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Sample records for factor xa inhibitor

  1. Anthranilamide inhibitors of factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Mendel, David; Marquart, Angela L; Joseph, Sajan; Waid, Philip; Yee, Ying K; Tebbe, Anne Louise; Ratz, Andrew M; Herron, David K; Goodson, Theodore; Masters, John J; Franciskovich, Jeffry B; Tinsley, Jennifer M; Wiley, Michael R; Weir, Leonard C; Kyle, Jeffrey A; Klimkowski, Valentine J; Smith, Gerald F; Towner, Richard D; Froelich, Larry L; Buben, John; Craft, Trelia J

    2007-09-01

    SAR about the B-ring of a series of N(2)-aroyl anthranilamide factor Xa (fXa) inhibitors is described. B-ring o-aminoalkylether and B-ring p-amine probes of the S1' and S4 sites, respectively, afforded picomolar fXa inhibitors that performed well in in vitro anticoagulation assays.

  2. The new factor Xa inhibitor: Apixaban

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwra, Sangeeta; Ahluwalia, Kaza

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the most important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and anti-thrombotic treatment is widely used as a result. The currently used drugs include heparin and its derivatives, vitamin K antagonists, though efficacious, have their own set of limitations like unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile, parenteral route (with heparin and its derivatives only), narrow therapeutic window, and constant laboratory monitoring for their efficacy and safety. This lead to the development of novel factor Xa inhibitors which could be given orally, have predictable dose response relationship and are associated with lesser hemorrhagic complications. They include rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban among others. Apixaban has currently been approved for use in patients undergoing total knee or hip replacement surgery and to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Many trials are ongoing for apixaban to firmly establish its place in future, among the anti-thrombotic drugs. PMID:24554904

  3. Discovery of transition state factor Xa inhibitors as potential anticoagulant agents.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B Y; Huang, W; Su, T; Marlowe, C; Sinha, U; Hollenbach, S; Scarborough, R M

    2001-06-01

    Factor Xa is an attractive biological target in the discovery and development of either parenteral or orally active anticoagulant agents. Several strategies have been utilized at COR Therapeutics in the pursuit of tri-peptide based transition state mimetic factor Xa inhibitors with high aqueous solubility. Some of these inhibitors have displayed excellent in vitro potency in inhibiting factor Xa in the prothrombinase complex. More importantly, these compounds showed strong in vivo antithrombotic efficacy without significant bleeding complications in several animal thrombosis models. These results demonstrated that small molecule factor Xa inhibitors could be advantageous over Warfarin and LMWH. For the discovery and development of orally active anticoagulant agents, small organic molecules as reversible factor Xa inhibitors were explored. From a medicinal chemistry perspective, significant insight has been gained regarding the in vivo antithrombotic efficacy and pharmacokinetic behaviors of each class of factor Xa inhibitors. This review will focus on the design and discovery of transition state factor Xa inhibitors as potential parenteral anticoagulant agents. Several excellent comprehensive review articles on factor Xa inhibitors have appeared recently [1-4]. PMID:11899247

  4. Application of Molecular Modeling to Development of New Factor Xa Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Sulimov, Vladimir B.; Gribkova, Irina V.; Kochugaeva, Maria P.; Katkova, Ekaterina V.; Sulimov, Alexey V.; Kutov, Danil C.; Shikhaliev, Khidmet S.; Medvedeva, Svetlana M.; Krysin, Michael Yu.; Sinauridze, Elena I.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.

    2015-01-01

    In consequence of the key role of factor Xa in the clotting cascade and absence of its activity in the processes that do not affect coagulation, this protein is an attractive target for development of new blood coagulation inhibitors. Factor Xa is more effective and convenient target for creation of anticoagulants than thrombin, inhibition of which may cause some side effects. This study is aimed at finding new inhibitors of factor Xa by molecular computer modeling including docking SOL and postdocking optimization DISCORE programs. After validation of molecular modeling methods on well-known factor Xa inhibitors the virtual screening of NCI Diversity and Voronezh State University databases of ready-made low molecular weight species has been carried out. Seventeen compounds selected on the basis of modeling results have been tested experimentally in vitro. It has been found that 12 of them showed activity against factor Xa (IC50 = 1.8–40 μM). Based on analysis of the results, the new original compound was synthesized and experimentally verified. It shows activity against factor Xa with IC50 value of 0.7 μM. PMID:26484350

  5. Identification of anthranilamide derivatives as potential factor Xa inhibitors: drug design, synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Xing, Junhao; Yang, Lingyun; Li, Hui; Li, Qing; Zhao, Leilei; Wang, Xinning; Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Muxing; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

    2015-05-01

    The coagulation enzyme factor Xa (fXa) plays a crucial role in the blood coagulation cascade. In this study, three-dimensional fragment based drug design (FBDD) combined with structure-based pharmacophore (SBP) model and structural consensus docking were employed to identify novel fXa inhibitors. After a multi-stage virtual screening (VS) workflow, two hit compounds 3780 and 319 having persistent high performance were identified. Then, these two hit compounds and several analogs were synthesized and screened for in-vitro inhibition of fXa. The experimental data showed that most of the designed compounds displayed significant in vitro potency against fXa. Among them, compound 9b displayed the greatest in vitro potency against fXa with the IC50 value of 23 nM and excellent selectivity versus thrombin (IC50 = 40 μM). Moreover, the prolongation of the prothrombin time (PT) was measured for compound 9b to evaluate its in vitro anticoagulant activity. As a result, compound 9b exhibited pronounced anticoagulant activity with the 2 × PT value of 8.7 μM. PMID:25839438

  6. Andexanet Alfa for Acute Major Bleeding Associated with Factor Xa Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Stuart J; Milling, Truman J; Eikelboom, John W; Gibson, C Michael; Curnutte, John T; Gold, Alex; Bronson, Michele D; Lu, Genmin; Conley, Pamela B; Verhamme, Peter; Schmidt, Jeannot; Middeldorp, Saskia; Cohen, Alexander T; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Albaladejo, Pierre; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Goodman, Shelly; Leeds, Janet; Wiens, Brian L; Siegal, Deborah M; Zotova, Elena; Meeks, Brandi; Nakamya, Juliet; Lim, W Ting; Crowther, Mark

    2016-09-22

    Background Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein that has been shown to reverse the inhibition of factor Xa in healthy volunteers. Methods In this multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-group study, we evaluated 67 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after the administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients all received a bolus of andexanet followed by a 2-hour infusion of the drug. Patients were evaluated for changes in measures of anti-factor Xa activity and were assessed for clinical hemostatic efficacy during a 12-hour period. All the patients were subsequently followed for 30 days. The efficacy population of 47 patients had a baseline value for anti-factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.5 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin) and had confirmed bleeding severity at adjudication. Results The mean age of the patients was 77 years; most of the patients had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly gastrointestinal or intracranial. The mean (±SD) time from emergency department presentation to the administration of the andexanet bolus was 4.8±1.8 hours. After the bolus administration, the median anti-factor Xa activity decreased by 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 94) from baseline among patients receiving rivaroxaban and by 93% (95% CI, 87 to 94) among patients receiving apixaban. These levels remained similar during the 2-hour infusion. Four hours after the end of the infusion, there was a relative decrease from baseline of 39% in the measure of anti-factor Xa activity among patients receiving rivaroxaban and of 30% among those receiving apixaban. Twelve hours after the andexanet infusion, clinical hemostasis was adjudicated as excellent or good in 37 of 47 patients in the efficacy analysis (79%; 95% CI, 64 to 89). Thrombotic events occurred in 12 of 67 patients (18%) during the 30-day follow-up. Conclusions On the basis of a

  7. A novel prothrombin time assay for assessing the anticoagulant activity of oral factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Yu Chen; Wang, Zhaoqing; Knabb, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Conventional prothrombin time (PT) assays have limited sensitivity and dynamic range in monitoring the anticoagulant activity of direct factor Xa inhibitors. Hence, new assays are needed. We modified a PT assay by adding calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the thromboplastin reagent to increase assay dynamic range and improve sensitivity. Effects of calcium and sodium ion concentrations, and sample handling, were evaluated to optimize assay performance. Increasing concentrations of calcium ions produced progressive increases in PT across the factor Xa inhibitor concentrations of 0 to 2500 nmol/L for razaxaban and apixaban. The greatest effect was seen when the thromboplastin reagent was diluted 1:2.25 with 100 mmol/L CaCl2 (thus selected for routine use). The optimized assay showed an interassay precision of 1.5 to 9.3 percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) for razaxaban and 3.1 to 4.6 %CV for apixaban. We conclude that the modified PT assay is likely to be suitable as a pharmacodynamic marker for activity at therapeutic concentrations of factor Xa inhibitors.

  8. Chromogenic laboratory assays to measure the factor Xa-inhibiting properties of apixaban--an oral, direct and selective factor Xa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard C; Yang, Hongqiu; Barrett, Yuchen; Mohan, Puneet; Wang, Jessie; Wallentin, Lars; Alexander, John H

    2011-08-01

    An ability to readily determine an anticoagulant effect with an emerging class of direct, active site, oral factor Xa inhibitors is viewed by the medical community as attractive and by some as an absolute requirement for their use in clinical practice. We performed a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic substudy in APPRAISE-1-a study of apixaban in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS). A total of 1691 patients had blood sampled for apixaban plasma concentrations using mass spectrometry/high performance liquid chromatography and anti-Xa activity using a chromogenic assay employing either low molecular weight heparin or apixaban as reference standards. Anti-Xa activity, determined by either anti-Xa-LMWH (r = 0.9671; P < 0.0001) or anti-Xa-apixaban (r = 0.9669; P < 0.0001) correlated strongly and in a linear fashion with apixaban plasma concentrations. The correlations for each method were equally strong at low (<100 ng/ml) (r = 0.86, P < 0.0001; r = 0.85, P < 0.0001), intermediate(100-200 ng/ml) (r = 0.73, P < 0.0001; r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) and high (>200 ng/ml) (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001; r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) plasma concentrations of apixaban, respectively. Our pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic substudy suggests that an apixaban-mediated anticoagulant effect can be detected even at very low plasma concentrations using a standard laboratory chromogenic anti-Xa assay with either LMWH or apixaban calibrators. While establishing parameters for safety and efficacy will require further investigation, an ability to discern the presence of a drug effect may provide clinically useful information. PMID:21516308

  9. Synthesis of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl derivatives as factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiabin; Su, Guoqiang; Ren, Yu; Chen, Yang

    2015-08-28

    The coagulation factor Xa (FXa) plays a central role in the blood coagulation cascade. Recent studies have shown that FXa is a particularly attractive target for the development of oral antithrombotic agents. In view of the excellent pharmaceutical properties of 1,2-phenylenediamine-based FXa inhibitors and the reported structure-activity relationship (SAR) analysis of FXa inhibitors, we designed and synthesized a series of 3,4-diaminobenzoyl-based FXa inhibitors. Intensive SAR studies on this new series led to the discovery of 3,4-dimethoxyl substituted compound 7b. 7b is a highly potent, selective, direct FXa inhibitor with excellent in vivo antithrombotic activity. PMID:26114810

  10. [Successful treatment of venous thromboembolism with a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, in patients with lenalidomide-treated multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Masato; Uchimura, Norio; Okuda, Yuko; Konuma, Satomi; Nehashi, Yoshio

    2015-08-01

    Two multiple myeloma (MM) patients developed venous thromboembolism (VTE) while being treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone. Aspirin is recommended for VTE prophylaxis when using lenalidomide/dexamethasone for MM patients with a standard risk of VTE. Despite aspirin administration, however, these two patients experienced VTE. Following VTE development, warfarin and then a Factor Xa inhibitor, edoxaban, were administered. The edoxaban treatment, especially, resulted in favorable and effective control of VTE. Considering these observations, Factor Xa inhibitors may in future become a preferred option for prevention and treatment of VTE when managing MM patients. PMID:26345573

  11. Effect of ketoconazole and diltiazem on the pharmacokinetics of apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Charles E; Byon, Wonkyung; Song, Yan; Wang, Jessie; Schuster, Alan E; Boyd, Rebecca A; Zhang, Donglu; Yu, Zhigang; Dias, Clapton; Shenker, Andrew; LaCreta, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Aim Apixaban is an orally active inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa and is eliminated by multiple pathways, including renal and non-renal elimination. Non-renal elimination pathways consist of metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, primarily CYP3A4, as well as direct intestinal excretion. Two single sequence studies evaluated the effect of ketoconazole (a strong dual inhibitor of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) and diltiazem (a moderate CYP3A4 inhibitor and a P-gp inhibitor) on apixaban pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects. Method In the ketoconazole study, 18 subjects received apixaban 10 mg on days 1 and 7, and ketoconazole 400 mg once daily on days 4–9. In the diltiazem study, 18 subjects received apixaban 10 mg on days 1 and 11 and diltiazem 360 mg once daily on days 4–13. Results Apixaban maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration–time curve extrapolated to infinity increased by 62% (90% confidence interval [CI], 47, 78%) and 99% (90% CI, 81, 118%), respectively, with co-administration of ketoconazole, and by 31% (90% CI, 16, 49%) and 40% (90% CI, 23, 59%), respectively, with diltiazem. Conclusion A 2-fold and 1.4-fold increase in apixaban exposure was observed with co-administration of ketoconazole and diltiazem, respectively. PMID:25377242

  12. Pharmacology and laboratory testing of the oral Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Samama, Meyer Michel; Meddahi, Sadia; Samama, Charles Marc

    2014-09-01

    New oral factor Xa inhibitors are intended to progressively substitute the oral vitamin K antagonists and parenteral indirect inhibitors of factor Xa in the prevention and treatment of venous and arterial thromboembolic episodes. This article focuses on the main clinical studies and on biological measurements of new oral factor Xa inhibitors, and addresses several safety issues. These newer agents do not require any routine laboratory monitoring of blood coagulation; however, biological tests have been developed in order to assess the plasma concentration of these drugs in several clinical settings. This article reviews these 4 oral direct factor Xa inhibitors. PMID:25168939

  13. Basis for the Specificity and Activation of the Serpin Protein Z-dependent Proteinase Inhibitor (ZPI) as an Inhibitor of Membrane-associated Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Dementiev, Alexey; Olson, Steven T.; Gettins, Peter G.W.

    2012-12-13

    The serpin ZPI is a protein Z (PZ)-dependent specific inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa (fXa) despite having an unfavorable P1 Tyr. PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction {approx}2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca{sup 2+}. To elucidate the role of PZ, we determined the x-ray structure of Gla-domainless PZ (PZ{sub {Delta}GD}) complexed with protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI). The PZ pseudocatalytic domain bound ZPI at a novel site through ionic and polar interactions. Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling of the ternary Michaelis complex implicated ZPI residues Glu-313 and Glu-383 in fXa binding. Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing {approx}5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI resulted from PZ binding, which contributed only {approx}2-fold to rate enhancement. Instead, template bridging from membrane association, together with previously demonstrated interaction of the fXa and ZPI Gla domains, resulted in an additional {approx}1000-fold rate enhancement. To understand why ZPI has P1 tyrosine, we examined a P1 Arg variant. This reacted at a diffusion-limited rate with fXa, even without PZ, and predominantly as substrate, reflecting both rapid acylation and deacylation. P1 tyrosine thus ensures that reaction with fXa or most other arginine-specific proteinases is insignificant unless PZ binds and localizes ZPI and fXa on the membrane, where the combined effects of Gla-Gla interaction, template bridging, and interaction of fXa with Glu-313 overcome the unfavorability of P1 Tyr and ensure a high rate of reaction as an inhibitor.

