GSTM1 null/GSTP1 Ile/Val or Val/Val genotypes were associated with higher levels of IOP and more advanced defect of the right eye optic nerve and visual field. Conclusions We demonstrate that GSTM1 null polymorphism is associated with POAG in the Brazilian population. PMID:21738397

  15. Association between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma risk.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Kyong; Lee, Shin-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Seok; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yang Ki; Kim, Yong Hoon; Choi, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2010-09-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the innate immune response, which is regarded as an important aspect of asthma development. Genetic alterations in the CSF1R gene may contribute to the development of asthma. We investigated whether CSF1R gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of asthma. Through direct DNA sequencing of the CSF1R gene, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyped them in 303 normal controls and 498 asthmatic patients. Expression of CSF1R protein and mRNA were measured on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood of asthmatic patients using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Among the 28 polymorphisms, two intronic polymorphism (+20511C>T and +22693T>C) were associated with the risk of asthma by logistic regression analysis. The frequencies of the minor allele at CSF1R +20511C>T and +22693T>C were higher in asthmatic subjects than in normal controls (4.6 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.001 in co-dominant and dominant models; 16.4 vs. 25.8%, p = 0.0006 in a recessive model). CSF1R mRNA levels in neutrophils of the asthmatic patients having the +22693CC allele were higher than in those having the +22693TT allele (p = 0.026). Asthmatic patients with the +22693CC allele also showed significantly higher CSF1R expression on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils than did those with the +22693TT allele (p = 0.045 and p = 0.044). The +20511C>T SNP had no association with CSF1R mRNA or protein expression. In conclusion, the minor allele at CSF1R +22693T>C may have a susceptibility effect in the development of asthma, via increased CSF1R protein and mRNA expression in inflammatory cells.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis risk in Asians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Yang; Wei, Shixiu; Wu, Hongbo; Liu, Chengjun; Huang, Qiaoying; Li, Liuming; Hu, Yanling

    2014-03-01

    A relationship between endometriosis and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene polymorphisms has been raised for Asians. However, this topic is controversial. This study was a meta-analysis to explore whether TNF-α/IL-6 gene polymorphisms were associated with a risk of endometriosis in Asians. By searching PubMed, HuGENet, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, 17 studies were identified and included (3372 cases and 4008 controls). The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association between TNF-α/IL-6 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis risk. An association of TNF-α gene -1031T/C polymorphism with endometriosis was found (TT + TC vs. CC: OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.82, I(2) = 37.1%, P = 0.20; TT vs. CC: OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30-0.82, I(2) = 43.0%, P = 0.173; TC vs. CC: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.83, I(2) = 10.6%, P = 0.327). In addition, TNF-α-238A/G and IL-6 -174C/G gene polymorphisms were also likely to be associated with endometriosis in Asians. For the TNF-α-238A/G gene polymorphism, the OR was 1.577 (95% CI: 1.01-2.48). For the IL-6 -174C/G gene polymorphism, the OR was 1.554 (95% CI: 1.04-2.31). No associations were detected between the TNF-α-308A/G and IL-6 -634C/G polymorphisms and susceptibility to endometriosis. Our results indicate that the TNF-α gene -1031T/C polymorphism can reduce the risk of endometriosis, but for Asians, TNF-α-238A/G and IL-6 -174C/G gene polymorphisms may be a risk factor for endometriosis. No association was found for the TNF-α-308A/G and IL-6 -634C/G gene polymorphisms.

  17. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Shiang, R. ); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.

    1993-10-01

    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Role of six single nucleotide polymorphisms, risk factors in coronary disease, in OLR1 alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, J. Ramón; Tilgner, Hagen; Iannone, Camilla; Guigó, Roderic; Valcárcel, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The OLR1 gene encodes the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor (LOX-1), which is responsible for the cellular uptake of oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), foam cell formation in atheroma plaques and atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Alternative splicing (AS) of OLR1 exon 5 generates two protein isoforms with antagonistic functions in Ox-LDL uptake. Previous work identified six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in linkage disequilibrium that influence the inclusion levels of OLR1 exon 5 and correlate with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we use minigenes to recapitulate the effects of two allelic series (Low- and High-Risk) on OLR1 AS and identify one SNP in intron 4 (rs3736234) as the main contributor to the differences in exon 5 inclusion, while the other SNPs in the allelic series attenuate the drastic effects of this key SNP. Bioinformatic, proteomic, mutational and functional high-throughput analyses allowed us to define regulatory sequence motifs and identify SR protein family members (SRSF1, SRSF2) and HMGA1 as factors involved in the regulation of OLR1 AS. Our results suggest that antagonism between SRSF1 and SRSF2/HMGA1, and differential recognition of their regulatory motifs depending on the identity of the rs3736234 polymorphism, influence OLR1 exon 5 inclusion and the efficiency of Ox-LDL uptake, with potential implications for atherosclerosis and coronary disease. PMID:25904137

  19. The interaction of AGT and NOS3 gene polymorphisms with conventional risk factors increases predisposition to hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gatti, Renata R; Santos, Paula S; Sena, Angela A S; Marangoni, Karina; Araújo, Messias A; Goulart, Luiz R

    2013-12-01

    Renin-angiotensin and kallikrein-kinin systems are interconnected, regulating blood pressure homeostasis. We have demonstrated the interactions among polymorphisms of the angiotensinogen (AGT) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) genes and conventional risk factors affecting the hypertension occurrence. Individuals were recruited (n=192) and classified into hypertensive (HG; n=140) and normotensive (NG; n=52) groups. The genotypic distribution of the Met235Thr (AGT) and Glu298Asp (NOS3) polymorphisms demonstrated that both are independent risk factors of hypertension (p=0.02 and p=0.008, respectively). The concomitant presence of these polymorphisms in the HG group was significantly different (p=0.001) from the NG. Both gene polymorphisms presented an additive effect for the unfavourable alleles T and A, respectively, and 95% of the double mutant homozygotes were classified into the HG. Specific interactions among certain conventional factors and the presence of at least one unfavourable allele presented significant odds towards hypertension. Blood pressure homeostasis was affected by genetic polymorphisms conditioned by the T and A alleles of the AGT and NOS3 genes, respectively, which acted independently. However, their interaction with smoking, sedentariness, age and total cholesterol may have increased the predisposition to hypertension, which may explain most of the hypertension cases. PMID:22791701

  20. Association of OSBPL11 gene polymorphisms with cardiovascular disease risk factors in obesity.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Luigi; Faucher, Geneviève; Tchernof, André; Deshaies, Yves; Marceau, Simon; Lescelleur, Odette; Biron, Simon; Bouchard, Claude; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2009-07-01

    The prevalence of morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications has risen rapidly in the past decade. Recently, we have established the transcriptome of the visceral adipose tissue of nondiabetic severely obese men with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) that provided new candidate genes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The oxysterol-binding protein-like protein 11 (OSBPL11) that belongs to the OSBP family of intracellular receptors was one of the genes found to be significantly overexpressed in the MetS group. To determine whether OSBPL11 gene polymorphisms are associated with CVD risk factors and diabetes, OSBPL11 gene promoter and coding regions were sequenced in 25 individuals and six tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) capturing 85% of gene sequence-derived common genetic variability (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 5%) were genotyped in two samples for a total of 962 obese individuals. Using a multistage experimental design, chi(2)-tests and logistic regressions were applied to compare genotype frequencies and to compute odds ratios (ORs) for low and high CVD risk groups. Significant associations between rs1055419 and diastolic blood pressure (OR = 0.53; P = 0.01) were found whereas IVS12+95 T>C, a newly discovered SNP, was associated with low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (OR = 1.63; P < 0.001), hyperglycemia/diabetes (OR = 1.48; P < 0.004) as well as with MetS per se (OR = 1.56; P < 0.01). These results suggest that the OSBPL11 gene is involved in cholesterol and glucose metabolism in obese individuals.

  1. Prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphisms on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Luyao; Lei, Zhengwei; Ma, Xin; Huang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Hao, Peng; Yang, Minggang; Zhao, Xuetao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Gongxue; Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane receptor with ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activity and is involved in various biological and pathological processes. Several polymorphisms of FGFR4 are associated with the incidence and mortality of numerous cancers, including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of FGFR4 influence the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in Chinese men after radical prostatectomy. Three common polymorphisms (rs1966265, rs2011077, and rs351855) of FGFR4 were genotyped from 346 patients with prostate cancer by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Kaplan–Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. Results showed biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival was significantly affected by the genotypes of rs351855 but not influenced by rs1966265 and rs2011077. After adjusting for other variables in multivariable analysis, patients with rs351855 AA/AG genotypes showed significantly worse BCR-free survival than those with the GG genotype (HR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.209–2.901; P = 0.005). Hence, FGFR4 rs351855 could be a novel independent prognostic factor of BCR after radical prostatectomy in the Chinese population. This functional polymorphism may also provide a basis for surveillance programs. Additional large-scale studies must be performed to validate the significance of this polymorphism in prostate cancer. PMID:27640814

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-α -308G/A gene polymorphism in Egyptian children with immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    El Sissy, Maha H; El Sissy, A H; Elanwary, Sherif

    2014-07-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune disease characterized by increased platelet destruction. Although the cause of ITP remains unclear, it is accepted that both environmental and genetic factors play an important role in the development of the disease. Children with ITP have a T-helper 1-type cytokine pattern with elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) as in most autoimmune diseases. Researchers have shown that polymorphism in the TNF-α gene at position -308 affects gene transcriptions with increased TNF-α production. The current case-control study aimed at detecting the frequency of TNF-α -308G/A gene polymorphism as genetic markers in Egyptian children with ITP, and to clear out their possible role in choosing the treatment protocols of therapy, using PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Ninety-two ITP patients and 100 age and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited in the study. The results obtained revealed that the frequency of TNF-α -308A/A homotype in ITP patients was significantly higher than that of the controls, and conferred almost six-fold increased risk of ITP acquisition. The polymorphic A allele frequency was significantly higher in ITP patients than in the controls, conferring almost two-fold increased ITP risk. In conclusion, our study suggests the possibility that TNF-α -308 gene polymorphism may contribute to the susceptibility of childhood ITP in Egyptian children.

  3. Investigation on XRCC1 genetic polymorphism and its relationship with breast cancer risk factors in Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Luming; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Xukui; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Pen; Yu, Fang; Hou, Lei; Zhao, Guowei; He, Qingqing; Wang, Baocheng

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) remains one of the most common cancers among women. The human X-ray repair cross-complementing 1 (XRCC1) gene plays key roles in base excision repair, and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 may be associated with the susceptibility to BC. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms and BC susceptibility. A total of 354 BC patients and 366 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Data about the risk factors of BC were collected using questionnaires. The XRCC1 genetic polymorphism was determined using created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. No significant differences in the allelic and genotypic frequencies of c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism were detected between cases and controls. The distributions of BC patients' risk factors were not significantly different between CC, CA, and AA genotypes. These findings indicate that the c.1804C>A genetic polymorphism of XRCC1 gene is not significantly associated with BC susceptibility in the Chinese women.

  4. Prognostic significance of fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphisms on biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luyao; Lei, Zhengwei; Ma, Xin; Huang, Qingbo; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Yong; Hao, Peng; Yang, Minggang; Zhao, Xuetao; Chen, Jun; Liu, Gongxue; Zheng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) is a transmembrane receptor with ligand-induced tyrosine kinase activity and is involved in various biological and pathological processes. Several polymorphisms of FGFR4 are associated with the incidence and mortality of numerous cancers, including prostate cancer. In this study, we investigated whether the polymorphisms of FGFR4 influence the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer in Chinese men after radical prostatectomy. Three common polymorphisms (rs1966265, rs2011077, and rs351855) of FGFR4 were genotyped from 346 patients with prostate cancer by using the Sequenom MassARRAY system. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard models were used for survival analysis. Results showed biochemical recurrence (BCR) free survival was significantly affected by the genotypes of rs351855 but not influenced by rs1966265 and rs2011077. After adjusting for other variables in multivariable analysis, patients with rs351855 AA/AG genotypes showed significantly worse BCR-free survival than those with the GG genotype (HR = 1.873; 95% CI, 1.209-2.901; P = 0.005). Hence, FGFR4 rs351855 could be a novel independent prognostic factor of BCR after radical prostatectomy in the Chinese population. This functional polymorphism may also provide a basis for surveillance programs. Additional large-scale studies must be performed to validate the significance of this polymorphism in prostate cancer. PMID:27640814

  5. [Polymorphism (353)R>Q of Gene of Blood Clotting Factor FVII and Plasma Hemostasis].

    PubMed

    Bairova, T A; Gommellya, M V; Dolgich, V V; Philippov, E S; Kolesnikova, L I

    2016-02-01

    A comparative estimation was conducted to assess the prevalence of genotypes and alleles of the (353)R>Q polymorphism of the coagulation factor FVII gene between a group of the Russian adolescents with essential arterial hypertension and a group of Russian adolescents without such health problems. The RR genotype was diagnosed in 55 adolescents (75.34%) of the control group and in 99 adolescents (84.61%) of the adolescents suffering from essential arterial hypertension (χ2 = 1.949, p = 0.163). The frequency of the R-allel was 85% and 91.9%, respectively (χ2 = 3.110, p = 0.078). The role of the FVII gene in the determination of the F7 plasma activity was defined in adolescents with essential arterial hypertension and holders of different alleles. Holders of the R allele had significantly higher activity of coagulation factor F7 (97.66 ± 15.48 against 83.37 ± 15.16, p = 0.002) and factor F2 (107.45 ± 6.03 against 103.75 ± 6.81, p = 0.023) than holders of the Q allele. This relationship was not found in adolescents of the control group.

  6. Polymorphisms of Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Pathway Genes and Breast Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Joy; Aronson, Kristan J.; Grundy, Anne; Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Burstyn, Igor; Schuetz, Johanna M.; Lohrisch, Caroline A.; SenGupta, Sandip K.; Lai, Agnes S.; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Spinelli, John J.; Richardson, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variants of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) pathway genes have been shown to be associated with breast density and IGF1 levels and, therefore, may also influence breast cancer risk via pro-survival signaling cascades. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between IGF1 pathway single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer risk among European and East Asian women, and potential interactions with menopausal status and breast tumor subtype. Stratified analyses of 1,037 cases and 1,050 controls from a population-based case–control study were conducted to assess associations with breast cancer for 22 SNPs across 5 IGF1 pathway genes in European and East Asian women. Odds ratios were calculated using logistic regression in additive genetic models. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess heterogeneity by breast tumor subtype. Two SNPs of the IGF1 gene (rs1019731 and rs12821878) were associated with breast cancer risk among European women. Four highly linked IGF1 SNPs (rs2288378, rs17727841, rs7136446, and rs7956547) were modified by menopausal status among East Asian women only and associated with postmenopausal breast cancers. The association between rs2288378 and breast cancer risk was also modified by breast tumor subtype among East Asian women. Several IGF1 polymorphisms were found to be associated with breast cancer risk and some of these associations were modified by menopausal status or breast tumor subtype. Such interactions should be considered when assessing the role of these variants in breast cancer etiology. PMID:27376028

  7. Factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism and recurrent myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kreutz, Rolf P; Bitar, Abbas; Owens, Janelle; Desta, Zeruesenay; Breall, Jeffrey A; von der Lohe, Elisabeth; Sinha, Anjan; Vatta, Matteo; Nystrom, Perry; Jin, Yan; Flockhart, David A

    2014-10-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) is necessary for cross linking of fibrin strands and generation of stable fibrin clot. FXIII Val34Leu is a common genetic single nucleotide polymorphism that has been associated with accelerated fibrin stabilization and reduced rate of fibrinolysis. The contribution of Val34Leu to long term risk of recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary stenting has not been conclusively established. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of Val34Leu on fibrin generation, platelet aggregation, and long term clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. Patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease who were treated with aspirin and clopidogrel were enrolled (n = 211). Light transmittance aggregometry and plasma fibrin clot formation using thrombelastography (TEG) were determined. Genotyping of Val34Leu was performed using Taqman assay. Clinical events during follow up were recorded. Homozygous carriers of 34 Leu variant had significantly shorter fibrin clot formation time as compared to wild type individuals (TEG K: 1.27 ± 0.3 vs. 1.68 ± 1.1 min, p = 0.011). The Val34Leu variant was associated with gene dose dependent increased risk of MI (log rank, p = 0.002) or occurrence of composite of MI and CV death (log rank, p = 0.005) with highest event rates observed in homozygous carriers of 34 Leu. In summary, FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism was associated with increased rate of fibrin stabilization in homozygous carriers of the variant and may increase risk of recurrent MI and death in patients with angiographically established coronary artery disease treated with dual antiplatelet therapy. PMID:24510702

  8. Family morph matters: factors determining survival and recruitment in a long-lived polymorphic raptor.

    PubMed

    Sumasgutner, Petra; Tate, Gareth J; Koeslag, Ann; Amar, Arjun

    2016-07-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, recruitment into the breeding population represents one of the most important life-history stages and ultimately determines the effective population size. In order to contribute to the next generation, offspring must survive to sexual maturity, secure a territory and find a mate. In this study, we explore factors influencing both offspring survival and their subsequent recruitment into the local breeding population in a long-lived urban raptor, the black sparrowhawk (Accipiter melanoleucus). Adult black sparrowhawks show discrete colour polymorphism (dark and light morphs), and in South Africa, morphs are distributed clinally with the highest proportion of dark morphs (c.75%) present in our study population on the Cape Peninsula. Parental morph was associated with both survival and recruitment. For survival, parental morph combination was important - with young produced by pairs of contrasting morphs having higher survival rates than young fledged from like-pairs. The association between recruitment and morph was more complex; with an interaction between male morph and breeding time, whereby recruitment of offspring from dark morph fathers was more likely when fledging earlier in the season. The opposite relationship was found for light morph fathers, with their offspring more likely to be recruited if fledged later in the season. This interaction may be due to differential morph-specific hunting success of fathers (males contribute most food provisioning), linked to background matching and crypsis in different weather conditions. Dark morph males may hunt more successfully in rainier and cloudier conditions, which occur more frequently earlier in the breeding season, and light morph males may be more successful later on, when weather conditions become increasingly brighter and drier. Our results reveal a complex situation whereby the family morph combination influences survival, and the father morphs specifically recruitment

  9. The association between the migration inhibitory factor −173G/C polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Weng, Wenhao; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yulan; Yu, Wenjun; Tang, Xun; Ma, Lifang; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Jiayi; Sun, Fenyong

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) −173G/C polymorphism may be associated with cancer risk. However, previous research has demonstrated conflicting results. Therefore, we followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and the meta-analysis on genetic association studies checklist, and performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between MIF −173G/C polymorphisms and the risk of cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined to measure the association between MIF promoter polymorphisms and cancer risk. The pooled ORs were performed for the dominant model, recessive model, allelic model, homozygote comparison, and heterozygote comparison. The publication bias was examined by Begg’s funnel plots and Egger’s test. A total of ten studies enrolling 2,203 cases and 2,805 controls met the inclusion criteria. MIF (−173G/C) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased cancer risk under the dominant model (OR=1.32, 95%, CI=1.00–1.74, P=0.01) and the heterozygote comparison (OR=1.38, CI=1.01–1.87, P=0.04). In subgroup analysis, MIF polymorphism and prostate were related to increased risk of prostate and non-solid cancer. In conclusion, MIF polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk in heterozygote comparison. The MIF −173G/C polymorphism may be associated with increased cancer risk. PMID:25792844

  10. Environmental factors and beta2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism: influence on the energy expenditure and nutritional status of obese women.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Eliane Lopes; Bressan, Josefina; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the influence of the Gln27Glu polymorphism of the β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRβ2) gene, fat intake and physical activity on the energy expenditure (EE) and nutritional status of obese women. Sixty obese women (30-46 years) participated in the study and were assigned to three groups depending on the genotypes: Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu. At baseline and after nutritional intervention, the anthropometric and body composition (bioelectrical impedance), dietary, EE (indirect calorimetry) and biochemical variables were measured. All women received a high-fat test meal to determine the postprandial EE (short-term) and an energy-restricted diet for 10 weeks (long term). The frequencies of Gln27Gln, Gln27Glu and Glu27Glu were 36.67, 40.0 and 23.33 %, respectively. Anthropometric and biochemical variables and EE did not differ between groups, although women who had no polymorphism demonstrated decreased carbohydrate oxidation. On the other hand, the Glu27Glu genotype showed a positive relation with EE in physical activity and fat oxidation. The environmental factors and Gln27Glu polymorphism did not influence the nutritional status and EE of obese women, but physical activity in obese women with the polymorphism in the ADRβ2 gene can promote fat oxidation. The results suggest that encouraging the practice of physical exercise is important considering the high frequency of this polymorphism in obese subjects. PMID:25893811

  11. The tumor necrosis factor-α-238 polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ming; Yan, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have reported the association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-238 polymorphism and digestive system cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk. Pooled analysis for the TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism contained 26 studies with a total of 4849 cases and 8567 controls. The meta-analysis observed a significant association between TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk in the overall population (GA vs GG: OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.00-1.40, P heterpgeneity = 0.016; A vs G: OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.03-1.39, P heterpgeneity = 0.015; dominant model: OR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41, P heterpgeneity = 0.012). In the analysis of the ethnic subgroups, however, similar results were observed only in the Asian population, but not in the Caucasian population. Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of digestive system cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Interactions between Environmental Factors and Melatonin Receptor Type 1A Polymorphism in Relation to Oral Cancer Susceptibility and Clinicopathologic Development

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shun-Fa; Lee, Wei-Jiunn; Lin, Yung-Wei; Lee, Liang-Ming; Chang, Junn-Liang; Weng, Wei-Chun; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the combined effect of melatonin receptor type 1A (MTNR1A) gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of oral cancer. Methodology and Principal Findings Three polymorphisms of the MTNR1A gene from 618 patients with oral cancer and 560 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The CTA haplotype of the studied MTNR1A polymorphisms (rs2119882, rs13140012, rs6553010) was related to a higher risk of oral cancer. Moreover, MTNR1A gene polymorphisms exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and tobacco use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Finally, oral-cancer patients with betel quid-chewing habit who had T/T allele of MTNR1A rs13140012 were at higher risk for developing an advanced clinical stage and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion These results support gene-environment interactions of MTNR1A polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid-chewing habits possibly altering oral-cancer susceptibility and metastasis. PMID:25806809

  13. Distribution of CYP17α polymorphism and selected physiochemical factors of uterine leiomyoma in Barbados

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, Angela T.; Austin, Shane; Williams, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyoma is a major reproductive health disease among women and in particular Black women. The present study sought to determine whether a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of CYP17 (rs743572) was associated with the risk of developing uterine leiomyoma (UL) in affected women in Barbados; a majority Black population. It also sought to determine if BMI, waist circumference and oestradiol levels were associated with UL in this group. A total of 96 random persons were assessed in a case–control study using a PCR-RFLP assay, and measurements of body mass index, waist circumference, and oestradiol levels were also assessed. Our results showed no genetic association with the risk of UL and this gene. The genetic distribution of CYP 17α- alleles resembled a normal Hardy–Weinberg distribution, and a relatively low risk of 0.25 at a confidence interval at 95%, of UL disease development. However, a significant association was found between oestradiol levels and fibroids, as well as oestradiol levels and BMI, at P < 0.05 among cases. Therefore our study indicates that significant associations between physiochemical factors comprising BMI, waist circumference, and oestrogen levels are disease indicators in this population. In conclusion, our findings suggest that obesity and its associated risk factors are important in a majority Black Caribbean population, although the sample size needs to be increased. PMID:25606420

  14. Polymorphisms in human heat shock factor-1 and analysis of potential biological consequences.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Tiffany M; Scheraga, Rachel G; Tulapurkar, Mohan E; Suffredini, Dante; Liggett, Stephen B; Ramarathnam, Aparna; Potla, Ratnakar; Singh, Ishwar S; Hasday, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    The stress-activated transcription factor, heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), regulates many genes including cytoprotective heat shock proteins (HSPs). We hypothesized that polymorphisms in HSF1 may alter the level or function of HSF1 protein accounting for interindividual viability in disease susceptibility or prognosis. We searched for exomic variants in HSF1 by querying human genome databases and directly sequencing DNA from 80 anonymous genomic DNA samples. Overall, HSF1 sequence was highly conserved, with no common variations. We found 31 validated deviations from a reference sequence in the dbSNP database and an additional 5 novel variants by sequencing, with allele frequencies that were 0.06 or less. Of these 36, 2 were in 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR), 10 in 3'UTR, and 24 in the coding region. The potential effects of 5'UTR on secondary structure, protein structure/function, and 3'UTR targets of microRNAs were analyzed using RNAFold, PolyPhen-2, SIFT, and MicroSNiper. One of the 5'UTR variants was predicted to strengthen secondary structure. Eight of 3'UTR variants were predicted to modify microRNA target sequences. Eight of the coding region variants were predicted to modify HSF1 structure/function. Reducing HSF1 levels in A549 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increased sensitivity to heat-induced killing demonstrating the impact that genetic variants that reduce HSF1 levels might have. Using the pmirGLO expression system, we found that the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR suppressed translation of a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid by 65 %. Introducing two of four 3'UTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increased HSF1 3'UTR translational suppression by 27-44 % compared with the wild-type HSF1 3'UTR sequence while a third SNP reduced suppression by 25 %. HSF1 variants may alter HSF1 protein levels or function with potential effects on cell functions, including sensitivity to stress. PMID:25023647

  15. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in elderly Japanese-Brazilian immigrants does not explain the reduced cardiovascular risk factor incidence.

    PubMed

    Terra, N; Moriguchi, Y; Bittencourt, L; Trois, R S; Piccoli, J E C; Cruz, I B M

    2011-01-01

    Study of immigrant populations may contribute to a better understanding of the epidemiology of diseases associated with the aging process. We examined the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphism, in elderly subjects who were born in Japan, migrated to South Brazil and have lived in that region for over 40 years, versus a group of elderly, locally born Brazilians living in the same region. These Japanese subjects came to Brazil after World War II (1950-1960) from several Japanese cities, mainly Nagasaki, Kumamoto and Hokkaido. Among 1007 subjects genotyped for ApoE polymorphism, we selected 540 elderly subjects (>60 years old), consisting of 270 Japanese-Brazilians and 270 Brazilians of European ancestry from Rio Grande do Sul State (Gaucha population). The Japanese-Brazilian group had significantly lower prevalences of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome than did the Gaucho population group. ApoE polymorphism frequencies were similar in the two groups. The differences in cardiovascular risk factors observed in the two populations cannot be explained by ApoE polymorphism; they could be related to conservation of Japanese lifestyle habits, such as diet. PMID:21948760

  16. Association study between growth differentiation factor 5 polymorphism and non-contact anterior cruciate ligament rupture in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Biao; Li, Bin; Qi, Yong-Jian; Tie, Kai; Chen, Liao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is the most common ligamentous injury for active adolescents and young adults each year. However, the precise etiologies of ACL injury are not fully understood. The present study was to investigate +104T/C polymorphism of growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) gene in patients with ACL rupture, and evaluate the effects of polymorphism on GDF5 mRNA levels in ligament of patients with ACL rupture in central China. Methods: A total of 286 Chinese patients with ACL rupture and 500healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The +104T/C polymorphism in GDF5 gene were genotyped by DNA sequencing. GDF5 mRNA expressions levels in ligament were determined by quantitative PCR. Results: The frequency of the TT genotype tended to be higher in ACL rupture group than in control group (62.6% vs. 48.0%, P< 0.001, OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.35-2.44). T allele of the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism was more common in ACL rupture group than in control group (P< 0.001). Patients carrying TT genotype expressed lower levels of GDF5 mRNA than C carriers (P = 0.005) among ACL rupture. Conclusion: Our study indicated that GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism was associated with ACL rupture patients in central China. This is likely from decreased expressions of GDF5 mRNA. Further studies are necessary to explore the functional implication of the GDF5 +104T/C polymorphism in Chinese ACL rupture patients. PMID:26885231

  17. Association of Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2, Thioredoxin Interacting Protein, and Heme Oxygenase-1 Gene Polymorphisms with Diabetes and Obesity in Mexican Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica Saraí; González-Reyes, Susana; García-Niño, Wylly Ramsés; Moreno-Macías, Hortensia; Rodríguez-Arellano, Martha Eunice; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Zúñiga, Joaquín; Barquera, Rodrigo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear factor-erythroid 2- (NF-E2-) related factor 2 (Nrf2) is abated and its ability to reduce oxidative stress is impaired in type 2 diabetes and obesity. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore if polymorphisms in Nrf2 and target genes are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican mestizo subjects. The rs1800566 of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene, rs7211 of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) gene, rs2071749 of heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene, and the rs6721961 and the rs2364723 from Nrf2 gene were genotyped in 627 diabetic subjects and 1020 controls. The results showed that the rs7211 polymorphism is a protective factor against obesity in nondiabetic subjects (CC + CT versus TT, OR = 0.40, P = 0.005) and in women (CC versus CT + TT, OR = 0.7, P = 0.016). TT carriers had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and lower body mass index. The rs2071749 was positively associated with obesity (AA versus AG + GG, OR = 1.25, P = 0.026). Finally, the rs6721961 was negatively associated with diabetes in men (CC versus CA + AA, OR = 0.62, P = 0.003). AA carriers showed lower glucose concentrations. No association was found for rs1800566 and rs2364723 polymorphisms. In conclusion, the presence of Nrf2 and related genes polymorphisms are associated with diabetes and obesity in Mexican patients. PMID:27274779

  18. 5,10 Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genetic polymorphism as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    SciTech Connect

    Ou, C.Y.; Brown, V.K.; Khoury, M.J.

    1996-06-28

    Persons with a thermolabile form of the enzyme 5,10 methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) have reduced enzyme activity and increased plasma homocysteine which can be lowered by supplemental folic acid. Thermolability of the enzyme has recently been shown to be caused by a common mutation (677C{sup {r_arrow}}T) in the MTHFR gene. We studied 41 fibroblast cultures from NTD-affected fetuses and compared their genotypes with those of 109 blood specimens from individuals in the general population. 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T homozygosity was associated with a 7.2 fold increased risk for NTDs (95% confidence interval: 1.8-30.3; p value: 0.001). These preliminary data suggest that the 677C{sup {r_arrow}}T polymorphism of the MTHFR gene is a risk factor for spina bifida and anencephaly that may provide a partial biologic explanation for why folic acid prevents these types of NTD. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. A Common BACE1 Polymorphism Is a Risk Factor for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    PubMed Central

    Calero, Olga; Bullido, María J.; Clarimón, Jordi; Frank-García, Ana; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Lleó, Alberto; Rey, María Jesús; Sastre, Isabel; Rábano, Alberto; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Ferrer, Isidro; Calero, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP) interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer’s and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD) diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405) with sporadic CJD (sCJD). Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP) involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players. PMID:22952813

  20. Bayesian pedigree inference with small numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms via a factor-graph representation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eric C; Ng, Thomas C

    2016-02-01

    We develop a computational framework for addressing pedigree inference problems using small numbers (80-400) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our approach relaxes the assumptions, which are commonly made, that sampling is complete with respect to the pedigree and that there is no genotyping error. It relies on representing the inferred pedigree as a factor graph and invoking the Sum-Product algorithm to compute and store quantities that allow the joint probability of the data to be rapidly computed under a large class of rearrangements of the pedigree structure. This allows efficient MCMC sampling over the space of pedigrees, and, hence, Bayesian inference of pedigree structure. In this paper we restrict ourselves to inference of pedigrees without loops using SNPs assumed to be unlinked. We present the methodology in general for multigenerational inference, and we illustrate the method by applying it to the inference of full sibling groups in a large sample (n=1157) of Chinook salmon typed at 95 SNPs. The results show that our method provides a better point estimate and estimate of uncertainty than the currently best-available maximum-likelihood sibling reconstruction method. Extensions of this work to more complex scenarios are briefly discussed. PMID:26450523

  1. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Alpha Polymorphisms with Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate in Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ebadifar, Asghar; Hamedi, Roya; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Kamali, Koorosh; Aghakhani Moghadam, Fatemeh; Esmaeili Anvar, Nazanin; Ameli, Nazilla

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is one of the most common congenital anomalies and the etiology of orofacial clefts is multifactorial. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is expressed at the medial edge epithelium of fusing palatal shelves during craniofacial development. In this study, the association of two important TGFA gene polymorphisms, BamHI (rs11466297) and RsaI (rs3732248), with CL/P was evaluated in an Iranian population. Methods: The frequencies of BamHI and RsaI variations were determined in 105 unrelated Iranian subjects with nonsyndromic CL/P and 218 control subjects using PCR and RFLP methods, and the results were compared with healthy controls. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The BamHI AC genotype was significantly higher (p=0.016) in the patients (12.4%) than the control group (5.0%). The BamHI C allele was significantly higher (p=0.001; OR=3.4, 95% CI: 1.6–7.4) in the cases (8.0%) compared with the control group (2.5%). Conclusion: Our study showed that there was an association between the TGFA BamHI variation and nonsyndromic CL/P in Iranian population. PMID:26605011

  2. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and Factor V Leiden variant in Mexican women with preeclampsia/eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, I P; Moran, M C; Martínez-Abundis, E; González-Ortiz, M; Flores-Martínez, S E; Machorro, V; Sandoval, L; Figuera, L E; Mena, J P; Oliva, J M; Tlacuilo-Parra, J A; Sánchez-Corona, J; Salazar-Páramo, M

    2005-01-01

    The etiology of preeclampsia is still a matter of controversy. An association between hyperhomocysteinemia and preeclamptic patients has been described. A common missense mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is associated with increased plasma homocysteine concentrations. In addition, the polymorphism of gene encoding for Factor V Leiden G1691A is associated with a prothrombotic state in heterozygous subjects. Both mutations in these thrombophilic proteins appear to have different prevalence in the general population and in patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E). We studied single nucleotide polymorphisms for MTHFR C677T and coagulation Factor V Leiden in 33 Mexican patients with PE/E as a genetic risk factor for these diseases, comparing with a normotensive pregnant control group. The genotype and allele frequencies of MTHFR C677T and Factor V Leiden mutations between Mexican women with PE/E and healthy controls were not different. We conclude that these polymorphisms do not contribute in the etiology of PE/E as it has been reported in other populations.

  3. [Detection of carriers of hemophilia A by testing for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene by PCR].

    PubMed

    Surin, V L; Aseev, M V; Zhukova, E L; Baranov, V S; Solov'ev, G Ia; Grineva, N I; Andreeva, T A; Izhevskaia, V L; Likhacheva, E A; Pliushch, O P

    1990-10-01

    Representatives of 62 families from Moscow and Leningrad with haemophilia A observed in the pedigree were tested for HindIII polymorphism in the factor VIII gene. The proposed scheme of investigation was based on intron 19 of the FVIII gene amplification by the PCR technique followed by restriction analysis with the inner control of hydrolysis. 207 unrelated X-chromosomes were analysed, the frequency of the incidence of the polymorphic HindIII site in the given population found to be 0.29. The frequency of incidence of the HindIII heterozygotes calculated according to Hardy-Weinberg equation was 0.41. This value evidences for relatively high informativity of this polymorphism for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of haemophilia A. 23 families (37%) out of 62 examined in the study were informative for this criteria. The new scheme proved to be effective in testing HindIII polymorphism for haemophilia A carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis. The whole procedure takes one day, the radiolabelled probes are not used. The scheme described was inculcated in the All-Union Research Center for Haematology, Ministry of Health, USSR, Moscow, Research Institute for Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leningrad, Institute of Medical Genetics, Greifswald, DDR. PMID:2149345

  4. -383 A/C tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 polymorphism and ankylosing spondylitis in Mexicans: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Corona-Sanchez, Esther Guadalupe; Muñoz-Valle, José Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Laura; Sanchez-Hernandez, Julia Dolores; Vazquez-Del Mercado, Monica; Ontiveros-Mercado, Heriberto; Huerta, Miguel; Trujillo, Xochitl; Rocha-Muñoz, Alberto Daniel; Celis, Alfredo; Ortega-Flores, Ricardo; Gamez-Nava, Jorge Ivan

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences in allele and genotype frequencies of -383 tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) polymorphism between ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and controls. Mexican Mestizos with AS were matched by gender, age, and ethnicity with healthy controls and compared in allele and genotype frequencies of the -383 TNFR1 polymorphism. Polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-RFLP. The AA genotype occurred at a higher frequency in the AS group (92%) compared with controls (79%, P = 0.03). A allele was increased in AS (96% vs. 88%, P = 0.015) and was associated with genetic susceptibility for AS (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% CI = 1.23-10.61). This preliminary study is the first assessing the association of the -383 A/C TNFR1 polymorphism with AS, although it has the limitation of a small sample size. These data are of interest for the genetic epidemiology of AS in the Mexican population, requiring further investigation in other countries.

  5. Isolation and characterization of human factor IX cDNA: identification of Taq I polymorphism and regional assignment.

    PubMed

    Jagadeeswaran, P; Lavelle, D E; Kaul, R; Mohandas, T; Warren, S T

    1984-09-01

    Hemophilia B or Christmas disease is an X-linked condition caused by absent or reduced levels of functional coagulation factor IX. Based upon the peptide sequence of bovine factor IX, we synthesized a 17-base pair oligonucleotide probe to screen a human liver cDNA library. A recombinant clone was identified with a 917-nucleotide insert whose sequence corresponds to 70% of the coding region of human factor IX. This factor IX cDNA was used to probe restriction endonuclease digested human DNA to identify a Taq I polymorphism associated with the genomic factor IX gene as well as to verify that there is a single copy of this gene per haploid genome. The factor IX cDNA was also used to map the locus for factor IX to a region from Xq26 to Xqter. The cloning of human factor IX cDNA and identification of a Taq I polymorphism and its regional localization will provide a means to study the molecular genetics of hemophilia B and permit linkage analysis with nearby loci.