  14. Engineering Factor Xa Inhibitor with Multiple Platelet-Binding Sites Facilitates its Platelet Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuanjun; Li, Ruyi; Lin, Yuan; Shui, Mengyang; Liu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Huan; Wang, Yinye

    2016-01-01

    Targeted delivery of antithrombotic drugs centralizes the effects in the thrombosis site and reduces the hemorrhage side effects in uninjured vessels. We have recently reported that the platelet-targeting factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, constructed by engineering one Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif into Ancylostoma caninum anticoagulant peptide 5 (AcAP5), can reduce the risk of systemic bleeding than non-targeted AcAP5 in mouse arterial injury model. Increasing the number of platelet-binding sites of FXa inhibitors may facilitate their adhesion to activated platelets, and further lower the bleeding risks. For this purpose, we introduced three RGD motifs into AcAP5 to generate a variant NR4 containing three platelet-binding sites. NR4 reserved its inherent anti-FXa activity. Protein-protein docking showed that all three RGD motifs were capable of binding to platelet receptor αIIbβ3. Molecular dynamics simulation demonstrated that NR4 has more opportunities to interact with αIIbβ3 than single-RGD-containing NR3. Flow cytometry analysis and rat arterial thrombosis model further confirmed that NR4 possesses enhanced platelet targeting activity. Moreover, NR4-treated mice showed a trend toward less tail bleeding time than NR3-treated mice in carotid artery endothelium injury model. Therefore, our data suggest that engineering multiple binding sites in one recombinant protein is a useful tool to improve its platelet-targeting efficiency. PMID:27432161

  15. Factor Xa inhibitors: new anti-thrombotic agents and their characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ieko, Masahiro; Tarumi, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Toru; Yoshida, Mika; Naito, Sumiyoshi; Koike, Takao

    2006-01-01

    Factor Xa (FXa) is a key enzyme that is positioned at the convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the blood coagulation cascade, and inactivation by a specific FXa inhibitor effectively prevents the generation of thrombin. Various types of low molecular weight (LMW) heparin, which function as semi-selective and indirect FXa inhibitors, are replacing unfractionated heparin (UFH) as agents for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), as well as in initial treatment for coronary events. Of those, heparinoid has been shown to be safer and more effective for the prevention of postoperative VTE than UFH, especially for treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Further, synthetic pentasaccharide has been found to offer advantages over current thromboprophylactic regimens in a number of patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery. Other studies have shown that pentasaccharide is more effective for overall VTE in comparison with LMW heparin, though it was also associated with an increased rate of major bleeding. Synthetic, selective, and direct inhibitors to FXa, such as DX-9065a, are highly potent and orally bioavailable antithrombotic agents that have demonstrated an improved side effect profile, probably by allowing sufficient thrombin to remain for platelet activation and normal hemostasis, while preventing pathological thrombus formation. For thrombosis therapy, the most desirable type of antithrombotic agent is an orally active drug that has a broad range of effective doses and no hemorrhagic side effects. Presently, many types of direct inhibitors are in various stages of clinical trials and expected to provide significant benefits as compared to currently utilized therapy strategies. PMID:16146728

  16. Hepatobiliary transport of YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2006-01-01

    YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, is a hydrophilic compound with a carboxylic acid moiety. Previous studies in rats have shown that YM466 does nor undergo metabolism but is excreted into the bile and urine in unchanged form. Thus, in this study, we investigated in vivo hepatobiliary transport, focusing in particular on multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2/Abcc2)-mediated transport. The hepatobiliary transport of YM466 was investigated after its systemic infusion into Sprague-Dawley rats (SDRs) and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBRs), which lack Mrp2. When the binding of YM466 in the plasma and liver was examined, the bile-to-plasma concentration ratio and the liver-to-plasma concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in SDRs amounted to 32.2 and 2.83, respectively, suggesting concentrated transport. The bile-to-liver concentration ratio for the unbound concentration in EHBRs was not lower than that found for SDRs. These findings suggest that YM466 is excreted from the plasma into the bile in a concentrated manner; however, Mrp2 does not play a major role in biliary excretion.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of the direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban and digoxin administered alone and in combination.

    PubMed

    Mendell, Jeanne; Noveck, Robert J; Shi, Minggao

    2012-10-01

    The oral anticoagulant edoxaban, a factor Xa inhibitor, will likely be coadministered with digoxin in some patients with atrial fibrillation. Both drugs are substrates for P-glycoprotein. The objective of this phase 1, parallel study was to assess the effects of coadministration of both drugs on their respective pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Forty-eight subjects, aged 18 to 45 years, received either edoxaban 60 mg once daily × 7 days (n = 24) or digoxin 0.25 mg twice daily × 2 days and once daily × 5 days (n = 24) and then concomitantly for 7 days. Serial blood and urine samples were collected for digoxin and edoxaban concentrations on days 7 and 14. Serial coagulation assays were measured for edoxaban on days 7 and 14. Edoxaban PK parameters demonstrated mild increases in area under the curve and peak concentrations of 9.5% and 15.6%, respectively, when coadministered with digoxin. Although digoxin PK parameters demonstrated increased area under the curve and peak concentrations of 8.3% and 28%, respectively, plasma concentrations were within the established therapeutic range. Edoxaban PD were consistent with PK. Both drugs were well tolerated alone or in combination. No clinically significant changes in PK, PD, or renal elimination were observed with concomitant administration of edoxaban and digoxin. PMID:23064240

  18. Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of YM466, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, in rats.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Sonoda, Takuya; Nakamura, Eiji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2004-09-01

    YM466 is a novel factor Xa inhibitor for the treatment of thrombosis. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of YM466 were investigated in male Fisher rats after a single oral administration. YM466 was absorbed rapidly from all segments of the gastrointestinal tract except the stomach. After oral dosing, the plasma concentration of (14)C-YM466 reached a maximum within 0.5 h, and declined rapidly with an elimination half-life of 0.64 h. The unchanged YM466 accounted for almost all of its radioactivity, suggesting a minimal metabolism in rats. This was also supported by the finding that no metabolites were observed in bile and urine after oral dosing of (14)C-YM466. The distribution of (14)C-YM466 in tissue was evaluated and the liver and kidney were the organs with radioactivity concentrations consistently higher than that of plasma. Cumulative biliary and urinary excretion of radioactivity in bile duct-cannulated rats was 29.5% and 7.6%, respectively, indicating prominent excretion into bile after oral dosing. This was consistent with the finding that 76.1% and 25.2% of radioactivity dosed were excreted to faeces and urine, respectively, after i.v. dosing. These results suggest that YM466 was rapidly absorbed and then subjected to biliary excretion with a minimal metabolism after oral dosing to rats. PMID:15334624

  19. Identification of potent orally active factor Xa inhibitors based on conjugation strategy and application of predictable fragment recommender system.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Tsukasa; Koga, Yuji; Iwatsuki, Yoshiyuki; Hirayama, Fukushi

    2015-01-15

    Anticoagulant agents have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic drugs for the treatment and prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. We investigated a series of novel orally active factor Xa inhibitors designed using our previously reported conjugation strategy to boost oral anticoagulant effect. Structural optimization of anthranilamide derivative 3 as a lead compound with installation of phenolic hydroxyl group and extensive exploration of the P1 binding element led to the identification of 5-chloro-N-(5-chloro-2-pyridyl)-3-hydroxy-2-{[4-(4-methyl-1,4-diazepan-1-yl)benzoyl]amino}benzamide (33, AS1468240) as a potent factor Xa inhibitor with significant oral anticoagulant activity. We also reported a newly developed Free-Wilson-like fragment recommender system based on the integration of R-group decomposition with collaborative filtering for the structural optimization process.

  20. Effect of the direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban in rat models of thrombosis and hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, William A; Bostwick, Jeffrey S; Stewart, Anne B; Steinbacher, Thomas E; Xin, Baomin; Wong, Pancras C

    2010-06-01

    Apixaban is an oral, direct, and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor in late-stage clinical development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. Apixaban was evaluated in rat thrombosis and hemostasis models. Thrombosis was produced in the carotid artery by FeCl2 application, in the vena cava by either FeCl2 application or tissue factor injection, and in an arterial-venous shunt. Hemostasis was assessed using cuticle, renal cortex, and mesenteric artery bleeding times. Intravenous apixaban infusions of 0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg per hour increased the ex vivo prothrombin time to 1.24, 1.93, 2.75, and 3.98 times control, respectively. The 0.3, 1, and 3-mg/kg per hour doses inhibited thrombosis in all models. Concentrations for 50% thrombus reduction ranged from 1.84 to 7.57 microM. The 3-mg/kg per hour dose increased cuticle, renal, and mesenteric bleeding times to 1.92, 2.13, and 2.98 times control, respectively. Lower doses had variable (1 mg/kg per hour) or no effect (0.1, 0.3 mg/kg per hour) on hemostasis. Heparin's prolongation of renal and cuticle bleeding time was twice that of apixaban when administered at a dose that approximated apixaban (3 mg/kg per hour) efficacy in arterial thrombosis. In summary, apixaban was effective in a broad range of thrombosis models at doses producing modest increases in multiple bleeding time models. PMID:20224421

  1. The value of inhibitors of factor Xa for the treatment of pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Temraz, Sally; Barbar, Sofia; Pesavento, Raffaele; Taher, Alì

    2014-09-01

    The introduction of factor Xa inhibitors advocated the initiation of clinical trials that addressed the value of anticoagulation in patients with hemodynamically stable primary pulmonary embolism (PE). In the Matisse trial in patients with PE, fondaparinux administered at therapeutic doses followed by vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has shown a comparable efficacy and safety profile to that seen with intravenous adjusted-dose unfractionated heparin/VKA. A long-acting derivative of fondaparinux, idraparinux, failed to achieve similar results. On the other hand, the Cassiopea study revealed that once weekly injections of idrabiotaparinux, a slightly modified form of idraparinux, have similar efficacy and better safety profile compared to VKAs in the long-term treatment of patients with PE. However, the inconvenient parenteral administration of both fondaparinux and idrabiotaparinux limits their routine clinical use. The availability of antithrombotic compounds that can be administered orally in fixed dose, owing to their predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and have a lower potential for drug and food interactions has opened new horizons for the treatment of patients with PE. The Einstein PE, Amplify and Hokusai studies, conducted with rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, respectively, showed that for the treatment of PE they possess a more favorable benefit-to-risk profile than the conventional antithrombotic drugs. In addition, rivaroxaban and apixaban make it possible to treat uncomplicated PE patients from the beginning, without the need for the parenteral administration of heparins or fondaparinux, and edoxaban allows the treatment of fragile patients with lower doses. All of them cover a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, including PE patients at intermediate risk. PMID:24871638

  2. Metabolism and excretion of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in rats, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Weinz, C; Schwarz, T; Kubitza, D; Mueck, W; Lang, D

    2009-05-01

    Rivaroxaban is a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vivo metabolism and excretion of rivaroxaban in rats, dogs, and humans. Single doses of [(14)C]rivaroxaban (3 and 1 mg/kg) were administered to rats (orally/intravenously) and dogs (orally), respectively. A single oral dose of [(14)C]rivaroxaban (10 mg) was administered to healthy human males (n = 4). Plasma and excreta were collected and profiled for radioactivity. Recovery of total radioactivity was high and > or = 92% in all species. Unchanged rivaroxaban was the major compound in plasma at all time points investigated, across all species. No major or pharmacologically active circulating metabolites were detected. Rivaroxaban and its metabolites were rapidly excreted; urinary excretion of radioactivity was 25 and 52%, and fecal excretion was 67 and 43% of the dose in rats and dogs, respectively. In humans, 66% of the dose was excreted renally (36% unchanged drug) and 28% in the feces. Radioactivity profiles in excreta were similar across species. Three metabolic pathways were identified: oxidative degradation of the morpholinone moiety (major pathway) and hydrolysis of the central amide bond and of the lactam amide bond in the morpholinone ring (minor pathways). M-1, the main metabolite in excreta of all species, was eliminated via both renal and fecal/biliary routes. In total, 82 to 89% of the dose administered was assigned to unchanged rivaroxaban and its metabolites in the excreta of rats, dogs, and humans. PMID:19196845

  3. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 are increased in shift work female nurses.

    PubMed

    Nadir, Yona; Saharov, Gleb; Hoffman, Ron; Keren-Politansky, Anat; Tzoran, Inna; Brenner, Benjamin; Shochat, Tamar

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate on an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in shift workers, although the underlying mechanism is obscure. Heparanase directly enhances tissue factor (TF) activity leading to increased factor Xa production and subsequent activation of the coagulation system. In the present study, a comparison of coagulation markers among healthy shift working (SW) vs. healthy daytime working (DW) female nurses was performed. Thirty SW and 30 DW female nurses were enrolled. For each of the 60 participants, blood was drawn between 7:00 and 8:00 a.m. and at least 8 h after the last work shift. Plasma was studied for coagulation marker that included TF/heparanase procoagulant activity, TF activity, heparanase procoagulant activity, heparanase level, factor Xa level, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), plasminogen, α2-antiplasmin, fibrinogen, global protein C, von Willebrand factor, and D-dimer by chromogenic assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Sleep quality was assessed by self-report according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 2-fold and the TF/heparanase procoagulant activity increased by 1.5-fold in SW nurses compared to DW nurses (P < 0.05). Factor Xa levels and PAI-1 levels were significantly higher among SW nurses compared to the DW group (22 vs. 18 ng/ml, P < 0.05, and 32 vs. 22 ng/ml, P < 0.005, respectively). No significant differences were found in the other tested coagulation markers between the study groups. Heparanase procoagulant activity, factor Xa level, and PAI-1 level were significantly higher in SW nurses compared to the DW group. These alterations of blood coagulation activation may potentially contribute to cardiovascular and cancer morbidity.

  4. Population Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Analysis of GCC‐4401C, a Novel Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor, in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, HY; Choi, S; Kim, YH

    2016-01-01

    GCC‐4401C, an orally active direct factor Xa inhibitor that is similar to rivaroxaban, is currently under development for venous thromboembolic disease (VTE). The purpose of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PKs) and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of GCC‐4401C by population modeling analysis and to predict proper dosage regimens compared to rivaroxaban using data from two phase I clinical studies. Plasma GCC‐4401C concentrations over time were best described by a two‐compartment linear model and body weight was associated with central volume of distribution. Relevant PD markers generally changed in a dose‐dependent manner and were described well with sigmoid, simple maximum effect, or linear models. GCC‐4401C was absorbed more rapidly than rivaroxaban. Comparisons based on simulations of PD marker changes over time suggest that 20 mg and 40 mg of GCC‐4401C administered under fasted status are comparable to 10 mg and 20 mg of rivaroxaban under fed status. PMID:27511836

  5. Enhanced endogenous thrombolysis induced by a specific factor Xa inhibitor, DX-9065a, evaluated in a rat arterial thrombolysis model in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masaru; Onobayashi, Yuko; Oiwa, Kazuhiro; Giddings, John C; Yamamoto, Junichiro

    2002-04-15

    We have previously established an animal model to investigate mechanisms of arterial thrombolysis in vivo and have demonstrated that endogenous thrombolysis, mediated by thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, is enhanced by administration of specific thrombin inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a synthetic and specific factor Xa inhibitor, DX-9065a, on endogenous fibrinolysis. Mural thrombi were formed in rat mesenteric arterioles by helium-neon laser irradiation in the presence of Evans blue. Thrombolysis was continuously monitored by video microscopy and was quantified using image analysis software. Oral and intravenous administration of DX-9065a enhanced endogenous thrombolysis in vivo. The mechanisms require additional investigation using other experimental systems, but nevertheless, the present results extended our previous findings and further suggested that the enhanced fibrinolysis might be due to depressed activity thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor. The synthetic factor Xa inhibitor could provide the basis for a useful thrombolytic agent. PMID:12182917

  6. Small peptides blocking inhibition of factor Xa and tissue factor-factor VIIa by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI).

    PubMed

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M Christella L G D; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-17

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nM). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nM) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nM). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  7. Small Peptides Blocking Inhibition of Factor Xa and Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa by Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI)*

    PubMed Central

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M. Christella L. G. D.; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nm). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nm) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nm). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  8. Comparison of permeation enhancing strategies for an oral factor Xa inhibitor using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model.

    PubMed

    Bruesewitz, Carsten; Funke, Adrian; Kuhland, Urte; Wagner, Torsten; Lipp, Ralph

    2006-10-01

    FXai, a direct inhibitor of the clotting factor Xa, provides high water solubility but poor membrane permeability due to multiple sites of ionization and a molecular weight exceeding 500 Da, making it a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. To overcome the ionization problem and increase the transcellular permeability, various ester and hydroxyamidine prodrugs exhibiting a reduced number of ionization sites were studied in the Caco-2 monolayer model for intestinal permeation. Alternatively, the potential transcellular permeation enhancement of Imwitor 742 and the potential paracellular enhancement of three chitosan formulations were investigated in the same model. FXai has an apparent permeability (P(app)) of about 1 nm/s, which is generally regarded as very low. The butylester-hydroxyamidine double-prodrug was found to provide a markedly increased permeability (40.4 nm/s) as did the co-application of chitosan (43.3 nm/s). Other prodrugs slightly increased permeability (1.3-9.2 nm/s) but were inferior to the previous attempts to enhance permeability while the Imwitor admixture showed no effect (1.1 nm/s). Moreover, a bioactivating metabolism towards the hydroxyamidine mono-prodrug was detected in the Caco-2 cell permeation model. Although esterases were overexpressed and mainly located apically, an acceptable permeation was reached. In addition, the prodrugs triggered an efflux system that is not inhibited by verapamil but by quinidine, suggesting the involvement of an organic cation transporter.