  6. [Frequency of phenotypes and genes of the polymorphic blood systems in a population as dependent on the age factor].

    PubMed

    Mozalevskiĭ, A F; Iushchenko, G K; Dudina, E A

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of blood groups ABO, Rh, MNS, P, haptoglobin as well as distribution of phenotypic combinations of two different loci are compared in groups of children and adults. The frequency of phenotype O, Rh-negative and P-positive people is revealed to increase in adults, that testifies to the influence of the age factor on the distribution of the human polymorphic blood systems.

  7. Investigating impact of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Polymorphisms in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers: A Study in the Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Bhagat, Rahul; Chennagiri Srinivasamurthy, Premalata; Venketeshiah Reddihalli, Pallavi; Gawari, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the increasingly incident malignancies that is notorious because of its evasiveness for early diagnosis and high mortality rates. Epithelial ovarian cancers are highly dependent on pathologic vasculature and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is known to be one of the most efficient angiogenic factors. Polymorphisms of the VEGF gene, in this study, were assessed for association with the malignancy and other clinico-pathological factors. 300 case samples and 320 age and mensus status matched controls were inculcated into the study. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were the six single nucleotide polymorphisms that were scrutinized. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. rs 3025039 showed immense promise as a marker for disease aggression and recurrence and a factor for poor prognosis. rs699947 showed least association with the disease and clinico-pathologic factors studied. rs833061, rs 1570360 showed significant association with some clinico-pathological factors such as bilateral affliction of ovaries and post operative CA-125 levels. rs2010963 associated with presence of ascites in higher volumes. The SNPs under consideration showed no formidable linkage in our study samples. A haplotype analysis (excluding rs699947 and rs1413711) revealed 5 frontrunners being present in >85% of the population with TGGC and CGCC associating significantly as protective and risk factors respectively. These haplotypes showed a dose dependent additive effect of their seeming functionality. This study is unique and a first of its kind carried out in the Indian population of South-east Asia. PMID:26158818

  8. Investigating impact of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Polymorphisms in Epithelial Ovarian Cancers: A Study in the Indian Population.

    PubMed

    Janardhan, Bhaskari; Vaderhobli, Shilpa; Bhagat, Rahul; Chennagiri Srinivasamurthy, Premalata; Venketeshiah Reddihalli, Pallavi; Gawari, Ramesh; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the increasingly incident malignancies that is notorious because of its evasiveness for early diagnosis and high mortality rates. Epithelial ovarian cancers are highly dependent on pathologic vasculature and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor is known to be one of the most efficient angiogenic factors. Polymorphisms of the VEGF gene, in this study, were assessed for association with the malignancy and other clinico-pathological factors. 300 case samples and 320 age and mensus status matched controls were inculcated into the study. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were the six single nucleotide polymorphisms that were scrutinized. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. rs 3025039 showed immense promise as a marker for disease aggression and recurrence and a factor for poor prognosis. rs699947 showed least association with the disease and clinico-pathologic factors studied. rs833061, rs 1570360 showed significant association with some clinico-pathological factors such as bilateral affliction of ovaries and post operative CA-125 levels. rs2010963 associated with presence of ascites in higher volumes. The SNPs under consideration showed no formidable linkage in our study samples. A haplotype analysis (excluding rs699947 and rs1413711) revealed 5 frontrunners being present in >85% of the population with TGGC and CGCC associating significantly as protective and risk factors respectively. These haplotypes showed a dose dependent additive effect of their seeming functionality. This study is unique and a first of its kind carried out in the Indian population of South-east Asia. PMID:26158818

  9. Meningococcal factor H binding protein fHbpd184 polymorphism influences clinical course of meningococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Piet, Jurgen R; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Exley, Rachel; van der Veen, Stijn; van de Beek, Diederik; van der Ende, Arie

    2012-01-01

    Factor H Binding protein (fHbp) is an important meningococcal virulence factor, enabling the meningococcus to evade the complement system, and a main target for vaccination. Recently, the structure of fHBP complexed with factor H (fH) was published. Two fHbp glutamic acids, E(283) and E(304), form salt bridges with fH, influencing interaction between fHbp and fH. Fifteen amino acids were identified forming hydrogen bonds with fH. We sequenced fHbp of 254 meningococcal isolates from adults with meningococcal meningitis included in a prospective clinical cohort to study the effect of fHbp variants on meningococcal disease severity and outcome. All fHbp of subfamily A had E304 substituted with T304. Of the 15 amino acids in fHbp making hydrogen bonds to fH, 3 were conserved, 11 show a similar distribution between the two fHbp subfamilies as the polymorphism at position 304. The proportion of patients infected with meningococci with fHbp of subfamily A with unfavorable outcome was 2.5-fold lower than that of patients infected with meningococci with fHbp of subfamily B (2 of 40 (5%) vs. 27 of 213 (13%) (P = 0.28). The charge of 2 of 15 amino acids (at position 184 and 306) forming hydrogen bonds was either basic or acidic. The affinity of fHbp(K184) and of fHbp(D184) for recombinant purified human fH was assessed by Surface Plasmon Resonance and showed average K(D) of 2.60×10(-8) and 1.74×10(-8), respectively (ns). Patients infected with meningococci with fHbp(D184) were more likely to develop septic shock during admission (11 of 42 [26%] vs. 19 of 211 [9%]; P = 0.002) resulting in more frequent unfavorable outcome (9 of 42 [21%] vs. 20 of 211 [10%]; P = 0.026). In conclusion, we dentified fHBP(D184) to be associated with septic shock in patients with meningococcal meningitis. PMID:23110143

  10. Genetic polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) and childhood asthma and atopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiling; Romieu, Isabelle; Wu, Hao; Sienra-Monge, Juan-Jose; Ramírez-Aguilar, Matiana; del Río-Navarro, Blanca Estela; Lara-Sánchez, Irma del Carmen; Kistner, Emily O.; Gjessing, Håkon K.; London, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1) may influence asthma by modulating allergic airway inflammation and airway remodeling. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of TGFB1 in asthma remains inconclusive. We examined TGFB1 SNPs in relation to asthma risk and degree of atopy among 546 case-parent triads, consisting of asthmatics aged 4 to 17 years and their parents in Mexico City. Atopy to 24 aeroallergens was determined by skin prick tests. We genotyped five TGFB1 SNPs, including two known functional SNPs [C-509T (rs1800469), T869C (rs1982073)] and three others (rs7258445, rs1800472, rs8179181), using TaqMan and Masscode assays. We analyzed the data using log-linear and polytomous logistic methods. Three associated SNPs, including the two known functional SNPs, were statistically significantly related to asthma risk. Individuals carrying the T allele of C-509T had an increased risk of asthma [relative risk (RR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08–1.87 for one copy; RR (95%CI) = 1.95 (1.36–2.78) for two copies]. For T869C, the RRs (95%CI) were 1.47 (1.09–1.98) for one and 2.00 (1.38–2.90) for two copies of the C allele. Similar results were found for rs7258445. The haplotype containing all three risk alleles conferred an increased risk of asthma (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.11–1.95 for one copy; RR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.22–2.57 for two copies). These three SNPs were also related to the degree of atopy. This largest study to date of genetic variation in TGFB1 and asthma and atopy adds to increasing evidence for a role in these disorders. PMID:17333284

  11. Vitamin D and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Receptor Gene Polymorphisms in Various Hepatitis B Clinical Conditions in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tuncbilek, Semra; Aydin, Kemalettin; Hizel, Kenan

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim is to define the role of single nucleotide polymorphism on the progress of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. We evaluated polymorphisms of TNF-α-308, Vitamin D receptor Apa I and Taq I gene in patients with HBV infection. Methods All subjects included were older than 18 years old. Sixty three patients had chronic HBV infection, 61 were HBsAg positive carriers and 59 were positive for anti-HBs and anti-HBc. Gene polymorphisms were evaluated by Amplification Refractory Mutation System PCR. For patients with chronic hepatitis, viral load, ALT levels, and histopathological evaluation of the liver were also compared. Results Gender distribution was not different among groups; however, anti-HBs positive patients were significantly older than the other patients. ALT levels and viral load were significantly higher in chronic hepatitis group than the asymptomatic carriers group. Vitamin D receptor Apa I gene and Taq I gene and TNF-α -308 gene variant alleles were not different in all three groups. Variant alleles of three genes were not different in subgroups of chronic hepatitis patients formed according to ALT levels, viral load, histological activity index, and fibrosis score. Conclusions Role of single nucleotide polymorphism in clinical status of various HBV infection states was not shown in this study. Considering the other studies performed with this aim, which strengthens the notion that ethnicity is an important factor, future studies with more patients from different ethnic groups may help to clear the role of polymorphisms in the clinical progress of HBV infection.

  12. Association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha G-308A polymorphism and dental peri-implant disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Yuan-Yuan; Zeng, Xian-Tao; Weng, Hong; Cen, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Wen, Xiujie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a potent immune-inflammatory mediator involved in the regulation of bone resorption. The single nucleotide polymorphism G-308A in the TNF-α gene increases the level of this cytokine. This phenomenon is also related to several diseases. Although the association between TNF-α (G-308A) polymorphism and dental peri-implant disease has been investigated, results have remained controversial. Hence, we performed this meta-analysis to provide a comprehensive and systematic conclusion on this topic. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure until July 2015. A fixed-effect model was established to calculate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The calculated values were then used to assess the strength of the association between the TNF-α (G-308A) polymorphism and the dental peri-implant disease risk. The heterogeneity between included studies was evaluated with Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Interstudy publication bias was investigated with a funnel plot. Results: Six eligible studies were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled ORs did not reveal a significant relationship between the TNF-α (G-308A) polymorphism and the disease susceptibility. Subgroup analyses in terms of ethnicity and disease type yielded similar results. Conclusion: Our meta-analysis revealed that TNF-α (G-308A) polymorphism was not significantly associated with the risk of dental peri-implant disease. However, further studies with large sample sizes should be performed to verify these results. PMID:27583850

  13. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  14. Influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in factor VIII and von Willebrand factor genes on plasma factor VIII activity: the ARIC Study.

    PubMed

    Campos, Marco; Buchanan, Ashley; Yu, Fuli; Barbalic, Maja; Xiao, Yang; Chambless, Lloyd E; Wu, Kenneth K; Folsom, Aaron R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dong, Jing-fei

    2012-02-23

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a cofactor for factor IXa in the contact coagulation pathway and circulates in a protective complex with von Willebrand factor (VWF). Plasma FVIII activity is strongly influenced by environmental and genetic factors through VWF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the coding and promoter sequence in the FVIII gene have been extensively studied for effects on FVIII synthesis, secretion, and activity, but impacts of non-disease-causing intronic SNPs remain largely unknown. We analyzed FVIII SNPs and FVIII activity in 10,434 healthy Americans of European (EA) or African (AA) descent in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Among covariates, age, race, diabetes, and ABO contributed 2.2%, 3.5%, 4%, and 10.7% to FVIII intersubject variation, respectively. Four intronic FVIII SNPs associated with FVIII activity and 8 with FVIII-VWF ratio in a sex- and race-dependent manner. The FVIII haplotypes AT and GCTTTT also associated with FVIII activity. Seven VWF SNPs were associated with FVIII activity in EA subjects, but no FVIII SNPs were associated with VWF Ag. These data demonstrate that intronic SNPs could directly or indirectly influence intersubject variation of FVIII activity. Further investigation may reveal novel mechanisms of regulating FVIII expression and activity. PMID:22219226

  15. Is catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism a risk factor in the development of premenstrual syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Deveci, Esma Ozturk; Selek, Salih; Camuzcuoglu, Aysun; Hilali, Nese Gul; Camuzcuoglu, Hakan; Erdal, Mehmet Emin; Vural, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate whether there was a correlation between catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT) gene polymorphism, which is believed to play a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders, and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods Fifty-three women with regular menstrual cycles, aged between 18 and 46 years and diagnosed with PMS according to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology criteria were included in this study as the study group, and 53 healthy women having no health problems were selected as the controls. Venous blood was collected from all patients included in the study and kept at -18℃ prior to analysis. Results There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of demographic features such as age, body mass index, number of pregnancies, parity, and number of children. No statistically significant difference was observed in terms of COMT gene polymorphism (p=0.61) between women in the PMS and the control groups. However, a significant difference was found between arthralgia, which is an indicator of PMS, and low-enzyme activity COMT gene (Met/Met) polymorphism (p=0.04). Conclusion These results suggested that there was no significant relationship between PMS and COMT gene polymorphism. Since we could not find a direct correlation between the COMT gene polymorphism and PMS, further studies including alternative neurotransmitter pathways are needed to find an effective treatment for this disease. PMID:25045629

  16. Gene polymorphisms as risk factors for predicting the cardiovascular manifestations in Marfan syndrome. Role of folic acid metabolism enzyme gene polymorphisms in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Benke, Kálmán; Ágg, Bence; Mátyás, Gábor; Szokolai, Viola; Harsányi, Gergely; Szilveszter, Bálint; Odler, Balázs; Pólos, Miklós; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál; Radovits, Tamás; Merkely, Béla; Nagy, Zsolt B; Szabolcs, Zoltán

    2015-10-01

    Folic acid metabolism enzyme polymorphisms are believed to be responsible for the elevation of homocysteine (HCY) concentration in the blood plasma, correlating with the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection. We studied 71 Marfan patients divided into groups based on the severity of cardiovascular involvement: no intervention required (n=27, Group A); mild involvement requiring intervention (n=17, Group B); severe involvement (n=27, Group C) subdivided into aortic dilatation (n=14, Group C1) and aortic dissection (n=13, Group C2), as well as 117 control subjects. We evaluated HCY, folate, vitamin B12 and the polymorphisms of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR;c.665C>T and c.1286A>C), methionine synthase (MTR;c.2756A>G) and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR;c.66A>G). Multiple comparisons showed significantly higher levels of HCY in Group C2 compared to Groups A, B, C1 and control group (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, p=0.001 and p=0.003, respectively). Folate was lower in Group C2 than in Groups A, B, C1 and control subjects (p<0.0001, p=0.02, p<0.0001 and p<0.0001, respectively). Group C2 had the highest prevalence of homozygotes for all four gene polymorphisms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that HCY plasma level was an independent risk factor for severe cardiovascular involvement (Group C; odds ratio [OR] 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-2.67, p=0.001) as well as for aortic dissection (Group C2; OR 2.49, 95%CI 1.30-4.78, p=0.006). In conclusion, severe cardiovascular involvement in Marfan patients, and especially aortic dissection, is associated with higher HCY plasma levels and prevalence of homozygous genotypes of folic acid metabolism enzymes than mild or no cardiovascular involvement. These results suggest that impaired folic acid metabolism has an important role in the development and remodelling of the extracellular matrix of the aorta.

  17. Meta-analysis of Factor V Leiden G1691A polymorphism and osteonecrosis of femoral head susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    SHANG, XIFU; LUO, ZHENGLIANG; LI, XU; HU, FEI; ZHAO, QICHUN; ZHANG, WENZHI

    2013-01-01

    Testing for genetic risk associations between Factor V Leiden (FVL) and the osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) is common, however, inconsistent results have been previously obtained. To summarize results on the association of FVL mutation polymorphism with ONFH in various populations and to calculate the overall genetic risk factors, we performed a search of electronic databases including PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Chinese Biomedical Database to identify published studies correlating the FVL mutation with ONFH. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) version 5.0 and Stata statistical software (version 10). We identified 57 titles and included 7 studies comprising 481 cases and 867 controls in this meta-analysis. The groups were pooled, and a significant association between FVL mutation and increased ONFH was found (OR=4.55, 95% CI, 2.75–7.52, P<0.00001). This meta-analysis demonstrated that FVL plays an important role in non-Asian populations. Large sample studies including different ethnic groups and age- and gender-matched groups, as well as multiple gene polymorphism detection should be considered to clarify the association of FVL mutation polymorphism and ONFH susceptibility in the future. PMID:24648992

  18. Meta-analysis of Factor V Leiden G1691A polymorphism and osteonecrosis of femoral head susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xifu; Luo, Zhengliang; Li, Xu; Hu, Fei; Zhao, Qichun; Zhang, Wenzhi

    2013-07-01

    Testing for genetic risk associations between Factor V Leiden (FVL) and the osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) is common, however, inconsistent results have been previously obtained. To summarize results on the association of FVL mutation polymorphism with ONFH in various populations and to calculate the overall genetic risk factors, we performed a search of electronic databases including PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and the Chinese Biomedical Database to identify published studies correlating the FVL mutation with ONFH. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) version 5.0 and Stata statistical software (version 10). We identified 57 titles and included 7 studies comprising 481 cases and 867 controls in this meta-analysis. The groups were pooled, and a significant association between FVL mutation and increased ONFH was found (OR=4.55, 95% CI, 2.75-7.52, P<0.00001). This meta-analysis demonstrated that FVL plays an important role in non-Asian populations. Large sample studies including different ethnic groups and age- and gender-matched groups, as well as multiple gene polymorphism detection should be considered to clarify the association of FVL mutation polymorphism and ONFH susceptibility in the future.

  19. Sinus node dysfunction in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia: risk factor and potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Faggioni, Michela; van der Werf, Christian; Knollmann, Bjorn C

    2014-10-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited heart rhythm disorder characterized by the occurrence of potentially life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conditions of physical or emotional stress. The underlying cause is a dysregulation in intracellular Ca handling due to mutations in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release unit. Recent experimental work suggests that sinus bradycardia, which is sometimes observed in CPVT patients, may be another primary defect caused by CPVT mutations. Herein, we review the pathophysiology of CPVT and discuss the role of sinus node dysfunction as a modulator of arrhythmia risk and potential therapeutic target.

  20. Sinus node dysfunction in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia – risk factor and potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Faggioni, Michela; van der Werf, Christian; Knollmann, Bjorn

    2014-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is an inherited rhythm disorder characterized by the occurrence of potentially life-threatening polymorphic ventricular tachyarrhythmias in conditions of physical or emotional stress. The underlying cause is a dysregulation in intracellular Ca handling due to mutations in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release channel. Recent experimental work suggests that the sinus bradycardia that is sometimes observed in CPVT patients may be another primary defect caused by CPVT mutations. Here, we review the pathophysiology of CPVT and discuss the role of sinus node dysfunction as a modulator of arrhythmia risk and potential therapeutic target. PMID:25112803

  1. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1-509C/T Gene Polymorphism with Ischemic Stroke: A Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Amit; Srivastava, Mukesh Kumar; Misra, Shubham; Pandit, Awadh Kishor; Prasad, Kameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transforming Growth Factor-Beta 1 (TGF-β1) is a pleiotropic cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory property, which has been considered as an essential risk factor in the inflammatory process of Ischemic Stroke (IS), by involving in the pathophysiological progression of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and lipid metabolisms. -509C/T TGF-β1 gene polymorphism has been found to be associated with the risk of IS. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide a relatively comprehensive account of the relation between -509C/T gene polymorphisms of TGF-β1 and susceptibility to IS. Methods: A review of literature for eligible genetic association Studies published before October 20, 2014 was conducted in the PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar and Trip database. The strength of association was calculated by pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals using RevMan 5.3 software. Heterogeneity was examined using Higgins I-squared, Tau-squared, and Chi-squared tests. Results: A total of 2 studies involving 614 cases and 617 controls were found. The overall estimates did not show any significant relation between TGF-β1-509C/T polymorphism and risk of IS under dominant (CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.01, 95%CI=0.31 to 3.26; P=0.99), recessive (CC vs. CT+TT: OR=0.94, 95%CI=0.47 to 1.90; P=0.87), and allelic models (T vs. C: OR=1.06, 95%CI=0.55 to 2.04; P=0.86). Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that TGF-β1-509C/T gene polymorphism has no significant association with the susceptibility of IS. Further well-designed prospective studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:27303603

  2. Characterization of IXINITY® (Trenonacog Alfa), a Recombinant Factor IX with Primary Sequence Corresponding to the Threonine-148 Polymorph

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Dougald M.; Jenny, Richard J.; Van Cott, Kevin E.; Saward, Laura L.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of these studies was to extensively characterize the first recombinant FIX therapeutic corresponding to the threonine-148 (Thr-148) polymorph, IXINITY (trenonacog alfa [coagulation factor IX (recombinant)]). Gel electrophoresis, circular dichroism, and gel filtration were used to determine purity and confirm structure. Chromatographic and mass spectrometry techniques were used to identify and quantify posttranslational modifications. Activity was assessed as the ability to activate factor X (FX) both with and without factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) and in a standard clotting assay. All results were consistent across multiple lots. Trenonacog alfa migrated as a single band on Coomassie-stained gels; activity assays were normal and showed <0.002 IU of activated factor IX (FIXa) per IU of FIX. The molecule has >97%  γ-carboxylation and underwent the appropriate structural change upon binding calcium ions. Trenonacog alfa was activated normally with factor XIa (FXIa); once activated it bound to FVIIIa and FXa. When activated to FIXa, it was inhibited efficiently by antithrombin. Glycosylation patterns were similar to plasma-derived FIX with sialic acid content consistent with the literature reports of good pharmacokinetic performance. These studies have shown that trenonacog alfa is a highly pure product with a primary sequence and posttranslational modifications consistent with the common Thr-148 polymorphism of plasma-derived FIX. PMID:26997955

  3. Sequence analysis reveals genomic factors affecting EST-SSR primer performance and polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Search for simple sequence repeat (SSR) motifs and design of flanking primers in expressed sequence tag (EST) sequences can be easily done at a large scale using bioinformatics programs. However, failed amplification and/or detection, along with lack of polymorphism, is often seen among randomly sel...

  4. Assessment of the frequency of the transforming growth factor beta-1 sequence polymorphisms in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Augustyńska, Beata; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Skonieczna, Katarzyna; Woźniak, Alina; Żyła, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most significant factors in the development of liver fibrosis. The pathomechanism of liver fibrosis is the same regardless of its etiology. Fibrosis is a sign of an imbalance between the synthesis of the extracellular matrix components and their degradation. Among the many cytokines that affect hepatic stellate cell activation it seems that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is the most significant, either as the direct factor stimulating polymerase chain reaction (HSC) proliferation and transformation into myofibroblasts, or as the direct factor causing an increase in the activity of genes responsible for the synthesis of extracellular matrix components. The aim of the study was to reveal possible dependencies and differences between the presence of certain alleles of the TGF-β1 gene and its blood level in the study and control group. Blood samples were obtained from 39 patients, the control group consisted of 21 patients. The results obtained in the course of this study showed no statistically significant differences between the frequencies of particular polymorphisms. In the case of haplotype frequencies, insignificant differences were found for the algorithm Excoffier-Laval-Balding predicted haplotypes while one significant difference between the study and control groups was detected in case of the TC haplotype frequency predicted using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. However, the difference in frequency of TC haplotype predicted by both algorithms was not significant. Genetic analysis of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon I of the TGF-β1 gene did not show significant differences between the occurrence of particular polymorphisms and haplotypes in the populations under study.

  5. Asthma: Gln27Glu and Arg16Gly polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor gene as risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma is caused by both environmental and genetic factors. The ADRB2 gene, which encodes the beta 2-adrenergic receptor, is one of the most extensively studied genes with respect to asthma prevalence and severity. The Arg16Gly (+46A > G) and Gln27Glu (+79C > G) polymorphisms in the ADRB2 gene cause changes in the amino acids flanking the receptor ligand site, altering the response to bronchodilators and the risk of asthma through complex pathways. The ADRB2 polymorphisms affect beta-adrenergic bronchodilator action and are a tool to identify at-risk populations. Objective To determine the frequency of these two polymorphisms in allergic asthma patients and healthy subjects and to correlate these data with the occurrence and severity of asthma. Methods Eighty-eight allergic asthma patients and 141 healthy subjects were included in this study. The ADRB2 polymorphisms were analyzed using the amplification-refractory mutation system – polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) technique. The statistical analysis was performed with the SPSS 21.0 software using the Fisher’s Exact and χ2 tests. Results The ADRB2 polymorphisms were associated with asthma occurrence. The Arg16Arg, Gln27Gln and Gln27Glu genotypes were risk factors; the odds ratios were 6.782 (CI = 3.07 to 16.03), 2.120 (CI = 1.22 to 3.71) and 8.096 (CI = 3.90 to 17.77), respectively. For the Gly16Gly and Glu27Glu genotypes, the odds ratios were 0.312 (CI = 0.17 to 0.56) and 0.084 (CI = 0.04 to 0.17), respectively. The haplotype analysis showed that there were associations between the following groups: Arg16Arg-Gln27Gln (OR = 5.108, CI = 1.82 to 16.37), Gly16Gly-Glu27Glu (OR = 2.816, CI = 1.25 to 6.54), Arg16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.048, CI = 0.01 to 0.14) and Gly16Gly-Gln27Glu (OR = 0.1036, CI = 0.02 to 0.39). The polymorphism Gln27Glu was associated with asthma severity, as the Gln27Gln genotype was a risk factor for severe asthma (OR

  6. Prediction of response to chemoradiation in rectal cancer by a gene polymorphism in the epidermal growth factor receptor promoter region

    SciTech Connect

    Spindler, Karen-Lise Garm . E-mail: kalgsp@vgs.vejleamt.dk; Nielsen, Jens Nederby; Lindebjerg, Jan; Brandslund, Ivan; Jakobsen, Anders

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been associated with radioresistance in solid tumors. Recently a polymorphism in the Sp1 recognition site of the EGFR promoter region was identified. The present study investigated the predictive value of this polymorphism for the outcome of chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: The study included 77 patients with locally advanced T3 rectal tumors. Treatment consisted of preoperative radiation therapy at a total tumor dose of 65 Gy and concomitant chemotherapy with Uftoral. Blood samples from 63 patients were evaluated for Sp1 -216 G/T polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Forty-eight primary tumor biopsies were available for EGFR immunostaining. Patients underwent surgery 8 weeks after treatment. Pathologic response evaluation was performed according to the tumor regression grade (TRG) system. Results: Forty-nine percent had major response (TRG1-2) and 51% moderate response (TRG 3-4) to chemoradiation. The rates of major response were 34% (10/29) in GG homozygote patients compared with 65% (22/34) in patients with T containing variants (p = 0.023). Fifty-eight percent of biopsies were positive for EGFR expression (28/48). The major response rates with regard to EGFR immunostaining were not significantly different. EGFR-positive tumors were found in 83% of the GG homozygote patients compared with 38% of patients with TT or GT variants (p = 0.008). Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between EGFR Sp1 -216 G/T polymorphism and treatment response to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Further investigations of a second set of patient and other treatment schedules are warranted.

  7. Association of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk and Prognosis of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xiao-juan; Liu, Wen-min; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is the second most common type of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) globally. The aims of this study were to further systematically clarify the potential association of rs833061 (-460 C>T) and rs1570360 (-1154 G>A), two SNPs of VEGF, with the risk of cSCC and the prognostic impacts on cSCC patients. Material/Methods This hospital-based case-control study analyzed peripheral venous blood collected from 100 cSCC patients and 124 healthy controls, and gathered personal information on patients. Genotypes of the VEGF gene -460C>T and -1154G>A polymorphism were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method. Different distributions of allele frequencies and genotype in the case and control group were measured, comparing different genotype differences in the survival of patients with cSCC. Results Distributions of allele frequencies and genotype of -460 C>T in the case and control group were statistically different; the TT + CT genotype was significantly correlated with a decrease risk of cSCC (OR=0.36, 95% CI=0.21–0.63, P<0.001). There was no difference in the distribution of allele frequencies and genotype of -1154 G>A between control and case groups. For -1154460C>T, the CC genotype was an adverse factor, associated with a significant decrease in the survival status of cSCC patients (P<0.001). For VEGF-1154 G>A, the AA genotype was significantly correlated with the reduced overall survival in cSCC patients, with the mean survival time of 23.88 months (P=0.009). Conclusions The VEGF gene -460 C>T polymorphism and -1154 G>A polymorphism may serve as potential genetic markers for the risk and prognosis of cSCC. PMID:27729640

  8. Upstream Stimulatory Factor is Required for Human Angiotensinogen Expression and Differential Regulation by the A-20C Polymorphism

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Matthew E.; Tian, Xin; Liu, Xuebo; Davis, Deborah R.; Sigmund, Curt D.

    2008-01-01

    Among naturally-occurring polymorphisms in the 5’ flanking region of the human angiotensinogen (AGT) gene, the −20 and −217 polymorphisms have the strongest effects on AGT regulation in AGT-expressing cells derived from liver, kidney, brain, and fat. These polymorphisms may affect allele-specific transcription factor binding, and the high-expressing alleles are both relatively common. We show herein that the −20C allele has higher transcriptional activity than −20A, and the −20A allele confers no additional transactivation potential beyond that of a mutated vector. Gel shift assays show that USF1 and USF2 preferentially bind the −20C allele whereas the −20A allele retains a low affinity USF binding site. Plasmid immunoprecipitation assays confirmed preferential association of USF1 with the −20C allele in transfected HepG2 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that USF1 binds to the endogenous AGT −20C allele in CCF cells, the only cell line tested that carries the −20C allele, and to the human AGT promoter in liver and adipose tissue from transgenic mice. Transduction of AGT-expressing cells with shRNAs specifically targeting USF1 or USF2, resulted in cell- and allele-specific attenuation of AGT promoter activity. In vivo, knockdown of USF expression in the liver of transgenic mice expressing the −20C allele of AGT resulted in lower AGT expression, a decrease in circulating human AGT protein, but no change in expression of GAPDH or HNF-4α. We conclude that USF1 functionally and differentially regulates AGT expression via the −20 polymorphism and that the differential expression exhibited by −20 can be accounted for by differential association with USF1. PMID:18802024

  9. ABO blood group but not haemostasis genetic polymorphisms significantly influence thrombotic risk: a study of 180 homozygotes for the Factor V Leiden mutation.

    PubMed

    2006-12-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of additional genetic risk factors on the clinical manifestations of factor (F) V Leiden homozygotes. A retrospective multi-centre cohort study was performed to assess the role of the FII G20210A gene mutation, the protein C (PC) promoter CG haplotype, the combination of two PC polymorphisms (A-1641G, C-1654T), the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism, two thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor polymorphisms (Thr325Ile, Ala147Thr), two plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 polymorphisms (-675 4G/5G, A-844G), the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and the ABO blood group on the thrombotic phenotype in FV Leiden homozygotes. 127 subjects with venous thrombosis and 53 asymptomatic subjects were analysed. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was more frequent in symptomatic subjects than in asymptomatic ones (68% vs. 45%, P = 0.02; odds ratio (OR) 2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.8, after adjustment for potential confounders). For the other polymorphisms, no difference was observed between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. The non-O blood group was more frequent among symptomatic carriers (84% vs. 57%, P = 0.0002; OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.7-9.7). In conclusion, except for the ABO blood group, none of the polymorphisms studied contribute strongly to the thrombotic risk in FV Leiden homozygotes.

  10. Interactive effects of age and multi-gene profile on motor learning and sensorimotor adaptation.

    PubMed

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Boyden, Nate B; Kwak, Youngbin; Humfleet, Jennifer; Müller, Martijn L T M; Bohnen, Nicolaas I; Seidler, Rachael D

    2016-04-01

    The interactive association of age and dopaminergic polymorphisms on cognitive function has been studied extensively. However, there is limited research on whether age interacts with the association between genetic polymorphisms and motor learning. We examined a group of young and older adults' performance in three motor tasks: explicit sequence learning, visuomotor adaptation, and grooved pegboard. We assessed whether individuals' motor learning and performance were associated with their age and genotypes. We selected three genetic polymorphisms: Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase (COMT val158met) and Dopamine D2 Receptor (DRD2 G>T), which are involved with dopaminergic regulation, and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF val66met) that modulates neuroplasticity and has been shown to interact with dopaminergic genes. Although the underlying mechanisms of the function of these three genotypes are different, the high performance alleles of each have been linked to better learning and performance. We created a composite polygene score based on the Number of High Performance Alleles (NHPA) that each individual carried. We found several associations between genetic profile, motor performance, and sensorimotor adaptation. More importantly, we found that this association varies with age, task type, and engagement of implicit versus explicit learning processes. PMID:26926580

  11. Genetic Heterogeneity in Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms in Response to Victimization.

    PubMed

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Foshee, Vangie A; Ennett, Susan T; Haberstick, Brett; Smolen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This study had two objectives: first, to determine the degree to which experiences of victimization by peers during adolescence led to a subsequent rise in depressive symptoms, and second, to identify genetic markers that predict depressive reactivity to victimization. We used a cohort sequential design to obtain a longitudinal sample of 1,475 adolescents (3,263 observations) in Grades 8 to 12 (56% female; 47% Black, 46% White). Multilevel growth curve models were used to assess whether victimization predicted depressive symptoms 6 months later, beyond baseline trajectories for depressive symptoms. We modeled the interactive effects of peer victimization with three genetic polymorphisms (on 5-HTTLPR, DRD2 TaqIA, and BDNF Val66Met) on depressive symptoms. Although victimization predicted subsequent depressive symptoms, there was substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude of the effect of victimization. Val alleles, associated with higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) functioning, predicted more sensitivity to victimization. Neither DRD2 TaqIA, a marker associated with dopaminergic functioning, nor 5-HTTLPR, a marker associated with serotonin activity, was associated with sensitivity to victimization. The social stress of peer victimization triggers depressive symptoms most strongly in individuals who are homozygous for the Val allele on the BDNF Val/Met polymorphism. This polymorphism has been linked with sensitivity to social defeat in animal models. Future research should explore behavioral, cognitive, and emotional explanations of the effects of BDNF Val/Met on responsivity to victimization.

  12. Polymorphisms in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha gene in Mexican patients with preeclampsia: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, recent work suggests that changes in circulating angiogenic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. In the trophoblast of women with preeclampsia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is over-expressed, and induces the expression of non-angiogenic factors and inhibitors of trophoblast differentiation. This observation prompted the study of HIF-1α and its relation to preeclampsia. It has been described that the C1772T (P582S) and G1790A (A588T) polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene have significantly greater transcriptional activity, correlated with an increased expression of their proteins, than the wild-type sequence. In this work, we studied whether either or both HIF1A variants contribute to preeclampsia susceptibility. Results Genomic DNA was isolated from 150 preeclamptic and 105 healthy pregnant women. Exon 12 of the HIF1A gene was amplified by PCR, and the genotypes of HIF1A were determined by DNA sequencing. In preeclamptic women and controls, the frequencies of the T allele for C1772T were 4.3 vs. 4.8%, and the frequencies of the A allele for G1790A were 0.0 vs. 0.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion The frequency of the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene is very low, and neither polymorphism is associated with the development of preeclampsia in the Mexican population. PMID:21414224

  13. Pharmacogenetic polymorphism as an independent risk factor for frequent hospitalizations in older adults with polypharmacy: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Friedman, Carol; Hripcsak, George; Cabrera, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    metabolizer, VKORC1 low sensitivity, and CYP2D6 rapid metabolizer status in cases was 67%, 33%, 33%, and 17%, respectively, which significantly exceeded respective prevalence in general population. The mean number of major gene–drug interactions found in cases was 2.8±2.2, whereas no major drug–gene interactions were identified in controls. The difference in the number of major drug–gene interactions between cases and controls was statistically significant (p<0.05). The pilot data supported the hypothesis that pharmacogenetic polymorphism may represent an independent risk factor for frequent hospitalizations in older adults with polypharmacy. Due to small sample size, the results of this proof-of-concept study cannot be conclusive. Further work on the utility of pharmacogenetic testing for optimization of medication regimens in this vulnerable group of older adults is warranted. PMID:27789970

  14. The role of genetic (PON1 polymorphism) and environmental factors, especially physical activity, in antioxidant function of paraoxonase.

    PubMed

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Orłowska-Majdak, Monika

    2009-12-30

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a member of a three-gene family (PON1, PON2, and PON3). PON1 activity dominates in human plasma. It is secreted from hepatic cells and is found in the circulation bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). For many years it has been known only for its ability to hydrolyze organophosphate derivatives. More recently, PON1's antioxidant activity draws attention as the enzyme was described to prevent oxidation of lipoproteins by reactive oxygen species formed during oxidative stress. PON1 was also shown to hydrolyze atherogenic products of oxidative lipid modification such as phospholipid peroxides and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides. Some studies indicate that the enzyme presents a lipolactonase activity and hydrolyzes homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL). There is growing evidence as to PON1's protective role in atherosclerosis. Genetic (PON1 polymorphism) and environmental factors and lifestyle may influence PON1 blood concentration and biological activity. Among the many recognized factors accounting for lifestyle, physical activity plays an important role. Various, often opposite, effects on PON1 status are observed in regular training and single physical activities. The results of different studies are often contradictory. It may depend on the time, intensity, and frequency of physical activity. Additionally, it seems that the effects of physical activity on PON1 blood concentration and activity are modified by environmental and lifestyle factors as well as PON1 polymorphism.