  9. [Surgery and invasive procedures in patients on long-term treatment with oral direct thrombin or factor Xa inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Sié, P; Samama, C-M; Godier, A; Rosencher, N; Steib, A; Llau, J-V; van der Linden, P; Pernod, G; Lecompte, T; Gouin-Thibault, I; Albaladejo, P

    2011-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs), inhibitors of factor IIa or Xa, are expected to replace vitamin K antagonists in most of their indications. It is likely that patients on long-term treatment with DOAs will be exposed to elective or emergency surgery or invasive procedures. Due to the present lack of experience in such conditions, we cannot make recommendations, but only propose perioperative management for optimal safety as regards the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. DOAs may increase surgical bleeding, they have no validated antagonists, they cannot be monitored by simple, standardised laboratory assays, and their pharmacokinetics vary significantly from patient to patient. Although DOAs differ in many respects, the proposals in the perioperative setting need not be specific to each. For procedures with low risk of haemorrhage, a therapeutic window of 48 h (last administration 24h before surgery, restart 24h after) is proposed. For procedures with medium or high haemorrhagic risk, we suggest stopping DOAs 5 days before surgery to ensure complete elimination of the drug in all patients. The treatment should be resumed only when the risk of bleeding has been controlled. In patients with a high risk of thrombosis (e.g. those in atrial fibrillation with an antecedent of stroke), bridging with heparin (low molecular weight, or unfractionated if the former is contraindicated) is proposed. In emergency, the procedure should be postponed for as long as possible (minimum 1-2 half-lives) and non-specific anti-haemorrhagic agents, such as recombinant human activated factor VIIa, or prothrombin concentrates, should not be given for prophylactic reversal, due to their uncertain benefit-risk. PMID:21820844

  10. Phase 2 study of TAK-442, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, in patients following acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Sidney; Bates, Eric R; Bhatt, Deepak L; Cao, Charlie; Holmes, David; Kupfer, Stuart; Martinez, Felipe; Spaeder, Jeffrey; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Ye, Zhan; Zannad, Faiez

    2014-06-01

    TAK-442 is an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor. We sought to determine the dose-dependent effect of TAK-442 on major bleeding when added to standard treatment in stabilised patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this phase II double-blind study, 2,753 ACS patients were randomised to TAK-442 or placebo in addition to usual care using a three-stage adaptive design. Patients were randomised to placebo in all stages, but doses of TAK-442 escalated from 10 mg BID, 20 mg twice-daily (BID), or 40 mg once-daily (QD) in stage 1; to 40 mg BID, 80 mg QD, or 80 mg BID in stage 2; and to 160 mg QD or 120 mg BID in stage 3. Study drug was started 36 hours after emergent treatment of ACS and within seven days of admission, and continued for 24 weeks. The primary endpoint was incidence of TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) major bleeding. TIMI major bleeding incidence was low, but higher with the pooled TAK-442 doses than with placebo (17 [0.9%] vs 4 [0.5%]; p=0.47), although the difference was neither significant nor dose-dependent. However, a dose response was evident when using the modified ISTH scale. The incidence of cardiovascular events was similar among TAK-442 dose groups and placebo. When administered over a wide range of doses after an ACS event, TAK-442 treatment did not result in a dose-dependent increase in TIMI major bleeding, but increased bleeding was observed when a more sensitive bleeding scale was used. There was no evidence for efficacy.

  11. Effect of the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban on arterial thrombosis in wild-type and apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nana-Maria; Dressel, Tobias; Schäfer, Katrin; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2012-11-01

    Rivaroxaban is a potent and specific direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa. Recent studies have highlighted its effectiveness in the prevention of venous thrombosis and embolic stroke due to atrial fibrillation. To evaluate the antithrombotic effects of rivaroxaban in an in vivo model of arterial thrombosis, photochemical vascular injury was induced in wild-type mice by intravenous rose bengal (50 mg/kg body weight [BW]) followed by illumination of the left common carotid artery using a 543 nm helium-neon laser beam. Rivaroxaban, injected concomitantly with rose bengal at doses of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 3.0 mg/kg BW, dose-dependently prolonged the times to first thrombotic occlusion and stable thrombosis. Quantitative analysis of carotid flow curves revealed higher blood volumes passing through the injured artery with increasing rivaroxaban doses (P<0.01 and P<0.001 vs. vehicle for 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg , respectively), suggesting a dose-dependent effect on vascular patency. Consistently, a significantly higher proportion of mice that received 2.0 and 3.0 mg/kg rivaroxaban exhibited patent carotid arteries at the end of the flow monitoring period compared to vehicle alone (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Histological analysis showed complete thrombotic arterial occlusion in vehicle-treated mice compared to less thrombotic material in mice injected with 3.0 mg/kg rivaroxaban (P<0.05). Rivaroxaban also prolonged the time to cessation of tail bleeding in a dose-dependent manner, starting at 1.5 mg/kg. Similar findings were obtained in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Rivaroxaban may exert beneficial effects by preventing arterial thrombosis and vascular occlusion after endothelial injury. PMID:22281071

  12. The Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Rivaroxaban Passes Into Human Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Wiesen, Martin H J; Blaich, Cornelia; Müller, Carsten; Streichert, Thomas; Pfister, Roman; Michels, Guido

    2016-07-01

    Thromboembolic disorders frequently require antithrombotic treatment during pregnancy and lactation. Vitamin K antagonists and heparins are the treatment options of choice in breastfeeding women. Factors including the route of administration, discomfort during treatment, and fetal and neonatal safety affect women's choices about anticoagulant therapy. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as alternatives to these agents and may offer advantages compared with vitamin K antagonists. As breastfeeding women were excluded from clinical trials evaluating DOACs, no safety and efficacy data are available for these special patients and, crucially, estimates for infant exposure are lacking. Therefore, the manufacturer recommends against using DOACs during the lactation period. We present the case of a patient who stopped breastfeeding owing to a diagnosis of postpartum cardiomyopathy. Anticoagulation with enoxaparin that commenced after the diagnosis of postpartum pulmonary embolism was switched to rivaroxaban. At that time, breast milk samples were collected and rivaroxaban concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. Rivaroxaban appears in human breast milk in comparatively small amounts; its safety has not been determined. PMID:27396794

  13. The antithrombotic effect of synthetic low molecular weight human factor Xa inhibitor, DX-9065a, on He-Ne laser-induced thrombosis in rat mesenteric microvessels.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Tsuji, T; Matsuoka, A; Giddings, J C; Yamamoto, J

    1997-01-01

    The effect of a synthetic low molecular weight factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor, DX9065a, on thrombosis in vivo were examined in a rat animal model using a Helium-Neon (He-Ne) laser method. DX-9065a administered either intravenously or orally promoted anti factor Xa activity in a dose dependent manner. Anti Xa activity was maximal immediately after intravenous injection and persisted for approximately 30 minutes. Inhibitory activity was maximal 15-30 minutes after oral administration and persisted for approximately 90 minutes. Similarly DX-9065a inhibited platelet-rich thrombosis formation in mesenteric arterioles and venules. In these instances inhibition was relatively transient after intravenous injection (10-20 minutes), but persisted for more than 3 hours after oral administration. The minimum effective doses of DX-9065a given intravenously and orally were 3.89 mg/kg and 25.9 mg/kg, respectively. The results confirmed that DX-9065a selectively modulates thrombotic mechanisms, and suggest that development of this synthetic FXa antagonist could constitute an effective intravenous and oral antithrombotic agent. PMID:8983124

  14. A liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of YM466, a novel Factor Xa inhibitor, in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Mano, Yuji; Usui, Takashi; Kamimura, Hidetaka

    2004-11-19

    A sensitive and selective method for the determination of YM466, a novel Factor Xa inhibitor, in rat plasma was developed and validated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Plasma samples were pretreated by solid-phase extraction and chromatographed on a C18 column (75 mm x 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase consisting of 0.1% formic acid-methanol (70:30 (v/v)), and detected using selected reaction monitoring in the positive-ion mode. The lower limit of quantification was 0.4 ng/ml, and good precision and accuracy were achieved. The validated method allowed analysis of samples for the determination of pharmacokinetic profiles of YM466 in rats. PMID:15533684

  15. Factor Xa Inhibitor Suppresses the Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 from Collagen-Stimulated Human Platelets: Inhibition of HSP27 Phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP Kinase.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kito, Yuko; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) are widely recognized as useful therapeutic tools for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis. Thrombin, which is rapidly generated from pro-thrombin through the activation of factor X to FXa, acts as a potent activator of human platelets. Thus, the reduction of thrombin generation by FXa inhibitor eventually causes a suppressive effect on platelet aggregation. However, little is known whether FXa inhibitors directly affect the function of human platelets. We have previously reported that collagen induces the phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a low-molecular weight heat shock protein via Rac-dependent activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets, eventually resulting in the release of HSP27. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of FXa inhibitor on the collagen-induced human platelet activation. Rivaroxaban as well as edoxaban significantly reduced the collagen-induced phosphorylation of both HSP27 and p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting the platelet aggregation. Rivaroxaban significantly inhibited the release of phosphorylated HSP27 from collagen-stimulated platelets but not the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-AB. In patients administrated with rivaroxaban, the collagen-induced levels of phosphorylated HSP27 were markedly diminished after 2 days of administration, which failed to affect the platelet aggregation. These results strongly suggest that FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase. PMID:26867010

  16. Factor Xa Inhibitor Suppresses the Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 from Collagen-Stimulated Human Platelets: Inhibition of HSP27 Phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP Kinase.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kito, Yuko; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) are widely recognized as useful therapeutic tools for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis. Thrombin, which is rapidly generated from pro-thrombin through the activation of factor X to FXa, acts as a potent activator of human platelets. Thus, the reduction of thrombin generation by FXa inhibitor eventually causes a suppressive effect on platelet aggregation. However, little is known whether FXa inhibitors directly affect the function of human platelets. We have previously reported that collagen induces the phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a low-molecular weight heat shock protein via Rac-dependent activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets, eventually resulting in the release of HSP27. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of FXa inhibitor on the collagen-induced human platelet activation. Rivaroxaban as well as edoxaban significantly reduced the collagen-induced phosphorylation of both HSP27 and p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting the platelet aggregation. Rivaroxaban significantly inhibited the release of phosphorylated HSP27 from collagen-stimulated platelets but not the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-AB. In patients administrated with rivaroxaban, the collagen-induced levels of phosphorylated HSP27 were markedly diminished after 2 days of administration, which failed to affect the platelet aggregation. These results strongly suggest that FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase.

  17. Factor Xa Inhibitor Suppresses the Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 from Collagen-Stimulated Human Platelets: Inhibition of HSP27 Phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Masanori; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Kito, Yuko; Enomoto, Yukiko; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kozawa, Osamu; Iwama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Selective inhibitors of factor Xa (FXa) are widely recognized as useful therapeutic tools for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation or venous thrombosis. Thrombin, which is rapidly generated from pro-thrombin through the activation of factor X to FXa, acts as a potent activator of human platelets. Thus, the reduction of thrombin generation by FXa inhibitor eventually causes a suppressive effect on platelet aggregation. However, little is known whether FXa inhibitors directly affect the function of human platelets. We have previously reported that collagen induces the phosphorylation of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), a low-molecular weight heat shock protein via Rac-dependent activation of p44/p42 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in human platelets, eventually resulting in the release of HSP27. In the present study, we investigated the direct effect of FXa inhibitor on the collagen-induced human platelet activation. Rivaroxaban as well as edoxaban significantly reduced the collagen-induced phosphorylation of both HSP27 and p44/p42 MAP kinase without affecting the platelet aggregation. Rivaroxaban significantly inhibited the release of phosphorylated HSP27 from collagen-stimulated platelets but not the secretion of platelet derived growth factor-AB. In patients administrated with rivaroxaban, the collagen-induced levels of phosphorylated HSP27 were markedly diminished after 2 days of administration, which failed to affect the platelet aggregation. These results strongly suggest that FXa inhibitor reduces the collagen-stimulated release of phosphorylated HSP27 from human platelets due to the inhibition of HSP27 phosphorylation via p44/p42 MAP kinase. PMID:26867010

  18. [Roles of coagulation pathway and factor Xa in chronic kidney disease (CKD)].

    PubMed

    Ono, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Considering that fibrin deposition is observed in glomerulonephritis as well as in diabetic nephropathy, we performed studies to clarify the roles of the coagulation pathway and the active type of coagulation factor X (factor Xa) in the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) using animal models. Factor Xa activates various cell types through protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). Several in vitro studies have demonstrated that PAR2 can mediate factor Xa signaling, but not thrombin signaling. Coagulation processes proceed together with the extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation through factor V expression in rat Thy-1 nephritis. DX-9065a, a factor Xa inhibitor, suppresses this type of glomerulonephritis. The factor Xa inhibitor danaparoid ameliorated proteinuria, cellular proliferation, and fibrin deposition in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered activation of High IgA (HIGA) strain of ddY mice. Another factor Xa inhibitor, fondaparinux, suppressed urinary protein, glomerular hypertrophy, and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and ECM protein deposition together with angiogenesis in diabetic db/db mice. Finally, in the model of peritoneal fibrosis, fondaparinux treatment decreased the thickness of submesothelial fibrotic tissue and angiogenesis. In consideration of the results to potential human therapy, factor Xa regulation may be promising for the treatment of the aggravation in glomerulonephritis and of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. In the near future, novel factor Xa inhibitors with the characteristics of oral administration and biliary elimination may appear in the clinical use for treatment of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22465921

  19. Conserved Amblyomma americanum tick Serpin19, an inhibitor of blood clotting factors Xa and XIa, trypsin and plasmin, has anti-haemostatic functions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Radulovic, Zeljko; Lewis, Lauren; Bakshi, Mariam; Hill, Creston; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Logullo, Carlos; Termignoni, Carlos; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-08-01

    Tick saliva serine protease inhibitors (serpins) facilitate tick blood meal feeding through inhibition of protease mediators of host defense pathways. We previously identified a highly conserved Amblyomma americanum serpin 19 that is characterised by its reactive center loop being 100% conserved in ixodid ticks. In this study, biochemical characterisation reveals that the ubiquitously transcribed A. americanum serpin 19 is an anti-coagulant protein, inhibiting the activity of five of the eight serine protease blood clotting factors. Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant (r) A. americanum serpin 19 inhibits the enzyme activity of trypsin, plasmin and blood clotting factors (f) Xa and XIa, with stoichiometry of inhibition estimated at 5.1, 9.4, 23.8 and 28, respectively. Similar to typical inhibitory serpins, recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 forms irreversible complexes with trypsin, fXa and fXIa. At a higher molar excess of recombinant A. americanum serpin 19, fXIIa is inhibited by 82.5%, and thrombin (fIIa), fIXa, chymotrypsin and tryptase are inhibited moderately by 14-29%. In anti-hemostatic functional assays, recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 inhibits thrombin but not ADP and cathepsin G activated platelet aggregation, delays clotting in recalcification and thrombin time assays by up to 250s, and up to 40s in the activated partial thromboplastin time assay. Given A. americanum serpin 19 high cross-tick species conservation, and specific reactivity of recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 with antibodies to A. americanum tick saliva proteins, we conclude that recombinant A. americanum serpin 19 is a potential candidate for development of a universal tick vaccine. PMID:25957161

  20. Coagulation factor Xa inhibition: biological background and rationale.

    PubMed

    Leadley, R J

    2001-06-01

    Ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease are the leading causes of death in the world. Surprisingly, these diseases are treated by relatively antiquated drugs. However, due to our improved understanding of the underlying pathology of these diseases, and a number of technological advances in tools for drug discovery and chemical optimization, an exciting new wave of antithrombotic compounds is beginning to emerge in clinical trials. These agents, referred to as direct coagulation factor Xa inhibitors, appear to provide an enhanced risk-benefit margin compared to conventional therapy. Preclinical and early clinical data gathered over the past few years suggests that direct fXa inhibitors will provide the necessary advancements in efficacy, safety, and ease of use required to displace conventional therapy. Whether or not these agents will succeed will be determined as this class of agents advances through clinical trials in the near future. This review describes some of the key studies that sparked an interest in fXa as a therapeutic target, highlighting the findings that provided important rationale for continuing the development of potent and selective direct fXa inhibitors.

  1. Design, structure-activity relationships, X-ray crystal structure, and energetic contributions of a critical P1 pharmacophore: 3-chloroindole-7-yl-based factor Xa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Sitkoff, Doree; Zhang, Jing; Klei, Herbert E; Kish, Kevin; Liu, Eddie C-K; Hartl, Karen S; Seiler, Steve M; Chang, Ming; Huang, Christine; Youssef, Sonia; Steinbacher, Thomas E; Schumacher, William A; Grazier, Nyeemah; Pudzianowski, Andrew; Apedo, Atsu; Discenza, Lorell; Yanchunas, Joseph; Stein, Philip D; Atwal, Karnail S

    2008-12-11

    An indole-based P1 moiety was incorporated into a previously established factor Xa inhibitor series. The indole group was designed to hydrogen-bond with the carbonyl of Gly218, while its 3-methyl or 3-chloro substituent was intended to interact with Tyr228. These interactions were subsequently observed in the X-ray crystal structure of compound 18. SAR studies led to the identification of compound 20 as the most potent FXa inhibitor in this series (IC(50) = 2.4 nM, EC(2xPT) = 1.2 microM). An in-depth energetic analysis suggests that the increased binding energy of 3-chloroindole-versus 3-methylindole-containing compounds in this series is due primarily to (a) the more hydrophobic nature of chloro- versus methyl-containing compounds and (b) an increased interaction of 3-chloroindole versus 3-methylindole with Gly218 backbone. The stronger hydrophobicity of chloro- versus methyl-substituted aromatics may partly explain the general preference for chloro- versus methyl-substituted P1 groups in FXa, which extends beyond the current series.