  15. Polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) predict sunitinib-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eechoute, K; van der Veldt, A A M; Oosting, S; Kappers, M H W; Wessels, J A M; Gelderblom, H; Guchelaar, H-J; Reyners, A K L; van Herpen, C M L; Haanen, J B; Mathijssen, R H J; Boven, E

    2012-10-01

    Hypertension is an important side effect of sunitinib treatment. In a retrospective study in 255 patients, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, endothelin-1 (ET-1), and endothelium-derived nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were multivariately tested against hypertension grades and changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and mean arterial BP (MAP). Next, the association between hypertension and survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) was studied. Greater elevations in SBP and MAP were associated with the presence of a haplotype in VEGFA (P = 0.014 and P = 0.036, respectively). The tendency to develop grade 3 hypertension was associated with this haplotype and also with a SNP in eNOS (P = 0.031 and P = 0.045, respectively). In mRCC patients, sunitinib-induced hypertension was found to confer a survival benefit, with the mean overall survival being prolonged by 7.2 months (P = 0.035 and P = 0.026 for SBP and DBP elevations, respectively). Genetic polymorphisms in VEGFA and eNOS independently predict rise in BP and/or development of severe hypertension in sunitinib-treated patients. Grade 3 hypertension was found to be an independent factor for overall survival in patients with mRCC. PMID:22948895

  16. IL-1 alpha (-889) promoter polymorphism is a risk factor for osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Asensi, Víctor; Alvarez, Victoria; Valle, Eulalia; Meana, Alvaro; Fierer, Joshua; Coto, Eliecer; Carton, José Antonio; Maradona, José Antonio; Paz, José; Dieguez, Maria Angeles; de la Fuente, Belén; Moreno, Alfonso; Rubio, Silvino; Tuya, Maria José; Sarasúa, Julián; Llames, Sara; Arribas, José Manuel

    2003-06-01

    As osteomyelitis (OM) induces the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and IL-1 mediates bone resorption by osteoclasts we determined if there is an association between certain common polymorphisms of the genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1 alpha and beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha) and OM in adults. The IL-1 alpha (-889) TT genotype was significantly more frequent among 52 OM patients than in 109 healthy controls (13/52, [25.0%] vs. 9/109, [8.3%], P = 0.0081, chi(2) = 7.01, OR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.35-10.34). Patients who were homozygous for the T allele were younger than the rest of the OM patients (mean age 35.7 +/- 11.5 vs. 58.1 +/- 18.6 years, P = 0.001). IL-1 beta TT (+3953) polymorphism was also more frequent in OM patients (P = 0.014, chi(2) = 5.12, OR = 5.1, 95% CI, 1.21-52.14), but IL-1 beta is in linkage disequilibrium with the IL-1 alpha *T (P < 0.001). Route of infection, chronicity of the infection, type of microorganism isolated, and frequency of relapses were similar in patients with and without the IL-1 alpha TT genotype. There were no associations between OM and polymorphisms of other cytokines genes. IL-1 alpha serum levels were significantly increased in all the OM patients independently of their IL-1 genotype compared to the controls (P = 0.021). Although IL-1 alpha serum levels were not significantly higher in patients with the IL-1 alpha (-889) polymorphism, this does not exclude a difference in production of IL-1 alpha by osteoclasts or other inflammatory cells at the site of infection.

  17. Impact of variation in the BDNF gene on social stress sensitivity and the buffering impact of positive emotions: replication and extension of a gene-environment interaction.

    PubMed

    van Winkel, Mark; Peeters, Frenk; van Winkel, Ruud; Kenis, Gunter; Collip, Dina; Geschwind, Nicole; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-06-01

    A previous study reported that social stress sensitivity is moderated by the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor(Val66Met) (BDNF rs6265) genotype. Additionally, positive emotions partially neutralize this moderating effect. The current study aimed to: (i) replicate in a new independent sample of subjects with residual depressive symptoms the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity, (ii) replicate the neutralizing impact of positive emotions, (iii) extend these analyses to other variations in the BDNF gene in the new independent sample and the original sample of non-depressed individuals. Previous findings were replicated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Negative Affect (NA) responses to social stress were stronger in "Val/Met" carriers of BDNF(Val66Met) compared to "Val/Val" carriers. Positive emotions neutralized the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity in a dose-response fashion. Finally, two of four additional BDNF SNPs (rs11030101, rs2049046) showed similar moderating effects on social stress-sensitivity across both samples. The neutralizing effect of positive emotions on the moderating effects of these two additional SNPs was found in one sample. In conclusion, ESM has important advantages in gene-environment (GxE) research and may attribute to more consistent findings in future GxE research. This study shows how the impact of BDNF genetic variation on depressive symptoms may be explained by its impact on subtle daily life responses to social stress. Further, it shows that the generation of positive affect (PA) can buffer social stress sensitivity and partially undo the genetic susceptibility.

  18. Inflammatory mediators of cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Isabelle E.; Pascoe, Michaela C.; Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Kapczinski, Flavio; Soares, Jair C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Recent studies have pointed to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic factors as key mediators in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Little is however known about the cascade of biological episodes underlying the cognitive deficits observed during the acute and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this review is to assess the potential association between cognitive impairment and biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotrophic activity in BD. Methods Scopus (all databases), Pubmed and Ovid Medline were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to November 2013, for human studies that collected both inflammatory markers and cognitive data in BD. Selected search terms were bipolar disorder, depression, mania, psychosis, inflammatory, cognitive and neurotrophic. Results Ten human studies satisfied the criteria for consideration. The findings showed that high levels of peripheral inflammatory-cytokine, oxidative stress and reduced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were associated with poor cognitive performance. The BDNF val66met polymorphism is a potential vulnerability factor for cognitive impairment in BD. Conclusions Current data provide preliminary evidence of a link between the cognitive decline observed in BD and mechanisms of neuroinflammation and neuroprotection. The identification of BD specific inflammatory markers and polymorphisms in inflammatory response genes may be of assistance for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24862657

  19. [Association between mood characteristics and polymorphisms of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GNDF) in patients with depression].

    PubMed

    Kotyuk, Eszter; Németh, Nóra; Halmai, Zsuzsa; Faludi, Gábor; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Székely, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GNDF) plays an important role in the development and synaptic plasticity of dopaminergic neurons, thus it could be an important therapeutic factor in Parkinson's disease. Results from candidate gene studies of GDNF in psychiatric disorders are contradictory. Moreover, the possible association between GDNF polymorphisms and major- or bipolar depression has not been studied to date. Recently, our research group has published an association between two GDNF polymorphisms (rs3812047, rs3096140) and the individual variability of anxiety measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on a non-clinical sample. In the present study we further analyzed this association on a sample with major- and bipolar depression: we used data from 183 MDD, 116 BP, and 1172 control subjects and tested effect of GDNF rs3812047 and rs3096140 polymorphisms on mood disorders. The case control design did not show significant differences in the genotype distribution of BP or MDD versus control patients. However, in the bipolar group subjects with rs3812047 A allele showed a significantly higher anxiety and depression mean score then subjects with G allele (p=0.043). This result supports our previous findings demonstrated on a non-clinical sample. Interestingly we found an opposite effect of the rs3812047 using data from MDD patients: subjects with the G allele had higher depression scores (p=0.012). An interaction effect of patient subgroups and genetic variants of the rs3812047 was observed for both HADS subscales (anxiety: p=0.029; depression: 0.004). In summary, we confirmed the previously published association between the rs3812047 A allele and mood characteristics on the bipolar sample, and an effect in the opposite direction was detected in the patient group with major depression.

  20. Prevalence of coagulation factor XIII and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene polymorphisms among Egyptian women suffering from unexplained primary recurrent miscarriage.

    PubMed

    Elmahgoub, Iman Rifaat; Afify, Reham Abdelaleem; Abdel Aal, Asmaa Ahmed; El-Sherbiny, Walid Sayed

    2014-06-01

    Recurrent miscarriage (RM) is an obstetric challenge. Polymorphisms of factor XIII (FXIII) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may cause an imbalance between coagulation and fibrinolysis that can end in RM. The aim of the work was to determine the prevalence of FXIII Val34Leu and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms in Egyptian women presenting with unexplained primary first trimester RM. Genotyping of 120 unexplained primary first trimester RM patients and 130 healthy controls by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of target genes followed by the allele-specific restriction enzyme digestion (RFLP technique). Among the cases, 67.5% of individuals had wild-type FXIII; 21.7% were heterozygous and 10.8% were homozygous for the FXIII Val34Leu polymorphism. Among controls, the proportions were 89.2%, 8.5% and 2.3% respectively. In addition, comparison between the two groups regarding Leu and 4G allele frequencies showed statistically significant differences (P values=0.0001 and 0.027 respectively). RM is more frequent in women with combined polymorphisms than in women with a single gene polymorphism (RR=3.91; OR=4.51; 95% CI=1.79-11.38; P=0.002). FXIII Val34Leu and PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphisms are prevalent in Egyptian women, with unexplained primary first trimester RM and combined polymorphisms statistically increasing the risk.

  1. The BIM deletion polymorphism: A paradigm of a permissive interaction between germline and acquired TKI resistance factors in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ko, Tun Kiat; Chin, Hui San; Chuah, Charles T H; Huang, John W J; Ng, King-Pan; Khaw, Seong Lin; Huang, David C S; Ong, S Tiong

    2016-01-19

    Both germline polymorphisms and tumor-specific genetic alterations can determine the response of a cancer to a given therapy. We previously reported a germline deletion polymorphism in the BIM gene that was sufficient to mediate intrinsic resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), as well as other cancers [1]. The deletion polymorphism favored the generation of BIM splice forms lacking the pro-apoptotic BH3 domain, conferring a relative resistance to the TKI imatinib (IM). However, CML patients with the BIM deletion polymorphism developed both partial and complete IM resistance. To understand the mechanisms underlying the latter, we grew CML cells either with or without the BIM deletion polymorphism in increasing IM concentrations. Under these conditions, the BIM deletion polymorphism enhanced the emergence of populations with complete IM resistance, mimicking the situation in patients. Importantly, the combined use of TKIs with the BH3 mimetic ABT-737 overcame the BCR-ABL1-dependent and -independent resistance mechanisms found in these cells. Our results illustrate the interplay between germline and acquired genetic factors in confering TKI resistance, and suggest a therapeutic strategy for patients with complete TKI resistance associated with the BIM deletion polymorphism.

  2. Gene polymorphism of transforming growth factor-β1 in Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Sherif M; Shahen, Samar M; Mosaad, Youssef M; Abdelgawad, Mohamed S; Talaat, Roba M

    2013-04-01

    Role of the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) gene polymorphisms located at codons 10 and 25 in the genetic predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and in diabetic nephropathy (DN) in Egyptian patients was investigated. A case control study was done for 99 unrelated Egyptian patients with T2D (50 DN(-) and 49 DN(+)) and 98 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. TGF-β1 T869C (codon 10) and G915C (codon 25) polymorphism detection was done by amplification refractory mutation system method. DN(+) patients were younger, with higher body mass index, serum triglycerides, serum creatinine, and lower serum albumin than those in DN(-) patients. Moderate and bad grades of diabetic control were associated with DN (P < 0.001). The TGF-β1 (T869C) C allele, TC and TC + CC genotypes were significantly higher in patients; the T allele and TT genotype were significantly higher in controls (Pc < 0.001). The TGF-β1 TC genotype was associated with DN (Pc < 0.05). Non-significant differences were detected between T2D patients and controls in the frequencies of TGF-β1 (G915C) alleles and genotypes. In conclusion, these preliminary data showed that the TGF-β1 codon 10 C allele, and C allele-containing genotypes may be susceptible, and T allele/TT genotype may be protective factors for T2D and DN(+) complications.

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor pathway polymorphisms and the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjia; Ma, Xiao-Pin; Shi, Zhuqing; Zhang, Pengyin; Ding, Dong-Lin; Huang, Hui-Xing; Saiyin, Hexi Ge; Chen, Tao-Yang; Lu, Pei-Xin; Wang, Neng-Jin; Yu, Hongjie; Sun, Jielin; Zheng, S Lilly; Yu, Long; Xu, Jianfeng; Jiang, De-Ke

    2015-01-01

    The EGFR signaling pathway is important in the control of vital processes in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including cell survival, cell cycle progression, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In the current study, we aim to assess if genetic variants in the genes of the EGFR signaling pathway are associated with the prognosis of HCC. We genotyped 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in four core genes (EGF, EGFR, VEGF, and VEGFR2) by using DNA from blood samples of 363 HCC patients with surgical resection. The associations between genotypes and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs) were estimated for the multivariate survival analyses by Cox proportional hazards regression models, adjusting for age, gender, family history, HBsAg and AFP. We found that five SNPs in the VEGFR2 gene were significantly associated with clinical outcomes of HCC patients. Among them, four SNPs (rs7692791, rs2305948, rs13109660, rs6838752) were associated with OS (p=0.035, 0.038, 0.029 and 0.028, respectively), and two SNPs (rs7692791 and rs2034965) were associated with DFS (p=0.039 and 0.017, respectively). Particularly, rs7692791 TT genotype was associated with both reduced OS (p=0.037) and DFS (p=0.043). However, only one SNP rs2034965 with the AA genotype was shown to be an independent effect on DFS (p=0.009) in the multivariate analysis. None of the other 31 polymorphisms or 9 haplotypes attained from the four genes was significantly associated with OS or DFS. Our results illustrated the potential use of VEGFR2 polymorphisms as prognostic markers for HCC patients. PMID:25628948

  4. Polymorphism in LEP and LEPR May Modify Leptin Levels and Represent Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, Marjory Alana; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; de Almeida, Jacqueline Fatima Martins; Cunha, Lucas Leite; Cavalari, Camila Ayume Amano; Etchebehere, Elba C. S.; da Assumpção, Ligia Vera Montalli; Geloneze, Bruno; Carvalho, Andre Lopes; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the role of polymorphisms in the LEP (rs7799039 and rs2167270) and LEPR (rs1137101 and rs1137100) genes in DTC susceptibility and their effect on leptin levels. Methods. We studied 153 patients with DTC and 234 controls through TaqMan SNP Genotyping and ELISA, comparing these data to the clinicopathological data of patients with DTC. Results. Patients with AA genotype of rs7799039 had higher levels of serum leptin (9.22 ± 0.98 ng/mL) than those with AG genotype (10.07 ± 0.60 ng/mL; P = 0.005). Individuals with AG genotype of rs2167270 also produced higher serum leptin levels (10.05 ± 0.59 ng/mL) than the subjects with GG genotype (9.52 ± 0.79 ng/mL; P < 0.05). A multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and BMI showed that the AG genotype of rs7799039 was an independent risk for DTC (OR, 11.689; P = 0.0183; 95% CI, 1.516–90.119). Similarly, AG and GG genotypes of rs1137101 increased the susceptibility to DTC (OR, 3.747; P = 0.027; 95% CI, 1.161–12.092 and OR, 5.437; P = 0.013; 95% CI, 1.426–20.729). Conclusions. We demonstrated that rs7799039 and rs2167270 polymorphisms modify the serum leptin concentrations in patients with DTC. Furthermore, polymorphisms rs7799039 and rs1137101 increase the risk of DTC development, although they do not correlate with tumor aggressiveness. PMID:25810718

  5. Polymorphism in LEP and LEPR May Modify Leptin Levels and Represent Risk Factors for Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marcello, Marjory Alana; Calixto, Antonio Ramos; de Almeida, Jacqueline Fatima Martins; Martins, Mariana Bonjiorno; Cunha, Lucas Leite; Cavalari, Camila Ayume Amano; Etchebehere, Elba C S; da Assumpção, Ligia Vera Montalli; Geloneze, Bruno; Carvalho, Andre Lopes; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To understand the role of polymorphisms in the LEP (rs7799039 and rs2167270) and LEPR (rs1137101 and rs1137100) genes in DTC susceptibility and their effect on leptin levels. Methods. We studied 153 patients with DTC and 234 controls through TaqMan SNP Genotyping and ELISA, comparing these data to the clinicopathological data of patients with DTC. Results. Patients with AA genotype of rs7799039 had higher levels of serum leptin (9.22 ± 0.98 ng/mL) than those with AG genotype (10.07 ± 0.60 ng/mL; P = 0.005). Individuals with AG genotype of rs2167270 also produced higher serum leptin levels (10.05 ± 0.59 ng/mL) than the subjects with GG genotype (9.52 ± 0.79 ng/mL; P < 0.05). A multivariate logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and BMI showed that the AG genotype of rs7799039 was an independent risk for DTC (OR, 11.689; P = 0.0183; 95% CI, 1.516-90.119). Similarly, AG and GG genotypes of rs1137101 increased the susceptibility to DTC (OR, 3.747; P = 0.027; 95% CI, 1.161-12.092 and OR, 5.437; P = 0.013; 95% CI, 1.426-20.729). Conclusions. We demonstrated that rs7799039 and rs2167270 polymorphisms modify the serum leptin concentrations in patients with DTC. Furthermore, polymorphisms rs7799039 and rs1137101 increase the risk of DTC development, although they do not correlate with tumor aggressiveness.

  6. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphism (rs2010963) and Its Receptor, Kinase Insert Domain-Containing Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2071559), and Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Sebastjan; Starčević, Jovana Nikolajević; Mankoč, Sara; Šantl Letonja, Marija; Cokan Vujkovac, Andreja; Zorc, Marjeta; Petrovič, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene (rs2010963) and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene polymorphism (rs2071559), and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods. 595 T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque characteristics (presence and structure) were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Genotyping of VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559) was performed using KASPar assays. Results. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559) were not statistically significantly different between diabetic patients and controls. In our study, we demonstrated an association between the rs2071559 of KDR and either CIMT or the sum of plaque thickness in subjects with T2DM. We did not, however, demonstrate any association between the tested polymorphism of VEGF (rs2010963) and either CIMT, the sum of plaque thickness, the number of involved segments, hsCRP, the presence of carotid plaques, or the presence of unstable carotid plaques. Conclusions. In the present study, we demonstrated minor effect of the rs2071559 of KDR on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM. PMID:26881237

  7. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphism (rs2010963) and Its Receptor, Kinase Insert Domain-Containing Receptor Gene Polymorphism (rs2071559), and Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sebastjan; Starčević, Jovana Nikolajević; Mankoč, Sara; Šantl Letonja, Marija; Cokan Vujkovac, Andreja; Zorc, Marjeta; Petrovič, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The current study was designed to reveal possible associations between the polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene (rs2010963) and its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR) gene polymorphism (rs2071559), and markers of carotid atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and Methods. 595 T2DM subjects and 200 control subjects were enrolled. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and plaque characteristics (presence and structure) were assessed ultrasonographically. Biochemical analyses were performed using standard biochemical methods. Genotyping of VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559) was performed using KASPar assays. Results. Genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the VEGF/KDR polymorphisms (rs2010963, rs2071559) were not statistically significantly different between diabetic patients and controls. In our study, we demonstrated an association between the rs2071559 of KDR and either CIMT or the sum of plaque thickness in subjects with T2DM. We did not, however, demonstrate any association between the tested polymorphism of VEGF (rs2010963) and either CIMT, the sum of plaque thickness, the number of involved segments, hsCRP, the presence of carotid plaques, or the presence of unstable carotid plaques. Conclusions. In the present study, we demonstrated minor effect of the rs2071559 of KDR on markers of carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with T2DM.

  8. Relationship Between Chronic Tinnitus and Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene rs3812047, rs1110149, and rs884344 Polymorphisms in a Turkish Population.

    PubMed

    Orenay-Boyacioglu, Seda; Coskunoglu, Aysun; Caki, Zerrin; Cam, Fethi Sirri

    2016-08-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) plays a key role in early development of central auditory pathway and the inner ear. However, the auditory pathway studies of GDNF gene polymorphisms are scarce in the literature, and the studies especially associated with tinnitus are limited. Our study aimed to identify whether GDNF gene polymorphisms play any roles in the pathophysiology of tinnitus by investigating the relationship between tinnitus and GDNF polymorphisms. A total of 52 patients with chronic tinnitus and ages ranging from 18 to 55 were admitted to the Ear-Nose-Throat outpatient clinic of Celal Bayar University Medical Faculty Hospital of Manisa, Turkey and constituted the study group. Another 42 patients of the same age range, without tinnitus symptoms and lacking any systemic disease, were also admitted to the clinic and formed the control group. The tympanometric, audiological, and psychoacoustic assessments of the subjects were performed. Deoxyribonucleic acid samples obtained using venous blood taken for routine inspections were used to investigate GDNF gene polymorphisms (rs884344, rs3812047, and rs1110149) by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism method. No correlation could be detected between GDNF rs884344 and rs3812047 polymorphisms and subjects with tinnitus (p > 0.05). Heterozygosity was significantly lower for GDNF rs1110149 polymorphism in tinnitus subjects compared to the controls (p < 0.05). However, the allele frequencies for all 3 polymorphisms were not significantly different between tinnitus and control groups (p > 0.05). Failure to detect correlations between tinnitus and GDNF gene polymorphisms suggests this may be due to the fact that the GDNF gene has a variable expression pattern in different tissues and pathologies. Therefore, the study should be improved and its scope should be expanded by including a larger group of patients and different tissues to investigate the expression

  9. Gray Matter Volume in Adolescent Anxiety: An Impact of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val[superscript 66]Met Polymorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Aouidad, Aveline; Gorodetsky, Elena; Goldman, David; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Minimal research links anxiety disorders in adolescents to regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and their modulation by genetic factors. Prior research suggests that a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) Val[superscript 66]Met polymorphism may modulate such brain morphometry profiles. Method: Using voxel-based…

  10. A retrospective comparative exploratory study on two Methylentetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms in esophagogastric cancer: the A1298C MTHFR polymorphism is an independent prognostic factor only in neoadjuvantly treated gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) plays a major role in folate metabolism and consequently could be an important factor for the efficacy of a treatment with 5-fluorouracil. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of two well characterized constitutional MTHFR gene polymorphisms for primarily resected and neoadjuvantly treated esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods 569 patients from two centers were analyzed (gastric cancer: 218, carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG II, III): 208 and esophagus (AEG I): 143). 369 patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, 200 patients were resected without preoperative treatment. The MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were determined in DNA from peripheral blood lymphozytes. Associations with prognosis, response and clinicopathological factors were analyzed retrospectively within a prospective database (chi-square, log-rank, cox regression). Results Only the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms had prognostic relevance in neoadjuvantly treated patients but it was not a predictor for response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was significantly associated with worse outcome (p = 0.02, HR 1.47 (1.06-2.04). If neoadjuvantly treated patients were analyzed based on their tumor localization, the AC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was a significant negative prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer according to UICC 6th edition (gastric cancer including AEG type II, III: HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, p = 0.001) and 7th edition (gastric cancer without AEG II, III: HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.5-5.7, p = 0.003), not for AEG I. For both definitions of gastric cancer the AC genotype was confirmed as an independent negative prognostic factor in cox regression analysis. In primarily resected patients neither the MTHFR A1298C nor the MTHFR C677T polymorphisms had prognostic impact. Conclusions The MTHFR A1298C polymorphisms was

  11. Interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms in Turkish patients with localized aggressive periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Guzeldemir, Esra; Gunhan, Meral; Ozcelik, Onur; Tastan, Hakki

    2008-06-01

    Localized aggressive periodontitis (LAgP) is a complex multifactorial periodontal disease to which genetic factors are thought to predispose individuals. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are potent immunomodulators and proinflammatory cytokines that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune and infectious diseases and proposed to be risk factors for LAgP. Our aim was to investigate IL-1 alpha (+4845), IL-1 beta (+3954), and TNF-alpha (-308) gene polymorphisms in Turkish LAgP patients. We genotyped 31 LAgP patients and 31 healthy controls for IL-1alpha(+4845), IL-1beta(+3954), and TNF-alpha(-308) using standard PCR amplification followed by restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. Higher prevalence of heterozygosity for IL-1alpha(+4845) was found in cases (65%) when compared to controls (35%) (P < 0.05). While homozygous allele 1 of IL-1beta(+3954) was the most frequent genotype in cases (62%), no controls were homozygous for this allele (P < 0.001). Homozygous allele 1 was the most common TNF-alpha genotype in both groups, however no significant difference in TNF-alpha genotypes was found between groups. In conclusion, in this Turkish population, susceptibility to LAgP is increased by heterozygosity for allele 1 of IL-1alpha(+4845) or homozygosity for allele 1 of IL-1beta(R+3954). Moreover, IL-1 gene polymorphisms appear to have a role in susceptibility to LAgP, and the above-mentioned genotypes could be an important risk factor for LAgP in the Turkish population.

  12. CYP17 polymorphism as a risk factor of tamoxifen-induced hepatic steatosis in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Takenao; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Saibara, Toshiji; Nishioka, Akihito; Kariya, Shinji; Fukumoto, Mitsutaka; Onishi, Saburo; Yoshida, Shoji

    2005-03-01

    Oral administration of tamoxifen, an endocrine therapy for breast cancer, often induces hepatic steatosis (THS, tamoxifen-induced hepatic steatosis) as a complication, which can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The development of this complication is strongly associated with three clinical risk factors; specifically, insulin resistance, central obesity, and hypertriglyceridemia, however a genetic predisposition to THS has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to determine whether genetic polymorphism of the P450c17alpha enzyme coded for by the CYP17 gene, responsible for regulating serum estrogen, has an association with THS. After obtaining informed consent from 180 eligible breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen, DNA was collected and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and classified into alleles defined as A1 and A2. The absence or presence and extent of THS was evaluated by calculating the liver/spleen (L/S) ratio based on Hounsfield units with a CT scanner. Administration of tamoxifen led to THS (L/S ratio <0.9) in 57 (31.7%) of 180 patients while the remaining 123 (68.3%) patients did not develop THS. A significant difference in the distribution of CYP17 genotypes was observed between patients who developed THS and those who did not (P=0.021). A significantly higher frequency of the A2 allele was seen in the THS group (odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-2.99). Our study provides the first evidence that CYP17 polymorphism participates in the development of THS, and sheds light on the genetic causes of this side effect and genetic differences between tamoxifen-treated individuals.

  13. Polymorphism in the Serotonin Receptor 2a (HTR2A) Gene as Possible Predisposal Factor for Aggressive Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banlaki, Zsofia; Elek, Zsuzsanna; Nanasi, Tibor; Szekely, Anna; Nemoda, Zsofia; Sasvari-Szekely, Maria; Ronai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    Aggressive manifestations and their consequences are a major issue of mankind, highlighting the need for understanding the contributory factors. Still, aggression-related genetic analyses have so far mainly been conducted on small population subsets such as individuals suffering from a certain psychiatric disorder or a narrow-range age cohort, but no data on the general population is yet available. In the present study, our aim was to identify polymorphisms in genes affecting neurobiological processes that might explain some of the inter-individual variation between aggression levels in the non-clinical Caucasian adult population. 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were simultaneously determined in 887 subjects who also filled out the self-report Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ). Single marker association analyses between genotypes and aggression scores indicated a significant role of rs7322347 located in the HTR2A gene encoding serotonin receptor 2a following Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p = 0.0007) both for males and females. Taking the four BPAQ subscales individually, scores for Hostility, Anger and Physical Aggression showed significant association with rs7322347 T allele in themselves, while no association was found with Verbal Aggression. Of the subscales, relationship with rs7322347 was strongest in the case of Hostility, where statistical significance virtually equaled that observed with the whole BPAQ. In conclusion, this is the first study to our knowledge analyzing SNPs in a wide variety of genes in terms of aggression in a large sample-size non-clinical adult population, also describing a novel candidate polymorphism as predisposal to aggressive traits. PMID:25658328

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  15. Association of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G>A polymorphism with breast cancer in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Gómez Flores-Ramos, L; Escoto-De Dios, A; Puebla-Pérez, A M; Figuera-Villanueva, L E; Ramos-Silva, A; Ramírez-Patiño, R; Delgado-Saucedo, J I; Salas-González, E; Zúñiga-González, G M; Alonzo-Rojo, A; Gutiérrez-Hurtado, I; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

    2013-11-18

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene plays an important role in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function. Polymorphisms of TNF-α have been associated with cancer. We examined the role of the -308G>A polymorphism in this gene by comparing the genotypes of 294 healthy Mexican women with those of 465 Mexican women with breast cancer. The observed genotype frequencies for controls and breast cancer patients were 1 and 14% for AA, 13 and 21% for GA, and 86 and 65% for GG, respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) for AA genotype was 2.4, with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) of 5.9-101.1 (P = 0.0001). The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the AA-GA genotype in patients in the following categories: 1) premenopause and obesity I (OR = 3.5, 95%CI = 1.3-9.3, P = 0.008), 2) Her-2 neu and tumor stage I-II (OR = 2.5, 95%CI = 1.31-4.8, P = 0.004), 3) premenopause and tumor stage III-IV (OR = 1.7, 95%CI = 1.0-2.9, P = 0.034), 4) chemotherapy non-response and abnormal hematocrit (OR = 2.4, 95%CI = 1.2-4.8, P = 0.015), 5) body mass index and Her-2 neu and III-IV tumor stage (OR = 2.8, 95%CI = 1.2- 6.6, P = 0.016), and 6) nodule metastasis and K-I67 (OR = 4.0, 95%CI = 1.01-15.7, P = 0.038). We concluded that the genotypes AA-GA of the -308G>A polymorphism in TNF-α significantly contribute to breast cancer susceptibility in the analyzed sample from the Mexican population.

  16. Antithetical effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Muroi, M.; Ishida, T.; Saito, J.; Munakata, M.

    2005-07-01

    Inter-individual variation in the severity of pneumoconiosis has been described, even with the same environmental exposure. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms associate with lung responses to environmental exposure in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. We examined polymorphisms at -238, -308, and -376 in 124 patients with CWP who had similar dust exposure history and in 122 non-exposed controls. CWP patients were divided into two groups: (1) nodular CWP (n = 84): (2) progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) (n = 44). The -308 A allele frequency was higher in patients with CWP compared to controls (6.35% and 2.05%, P {lt} 0.01). It was also higher in patients with nodular CWP compared to PMF (P {lt} 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with the -308 A allele were 3.8 times (P = 0.036) and those with smoking habit were 2.3 times (P {lt} 0.002) more likely to have nodular CWP than PMF. Thus TNF-alpha-308 A allele might interact with smoking to enhance susceptibility to nodular CWP.

  17. Gene receptor polymorphism as a risk factor for BMD deterioration in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Stergioti, E; Deligeoroglou, E; Economou, E; Tsitsika, A; Dimopoulos, K D; Daponte, A; Katsioulis, A; Creatsas, G

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder that is associated with decreased bone mineral density and greater lifetime risk for fractures. This case-controlled study, analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes encoding vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), collagen type I and calcitonin receptor (CTR). Relationships between genotype and body mass index, cycling status and lumbar spine bone mineral density (LBMD) were determined in 40 adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa and 10 age-matched controls. The distribution of CTR-AluI genotypes differed between groups, but this polymorphism was not associated with LBMD Z-score. Distribution of ESR1-XbaI genotypes did not differ between groups, but the AA genotype was associated with decreased LBMD Z-score (≤-1) (OR = 24.79, 95% CI, 1.01-606.08). Carriers of the A allele were more likely to have decreased LBMD Z-scores compared with carriers of the G allele (OR = 4.12, 95% CI, 1.23-13.85, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study shows that anorexic patients with wild-type genotype ESR-XbaI receptor are in greater risk for decreased BMD in relation to those with the mutated gene. Prompt recognition of these patients is crucial because early administration of the proper therapeutic treatment may contribute to the prevention of adverse sequelae on bone metabolism.

  18. Factor XIII V34L polymorphism modulates the risk of chronic venous leg ulcer progression and extension.

    PubMed

    Gemmati, Donato; Tognazzo, Silvia; Serino, Maria L; Fogato, Luisella; Carandina, Sergio; De Palma, Massimiliano; Izzo, Marcello; De Mattei, Monica; Ongaro, Alessia; Scapoli, Gian L; Caruso, Angelo; Liboni, Alberto; Zamboni, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Low Factor XIII (FXIII) activity has been reported in the blood of patients with chronic venous leg ulcer (CVU). In vivo studies have described increased wound healing in CVU patients treated with FXIII concentrate, and in vitro studies have shown increased regenerative capacity in FXIII-treated fibroblasts. In addition, a common G-to-T polymorphism in the FXIIIA-subunit gene (V34L) significantly increases the activity and modifies the cross-linking properties of the FXIII molecule and this variant has been investigated as a protective factor against thrombosis, a recognized risk factor for CVU establishment. Therefore, the role of FXIII levels, FXIII V34L, FVR506Q, and FIIG20210A, common gene polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of CVU was investigated. Ninety-one patients with CVU and 195 healthy controls (91 of them sex- and age-matched) were PCR-genotyped for the FXIIIV34L, FVR506Q, and FIIG20210A substitutions and FXIIIA-subunit levels were determined by immuno-electrophoresis. The extent of the venous ulcer surface in patients was measured by computer software. The allele frequency and the genotype distribution of the FXIII polymorphism did not show significant differences between the whole group of cases and controls as well as prothrombin variants did. On the contrary, the FVR506Q variant (FV Leiden) allele was more frequent in patients, yielding a significant OR value of 5.93 (95 percent CI, 1.83-19.17; p= 0.003). Considering only CVU cases secondary to a post-thrombotic syndrome (n= 24), FV Leiden yielded a greater OR value of 16.08 (95 percent CI, 4.33-59.6; p < 0.0001). When the CVU cases were stratified by the three possible FXIII genotypes, a significant trend toward a lower mean value of the ulcerated area was clearly evident as the number of the polymorphic alleles (L34) increased in the genotype of patients (VV = 11.9 cm(2,)+/- 23.6; VL = 6.1 cm(2,)+/- 6.9; LL = 4.1 cm(2,)+/- 2.8; p= 0.01). On the other hand, FXIIIA antigen levels were similar between

  19. CLPTM1L polymorphism as a protective factor for lung cancer: a case-control study in southern Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tianbo; Li, Bin; He, Na; Zhang, Yao; Xia, Ridong; Kang, Longli; Ding, Yipeng; Yuan, Dongya

    2016-08-01

    Variants of the cleft lip and palate trans-membrane 1 like (CLPTM1L) gene, located on chromosome 5p15.33, were previously determined to influence lung cancer susceptibility. Here, we performed a case-control study to examine the potential association of CLPTM1L single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with lung cancer in a Chinese Han population. We selected four SNPs in the CLPTM1L gene that were previously reported to be associated with lung cancer. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the strength of the relationship between each CLPTM1L SNP and lung cancer risk. Allelic model analysis revealed that the minor alleles of all four SNPs were significantly associated with decreased lung cancer risk. Similar significant results were detected using genetic model analysis. In addition, we observed a protective effect of haplotype "TT" in the CLPTM1L gene. Our results verified that certain CLPTM1L polymorphisms are protective factors against lung cancer in a southern Chinese Han population and may be potential diagnostic and molecular markers for lung cancer patients. PMID:26852039

  20. Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 Polymorphism as a Risk Factor for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pei-Chao; Lin, Wei-Ting; Yeh, Yao-Hsien; Wung, Shu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    Background There are racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Prior meta-analyses included small samples and very limited non-Caucasian populations. Studies to determine the relationship between transcription factor 7 like-2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism and risk of GDM in Hispanics/Latinos are recently available. The present meta-analysis was to estimate the impact of allele variants of TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism on GDM susceptibility in overall population and racial/ethnic subgroups. Methods Literature was searched in multiple databases including PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE (Ovid SP), Airiti Library, Medline Complete, and ProQuest up to July 2015. Allelic frequency for TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism in GDM and control subjects was extracted and statistical analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) 2.0 statistical software. The association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and GDM risk was assessed by pooled odd ratios (ORs) using five gene models (dominant, recessive, homozygote, heterozygote, and allele). Stratified analysis based on race/ethnicity was also conducted. The between-study heterogeneity and contribution of each single study to the final result was tested by Cochran Q test and sensitivity analyses, respectively. Publication bias was evaluated using Egger’s linear regression test. Results A total of 16 studies involving 4,853 cases and 10,631 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Significant association between the T-allele of rs7903146 and GDM risk was observed under all genetic models, dominant model (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.19–1.74), recessive model (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.08–1.70), heterozygous model (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12–1.53), homozygous model (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.31–2.12), and allele model (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.12–1.53). Stratified analysis by race/ethnicity showed a statistically significant association between rs7903146 polymorphism and

  1. Angiogenin gene polymorphism: A risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the northern Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Yingshuang

    2013-12-25

    Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy patients) and 268 healthy controls. All subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistically significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.

  2. Association of interleukin-10 polymorphisms with risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (SADEM study).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Juárez-Cedillo, Enrique; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Fragoso, José Manuel; García-Hernández, Normand; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Some studies have reported a genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of Interleukin (IL) 10 and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with conflicting results. To further investigate the proposed association and to clarify the role of cytokines as a potential cause for AD susceptibility, we analyzed genotypes, allele distributions and haplotypes of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms -1082 (rs1800896) and -819 (rs1800871) in a Mexican population: 986 normal controls and 221 cases divided as follows: 122 with Alzheimer disease (AD), 67 with (VaD) and 32 with mixed dementia (AD/VaD). Patients with dementia showed increased frequency of "ATA, CTG, and CTA" haplotypes when compared to controls. We identified two risk haplotypes: ATA (OR=3.56, 95%CI=2.84-4.45, p<0.0001), and CTA (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.38-2.62, p<0.0001), and four protection haplotypes: ATG (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.45-0.82, p=0.0012), CTG (OR=0.38, 95%CI=0.23-0.62, p<0.0001), ACG (OR=0.01, 95%CI=0.002-1.13, p<0.0001), and CCG (OR=0.02, 95%CI=0.004-0.203, p<0.0001). In summary, this is the first study in Mexican population that considers the analysis of IL-10 in patients with AD, VaD and AD/VaD. Our results showed the relevance of the role that IL-10 plays in the pathological mechanisms that result in the development of dementia. In addition, in our study, it was possible to distinguish two protective and two risk haplotypes for the development of dementia. PMID:27474414

  3. Association of interleukin-10 polymorphisms with risk factors of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (SADEM study).