  2. Factor Xa inhibitors: S1 binding interactions of a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chuen; Borthwick, Alan D; Brown, David; Burns-Kurtis, Cynthia L; Campbell, Matthew; Chaudry, Laiq; Chung, Chun-wa; Convery, Máire A; Hamblin, J Nicole; Johnstone, Lisa; Kelly, Henry A; Kleanthous, Savvas; Patikis, Angela; Patel, Champa; Pateman, Anthony J; Senger, Stefan; Shah, Gita P; Toomey, John R; Watson, Nigel S; Weston, Helen E; Whitworth, Caroline; Young, Robert J; Zhou, Ping

    2007-04-01

    Factor Xa inhibitory activities for a series of N-{(3S)-1-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-morpholin-4-yl-2-oxoethyl]-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl}sulfonamides with different P1 groups are described. These data provide insight into binding interactions within the S1 primary specificity pocket; rationales are presented for the derived SAR on the basis of electronic interactions through crystal structures of fXa-ligand complexes and molecular modeling studies. A good correlation between in vitro anticoagulant activities with lipophilicity and the extent of human serum albumin binding is observed within this series of potent fXa inhibitors. Pharmacokinetic profiles in rat and dog, together with selectivity over other trypsin-like serine proteases, identified 1f as a candidate for further evaluation.

  3. Sulfated Low Molecular Weight Lignins, Allosteric Inhibitors of Coagulation Proteinases via the Heparin Binding Site, Significantly Alter the Active Site of Thrombin and Factor Xa Compared to Heparin

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Brian L.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  4. Sulfated low molecular weight lignins, allosteric inhibitors of coagulation proteinases via the heparin binding site, significantly alter the active site of thrombin and factor xa compared to heparin.

    PubMed

    Henry, Brian L; Desai, Umesh R

    2014-11-01

    Sulfated low molecular weight lignins (LMWLs) have been found to bind in the heparin binding sites of coagulation proteinases. LMWLs represent a library of diverse non-carbohydrate, aromatic molecules which are structures different from heparin, but still potently inhibit thrombin and factor Xa. To better understand their mechanism of action, we studied the effects of three sulfated LMWLs (CDSO3, FDSO3, and SDSO3) on the active sites of thrombin and factor Xa. LMWLs were found to uniformly inhibit the catalytic activity of thrombin and factor Xa, regardless of the substrate used. Michaelis-Menten kinetic studies indicate that maximal velocity of hydrolysis of each chromogenic substrate decreases significantly in the presence of sulfated LMWLs, while the effect on Michaelis constant is dependent on the nature of the substrate. These studies indicate that LMWLs inhibit thrombin and factor Xa through allosteric disruption of the catalytic apparatus, specifically through the catalytic step. As opposed to heparin, LMWLs significantly alter the binding of the active site fluorescent ligand p-aminobenzamidine. LMWLs also had a greater effect on the molecular orientation of fluorescein-labeled His 57 than heparin. The molecular geometry surrounding the most important catalytic amino acid, Ser 195, was significantly altered by the binding of LMWLs while heparin had no measurable effect on Ser 195. These results further advance the concept of sulfated LMWLs as heparin mimics and will aid the design of anticoagulants based on their novel scaffold. PMID:25242245

  5. Comparison of the anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of YM-75466, a novel orally-active factor Xa inhibitor, and warfarin in mice.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Taniuchi, Y; Kawasaki, T; Hirayama, F; Koshio, H; Matsumoto, Y; Iizumi, Y

    1998-10-01

    The anticoagulant and antithrombotic effects of YM-75466 (N-[4-[(1-acetimidoyl-4-piperidyl)oxy]phenyl]-N-[(7-amidino-2-naph thyl)methyl]sulfamoyl acetic acid monomethanesulfonate), a novel orally-active factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor, and warfarin were compared in mice. Both agents were orally administered in all studies. In ex vivo studies, the peak effects of YM-75466 occurred 1 hr after administration while the peak of warfarin activity occurred 18 hr after administration. At each peak, both YM-75466 and warfarin prolonged coagulation time dose-dependently. The dose response curve of warfarin for prothrombin time was steeper than that of YM-75466. In a thromboplastin-induced thromboembolism model, administration of 30 mg/kg YM-75466 or 3 mg/kg warfarin significantly improved the lethality ratio. In blood loss studies, YM-75466 did not increase blood loss from the tail even at 30 mg/kg, while warfarin markedly increased blood loss at 3 mg/kg. Agents that interfere with warfarin action did not interfere with YM-75466 action. In conclusion, this study shows that YM-75466 has advantages over warfarin: i) rapid onset of anticoagulant activity, ii) wide therapeutic range, iii) little effect on bleeding and iv) lack of drug interaction with agents that interfere with warfarin. These results suggest that YM-75466 may be promising as a novel oral anticoagulant agent. PMID:9829622

  6. Thermodynamic linkage between the S1 site, the Na+ site, and the Ca2+ site in the protease domain of human coagulation factor xa. Studies on catalytic efficiency and inhibitor binding.

    PubMed

    Underwood, M C; Zhong, D; Mathur, A; Heyduk, T; Bajaj, S P

    2000-11-24

    The serine protease domain of factor Xa (FXa) contains a sodium as well as a calcium-binding site. Here, we investigated the functional significance of these two cation-binding sites and their thermodynamic links to the S1 site. Kinetic data reveal that Na(+) binds to the substrate bound FXa with K(d) approximately 39 mm in the absence and approximately 9.5 mm in the presence of Ca(2+). Sodium-bound FXa (sodium-Xa) has approximately 18-fold increased catalytic efficiency ( approximately 4.5-fold decrease in K(m) and approximately 4-fold increase in k(cat)) in hydrolyzing S-2222 (benzoyl-Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg-p-nitroanilide), and Ca(2+) further increases this k(cat) approximately 1.4-fold. Ca(2+) binds to the protease domain of substrate bound FXa with K(d) approximately 705 microm in the absence and approximately 175 microm in the presence of Na(+). Ca(2+) binding to the protease domain of FXa (Xa-calcium) has no effect on the K(m) but increases the k(cat) approximately 4-fold in hydrolyzing S-2222, and Na(+) further increases this k(cat) approximately 1.4-fold. In agreement with the K(m) data, sodium-Xa has approximately 5-fold increased affinity in its interaction with p-aminobenzamidine (S1 site probe) and approximately 4-fold increased rate in binding to the two-domain tissue factor pathway inhibitor; Ca(2+) (+/-Na(+)) has no effect on these interactions. Antithrombin binds to Xa-calcium with a approximately 4-fold faster rate, to sodium-Xa with a approximately 24-fold faster rate and to sodium-Xa-calcium with a approximately 28-fold faster rate. Thus, Ca(2+) and Na(+) together increase the catalytic efficiency of FXa approximately 28-fold. Na(+) enhances Ca(2+) binding, and Ca(2+) enhances Na(+) binding. Further, Na(+) enhances S1 site occupancy, and S1 site occupancy enhances Na(+) binding. Therefore, Na(+) site is thermodynamically linked to the S1 site as well as to the protease domain Ca(2+) site, whereas Ca(2+) site is only linked to the Na(+) site. The

  7. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE. PMID:27010343

  8. In vitro metabolism of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in liver microsomes and hepatocytes of rats, dogs, and humans.

    PubMed

    Lang, D; Freudenberger, C; Weinz, C

    2009-05-01

    The in vitro metabolism of rivaroxaban, a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders, was investigated in several species, including humans. The objective of this study was to elucidate metabolite structures and identify the metabolic pathways to provide support for in vivo safety and clinical studies. [(14)C]Rivaroxaban was incubated with liver microsomes and hepatocytes of rats, dogs, and humans. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-(14)C-tandem mass spectroscopy, to generate metabolite profiles and propose or confirm the structures of the metabolites formed. In vitro metabolite profiles showed no major differences between species. The main oxidative metabolic pathways identified for all species were hydroxylation at the morpholinone moiety (M-2, M-3, and M-8) and to a lesser extent at the oxazolidinone moiety (M-9). M-2 was the main metabolite in all microsomal incubations. M-1, a morpholinone ring-opened product formed by further oxidation of M-2, was the main metabolite in all hepatocyte incubations. Other pathways were amide hydrolysis at the morpholinone ring (M-7) and the chlorothiophene amide moiety (M-13 and M-15). In hepatocytes, M-13 was readily conjugated with glycine, leading to M-4. The metabolic fate of unlabeled M-15 was investigated separately. Incubations with human liver microsomes and hepatocytes showed that M-15 was first oxidized to the aldehyde intermediate M-16 and subsequently reduced to M-17 (alcohol) or oxidized to M-18 (carboxylic acid). No metabolism at the chlorothiophene moiety itself was found. Overall, rivaroxaban showed no species differences in metabolism, with different independent metabolic pathways and no formation of reactive metabolites. PMID:19196846

  9. Home treatment of patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Rationale and design of the HoT-PE Trial.

    PubMed

    Barco, Stefano; Lankeit, Mareike; Binder, Harald; Schellong, Sebastian; Christ, Michael; Beyer-Westendorf, Jan; Duerschmied, Daniel; Bauersachs, Rupert; Empen, Klaus; Held, Matthias; Schwaiblmair, Martin; Fonseca, Cândida; Jiménez, David; Becattini, Cecilia; Quitzau, Kurt; Konstantinides, Stavros

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening acute cardiovascular syndrome. However, more than 95 % of patients are haemodynamically stable at presentation, and among them are patients at truly low risk who may qualify for immediate or early discharge. The Home Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism (HoT-PE) study is a prospective international multicentre single-arm phase 4 management (cohort) trial aiming to determine whether home treatment of acute low-risk PE with the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is feasible, effective, and safe. Patients with confirmed PE, who have no right ventricular dysfunction or free floating thrombi in the right atrium or ventricle, are eligible if they meet none of the exclusion criteria indicating haemodynamic instability, serious comorbidity or any condition mandating hospitalisation, or a familial/social environment unable to support home treatment. The first dose of rivaroxaban is given in hospital, and patients are discharged within 48 hours of presentation. Rivaroxaban is taken for at least three months. The primary outcome is symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism or PE-related death within three months of enrolment. Secondary outcomes include quality of life and patient satisfaction, and health care resource utilisation compared to existing data on standard-duration hospital treatment. HoT-PE is planned to analyse 1,050 enrolled patients, providing 80 % power to reject the null hypothesis that the recurrence rate of venous thromboembolism is >3 % with α≤0.05. If the hypothesis of HoT-PE is confirmed, early discharge and out-of-hospital treatment may become an attractive, potentially cost-saving option for a significant proportion of patients with acute PE.

  10. Evaluation of Factor Xa-Specific Chromogenic Substrate Assays and the Determination of Pharmacokinetics of Fondaparinux.

    PubMed

    Yuri, Maiko; Tabe, Yoko; Tsuchiya, Koji; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Aoki, Jun; Horii, Takashi; Iba, Toshiaki; Ohsaka, Akimichi

    2016-07-01

    Fondaparinux (FPX), a synthesized factor Xa inhibitor, is one of the most popular anticoagulants for the prevention of postoperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). Although routine monitoring is not required, the bleeding adverse events cannot be neglected, and the measurement of anti-Xa activity is expected to be monitored. The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the performances of 2 chromogenic assays for the detection of anti-Xa activity. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics of FPX was examined using chromogenic assays. Anti-Xa activity was measured using 2 FPX-based chromogenic substrates (S2222 and STA-Liquid Anti-Xa). The reproducibility, detection limits, linearity, and correlations between the substrates were examined using normal plasma doped with low and high concentrations of FPX formulation. In addition, anti-Xa activity in 235 clinical samples from 164 cases treated was measured, and the pharmacokinetics of FPX was evaluated. Both of the tested substrates were capable of accurately measuring the anti-Xa activity of FPX, with a lower limit of 0.05 μg/mL and a coefficient of variation of less than 10%. The repeated administration of FPX induced a gradual but significant increase in the anti-Xa activity, which was negatively correlated with body weight and estimated glomerular filtration rate. No significant correlation between the anti-Xa activity and the occurrence of postoperative VTE or bleeding event was observed. Anti-Xa activity can be successfully determined using 2 chromogenic assays and automated biochemical analyzers. The clinical significance of anti-Xa activity monitoring should be examined in the future study. PMID:26177660

  11. Factor Xa stimulates fibroblast procollagen production, proliferation, and calcium signaling via PAR{sub 1} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc-Brude, Olivier P. . E-mail: olivier.blanc-brude@larib.inserm.fr; Archer, Fabienne; Leoni, Patricia; Derian, Claudia; Bolsover, Steven; Laurent, Geoffrey J.; Chambers, Rachel C.

    2005-03-10

    Fibroblast proliferation and procollagen production are central features of tissue repair and fibrosis. In addition to its role in blood clotting, the coagulation cascade proteinase thrombin can contribute to tissue repair by stimulating fibroblasts via proteolytic activation of proteinase-activated receptor-1 (PAR{sub 1}). During hemostasis, the coagulation cascade proteinase factor X is converted into factor Xa. We have previously shown that factor Xa upregulates fibroblast proliferation via production of autocrine PDGF. In this study, we further examined the effects of factor Xa on fibroblast function and aimed to identify its signaling receptor. We showed that factor Xa stimulates procollagen promoter activity and protein production by human and mouse fibroblasts. This effect was independent of PDGF and thrombin production, but dependent on factor Xa proteolytic activity. We also showed that PAR{sub 1}-deficient mouse fibroblasts did not upregulate procollagen production, mobilize cytosolic calcium, or proliferate in response to factor Xa. Desensitization techniques and PAR{sub 1}-specific agonists and inhibitors were used to demonstrate that PAR{sub 1} mediates factor Xa signaling in human fibroblasts. This is the first report that factor Xa stimulates extracellular matrix production. In contrast with endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts appear to be the only cell type in which the effects of factor Xa are mediated mainly via PAR{sub 1} and not PAR{sub 2}. These findings are critical for our understanding of tissue repair and fibrotic mechanisms, and for the design of novel approaches to inhibit the profibrotic effects of the coagulation cascade without compromising blood hemostasis.

  12. Comparative evaluation of direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors with antiplatelet agents under flow and static conditions: an in vitro flow chamber model.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuya; Ohnishi, Tomoko; Sameshima, Hisayo; Miura, Naoki; Koide, Takehiko; Maruyama, Ikuro; Tanaka, Kenichi A

    2014-01-01

    Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel oral anticoagulants that specifically inhibit thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. The aim of this study is to elucidate antithrombotic properties of these anticoagulant agents under arterial and venous shear conditions. Whole blood samples treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban at 250, 500, and 1000 nM, with/without aspirin and AR-C66096, a P2Y12 antagonist, were perfused over a microchip coated with collagen and tissue thromboplastin at shear rates of 240 and 600 s(-1). Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was quantified by monitoring flow pressure changes. Dabigatran at higher concentrations (500 and 1000 nM) potently inhibited thrombus formation at both shear rates, whereas 1000 nM of rivaroxaban delayed, but did not completely inhibit, thrombus formation. Dual antiplatelet agents weakly suppressed thrombus formation at both shear rates, but intensified the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban. The anticoagulant effects of dabigatran and rivaroxaban were also evaluated under static conditions using thrombin generation (TG) assay. In platelet-poor plasma, dabigatran at 250 and 500 nM efficiently prolonged the lag time (LT) and moderately reduce peak height (PH) of TG, whereas rivaroxaban at 250 nM efficiently prolonged LT and reduced PH of TG. In platelet-rich plasma, however, both anticoagulants efficiently delayed LT and reduced PH of TG. Our results suggest that dabigatran and rivaroxaban may exert distinct antithrombotic effects under flow conditions, particularly in combination with dual antiplatelet therapy. PMID:24497951

  13. The antithrombotic activity of EP224283, a neutralizable dual factor Xa inhibitor/glycoprotein IIbIIIa antagonist, exceeds that of the coadministered parent compounds.

    PubMed

    Hechler, Béatrice; Freund, Monique; Alame, Ghina; Leguay, Cécile; Gaertner, Sébastien; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Petitou, Maurice; Gachet, Christian

    2011-08-01

    EP224283 combines in a single molecule idraparinux and tirofiban, which allows obtaining a predictable and sustained antiplatelet effect through the transfer of the pharmacokinetics properties of idraparinux to the anti-αIIbβ3 antagonist. The activity can be instantaneously neutralized by injection of avidin, a specific antidote. We have tested the effects of this new profile anticoagulant in various thrombosis models. The antithrombotic effect of EP224283 was compared with those of the parent compounds used alone or in association at doses achieving low to moderate inhibition of platelet aggregation ex vivo. In a model of systemic thromboembolism independent of thrombin generation, tirofiban and EP224283 had similar effects at equimolar doses. On the other hand, EP224283 was more potent than tirofiban or idraparinux under thrombin-dependent conditions. In a ferric chloride-induced thrombosis model, EP224283 was more potent than either parent compound or their combination. Similar results were obtained after atherosclerotic plaque rupture in ApoE(-/-) mice. Thus, the dual action of EP224283 exceeds that of the parent compounds used in combination. A possible explanation is that EP224283 could concentrate antithrombin inside the thrombus by binding to αIIbβ3 through the tirofiban moiety, as shown by immunolabeling of the occluded vessel. No prolongation of the bleeding time was observed at doses achieving strong antithrombotic effects, suggesting that low to moderate αIIbβ3 inhibition combined with factor Xa inhibition minimizes the bleeding risk. The favorable antithrombotic profile of EP224283 together with its possible neutralization by avidin makes it an interesting drug candidate for the treatment and prevention of acute ischemic events.

  14. Identification of a binding site for quaternary amines in factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Monnaie, D; Arosio, D; Griffon, N; Rose, T; Rezaie, A R; Di Cera, E

    2000-05-01

    In the process of characterizing the Na(+)-binding properties of factor Xa, a specific inhibition of this enzyme by quaternary amines was identified, consistent with previous observations. The binding occurs with K(i) in the low millimolar range, with trimethylphenylammonium (TMPA) showing the highest specificity. Binding of TMPA inhibits substrate hydrolysis in a competitive manner, does not inhibit the binding of p-aminobenzamidine to the S1 pocket, and is positively linked to Na(+) binding. Inhibition by TMPA is also seen in thrombin and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), though to a lesser extent compared to factor Xa. Computer modeling using the crystal structure of factor Xa suggests that TMPA binds to the S2/S3 specificity sites, with its hydrophobic moiety making van der Waals interactions with the side chains of Y99, F174, and W215, and the charged amine coupling electrostatically with the carboxylates of E97. Site-directed mutagenesis of factor Xa, thrombin, and tPA confirms the predictions drawn by docking calculations and reveal a dominant role for residue Y99. Binding of TMPA to factor Xa is drastically (25-fold) reduced by the Y99T replacement. Likewise, the Y99L substitution compromises binding of TMPA to tPA. On the other hand, the affinity of TMPA is enhanced 4-fold in thrombin with the substitution L99Y. The identification of a binding site for quaternary amines in factor Xa has a bearing on the rational design of selective inhibitors of this clotting enzyme. PMID:10820005

  15. A Novel Factor Xa-Inhibiting Peptide from Centipedes Venom.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Shao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Ming, Xin; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Centipedes have been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years in China. Centipede venoms consist of many biochemical peptides and proteins. Factor Xa (FXa) is a serine endopeptidase that plays the key role in blood coagulation, and has been used as a new target for anti-thrombotic drug development. A novel FXa inhibitor, a natural peptide with the sequence of Thr-Asn-Gly-Tyr-Thr (TNGYT), was isolated from the venom of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using a combination of size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular weight of the TNGYT peptide was 554.3 Da measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence of TNGYT was determined by Edman degradation. TNGYT inhibited the activity of FXa in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 41.14 mg/ml. It prolonged the partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. It also significantly prolonged whole blood clotting time and bleeding time in mice. This is the first report that an FXa inhibiting peptide was isolated from centipedes venom. PMID:24273471

  16. Selective inhibition of the prothrombinase complex: factor Va alters macromolecular recognition of a tick anticoagulant peptide mutant by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Betz, A; Vlasuk, G P; Bergum, P W; Krishnaswamy, S

    1997-01-01

    The prothrombinase complex assembles through reversible interactions between the protease, factor Xa, the cofactor, factor Va, and acidic phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. Changes in macromolecular recognition by factor Xa which may result from its interaction with factor Va in the prothrombinase complex have been probed using a recombinant derivative of tick anticoagulant peptide where Arg3 has been replaced with Ala (R3A-TAP). In contrast to the wild type inhibitor, R3A-TAP was a weak competitive inhibitor of factor Xa (Ki = 794 nM). The inhibition of the prothrombinase complex by R3A-TAP was characterized by slow, tight-binding kinetics with an increased affinity of approximately 4000-fold (Ki* = 0.195 nM) relative to that of solution-phase factor Xa. Stopped-flow measurements using p-aminobenzamidine (PAB) demonstrated that the reaction between solution-phase factor Xa and R3A-TAP could be adequately described by a single reversible step with rate constants that were consistent with equilibrium binding measurements. The rate-limiting bimolecular combination of R3A-TAP and factor Xa was competitive with PAB binding of the protease. In contrast, the reaction of R3A-TAP with prothrombinase measured using PAB yielded biphasic stopped-flow traces, indicating a multistep pathway for the reaction of the inhibitor with the enzyme complex. The kinetic measurements were consistent with the initial formation of a ternary complex between R3A-TAP, prothrombinase, and PAB followed by two unimolecular steps which lead to PAB dissociation from the enzyme. In this case, prior occupation of the active site by PAB had no effect on the bimolecular reaction between R3A-TAP and prothrombinase. Thus, the interaction of factor Xa with factor Va on the membrane surface alters recognition of R3A-TAP by the protease, leading to changes in the thermodynamics as well as in the observed kinetic mechanism for the reaction. Therefore, a single amino acid substitution in

  17. Bioengineering factor Xa to treat bleeding.

    PubMed

    Camire, Rodney M

    2016-05-01

    There is a clinical need to develop safe and rapid therapeutic strategies to control bleeding arising from a host of emergent situations. Over the past several years our laboratory has developed novel zymogen-like FXa variants and tested their safety and efficacy using hemophilia as a model system. The variants have a spectrum of properties resulting from an amino acid change at the N-terminus of the heavy chain that alters a critical conformational change. These properties, which include resistance to plasma protease inhibitors, low activity in the absence of FVa, and rescue of low activity upon incorporation in prothrombinase, yield remarkably effective pro-hemostatic agents. The FVa-dependent restoration of activity is a key aspect to their efficacy and also contributes to localizing the variants to the site of vascular injury. While pre-clinical data support their use in the setting of hemophilia, they have the potential to act as rapid pro-hemostatic agents for the treatment of a range of bleeding conditions. This review will discuss the biochemical properties of these FXa zymogen-like variants and their in vivo characterization. PMID:27207419

  18. Surgery and invasive procedures in patients on long-term treatment with direct oral anticoagulants: thrombin or factor-Xa inhibitors. Recommendations of the Working Group on Perioperative Haemostasis and the French Study Group on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

    PubMed

    Sié, Pierre; Samama, Charles M; Godier, Anne; Rosencher, Nadia; Steib, Annick; Llau, Juan V; Van der Linden, Philippe; Pernod, Gilles; Lecompte, Thomas; Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAs)--inhibitors of thrombin or factor-Xa--are expected to replace vitamin K antagonists in most of their indications. Patients receiving long-term treatment with DOAs are likely to be exposed to elective or emergency surgery or invasive procedures. Owing to the present lack of experience in such conditions, we cannot make recommendations, but only propose perioperative management for optimal safety regarding the risk of bleeding and thrombosis. DOAs may increase surgical bleeding, they have no validated antagonists, they cannot be monitored by simple standardized laboratory assays and their pharmacokinetics vary significantly between patients. Although DOAs differ in many respects, the proposals in the perioperative setting need not be specific to each. For procedures with low haemorrhagic risk, a therapeutic window of 48 hours (last administration 24 hours before surgery, restart 24 hours after) is proposed. For procedures with medium or high haemorrhagic risk, we suggest stopping DOAs 5 days before surgery to ensure complete elimination in all patients. Treatment should be resumed only when the risk of bleeding has been controlled. In patients at high thrombotic risk (e.g. those in atrial fibrillation with a history of stroke), bridging with heparin (low molecular-weight heparin, or unfractionated heparin, if the former is contraindicated) is proposed. In an emergency, the procedure should be postponed for as long as possible (minimum 1-2 half-lives) and non-specific antihaemorrhagic agents, such as recombinant human activated factor VIIa or prothrombin complex concentrates should not be given for prophylactic reversal due to their uncertain benefit-risk. PMID:22152517

  19. [Management of major bleeding complications and emergency surgery in patients on long-term treatment with direct oral anticoagulants, thrombin or factor-Xa inhibitors. Proposals of the Working Group on Perioperative Haemostasis (GIHP) - March 2013].

    PubMed

    Pernod, G; Albaladejo, P; Godier, A; Samama, C M; Susen, S; Gruel, Y; Blais, N; Fontana, P; Cohen, A; Llau, J V; Rosencher, N; Schved, J F; de Maistre, E; Samama, M M; Mismetti, P; Sié, P

    2013-10-01

    New direct oral anticoagulants (NOAC), inhibitors of factor IIa or Xa, are expected to be widely used for the treatment of venous thromboembolic disease, or in case of atrial fibrillation. Such anticoagulant treatments are known to be associated with haemorrhagic complications. Moreover, it is likely that such patients on long-term treatment with NOAC will be exposed to emergency surgery or invasive procedures. Due to the present lack of experience in such conditions, we cannot make recommendations, but only propose management for optimal safety as regards the risk of bleeding in such emergency conditions. In this article, only dabigatran and rivaroxaban were discussed. For emergency surgery at risk of bleeding, we propose to dose the plasmatic concentration of drug. Levels inferior or equal to 30ng/mL for both dabigatran and rivaroxaban, should enable the realization of a high bleeding risk surgery. For higher concentration, it was proposed to postpone surgery by monitoring the evolution of the drug concentration. Action is then defined by the kind of NOAC and its concentration. If the dosage of the drug is not immediately available, proposals only based on the usual tests, PT and aPTT, also are presented. However, these tests do not really assess drug concentration or bleeding risk. In case of severe haemorrhage in a critical organ, it is proposed to reduce the effect of anticoagulant therapy using a nonspecific procoagulant drug (activated prothrombin concentrate, FEIBA, 30-50U/kg, or non-activated 4-factors prothrombin concentrates 50U/kg). For any other type of severe haemorrhage, the administration of such a procoagulant drug, potentially thrombogenic in these patients, will be discussed regarding concentration of NACO and possibilities for mechanical haemostasis.

  20. Future therapeutic directions for factor Xa inhibition in the prophylaxis and treatment of thrombotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Turpie, Alexander G G

    2003-11-15

    The targeted mechanism of factor Xa inhibition has been studied extensively, initially as prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the orthopedic surgical setting. Future therapeutic directions for selective factor Xa inhibition in the management of other thrombotic diseases are discussed. Thromboembolic diseases can occur in the venous or arterial sides of the circulatory system. Factor Xa inhibition is a targeted approach to anticoagulation that resulted from significant advances in our understanding of the coagulation cascade. The factor Xa inhibitor fondaparinux has been studied extensively in the orthopedic surgical setting for the prophylaxis of VTE. Current investigations that are under way or completed evaluate the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the management of various thrombotic diseases. The future development of fondaparinux resides primarily in three therapeutic areas: prevention of VTE, treatment of VTE, and treatment of acute coronary syndromes. For the prevention of VTE, fondaparinux has been studied as extended prophylaxis following hip fracture surgery (PENTHIFRA Plus), for use in high-risk abdominal surgical patients (PEGASUS and APOLLO), and for use in medical patients (ARTEMIS). Studies evaluating fondaparinux for the treatment of VTE are part of the large MATISSE clinical program (MATISSE DVT and MATISSE PE). Fondaparinux was investigated in phase 2 studies for the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, including acute ST-segment myocardial infarction (PENTALYSE) and unstable angina (PENTUA). Encouraging data from these trials are the basis for phase 3 programs in this area (MICHELANGELO). The orthopedic prophylactic and nonorthopedic clinical programs for fondaparinux in the management of thrombosis support the concept that targeted inhibition of coagulation is an effective advance in antithrombotic therapy. PMID:14650863

  1. X-ray structure of active site-inhibited clotting factor Xa. Implications for drug design and substrate recognition.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, H; Kühne, A; Bode, W; Huber, R; von der Saal, W; Wirthensohn, K; Engh, R A

    1996-11-22

    The 3.0-A resolution x-ray structure of human des-Gla-coagulation factor Xa (fXa) has been determined in complex with the synthetic inhibitor DX-9065a. The binding geometry is characterized primarily by two interaction sites: the naphthamidine group is fixed in the S1 pocket by a typical salt bridge to Asp-189, while the pyrrolidine ring binds in the unique aryl-binding site (S4) of fXa. Unlike the large majority of inhibitor complexes with serine proteinases, Gly-216 (S3) does not contribute to hydrogen bond formation. In contrast to typical thrombin binding modes, the S2 site of fXa cannot be used by DX-9065a since it is blocked by Tyr-99, and the aryl-binding site (S4) of fXa is lined by carbonyl oxygen atoms that can accommodate positive charges. This has implications for natural substrate recognition as well as for drug design. PMID:8939944

  2. Specificity and selectivity profile of EP217609: a new neutralizable dual-action anticoagulant that targets thrombin and factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Richard; Petitou, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    EP217609 is a new dual-action parenteral anticoagulant that combines an indirect factor Xa inhibitor (fondaparinux analog) and a direct thrombin inhibitor (α-NAPAP analog) in a single molecule together with a biotin tag to allow avidin neutralization. EP217609 exhibits an unprecedented pharmacologic profile in showing high bioavailability, long plasma half-life, and potent antithrombotic activity in animals without the complications of thrombin rebound. Here we report the exceptional specificity and selectivity profile of EP217609. EP217609 inhibited thrombin with rapid kinetics (kon > 107M−1s−1), a high affinity (KI = 30-40pM), and more than 1000-fold selectivity over other coagulation and fibrinolytic protease targets, comparing favorably with the best direct thrombin inhibitors known. EP217609 bound antithrombin with high affinity (KD = 30nM) and activated the serpin to rapidly (kass ∼ 106M−1s−1) and selectively (> 20-fold) inhibit factor Xa. The dual inhibitor moieties of EP217609 acted largely independently with only modest linkage effects of ligand occupancy of one inhibitor moiety on the potency of the other (∼ 5-fold). In contrast, avidin binding effectively neutralized the potency of both inhibitor moieties (20- to 100-fold). These findings demonstrate the superior anticoagulant efficacy and rapid avidin neutralizability of EP217609 compared with anticoagulants that target thrombin or factor Xa alone. PMID:22144183

  3. RUBY-1: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the safety and tolerability of the novel oral factor Xa inhibitor darexaban (YM150) following acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Steg, Ph. Gabriel; Mehta, Shamir R.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Lip, Gregory Y.H.; Gibson, C. Michael; Kovar, Frantisek; Kala, Petr; Garcia-Hernandez, Alberto; Renfurm, Ronny W.; Granger, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Aims To establish the safety, tolerability and most promising regimen of darexaban (YM150), a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor, for prevention of ischaemic events in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods In a 26-week, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study, 1279 patients with recent high-risk non-ST-segment or ST-segment elevation ACS received one of six darexaban regimens: 5 mg b.i.d., 10 mg o.d., 15 mg b.i.d., 30 mg o.d., 30 mg b.i.d., or 60 mg o.d. or placebo, on top of dual antiplatelet treatment. Primary outcome was incidence of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding events. The main efficacy outcome was a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic thromboembolism, and severe recurrent ischaemia. Results Bleeding rates were numerically higher in all darexaban arms vs. placebo (pooled HR: 2.275; 95% CI: 1.13–4.60, P = 0.022). Using placebo as reference (bleeding rate 3.1%), there was a dose–response relationship (P = 0.009) for increased bleeding with increasing darexaban dose (6.2, 6.5, and 9.3% for 10, 30, and 60 mg daily, respectively), which was statistically significant for 30 mg b.i.d. (P = 0.002). There was no decrease (indeed a numerical increase in the 30 and 60 mg dose arms) in efficacy event rates with darexaban, but the study was underpowered for efficacy. Darexaban showed good tolerability without signs of liver toxicity. Conclusions Darexaban when added to dual antiplatelet therapy after ACS produces an expected dose-related two- to four-fold increase in bleeding, with no other safety concerns but no signal of efficacy. Establishing the potential of low-dose darexaban in preventing major cardiac events after ACS requires a large phase III trial. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00994292 PMID:21878434

  4. Osteosarcoma cell-calcium signaling through tissue factor-factor VIIa complex and factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Daubie, Valéry; De Decker, Robert; Nicaise, Charles; Pochet, Roland

    2007-06-12

    The cells responsible for bone formation express protease-activated receptors. Although serine protease thrombin has been shown to elicit functional responses in bone cells that impact on cell survival and alkaline phosphatase activity, nothing is known about tissue factor, factor VIIa, and factor Xa, the serine proteases that act upstream of thrombin in the coagulation cascade. This paper demonstrates that tissue factor is expressed in the osteoblast-like cell line SaOS-2 and, that tissue factor in a factor VIIa-bound complex induces a transient intracellular Ca(2+) increase through protease-activated receptor-2. In SaOS-2 cells, factor Xa induced a sustained intracellular Ca(2+) response, as does SLIGRL, a PAR2-activating peptide, and PAR-1-dependent cell viability. PMID:17509570

  5. Evaluation of a Heparin-Calibrated Antifactor Xa Assay for Measuring the Anticoagulant Effect of Oral Direct Xa Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jacob; Trujillo, Toby; Fisher, Sheila; Ko, Ann; Lind, Stuart E; Kiser, Tyree H

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of oral direct anti-Xa anticoagulants apixaban and rivaroxaban has significantly impacted the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease. Clinical scenarios exist in which a quantitative assessment for degree of anticoagulation due to these agents would aid management. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the chromogenic antifactor Xa assay calibrated with heparin standards at our institution for assessment of intensity of anticoagulation with rivaroxaban or apixaban in addition to its current use for unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin. We also aimed to propose expected steady state peak and trough antifactor Xa activities for these agents based upon dosing regimens approved for nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Antifactor Xa activity correlated very strongly with apixaban and rivaroxaban concentration in both spiked samples and treated patient plasma samples (r (2) = .99, P < .001). This correlation was observed over a broad range (20-500 ng/mL) of drug concentrations, as sample dilution with pooled normal plasma significantly extended the range of quantitative assessment. Based on drug concentrations previously published in pharmacokinetic studies, the expected steady state peak and trough antifactor Xa activity ranges for apixaban are 1.80 to 2.20 IU/mL and 0.70 to 1.10 IU/mL, respectively. For rivaroxaban, these ranges are 3.80 to 6.20 IU/mL and 0.60 to 1.00 IU/mL, respectively. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that heparin-calibrated antifactor Xa activity correlates strongly with apixaban and rivaroxaban concentration. The dilution of samples allowed for this correlation to be extended over the majority of on-therapy drug concentrations.