    PubMed

    Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Juárez-Cedillo, Enrique; Martínez-Rodríguez, Nancy; Fragoso, José Manuel; García-Hernández, Normand; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Some studies have reported a genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the promoter region of Interleukin (IL) 10 and Alzheimer's disease (AD), with conflicting results. To further investigate the proposed association and to clarify the role of cytokines as a potential cause for AD susceptibility, we analyzed genotypes, allele distributions and haplotypes of IL-10 promoter polymorphisms -1082 (rs1800896) and -819 (rs1800871) in a Mexican population: 986 normal controls and 221 cases divided as follows: 122 with Alzheimer disease (AD), 67 with (VaD) and 32 with mixed dementia (AD/VaD). Patients with dementia showed increased frequency of "ATA, CTG, and CTA" haplotypes when compared to controls. We identified two risk haplotypes: ATA (OR=3.56, 95%CI=2.84-4.45, p<0.0001), and CTA (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.38-2.62, p<0.0001), and four protection haplotypes: ATG (OR=0.60, 95%CI=0.45-0.82, p=0.0012), CTG (OR=0.38, 95%CI=0.23-0.62, p<0.0001), ACG (OR=0.01, 95%CI=0.002-1.13, p<0.0001), and CCG (OR=0.02, 95%CI=0.004-0.203, p<0.0001). In summary, this is the first study in Mexican population that considers the analysis of IL-10 in patients with AD, VaD and AD/VaD. Our results showed the relevance of the role that IL-10 plays in the pathological mechanisms that result in the development of dementia. In addition, in our study, it was possible to distinguish two protective and two risk haplotypes for the development of dementia.

  4. The AGTR1 gene A1166C polymorphism as a risk factor and outcome predictor of primary intracerebral and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhages.

    PubMed

    Adamski, Mateusz G; Golenia, Aleksandra; Turaj, Wojciech; Baird, Alison E; Moskala, Marek; Dziedzic, Tomasz; Szczudlik, Andrzej; Slowik, Agnieszka; Pera, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Associations between the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) gene A1166C polymorphism and hypertension, aortic abdominal aneurysms (as a risk factor) as well as cardiovascular disorders (as a risk factor and an outcome predictor) have been demonstrated. We aimed to investigate the role of this polymorphism as risk factors and outcome predictors in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). We have prospectively recruited 1078 Polish participants to the study: 261 PICH patients, 392 aSAH patients, and 425 unrelated control subjects. The A1166C AGTR1 gene polymorphism was studied using the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR method. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared with other ethnically different populations. The A1166C polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PICH or aSAH. Among the aSAH patients the AA genotype was associated with a good outcome, defined by a Glasgow Outcome Scale of 4 or 5 (p<0.02). The distribution of A1166C genotypes in our cohort did not differ from other white or other populations of European descent. In conclusion, we found an association between the A1166C AGTR1 polymorphism and outcome of aSAH patients, but not with the risk of PICH or aSAH. PMID:25168322

  5. Influence of ALA54THR polymorphism of fatty acid-binding protein 2 on obesity and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Sagrado, M G; Aller, R; Izaola, O; Conde, R

    2007-11-01

    A transition of G to A at codon 54 of FABP2 results in an amino acid substitution (Ala54 to Thr54). This polymorphism was associated with some cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of Thr54 polymorphism in the FABP2 gene on obesity anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors. A population of 226 obesity (body mass index >30) nondiabetic outpatients were analyzed. An indirect calorimetry, tetrapolar electrical bioimpedance, blood pressure, a serial assessment of nutritional intake with 3 days of written food records, and biochemical analysis (lipid profile, adipocytokines, insulin, CRP, and lipoprotein-a) were performed. The statistical analysis was performed for the combined ALA54/THR54 and THR54/THR54 as a mutant group and wild type ALA54/ALA54 as a second group. Two-hundred and twenty-six patients gave informed consent and were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 44.2+/-16 years and the mean BMI 35.1+/-5.1, with 63 males (28.3%) and 163 females (71.7%). One-hundred and thirteen patients (50%) had the genotype ALA54/ALA54 (wild group) and 113 (50%) patients had the genotype ALA54/THR54 (91 patients, 40.2%) or THR54/THR54 (22 patients, 9.8%) (mutant group). The ANOVA analysis of the three groups ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54 and ALA54/ALA54) shows a higher levels of fat mass in Thr54/Thr54 group (45.6+/-14.6 kg) than Ala54/Ala54 (37.5+/-11.2 kg: p<0.05), without differences with Ala54/Thr54 group (41.2+/-13.5 kg). CRP, IL-6, and lipoprotein-a were higher in mutant group ( ALA54/THR54, THR54/THR54) than in wild group ( ALA54/ALA54). The novel finding of this study is the association of the Thr54/Ala54 and Thr54/Thr54 FABP2 phenotypes with higher levels of C reactive protein, IL6, and lipoprotein-a. Further studies are needed to explain the role of this polymorphism in different populations.

  6. Complement factor H polymorphism rs1061170 and the effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeldin, Nada; Darwish, Amira; El-Bastawissy, Ahmed; Shalaby, Alaa Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study Complement factor H (CFH) has been known to inhibit the complement pathway and to contribute to tumour growth by suppressing the anti-tumour cell mediated response in cell lines from several malignancies. We examined the association of Try402His single nucleotide polymorphism in CFH gene with lung cancer and the interaction with cigarette smoking. Material and methods This case-control study included 80 primary lung cancer patients and 106 control subjects who were genotyped for Try402His (rs1061170) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results Variant genotypes (Tyr/His and His/His) were overpresented among patients compared to controls (p = 0.03, OR = 2.510, 95% CI: 1.068–5.899), and the frequency of variant H allele was significantly overexpressed in cases compared to controls (p = 0.021). Tyr/His genotype was identified in 100% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients vs. 34.5% of non-SCLC (NSCLC), while 20.7% of NSCLC patients were homozygous for the variant allele (His/His) (p = 0.001). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed a 2.5 times greater estimated risk for NSCLC than for SCLC among variant allele carriers, and a 7.3-fold increased risk of lung cancer among variant allele smoking carriers vs. 1.3-fold increased risk among wild allele smoking carriers. Moreover, the stage of cancer positively correlated with smoking and pack-years in allele H carriers, and the correlation was stronger among those who were homozygous for it (His/His) than those who were heterozygous (Tyr/His). Conclusions CFH 402H variant is a smoking-related risk factor for lung cancer, particularly the NSCLC. PMID:26843839

  7. THE ROLE OF BDNF IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FEAR LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    Dincheva, Iva; Lynch, Niccola B.; Lee, Francis S.

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a growth factor that is dynamically expressed in the brain across postnatal development, regulating neuronal differentiation and synaptic plasticity. The neurotrophic hypothesis of psychiatric mood disorders postulates that in the adult brain, decreased BDNF levels leads to altered neural plasticity, contributing to disease. Although BDNF has been established as a key factor regulating the critical period plasticity in the developing visual system, it has recently been shown to also play a role in fear circuitry maturation, which has implications for the emergence of fear-related mood disorders. This review provides a detailed overview of developmental changes in expression of BDNF isoforms, as well as their receptors across postnatal life. In addition, recent developmental studies utilizing a genetic BDNF single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met) knock-in mouse highlight the impact of BDNF on fear learning during a sensitive period spanning the transition into adolescent time frame. We hypothesize that BDNF in the developing brain regulates fear circuit plasticity during a sensitive period in early adolescence, and alterations in BDNF expression (genetic or environmental) have a persistent impact on fear behavior and fear-related disorders. PMID:27699937

  8. R353Q polymorphism in the factor VII gene and cardiovascular risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Certain polymorphisms of the factor VII gene have been associated with the development of coronary artery disease and there is a known association between factor VII levels and polymorphic variants in this gene. To date, no study has evaluated the association between factor VII and coronary artery disease in patients with FH. Results This case-control study comprised 720 patients (546 with FH and 174 controls). We determined the prevalence and allele frequencies of the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII, the plasma levels of factor VII antigen (FVII Ag) and whether they could be predictive factors for cardiovascular risk. 75% (410) of the patients with FH were RR, 23% (127) RQ and 1.6% (9) QQ; in the control group 75.3% (131) were RR, 21.3% (37) RQ and 3.4% (6) QQ (p = 0.32). No statistically significant associations were observed in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between case (FH) and control groups. Nor did we find differences when we evaluated the relationship between the R353Q polymorphism and cardiovascular risk (including coronary disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease), either in the univariate analysis or after adjustment for sex, age, arterial hypertension, body mass index, xanthomas, diabetes, smoking, HDLc and LDLc and lipid-lowering treatment. The FVII Ag concentrations behaved in a similar fashion, with no differences for the interaction between controls and those with FH (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.96). In the subgroup of patients with FH no association was found among cardiovascular disease, genotype and FVII Ag levels (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.97). Conclusions Our study did not find a direct relationship between cardiovascular risk in patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII and FVII Ag levels. PMID:21477332

  9. Promoter polymorphisms in trefoil factor 2 and trefoil factor 3 genes and susceptibility to gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis among Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Chen, Mo-Ye; He, Cai-Yun; Sun, Li-Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-10-15

    The polymorphisms in trefoil factor (TFF) gene family that protect gastrointestinal epithelium might influence individual vulnerability to gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis. We used the Sequenom MassARRAY platform to identify the genotypes of TFF2 rs3814896 and TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphisms in 478 GC patients, 652 atrophic gastritis patients, and 724 controls. For the TFF2 rs3814896 polymorphism, in the subgroup aged ≤ 50 years, we found that AG+GG genotypes were associated with a 0.746-fold decreased risk of atrophic gastritis [p=0.023, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.580-0.960], a 0.626-fold decreased risk of GC (p=0.005, 95% CI=0.451-0.868), and a 0.663-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC (p=0.034, 95% CI=0.452-0.970) compared with the common AA genotype. For the TFF3 rs9981660 polymorphism, in the male subgroup, individuals with variant AG+AA genotype were associated with a 0.761-fold decreased risk of diffuse-type GC compared with the common GG genotype (p=0.043, 95% CI=0.584-0.992). Additionally, we found that in subjects aged ≤ 50 years compared with common AA genotype, TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes were associated with increased TFF2 mRNA levels in the total gastric cancer specimens and in the diffuse-type gastric cancer specimens; and in males aged ≤ 50 years compared with common GG genotype, TFF3 rs9981660 AA+AG genotypes were associated with TFF3 mRNA levels in diffuse-type gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding non-cancerous tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between the TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes and decreased risks of GC, diffuse-type GC, and atrophic gastritis in younger people aged ≤ 50 years, and an association between TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotype and decreased risk of diffuse-type GC in men. Moreover, we found that TFF2 rs3814896 AG+GG genotypes in people aged ≤ 50 years and TFF3 rs9981660 AG+AA genotypes in younger males with diffuse-type GC were associated with higher levels of

  10. Effect of polymorphism in the leukemia inhibitory factor gene on litter size in Large White pigs.

    PubMed

    Lin, H C; Liu, G F; Wang, A G; Kong, L J; Wang, X F; Fu, J L

    2009-09-01

    DNA polymorphism of the porcine leukemia inhibitory factory (LIF) was investigated and used to study the effects on litter size in Large White pigs. A total of 2,167 litter records from 420 sows genotyped at two SNP loci (LIF1 and LIF2) within LIF gene were analyzed to determine whether LIF influenced total number born (TNB) and number born alive (NBA). The results indicated that B allele at LIF1 locus and A allele at LIF2 locus seem to have advantageous effects on litter size. However, the combined analyzed results demonstrated that genotype AAAA, ABBB, and BBBB are better than genotype AAAB, AABB, and ABAB for TNB and NBA in either third to eighth parity or all parities. In all parities, the sows with AAAA genotype had an advantage of 1.76 piglets (P < 0.001) for TNB and 1.44 piglets (P < 0.01) for NBA per litter over the AAAB sows, respectively. The results in this study demonstrated that LIF gene was significantly associated with litter size in pigs. PMID:19002603

  11. Relationship of 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism with Various Factors of Pain Processing: Subjective Experience, Motor Responsiveness and Catastrophizing.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Miriam; Hennig, Jürgen; Karmann, Anna J; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Although serotonin is known to play an important role in pain processing, the relationship between the polymorphism in 5-HTTLPR and pain processing is not well understood. To examine the relationship more comprehensively, various factors of pain processing having putative associations with 5-HT functioning were studied, namely the subjective pain experience (pain threshold, rating of experimental pain), catastrophizing about pain (Pain Catastrophizing Scale = PCS) and motor responsiveness (facial expression of pain). In 60 female and 67 male participants, heat pain stimuli were applied by a contact thermode to assess pain thresholds, supra-threshold ratings and a composite score of pain-relevant facial responses. Participants also completed the PCS and were grouped based on their 5-HTTLPR genotype (bi-allelic evaluation) into a group with s-allele carriers (ss, sl) and a second group without (ll). S-allele carriers proved to have lower pain thresholds and higher PCS scores. These two positive findings were unrelated to each other. No other difference between genotype groups became significant. In all analyses, "age" and "gender" were controlled for. In s-allele carriers the subjective pain experience and the tendency to catastrophize about pain was enhanced, suggesting that the s-allele might be a risk factor for the development and maintenance of pain. This risk factor seems to act via two independent routes, namely via the sensory processes of subjective pain experiences and via the booster effects of pain catastrophizing. PMID:27043930

  12. [Risk factors for cervico-uterine cancer associated to HPV: p53 codon 72 polymorphism in women attending hospital care].

    PubMed

    Sifuentes Alvarez, A; Reyes Romero, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    In codon 72 of the p53 antioncogene there are two alleles, arginine and proline; the arg/arg genotype has recently been identified as a risk factor for developing of cervicouterine cancer (CuCa) associated to human papillomavirus (HVP) infection. The aim of this work was to determine in a sample of women the frequency of proline-arginine alleles and genotypes of p53 codon 72. The study was conducted in a sample of inpatient women at the hospital. p53 codon 72 alleles were determined in genomic ADN by amplification of specific sequences by chi 2 test. From 102 analyzed samples, p53-arginine allele corresponded to 67.64% and p53-proline allele corresponded to 32.36%; 47 women (46.10%) were arg/arg homocygotes, 11 women (10.77%) were pro/pro homocygotes, 44 women (43.13%) were arg/pro heterocigotes; the genotype distribution was within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The detection of a high percentage of arginine homocygotes suggests that this genotype, considered as a risk factor for cancer associated to oncogenic HPV, has a high prevalence in the north of Mexico. The determination of this kind of polymorphisms is important as preventive action with regard to identification of risk factors for CaCu associated to HPV infection. PMID:12708345

  13. Role of BDNF in bipolar and unipolar disorder: clinical and theoretical implications.

    PubMed

    Post, Robert M

    2007-12-01

    A number of lines of converging evidence suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may play a role in the onset and treatment of bipolar disorder. We review pertinent data on BDNF from several different areas of preclinical and clinical investigation that suggest novel theoretical and treatment implications for the recurrent affective disorders. Data from several recent studies have also converged showing that the val66met allele of BDNF, a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), is associated with selective minor deficits in cognitive functioning in subjects with schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and normal controls. Yet, paradoxically, the better functioning val66val allele of BDNF appears to be associated with an increased risk for bipolar disorder and perhaps early onset or rapid cycling. All the primary antidepressant modalities, as well as the mood stabilizers lithium and valproate, increase BDNF. Stressors decrease BDNF and this effect can be blocked by antidepressants. Serum BDNF is low in proportion to the severity of mania and depression and increases with clinical improvement. Assessment of the val66val BDNF allele and a range of other SNPs as potential vulnerability factors for bipolar illness and its early onset could facilitate studies of early intervention, help reduce long delays between the onset of first symptoms and the first treatment, and help in the prediction of individual patient's likelihood of responding to a given treatment.

  14. Serum IgE, tumor epidermal growth factor receptor expression, and inherited polymorphisms associated with glioma survival.

    PubMed

    Wrensch, Margaret; Wiencke, John K; Wiemels, Joe; Miike, Rei; Patoka, Joe; Moghadassi, Michelle; McMillan, Alex; Kelsey, Karl T; Aldape, Kenneth; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Parsa, Andrew T; Sison, Jennette D; Prados, Michael D

    2006-04-15

    In population-based glioma patients, we examined survival in relation to potentially pertinent constitutive polymorphisms, serologic factors, and tumor genetic and protein alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), MDM2, and TP53. Subjects were newly diagnosed adults residing in the San Francisco Bay Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Area during 1991 to 1994 and 1997 to 1999 with central neuropathology review (n = 873). Subjects provided blood for serologic studies of IgE and IgG to four herpes viruses and constitutive specimens for genotyping 22 polymorphisms in 13 genes (n = 471). We obtained 595 of 697 astrocytic tumors for marker studies. We determined treatments, vital status, and other factors using registry, interview, medical record, and active follow-up data. Cox regressions for survival were adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, study series, resection versus biopsy only, radiation, and chemotherapy. Using a stringent P < 0.001, glioma survival was associated with ERCC1 C8092A [hazard ratio (HR), 0.72; 95% confidence limits (95% CL), 0.60-0.86; P = 0.0004] and GSTT1 deletion (HR, 1.64; 95% CL, 1.25-2.16; P = 0.0004); glioblastoma patients with elevated IgE had 9 months longer survival than those with normal or borderline IgE levels (HR, 0.62; 95% CL, 0.47-0.82; P = 0.0007), and EGFR expression in anaplastic astrocytoma was associated with nearly 3-fold poorer survival (HR, 2.97; 95% CL, 1.70-5.19; P = 0.0001). Based on our and others' findings, we recommend further studies to (a) understand relationships of elevated IgE levels and other immunologic factors with improved glioblastoma survival potentially relevant to immunologic therapies and (b) determine which inherited ERCC1 variants or other variants in the 19q13.3 region influence survival. We also suggest that tumor EGFR expression be incorporated into clinical evaluation of anaplastic astrocytoma patients.

  15. Antagonistic selection factors induce a continuous population divergence in a polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Nagata, N; Kawata, M

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the relative importance of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of adaptive traits is a classical topic in evolutionary biology. However, it is difficult to separate these factors and detect the effects of selection when two or more contrasting selective factors are simultaneously acting on a single locus. In the damselfly Ischnura senegalensis, females exhibit color dimorphism and morph frequencies change geographically. We here evaluated the role of selection and stochastic factors in population divergence of morph frequencies by comparing the divergences in color locus and neutral loci. Comparisons between population pairwise FST for neutral loci and for the color locus did not detect any stochastic factors affecting color locus. Although comparison between population divergence in color and neutral loci using all populations detected only divergent selection, we detected two antagonistic selective factors acting on the color locus, that is, balancing and divergent selection, when considering geographical distance between populations. Our results suggest that a combination of two antagonistic selective factors, rather than stochastic factors, establishes the geographic cline in morph frequency in this system. PMID:24281546

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-3 gene promoter polymorphisms: A potential risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Karachalios, Charalampos; Bakas, Panagiotis; Kaparos, Georgios; Demeridou, Styliani; Liapis, Ilias; Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Liapis, Aggelos

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common multifactorial condition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes capable of breaking down various connective tissue elements. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in regulatory areas of MMP-encoding genes can alter their transcription rate, and therefore the possible effect on pelvic floor supporting structures. The insertion of an adenine (A) base in the promoter of the MMP-3 gene at position −1612/−1617 produces a sequence of six adenines (6A), whereas the other allele has five (5A). The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of MMP-3 gene promoter SNPs with the risk of POP. The patient group comprised 80 women with clinically significant POP [Stage II, III or IV; POP quantification (POP-Q) system]. The control group consisted of 80 females without any or important pelvic floor support defects (Stages 0 or I; POP-Q system). All the participants underwent the same preoperative evaluation. SNP detection was determined with whole blood sample DNA analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in LightCycler® PCR platforms, using the technique of sequence-specific hybridization probe-binding assays and melting temperature curve analysis. The results showed there was no statistically significant difference between 5A/5A, 5A/6A and 6A/6A MMP-3 gene promoter variants in the two study groups (P=0.4758). Therefore, MMP-3 gene promoter SNPs alone is insufficient to increase the genetic susceptibility to POP development. PMID:27588175

  17. Dr(a-) polymorphism of decay accelerating factor. Biochemical, functional, and molecular characterization and production of allele-specific transfectants.

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, D M; Thompson, E S; Green, A M; Levene, C; Telen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The Dra antigen belongs to the Cromer-related blood group system, a series of antigens on decay accelerating factor (DAF), a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein that protects host cells from complement-mediated damage. We studied the rare inherited Dr(a-) phenotype to ascertain the associated biochemical and functional changes in DAF and to characterize the basis for this polymorphism. Radioimmunoassay assay and flow cytometric analysis of Dr(a-) erythrocytes demonstrated 40% of normal surface expression of DAF but normal levels of several other glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, distinguishing this phenotype from that of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Western blots confirmed this reduced DAF expression and indicated a slightly faster mobility of the molecule on SDS-PAGE. Despite the reduced DAF expression, Dr(a-) erythrocytes functioned normally in the complement lysis sensitivity assay. Utilization of the polymerase chain reaction to amplify mononuclear cell genomic DNA from three unrelated Dr(a-) individuals demonstrated that a point mutation underlies the Dr(a-) phenotype: a C to T change in nucleotide 649 resulting in a serine165 to leucine change. This defines the Drb allele of DAF, which can be distinguished from Dra by a Taq I restriction fragment length polymorphism. We created transfected Chinese hamster ovary cell lines expressing either the Dra or the Drb allelic form of DAF. These allele-specific transfectants were tested by inhibition of hemagglutination or flow cytometry and confirmed the specificity of anti-Dra alloantisera. The allele-specific transfectants could form the basis of a new serological approach to immunohematology. Images PMID:1710232

  18. Cytokine-related and sodium channel polymorphism as candidate predisposing factors for childhood encephalopathy FIRES/AERRPS.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, M; Kobayashi, K; Ohmori, I; Tanaka, Y; Tanaka, K; Inoue, T; Horino, A; Ohmura, K; Kumakura, A; Takei, Y; Hirabayashi, S; Kajimoto, M; Uchida, T; Yamazaki, S; Shiihara, T; Kumagai, T; Kasai, M; Terashima, H; Kubota, M; Mizuguchi, M

    2016-09-15

    Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES), or acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures (AERRPS), is an epileptic encephalopathy beginning with fever-mediated seizures. The etiology remains unclear. To elucidate the genetic background of FIRES/AERRPS (hereafter FIRES), we recruited 19 Japanese patients, genotyped polymorphisms of the IL1B, IL6, IL10, TNFA, IL1RN, SCN1A and SCN2A genes, and compared their frequency between the patients and controls. For IL1RN, the frequency of a variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) allele, RN2, was significantly higher in the patients than in controls (p=0.0067), and A allele at rs4251981 in 5' upstream of IL1RN with borderline significance (p=0.015). Haplotype containing RN2 was associated with an increased risk of FIRES (OR 3.88, 95%CI 1.40-10.8, p=0.0057). For SCN1A, no polymorphisms showed a significant association, whereas a missense mutation, R1575C, was found in two patients. For SCN2A, the minor allele frequency of G allele at rs1864885 was higher in patients with borderline significance (p=0.011). We demonstrated the association of IL1RN haplotype containing RN2 with FIRES, and showed a possible association of IL1RN rs4251981 G>A and SCN2A rs1864885 A>G, in Japanese patients. These preliminary findings suggest the involvement of multiple genetic factors in FIRES, which needs to be confirmed by future studies in a larger number of FIRES cases. PMID:27538648

  19. Inherited polymorphism of guinea pig factor B and C4: evidence for genetic linkage between the C4 and Bf loci.

    PubMed

    Bitter-Suermann, D; Krönke, M; Brade, V; Hadding, U

    1977-05-01

    An inherited structural polymorphism of the guinea pig complement protein C4 and of factor B of the alternative pathway was demonstrated by use of high voltage agarose electrophoresis combined with a subsequent immunofixation technique. No polymorphism of guinea pig C3 could be shown. Three common allelic genes were proven to code for C4-S, C4-S1, and C4-F, respectively. Two common allelic genes are responsible for the Bf-F and Bf-S phenotype expression. A strong linkage disequilibrium between both C4 and Bf was demonstrated.

  20. Association of vascular endothelial growth factor -634G/C and receptor for advanced glycation end products G82S gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Asmaa; Abu Eleinen, Khaled; Siam, Ibrahem

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) G82S and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -634 G/C gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS Our cross-sectional study included 61 diabetic patients, 12 of them had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), 15 had non proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), 34 had no diabetic retinopathy (NDR) and 61 healthy controls. Participants were tested for RAGE G82S and VEGF -634 G/C polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS We found a significant association between VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism and PDR as PDR patients had increased incidence of VEGF -634 CC genotype compared to NDR patients [odds ratio for CC vs (GC+GG)=6.5, 95% CI=1.5-27.8, P=0.021]. Also VEGF -634 CC genotype and C allele were significantly higher in the PDR than in NPDR patients, which is a novel finding in our study (P=0.024, 0.009 respectively). The mean triglycerides level was significantly higher in diabetic patients with CC genotype (P=0.01) as compared to patients with other genotypes. All cases and control subjects were of the same heterozygous RAGE 82G/S genotype. CONCLUSION Patients carrying VEGF -634 C polymorphism have a higher risk of PDR development, so VEGF -634 G/C polymorphism could be used as a predictive marker for PDR in diabetic patients. We could not find a significant association between RAGE G82S polymorphism and DR. PMID:27588263

  1. Risk Factors for Normal and High-Tension Glaucoma in Poland in Connection with Polymorphisms of the Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Łukasik, Urszula; Wróbel-Dudzińska, Dominika; Kocki, Janusz; Bartosińska, Joanna; Witczak, Agnieszka; Chodorowska, Grażyna; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Żarnowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms of the eNOS gene on the clinical status of patients with normal and high tension glaucoma. Methods 266 Polish Caucasian patients with primary open angle glaucoma were studied. Of the 266, 156 had normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and 110 high tension glaucoma (HTG). DNA material was isolated from peripheral venous blood using commercial kits. Real-time PCR reaction was used to amplify the promoter site of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene, including the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site T-786C and part of the 7th exon of eNOS, including G894T SNP. Genotypes were determined with TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. Results There were no significant differences in frequencies of the allelic variants of both polymorphisms. In G894T SNP, however, the wild GG form was more common in the HTG group. The SNP of the eNOS gene did not significantly influence the progression rate in either of the groups studied. There were no differences in variants of the eNOS gene regarding the necessity for and success of surgery and the progression of the disease. In the NTG group, no statistical correlation was observed between G894T, T786C polymorphism variants, and risk factors such as optic disc haemorrhages, optic disc notches, and peripapillary atrophy. Mean diastolic and systolic pressure during the day and night were lowest in NTG patients with the CC variant of the T786C polymorphism. No statistical correlation was observed between the G894T and T786C polymorphisms and capillaroscopic examination results. Conclusions Genotype frequencies are similar for both the eNOS G894T and T-786C polymorphisms in NTG and HTG patients. These polymorphisms do not correlate with risk factors and do not influence the state of the capillary system in NTG patients. Systolic blood pressure is lower in NTG patients with mutated alleles of both polymorphisms. PMID:26807726

  2. Contribution of the putative genetic factors and ANKH gene polymorphisms to variation of circulating calciotropic molecules, PTH and BGP.

    PubMed

    Vistoropsky, Yulia; Keter, Michal; Malkin, Ida; Trofimov, Svetlana; Kobyliansky, Eugene; Livshits, Gregory

    2007-05-15

    It is well known that regulation of calcium homeostasis in bone remodeling is one of the most crucial factors for maintaining healthy bones. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is probably the most important hormone that participates in the bone remodeling process. Another important biochemical factor governing bone metabolism is osteocalcin (BGP). Although the physiological functions of both of these factors are well known, there is still very little known regarding their specific genetic determination and in particular, the specific genes that may regulate the circulating concentrations of these substances. In the present study, we examined whether nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human homologue of the mouse progressive ankylosis gene (ANKH)-one of the key genetic factors involved in bone mineralization-can be associated with PTH and BGP levels in apparently healthy human populations. The study sample comprised 244 nuclear families (840 individuals). After adjustment of BGP and PTH for the significant covariates (sex, age and BMI), the contribution of the putative genetic effects was statistically significant (P < 0.001) for both biochemical factors: 45.27 +/- 10.8% for PTH and 30.19 +/- 12.6% for BGP. Application of transmission disequilibrium tests (TDTs) revealed a significant association (P < 0.05) between PTH and two SNPs: rs39968 and rs875525. However, the association became particularly significant for four TDTs (P-values ranging from 0.0025 to 0.0008) when the association with the haplotypes generated from the above SNP was tested. This association remained significant even after correction for multiple testing with a false discovery rate of 0.05.

  3. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and host genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Several factors have been proposed as possible H. pylori virulence determinants; for example, bacterial adhesins and gastric inflammation factors are associated with an increased risk of PUD. However, differences in bacterial virulence factors alone cannot explain the opposite ends of the PUD disease spectrum, that is duodenal and gastric ulcers; presumably, both bacterial and host factors contribute to the differential response. Carriers of the high-producer alleles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α who also carry low-producer allele of anti-inflammatory cytokines have severe gastric mucosal inflammation, whereas carriers of the alternative alleles have mild inflammation. Recent reports have suggested that the PSCA and CYP2C19 ultra-rapid metabolizer genotypes are also associated with PUD.

  4. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and host genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Several factors have been proposed as possible H. pylori virulence determinants; for example, bacterial adhesins and gastric inflammation factors are associated with an increased risk of PUD. However, differences in bacterial virulence factors alone cannot explain the opposite ends of the PUD disease spectrum, that is duodenal and gastric ulcers; presumably, both bacterial and host factors contribute to the differential response. Carriers of the high-producer alleles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α who also carry low-producer allele of anti-inflammatory cytokines have severe gastric mucosal inflammation, whereas carriers of the alternative alleles have mild inflammation. Recent reports have suggested that the PSCA and CYP2C19 ultra-rapid metabolizer genotypes are also associated with PUD. PMID:26470920

  5. Interleukin 10 (IL10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) gene polymorphisms in persistent IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Okay, Thelma Suely; Castro, Ana Paula BM; Gushken, Andrea Keiko F.; Watanabe, Letícia Aki; Frucchi, Vanessa CZ; de Oliveira, Léa Campos

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate whether interleukin 10 (IL10) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) gene polymorphisms were associated with persistent IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy in 50 Brazilian children. The diagnostic criteria were anaphylaxis triggered by cow's milk or a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. Tolerance was defined as the absence of a clinical response to a double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge or cow's milk exposure. METHOD: The genomic DNA of the 50 patients and 224 healthy controls (HCs) was used to investigate five IL10 gene polymorphisms (-3575A/T, -2849A/G, -2763A/C, -1082G/A, -592C/A) and one TGFβ1 polymorphism (-509C/T). RESULTS: Among the five IL10 polymorphisms analyzed, homozygosis for the G allele at the -1082 position was significantly higher in the patients compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.027) and in the persistent cow's milk allergy group compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Homozygosis for the G allele at the IL10 -1082G/A polymorphism is associated with the persistent form of cow's milk allergy. PMID:23917667

  6. BDNF gene effects on brain circuitry replicated in 455 twins.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Toga, Arthur W; Medland, Sarah E; Hansell, Narelle K; James, Michael R; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-03-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in learning and memory, but its effects on the fiber architecture of the living brain are unknown. We genotyped 455 healthy adult twins and their non-twin siblings (188 males/267 females; age: 23.7±2.1 years, mean±SD) and scanned them with high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to assess how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects white matter microstructure. By applying genetic association analysis to every 3D point in the brain images, we found that the Val-BDNF genetic variant was associated with lower white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum, left optic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and superior corona radiata. Normal BDNF variation influenced the association between subjects' performance intellectual ability (as measured by Object Assembly subtest) and fiber integrity (as measured by fractional anisotropy; FA) in the callosal splenium, and pons. BDNF gene may affect the intellectual performance by modulating the white matter development. This combination of genetic association analysis and large-scale diffusion imaging directly relates a specific gene to the fiber microstructure of the living brain and to human intelligence. PMID:21195196

  7. BDNF GENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN CIRCUITRY REPLICATED IN 455 TWINS

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; Barysheva, Marina; Toga, Arthur W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Hansell, Narelle K.; James, Michael R.; McMahon, Katie L.; de Zubicaray, Greig I.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wright, Margaret J.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in learning and memory, but its effects on the fiber architecture of the living brain are unknown. We genotyped 455 healthy adult twins and their non-twin siblings (188 males/267 females; age: 23.7±2.1 years, mean±SD) and scanned them with high angular resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), to assess how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects white matter microstructure. By applying genetic association analysis to every 3D point in the brain images, we found that the Val-BDNF genetic variant was associated with lower white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum, left optic radiation, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and superior corona radiata. Normal BDNF variation influenced the association between subjects’ performance intellectual ability (as measured by Object Assembly subtest) and fiber integrity (as measured by fractional anisotropy; FA) in the callosal splenium, and pons. The BDNF gene may affect intellectual performance by modulating white matter development. This combination of genetic association analysis and large-scale diffusion imaging directly relates a specific gene to the fiber microstructure of the living brain and to human intelligence. PMID:21195196

  8. Physical exercise during encoding improves vocabulary learning in young female adults: a neuroendocrinological study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Deusser, Marie; Thiel, Christian; Otterbein, Sascha; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Banzer, Winfried; Kaiser, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Acute physical activity has been repeatedly shown to improve various cognitive functions. However, there have been no investigations comparing the effects of exercise during verbal encoding versus exercise prior to encoding on long-term memory performance. In this current psychoneuroendocrinological study we aim to test whether light to moderate ergometric bicycling during vocabulary encoding enhances subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest and encoding after being physically active. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum which has been previously shown to correlate with learning performance. We also controlled for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. We found better vocabulary test performance for subjects that were physically active during the encoding phase compared to sedentary subjects. Post-hoc tests revealed that this effect was particularly present in initially low performers. BDNF in serum and BDNF genotype failed to account for the current result. Our data indicates that light to moderate simultaneous physical activity during encoding, but not prior to encoding, is beneficial for subsequent recall of new items.

  9. Easy to remember, difficult to forget: the development of fear regulation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D.C.; Casey, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Fear extinction learning is a highly adaptive process that involves the integrity of frontolimbic circuitry. Its disruption has been associated with emotional dysregulation in stress and anxiety disorders. In this article we consider how age, genetics and experiences shape our capacity to regulate fear in cross-species studies. Evidence for adolescent-specific diminished fear extinction learning is presented in the context of immature frontolimbic circuitry. We also present evidence for less neural plasticity in fear regulation as a function of early life stress and by genotype, focusing on the common brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Finally, we discuss this work in the context of exposure-based behavioral therapies for the treatment of anxiety and stress disorders that are based on principles of fear extinction. We conclude by speculating on how such therapies may be optimized for the individual based on the patient’s age, genetic profile and personal history to move from standard treatment of care to personalized and precision medicine. PMID:25238998

  10. No Association of BDNF, COMT, MAOA, SLC6A3, and SLC6A4 Genes and Depressive Symptoms in a Sample of Healthy Colombian Subjects

    PubMed Central

    González-Giraldo, Yeimy; Camargo, Andrés; López-León, Sandra; Forero, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the second cause of years lived with disability around the world. A large number of studies have been carried out to identify genetic risk factors for MDD and related endophenotypes, mainly in populations of European and Asian descent, with conflicting results. The main aim of the current study was to analyze the possible association of five candidate genes and depressive symptoms in a Colombian sample of healthy subjects. Methods and Materials. The Spanish adaptation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to one hundred eighty-eight healthy Colombian subjects. Five functional polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR-based assays: BDNF-Val66Met (rs6265), COMT-Val158Met (rs4680), SLC6A4-HTTLPR (rs4795541), MAOA-uVNTR, and SLC6A3-VNTR (rs28363170). Result. We did not find significant associations with scores of depressive symptoms, derived from the HADS, for any of the five candidate genes (nominal p values >0.05). In addition, we did not find evidence of significant gene-gene interactions. Conclusion. This work is one of the first studies of candidate genes for depressive symptoms in a Latin American sample. Study of additional genetic and epigenetic variants, taking into account other pathophysiological theories, will help to identify novel candidates for MDD in populations around the world. PMID:26557993

  11. Easy to remember, difficult to forget: the development of fear regulation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D C; Casey, B J

    2015-02-01

    Fear extinction learning is a highly adaptive process that involves the integrity of frontolimbic circuitry. Its disruption has been associated with emotional dysregulation in stress and anxiety disorders. In this article we consider how age, genetics and experiences shape our capacity to regulate fear in cross-species studies. Evidence for adolescent-specific diminished fear extinction learning is presented in the context of immature frontolimbic circuitry. We also present evidence for less neural plasticity in fear regulation as a function of early-life stress and by genotype, focusing on the common brain derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Finally, we discuss this work in the context of exposure-based behavioral therapies for the treatment of anxiety and stress disorders that are based on principles of fear extinction. We conclude by speculating on how such therapies may be optimized for the individual based on the patient's age, genetic profile and personal history to move from standard treatment of care to personalized and precision medicine.