  6. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan: serpin-independent effect and specific interaction with factor Xa

    PubMed Central

    Glauser, Bianca F.; Rezende, Ricardo M.; Melo, Fabio R.; Pereira, Mariana S.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Monteiro, Robson Q.; Rezaie, Alireza R.; Mourão, Paulo A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Summary An algal sulfated galactan has high anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant action is due to promoting thrombin and factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. Here, we evaluated the anticoagulant effect of the algal sulfated galactan using serpin-free plasma. In contrast to heparin, the sulfated galactan is still able to prolong coagulation time and delay thrombin and factor Xa generation in serpin-free plasma. We further investigated this effect using purified blood coagulation proteins, discovering that sulfated galactan inhibits the intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complexes, which are critical for factor Xa and thrombin generation, respectively. We also investigated the mechanism by which sulfated galactan promotes factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin using specific recombinant mutants of the protease. We show that sulfated galactan interacts with the heparin-binding exosite of factor Xa and Arg-236 and Lys-240 of this site are critical residues for this interaction, as observed for heparin. Thus, sulfated galactan and heparin have similar high-affinity and specificity for interaction with factor Xa, though they have differences in their chemical structures. Similar to heparin, the ability of sulfated galactan to potentiate factor Xa inhibition by antithrombin is calcium-dependent. However, in contrast to heparin, this effect is not entirely dependent on the conformation of the γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain of the protease. In conclusion, sulfated galactan and heparin have some similar effects on blood coagulation, but also differ significantly at the molecular level. This sulfated galactan opens new perspective for the development of antithrombotic drugs. PMID:19967150

  7. Inhibition of the generation of thrombin and factor Xa by a fucoidan from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome.

    PubMed

    Nishino, T; Fukuda, A; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Kaji, E

    1999-10-01

    The effects of a fucoidan (C-II), which was purified from the brown seaweed Ecklonia kurome, on the generation of thrombin and factor Xa have been investigated by measuring the amidolytic activities by using the respective specific chromogenic substrates in both plasma and purified systems. C-II inhibited significantly the generation of thrombin in both the intrinsic and the extrinsic pathways, although the intrinsic inhibitory effect by C-II was more remarkable than the extrinsic one. On the other hand, C-II was a good inhibitor of the factor Xa generation in the intrinsic pathway, while it was a poor one in the extrinsic pathway. In the purified systems C-II also inhibited the formation of prothrombin-activating complex (i.e., prothrombinase), but not its activity. The concentration of C-II required for 50% inhibition of thrombin generation was about one-tenth to one-seventh of that of the activity of the generated thrombin in plasma. These results indicate that C-II has an inhibitory effect on the generation of thrombin by blocking the formation of prothrombinase and by preventing the generation of intrinsic factor Xa in addition to its antithrombin activity, and also that the generation-inhibitory effect is more remarkable than C-II's enhancement effect on the antithrombin activity by heparin cofactor II in plasma.

  8. Oral, direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors: the replacement for warfarin, leeches, and pig intestines?

    PubMed

    Straub, Alexander; Roehrig, Susanne; Hillisch, Alexander

    2011-05-01

    To prevent thromboses after surgery, patients have until now had to inject themselves daily with heparin. For stroke prophylaxis in atrial fibrillation, patients take vitamin K antagonists of the coumarin type, which have a narrow therapeutic window and whose dosage must be regularly monitored. In order to improve the standard of therapy in thromboembolic diseases such as deep-vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and stroke in atrial fibrillation, intensive research has been carried out over the last decade in the search for new, orally active thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors. A number of these compounds are already on the market or are in advanced clinical development; they could revolutionize the anticoagulant market.

  9. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P < .0001), and 14.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 7.9-27.1 ng/mL) in healthy subjects (n = 25, P = .002). In conclusion, coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation.

  10. Coagulation-induced shedding of platelet glycoprotein VI mediated by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Mohammad; Grigoriadis, George; Tran, Huy; Paul, Eldho; Servadei, Patricia; Berndt, Michael C; Gardiner, Elizabeth E; Andrews, Robert K

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated shedding of the platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI) in human plasma. Collagen or other ligands induce metalloproteinase-mediated GPVI ectodomain shedding, generating approximately 55-kDa soluble GPVI (sGPVI) and approximately 10-kDa platelet-associated fragments. In the absence of GPVI ligands, coagulation of platelet-rich plasma from healthy persons induced GPVI shedding, independent of added tissue factor, but inhibitable by metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001. Factor Xa (FXa) common to intrinsic and tissue factor-mediated coagulation pathways was critical for sGPVI release because (1) shedding was strongly blocked by the FXa-selective inhibitor rivaroxaban but not FIIa (thrombin) inhibitors dabigatran or hirudin; (2) Russell viper venom that directly activates FX generated sGPVI, with complete inhibition by enoxaparin (inhibits FXa and FIIa) but not hirudin; (3) impaired GPVI shedding during coagulation of washed platelets resuspended in FX-depleted plasma was restored by adding purified FX; and (4) purified FXa induced GM6001-inhibitable GPVI shedding from washed platelets. In 29 patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation, mean plasma sGPVI was 53.9 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 39.9-72.8 ng/mL) compared with 12.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 9.0-17.3 ng/mL) in thrombocytopenic controls (n = 36, P < .0001), and 14.6 ng/mL (95% confidence interval, 7.9-27.1 ng/mL) in healthy subjects (n = 25, P = .002). In conclusion, coagulation-induced GPVI shedding via FXa down-regulates GPVI under procoagulant conditions. FXa inhibitors have an unexpected role in preventing GPVI down-regulation. PMID:21252089

  11. Measuring Anti–Factor Xa Activity to Monitor Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin in Obesity: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Gregory; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-01-01

    Background: The choice of whether to monitor anti–factor Xa (anti-Xa) activity in patients who are obese and who are receiving low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is controversial. To the authors’ knowledge, no systematic review of monitoring of anti-Xa activity in such patients has been published to date. Objective: To systematically ascertain the utility of monitoring anti-Xa concentrations for LMWH therapy in obese patients. Data Sources: MEDLINE (1946 to September 2014), the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase (1974 to September 2014), PubMed (1947 to September 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to September 2014), and Scopus were searched using the terms obesity, morbid obesity, thrombosis, venous thrombosis, embolism, venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, low-molecular weight heparin, enoxaparin, dalteparin, tinzaparin, anti-factor Xa, anti-factor Xa monitoring, anti-factor Xa activity, and anti-factor Xa assay. The reference lists of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction: English-language studies describing obese patients treated with LMWH or reporting anti-Xa activity were reviewed using a 9-step decision-making algorithm to determine whether monitoring of LMWH therapy by means of anti-Xa activity in obesity is warranted. Studies published in abstract form were excluded. Data Synthesis: The analysis showed that anti-Xa concentrations are not strongly associated with thrombosis or hemorrhage. In clinical studies of LMWH for thromboprophylaxis in bariatric surgery, orthopedic surgery, general surgery, and medical patients, and for treatment of venous thrombo embolism and acute coronary syndrome, anti-Xa activity can be predicted from dose of LMWH and total body weight; no difference in clinical outcome was found between obese and non-obese participants. Conclusions: Routinely determining anti-Xa concentrations in obese patients to monitor the clinical effectiveness of LMWH is

  12. Hemostatic agents of broad applicability produced by selective tuning of factor Xa zymogenicity.

    PubMed

    Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Camire, Rodney M

    2015-07-01

    There is a clinical need to develop safe therapeutic strategies to mitigate bleeding. Previously, we found that a novel zymogen-like factor Xa variant (FXa-I16L) was effective in correcting the coagulation defect in hemophilic mice. Here we expand the mutational framework to tune the FX(a) zymogen-like state. Alteration of FXa zymogenicity yields variants (V17M, I16L, I16M, V17T, V17S, and I16T) with a wide range (≤1000-fold) of reduced function toward physiologic substrates and inhibitors. The extent of zymogen-like character, including resistance to antithrombin III, correlates well with plasma half-life (<2 minutes to >4 hours). Importantly, biologic function, including that of the most zymogen-like variant (FXa-I16T), was greatly enhanced when bound to FVa membranes. This resulted in improvement of clotting times and thrombin generation in hemophilic plasma. The FXa variants were remarkably effective in mouse injury models. In these systems, the data show that the more active the protease, the more difficult it is to overcome the protective mechanism of circulating inhibitors to achieve a therapeutic benefit. Depending on the treatment situation, the more zymogen-like variants (V17S and I16T) were most useful when given before injury whereas variants exhibiting greater activity but shorter half-lives (I16L and I16M) were most effective when administered after injury. This new class of FXa variants provides a useful and flexible platform for selectively bioengineering biologic function and half-life to target different clinical bleeding scenarios. PMID:25896653

  13. The direct thrombin inhibitors (argatroban, bivalirudin and lepirudin) and the indirect Xa-inhibitor (danaparoid) increase fibrin network porosity and thus facilitate fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    He, Shu; Blombäck, Margareta; Bark, Niklas; Johnsson, Hans; Wallén, N Hakan

    2010-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess whether the fibrin network structure is modified by the direct thrombin-inhibitors lepirudin, argatroban or bivalirudin and by the indirect Xa-inhibitor danaparoid. Using an in vitro assay that imitates the physiological process of coagulation from thrombin generation to fibrin formation, we examined a normal plasma pool spiked with one of the inhibitors. At concentrations considered to be the plasma levels observed during therapy, almost no influence was detected for lepirudin despite clear-cut effects on "clotting time". However, argatroban, bivalirudin and danaparoid increased the fibrin gel permeability (Ks) to a similar extent. At concentrations higher than the "therapeutic" levels, the dose-response curve in the Ks assay became very steep for lepirudin while those were shallow for the others. In parallel with the drug-induced increases of Ks, larger network pores in 3D-microscopic images and significant shortenings in "clot lysis time" induced by addition of rtPA were observed. Recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) added to danaparoid-treated samples profoundly counteracted the increase of Ks but had only a slight or no effect on the other drugs. Thus, in vitro, argatroban, bivalirudin and danaparoid have comparable anticoagulating effects, rendering the fibrin network more permeable and less resistant to fibrinolysis. For lepirudin, the steep dose-response curve supports previous clinical findings, i.e. this thrombin inhibitor has a narrow therapeutic window. Furthermore, our data suggest that the haemostatic agent, rFVIII, might be effective in treatment of bleeding complications induced by danaparoid. PMID:20216982

  14. Discovery of 1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Apixaban, BMS-562247), a Highly Potent, Selective, Efficacious, and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Blood Coagulation Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Donald J.P.; Orwat, Michael J.; Koch, Stephanie; Rossi, Karen A.; Alexander, Richard S.; Smallwood, Angela; Wong, Pancras C.; Rendina, Alan R.; Luettgen, Joseph M.; Knabb, Robert M.; He, Kan; Xin, Baomin; Wexler, Ruth R.; Lam, Patrick Y.S.

    2010-03-08

    Efforts to identify a suitable follow-on compound to razaxaban (compound 4) focused on modification of the carboxamido linker to eliminate potential in vivo hydrolysis to a primary aniline. Cyclization of the carboxamido linker to the novel bicyclic tetrahydropyrazolopyridinone scaffold retained the potent fXa binding activity. Exceptional potency of the series prompted an investigation of the neutral P{sub 1} moieties that resulted in the identification of the p-methoxyphenyl P{sub 1}, which retained factor Xa binding affinity and good oral bioavailability. Further optimization of the C-3 pyrazole position and replacement of the terminal P{sub 4} ring with a neutral heterocycle culminated in the discovery of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (apixaban, compound 40). Compound 40 exhibits a high degree of fXa potency, selectivity, and efficacy and has an improved pharmacokinetic profile relative to 4.

  15. The Anti-Factor Xa Range For Low Molecular Weight Heparin Thromboprophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Salena M.

    2015-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are now the mainstay option in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. In some patients receiving therapeutic doses of LMWH, activity can be measured by quantifying the presence of Anti-factor Xa (AFXa) for dose adjustment. However, currently there are no guidelines for LMWH monitoring in patients on thromboprophylactic, doses, despite certain patient populations may be at risk of suboptimal dosing. This review found that while the AFXa ranges for therapeutic levels of LMWHs are relatively well defined in the literature, prophylactic ranges are much less clear, thus making it difficult to interpret current research data. From the studies published to date, we concluded that a reasonable AFXa target range for LMWH deep venous thromboses prophylaxis might be 0.2-0.5 IU/mL. PMID:26733269

  16. Zymogenic and enzymatic properties of the 70-80 loop mutants of factor X/Xa.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Yang, Likui; Rezaie, Alireza R

    2004-02-01

    The Ca(2+) binding 70-80 loop of factor X (fX) contains one basic (Arg(71)) and three acidic (Glu(74), Glu(76), and Glu(77)) residues whose contributions to the zymogenic and enzymatic properties of the protein have not been evaluated. We prepared four Ala substitution mutants of fX (R71A, E74A, E76A, and E77A) and characterized their activation kinetics by the factor VIIa and factor IXa in both the absence and presence of cofactors. Factor VIIa exhibited normal activity toward E74A and E76A and less than a twofold impaired activity toward R71A and E77A in both the absence and presence of tissue factor. Similarly, factor IXa in the absence of factor VIIIa exhibited normal activity toward both E74A and E76A; however, its activity toward R71A and E77A was impaired approximately two- to threefold. In the presence of factor VIIIa, factor IX activated all mutants with approximately two- to fivefold impaired catalytic efficiency. In contrast to changes in their zymogenic properties, all mutant enzymes exhibited normal affinities for factor Va, and catalyzed the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin with normal catalytic efficiencies. However, further studies revealed that the affinity of mutant enzymes for interaction with metal ions Na(+) and Ca(2+) was impaired. These results suggest that although charged residues of the 70-80 loop play an insignificant role in fX recognition by the factor VIIa-tissue factor complex, they are critical for the substrate recognition by factor IXa in the intrinsic Xase complex. The results further suggest that mutant residues do not play a specific role in the catalytic function of fXa in the prothrombinase complex. PMID:14739327

  17. A novel microfluidic anti-factor Xa assay device for monitoring anticoagulant therapy at the point-of-care

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Leanne F.; Rainey, Paul; Castro-López, Vanessa; O'Donnell, James S.; Killard, Anthony J.