  12. Genetic Variation in BDNF is Associated with Antipsychotic Treatment Resistance in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Lencz, Todd; Geisler, Stephen; DeRosse, Pamela; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia. However, a substantial proportion of patients are poorly responsive or resistant to first-line treatments, and clozapine treatment is often indicated. Therefore, we and others have used clozapine treatment as a proxy phenotype for antipsychotic treatment resistance in pharmacogenetic studies. In the present study, we utilized this phenotype to test previously-identified candidate genes for antipsychotic treatment response. Method We assessed 89 Caucasian schizophrenia patients clinically assigned to clozapine treatment versus 190 Caucasian patients that were not selected for clozapine treatment. We conducted gene-based association tests on a set of 74 relevant candidate genes nominated in the CATIE pharmacogenetic study (Need et al, 2009), using the GATES procedure (Li et al, 2011). Results After correcting for multiple testing in the gene-based association test, the gene for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was significantly associated with treatment resistance. The top single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BDNF included rs11030104 (OR=2.57), rs10501087 (OR=2.19) and rs6265 (Val66Met) (OR=2.08). These SNPs appear to be in high linkage disequilibrium with each other. Conclusion BDNF appears to have a strong association with antipsychotic treatment resistance. Future studies are needed to replicate this finding and further elucidate the biological pathways underlying the association between BDNF and antipsychotic drug response. PMID:23433505

  13. Institutionalization and indiscriminate social behavior: Differential-susceptibility versus diathesis-stress models for the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, A R; Belsky, J; Li, Z; Baptista, J; Carvalho-Correia, E; Maciel, P; Soares, I

    2015-12-01

    Institutionalization adversely impacts children's emotional functioning, proving related to attachment disorders, perhaps most notably that involving indiscriminate behavior, the subject of this report. In seeking to extend work in this area, this research on gene X environment (GXE) interplay investigated whether the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and val66met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) polymorphisms moderated the effect of institutional care on indiscriminate behavior in preschoolers. Eighty-five institutionalized and 135 home-reared Portuguese children were assessed using Disturbances of Attachment Interview (DAI). GXE results indicated that s/s homozygotes of the 5-HTTLPR gene displayed significantly higher levels of indiscriminate behavior than all other children if institutionalized, something not true of such children when family reared. These findings proved consistent with the diathesis-stress rather than differential-susceptibility model of person×environment interaction. BDNF proved unrelated to indiscriminate behavior. Results are discussed in relation to previous work on this subject of indiscriminate behavior, institutionalization and GXE interaction. PMID:26386404

  14. Influence of Genetic Polymorphisms of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Interleukin 10 Genes on the Risk of Liver Cirrhosis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Corchado, Sara; Márquez, Mercedes; Montes de Oca, Montserrat; Romero-Cores, Paula; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Clotilde; Girón-González, José-Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysis of the contribution of genetic (single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promotor genes) and of classical factors (age, alcohol, immunodepression, antirretroviral therapy) on the risk of liver cirrhosis in human immunodeficiency (HIV)-hepatitis C (HCV) virus coinfected patients. Patients and Methods Ninety one HIV-HCV coinfected patients (50 of them with chronic hepatitis and 41 with liver cirrhosis) and 55 healthy controls were studied. Demographic, risk factors for the HIV-HCV infection, HIV-related (CD4+ T cell count, antiretroviral therapy, HIV viral load) and HCV-related (serum ALT concentration, HCV viral load, HCV genotype) characteristics and polymorphisms at position -238 and -308 of the tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF- α) and -592 of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promotor genes were studied. Results Evolution time of the infection was 21 years in both patients’ groups (chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis). The group of patients with liver cirrhosis shows a lower CD4+ T cell count at the inclusion in the study (but not at diagnosis of HIV infection), a higher percentage of individuals with previous alcohol abuse, and a higher proportion of patients with the genotype GG at position -238 of the TNF-α promotor gene; polymorphism at -592 of the IL-10 promotor gene approaches to statistical significance. Serum concentrations of profibrogenic transforming growth factor beta1 were significantly higher in healthy controls with genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene. The linear regression analysis demonstrates that the genotype GG at -238 TNF-α promotor gene was the independent factor associated to liver cirrhosis. Conclusion It is stressed the importance of immunogenetic factors (TNF-α polymorphism at -238 position), above other factors previously accepted (age, gender, alcohol, immunodepression), on the evolution to liver cirrhosis

  15. Functional polymorphisms in the transcription factor NRF2 in humans increase the risk of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Jacqui M; Christie, Jason D; Reddy, Sekhar P; Jedlicka, Anne E; Vuong, Hue; Lanken, Paul N; Aplenc, Richard; Yamamoto, Tae; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Cho, Hye-Youn; Kleeberger, Steven R

    2007-07-01

    We recently used positional cloning to identify the transcription factor Nrf2 (NF-E2 related factor 2) as a susceptibility gene in a murine model of oxidant-induced acute lung injury (ALI). NRF2 binds to antioxidant response elements (ARE) and up-regulates protective detoxifying enzymes in response to oxidative stress. This led us to investigate NRF2 as a candidate susceptibility gene for risk of development of ALI in humans. We identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by resequencing NRF2 in ethnically diverse subjects, and one (-617 C/A) significantly (P<0.001) diminished luciferase activity of promoter constructs containing the SNP and significantly decreased the binding affinity (P<0.001) relative to the wild type at this locus (-617 CC). In a nested case-control study, patients with the -617 A SNP had a significantly higher risk for developing ALI after major trauma (OR 6.44; 95% CI 1.34, 30.8; P=0.021) relative to patients with the wild type (-617 CC). This translational investigation provides novel insight into the molecular mechanisms of susceptibility to ALI and may help to identify patients who are predisposed to develop ALI under at risk conditions, such as trauma and sepsis. Furthermore, these findings may have important implications in other oxidative stress related illnesses.

  16. Non-Association between rs7903146 and rs12255372 Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Gene and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jahrom City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Malihe; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway. High levels of TCF7L2 have been reported in most human tissues, including the heart, lung, brain, liver, kidney, placenta, adipose tissues, and pancreatic β-cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the city of Jahrom, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted with 200 patients referred to Diabetes Clinics and 200 healthy subjects in Jahrom City. Biochemical characteristics were first determined. TCF7L2 rs1255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms were then genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results T-allele frequencies of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (rs12255372: 20.3% vs. 14.5%; rs7903146: 28.5% vs. 22.25%). The rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism analysis showed an odds ratio of 0.473 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.170 to 1.314; P=0.151) for the TT genotype and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.410 to 1.019; P=0.060) for the TG genotype, compared with the GG genotype. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism odds ratios for TT and TC genotypes were 0.564 (95% CI, 0.280 to 1.135; P=0.109) and 0.751 (95% CI, 0.487 to 1.157; P=0.194) compared with the CC genotype, respectively. Conclusion The rs12255372 and rs7903146 SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene were not associated with insulin resistance in the evaluated population. PMID:26616591

  17. Confounding factors and genetic polymorphism in the evaluation of individual steroid profiling

    PubMed Central

    Kuuranne, Tiia; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In the fight against doping, steroid profiling is a powerful tool to detect drug misuse with endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids. To establish sensitive and reliable models, the factors influencing profiling should be recognised. We performed an extensive literature review of the multiple factors that could influence the quantitative levels and ratios of endogenous steroids in urine matrix. For a comprehensive and scientific evaluation of the urinary steroid profile, it is necessary to define the target analytes as well as testosterone metabolism. The two main confounding factors, that is, endogenous and exogenous factors, are detailed to show the complex process of quantifying the steroid profile within WADA-accredited laboratories. Technical aspects are also discussed as they could have a significant impact on the steroid profile, and thus the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP). The different factors impacting the major components of the steroid profile must be understood to ensure scientifically sound interpretation through the Bayesian model of the ABP. Not only should the statistical data be considered but also the experts in the field must be consulted for successful implementation of the steroidal module. PMID:24764553

  18. The Functional Significance of Common Polymorphisms in Zinc Finger Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Lockwood, Sarah H.; Guan, Anna; Yu, Abigail S.; Zhang, Chi; Zykovich, Artem; Korf, Ian; Rannala, Bruce; Segal, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Variants that alter the DNA-binding specificity of transcription factors could affect the specificity for and expression of potentially many target genes, as has been observed in several tumor-derived mutations. Here we examined if such trans expression quantitative trait loci (trans-eQTLs) could similarly result from common genetic variants. We chose to focus on the Cys2-His2 class of zinc finger transcription factors because they are the most abundant superfamily of transcription factors in human and have well-characterized DNA binding interactions. We identified 430 SNPs that cause missense substitutions in the DNA-contacting residues. Fewer common missense SNPs were found at DNA-contacting residues compared with non-DNA-contacting residues (P = 0.00006), consistent with possible functional selection against SNPs at DNA-contacting positions. Functional predictions based on zinc finger transcription factor (ZNF) DNA binding preferences also suggested that many common substitutions could potentially alter binding specificity. However, Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium analysis and examination of seven orthologs within the primate lineage failed to find evidence of trans-eQTLs associated with the DNA-contacting positions or evidence of a different selection pressure on a contemporary and evolutionary timescales. The overall conclusion was that common SNPs that alter the DNA-contacting residues of these factors are unlikely to produce strong trans-eQTLs, consistent with the observations by others that trans-eQTLs in humans tend to be few and weak. Some rare SNPs might alter specificity and remained rare due to purifying selection. The study also underscores the need for large-scale eQTLs mapping efforts that might provide experimental evidence for SNPs that alter the choice of transcription factor binding sites. PMID:24970883

  19. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Other than Factor V Leiden Are Associated with Coagulopathy and Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Chinese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kou-Ti; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Tsan-Wen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Hsu, Wei-Hsiu; Hsu, Robert W. W.; Ueng, Steve W. N.; Lee, Mel S.

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of factor V Leiden have been associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in Caucasians but remains controversial in Asians. We used an SNP microarray to screen 55 loci of factor V gene in patients with ONFH of Chinese. Significantly different candidate SNPs at 14 loci were analyzed in 146 patients and 116 healthy controls using MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight) mass spectrometry and gene sequencing. The factor V Leiden (rs6025) was not found in all participants. Six SNP loci (rs9332595, rs6020, rs9332647, rs3766110, rs10919186, and rs12040141) were confirmed with significant differences in patients but not in controls. The rs6020 G-to-A polymorphism was found in 88.9% of the patients. In addition, a high percentage (87.6%) of the patients had an abnormal coagulation profile that included hyperfibrinogen, elevated fibrinogen degradation products, elevated D-dimer, abnormal protein S, abnormal protein C, or a decrease in anti-thrombin III. Patients with the rs6020 G-to-A polymorphism (mutation) had a higher risk (odds ratio: 4.62; 95% confidence interval: 1.44–14.8) of having coagulation abnormalities than did those without the mutation (wild-type) (χ2 p  =  0.006). Our findings suggested that the rs6020 polymorphism might be the genetic trait that accounts for the higher prevalence of ONFH in the Chinese population than in Westerners. Exposure to risk factors such as alcohol and steroids in patients with the rs6020 polymorphism causes coagulation abnormalities and, subsequently, thromboembolisms in the femoral head. PMID:25119470

  20. Interactions of Environmental Factors and APOA1-APOC3-APOA4-APOA5 Gene Cluster Gene Polymorphisms with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanhua; Yu, Yaqin; Zhao, Tiancheng; Wang, Shibin; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Yao, Wenwang; Su, Yingying; Ma, Yue; Shi, Jieping; Jiang, Jing; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors for Metabolic syndrome. We evaluated the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the apolipoprotein APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster and the MetS risk and analyzed the interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS. Methods A study on the prevalence and risk factors for MetS was conducted using data from a large cross-sectional survey representative of the population of Jilin Province situated in northeastern China. A total of 16,831 participations were randomly chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling of residents aged from 18 to 79 years in all nine administrative areas of the province. Environmental factors associated with MetS were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses based on the weighted sample data. A sub-sample of 1813 survey subjects who met the criteria for MetS patients and 2037 controls from this case-control study were used to evaluate the association between SNPs and MetS risk. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes, and SNP genotyping was determined by MALDI-TOF-MS. The associations between SNPs and MetS were examined using a case-control study design. The interactions of environmental factors and APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster polymorphisms with MetS were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The overall adjusted prevalence of MetS was 32.86% in Jilin province. The prevalence of MetS in men was 36.64%, which was significantly higher than the prevalence in women (29.66%). MetS was more common in urban areas (33.86%) than in rural areas (31.80%). The prevalence of MetS significantly increased with age (OR = 8.621, 95%CI = 6.594–11.272). Mental labor (OR = 1.098, 95%CI = 1.008–1.195), current smoking (OR = 1.259, 95%CI = 1.108–1.429), excess salt intake (OR = 1.252, 95%CI = 1.149–1.363), and a fruit and dairy intake less

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-α -G308A polymorphism is associated with liver pathological changes in hepatitis C virus patients

    PubMed Central

    Bader El Din, Noha G; Farouk, Sally; El-Shenawy, Reem; Ibrahim, Marwa K; Dawood, Reham M; Elhady, Mostafa M; Salem, Ahmed M; Zayed, Naglaa; Khairy, Ahmed; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) -G308A polymorphism with different liver pathological changes in treatment-naïve Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4. METHODS This study included 180 subjects, composed of 120 treatment-naïve chronic HCV patients with different fibrosis grades (F0-F4) and 60 healthy controls. The TNFα -G308A region was amplified by PCR and the different genotypes were detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The TNFα protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The influence of different TNFα -G308A genotypes on TNFα expression and liver disease progression were statistically analyzed. The OR and 95%CI were calculated to assess the relative risk confidence. RESULTS Current data showed that the TNFα -G308A SNP frequency was significantly different between controls and HCV infected patients (P = 0.001). Both the AA genotype and A allele were significantly higher in late fibrosis patients (F2-F4, n = 60) than in early fibrosis patients (F0-F1, n = 60) (P = 0.05, 0.04 respectively). Moreover, the GA or AA genotypes increased the TNFα serum level greater than the GG genotype (P = 0.002). The results showed a clear association between severe liver pathological conditions (inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis) and (GA + AA) genotypes (P = 0.035, 0.03, 0.04 respectively). The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the TNFα genotypes (GA + AA) were significantly associated with liver inflammation (OR = 3.776, 95%CI: 1.399-10.194, P = 0.009), severe steatosis (OR = 4.49, 95%CI: 1.441-14.0, P = 0.010) and fibrosis progression (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.080-7.472, P = 0.034). Also, the A allele was an independent risk factor for liver inflammation (P = 0.003), steatosis (P = 0.003) and fibrosis (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION TNFα SNP at nucleotide -308 represents an important genetic marker that can be used for the prognosis of different liver

  2. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as risk factors for asbestos-related malignant mesothelioma in a general population study.

    PubMed

    Dianzani, I; Gibello, L; Biava, A; Giordano, M; Bertolotti, M; Betti, M; Ferrante, D; Guarrera, S; Betta, G P; Mirabelli, D; Matullo, G; Magnani, C

    2006-07-25

    Differences in response to carcinogenic agents are due to the allelic variants of the genes that control it. Key genes are those involved in the repair of the DNA damage caused by such agents. This paper describes the results of a case-control epidemiological study designed to determine the genotypes of four of these genes in persons exposed to a single genotoxic factor, i.e. asbestos, who had or had not developed malignant mesothelioma (MM). Our working hypothesis was that an imperfect DNA repair, as revealed by subtle polymorphic variants, could reduce protection against the chronic DNA insult provoked by asbestos and eventually result in mutagenesis and cancer. Seven variants (i.e. XRCC1-R399Q-NCBI SNP, XRCC1-R194W, XRCC3-T241M, XRCC3-IVS6-14, XPD-K751Q, XPD-D312N, OGG1-S326C) were investigated in 81 patients and 110 age and sex-matched controls, all residents at Casale Monferrato, a Piedmontese town highly exposed to asbestos pollution. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). When considered as a categorical variable, XRCC1-399Q showed an increased OR both in heterozygotes (OR=2.08; 95% CI=1.00-4.33) and homozygotes (2.38; 95% CI=0.82-6.94), although individual ORs were not significant. When it was considered as a continuous variable OR was significant (OR=1.68; 95% CI: 1.02-2.75). When genotypes were divided into "non-risk" and "risk" genotypes, i.e. those thought to be associated with increased risk in the light of the functional significance of the variants, XRCC1-399Q (Q homozygotes+Q/R heterozygotes versus R homozygotes) had an OR=2.147 (95% CI: 1.08-4.28), whereas that of XRCC3-241T (T homozygotes+M/T heterozygotes versus M homozygotes) was 4.09 (95% CI: 1.26-13.21) and that of OGG1-326C was increased, though not significantly. None of the haplotypes showed a significantly different frequency between patients and controls. This is the first report of an association between

  3. Tumor necrosis factor-α -G308A polymorphism is associated with liver pathological changes in hepatitis C virus patients

    PubMed Central

    Bader El Din, Noha G; Farouk, Sally; El-Shenawy, Reem; Ibrahim, Marwa K; Dawood, Reham M; Elhady, Mostafa M; Salem, Ahmed M; Zayed, Naglaa; Khairy, Ahmed; El Awady, Mostafa K

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) -G308A polymorphism with different liver pathological changes in treatment-naïve Egyptian patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4. METHODS This study included 180 subjects, composed of 120 treatment-naïve chronic HCV patients with different fibrosis grades (F0-F4) and 60 healthy controls. The TNFα -G308A region was amplified by PCR and the different genotypes were detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The TNFα protein was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The influence of different TNFα -G308A genotypes on TNFα expression and liver disease progression were statistically analyzed. The OR and 95%CI were calculated to assess the relative risk confidence. RESULTS Current data showed that the TNFα -G308A SNP frequency was significantly different between controls and HCV infected patients (P = 0.001). Both the AA genotype and A allele were significantly higher in late fibrosis patients (F2-F4, n = 60) than in early fibrosis patients (F0-F1, n = 60) (P = 0.05, 0.04 respectively). Moreover, the GA or AA genotypes increased the TNFα serum level greater than the GG genotype (P = 0.002). The results showed a clear association between severe liver pathological conditions (inflammation, steatosis and fibrosis) and (GA + AA) genotypes (P = 0.035, 0.03, 0.04 respectively). The stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the TNFα genotypes (GA + AA) were significantly associated with liver inflammation (OR = 3.776, 95%CI: 1.399-10.194, P = 0.009), severe steatosis (OR = 4.49, 95%CI: 1.441-14.0, P = 0.010) and fibrosis progression (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.080-7.472, P = 0.034). Also, the A allele was an independent risk factor for liver inflammation (P = 0.003), steatosis (P = 0.003) and fibrosis (P = 0.014). CONCLUSION TNFα SNP at nucleotide -308 represents an important genetic marker that can be used for the prognosis of different liver

  4. The single nucleotide polymorphism +936 C/T VEGF is associated with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression in Moroccan breast cancer women.

    PubMed

    Rahoui, Jalila; Sbitti, Yassir; Touil, Nadia; Laraqui, Abdelilah; Ibrahimi, Azeddine; Rhrab, Brahim; Al Bouzidi, Abderrahman; Moussaoui Rahali, Driss; Dehayni, Mohamed; Ichou, Mohamed; Zaoui, Fatima; Mrani, Saad

    2014-12-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent regulator of angiogenesis, is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer (BC). The functional +936 C/T polymorphism of the VEGF-A gene has been implicated in BC susceptibility; however, published data are conflicting. In the current case-control study, we analyzed the association of the +936 C/T polymorphism with BC risk and tumor markers expression, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) and caner antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) in Moroccan women. We genotyped the DNA of 70 BC patients and 70 healthy women by TaqMan SNP assays. The χ(2) test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analyses. The overall results revealed that there is no association between the +936 C/T polymorphism and BC risk [p = 0.8; OR 0.87, 95 % CI (0.32-2.42)]. However, when we stratified the group of patients according to the status of tumor markers, a statistical significant association of +936 C/T SNP and HER2/neu expression was observed (p = 0.009). In contrast, no association with the other tumor marker, CA 15.3, was found (p = 0.090). Thus, the +936 C/T polymorphism seems to have a correlation with HER/neu expression in BC disease.

  5. Association between the thrombophilic polymorphisms MTHFR C677T, Factor V Leiden, and prothrombin G20210A and recurrent miscarriage in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, R O; Fraga, L R; Santos, W V B; Carvalho, A F L; Veloso Cerqueira, B A V; Sarno, M; Toralles, M B P; Vieira, M J; Dutra, C G; Schüler-Faccini, L; Sanseverino, M T V; Gonçalves, M S; Vianna, F S L; Costa, O L N

    2016-01-01

    Some cases of recurrent first trimester miscarriage have a thrombotic etiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the most common thrombophilic mutations - factor V (FV) Leiden G1691A (FVL), prothrombin (FII) G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T - in women with recurrent miscarriages. In this case-control study, we included 137 women with two or more consecutive first-trimester miscarriages (£12 weeks of gestation) and 100 healthy women with no history of pregnancy loss, and with at least one living child. DNA was extracted from the patient samples, and the relevant genes (FVL, FII, and MTHFR) were amplified by PCR, followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism, to assess the polymorphisms in these genes. The allelic frequencies of polymorphisms were not significantly different between the case and control groups. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR, FVL, and FII genes were not associated with recurrent miscarriage during the first trimester of pregnancy in Brazilian women (P = 0.479; P = 0.491 and P = 0.107, respectively). However, the etiologic identification of genetic factors is important for genetic counseling. PMID:27525841

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308G/A polymorphism and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Roba M.; Esmail, Ahmed A.; Elwakil, Reda; Gurgis, Adel A.; Nasr, Mahmoud I.

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is an important cytokine in generating an immune response against infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The functions of TNF-α may be altered by single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its gene structure. We hypothesized that SNPs in TNF-α may be important in determining the outcome of an HCV infection. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the role of the polymorphism -308G/A, which is located in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene, in the progression of HCV infection in Egyptian patients using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The distribution of this polymorphism and its impact on the serum level of TNF-α was compared between 90 HCV-infected patients [45 with HCV-induced cirrhosis and 45 with HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)] and 45 healthy Egyptian volunteers without any history of liver disease. Our results showed that at the TNF-α -308 position, the G/G allele was most common (78.5%) in the study population, with the G/A and A/A alleles occurring less frequently (13.3% and 8.1%, respectively). Frequencies of G/G, G/A, and A/A genotypes were 87%, 7%, and 6% in patients with liver cirrhosis and were 94%, 4%, and 2% in patients with HCC, respectively. Serum levels of TNF-α were significantly higher in HCV-infected patients than in healthy controls, indicating that the TNF-α -308 polymorphism does not influence the production of TNF-α. The serum level of TNF-α was positively correlated with HCV infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the TNF-α -308 polymorphism may not be a host genetic factor associated with the severity of HCV infection, but may be an independent risk factor for HCC. PMID:22200181

  7. Is Alpha-1 Antichymotrypsin Gene Polymorphism a Risk Factor for Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage? A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Li, Yunke; Li, Hao; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antichymotrypsin (ACT) signal peptide A/T polymorphism has been suggested to play a role in various brain diseases with arterial wall pathology. We conducted a case-control study and a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between this polymorphism and risk of primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Material/Methods A total of 188 patients and 200 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were enrolled in our case-control study. The ACT polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-LDR. Further meta-analysis was conducted by searching literature from PUBMED, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases until December 2014, then combining data using STATA10.0. Results Similar genotype distribution was detected between PICH patients and healthy controls (p=0.523). Further analysis based on hypertension and location of hemorrhage did not observe significant association. Multiple logistic regression analysis also failed to identify ACT polymorphism as an independent risk factor for PICH. With regard to meta-analysis, a total of 6 case-control studies including 932 PICH patients and 1140 controls were enrolled. Pooled ORs failed to detect a significant association of ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism with PICH (dominant model: OR=1.03, 95%CI=0.72–1.46; recessive model: OR=1.08, 95%CI=0.88–1.32). Subgroup analysis based on hypertension revealed no association in hypertensive PICH or in normotensive PICH. Conclusions Our case-control study in a Chinese population did not detect a significant association between ACT signal peptide A/T polymorphism and PICH. Moreover, meta-analysis combining data from relevant studies failed to provide evidence for the association. Further well-designed studies with larger sample sizes are warranted to verify our findings. PMID:26210716

  8. Lack of Association of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α G-308A and Transforming Growth Factor-β1 C-509T Polymorphisms in Patients with Deep Neck Space Infections.

    PubMed

    Jevtović-Stoimenov, T; Despotović, M; Pešić, Z; Cosić, A

    2013-12-01

    Deep neck space infections are defined as infections that spread along the fascial planes and spaces of the head and neck. Even in the era of antibiotics, these infections can and have been potentially life-threatening conditions. The role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) genes in deep neck infections has not been studied. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the TNF-α G-308A and TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphisms in patients suffering from infections of deep neck spaces and to determine the correlation of these polymorphisms with the values of inflammation markers [C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count]. A total of 41 patients with infections of deep neck spaces and 44 healthy controls were screened for TNF-α G-308A and TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphisms using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The distribution of the TNF-α G-308A genotype in patients did not reveal statistically significant correlation compared to con-trols (p = 0.483, χ(2) = 0.491) as well as the distribution of the TGF-β1 C-509T genotypes (p = 0.644, χ(2) = 0.725). The distribution of TNF-α -308 and TGF-β1 -509 alleles was not significantly different in patients compared to controls. Moreover, CRP levels and WBC counts were not associated with TNF-α G-308A and TGF-β1 C-509T promoter polymorphisms in patients with deep neck infections. In conclusion, our study suggests that the TNF-α G-308A and TGF-β1 C-509T polymorphisms are not associated with infections of deep neck spaces.

  9. Genetic Polymorphism of Human Y Chromosome and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases: A Study in WOBASZ Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewa, Grażyna; Broda, Grażyna; Konarzewska, Magdalena; Krajewki, Paweł; Płoski, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variants of Y chromosome predispose to hypertension in rodents, whereas in humans the evidence is conflicting. Our purpose was to study the distribution of a panel of Y chromosome markers in a cohort from a cross-sectional population-based study on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Poland (WOBASZ study). The HindIII, YAP Y chromosome variants, previously shown to influence blood pressure, lipid traits or height, as well as SNPs defining main Y chromosome haplogroups, were typed in 3026, 2783 and 2652 samples, respectively. In addition, 4 subgroups (N∼100 each) representing extremes of LDL concentration or blood pressure (BP) were typed for a panel of 17 STRs. The HindIII and YAP polymorphism were not associated with any of the studied traits. Analysis of the haplogroup distribution showed an association between higher HDL level and hg I-M170 (P = 0.02), higher LDL level and hg F*(xI-M170, J2-M172, K-M9) (P = 0.03) and lower BMI and hg N3-Tat (P = 0.04). Analysis of STRs did not show statistically significant differences. Since all these associations lost statistical significance after Bonferroni correction, we conclude that a major role of Y chromosome genetic variation (defined by HindIII, YAP or main Y chromosome haplogroups) in determining cardiovascular risk in Poles is unlikely. PMID:23935855

  10. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms as Prognostic and Predictive Factors of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Colorectal Cancer of Stages I and II

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Matej; Potočnik, Uroš; Repnik, Katja; Kavalar, Rajko; Štabuc, Borut

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a highly heterogeneous disease regarding the stage at time of diagnosis and there is special attention regarding adjuvant chemotherapy in unselected patients with stage I and stage II. The clinicohistologically based TNM staging system with emphasis on histological evaluation of primary tumor and resected regional lymph nodes remains the standard of staging, but it has restricted sensitivity resulting in false downward stage migration. Molecular characteristics might predispose tumors to a worse prognosis and identification of those enables identifying patients with high risk of disease recurrence. Suitable predictive markers also enable choosing the most appropriate therapy. The current challenge facing adjuvant chemotherapy in stages I and II CRC is choosing patients with the highest risk of disease recurrence who are going to derive most benefit without facing unnecessary adverse effects. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one of the potential molecular markers that might help us identify patients with unfavorable prognostic factors regarding disease initiation and recurrence and could determine selection of an appropriate chemotherapy regimen in the adjuvant and metastatic setting. In this paper, we discuss SNPs of genes involved in the multistep processes of cancerogenesis, metastasis, and the metabolism of chemotherapy that might prove clinically significant. PMID:26884752

  11. Cladistic analysis of human apolipoprotein a4 polymorphisms in relation to quantitative plasma lipid risk factors of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, G Q; DiPietro, M; Roeder, K; Heng, C-K; Bunker, C H; Hamman, R F; Kamboh, M I

    2003-03-01

    Genetic variation in several genes involved in lipid metabolism is known to affect population variation in quantitative lipid risk factor profiles for coronary heart disease (CHD). The apolipoprotein A-IV gene (APOA4) is one such candidate gene. We genotyped five polymorphisms in the APOA4 gene (codon 127, codon 130, codon347, codon 360 and 3' VNTR) and investigated their impact on plasma lipid trait levels in three populations comprising 604 U.S. non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs), 408 U.S. Hispanics and 708 Nigerian Blacks. Cladistic analysis was carried out to identify 5-site haplotypes that were associated with significant phenotypic differences in each population. The distribution of APOA4 genotypes was significantly different between ethnic groups. The Africans were monomorphic for two of the five sites (codons 130 and 360), but possess a unique 12 bp insertion that was not observed in NHWs and Hispanics. Due to linkage disequilibrium between the sites, only 6 haplotypes were observed in NHWs and Hispanics, and 4 in Africans. Several gender-and ethnic-specific associations between genotypes and plasma lipid traits were observed when single sites were used. Several haplotypes were identified by cladistic analysis that may carry functional mutations that affect plasma lipid trait levels.

  12. The Effect of PAI-1 4G/5G Polymorphism and Clinical Factors on Coronary Artery Occlusion in Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Parpugga, Tajinder Kumar; Tatarunas, Vacis; Skipskis, Vilius; Kupstyte, Nora; Zaliaduonyte-Peksiene, Diana; Lesauskaite, Vaiva

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Data on the impact of PAI-1-675 4G/5G genotype for fibrinolysis during myocardial infarction are inconsistent. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of clinical and genetic (PAI-1-675 4G/5G polymorphism) factors with coronary artery occlusion in patients with myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods. PAI-1-675 4G/5G detection was achieved by using Sanger sequencing in a sample of patients hospitalized for stent implantation due to myocardial infarction. We categorized the patients into two groups: patients with coronary artery occlusion and patients without coronary artery occlusion according to angiographic evaluation. Results. We identified n = 122 (32.4%) 4G/4G, n = 186 (49.5%) 4G/5G, and n = 68 (18.1%) 5G/5G PAI-1 genotype carriers. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that only the 4G/5G genotype was associated with coronary artery occlusion (OR: 1.656 and 95% CI: 1.009–2.718, p = 0.046). Conclusions. Our results showed that carriers of PAI-1 4G/5G genotype with myocardial infarction have increased odds of coronary artery occlusion more than 1.6 times in comparison to the carriers of homozygous genotypes. PMID:26273123

  13. The functional tumor necrosis factor-α (308A/G) polymorphism modulates attentional selection in elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus; Falkenstein, Michael; Beste, Christian

    2013-11-01

    There has been increasing interest in understanding the role of inflammatory processes for cognitive functions in aging using molecular genetic approaches. Though this has mostly been evaluated in pathological aging, little is known about the relevance for cognitive functions in healthy aging in humans. On the basis of behavioral data and neurophysiological data (event-related potentials and time-frequency decomposition) we show that the A-allele of the functional tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α -308 A/G polymorphism confers dysfunction in a number of cognitive processes: prolonged attentional selection indexed by a delayed P1/N1 complex, an increased P3a, which is interpreted as an enhanced distractibility by nonrelevant stimuli and compromised response selection mechanisms, as indexed by a reduced frontocentral N2. Time-frequency analyses show that allelic variations further exert their effects by modulating alpha and beta frequency oscillations. On a neurobiological level, these effects might be because of the interaction of TNF-α with glutamatergic neural transmission by which TNF-α is known to boost apoptotic mechanisms in elderly individuals.

  14. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 T869C Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Acquired Sick Sinus Syndrome via Linking a Higher Serum Protein Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jan-Yow; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Liou, Ying-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial sick sinus syndrome is associated with gene mutations and dysfunction of ion channels. In contrast, degenerative fibrosis of the sinus node tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. There is a close relationship between transforming growth factor-β1 mediated cardiac fibrosis and acquired arrhythmia. It is of interest to examine whether transforming growth factor-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. Methods Overall, 110 patients with acquired SSS and 137 age/gender-matched controls were screened for transforming growth factor-β1 and cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphisms using gene sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the serum level of transforming growth factor-β1. Results Two transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms (C-509T and T+869C) and one cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphism (H588R) have been identified. The C-dominant CC/CT genotype frequency of T869C was significantly higher in acquired sick sinus syndrome patients than in controls (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.75, P = 0.01). Consistently, the level of serum transforming growth factor-β1 was also significantly greater in acquired sick sinus syndrome group than in controls (5.3±3.4 ng/ml vs. 3.7±2.4 ng/ml, P = 0.01). In addition, the CC/CT genotypes showed a higher transforming growth factor-β1 serum level than the TT genotype (4.25 ± 2.50 ng/ml vs. 2.71± 1.76 ng/ml, P = 0.028) in controls. Conclusion Transforming growth factor-β1 T869C polymorphism, correlated with high serum transforming growth factor-β1 levels, is associated with susceptibility to acquired sick sinus syndrome. PMID:27380173

  15. Rs488087 single nucleotide polymorphism as predictive risk factor for pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Emmanuelle; Silvy, Françoise; Fina, Fréderic; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin; Barlesi, Fabrice; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Iovanna, Juan; Laugier, René; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Lombardo, Dominique; Mas, Eric

    2015-11-24

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating disease progressing asymptomatically until death within months after diagnosis. Defining at-risk populations should promote its earlier diagnosis and hence also avoid its development. Considering the known involvement in pancreatic disease of exon 11 of the bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL) gene that encodes variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences, we hypothesized upon the existence of a genetic link between predisposition to PC and mutations in VNTR loci. To test this, BSDL VNTR were amplified by touchdown-PCR performed on genomic DNA extracted from cancer tissue or blood samples from a French patient cohort and amplicons were Sanger sequenced. A robust method using probes for droplet digital (dd)-PCR was designed to discriminate the C/C major from C/T or T/T minor genotypes. We report that the c.1719C > T transition (SNP rs488087) present in BSDL VNTR may be a useful marker for defining a population at risk of developing PC (occurrence: 63.90% in the PC versus 27.30% in the control group). The odds ratio of 4.7 for the T allele was larger than those already determined for other SNPs suspected to be predictive of PC. Further studies on tumor pancreatic tissue suggested that a germline T allele may favor Kras G12R/G12D somatic mutations which represent negative prognostic factors associated with reduced survival. We propose that the detection of the T allele in rs488087 SNP should lead to an in-depth follow-up of patients in whom an association with other potential risk factors of pancreatic cancer may be present.

  16. Rs488087 single nucleotide polymorphism as predictive risk factor for pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Emmanuelle; Silvy, Françoise; Fina, Fréderic; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin; Barlesi, Fabrice; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Iovanna, Juan; Laugier, René; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Lombardo, Dominique; Mas, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a devastating disease progressing asymptomatically until death within months after diagnosis. Defining at-risk populations should promote its earlier diagnosis and hence also avoid its development. Considering the known involvement in pancreatic disease of exon 11 of the bile salt-dependent lipase (BSDL) gene that encodes variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences, we hypothesized upon the existence of a genetic link between predisposition to PC and mutations in VNTR loci. To test this, BSDL VNTR were amplified by touchdown-PCR performed on genomic DNA extracted from cancer tissue or blood samples from a French patient cohort and amplicons were Sanger sequenced. A robust method using probes for droplet digital (dd)-PCR was designed to discriminate the C/C major from C/T or T/T minor genotypes. We report that the c.1719C > T transition (SNP rs488087) present in BSDL VNTR may be a useful marker for defining a population at risk of developing PC (occurrence: 63.90% in the PC versus 27.30% in the control group). The odds ratio of 4.7 for the T allele was larger than those already determined for other SNPs suspected to be predictive of PC. Further studies on tumor pancreatic tissue suggested that a germline T allele may favor Kras G12R/G12D somatic mutations which represent negative prognostic factors associated with reduced survival. We propose that the detection of the T allele in rs488087 SNP should lead to an in-depth follow-up of patients in whom an association with other potential risk factors of pancreatic cancer may be present. PMID:26498142

  17. The D519G Polymorphism of Glyceronephosphate O-Acyltransferase Is a Risk Factor for Familial Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Colin P.; Overbey, Jessica R.; Naik, Hetanshi; Nance, Danielle; McLaren, Gordon D.; McLaren, Christine E.; Zhou, Luming; Desnick, Robert J.; Parker, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    Both familial and sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) are iron dependent diseases. Symptoms of PCT resolve when iron stores are depleted by phlebotomy, and a sequence variant of HFE (C282Y, c.843G>A, rs1800562) that enhances iron aborption by reducing hepcidin expression is a risk factor for PCT. Recently, a polymorphic variant (D519G, c.1556A>G, rs11558492) of glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) was shown to be enriched in male patients with type I hereditary hemochromatosis (HFE C282Y homozygotes) who presented with a high iron phenotype, suggesting that GNPAT D519G, like HFE C282Y, is a modifier of iron homeostasis that favors iron absorption. To challenge this hypothesis, we investigated the frequency of GNPAT D519G in patients with both familial and sporadic PCT. Patients were screened for GNPAT D519G and allelic variants of HFE (both C282Y and H63D). Nucleotide sequencing of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) identified mutant alleles. Patients with low erythrocyte URO-D activity or a damaging URO-D variant were classified as familial PCT (fPCT) and those with wild-type URO-D were classified as sporadic PCT (sPCT). GNPAT D519G was significantly enriched in the fPCT patient population (p = 0.0014) but not in the sPCT population (p = 0.4477). Both HFE C282Y and H63D (c.187C>G, rs1799945) were enriched in both PCT patient populations (p<0.0001) but showed no greater association with fPCT than with sPCT. Conclusion: GNPAT D519G is a risk factor for fPCT, but not for sPCT. PMID:27661980

  18. Association of Functional Polymorphisms from Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Serotonin-Related Genes with Depressive Symptoms after a Medical Stressor in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Kerri S.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Ricci, William M.; Binder, Ellen F.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Wendleton, Leah; Doré, Peter; Lenze, Eric J.

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are common in older adults after a disabling medical event and interfere with rehabilitation and recovery from the disability. This prospective study examined the role of genetic polymorphisms implicated in synaptic integrity and stress-associated depression as predictors of depressive symptoms after hip fracture. We recruited healthy comparisons from the community and participants with hip fracture after surgical fixation from Saint Louis, Missouri hospitals. We examined the valine (Val) to methionine (Met) polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), serotonin 1A receptor (5HT1a-rs6295) polymorphism, and the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5HTTLPR) interaction with the rs25531 A to G single nucleotide polymorphism (5HTTLPR-rs25531) as predictors of depressive symptoms. We also examined whether depressive symptoms mediate the influence of BDNF genotype on functional recovery. Among 429 participants with hip fracture, BDNF Met/Met carriers developed significantly more depressive symptoms than Val/Val carriers during a four-week period after the fracture (p=.012). BDNF genotype also predicted functional recovery over the ensuing year, mediated by its effects on depressive symptoms (CI: 0.07-3.37). Unlike prior studies of stressful life events, the S′ 5HTTLPR-rs25531 variant did not predict higher levels of depressive symptoms; instead, we report an exploratory finding of an epistatic effect between BDNF and 5HTTLPR-rs25531 whereby the compounded effects of two LA alleles and BDNF Met/Met genotype elevate risk of depressive symptoms after hip fracture (p=.006). No differences between 5HT1a genotypes were found. Our findings suggest plasticity-related genetic factors contribute to the neural mechanisms of mental and functional well-being after a disabling medical stressor. PMID:25781924

  19. Topics in Transcriptional Control of Lipid Metabolism: from Transcription Factors to Gene-Promoter Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Bergen, Werner G.; Burnett, Derris D.

    2013-01-01

    The central dogma of biology (DNA>>RNA>>Protein) has remained as an extremely useful scaffold to guide the study of molecular regulation of cellular metabolism. Molecular regulation of cellular metabolism has been pursued from an individual enzyme to a global assessment of protein function at the genomic (DNA), transcriptomic (RNA) and translation (Protein) levels. Details of a key role by inhibitory small RNAs and post-translational processing of cellular proteins on a whole cell/global basis are now just emerging. Below we emphasize the role of transcription factors (TF) in regulation of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. Additionally we have also focused on emerging additional TF that may also have hitherto unrecognized roles in adipogenesis and lipogenesis as compared to our present understanding. It is generally recognized that SNPs in structural genes can affect the final structure/function of a given protein. The implications of SNPs located in the non-transcribed promoter region on transcription have not been examined as extensively at this time. Here we have also summarized some emerging results on promoter SNPs for lipid metabolism and related cellular processes. PMID:25031651

  20. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  1. The -308 bp TNF gene polymorphism influences tumor necrosis factor expression in leprosy patients in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Joyce Moura; Rêgo, Jamile Leão; de Lima Santana, Nadja; Braz, Marcos; Jamieson, Sarra E; Vieira, Thaillamar Silva; Magalhães, Thaís Lamêgo; Machado, Paulo Roberto Lima; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Castellucci, Léa C

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy or Hansen's disease is a debilitating chronic granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, with high incidence and prevalence in Brazil. The -308 bp G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs1800629) in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene promoter is a proposed risk factor for leprosy. In Brazil, Northern India, Egypt and Nepal, the common G allele was associated with leprosy. In Eastern India, Thailand and Malawi the minor A allele was the risk factor. Allele A was previously associated with high TNF. We genotyped rs1800629 in 326 leprosy cases from Bahia State, Brazil, including 72 paucibacillary (PB) and 47 multibacillary (MB) without reactions, and 69 reversal reaction (RR) and 78 erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) with reactions. Logistic regression was used to compare patient groups with 331 healthy controls. Relative TNF mRNA was determined in peripheral blood leukocytes by QRTPCR, and serum TNF levels measured by ELISA. We found that TNF mRNA expression was higher (P=0.03) in leprosy patients compared to endemic controls, but did not differ significantly between clinical subgroups. Carriage of the minor A allele was associated (P=0.003) with low TNF mRNA across leprosy patients. Nevertheless, we found no evidence for either allele at this SNP as a risk factor for leprosy per se (OR=1.12, 95% CI 0.79-1.60, P=0.52), PB (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.54-1.81, P=0.97), MB (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.40-1.83, P=0.70), RR (OR=1.37, 95% CI 0.79-2.38, P=0.27) or ENL (OR=0.76, 95% CI 0.40-1.45, P=0.42) when compared to endemic controls. Further studies are required to determine whether the influence of the minor A allele on TNF mRNA levels determines response to treatment, particularly in the context of ENL reaction treatment with anti-TNF therapies and RR reactions where treatment with prednisolone is known to reduce TNF levels. Our findings contribute to understanding TNF as an important determinant of leprosy immunopathology in Brazil. PMID:26829382

  2. The danger within: the role of genetic, behavioural and ecological factors in population persistence of colour polymorphic species.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Peri E; Rollins, Lee A; Griffith, Simon C

    2015-06-01

    Polymorphic species have been the focus of important work in evolutionary biology. It has been suggested that colour polymorphic species have specific evolutionary and population dynamics that enable them to persist through environmental changes better than less variable species. We suggest that recent empirical and theoretical work indicates that polymorphic species may be more vulnerable to extinction than previously thought. This vulnerability arises because these species often have a number of correlated sexual, behavioural, life history and ecological traits, which can have a simple genetic underpinning. When exacerbated by environmental change, these alternate strategies can lead to conflict between morphs at the genomic and population levels, which can directly or indirectly affect population and evolutionary dynamics. In this perspective, we identify a number of ways in which the nature of the correlated traits, their underpinning genetic architecture, and the inevitable interactions between colour morphs can result in a reduction in population fitness. The principles illustrated here apply to all kinds of discrete polymorphism (e.g. behavioural syndromes), but we focus primarily on colour polymorphism because they are well studied. We urge further empirical investigation of the genetic architecture and interactions in polymorphic species to elucidate the impact on population fitness.

  3. Factor VII Activating Protease Polymorphism (G534E) Is Associated with Increased Risk for Stroke and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Trompet, Stella; Pons, Douwe; Kanse, Sandip M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Verschuren, Jeffrey J. W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Doevendans, Pieter A. F. M.; Tio, René A.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Jukema, J. Wouter

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The FSAP-Marburg I polymorphism (1704G > A), which reduces FSAP activity, is associated with late complications of carotid stenosis in humans. Therefore, this study examines the influence of the Marburg I polymorphism and the closely linked Marburg II polymorphism (1280G > C) on various cardiovascular outcomes in two large independent study populations. Methods. The two Marburg polymorphisms in the HABP2 gene encoding FSAP were genotyped in a large population of elderly patients at risk for vascular disease (the PROSPER-study, n = 5804) and in a study population treated with a percutaneous coronary intervention (the GENDER-study, n = 3104). Results. In the PROSPER study, the Marburg I polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of clinical stroke (HR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.13–2.28) and all-cause mortality (HR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04–1.71). In the GENDER study carriers of this variant seemed at lower risk of developing restenosis (HR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.34–1.01). The Marburg II polymorphism showed similar but weaker results. Conclusion. The increase in stroke risk in Marburg I carriers could be due to differential effects on smooth muscle cells and on matrix metalloproteinases, thereby influencing plaque stability. The possible protective effect on restenosis could be the result of reduced activation of zymogens, which are involved in hemostasis and matrix remodeling. PMID:21789270

  4. Il6 gene promoter polymorphism (-174G/C) influences the association between fat mass and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Moleres, A; Rendo-Urteaga, T; Azcona, C; Martínez, J A; Gómez-Martínez, S; Ruiz, J R; Moreno, L A; Marcos, A; Marti, A

    2009-12-01

    During the last decades, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly among young people. A polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL6 gene (-174G/C), has been previously reported to be involved in obesity and metabolic syndrome development. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine whether the IL6-174G/C polymorphism influence the association of body fat with low-grade inflammatory markers and blood lipids and lipoproteins in Spanish adolescents. 504 Spanish adolescents participating in the AVENA study were genotyped for the-174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene. Anthropometric and body composition measurements were taken and blood samples were collected for plasma molecules determinations. No differences between genotypes were observed in anthropometric values, body composition measurements and plasma markers concentration. Physical activity level differ between genotypes with subjects carrying the C allele of the polymorphism being significantly (p<0.05) more active than GG subjects. The association between body fat mass and plasma glucose was influenced by the -174G/C polymorphism of the IL6 gene. Subjects carrying the C allele of the mutation seem to have higher values of lipoprotein (a) and C-reactive protein as their percentage of body fat mass increase. Our results suggest that this promoter polymorphism influences the association between adiposity and some plasma markers.

  5. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus, biochemical factors and UCSNP-43 polymorphisms of CALPIN-10 gene in patients with atherosclerosis of coronary artery disease in Southern Iran population

    PubMed Central

    Senemar, Sara; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Toosi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Genetic variations in the calpain 10 gene (CALPIN-10), single nucleotide polymorphisms-43 (SNP-43), have increased the risk of type 2 diabete mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: We studied the control and CAD groups for association of association of SNP-43 in the CALPIN-10 gene with T2DM and other risk factors of its complications. Overall, we examined 452 individuals, 224 patients with CAD and 228 healthy subjects for CAD in Iranian population. All the subjects were genotyped for the CALPIN-10, SNP-43 by polymorphism chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, using biochemical methods to detect fasting glucose and other biochemical factors in the blood sample. We assessed frequencies of SNP-43 alleles between CAD and normal population groups. Results: In CAD patients, the GG allele was significantly associated with T2DM and GG allele was causing high level of glucose. But in control group, there was no relationship between them. Between clinical and biochemical risk factors with different genotypes there was no significant difference in the compared group. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest no significant association between SNP-43 and the risk of T2DM. In other words, CALPIN-10 did not show a major diabetes gene pool capacity in normal southern Iranian population. PMID:27069562

  6. A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Uncovers a Novel Function for the Transcription Factor Ace2 during Candida albicans Hyphal Development

    PubMed Central

    Orellana-Muñoz, Sara; Gutiérrez-Escribano, Pilar; Arnáiz-Pita, Yolanda; Dueñas-Santero, Encarnación; Suárez, M. Belén; Bougnoux, Marie-Elisabeth; del Rey, Francisco; Sherlock, Gavin; d’Enfert, Christophe; Correa-Bordes, Jaime; de Aldana, Carlos R. Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C. albicans lineages

  7. Micro-RNA Binding Site Polymorphisms in the WFS1 Gene Are Risk Factors of Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Elek, Zsuzsanna; Németh, Nóra; Nagy, Géza; Németh, Helga; Somogyi, Anikó; Hosszufalusi, Nóra; Sasvári-Székely, Mária; Rónai, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The absolute or relative lack of insulin is the key factor in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Although the connection between loss of function mutations of the WFS1 gene and DIDMOAD-syndrome including diabetes mellitus underpins the significance of wolframin in the pathogenesis, exact role of WFS1 polymorphic variants in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes has not been discovered yet. In this analysis, 787 patients with diabetes and 900 healthy people participated. Genotyping of the 7 WFS1 SNPs was carried out by TaqMan assays. Association study was performed by χ2-test in combination with correction for multiple testing. For functional analysis, the entire 3' UTR of the WFS1 gene was subcloned in a pMIR-Report plasmid and relative luciferase activities were determined. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed a generally high LD within the investigated region, however the rs1046322 locus was not in LD with the other SNPs. The two miR-SNPs, rs1046322 and rs9457 showed significant association with T1DM and T2DM, respectively. Haplotype analysis also confirmed the association between the 3' UTR loci and both disease types. In vitro experiments showed that miR-185 reduces the amount of the resulting protein, and rs9457 miRSNP significantly influences the rate of reduction in a luciferase reporter assay. Genetic variants of the WFS1 gene might contribute to the genetic risk of T1DM and T2DM. Furthermore demonstrating the effect of rs9457 in binding of miR-185, we suggest that the optimal level of wolframin protein, potentially influenced by miR-regulation, is crucial in normal beta cell function.

  8. Evaluation of factor VIII polymorphic short tandem repeat markers in linkage analysis for carrier diagnosis of hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Sabina; Dong, Sufang; Li, Zuhua; Huang, Zhuliang; Zheng, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia A (HA) is the most common inherited X-linked recessive bleeding disorder caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor VIII gene (FVIII). Diagnosis of the carrier is critical for preventing the birth of children affected by this coagulation disorder, which ultimately facilitates its management. Due to the heterogeneous nature of mutations, the large inversions and the complexity of the FVIII gene, direct recognition of the disease-associated mutation in HA is complex. Indirect linkage analysis using highly informative heterozygous polymorphic markers is an alternative method for determining the co-segregation of the mutant gene within a family for carrier detection of HA. The aim of the present study was to perform carrier diagnosis in a family with HA. Rapid multifluorescent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with six extragenic short tandem repeats (STRs), DXS1073, DXS15, DXS8091, DXS1227, DXS991, DXS993 and one intragenic marker, STR22 for linkage analysis in the HA family. All the STR markers employed in the present study were informative for linkages of pathogenic and healthy haplotypes among family members, particularly STR22, DXS1073 and DXS15. The STR marker, STR22, is within the FVIII gene while the DXS1073 and DXS15 markers are very close to the FVIII gene, where the chances of recombination are comparatively low, and provided the most accurate interpretation analysis, indicating that the proband's sister may have been the HA carrier. Rapid multifluorescent PCR using STR markers and linkage analysis was identified to be a simple method for performing HA carrier diagnosis. PMID:27446547

  9. Flicker-induced retinal vasodilatation is not dependent on complement factor H polymorphism in healthy young subjects

    PubMed Central

    Told, Reinhard; Palkovits, Stefan; Boltz, Agnes; Schmidl, Doreen; Napora, Katarzyna J; Werkmeister, René M; Haslacher, Helmuth; Frantal, Sophie; Popa-Cherecheanu, Alina; Schmetterer, Leopold; Garhöfer, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The complement factor H (CFH) tyrosine 402 histidine (Y402H, rs1061170) variant is known to be significantly associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Whether this genetic variant may impact retinal blood flow regulation is largely unknown. This study investigated whether flicker-induced vasodilation, an indicator for the coupling between neural activity and blood flow, is altered in subjects carrying the rs1061170 risk allele. Methods One hundred healthy subjects (aged between 18 and 45 years) were included in this study. Retinal blood flow regulation was tested by assessing retinal vessel calibres in response to stimulation with diffuse flicker light. Retinal vascular flicker responses were determined with a Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA). In addition, genotyping for rs1061170 was performed. Results Eighteen subjects were homozygous for the risk allele C, 50 were homozygous for the ancestral allele T, and 31 subjects were heterozygous (CT). One subject had to be excluded from data evaluation, as no genetic analysis could be performed due to technical difficulties. Baseline diameters of retinal arteries (p = 0.39) and veins (p = 0.64) were comparable between the three groups. Flicker-induced vasodilation in both retinal arteries (p = 0.38) and retinal veins (p = 0.62) was also comparable between the three studied groups. Conclusions Our data indicate that homozygous healthy young carriers of the C risk allele at rs1061170 do not show abnormal flicker-induced vasodilation in the retina. This suggests that the high-risk genetic variant of CFH polymorphism does not impact neuro-vascular coupling in healthy subjects. PMID:24863099

  10. The C825T Polymorphism of the G-Protein β3 Gene as a Risk Factor for Functional Dyspepsia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi-Zuo; You, He-Yi; Zhu, Zhe-Hui; Wen, Zheng-De; Xu, Hui-Ying; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Chen, Zong-Jing; Huang, Qing-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional upper gastrointestinal disorder with significant morbidity and medical costs. Previous studies investigated the association of G-protein β3 (GNB3) genetic polymorphisms with FD but with inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation of the relationship between GNB3 polymorphisms and FD. Methods. We searched different databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, and the Ovid Library to gather eligible studies on GNB3 polymorphisms and FD. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. We identified 12 studies with 1109 cases and 2853 controls for the analysis. We found no associations of GNB3 C825T polymorphism with FD in the overall population (T versus C, OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.96–1.18, P = 0.26; TT versus CC + CT, OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.97–1.39, P = 0.11; TT + CT versus CC, OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77–1.31, P = 0.96; TT versus CC, OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.93–1.44, P = 0.20). Subgroup analyses by genotyping method indicated that the magnitude of association was strengthened for additive model (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–2.24, P = 0.02). Sensitivity analysis did not reveal significant associations under all models. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrates that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may not be a risk factor for FD. PMID:27057160

  11. The C825T Polymorphism of the G-Protein β3 Gene as a Risk Factor for Functional Dyspepsia: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Zuo; You, He-Yi; Zhu, Zhe-Hui; Wen, Zheng-De; Xu, Hui-Ying; Chen, Bi-Cheng; Chen, Zong-Jing; Huang, Qing-Ke

    2016-01-01

    Background. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional upper gastrointestinal disorder with significant morbidity and medical costs. Previous studies investigated the association of G-protein β3 (GNB3) genetic polymorphisms with FD but with inconsistent results. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to derive a precise estimation of the relationship between GNB3 polymorphisms and FD. Methods. We searched different databases including PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, and the Ovid Library to gather eligible studies on GNB3 polymorphisms and FD. The association was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. We identified 12 studies with 1109 cases and 2853 controls for the analysis. We found no associations of GNB3 C825T polymorphism with FD in the overall population (T versus C, OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.96-1.18, P = 0.26; TT versus CC + CT, OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.97-1.39, P = 0.11; TT + CT versus CC, OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.77-1.31, P = 0.96; TT versus CC, OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 0.93-1.44, P = 0.20). Subgroup analyses by genotyping method indicated that the magnitude of association was strengthened for additive model (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07-2.24, P = 0.02). Sensitivity analysis did not reveal significant associations under all models. Conclusions. This meta-analysis demonstrates that GNB3 C825T polymorphism may not be a risk factor for FD.

  12. Association between transforming growth factor-β1gene-509C/T polymorphism and susceptibility of IgA nephropathy: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhanzhan; Li, Yanyan; Chen, Lizhang

    2014-11-01

    A role for transforming growth factor-β1gene has been suggested in the etiology of IgA nephropathy. However, results have been inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to further clarify the association between transforming growth factor-β1-509C/T gene polymorphism and the susceptibility of IgA nephropathy. PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP Data were searched for eligible studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model. A total of eight publications involving 1355 IgA nephropathy patients and 1464 controls met the inclusion and were analyzed. The pooled ORs for the association between TGF-β1gene-509C/T polymorphism and IgA nephropathy risk were not statistically significant under all genetic models (for CT+TT vs. CC: OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.92-1.29, p = 0.490; for TT vs. CT+CC: OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.94-1.38, p = 0.081; for CC vs. TT: OR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.69-1.08, p = 0.195; for C allele vs. T allele: OR = 0.92; 95% CI = 0.83-1.03, p = 0.149). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, results also showed no significant association between TGF-β1 gene-509C/T polymorphism and IgA nephropathy risk in both European and Asian populations. This meta-analysis does not support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 gene-509C/T polymorphism is a risk factor for the development of IgA nephropathy.

  13. Functional Inference of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms on Enzyme Stability as a Potential Risk Factor for Down Syndrome in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Babić Božović, Ivana; Starčević Čizmarević, Nada; Buretić-Tomljanović, Alena; Ristić, Smiljana; Petrović, Oleg; Kapović, Miljenko; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the biochemical structure and function of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) provides new evidence in elucidating the risk of having a child with Down syndrome (DS) in association with two common MTHFR polymorphisms, C677T and A1298C. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk for DS according to the presence of MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms as well as the stability of the enzyme configuration. This study included mothers from Croatia with a liveborn DS child (n = 102) or DS pregnancy (n = 9) and mothers with a healthy child (n = 141). MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms were assessed by PCR-RFLP. Allele/genotype frequencies differences were determined using χ2 test. Odds ratio and the 95% confidence intervals were calculated to evaluate the effects of different alleles/genotypes. No statistically significant differences were found between the frequencies of allele/genotype or genotype combinations of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the case and the control groups. Additionally, the observed frequencies of the stable (677CC/1298AA, 677CC/1298AC, 677CC/1298CC) and unstable (677CT/1298AA, 677CT/1298AC, 677TT/1298AA) enzyme configurations were not significantly different. We found no evidence to support the possibility that MTHFR polymorphisms and the stability of the enzyme configurations were associated with risk of having a child with DS in Croatian population. PMID:20592453

  14. Functional Ser205Leu polymorphism of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) gene is associated with vagal autonomic dysregulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chuan-Chia; Fang, Wen-Hui; Chang, Hsin-An; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that reduced cardiac vagal (parasympathetic) tone, a robust cardiovascular risk factor, is a trait vulnerability marker of major depressive disorder (MDD). The Ser205/Ser205 genotype of the functional polymorphism (Ser205Leu) of the nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR), also called p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), gene is reported to increase the risk of MDD. Here, we hypothesized that the NGFR Ser205Leu polymorphism may have an effect on vagal control. A sample of 810 healthy, drug-free, unrelated Han Chinese (413 males, 397 females; mean age 35.17 ± 8.53 years) was included in the NGFR genotyping. Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) was used to assess vagus-mediated autonomic function. Potential HRV covariates, such as mood/anxiety status and serum metabolic parameters, were assessed. Homozygotes of the Ser205 allele had significantly lower high frequency power and root mean square of successive heartbeat interval differences, both HRV indices of vagal modulation, compared to Leu205 allele carriers. Even after adjusting for relevant confounders, these associations remained significant. Further stratification by sex revealed that the associations were observed only in males. Our results implicate that decreased parasympathetic activity is associated with the NGFR Ser205/Ser205 genotype in a gender-specific manner, suggesting a potential role of NGFR polymorphism in modulating cardiac autonomic function. PMID:26278479

  15. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Gene Polymorphism (T29C) in Egyptian Patients with Hepatitis B Virus Infection: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Talaat, Roba M.; Dondeti, Mahmoud F.; El-Shenawy, Soha Z.; Khamiss, Omaima A.

    2013-01-01

    The interindividual variations in the capacity of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) production have been ascribed to genetic polymorphisms in TGF-β1 gene. As pathogenesis of HBV has a genetic background, this preliminary study was designed to assess the impact of TGF-β1 (T29C) on the susceptibility of Egyptians to HBV infection. Genotyping was performed using single stranded polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) in 65 Egyptian hepatitis B patients and 50 healthy controls. TGF-β1 plasma levels were measured using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The frequency of CC genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in HBV patients compared to controls. On the contrary, TC genotype did not show significant difference in both groups. TT genotype was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in controls than HBV patients. Our current preliminary data revealed that the frequency of the genotypes in the controls were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) while the patients group was out of HWE (P < 0.01). TGF-β1 was significantly (r = −0.684; P < 0.001) deceased in the sera of patients as compared to normal subjects. Depending on our preliminary work, CC genotype may act as a host genetic factor in the susceptibility to HBV infection in Egyptians. Taken together, the current data pointed to the importance of polymorphism of TGF-β1 gene (T29C) in HBV infection. PMID:24455227

  16. G-1639A but Not C1173T VKORC1 Gene Polymorphism Is Related to Ischemic Stroke and Its Various Risk Factors in Ukrainian Population

    PubMed Central

    Harbuzova, Viktoriia Yu.; Ataman, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) is integral 163-amino acid long transmembrane protein which mediates recycling of vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to vitamin K hydroquinone and it is necessary for activation of vitamin K-dependent proteins (VKDPs). Herein, the association between G-1639A (rs9923231) and C1173T (rs9934438) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VKORC1 gene and ischemic stroke (IS) was tested in Ukrainian population. Genotyping was performed in 170 IS patients and 124 control subjects (total 294 DNA samples) using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction with following restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) method. Our data showed that G-1639A but not C1173T polymorphism was related to IS, regardless of adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and arterial hypertension. The risk for IS in -1639A allele carriers (OR = 2.138, P = 0.015) was higher than in individuals with G/G genotype. Haplotype analysis demonstrated that -1639G/1173T and -1639A/1173C were related to increased risk for IS (OR = 3.813, P = 0.010, and OR = 2.189, P = 0.011, resp.), while -1639G/1173C was a protective factor for IS (OR = 0.548, P < 0.001). Obtained results suggested that -1639A allele can be a possible genetic risk factor for IS in Ukrainian population. PMID:27703968

  17. Association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 rs2278426 polymorphism and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    GUO, TAO; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, JIAN; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; SHI, GUANG-YUAN; SHEN, SHAO-WEN; SUN, JIA-QI; LI, HUI; LIN, WEI-XIONG; YANG, DE-ZHAI

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed to examine the association of the angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) rs2278426 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and several environmental factors with serum lipid profiles in the Mulao and Han populations. A total of 879 individuals of the Mulao ethnic group and 865 individuals of the Han Chinese ethnic group were included. The serum apolipoprotein (Apo) B level was higher, however the serum ApoA1 level was lower in the Mulao individuals than in the Han individuals (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). The genotypic and allelic frequencies, and the association with the ANGPTL8 rs2278426 SNP were different between the Mulao and Han populations. The frequency of the A allele was 17.80% in Han individuals and 23.04% in Mulao individuals (P<0.001). The frequencies of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 68.79, 26.82 and 4.39% in the Han population, and 60.64, 32.65 and 6.71% in the Mulao population (P<0.005), respectively. A significant association between the SNP and serum lipid traits was only detected in Han females and not in Han males or in the Mulao population. The subjects with GA/AA genotypes had lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB levels, and higher ApoA1 levels with a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in the Han population. Subgroup analyses revealed that the subjects with the GA/AA genotype had lower levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and ApoB, and a higher ApoA1/ApoB ratio than the subjects with the GG genotype in Han females (P<0.05-P<0.001). Serum lipid parameters were also associated with several environmental factors, including dietary patterns, lifestyle, obesity, physical inactivity and hypertension, in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). These findings suggest that there may be an ethnic- and gender-specific association of the rs2278426 SNP and serum lipid parameters. PMID:26004022

  18. Endothelial cell protein C receptor gene 6936A/G and 4678G/C polymorphisms as risk factors for deep venous thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zoheir, Naguib; Eldanasouri, Nabiel; Abdel-Aal, Asmaa A; Hosny, Karim Adel; Abdel-Ghany, Wafaa M

    2016-04-01

    Endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) enhances the generation of activated protein C by the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) is present in plasma. Two polymorphisms in the EPCR gene (6936A/G and 4678G/C) have been reported to influence the risk of venous thromboembolism. We aimed to investigate the relation between EPCR gene polymorphisms (6936A/G and 4678C/G) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and their relations to sEPCR level. This study involved 90 patients with DVT and 90 age and sex-matched healthy controls. Plasma levels of sEPCR were measured in 45 cases of the primary DVT by ELISA. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used for detection of EPCR polymorphisms (6936A/G and 4678G/C). Regarding 6936A/G, our results demonstrated that mutant genotypes (AG, GG) were associated with an increased risk for DVT [P < 0.001, odds ratio (OR) 4.125, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.198-7.740] as well as its mutant allele G (P < 0.001, OR 2.549, 95% CI 1.601-4.061). The mutant genotypes were associated with increased levels of sEPCR. Although in 4678G/C, our results demonstrated that the mutant genotype (CC) was considered as a protective factor against DVT (P = 0.014, OR 0.289, 95% CI 0.108-0.776) as well as its mutant allele C (P = 0.02, OR 0.600, 95% CI 0.388-0.927), but it had no effect on sEPCR level. Our data suggest that 6936A/G polymorphism is a risk factor for DVT and is associated with elevated plasma levels of sEPCR, while 4678G/C polymorphism plays a role in protection against DVT. PMID:26340463

  19. Genetic polymorphisms in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF-beta in a population-based study of systemic lupus erythematosus: associations and interaction with the interleukin-1alpha-889 C/T polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Parks, Christine G; Pandey, Janardan P; Dooley, Mary Anne; Treadwell, Edward L; St Clair, E W; Gilkeson, Gary S; Feghali-Bostwick, Carol A; Feghali-Botswick, Carol L; Cooper, Glinda S

    2004-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but the role of TNF polymorphisms in SLE susceptibility remains unclear. Previous studies in different populations report an inconsistent association of the TNF-alpha -308A allele with SLE, sometimes depending on the presence of HLA-DR3. We examined the association of polymorphisms in TNF-alpha (-308G/A, -238G/A) and TNFbeta (+252A/G) in a population-based study of SLE in the southeastern United States and considered TNF-SLE associations with respect to HLA-DR3 and DR2 and the interleukin (IL)-1alpha -889C/T polymorphism, previously linked to SLE in this population. Genotypes were analyzed for 230 recently diagnosed SLE patients who met American College of Rheumatology classification criteria and 276 age- and sex-matched controls, randomly selected from driver's license registries. Carriage of the TNF-alpha -308A allele was significantly associated with SLE in Caucasians (OR = 2.3; 95% CI 1.4, 3.9), but not African Americans. Analyses stratified by IL-1alpha -889 genotypes (C/C vs C/T or T/T) revealed independent associations of SLE with TNF-alpha -308A or HLA-DR2 and DR3. This reflected a significant interaction of TNF and IL-1 genotypes in Caucasians, and yielded a strong association (OR = 8.0, p < 0.00001) for the combined "HLA-DR3, TNF-alpha -308A, IL-1alpha -889C/C" genotype. These findings provide evidence of cytokine gene epistasis in SLE susceptibility.

  20. Role of cytokine gene (interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10) polymorphisms in the risk of oral precancerous lesions in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Jen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ho; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Fu; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma can be preceded by some benign oral lesions with malignant potential, including leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis. There are different degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration in histopathology. Inflammatory cytokines may play a pathogenic role in the development of oral precancerous lesions (OPCLs). Genetic polymorphisms of cytokine-encoding genes are known to predispose to malignant disease. We hypothesized that the risk of OPCLs might be associated with cytokine gene polymorphisms of interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. In the present study, 42 OPCL patients and 128 controls were analyzed for eight polymorphisms in five different cytokine genes [IFN-γ (+874 T/A), TGF-β1 (codons 10 T/C and 25 G/C), TNF-α (-308 G/A), IL-6 (-174 G/C), and IL-10 (-1082 A/G, -819 T/C, and -592 A/C)]. Cytokine genotyping was determined by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer technique using commercial primers. Allele and genotype data were analyzed for significance of differences between cases and controls using the Chi-square (χ(2)) test. Two-sided p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. A series of multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption, and smoking, was constructed in order to access the contribution of homozygous or heterozygous variant genotypes of polymorphisms. The TNF-α (-308) polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There were significant differences in the distribution of AA, GA, and GG genotypes between OPCL patients and controls (p = 0.0004). Patients with the AA or GA genotype had a 3.63-fold increased risk of OPCLs. The TGF-β1 (codon 10 and 25) polymorphism was also significantly associated with OPCLs (p < 0.001). The IL-6 polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There are significant

  1. Role of cytokine gene (interferon-γ, transforming growth factor-β1, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10) polymorphisms in the risk of oral precancerous lesions in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Han-Jen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Chen, Chung-Ho; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Chia-Fu; Ko, Edward Cheng-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma can be preceded by some benign oral lesions with malignant potential, including leukoplakia, erythroplakia, oral lichen planus, and oral submucous fibrosis. There are different degrees of inflammatory cells infiltration in histopathology. Inflammatory cytokines may play a pathogenic role in the development of oral precancerous lesions (OPCLs). Genetic polymorphisms of cytokine-encoding genes are known to predispose to malignant disease. We hypothesized that the risk of OPCLs might be associated with cytokine gene polymorphisms of interferon (IFN)-γ, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-10. In the present study, 42 OPCL patients and 128 controls were analyzed for eight polymorphisms in five different cytokine genes [IFN-γ (+874 T/A), TGF-β1 (codons 10 T/C and 25 G/C), TNF-α (-308 G/A), IL-6 (-174 G/C), and IL-10 (-1082 A/G, -819 T/C, and -592 A/C)]. Cytokine genotyping was determined by the polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific primer technique using commercial primers. Allele and genotype data were analyzed for significance of differences between cases and controls using the Chi-square (χ(2)) test. Two-sided p < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. A series of multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, betel quid chewing, alcohol consumption, and smoking, was constructed in order to access the contribution of homozygous or heterozygous variant genotypes of polymorphisms. The TNF-α (-308) polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There were significant differences in the distribution of AA, GA, and GG genotypes between OPCL patients and controls (p = 0.0004). Patients with the AA or GA genotype had a 3.63-fold increased risk of OPCLs. The TGF-β1 (codon 10 and 25) polymorphism was also significantly associated with OPCLs (p < 0.001). The IL-6 polymorphism was significantly associated with OPCLs. There are significant

  2. Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms in the ΔNp63 Promoter Are a Risk Factor for Bladder Exstrophy Epispadias Complex

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Simon; Zhang, Ke Wei; Mahfuz, Istiak; Quantin, Renaud; D'Cruz, Nancy; Hutson, John; Ee, Michael; Bagli, Darius; Aitken, Karen; Fong, Fion Nga-Yin; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Fung, Wendy Yin-Wan; Banu, Tahmina; Thakre, Atul; Johar, Kaid; Jaureguizar, Enrique; Li, Long; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) is a severe congenital anomaly; however, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of BEEC remain unclear. TP63, a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family, is expressed in bladder urothelium and skin over the external genitalia during mammalian development. It plays a role in bladder development. We have previously shown that p63−/− mouse embryos developed a bladder exstrophy phenotype identical to human BEEC. We hypothesised that TP63 is involved in human BEEC pathogenesis. RNA was extracted from BEEC foreskin specimens and, as in mice, ΔNp63 was the predominant p63 isoform. ΔNp63 expression in the foreskin and bladder epithelium of BEEC patients was reduced. DNA was sequenced from 163 BEEC patients and 285 ethnicity-matched controls. No exon mutations were detected. Sequencing of the ΔNp63 promoter showed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 4 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms. Indel polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of BEEC. Significantly the sites of indel polymorphisms differed between Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. A 12-base-pair deletion was associated with an increased risk with only Caucasian patients (p = 0.0052 Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.33), whereas a 4-base-pair insertion was only associated with non-Caucasian patients (p = 0.0259 OR = 4.583). We found a consistent and statistically significant reduction in transcriptional efficiencies of the promoter sequences containing indel polymorphisms in luciferase assays. These findings suggest that indel polymorphisms of the ΔNp63 promoter lead to a reduction in p63 expression, which could lead to BEEC. PMID:23284286

  3. Insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the ΔNp63 promoter are a risk factor for bladder exstrophy epispadias complex.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Simon; Zhang, Ke Wei; Mahfuz, Istiak; Quantin, Renaud; D'Cruz, Nancy; Hutson, John; Ee, Michael; Bagli, Darius; Aitken, Karen; Fong, Fion Nga-Yin; Ng, Patrick Kwok-Shing; Tsui, Stephen Kwok-Wing; Fung, Wendy Yin-Wan; Banu, Tahmina; Thakre, Atul; Johar, Kaid; Jaureguizar, Enrique; Li, Long; Cheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Bladder exstrophy epispadias complex (BEEC) is a severe congenital anomaly; however, the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of BEEC remain unclear. TP63, a member of TP53 tumor suppressor gene family, is expressed in bladder urothelium and skin over the external genitalia during mammalian development. It plays a role in bladder development. We have previously shown that p63(-/-) mouse embryos developed a bladder exstrophy phenotype identical to human BEEC. We hypothesised that TP63 is involved in human BEEC pathogenesis. RNA was extracted from BEEC foreskin specimens and, as in mice, ΔNp63 was the predominant p63 isoform. ΔNp63 expression in the foreskin and bladder epithelium of BEEC patients was reduced. DNA was sequenced from 163 BEEC patients and 285 ethnicity-matched controls. No exon mutations were detected. Sequencing of the ΔNp63 promoter showed 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 4 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphisms. Indel polymorphisms were associated with an increased risk of BEEC. Significantly the sites of indel polymorphisms differed between Caucasian and non-Caucasian populations. A 12-base-pair deletion was associated with an increased risk with only Caucasian patients (p = 0.0052 Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.33), whereas a 4-base-pair insertion was only associated with non-Caucasian patients (p = 0.0259 OR = 4.583). We found a consistent and statistically significant reduction in transcriptional efficiencies of the promoter sequences containing indel polymorphisms in luciferase assays. These findings suggest that indel polymorphisms of the ΔNp63 promoter lead to a reduction in p63 expression, which could lead to BEEC.