    2013-05-01

    Millions of patients worldwide are receiving anticoagulant therapy to treat hypercoagulable diseases. While standard testing is still performed in the central laboratory, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics are being developed due to the increasing number of patients requiring long-term anticoagulation and with a need for more personalized and targeted therapy. Many POC devices on the market focus on clot measurement, a technique which is limited in terms of variability, highlighting the need for more reliable assays of anticoagulant status. The anti-Xa assay, a factor specific optical assay, was developed to measure the extent to which exogenous factor Xa (FXa) is inhibited by heparinantithrombin complexes. We have developed a novel microfluidic device and assay for monitoring the effect of heparin anticoagulant therapy at the point-of-care. The assay which was also developed in our institute is based on the anti-Xa assay principle but uses fluorescence as the method of detection. Our device is a disposable laminate microfluidic strip, fabricated from the cyclic polyolefin (COP), Zeonor®, which is extremely suitable for application to fluorescent device platforms. We present data on the execution of the anti-Xa assay in this microfluidic format, demonstrating that the assay can be used to measure heparin in human plasma samples from 0 to 0.8 U/ml, with average assay reproducibility of 8% and a rapid result obtained within 60 seconds. Results indicate that with further development, the fluorogenic anti-Xa assay and device could become a successful method for monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  18. Hysteresis-like binding of coagulation factors X/Xa to procoagulant activated platelets and phospholipids results from multistep association and membrane-dependent multimerization.

    PubMed

    Podoplelova, Nadezhda A; Sveshnikova, Anastasia N; Kurasawa, James H; Sarafanov, Andrey G; Chambost, Herve; Vasil'ev, Sergey A; Demina, Irina A; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2016-06-01

    Binding of coagulation factors X (fX) and Xa (fXa) to activated platelets is required for the formation of membrane-dependent enzymatic complexes of intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase. We carried out an in-depth characterization of fX/fXa binding to phospholipids and gel-filtered, thrombin-activated platelets. Flow cytometry, surface plasmon resonance, and computational modeling were used to investigate interactions of fX/fXa with the membranes. Confocal microscopy was employed to study fXa binding to platelet thrombi formed in flowing whole blood under arterial conditions. Binding of fX/fXa to either vesicles or procoagulant platelets did not follow a traditional one-step reversible binding model. Their dissociation was a two-step process resulting in a plateau that was up to 10-fold greater than the saturation value observed in the association experiments. Computational modeling and experimental evidence suggested that this was caused by a combination of two-step association (mainly for fX) and multimerization on the membrane (mainly for fXa). Importantly, fX formed multimers with fXa, thereby improving its retention. The same binding/dissociation hysteresis was observed for annexin V known to form trimers on the membranes. Experiments with platelets from gray syndrome patients showed that alpha-granular factor Va provided an additional high-affinity binding site for fXa that did not affect the hysteresis. Confocal microscopy observation of fXa binding to platelet thrombi in a flow chamber and its wash-out confirmed that this phenomenon persisted under physiologically relevant conditions. This suggests its possible role of "locking" coagulation factors on the membrane and preventing their inhibition in plasma and removal from thrombi by flow.

  19. Comparative study of Factor Xa fluorogenic substrates and their influence on the quantification of LMWHs.

    PubMed

    Castro-López, Vanessa; Harris, Leanne F; O'Donnell, James S; Killard, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are recognised as the preferred anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism. Anti-Factor Xa (anti-FXa) levels are used to monitor the anticoagulant effect of LMWHs and such assays are routinely employed in hospital diagnostic laboratories. In this study, a fluorogenic anti-FXa assay was developed using a commercially available fluorogenic substrate with an attached 6-amino-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide (ANSN) fluorophore and was used for the determination of two LMWHs, enoxaparin and tinzaparin and the heparinoid, danaparoid. The assay was based on the complexation of heparinised plasma with 100 nM exogenous FXa and 25 μM of the fluorogenic substrate Mes-D-LGR-ANSN (C(2)H(5))(2) (SN-7). The assay was tested with pooled plasma samples spiked with anticoagulant concentrations in the range 0-1.6 U mL(-1). The statistically sensitive assay range was 0-0.4 U mL(-1) for enoxaparin and tinzaparin and 0-0.2 U mL(-1) for danaparoid, with assay variation typically below 10.5%. This assay was then compared with a previously published fluorogenic anti-FXa assay developed with the peptide substrate, methylsulfonyl-D: -cyclohexylalanyl-glycyl-arginine-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin acetate (Pefafluor FXa). Both assays were compared in terms of fluorescence intensity, lag times and sensitivity to anticoagulants. PMID:20972772

  20. Antigenicity of Recombinant Maltose Binding Protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fusion Proteins with and without Factor Xa Cleaving

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Bannantine, John P.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such proteins are hypothesized to be expressed in vivo, are recognized by the host immune system, and may be of potential use in the diagnosis of JD. In this study, 50 recombinant maltose binding protein (MBP)-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins were evaluated using serum samples from sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 29 (58%) were found to be antigenic. Among 50 fusion proteins, 10 were evaluated in MBP fusion and factor Xa-cleaved forms. A total of 31 proteins (62%) were found to be antigenic in either MBP fusion or factor Xa-cleaved forms. Antigenicity after cleavage and removal of the MBP tag was marginally enhanced. PMID:24132604

  1. Factor Xa in mouse fibroblasts may induce fibrosis more than thrombin.

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Lisa; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Hashikata, Takehiro; Ishii, Sayaka; Kameda, Ryo; Shimohama, Takao; Tojo, Taiki; Ako, Junya

    2014-01-01

    Coagulation factors are known to play a role in wound healing by stimulating fibroblasts and might be associated with tissue fibrosis, however, only limited data exist. Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), activated by thrombin or factor (F) Xa, and PAR2, activated by FXa, have recently been reported to play roles not only in the coagulation system, but also in cardiac fibrosis. Furthermore, a previous report found that FX deficiency in mice led to the development of cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated cellular biological function under conditions of overexpressed thrombin and FXa in fibroblasts.Cell migration and proliferation with FXa (1U/mL) and thrombin (1U/mL) stimulation were evaluated. Cells incubated without FXa or thrombin were used as control. H2O2 and TGF-β1 production were measured using ELISA. Signal pathways were evaluated using a signal pathway reporter assay.Cell migration and proliferation were increased in FXa-stimulated cells (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation compared with control, respectively) and thrombin (4.1-fold increase for migration, 1.3-fold for proliferation as compared to control, respectively). H2O2 production was higher in FXa-stimulated cells compared to thrombin (1.3-fold increase) and control cells (1.4-fold increased). TGF-β1 production was up-regulated after FXa addition (12.6-fold increase compared with thrombin, 1.8-fold increase compared with control, respectively). In FXa-stimulated cells, AP-1 and NF-kB were increased compared to control (P < 0.05).These data suggest that FXa and thrombin play important roles in the fibrotic process that could also lead to cardiac fibrosis, and that at least some of these signalings are more accelerated with FXa compared to thrombin. PMID:24942638

  2. Effects of factor Xa on the expression of proteins in femoral arteries from type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Farré, Antonio J; Rodriguez-Sierra, Pablo; Modrego, Javier; Segura, Antonio; Martín-Palacios, Naiara; Saiz, Ana M; Zamorano-León, José J; Duarte, Juan; Serrano, Javier; Moñux, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Aim Further to its pivotal role in haemostasis, factor Xa (FXa) promotes effects on the vascular wall. The purpose of the study was to evaluate if FXa modifies the expression level of energy metabolism and oxidative stress-related proteins in femoral arteries obtained from type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage vasculopathy. Methods Femoral arteries were obtained from 12 type 2 diabetic patients who underwent leg amputation. Segments from the femoral arteries were incubated in vitro alone and in the presence of 25 nmol l−1 FXa and 25 nmol l−1 FXa + 50 nmol l−1 rivaroxaban. Results In the femoral arteries, FXa increased triosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isotype 1 expression but decreased pyruvate dehydrogenase expression. These facts were accompanied by an increased content of acetyl-CoA. Aconitase activity was reduced in FXa-incubated femoral arteries as compared with control. Moreover, FXa increased the protein expression level of oxidative stress-related proteins which was accompanied by an increased malonyldialdehyde arterial content. The FXa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, failed to prevent the reduced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase induced by FXa but reduced acetyl-CoA content and reverted the decreased aconitase activity observed with FXa alone. Rivaroxaban + FXa but not FXa alone increased the expression level of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II, two mitochondrial long chain fatty acid transporters. Rivaroxaban also prevented the increased expression of oxidative stress-related proteins induced by FXa alone. Conclusions In femoral isolated arteries from type 2 diabetic patients with end-stage vasculopathy, FXa promoted disruption of the aerobic mitochondrial metabolism. Rivaroxaban prevented such effects and even seemed to favour long chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. PMID:25041869

  3. Anticoagulant activity of a sulfated galactan: serpin-independent effect and specific interaction with factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Glauser, Bianca F; Rezende, Ricardo M; Melo, Fabio R; Pereira, Mariana S; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Monteiro, Robson Q; Rezaie, Alireza R; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-12-01

    An algal sulfated galactan has high anticoagulant and antithrombotic activities. Its serpin-dependent anticoagulant action is due to promoting thrombin and factor (F)Xa inhibition by antithrombin and heparin cofactor II. Here, we evaluated the anticoagulant effect of the algal sulfated galactan using serpin-free plasma. In contrast to heparin, the sulfated galactan is still able to prolong coagulation time and delay thrombin and FXa generation in serpin-free plasma. We further investigated this effect using purified blood coagulation proteins, discovering that sulfated galactan inhibits the intrinsic tenase and prothrombinase complexes, which are critical for FXa and thrombin generation, respectively. We also investigated the mechanism by which sulfated galactan promotes FXa inhibition by antithrombin using specific recombinant mutants of the protease. We show that sulfated galactan interacts with the heparin-binding exosite of FXa and Arg-236 and Lys-240 of this site are critical residues for this interaction, as observed for heparin. Thus, sulfated galactan and heparin have similar high-affinity and specificity for interaction with FXa, though they have differences in their chemical structures. Similar to heparin, the ability of sulfated galactan to potentiate FXa inhibition by antithrombin is calcium-dependent. However, in contrast to heparin, this effect is not entirely dependent on the conformation of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain of the protease. In conclusion, sulfated galactan and heparin have some similar effects on blood coagulation, but also differ significantly at the molecular level. This sulfated galactan opens new perspective for the development of antithrombotic drugs.

  4. Ca2+ switches the effect of PS-containing membranes on Factor Xa from activating to inhibiting: implications for initiation of blood coagulation.

    PubMed

    Koklic, Tilen; Majumder, Rinku; Lentz, Barry R

    2014-09-15

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in cellular and organismal physiology. The Ca2+ ion has an intermediate protein-binding affinity and thus it can serve as an on/off switch in the regulation of different biochemical processes. The serum level of ionized Ca2+ is regulated with normal ionized Ca2+ being in the range 1.10-1.3 mM. Hypocalcaemia (free Ca2+<1.1 mM) in critically ill patients is commonly accompanied by haemostatic abnormalities, ranging from isolated thrombocytopenia to complex defects such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, commonly thought to be due to insufficient functioning of anticoagulation pathways. A small amount of fXa (Factor Xa) produced by Factor VIIa and exposed tissue factor is key to initiating blood coagulation by producing enough thrombin to induce the later stages of coagulation. fXa must bind to PS (phosphatidylserine)-containing membranes to produce thrombin at a physiologically significant rate. In the present study, we show that overall fXa activity on PS-containing membranes is sharply regulated by a 'Ca2+ switch' centred at 1.16 mM, below which fXa is active and above which fXa forms inactive dimers on PS-exposing membranes. Our data lead to a mathematical model that predicts the variation of fXa activity as a function of both Ca2+ and membrane concentrations. Because the critical Ca2+ concentration is at the lower end of the normal plasma ionized Ca2+ concentration range, we propose a new regulatory mechanism by which local Ca2+ concentration switches fXa from an intrinsically active form to a form requiring its cofactor [fVa (Factor Va)] to achieve significant activity.

  5. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Borensztajn, Keren S. . E-mail: K.S.Borensztajn@amc.uva.nl; Bijlsma, Maarten F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Brueggemann, Lois W.; Versteeg, Henri H.; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2007-07-15

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival.

  6. Ca2+ Switches the Effect of PS-containing Membranes on Factor Xa from Activating to Inhibiting: Implications for Initiation of Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Koklic, Tilen; Majumder, Rinku; Lentz, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in cellular and organismal physiology. The Ca2+ ion has an intermediate protein-binding affinity, thus it can serve as an on/off switch in regulation of different biochemical processes. The serum level of ionized Ca2+ is regulated with normal ionized Ca2+ being in the range from 1.10 to 1.29 mM. Hypocalcaemia (free Ca2+ < 1.1mM) in critically ill patients is commonly accompanied by hemostatic abnormalities, ranging from isolated thrombocytopenia to complex defects such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, commonly thought to be due to insufficient functioning of anticoagulation pathways. A small amount of Factor Xa (fXa) produced by Factor VIIa and exposed tissue factor is key to initiating blood coagulation by producing enough thrombin to induce later stages of coagulation. FXa must bind to phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing membranes to produce thrombin at a physiologically significant rate. In this work, we show that overall fXa activity on PS-containing membranes is sharply regulated by a “Ca2+ switch” centered at 1.16 mM, below which fXa is active and above which fXa forms inactive dimers on PS-exposing membranes. Our data lead to a mathematical model that predicts the variation of fXa activity as a function of both calcium and membrane concentrations. Because the critical Ca2+ concentration is at the lower end of the normal plasma ionized Ca2+ concentration range, we propose a new regulatory mechanism by which local Ca2+ concentration switches fXa from an intrinsically active form to a form requiring its cofactor (fVa) to achieve significant activity. PMID:24920080

  7. Daboxin P, a Major Phospholipase A2 Enzyme from the Indian Daboia russelii russelii Venom Targets Factor X and Factor Xa for Its Anticoagulant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Janaki Krishnamurthy; Shih, Norrapat; Majumder, Munmi; Mattaparthi, Venkata Satish Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Rupak; Doley, Robin

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a major protein has been purified from the venom of Indian Daboia russelii russelii using gel filtration, ion exchange and Rp-HPLC techniques. The purified protein, named daboxin P accounts for ~24% of the total protein of the crude venom and has a molecular mass of 13.597 kDa. It exhibits strong anticoagulant and phospholipase A2 activity but is devoid of any cytotoxic effect on the tested normal or cancerous cell lines. Its primary structure was deduced by N-terminal sequencing and chemical cleavage using Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. It is composed of 121 amino acids with 14 cysteine residues and catalytically active His48 -Asp49 pair. The secondary structure of daboxin P constitutes 42.73% of α-helix and 12.36% of β-sheet. It is found to be stable at acidic (pH 3.0) and neutral pH (pH 7.0) and has a Tm value of 71.59 ± 0.46°C. Daboxin P exhibits anticoagulant effect under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. It does not inhibit the catalytic activity of the serine proteases but inhibits the activation of factor X to factor Xa by the tenase complexes both in the presence and absence of phospholipids. It also inhibits the tenase complexes when active site residue (His48) was alkylated suggesting its non-enzymatic mode of anticoagulant activity. Moreover, it also inhibits prothrombinase complex when pre-incubated with factor Xa prior to factor Va addition. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy and affinity chromatography suggest the probable interaction of daboxin P with factor X and factor Xa. Molecular docking analysis reveals the interaction of the Ca+2 binding loop; helix C; anticoagulant region and C-terminal region of daboxin P with the heavy chain of factor Xa. This is the first report of a phospholipase A2 enzyme from Indian viper venom which targets both factor X and factor Xa for its anticoagulant activity. PMID:27089306

  8. Characterization of a human coagulation factor Xa-binding site on Viperidae snake venom phospholipases A2 by affinity binding studies and molecular bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Faure, Grazyna; Gowda, Veerabasappa T; Maroun, Rachid C

    2007-01-01

    Background The snake venom group IIA secreted phospholipases A2 (SVPLA2), present in the Viperidae snake family exhibit a wide range of toxic and pharmacological effects. They exert their different functions by catalyzing the hydrolysis of phospholipids (PL) at the membrane/water interface and by highly specific direct binding to: (i) presynaptic membrane-bound or intracellular receptors; (ii) natural PLA2-inhibitors from snake serum; and (iii) coagulation factors present in human blood. Results Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) protein-protein interaction measurements and an in vitro biological test of inhibition of prothrombinase activity, we identify a number of Viperidae venom SVPLA2s that inhibit blood coagulation through direct binding to human blood coagulation factor Xa (FXa) via a non-catalytic, PL-independent mechanism. We classify the SVPLA2s in four groups, depending on the strength of their binding. Molecular electrostatic potentials calculated at the surface of 3D homology-modeling models show a correlation with inhibition of prothrombinase activity. In addition, molecular docking simulations between SVPLA2 and FXa guided by the experimental data identify the potential FXa binding site on the SVPLA2s. This site is composed of the following regions: helices A and B, the Ca2+ loop, the helix C-β-wing loop, and the C-terminal fragment. Some of the SVPLA2 binding site residues belong also to the interfacial binding site (IBS). The interface in FXa involves both, the light and heavy chains. Conclusion We have experimentally identified several strong FXa-binding SVPLA2s that disrupt the function of the coagulation cascade by interacting with FXa by the non-catalytic PL-independent mechanism. By theoretical methods we mapped the interaction sites on both, the SVPLA2s and FXa. Our findings may lead to the design of novel, non-competitive FXa inhibitors. PMID:18062812

  9. Factor Xa generation at the surface of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells in an in vitro flow system.