  4. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene polymorphism as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication in tuberculous meningitis or tuberculoma patients having seizures - A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Adole, Prashant S.; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.; Sharma, Sadhna

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Simultaneous administration of phenytoin and isoniazid (INH) in tuberculous meningitis (TBM) or tuberculoma patients with seizures results in higher plasma phenytoin level and thus phenytoin intoxication. N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) enzyme catalyses two acetylation reactions in INH metabolism and NAT2 gene polymorphism leads to slow and rapid acetylators. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of allelic variants of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene as a predisposing factor for phenytoin toxicity in patients with TBM or tuberculoma having seizures, and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously. Methods: Sixty patients with TBM or tuberculoma with seizures and taking INH and phenytoin simultaneously for a minimum period of seven days were included in study. Plasma phenytoin was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. NAT2 gene polymorphism was studied using restriction fragment length polymorphism and allele specific PCR. Results: The patients were grouped into those having phenytoin intoxication and those with normal phenytoin level, and also classified as rapid or slow acetylators by NAT2 genotyping. Genotypic analysis showed that of the seven SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of NAT2 gene studied, six mutations were found to be associated with phenytoin intoxication. For rs1041983 (C282T), rs1799929 (C481T), rs1799931 (G857A), rs1799930 (G590A), rs1208 (A803G) and rs1801280 (T341C) allelic variants, the proportion of homozygous mutant was higher in phenytoin intoxicated group than in phenytoin non-intoxicated group. Interpretation & conclusions: Homozygous mutant allele of NAT2 gene at 481site may act as a predisposing factor for phenytoin intoxication among TBM or tuberculoma patients having seizures. PMID:27488001

  5. The association between hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α gene G1790A polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of 28 case–control studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates the cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF-1α gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated to be associated with cancer risks. However, results from the published studies remained inconclusive. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism with cancer using meta-analysis. Methods A comprehensive search in Pubmed, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) was conducted to identify all publications on the association between this polymorphism and cancer until December 13, 2013. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to evaluate the strength of this association. Association between lymph node metastasis and G1790A was also investigated. Results A total of 5985 cases and 6809 controls in 28 case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. The A allele of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with increased cancer risk in four genetic models: AA + AG vs. GG (dominant model OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.27-2.69), AA vs. AG + GG (recessive model OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 3.87-8.37), AA vs. GG (homozygote comparison OR = 6.63, 95% CI = 4.49-9.79), and AG vs. GG (heterozygote comparison OR = 2.39, 95% CI = 1.53-3.75). This variant was also significantly associated with higher risks of pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. However, the A allele of G1790A was not significantly associated with increased lymph node metastasis in the dominant model by overall meta-analysis. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the substitution of G with A of HIF-1α gene G1790A polymorphism is a risk factor of cancer, especially for pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma and head and neck cancer. The association is significant in Asian, Caucasian population and public based

  6. Individually Tailored Screening of Susceptibility to Sarcopenia Using p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism, Phenotypes, and Conventional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Sarlo, Francesca; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. p53 activity plays a role in muscle homeostasis and skeletal muscle differentiation; all pathways that lead to sarcopenia are related to p53 activities. We investigate the allelic frequency of the TP53 codon 72 in exon 4 polymorphism in the Italian female population and the association with appendicular skeletal muscle mass index in normal weight (NW), normal weight obese (NWO), and preobese-obese (Preob-Ob) subjects. Methods. We evaluated anthropometry, body composition, and p53 polymorphism in 140 women distinguished in NW, NWO, and Preob-Ob. Results. *Arg/*Arg genotype increases sarcopenia risk up to 20% (*Arg/*Arg genotype OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.48–2.9; *proallele carriers OR = 0.83; 95% CI = 0.83–2.06). The risk of being sarcopenic for *Arg/*Arg genotype in NWO and Preob-Ob is 31% higher than NW carriers of *proallele (RR = 0,31, 95% CI = 0,15–0,66, P = 0,0079). We developed a model able to predict sarcopenia risk based on age, body fat, and p53 polymorphism. Conclusion. Our study evidences that genotyping TP53 polymorphism could be a useful new genetic approach, in association with body composition evaluations, to assess sarcopenia risk. PMID:25371596

  7. Evolution of human IgH3'EC duplicated structures: both enhancers HS1,2 are polymorphic with variation of transcription factor's consensus sites.

    PubMed

    Giambra, Vincenzo; Fruscalzo, Alberto; Giufre', Maria; Martinez-Labarga, Cristina; Favaro, Marco; Rocchi, Mariano; Frezza, Domenico

    2005-02-14

    the 17-bp external element in hominids. The relevance of the polymorphisms in the HS1,2 enhancers is due to the variable number of binding sites for the transcription factors: NF-kappaB, CMYB, BSAP1/2, AP1/4, E47, MyoD and muE5 and thus to the possible influence of these variations on switch, production of Ig and on maturation of B cells.

  8. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, −173 G to C and −794 CATT5–8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The −173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF −794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the −173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the −794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen

  9. Association of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor Polymorphisms with Total Plasma IgE Levels in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Jinyoung; Hahn, Hyung-Jin; Lee, Young-Bok; Yu, Dong-Soo; Kim, Jin-Wou

    2016-01-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene is located on human chromosome 22q11.2 and is linked to atopic phenotypes. Plasma MIF and log [total IgE] levels are significantly elevated in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between two MIF polymorphisms, -173 G to C and -794 CATT5-8, and total plasma IgE levels in AD patients in Korea. We performed PCR-RFLP analysis in 178 AD patients and 80 control subjects to determine whether MIF SNPs are associated with susceptibility to AD. Plasma total IgE and MIF levels were determined, and then logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between a SNP or haplotype and plasma total IgE or MIF levels. The -173 G/C polymorphism, located in the MIF promoter, was significantly associated with AD; the odds ratios (ORs) for the CC homozygotes and GC heterozygotes were 9.3 and 2.5, respectively. The MIF C/5-CATT and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with AD; the ORs for the MIF C/5-CATT and MIF C/7-CATT haplotypes were 9.7 and 4.5, respectively. Log [total IgE] levels were highly associated with the MIF -794 7-CATT polymorphism. Notably, the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype was associated with a decrease in plasma log [total IgE] levels in a gene dose-dependent manner. Although log [MIF] levels were not associated with the MIF polymorphisms, the frequencies of the MIF C/5-CATT haplotype-containing genotypes decreased in order of MIF levels. Our results demonstrate that MIF promoter polymorphisms in the -173 C allele and the MIF C/5-CATT and C/7-CATT haplotypes were significantly associated with an increased risk for AD. In particular, the -794 7-CATT locus and the MIF C/7-CATT haplotype were significantly associated with decreased total IgE levels in the plasma, suggesting that these polymorphisms might be a marker for intrinsic AD rather than extrinsic AD that shows high total IgE levels and presence of allergen-specific Ig

  10. TNF-α promoter polymorphism: a factor contributing to the different immunological and clinical phenotypes in Japanese encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than three billion populations are living under the threat of Japanese encephalitis in South East Asian (SEA) countries including India. The pathogenesis of this disease is not clearly understood and is probably attributed to genomic variations in viral strains as well as the host genetic makeup. The present study is to determine the role of polymorphism of TNF-alpha promoter regions at positions -238G/A, -308G/A, -857C/T and -863C/A in the severity of Japanese encephalitis patients. Methods Total of 142 patients including 66 encephalitis case (IgM/RT-PCR positive), 16 fever cases (IgM positive) without encephalitis and 60 apparently healthy individuals (IgG positive) were included in the study. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using site specific restriction enzymes were implemented for polymorphism study of TNF alpha promoter. Results Following the analysis of the digestion patterns of four polymorphic sites of the TNF- alpha promoter region, a significant association was observed between the allele -308A and -863C with the patients of Japanese encephalitis. Conclusions TNF- alpha 308 G/A has been shown to be associated with elevated TNF- alpha transcriptional activity. On the other hand, polymorphism at position -863C/A in the promoter region has been reported to be associated with reduced TNF- alpha promoter activity and lower plasma TNF levels. As per the literature search, this is the first study to identify the role of TNF- alpha promoter in JE infection. Our results show that subjects with - 308A and -863C alleles are more vulnerable to the severe form of JE infection. PMID:22276993

  11. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin 1-β genes in patients with pre-eclampsia.

    PubMed

    Mohajertehran, Farnaz; Tavakkol Afshari, Jalil; Rezaieyazdi, Zahra; Ghomian, Nayereh

    2012-09-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-specific syndrome that may be dangerous especially to the fetus. Different cytokines have been found to be elevated in women with pre-eclampsia and may have possible roles in the development of this disorder. Alleles of the interleukin-l-beta (IL-lβ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes are associated with pr-eeclampsia in several studies in different populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between IL-lβ (C+3954T) and TNF-α (G-308A) gene polymorphisms with pre-eclampsia in north east of Iran (Khorasan province).This study included 54 diagnosed patients with pre-eclampsia and 50 normal pregnant women as control group. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP method. Data was analyzed using chi-square and Fisher's exact tests.There was significant association between TNF-α (G-308A) genotype and pre-eclampsia (p=0.001) but we did not find any significant association between IL-lβ (C+3954T) genotype and pre-eclampsia (p=0.39).The present study might suggest a role for TNF-α in the development of pre-eclampsia; however, IL-lβ (C+3954T) polymorphism could not be considered as a marker of susceptibility to preeclampsia in our population.

  12. Association of macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene -173 G/C polymorphism with prognosis in Turkish children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Berdeli, Afig; Ozyürek, Arif Ruhi; Ulger, Zülal; Gürses, Dolunay; Levent, Ertürk; Salar, Koray; Gürpinar, Ali Rahmi

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine genotypic and allelic frequencies of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) gene -173 G/C polymorphism in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and to evaluate the association of the MIF -173 C allele with the outcome of JRA. Genomic DNA was collected from 67 JRA patients and 153 healthy individuals. To evaluate the association of the MIF -173 polymorphism with the outcome, we analyzed the data concerning the treatment regimen, duration of glucocorticoid treatment, score on the childhood health assessment questionnaire (C-HAQ) and the number of joints with active arthritis. Nonsignificant differences were observed between the study and control groups in the distribution of genotype and allele frequencies of the MIF gene -173 G/C polymorphism. In JRA patients, carrying a MIF -173 C allele, the number of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs required for the treatment was more, the duration of glucocorticoid treatment was significantly longer, and at the last visits the C-HAQ scores and the number of joints with active arthritis were significantly higher. MIF gene -173 C allele frequency did not differ between the controls and JRA patients. MIF -173 C allele did not confer increased susceptibility to JRA in our study group. Carriage of the MIF -173 C allele was found to be a strong predictor of poor outcome in all types of JRA.

  13. Association of tuberculosis and polymorphisms in the promoter region of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in a Southwestern China Han population.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanlin; Yuan, Tao; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Ming; Cheng, Xiaoxing; Deng, Shaoli

    2012-10-01

    The macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of immune diseases. High levels of MIF have been detected in the sera of patients with tuberculosis (TB), and it has been proposed that MIF gene polymorphisms may influence the risk of developing TB. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between functional polymorphisms of MIF and TB in a Han population from Southwestern China. TB patients (n=215) and healthy unrelated controls (n=245) were recruited for this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from all the participants. The MIF-173 G/C SNP was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The MIF-794 CATT(5-8) microsatellite was evaluated by direct sequencing of the subsequent PCR products. Association analysis of the two polymorphisms showed that the frequency of -173 (GC+CC) in TB patients and controls was 49.3% and 31.4%, respectively, which was statistically significant (OR=2.12, 95% CI=1.45-3.10, P<0.001); the frequencies of -794 (7/X+8/X) were 56.7% and 45.3%, respectively, also statistically significant between the TB and healthy controls (OR=1.58, 95% CI=1.10-2.29, P=0.015). In summary, Genetic variation in the MIF gene is closely associated with tuberculosis. Both the 173 (GC+CC) SNP and -794 (7/X+8/X) microsatellite increased the risk of Chinese Han developing TB.

  14. MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation as genetic factors for preterm delivery, fetal death and low birth weight: A Northeast Indian population based study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Diptika; Bose, Purabi Deka; Das, Somdatta; Das, Chandana Ray; Datta, Ratul; Bose, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term adverse consequences for health; with highest prevalence reported from India. The incidence of PTD is alarmingly very high in Northeast India. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the associative role of MTHFR gene polymorphism and progesterone receptor (PR) gene mutation (PROGINS) in susceptibility to PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and low birth weights (LBW) in Northeast Indian population. Methods A total of 209 PTD cases {extreme preterm (< 28 weeks of gestation, n = 22), very preterm (28–32 weeks of gestation, n = 43) and moderate preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, n = 144) and 194 term delivery cases were studied for MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) gene mutation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Distribution of MTHFR and PR mutation was higher in PTD cases. Presence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated and resulted in the increased risk of PTD (p < 0.001), negative pregnancy outcome (p < 0.001) and LBW (p = 0.001); more significantly in extreme and very preterm cases. Presence of PR mutation (PROGINS) also resulted in increased risk of PTD and negative pregnancy outcome; but importantly was found to increase the risk of LBW significantly in case of very preterm (p < 0.001) and moderately preterm (p < 0.001) delivery cases. Conclusions Both MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation are evident genetic risk factors associated with the susceptibility of PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and LBW. MTHFR C677T may be used as a prognostic marker to stratify subpopulation of pregnancy cases predisposed to PTD; thereby controlling the risks associated with PTD. PMID:25709895

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor gene -173G>C polymorphism and risk of bladder cancer in southeast China: a case-control analysis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qinbo; Wang, Meilin; Wang, Miaomiao; Zhang, Zhengdong; Zhang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    Inflammatory factors may promote carcinogenesis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which is derived from T-cell, known as a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily, plays an important role in the pro- and anti-inflammatory response to infection and in the etiology of bladder cancer. We hypothesized that MIF-173 locus polymorphism might contribute to genetic susceptibility to bladder cancer. In a hospital-based case-control study of 325 patients with bladder cancer and 345 cancer-free controls frequency-matched by age, sex, smoking status, and alcohol use, we genotyped the MIF polymorphism and analyzed immunohistochemical stained operational bladder cancer tissue sections for MIF. We found that individuals with GC/CC genotype had a significantly decreased risk of bladder cancer (adjusted OR = 0.57, 95% CI, 0.41-0.79) than those with GG genotype. In the stratification analysis, we found that the decreased risk was more pronounced among older subjects (adjusted OR = 0.56, 95% CI, 0.39-0.81), men (0.47, 0.33-0.68), smokers (0.54, 0.35-0.85), and ever-drinkers (0.44, 0.27-0.71). The percentage of positive staining in the cytoplasm and nucleus in the normal and bladder cancer with CC/GC genotype tissues was higher than that of GG genotype bladder cancer tissue(39.1% vs. 75.0% in strong staining for GG and GC/CC genotypes, respectively, P = 0.028). In conclusion, MIF -173G>C polymorphism may play a role in the etiology of bladder cancer in southern Chinese population. Large studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  16. ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter G5 and G8 Polymorphisms and Several Environmental Factors with Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Yin, Rui-Xing; Wei, Xian-Liang; Yan, Ting-Ting; Aung, Lynn Htet Htet; Wu, Dong-Feng; Wu, Jin-Zhen; Lin, Wei-Xiong; Liu, Cheng-Wu; Pan, Shang-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Background The association of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum lipid profiles is inconsistent. The present study was undertaken to detect the association of ABCG5/G8 SNPs and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels. Methodology/Principal Findings Genotyping of the ABCG5 (rs4131229 and rs6720173) and ABCG8 (rs3806471 and rs4148211) SNPs was performed in 719 unrelated subjects of Mulao nationality and 782 participants of Han nationality. There were no differences in the genotypic and allelic frequencies of four SNPs between the two ethnic groups besides the genotypic frequencies of rs4131229 SNP in Han. The levels of triglyceride (TG), apolipoprotein (Apo) A1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and ApoB (rs6720173); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han were different among their genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C (rs6720173) and ApoA1 (rs3806471) in Mulao were also different among their genotypes (P<0.05 for each). The levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C and ApoB (rs6720173); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); and TG, HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han males; and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4131229); LDL-C, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs3806471); HDL-C, ApoA1, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio (rs4148211) in Han females were different between the genotypes (P<0.05–0.001). The levels of LDL-C in Mulao females were also different between GG and GC/CC genotypes of rs6720173 (P<0.05). The correlation between serum lipid parameters and genotypes of four SNPs was observed in Han, especially in Han males. Serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors. Conclusions The associations of four ABCG5/G8 SNPs and serum lipid levels are different between the Mulao and

  17. The CCND1 870G>A polymorphism is a risk factor for t(11;14)(q13;q32) multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bowang; Försti, Asta; Hosking, Fay J; Broderick, Peter; Ma, Yussanne P; Dobbins, Sara E; Hose, Dirk; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Kaiser, Martin F; Li, Ni L; Gregory, Walter A; Jackson, Graham H; Witzens-Harig, Mathias; Neben, Kai; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Eisele, Lewin; Ross, Fiona M; Jauch, Anna; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Houlston, Richard S; Morgan, Gareth J; Hemminki, Kari

    2016-01-01

    A number of specific chromosomal abnormalities define the subgroups of multiple myeloma. In a meta-analysis of two genomewide association studies of multiple myeloma totaling 1,661 patients we investigated risk for developing a specific tumor karyotype. The t(11;14) (q13;q32) translocation in which CCDN1 is placed under the control of the immunoglobin heavy chain enhancer was strongly associated with the CCDN1 870G>A polymorphism (P =7.96 x10-11). These results provide for a model in which a constitutional genetic factor is associated with risk of a specific chromosomal translocation. PMID:23502783

  18. Association of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) polymorphism with longevity in Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Yang, Li-Qin; Xu, Liang-You; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2014-11-01

    Human lifespan is determined greatly by genetic factors and some investigations have identified putative genes implicated in human longevity. Although some genetic loci have been associated with longevity, most of them are difficult to replicate due to ethnic differences. In this study, we analyzed the association of 18 reported gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with longevity in 1075 samples consisting of 567 nonagenarians/centenarians and 508 younger controls using the GenomeLab SNPstream Genotyping System. Our results confirm the association of the forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) variant (rs13217795) and the ATM serine/threonine kinase (ATM) variant (rs189037) genotypes with longevity (p=0.0075 and p=0.026, using the codominant model and recessive model, respectively). Of note is that we first revealed the association of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) gene polymorphism rs11977526 with longevity in Chinese nonagenarians/centenarians (p=0.033 using the dominant model and p=0.035 using the overdominant model). The FOXO3 and IGFBP-3 form important parts of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathway (IGF-1) implicated in human longevity, and the ATM gene is involved in sensing DNA damage and reducing oxidative stress, therefore our results highlight the important roles of insulin pathway and oxidative stress in the longevity in the Chinese population. PMID:25553725

  19. NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism, nitric oxide production, salt sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Castejon, A M; Bracero, J; Hoffmann, I S; Alfieri, A B; Cubeddu, L X

    2006-10-01

    Mutations in the NAD(P)H oxidase gene may be associated with abnormal superoxide generation, nitric oxide (NO) availability and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the prevalence of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism, and its possible association with blood pressure, NO production, salt sensitivity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hispanics. Genotype frequencies were as follows: CC, 52.9%; CT, 40.3%; and TT, 6.8%. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, age, weight, fasting and post-load glucose levels, LDL and HDL cholesterol, triglyceride and urinary albumin levels in subjects with CC, CT or the TT genotypes. Presence of the T allele was associated with increased salt sensitivity in women, but not in men. NO metabolite excretion was markedly decreased both in women and men with the TT genotype (CC: 868+/-79 micromol/day; CT: 839+/-75 micromol/day; TT: 534+/-78 micromol/day; P<0.05). In conclusion, the prevalence of the NAD(P)H oxidase p22phox gene C242T polymorphism in Venezuelans was comparable to that of Caucasians, but different from that of Chinese and Japanese. Although the T allele was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors, hyperinsulinaemia or hypertension, in women, it appeared to be a genetic susceptibility factor for salt sensitivity. Both in women and men, the p22phox gene may play a role in the genetic control of NO levels.

  20. Vascular endothelial growth factor polymorphisms and a synchronized examination of plasma and tissue expression in epithelial ovarian cancers.

    PubMed

    Bhaskari, J; Premalata, C S; Shilpa, V; Rahul, B; Pallavi, V R; Ramesh, G; Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed six genetic polymorphisms of the VEGF-A gene and correlated the genetic data with plasma and tissue expression of VEGF-A in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. A total of 130 cases including 95 malignant carcinomas, 17 low malignant potential and 18 benign tumours were studied. rs699947, rs833061, rs1570360, rs2010963, rs1413711 and rs3025039 were studied by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Plasma levels of VEGF-A were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and tissue expression of VEGF-A by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Four polymorphisms of the above excluding rs699947 and rs3025039 showed significant association with malignancy, and we observed the presence of positive correlation between haplotype CCGGCC and increased expression of VEGF-A in both plasma and tissues which also correlated with poor prognosis and recurrence suggesting a probable increase in resistance to treatment in such carriers. Highly upregulated tissue expression of VEGF-A was seen in all epithelial ovarian carcinomas with intensity of expression increasing from benign to malignant cases. ELISA data from our study showed an increase in circulating levels of VEGF-A in malignancies. VEGF-A plasma levels can be employed as a biomarker for high-grade malignancy in epithelial ovarian cancers alongside tissue expression and CA-125 levels. This study is unique due to the fact that a simultaneous analysis of plasma and tissue expression has been demonstrated and is a first such study in epithelial ovarian cancers and representing the Indian population (South-east Asian) synchronized with genetic polymorphism data as well. PMID:26264619

  1. PIM1 polymorphism and PIM1 expression as predisposing factors of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuan-Bo; Lu, Di; He, Zhi-Feng; Jin, Chan-Guan

    2016-01-01

    Our study aimed to identify the association between a PIM1 polymorphism and PIM1 expression levels with clinicopathological features of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 168 patients with ESCC were recruited as the case group, and 180 healthy individuals were included as the control group. Polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing was employed to analyze all genotypes containing the PIM1 −1 882 A>T mutation. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PIM1 expression. The distributions of genotype AA and allele A of PIM1 −1 882 A>T were higher in the case group than in the control group (both P<0.05). AT + TT carriers had a lower risk of ESCC than AA carriers (P<0.05). PIM1 polymorphism was related to the invasion depth, degree of differentiation, and lymphatic metastasis of ESCC (P<0.05). PIM1 expression was associated with lymphatic metastasis of ESCC and PIM1 polymorphism (both P<0.05). PIM1 −1 882 A>T and the overexpression of PIM1 were associated with the clinicopathological features of ESCC, and PIM1 −1 882 A>T may help to reduce the risk of ESCC in the Asian population. PMID:27274285

  2. GSTM1 and GSTP1 Polymorphisms as Potential Factors for Modifying the Effect of Smoking on Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Park, Shin-Goo; Lee, Kwan-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ho; Ha, Eun-Hee; Myung, Seung-Kwon

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation has been known to be an important underlying condition for development of various diseases including cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate whether tobacco smoke exposure increases the level of inflammation biomarkers and the GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory response due to tobacco smoke exposure. We measured urinary cotinine level in 300 healthy university students. Total serum TNF-α levels and blood WBC counts were determined to evaluate inflammatory response. Allelic loss of the GSTM1 and the GSTP1 (Ile105Val) polymorphism were determined by PCR and RFLP. Tobacco smoke exposure was found to be associated with increase of both TNF-α level and WBC count. Particularly, smokers with combination of GSTM1 null and GSTP1 AG or GG genotypes showed higher TNF-α level than those with the other genotype combinations (p=0.07). This result suggests that smoking may induce inflammation measured as TNF-α level or WBC count and combinations of the GSTM1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms may modify the effect of smoking on serum TNF-α level. PMID:17179680

  3. Correlation between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter 4G/5G polymorphism and metabolic/proinflammatory factors in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sales, M F; Sóter, M O; Candido, A L; Fernandes, A P; Oliveira, F R; Ferreira, A C S; Sousa, M O; Ferreira, C N; Gomes, K B

    2013-10-01

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of subfertility associated to metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to correlate metabolic and proinflammatory factors in women with PCOS. The frequency of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) promoter 4 G/5 G polymorphism was also compared to healthy controls. We evaluated 79 PCOS and 79 healthy women. PAI-1 levels are positively correlated with proinflammatory factors in PCOS group. 4 G allele in PAI-1 gene was more frequent in PCOS and the 4G/4 G genotype was associated with increased PAI-1 levels. A correlation between insulin resistance and proinflammatory and overweight was also observed. C-reactive protein, serum levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), Lipid Accumulation Product (LAP) and vitamin D are good tools to evaluated factors associated to cardiovascular risk in women with PCOS.

  4. Genetic association studies of tumour necrosis factor alpha and beta and tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 and 2 polymorphisms across the clinical spectrum of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, G V; Kirk, C W; Middleton, D; Droogan, A G; Hawkins, S A; Patterson, C C; Graham, C A

    1999-11-01

    Allelic association studies with microsatellite markers around the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) genes have demonstrated significantly different allele distributions of TNF markers (a and b) between relapsing-remitting/secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) (RR/SPMS) patients and normal controls. Considering the suspected genetic and immunological heterogeneity in MS, we tested this association in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients. Elevated levels of serum soluble TNF receptors (sTNF-R) are reported in patients with gadolinium enhancing lesions, and animal models suggest a possible therapeutic role of sTNF-RI in MS. Thus we performed similar association studies using markers for the TNF-R genes. Gene association studies were carried out on 199-216 normal controls, 174 RR/SPMS patients and 102 PPMS patients using polymorphic dinucleotide repeat TNF markers (a, b and d), and separate markers for TNF-RI and TNF-RII. Forward primers were fluorescently labelled, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were analysed on a fluorescent fragment analyser, and Genescan 672 software was used for allele sizing. Samples were typed for HLA-DR antigens using PCR technology and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. TNFa marker allele distributions differed significantly between PPMS patients and controls (P = 0.028), largely attributable to an increase in the 118-bp TNFa allele in PPMS patients (P = 0.00024). Allele distributions were similar in PPMS and RR/SPMS patients (P = 0.91). Logistic regression analysis, however, indicated that these associations were not independent of that with HLA-DRB1*15. For the TNFb marker, the 127-bp allele showed association with both patient categories (PPMS vs. controls, P = 0.010; RR/SPMS vs. controls, P = 0.027), whilst the 128-bp allele occurred more frequently in controls (PPMS vs. controls, P = 0.036: RR/SPMS vs. controls, P = 0.0009). As with the TNFa 118 bp allele, the association with TNFb was not independent of the HLA

  5. Plasma endothelin-1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms of endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor genes as risk factors for normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Łukasik, Urszula; Aung, Tin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kocki, Janusz; Żarnowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of endothelin and endothelin receptor type A genes can constitute a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG). Methods The study included 160 patients with NTG, 124 patients with HTG, and 165 healthy controls. To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of the endothelin EDN gene (K198N) and the endothelin receptor type A gene EDN RA (C1222T, C70G, G231A), DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and SNP genotyping was performed using the real-time PCR (RT–PCR) method. Plasma endothelin (ET) concentrations were detected using an enzyme immunoassay. Endothelin levels were compared with genotype and allele distributions, patients’ clinical status, and various risk factors for NTG. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with NTG and HTG and the controls (p = 0.035, p = 0.008) regarding the genotype of the C1222T and C70G polymorphism. Plasma concentrations of ET did not differ between the NTG and HTG groups, and no significant correlation with intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the cup to disc ratio (c/d ratio) was seen in patients with NTG. Plasma endothelin levels showed a noticeably positive correlation with age in the NTG group (R = 0.249, p = 0.042). Higher endothelin levels corresponded to more advanced visual field damage. No statistical difference was observed between variant genotypes of K198N and the ET-1 plasma concentration in patients with NTG, whereas a slightly higher ET level was observed in the patients with HTG with the GT genotype in comparison to those with the GG genotype (p = 0.001). The C1222T polymorphism significantly affected the plasma ET level in patients with NTG. The TT genotype carriers had the highest ET level, and the CC genotype carriers the lowest (p = 0.034). The AA variant genotype of the G231A polymorphism exhibited the highest

  6. Is the C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene or plasma homocysteine a risk factor for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese individuals?

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongli; Fan, Dongsheng; Hong, Tianpei

    2012-10-25

    The present study enrolled 251 diabetic patients, including 101 with neuropathy and 150 without neuropathy. Of the 150 patients, 100 had no complications, such as retinopathy, nephropathy, or neuropathy. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to identify methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants. Plasma homocysteine levels were also measured. Homocysteine levels and the frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with diabetic patients without neuropathy (P < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis with neuropathy as the dependent variable, the frequency of C677T in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase was significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy compared with patients without diabetic complications. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy carrying the 677T allele and low folic acid levels. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for diabetic neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes. The C677T polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and low folic acid levels may be risk factors for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in Chinese patients with diabetes.

  7. The Association between Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 α Gene C1772T Polymorphism and Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of 37 Case-Control Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Dongjuan; Zhao, Xin; Hu, Ting; Jiang, Lu; Dan, Hongxia; Zeng, Xin; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiayi; Chen, Qianming

    2013-01-01

    Background The possible association between HIF-1α C1772T polymorphism and cancer risk has been studied extensively. However, the results were controversial. In order to get a more precise conclusion of this association, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods A total of 10186 cases and 10926 controls in 37 case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. Allele and genotypic differences between cases and controls were evaluated. Subgroup analysis by cancer site, ethnicity, source of controls and gender was performed. Results The T allele of HIF-1α gene C1772T was significantly associated with increased cancer risk in three genetic models: TT+CT vs.CC (dominant model OR=1.23, 95%CI=1.03-1.47), TT vs. CT+CC (recessive model OR=2.51, 95%CI=1.54-4.09), TT vs. CC (homozygote comparison OR=2.02, 95%CI=1.21-3.39).In subgroup analysis, the frequency of the T variant was found to be significantly increased in cervical cancer, pancreatic cancer, head and neck cancer, renal cell carcinoma, Asian and female subgroups. Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that the substitution of C allele with T at HIF-1α gene C1772T polymorphism is a risk factor of cancer, especially for cervical, head and neck cancer, pancreatic cancer and renal cell carcinoma. It is also a risk factor of cancer in Asian group as well as in female group. PMID:24367595

  8. Pharmacogenetic Study in Rectal Cancer Patients Treated With Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy: Polymorphisms in Thymidylate Synthase, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, GSTP1, and DNA Repair Genes

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, David; Salazar, Juliana; Pare, Laia; Pertriz, Lourdes; Targarona, Eduardo; Rio, Elisabeth del; Barnadas, Agusti; Marcuello, Eugenio; Baiget, Montserrat

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Several studies have been performed to evaluate the usefulness of neoadjuvant treatment using oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidines for locally advanced rectal cancer. However, preoperative biomarkers of outcome are lacking. We studied the polymorphisms in thymidylate synthase, epidermal growth factor receptor, glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), and several DNA repair genes to evaluate their usefulness as pharmacogenetic markers in a cohort of 128 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Blood samples were obtained from 128 patients with Stage II-III rectal cancer. DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood nucleated cells, and the genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and automated sequencing techniques or using a 48.48 dynamic array on the BioMark system. The germline polymorphisms studied were thymidylate synthase, (VNTR/5 Prime UTR, 2R G>C single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP], 3R G>C SNP), epidermal growth factor receptor (Arg497Lys), GSTP1 (Ile105val), excision repair cross-complementing 1 (Asn118Asn, 8092C>A, 19716G>C), X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) (Arg194Trp, Arg280His, Arg399Gln), and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (Lys751Gln). The pathologic response, pathologic regression, progression-free survival, and overall survival were evaluated according to each genotype. Results: The Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 thymidylate synthase genotype was associated with a greater response rate (pathologic complete remission and microfoci residual tumor, 59% in Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 vs. 35% in Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 3; p = .013). For the thymidylate synthase genotype, the median progression-free survival was 103 months for the Asterisk-Operator 3/ Asterisk-Operator 3 patients and 84 months for the Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk-Operator 2 and Asterisk-Operator 2/ Asterisk

  9. Functional COMT Val158Met Polymorphism, Risk of Acute Coronary Events and Serum Homocysteine: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Korhonen, Maarit; Mursu, Jaakko; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Happonen, Pertti; Alfthan, Georg; Erlund, Iris; North, Kari E.; Mosher, M.J.; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tiihonen, Jari; Kaplan, George A.; Salonen, Jukka T.

    2007-01-01

    Background The role of circulating levels of total homocysteine tHcy in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD) is still under debate. One reason for conflicting results between previous studies on homocysteine and heart diseases could be consequence of different interactions between homocysteine and genes in different study populations. Many genetic factors play a role in folate-homocysteine metabolism, like functional polymorphism (Val108Met) in the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. Methodology and Findings Our aim was to examine the role of COMT Val158Met polymorphism and interaction of this polymorphism with serum tHcy and folate concentration on the risk of acute coronary and events in middle-aged men from eastern Finland. A population-based prospective cohort of 792 men aged 46–64 years was examined as part of the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. During an average follow-up of 9.3 years, there were 69 acute coronary events in men with no previous history of CHD. When comparing the COMT low activity genotype with the others, we found an age and examination year adjusted hazard rate ratio (HRR) of 1.73 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–2.79), and an age, examination year, serum LDL and HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride concentration, systolic blood pressure and smoking adjusted HRR of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.05–2.77). Although serum tHcy concentration was not statistically significantly associated with acute coronary events (HRR for the highest third versus others 1.52, 95% CI, 0.93–2.49), subjects with both high serum tHcy and the COMT low activity genotype had an additionally increased adjusted risk of HRR 2.94 (95% CI 1.50–5.76) as compared with other men. Conclusions This prospective cohort study suggests that the functional COMT Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased risk of acute coronary events and it may interact with high serum tHcy levels. PMID:17264883

  10. Analysis of genetic polymorphisms of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in depressed patients in a Slovak (Caucasian) population.

    PubMed

    Evinova, Andrea; Babusikova, Eva; Straka, Stanislav; Ondrejka, Igor; Lehotsky, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder where both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions play an important role, but the clues are still not fully understood. One carbon metabolism in the CNS plays a critical role in the synthesis and release of neurotransmitters which are relevant to depressive disorder. We studied genetic polymorphisms of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) in association with major depressive disorder. We genotyped the BDNF G196A, the MTHFR C677T, and A1298C polymorphisms in 134 patients diagnosed with major depression and 143 control subjects in Slovak (Caucasian) cohort of patients and probands. We found no significant association of either the BDNF G196A or MTHFR C677T polymorphisms with major depressive disorder neither in female nor male group of patients. However, the MTHFR A1298C genotype distribution was 36.6% (for AA genotype), 48.5% (AC) and 14.9% (CC) for the depressed patients, and 48.9% (AA), 42.7% (AC) and 8.4% (CC), respectively, for the control subjects. Patients with MDD had a higher prevalence of the CC genotype (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.07-5.32; p = 0.032) and the AC + CC genotype (OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.03-2.69; p = 0.037) in comparison with the control subjects. This study shows that CC genotype of the MTHFR A1298C is associated with higher risk of MDD in Slovak population.

  11. No Effect of the Transforming Growth Factor {beta}1 Promoter Polymorphism C-509T on TGFB1 Gene Expression, Protein Secretion, or Cellular Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Reuther, Sebastian; Metzke, Elisabeth; Bonin, Michael; Petersen, Cordula; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Raabe, Annette

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To study whether the promoter polymorphism (C-509T) affects transforming growth factor {beta}1 gene (TGFB1) expression, protein secretion, and/or cellular radiosensitivity for both human lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Methods and Materials: Experiments were performed with lymphocytes taken either from 124 breast cancer patients or 59 pairs of normal monozygotic twins. We used 15 normal human primary fibroblast strains as controls. The C-509T genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism or TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping assay. The cellular radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was measured by G0/1 assay and that of fibroblasts by colony assay. The amount of extracellular TGFB1 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and TGFB1 expression was assessed via microarray analysis or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The C-509T genotype was found not to be associated with cellular radiosensitivity, neither for lymphocytes (breast cancer patients, P=.811; healthy donors, P=.181) nor for fibroblasts (P=.589). Both TGFB1 expression and TGFB1 protein secretion showed considerable variation, which, however, did not depend on the C-509T genotype (protein secretion: P=.879; gene expression: lymphocytes, P=.134, fibroblasts, P=.605). There was also no general correlation between TGFB1 expression and cellular radiosensitivity (lymphocytes, P=.632; fibroblasts, P=.573). Conclusion: Our data indicate that any association between the SNP C-509T of TGFB1 and risk of normal tissue toxicity cannot be ascribed to a functional consequence of this SNP, either on the level of gene expression, protein secretion, or cellular radiosensitivity.

  12. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is not a major determining factor in the development of sporadic Alzheimer disease: evidence from an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-bin; Cui, Ning-hua; Yang, Jie; Qiu, Xue-ping; Gao, Jia-jia; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism have long been linked to sporadic Alzheimer disease (SAD), but the established data remained controversial. To clarify this inconsistency, a comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted. Through searching of Pubmed, Embase, Alzgene, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and manually searching relevant references, 53 independent studies from 48 articles were included, involving a total of 8153 cases and 14932 controls. The strength of association was assessed by using odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Further stratified analyses and heterogeneity analyses were tested, as was publication bias. Overall, significant associations were revealed between I/D polymorphism and SAD risk using allelic comparison (OR = 1.09, 95%CI = 1.01-1.17, p = 0.030), homozygote comparison (OR = 1.17, 95%CI = 1.01-1.34, p = 0.030) and the dominant model (OR = 1.16, 95%CI = 1.04-1.29, p = 0.008), but they were not sufficiently robust to withstand the false-positive report probability (FPRP) analyses. Otherwise, in subgroup analyses restricted to the high quality studies, the large sample size studies and studies with population-based controls, no significant association was observed in any genetic models. In summary, the current meta-analysis suggested that the ACE I/D polymorphism is unlikely to be a major determining factor in the development of SAD. PMID:25360660

  13. Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene rs12423791 or rs6214 Polymorphisms and High Myopia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017

  14. Association of Chicken Growth Hormones and Insulin-like Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Growth Performance and Carcass Traits in Thai Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Lan; Kunhareang, Sajee; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2015-01-01

    Molecular marker selection has been an acceptable tool in the acceleration of the genetic response of desired traits to improve production performance in chickens. The crossbreds from commercial parent stock (PS) broilers with four Thai synthetic breeds; Kaen Thong (KT), Khai Mook Esarn (KM), Soi Nin (SN), and Soi Pet (SP) were used to study the association among chicken growth hormones (cGH) and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) genes for growth and carcass traits; for the purpose of developing a suitable terminal breeding program for Thai broilers. A total of 408 chickens of four Thai broiler lines were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. The cGH gene was significantly associated with body weight at hatching; at 4, 6, 8, 10 weeks of age and with average daily gain (ADG); during 2 to 4, 4 to 6, 0 to 6, 0 to 8, and 0 to 10 weeks of age in PS×KM chickens. For PS×KT populations, cGH gene showed significant association with body weight at hatching, and ADG; during 8 to 10 weeks of age. The single nucleotide polymorphism variant confirmed that allele G has positive effects for body weight and ADG. Within carcass traits, cGH revealed a tentative association within the dressing percentage. For the IGF-I gene polymorphism, there were significant associations with body weight at hatching; at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age and ADG; during 0 to 2, 4 to 6, and 0 to 6 weeks of age; in all of four Thai broiler populations. There were tentative associations of the IGF-I gene within the percentages of breast muscles and wings. Thus, cGH gene may be used as a candidate gene, to improve growth traits of Thai broilers. PMID:26580435

  15. Characterization of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor α Promoter Region and in Lymphotoxin α in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions, Precursors of Cervical Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Nieves-Ramirez, Miriam Enriqueta; Partida-Rodriguez, Oswaldo; Alegre-Crespo, Pedro Eduardo; Tapia-Lugo, Maria del Carmen; Perez-Rodriguez, Martha Esthela

    2011-01-01

    Development of cervical cancer is a long process of abnormal cancerous cell growth in the cervix and is primarily the result of infection with specific high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). The cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and lymphotoxin α (LTA) have an important role in all stages of cervical cancer and have the ability to induce the regression or promote the development of human tumors. Biologically important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) occur within the TNFα and LTA genes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the SNPs in the TNFα promoter region (-163, -238, -244, -308, -376, -857, -863, and -1031) and in the first intron of LTA (+252) in women with precursor lesions of cervical cancer. Overall, we studied 396 women from Mexico City. A total of 191 patients with HPV infection and precursor cervical lesions were subdivided in two groups: those with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 132) and those with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (n = 59). Women (n = 205) negative for HPV and without cervical lesions were also included in the study. DNA was extracted from peripheral white blood cells and from cervical samples, and detection of biallelic polymorphisms of TNFα and LTA was performed using the polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques, respectively. We demonstrated that risk is associated with the genotype G/A (odds ratio = 2.48) and that protection is associated with the genotype G/G of SNP TNFα -376 (odds ratio = 0.37). PMID:22190997

  16. NOD1 in contrast to NOD2 functional polymorphism influence Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of tubal factor infertility

    PubMed Central

    Branković, Ivan; van Ess, Eleanne F.; Noz, Marlies P.; Wiericx, Wilhelmina (Anke) J.; Spaargaren, Joke; Morré, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular pattern-recognition receptors NOD1 and NOD2 are capable of sensing common structural units of bacterial walls. Recognition triggers specific immune signalling pathways and leads to pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation and adequate immune response. We investigated whether two functional polymorphisms in NOD1 and NOD2 exert an effect on susceptibility to (STD patients) and severity of (female patients visiting the fertility clinic) Chlamydia trachomatis infection in 807 Dutch Caucasian women. A significant association of the NOD1 +32656 GG insertion variant with protection against infection with C. trachomatis has been detected [p: 0.0057; OR: 0.52]. When comparing C. trachomatis-positive women without symptoms to C. trachomatis-positive women with symptoms, and to C. trachomatis-positive women with TFI, we observed an increasing trend in carriage of the GG allele [Ptrend: 0.0003]. NOD2 1007fs failed to reveal an association. We hypothesize that the underlying mechanism might be a functional effect of the GG insertion on IFN-beta-dependent regulation of immune response in the genital tract. The research is part of an ongoing effort of identifying key polymorphisms that determine the risk of TFI and effectively translating them into the clinical setting for the purpose of optimizing diagnostic management of women at risk for developing TFI. PMID:25854006

  17. [Resistance to acenocoumarol revealing a missense mutation of the vitamin K epoxyde reductase VKORC1: a case report].

    PubMed

    Mboup, M C; Dia, K; Ba, D M; Fall, P D

    2015-02-01

    A significant proportion of the interindividual variability of the response to vitamin K antagonist (VKA) treatment has been associated with genetic factors. Genetic variations affecting the vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) are associated with hypersensitivity or rarely with resistance to VKA. We report the case of a black women patient who presents a resistance to acenocoumarol. Despite the use of high doses of acenocoumarol (114 mg/week) for the treatment of recurrent pulmonary embolism, the International Normalized Ratio was below the therapeutic target. This resistance to acenocoumarol was confirmed by the identification of a missense mutation Val66Met of the vitamin K epoxide reductase. PMID:24095214

  18. c.29C>T polymorphism in the transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFB1) gene correlates with increased risk of urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Kirti Amresh; Pooja, Singh; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Sankhwar, Pushp Lata; Goel, Apul; Rajender, Singh

    2015-10-01

    TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine, which plays a dual role in tumor development. In the early stages, it inhibits the growth of tumor while in the late stages of carcinoma, it promotes tumor growth. The purpose of this study was to analyze the distribution of the TGFB1 gene polymorphisms between cases and controls so as to assess their correlation with bladder cancer risk. This study included 237 cases of urinary bladder cancer and 290 age matched controls from the same ethnic background. Three polymorphisms in the TGFB1 gene, c.29C>T (rs-1800470), c.74G>C (rs-1800471) and +140A>G (rs-13447341), were analyzed by direct DNA sequencing. Statistical analyses revealed no significant differences in the demographical data, except that the frequencies of smokers and non-vegetarians were higher in the cases. Eighty percent of the bladder cancer patients had superficial transitional cell carcinoma, and 53.16% and 26.31% of the patients were in grade I and grade II, respectively. We found that c.29C>T substitution increased the risk of bladder cancer significantly and recessive model of analysis was the best fitted model (p=0.004; OR=1.72 95% CI 1.18-2.50). A significantly higher risk in the recessive form was also suggested by co-dominant analysis showing that the homozygous form (TT) was a significant risk factor in comparison to CC and CT genotypes. The other two polymorphisms, c.74G>C (p=0.18, OR=0.67 95% CI 0.37-1.21) and +140A>G (p=0.416, OR=0.77 95% CI 0.41-1.45) did not affect the risk of urinary bladder cancer. In conclusion, we found that the TGFB1 c.29C>T substitution increases the risk of bladder cancer significantly while c.74G>C and +140A>G polymorphisms do not affect the risk.

  19. Methadone dose in heroin-dependent patients: role of clinical factors, comedications, genetic polymorphisms and enzyme activity

    PubMed Central

    Mouly, Stéphane; Bloch, Vanessa; Peoc'h, Katell; Houze, Pascal; Labat, Laurence; Ksouda, Kamilia; Simoneau, Guy; Declèves, Xavier; Bergmann, Jean Francois; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Vorspan, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aims Methadone is characterized by wide intersubject variability regarding the dose needed to obtain full therapeutic response. We assessed the influence of sociodemographic, ethnic, clinical, metabolic and genotypic variables on methadone maintenance dose requirement in opioid-dependent responder patients. Methods Eighty-one stable patients (60 men and 21 women, 43.7 ± 8.1 years old, 63.1 ± 50.9 mg day−1 methadone), divided into quartiles with respect to the median daily dose, were enrolled and underwent clinical examination, treatment history and determination of liver/intestinal cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity measured by the midazolam test, R,S-methadone trough concentration and clinically significant polymorphisms of the OPRM1, DRD2, COMT, ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP3A5, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genes. Results Methadone maintenance dose was correlated to the highest dose ever used (r2 = 0.57, P < 0.0001). Fractioned methadone intake (odds ratio 4.87, 95% confidence interval 1.27–18.6, P = 0.02), bodyweight (odds ratio 1.57, 95% confidence interval 1.01–2.44, P = 0.04), history of cocaine dependence (80 vs. 44 mg day−1 in never-addict patients, P = 0.005) and ethnicity (Asian > Caucasian > African, P = 0.04) were independently associated with high-dose methadone in multiple regression analysis. A modest correlation was observed between liver/intestinal CYP3A4 activity and methadone dose at steady state (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [rs] = 0.21, P = 0.06) but not with highest dose ever used (rs = 0.15, P = 0.18) or dose-normalized R,S-methadone trough concentrations (rs = −0.05, P = 0.64). Concomitant CYP3A4 inhibitors only affected the relationship between methadone dose and R,S-methadone trough concentration. None of the genetic polymorphisms explored was predictive of the methadone maintenance dose. Conclusions Methadone maintenance dose was predicted by sociodemographic and clinical variables rather than genetic polymorphisms or liver/intestinal CYP

  20. Interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene polymorphisms in patients with febrile seizures.

    PubMed

    Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Wei-De; Wang, Chung-Hsing; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Li, Tsai-Chung; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation and genetics may play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile seizures (FSs). We aimed to test whether interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra), IL-6 promoter, IL-8, IL-10, or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene polymorphisms could be used as markers of susceptibility to FSs. An association study was performed among a cohort of 104 patients with FSs and 143 normal control subjects. There was no significant difference between patients and controls in the distribution of allele frequencies of the IL-1beta promoter, IL-1beta exon 5, IL-6 promoter, IL-8, IL-10, or TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms. In contrast, the IL-1 Ra-I homozygote was more frequent in patients with FSs than in healthy controls (93.2% vs. 83.92%, chi(2)=4.51, P=0.034). In addition, individuals homozygous for the IL-1 Ra-I genotype were more than twice as likely to develop FSs than individuals heterozygous for the IL-1 Ra-I/II genotype (OR, 2.63, 95% CI: 1.08-6.39; chi(2)=4.55, P=0.033). We conclude that the IL-1 Ra gene might be one of the useful markers for predicting susceptibility to FSs.

  1. Lack of Association between Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Derived 2-Like 2 Promoter Gene Polymorphisms and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chico, Lucia; Borgia, Loredana; Rocchi, Anna; D'Amelio, Antonia; Carlesi, Cecilia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress involvement has been strongly hypothesized among the possible pathogenic mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The intracellular redox balance is finely modulated by numerous complex mechanisms critical for cellular functions, among which the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) pathways. We genotyped, in a cohort of ALS patients (n = 145) and healthy controls (n = 168), three SNPs in Nrf2 gene promoter: −653 A/G, −651 G/A, and −617 C/A and evaluated, in a subset (n = 73) of patients, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), iron-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and plasma thiols (-SH) as oxidative damage peripheral biomarkers. Nrf2 polymorphisms were not different among patients and controls. Increased levels of AOPP (P < 0.05) and decreased levels of FRAP (P < 0.001) have been observed in ALS patients compared with controls, but no difference in -SH values was found. Furthermore, no association was found between biochemical markers of redox balance and Nrf2 polymorphisms. These data confirm an altered redox balance in ALS and indicate that, while being abnormally modified compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers assessed in this study are independent from the −653 A/G, −651 G/A, and −617 C/A Nrf2 SNPs in ALS patients. PMID:24672634

  2. Lack of association between nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 promoter gene polymorphisms and oxidative stress biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    LoGerfo, Annalisa; Chico, Lucia; Borgia, Loredana; Petrozzi, Lucia; Rocchi, Anna; D'Amelio, Antonia; Carlesi, Cecilia; Caldarazzo Ienco, Elena; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress involvement has been strongly hypothesized among the possible pathogenic mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The intracellular redox balance is finely modulated by numerous complex mechanisms critical for cellular functions, among which the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) pathways. We genotyped, in a cohort of ALS patients (n = 145) and healthy controls (n = 168), three SNPs in Nrf2 gene promoter: -653 A/G, -651 G/A, and -617 C/A and evaluated, in a subset (n = 73) of patients, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), iron-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and plasma thiols (-SH) as oxidative damage peripheral biomarkers. Nrf2 polymorphisms were not different among patients and controls. Increased levels of AOPP (P < 0.05) and decreased levels of FRAP (P < 0.001) have been observed in ALS patients compared with controls, but no difference in -SH values was found. Furthermore, no association was found between biochemical markers of redox balance and Nrf2 polymorphisms. These data confirm an altered redox balance in ALS and indicate that, while being abnormally modified compared to controls, the oxidative stress biomarkers assessed in this study are independent from the -653 A/G, -651 G/A, and -617 C/A Nrf2 SNPs in ALS patients. PMID:24672634

  3. Study on the possible association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism with the developmental course of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Olle; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eriksson, Elias; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have, with conflicting results, investigated the relationship between the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed longitudinal, quantitative phenotypes of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in order to determine whether the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism is associated with age-specific and/or persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention in a community-based cohort of 1236 Swedish individuals for which ADHD symptom data were collected when the participants were aged 8-9, 13-14 and 16-17 yr. The Met allele was associated with symptoms of ADHD at ages 8-9 and 13-14 yr. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the observed effect of the Met allele on ADHD symptoms reflects an influence on persistent hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. The present findings support the hypothesis that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The results highlight the importance of distinguishing between hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention, respectively, and demonstrate the value of using a longitudinal approach in genetic studies of ADHD symptoms.

  4. Family-based analysis of tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin-α tag polymorphisms with type 1 diabetes in the population of South Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Boraska, Vesna; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Groves, Christopher J.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Škrabić, Veselin; Diakite, Mahamadou; Rockett, Kirk A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; McCarthy, Mark I.; Zemunik, Tatijana

    2009-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin-α (LTA) are cytokines with a wide range of inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of polymorphisms in the TNF/LTA gene region with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. We investigated 11 TNF/LTA tag polymorphisms, designed to capture the majority of common variation in the region, in 160 trio families from South Croatia. We observed overtransmission of alleles from parents to affected child at five variants: (rs909253, allele C, p = 1.2×10−4; rs1041981, allele A, p = 1.1×10−4; rs1800629 (G-308A), allele A, p = 1.2×10−4; rs361525(G-238A), allele G, p = 8.2×10−3 and rs3093668, allele G, p = 0.014). We also identified overtransmission of the rs 1800629(G-308A)-rs361525(G-238A) A-G haplotype, p = 2.384×10−5. The present study found an association of the TNF/LTA gene region with type 1 diabetes. A careful assessment of TNF/LTA variants adjusted for linkage disequilibrium with HLA loci is needed to further clarify the role of these genes in type 1 diabetes susceptibility in the population of South Croatia. PMID:19167443

  5. Age-Related Macular Degeneration-Associated Silent Polymorphisms in HtrA1 Impair Its Ability To Antagonize Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo, Sarah Melissa P.; DeAngelis, Margaret M.; Kim, Ivana K.

    2013-01-01

    Synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within a transcript's coding region produce no change in the amino acid sequence of the protein product and are therefore intuitively assumed to have a neutral effect on protein function. We report that two common variants of high-temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) that increase the inherited risk of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NvAMD) harbor synonymous SNPs within exon 1 of HTRA1 that convert common codons for Ala34 and Gly36 to less frequently used codons. The frequent-to-rare codon conversion reduced the mRNA translation rate and appeared to compromise HtrA1's conformation and function. The protein product generated from the SNP-containing cDNA displayed enhanced susceptibility to proteolysis and a reduced affinity for an anti-HtrA1 antibody. The NvAMD-associated synonymous polymorphisms lie within HtrA1's putative insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) binding domain. They reduced HtrA1's abilities to associate with IGF-1 and to ameliorate IGF-1-stimulated signaling events and cellular responses. These observations highlight the relevance of synonymous codon usage to protein function and implicate homeostatic protein quality control mechanisms that may go awry in NvAMD. PMID:23478260

  6. TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 gene polymorphisms as possible risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis: relation to activity and severity.

    PubMed

    Mosaad, Y M; El-Bassiony, S R; El-Ghaweet, A E; Elhindawy, M M; El-Deek, B S; Sultan, W A

    2015-08-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of both TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 polymorphisms on susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a cohort of Egyptian population and to evaluate for the first time their relation to activity, severity, disease-related disability and erosion. TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) and TIM-4 rs7700944 gene polymorphisms were typed by RFLP for 128 patients with RA and 125 healthy controls. The A allele, A-containing genotypes (GA and AA) of the TIM-4 and GA haplotype were present with significant higher frequency in patients with RA than healthy controls (Pc  < 0.001). These findings suggest that the A allele, A-containing genotypes (GA and AA) and GA haplotype may be a susceptibility risk factor for RA [OR = 5.83 (3.6-9.4), OR = 9.41 (5.0-17.6) and OR = 4.21 (1.07-19.2), respectively]. No associations were found between TIM genotypes and disease activity, severity or presence of erosion. However, the RA patients with GA genotype of TIM-4 have higher grade of rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity (P = 0.018), and have worse disease-related disability (P = 0.007) and worse pain (0.025). TIM-4 rs7700944 and not TIM-1 rs41297579 G>A (-1454) is associated with RA in the present cohort of Egyptian and may be a risk factor for development of RA in Egyptian. Both SNPs have no effect on disease activity, severity or erosion. However, TIM-4 GA genotype is associated with higher grade of RF positivity and worse disease-related disability and pain.

  7. Ex vivo study for the assessment of behavioral factor and gene polymorphisms in individual susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage metals-induced.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Angela; Baluce, Barbara; Visalli, Giuseppa; La Maestra, Sebastiano; Micale, Rosanna; Izzotti, Alberto

    2011-06-01

    Transition metals in fine particulate matter generated by combustion induce oxidative DNA damage and inflammation. However, there is remarkable inter-individual variability in susceptibility to these damages. To assess this variability, an ex vivo study was performed using lymphocytes of 47 Caucasian healthy subjects. Cell samples were exposed to a water solution of oil fly ash (OFA). This was formed by the distinctive transition metals vanadium, iron, and nickel. Oxidative DNA damage was evaluated by testing cell viability, intracellular ROS production and 8-oxo-dG. DNA fragmentation and DNA repair capacity were assessed by using the Alkaline-Halo assay. GSTM1, GSTT1, hOGG1, and C677T and A1298C MTHFR gene polymorphisms were tested. Demographic and behavioral factors, collected by questionnaire, were also considered. OFA induced damages showed: (a) a 20-fold variation in range among different subjects in ROS production, (b) a 7-fold variation in range of 8-oxo-dG, and (c) a 25-fold variation in range in DNA repair capacity. A significant increase in DNA damage was detected in GSTT1-deficent subjects compared with wild type genotype carriers. Increases in cytoplasmic ROS and decreases in DNA repair capacity (P<0.05) were observed in C677T and A1298C variants of MTHFR. A remarkable protective effect of high fruits and vegetable intake was observed for ROS production and DNA damage. Conversely, an adverse effect of meat intake was observed on ROS increase, DNA damage and repair capacity, probably due to the increased intake of bioavailable iron. Smoking decreased DNA repair capacity, while age increased OFA-induced DNA damage. The wide comparative analysis of the complex interactions network, between genetic and behavioral factors provides evidence of the remarkable role of several lifestyle factors. In comparison to genetic polymorphisms they seem to have a higher weight in determining individual susceptibility to the adverse effects of airborne pollutants as

  8. Association and expression analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms of partial tumor necrosis factor alpha gene with mastitis in crossbred cattle.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Sanjeev; Bhushan, Bharat; Panigrahi, Manjit; Kumar, Amit; Deb, Rajib; Kumar, Pushpendra; Sharma, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    A total of 129 crossbred cows were selected to explore the genotypic and expression profiling of partial TNF-α gene and its association with mastitis susceptibility. Two exon spanning region of TNF-α gene (221 bp and 239 bp) were amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The different genotypic analysis by SSCP revealed that 221 bp fragment was monomorphic, whereas 239 bp was polymorphic. Association studies revealed that AA genotypes of 239 bp were more prevalent in mastitis group and the mRNA expression of TNF-α was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in AA genotypic animals compare to AB and BB. This suggested that genotypes AB and BB may be used as candidate markers for mastitis resistance selection in dairy cattle.

  9. Profile of Participants and Genotype Distributions of 108 Polymorphisms in a Cross-Sectional Study of Associations of Genotypes With Lifestyle and Clinical Factors: A Project in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Kenji; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Okada, Rieko; Naito, Mariko; Morita, Emi; Hishida, Asahi; Kawai, Sayo; Nishio, Kazuko; Yin, Guang; Asai, Yatami; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Ito, Hidemi; Watanabe, Miki; Kawase, Takakazu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Tajima, Kazuo; Tanaka, Keitaro; Higaki, Yasuki; Hara, Megumi; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Nakamura, Kazuyo; Nanri, Hinako; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Kita, Yoshikuni; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Rumana, Nahid; Matsui, Kenji; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Takashima, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Ando, Ryosuke; Hosono, Akihiro; Imaeda, Nahomi; Shibata, Kiyoshi; Goto, Chiho; Hattori, Nami; Fukatsu, Mitsuru; Yamada, Tamaki; Tokudome, Shinkan; Takezaki, Toshiro; Niimura, Hideshi; Hirasada, Kazuyo; Nakamura, Akihiko; Tatebo, Masaya; Ogawa, Shin; Tsunematsu, Noriko; Chiba, Shirabe; Mikami, Haruo; Kono, Suminori; Ohnaka, Keizo; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Ozaki, Etsuko; Shigeta, Masako; Kuriyama, Nagato; Yoshikawa, Aya; Matsui, Daisuke; Watanabe, Isao; Inoue, Kaoru; Ozasa, Kotaro; Mitani, Satoko; Arisawa, Kokichi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Takami, Hidenobu; Yamaguchi, Miwa; Nakamoto, Mariko; Takeda, Hideo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2011-01-01

    Background Most diseases are thought to arise from interactions between environmental factors and the host genotype. To detect gene–environment interactions in the development of lifestyle-related diseases, and especially cancer, the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study was launched in 2005. Methods We initiated a cross-sectional study to examine associations of genotypes with lifestyle and clinical factors, as assessed by questionnaires and medical examinations. The 4519 subjects were selected from among participants in the J-MICC Study in 10 areas throughout Japan. In total, 108 polymorphisms were chosen and genotyped using the Invader assay. Results The study group comprised 2124 men and 2395 women with a mean age of 55.8 ± 8.9 years (range, 35–69 years) at baseline. Among the 108 polymorphisms examined, 4 were not polymorphic in our study population. Among the remaining 104 polymorphisms, most variations were common (minor allele frequency ≥0.05 for 96 polymorphisms). The allele frequencies in this population were comparable with those in the HapMap-JPT data set for 45 Japanese from Tokyo. Only 5 of 88 polymorphisms showed allele-frequency differences greater than 0.1. Of the 108 polymorphisms, 32 showed a highly significant difference in minor allele frequency among the study areas (P < 0.001). Conclusions This comprehensive data collection on lifestyle and clinical factors will be useful for elucidating gene–environment interactions. In addition, it is likely to be an informative reference tool, as free access to genotype data for a large Japanese population is not readily available. PMID:21467728

  10. The risk for major depression conferred by childhood maltreatment is multiplied by BDNF and SERT genetic vulnerability: a replication study

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bellón, Juan Ángel; Rivera, Margarita; Molina, Esther; King, Michael; Marston, Louise; Torres-González, Francisco; Moreno-Küstner, Berta; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Motrico, Emma; Montón-Franco, Carmen; GildeGómez-Barragán, María Josefa; Sánchez-Celaya, Marta; Díaz-Barreiros, Miguel Ángel; Vicens, Catalina; de Dios Luna, Juan; Nazareth, Irwin; Cervilla, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence for a moderating role of both serotonin transporter (SERT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes on the risk for major depression (MD) developing after childhood maltreatment. However, research on this topic remains inconclusive, and there is a lack of data from longitudinal studies with large and representative population samples. Our study aimed to clarify whether, in the presence of previous childhood maltreatment, individuals carrying low functional alleles for both SERT 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms had a higher risk for MD. Methods We explored 2- and 3-way gene (SERT and BDNF) × environment (childhood maltreatment) interactions in a large sample of Spanish adults who were followed up over a 3-year period and assessed in person for both DSM-IV MD and exposure to childhood maltreatment. Results Our study included 2679 participants. Those with both the 5-HTTLPR s allele and the BDNF Met allele showed the highest risk of MD if they had previously experienced emotional (z = 2.08, p = 0.037), sexual (z = 2.19, p = 0.029) or any kind of childhood abuse (z = 2.37, p = 0.018). These 3-way interactions remained significant regardless of whether the 5-HTTLPR triallelic or the 5-HTTLPR biallelic polymorphisms were included in the analyses. Limitations Retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment may have resulted in a moderate degree of recall bias. Conclusion Our results confirm that the risk of depression conferred by childhood maltreatment is modified by variation at both SERT and BDNF genes. PMID:25510949

  11. Can common functional gene variants affect visual discrimination in metacontrast masking?

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Margus; Vaht, Mariliis; Harro, Jaanus; Bachmann, Talis

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of visual perception should be robustly fast and provide veridical information about environmental objects in order to facilitate survival and successful coping. Because species-specific brain mechanisms for fast vision must have evolved under heavy pressure for efficiency, it has been held that different human individuals see the physical world in the same way and produce psychophysical functions of visual discrimination that are qualitatively the same. For many years, this assumption has been implicitly accepted in vision research studying extremely fast, basic visual processes, including studies of visual masking. However, in recent studies of metacontrast masking surprisingly robust individual differences in the qualitative aspects of subjects' performance have been found. As the basic species-specific visual functions very likely are based on universal brain mechanisms of vision, these differences probably are the outcome of variability in ontogenetic development (i.e., formation of idiosyncrasic skills of perception). Such developmental differences can be brought about by variants of genes that are differentially expressed in the course of CNS development. The objective of this study was to assess whether visual discrimination in metacontrast masking is related to three widely studied genetic polymorphisms implicated in brain function and used here as independent variables. The findings suggest no main effects of BDNF Val66Met, NRG1/rs6994992, or 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms on metacontrast performance, but several notable interactions of genetic variables with gender, stage of the sequence of experimental trials, perceptual strategies, and target/mask shape congruence were found. Thus, basic behavioral functions of fast vision may be influenced by common genetic variability. Also, when left uncontrolled, genetic factors may seriously confound variables in vision research using masking, obscure clear theoretical interpretation, lead to unexplicable inter

  12. [GENE POLYMORPHISM Gln27Glu β2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE AS A FACTOR OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROGRESSION OF OBESITY].

    PubMed

    Kadykova, O; Kravchun, P; Ryndina, N; Gabisoniya, T; Molotyagin, D

    2015-12-01

    Currently large numbers of genetic markers that are closely linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases and obesity are identified. The aim of our study was the study of polymorphism Gln27Glu β2-adrenergic receptor gene as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of obesity in patients with coronary heart disease. We conducted a comprehensive survey of 337 patients with coronary heart disease. All patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of obesity: the first group - patients with coronary artery disease with normal body weight (n=115), the second group - patients with coronary heart disease and obesity (n=222). The control group consisted of 35 healthy people. It was established that the presence of the G allele and genotype G/G Gln27Glu β2-adrenergic receptor gene are at risk of development and progression of obesity in patients with coronary heart disease.

  13. Microsatellite polymorphism in the promoter sequence of the elongation factor 3 gene of Candida albicans as the basis for a typing system.

    PubMed Central

    Bretagne, S; Costa, J M; Besmond, C; Carsique, R; Calderone, R

    1997-01-01

    The polymorphism of a TTC/TTTC microsatellite in the promoter sequence of the elongation factor 3 gene of Candida albicans was investigated by PCR. One primer was fluorescein labeled, and PCR signals were read with an automatic sequencer. Twenty-nine reference strains and 31 independent clinical isolates were studied. Eleven different alleles were identified, giving 16 different profiles among the 60 strains tested, with a discriminatory power of 0.88. This marker is stable upon subculture, and reproducibility was achieved by automated procedures. When several microsatellite markers are available, many isolates can be rapidly and reproducibly tested for epidemiological questions, such as the prevalence of a given strain in a hospital setting and transmission between patients. PMID:9196192

  14. Association between tumor necrosis factor-α promoter -308 A/G, -238 A/G, interleukin-6 -174 G/C and -572 G/C polymorphisms and periodontal disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Gwan Gyu; Choi, Sung Jae; Ji, Jong Dae; Lee, Young Ho

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) promoter polymorphisms confer susceptibility to periodontitis in ethnically different populations. A literature search was performed using PubMed and Embase and a meta-analysis of the identified studies was conducted to explore the associations between TNF-α -308 A/G, -238 A/G, IL-6 promoter -174 G/C and -572 G/C polymorphisms and periodontitis. Seventeen comparison studies for the TNF-α -308 A/G polymorphism and three studies for the TNF-α -238 A/G polymorphism were included in the meta-analysis. And 16 separate studies for the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism and 10 studies for the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism were considered in our meta-analysis. Analysis after stratification by ethnicity indicated that the TNF-α -308 A allele was associated with periodontitis in Brazilian, Asian, and Turkish populations (OR=0.637, 95% CI=0.447-0.907, p=0.013; OR=0.403, 95% CI=0.204-0.707, p=0.009; OR=1.818, 95; % CI=1.036-3.189, p=0.037). The meta-analysis showed no association between the TNF-α -238 A/G polymorphism and periodontitis. The meta-analysis indicated an association of the IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphisms with periodontitis in Brazilian populations (OR for GG+GC=2.394, 95% CI=1.081-5.302, p=0.031). Stratification by ethnicity and disease type indicated an association between the IL-6 -572 G allele and chronic periodontitis (OR=1.585, 95 % CI=1.030-2.439, p=0.036), and periodontitis in Europeans (OR=2.118, 95% CI=1.254-3.577, p=0.005). This meta-analysis demonstrates that the TNF-α -308 A/G polymorphism confers susceptibility to periodontitis in Brazilian, Asian and Turkish populations. The IL-6 -174 G/C polymorphism may confer susceptibility to periodontitis in Brazilians, and the IL-6 -572 G/C polymorphism may be associated with susceptibility to periodontitis in Europeans, and chronic periodontitis.

  15. Application of Taguchi Method to Investigate the Effects of Process Factors on the Production of Industrial Piroxicam Polymorphs and Optimization of Dissolution Rate of Powder.

    PubMed

    Shahbazian, Alen; Davood, Asghar; Dabirsiaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam has two different crystalline forms (known as needle and cubic forms), that they are different in physicochemical properties such as biological solubility. In the current research, using Taguchi experimental design approach the influences of five operating variables on formation of the piroxicam polymorph shapes in recrystallization were studied. The variables include type of solvent, cooling methods, type of mixture paddle, pH, and agitator speed. Statistical analysis of results revealed the significance order of factors affecting the product quality and quantity. At first using the Taguchi experimental method, the influence of process factors on the yield, particle size and dissolution rate of piroxicam powder was statistically investigated. The optimum conditions to achieve the best dissolution rate of piroxicam were determined experimentally. The results were analyzed using Qualitek4 software and it was revealed that the type of solvent and method of cooling respectively are the most important factors that affect the dissolution rate. It was also experimentally achieved that some factors such as type of agitator paddle, pH and agitation rate have no significant effects on dissolution rate.

  16. Application of Taguchi Method to Investigate the Effects of Process Factors on the Production of Industrial Piroxicam Polymorphs and Optimization of Dissolution Rate of Powder.

    PubMed

    Shahbazian, Alen; Davood, Asghar; Dabirsiaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam has two different crystalline forms (known as needle and cubic forms), that they are different in physicochemical properties such as biological solubility. In the current research, using Taguchi experimental design approach the influences of five operating variables on formation of the piroxicam polymorph shapes in recrystallization were studied. The variables include type of solvent, cooling methods, type of mixture paddle, pH, and agitator speed. Statistical analysis of results revealed the significance order of factors affecting the product quality and quantity. At first using the Taguchi experimental method, the influence of process factors on the yield, particle size and dissolution rate of piroxicam powder was statistically investigated. The optimum conditions to achieve the best dissolution rate of piroxicam were determined experimentally. The results were analyzed using Qualitek4 software and it was revealed that the type of solvent and method of cooling respectively are the most important factors that affect the dissolution rate. It was also experimentally achieved that some factors such as type of agitator paddle, pH and agitation rate have no significant effects on dissolution rate. PMID:27642310

  17. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms (-794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C): association with MIF and TNFα in psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Zambrano, Ramsés; Bautista-Herrera, Luis A; la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises De; Villanueva-Quintero, Guadalupe D; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge R; Valle, Yeminia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Ureña, Sergio R; Muñoz-Valle, José F

    2014-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease with a complex interaction of gene and with a dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα). Two polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the MIF gene have been described: the STR-794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and the SNP-173 G>C (rs755622), which are associated with increased MIF levels in circulation and with autoimmune diseases in several populations. In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with PsA susceptibility and clinical variables as well as with MIF and TNFα serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively in 50 PsA patients and 100 healthy subjects (HS). MIF and TNFα serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF (PsA: 7.8 vs. HS: 5.25 ng/mL; p < 0.001) and TNFα (PsA: 24.6 vs. HS: 9.9 pg/mL; p < 0.001) levels was found in PsA patients, a significant correlation was observed between MIF and TNFα (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The 5,6 repeats genotype of the -794 CATT5-8 MIF was associated with protection to PsA (OR = 0.29; CI 0.77-0.98; p = 0.03), and the G/C genotype (OR = 7.5; CI 2.92-21.64; p < 0.001) and the -173*C allele (OR = 2.45; CI 1.43-4.20; p < 0.001) of the -173 G>C MIF were associated with susceptibility to PsA. In conclusion the -173*C allele is associated with susceptibility to PsA in Mexican-Mestizo population, whereas the correlation between MIF and TNFα soluble levels provided evidence that both cytokines are closely related in the pathophysiology of the PsA. PMID:25356116

  18. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) promoter polymorphisms (-794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C): association with MIF and TNFα in psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Morales-Zambrano, Ramsés; Bautista-Herrera, Luis A; De la Cruz-Mosso, Ulises; Villanueva-Quintero, Guadalupe D; Padilla-Gutiérrez, Jorge R; Valle, Yeminia; Parra-Rojas, Isela; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Gutiérrez-Ureña, Sergio R; Muñoz-Valle, José F

    2014-01-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is an autoimmune disease with a complex interaction of gene and with a dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as Macrophage migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα). Two polymorphisms identified in the promoter region of the MIF gene have been described: the STR-794 CATT5-8 (rs5844572) and the SNP-173 G>C (rs755622), which are associated with increased MIF levels in circulation and with autoimmune diseases in several populations. In this case-control study we investigated whether commonly occurring functional MIF polymorphisms are associated with PsA susceptibility and clinical variables as well as with MIF and TNFα serum levels in a Mexican-Mestizo population. Genotyping of the -794 CATT5-8 and -173 G>C MIF polymorphisms was performed by PCR and PCR-RFLP respectively in 50 PsA patients and 100 healthy subjects (HS). MIF and TNFα serum levels were determined by ELISA. A significant increase of MIF (PsA: 7.8 vs. HS: 5.25 ng/mL; p < 0.001) and TNFα (PsA: 24.6 vs. HS: 9.9 pg/mL; p < 0.001) levels was found in PsA patients, a significant correlation was observed between MIF and TNFα (r = 0.41; p < 0.01). The 5,6 repeats genotype of the -794 CATT5-8 MIF was associated with protection to PsA (OR = 0.29; CI 0.77-0.98; p = 0.03), and the G/C genotype (OR = 7.5; CI 2.92-21.64; p < 0.001) and the -173*C allele (OR = 2.45; CI 1.43-4.20; p < 0.001) of the -173 G>C MIF were associated with susceptibility to PsA. In conclusion the -173*C allele is associated with susceptibility to PsA in Mexican-Mestizo population, whereas the correlation between MIF and TNFα soluble levels provided evidence that both cytokines are closely related in the pathophysiology of the PsA.

  19. Association of novel polymorphisms of forkhead box L2 and growth differentiation factor-9 genes with egg production traits in local Chinese Dagu hens.

    PubMed

    Qin, N; Liu, Q; Zhang, Y Y; Fan, X C; Xu, X X; Lv, Z C; Wei, M L; Jing, Y; Mu, F; Xu, R F

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factor forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) and growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF9) genes have critical roles in the regulation of hen ovarian development. In the present study, these genes were explored as possible molecular markers associated with BW, hen-housed egg production, and egg weight in Chinese Dagu hens. Samples were analyzed using the PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) technique followed by sequencing analysis, and two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified within these candidate genes. Among them, an A/G transition at base position 238 in the coding region of the FOXL2 gene and a G/T transversion at base position 1609 in exon 2 of the GDF9 gene were found to be polymorphic and named SNPs A238G and G1609T, respectively. The SNP A238G (FOXL2) leads to a nonsynonymous substitution (isoleucine77-to-valine), and when the 360 Dagu hen samples were divided into genotypes AA and AB, allele A was found to be present at a higher frequency. Furthermore, the AA genotype correlated with significantly higher hen-housed egg production at 30, 43, 57, and 66 wk of age and with a higher egg weight at 43 wk (P<0.05). For the SNP G1609T (GDF9), the hens were typed into TT and TC genotypes, with the T allele shown to be dominant. The TC genotype was also markedly correlated with higher hen-housed egg production and a higher egg weight (P<0.05). Moreover, four haplotypes were reconstructed based on these two SNPs, with the AATC haplotype found to be correlated with the highest hen-housed egg production at 30 to 66 wk of age and wit