    PubMed

    Hall, C L; Taubman, M B; Nemerson, Y; Turitto, V T

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the effects of well-defined flow conditions on the activity of tissue factor (TF) expressed on the surface of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Cells were cultured to confluence on Permanox brand slides and stimulated to express TF by a 90 min incubation with fresh growth medium containing 10 percent calf serum. The stimulated cells were then placed in a parallel plate flow chamber and perfused with Hank's Balanced Salt Solution containing factor VIIa, factor X (FX), and calcium. The chamber effluent was collected and assayed for factor Xa (FXa) and the steady-state flux of FXa was calculated. The flux values were 68.73, 94.81, 139.75, 138.19, 316.82, and 592.92 fmole/min/cm2 at wall shear rates of 10, 20, 40, 80, 320, and 1280 s-1, respectively. The FXa flux depended on the wall shear rate to a greater degree than predicted by classical mass transport theory. The flux at each shear rate was three to five times less than that calculated according to the Leveque solution. These features of the experimental data imply nonclassical behavior, which may partially result from a direct effect of flow on the cell layer.

  10. Reproducibility of the anti-Factor Xa and anti-Factor IIa assays applied to enoxaparin solution.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Céline; Savadogo, Adama; Agut, Christophe; Anger, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Enoxaparin is a widely used subcutaneously administered antithrombotic agent comprising a complex mixture of glycosaminoglycan chains. Owing to this complexity, its antithrombotic potency cannot be defined by physicochemical methods and is therefore evaluated using an enzymatic assay of anti-Xa and anti-IIa activity. Maintaining consistent anti-Xa activity in the final medicinal product allows physicians to ensure administration of the appropriate dosage to their patients. Bioassays are usually complex and display poorer reproducibility than physicochemical tests such as HPLC assays. Here, we describe the implementation of a common robotic platform and standard release potency testing procedures for enoxaparin sodium injection (Lovenox, Sanofi, Paris, France) products at seven quality control sites within Sanofi. Qualification and analytical procedures, as well as data handling, were optimized and harmonized to improve assay reproducibility. An inter-laboratory study was performed in routine-release conditions. The coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility in assessments of anti-Xa activity were 1.0% and 1.2%, respectively. The tolerance interval in reproducibility precision conditions, expressed as percentage potency, was 96.8-103.2% of the drug product target of 10,000 IU/ml, comparing favorably with the United States of America Pharmacopeia specification (90-110%). The maximum difference between assays in two different laboratories is expected to be 4.1%. The reproducibility characteristics of anti-IIa activity assessments were found to be similar. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the standardization process established and allow for further improvements to quality control in Lovenox manufacture. This process guarantees closeness between actual and target potencies, as exemplified by the results of release assays obtained during a three-year period.

  11. Reproducibility of the anti-Factor Xa and anti-Factor IIa assays applied to enoxaparin solution.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Céline; Savadogo, Adama; Agut, Christophe; Anger, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Enoxaparin is a widely used subcutaneously administered antithrombotic agent comprising a complex mixture of glycosaminoglycan chains. Owing to this complexity, its antithrombotic potency cannot be defined by physicochemical methods and is therefore evaluated using an enzymatic assay of anti-Xa and anti-IIa activity. Maintaining consistent anti-Xa activity in the final medicinal product allows physicians to ensure administration of the appropriate dosage to their patients. Bioassays are usually complex and display poorer reproducibility than physicochemical tests such as HPLC assays. Here, we describe the implementation of a common robotic platform and standard release potency testing procedures for enoxaparin sodium injection (Lovenox, Sanofi, Paris, France) products at seven quality control sites within Sanofi. Qualification and analytical procedures, as well as data handling, were optimized and harmonized to improve assay reproducibility. An inter-laboratory study was performed in routine-release conditions. The coefficients of variation for repeatability and reproducibility in assessments of anti-Xa activity were 1.0% and 1.2%, respectively. The tolerance interval in reproducibility precision conditions, expressed as percentage potency, was 96.8-103.2% of the drug product target of 10,000 IU/ml, comparing favorably with the United States of America Pharmacopeia specification (90-110%). The maximum difference between assays in two different laboratories is expected to be 4.1%. The reproducibility characteristics of anti-IIa activity assessments were found to be similar. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the standardization process established and allow for further improvements to quality control in Lovenox manufacture. This process guarantees closeness between actual and target potencies, as exemplified by the results of release assays obtained during a three-year period. PMID:23644908

  12. Development of a fluorescent anti-factor Xa assay to monitor unfractionated and low molecular weight heparins.

    PubMed

    Harris, Leanne F; Castro-López, Vanessa; Hammadi, Nissrin; O'Donnell, James S; Killard, Anthony J

    2010-06-15

    Fluorogenic assays have many potential advantages over traditional clot-based and chromogenic assays such as the absence of interference from a range of factor deficiencies as well as offering the possibility of assays in platelet rich plasma or whole blood. A fluorogenic anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa) assay has been developed for the determination of unfractionated heparin (UFH), low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), namely enoxaparin and tinzaparin, and the synthetic heparinoid danaparoid, in commercial human pooled plasma. The assay was based on the complexation of heparin-spiked plasmas with exogenous FXa at a concentration of 4nM in the presence of 0.9microM of the fluorogenic substrate methylsulfonyl-D-cyclohexylalanyl-glycyl-arginine-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin acetate (Pefafluor FXa). Pooled plasma samples were spiked with concentrations of anticoagulants in the range 0-1.6U/ml. The assay was capable of the measurement of UFH and danaparoid in the range 0-1U/ml, and enoxaparin and tinzaparin in the range 0-0.8 and 0-0.6U/ml, respectively. Correlation coefficients generated by linear regression of the log/lin data analysis were between 0.93 and 0.96 for the anticoagulants tested. Assay percentage coefficients of variation were typically below 7%. PMID:20441964

  13. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Factor Xa: Insight into Conformational Transition of its Binding Subsites

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Narender; Briggs, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein flexibility and conformational diversity is well known to be a key characteristic of the function of many proteins. Human blood coagulation proteins have multiple substrates, and various protein-protein interactions are required for the smooth functioning of the coagulation cascade to maintain blood hemostasis. To address how a protein may cope with multiple interactions with its structurally diverse substrates and the accompanied structural changes that may drive these changes, we studied human Factor X. We employed 20 ns of molecular dynamics (MD) and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations on two different conformational forms of Factor X, open and closed, and observed an interchangeable conformational transition from one to another. This work also demonstrates the roles of various aromatic residues involved in aromatic-aromatic interactions which make this dynamic transition possible. PMID:18680100

  14. Noncanonical PAR3 activation by factor Xa identifies a novel pathway for Tie2 activation and stabilization of vascular integrity

    PubMed Central

    Stavenuiter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial barrier protective effects of activated protein C (APC) require the endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1, and PAR3. In contrast, PAR1 and PAR3 activation by thrombin results in barrier disruption. Noncanonical PAR1 and PAR3 activation by APC vs canonical activation by thrombin provides an explanation for the functional selectivity of these proteases. Here we found that factor Xa (FXa) activated PAR1 at canonical Arg41 similar to thrombin but cleaved PAR3 at noncanonical Arg41 similar to APC. This unique PAR1-PAR3 activation profile permitted the identification of noncanonical PAR3 activation as a novel activation pathway for barrier protective tunica intima endothelial receptor tyrosine kinase 2 (Tie2). APC, FXa, and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced prolonged activation of Tie2, whereas thrombin and the canonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide did not. Tie2 activation by FXa required PAR3 and EPCR. FXa and the noncanonical PAR3 tethered-ligand peptide induced Tie2- and PAR3-dependent upregulation of tight-junction-associated protein zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), translocation of ZO-1 to cell-cell borders, and the formation of typical ZO-1 honeycomb patterns that are indicative of tight-junction stabilization. These data provide intriguing novel insights into the diversification of functional selectivity of protease signaling achievable by canonical and noncanonical PAR activation, such as the activation of vascular-protective Tie2 by noncanonical PAR3 activation. PMID:25320242

  15. Pharmacokinetics, biotransformation, and mass balance of edoxaban, a selective, direct factor Xa inhibitor, in humans.

    PubMed

    Bathala, Mohinder S; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Oguma, Toshihiro; He, Ling; Lowrie, Chris; Mendell, Jeanne

    2012-12-01

    This study determined the mass balance and pharmacokinetics of edoxaban in humans after oral administration of [¹⁴C]edoxaban. After oral administration of 60 mg (as active moiety) of [¹⁴C]edoxaban to six healthy male subjects, serial blood/plasma and urinary and fecal samples were collected for up to 168 h postdose. All samples were analyzed for total radioactivity by liquid scintillation counting and for concentrations of edoxaban and four metabolites in plasma, urine, and fecal samples by either high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method using multiple reaction modes, or a liquid chromatography radiometric method. The mean recovery of radioactivity was >97% of the administered radioactive dose, with 62.2% eliminated in feces and 35.4% in urine. Unchanged edoxaban accounted for the majority of radioactivity, with 49.1 and 23.8% of the dose as parent observed in feces and urine, respectively. Unchanged edoxaban was the most abundant species in plasma, with a mean area under the curve (AUC)(0-∞) of 1596 ng · h/ml. The next most abundant species was metabolite M4, with a mean AUC(0-∞) 147 ng · h/ml. The mass balance of edoxaban was well described, with unchanged edoxaban as the most abundant component of total radioactivity. Edoxaban is eliminated through multiple pathways, but each accounts for only a small amount of overall elimination. PMID:22936313

  16. Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 10 (SSL10) inhibits blood coagulation by binding to prothrombin and factor Xa via their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Saotomo; Yokoyama, Ryosuke; Kamoshida, Go; Fujiwara, Toshinobu; Okada, Hiromi; Takii, Takemasa; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Fujii, Satoshi; Hashizume, Hideki; Onozaki, Kikuo

    2013-07-26

    The staphylococcal superantigen-like protein (SSL) family is composed of 14 exoproteins sharing structural similarity with superantigens but no superantigenic activity. Target proteins of four SSLs have been identified to be involved in host immune responses. However, the counterparts of other SSLs have been functionally uncharacterized. In this study, we have identified porcine plasma prothrombin as SSL10-binding protein by affinity purification using SSL10-conjugated Sepharose. The resin recovered the prodomain of prothrombin (fragment 1 + 2) as well as factor Xa in pull-down analysis. The equilibrium dissociation constant between SSL10 and prothrombin was 1.36 × 10(-7) M in surface plasmon resonance analysis. On the other hand, the resin failed to recover γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain-less coagulation factors and prothrombin from warfarin-treated mice, suggesting that the Gla domain of the coagulation factors is essential for the interaction. SSL10 prolonged plasma clotting induced by the addition of Ca(2+) and factor Xa. SSL10 did not affect the protease activity of thrombin but inhibited the generation of thrombin activity in recalcified plasma. S. aureus produces coagulase that non-enzymatically activates prothrombin. SSL10 attenuated clotting induced by coagulase, but the inhibitory effect was weaker than that on physiological clotting, and SSL10 did not inhibit protease activity of staphylothrombin, the complex of prothrombin with coagulase. These results indicate that SSL10 inhibits blood coagulation by interfering with activation of coagulation cascade via binding to the Gla domain of coagulation factor but not by directly inhibiting thrombin activity. This is the first finding that the bacterial protein inhibits blood coagulation via targeting the Gla domain of coagulation factors.

  17. Clinical Scenarios for Discordant Anti-Xa.

    PubMed

    Vera-Aguilera, Jesus; Yousef, Hindi; Beltran-Melgarejo, Diego; Teng, Teng Hugh; Jan, Ramos; Mok, Mary; Vera-Aguilera, Carlos; Moreno-Aguilera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Xa test measures the activity of heparin against the activity of activated coagulation factor X; significant variability of anti-Xa levels in common clinical scenarios has been observed. Objective. To review the most common clinical settings in which anti-Xa results can be bias. Evidence Review. Guidelines and current literature search: we used PubMed, Medline, Embase, and MEDION, from 2000 to October 2013. Results. Anti-Xa test is widely used; however the assay underestimates heparin concentration in the presence of significant AT deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, and postthrombolysis and in patients with hyperbilirubinemia; limited published data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of anti-Xa assays for managing UH therapy is available. Conclusions and Relevance. To our knowledge this is the first paper that summarizes the most common causes in which this assay can be affected, several "day to day" clinical scenarios can modify the outcomes, and we concur that these rarely recognized scenarios can be affected by negative outcomes in the daily practice. PMID:27293440

  18. Clinical Scenarios for Discordant Anti-Xa

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Aguilera, Jesus; Yousef, Hindi; Beltran-Melgarejo, Diego; Teng, Teng Hugh; Jan, Ramos; Mok, Mary; Vera-Aguilera, Carlos; Moreno-Aguilera, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Xa test measures the activity of heparin against the activity of activated coagulation factor X; significant variability of anti-Xa levels in common clinical scenarios has been observed. Objective. To review the most common clinical settings in which anti-Xa results can be bias. Evidence Review. Guidelines and current literature search: we used PubMed, Medline, Embase, and MEDION, from 2000 to October 2013. Results. Anti-Xa test is widely used; however the assay underestimates heparin concentration in the presence of significant AT deficiency, pregnancy, end stage renal disease, and postthrombolysis and in patients with hyperbilirubinemia; limited published data evaluating the safety and effectiveness of anti-Xa assays for managing UH therapy is available. Conclusions and Relevance. To our knowledge this is the first paper that summarizes the most common causes in which this assay can be affected, several “day to day” clinical scenarios can modify the outcomes, and we concur that these rarely recognized scenarios can be affected by negative outcomes in the daily practice. PMID:27293440

  19. Maximize x(a - x)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Five different methods for determining the maximizing condition for x(a - x) are presented. Included is the ancient Greek version and a method attributed to Fermat. None of the proofs use calculus. (LS)

  20. Assessment of apixaban plasma levels by laboratory tests: suitability of three anti-Xa assays. A multicentre French GEHT study.

    PubMed

    Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Flaujac, Claire; Delavenne, Xavier; Quenet, Sara; Horellou, Marie-Hélenè; Laporte, Silvy; Siguret, V; Lecompte, T

    2014-02-01

    While laboratory monitoring is not required in patients treated with apixaban, a direct factor-Xa inhibitor, assessment of its concentration is useful in some critical situations. However, few data are available on its effect on coagulation tests and on the suitability of anti-Xa assays for its quantification. It was the objective of this study to identify laboratory tests suitable for apixaban concentration assessment. Coagulation tests - PT and aPTT- and anti-Xa assays were performed in apixaban-spiked plasma samples. To evaluate the sensitivity of PT and aPTT to apixaban, we conducted a first monocenter part, with a wide range of concentrations (50-1,000 ng/ml), a large panel of reagents (20 reagents), and two coagulometers (STAR®, Stago and ACL TOP®, IL), and a second multicenter part involving 13 laboratories using either a common PT reagent (RecombiPlastin2G®) or the local PT and aPTT reagents. In the multicentre part, five blinded apixaban-spiked plasma samples (0/100/200/400/800 ng/ml - checked by HPLC-MS/MS) were used; apixaban concentrations were measured with three anti-Xa assays, apixaban calibrators and controls (Stago). PT and aPTT tests using a large panel of reagents displayed a low sensitivity to a wide range of apixaban concentrations. The concentrations to double PT ranged from 400 to >1,000 ng/ml with the 10 reagents. With the three anti-Xa assays, inter-laboratory precision and accuracy were below 11% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, whereas PT and aPTT tests were not sensitive enough to detect apixaban, the three anti-Xa assays tested using lyophilised apixaban calibrators and controls allowed to reliably quantify a wide range of apixaban concentrations.

  1. Monitoring Low Molecular Weight Heparins at Therapeutic Levels: Dose-Responses of, and Correlations and Differences between aPTT, Anti-Factor Xa and Thrombin Generation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Owain; Lybeck, Emanuel; Strandberg, Karin; Tynngård, Nahreen; Schött, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Background Low molecular weight heparins (LMWH’s) are used to prevent and treat thrombosis. Tests for monitoring LMWH’s include anti-factor Xa (anti-FXa), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin generation. Anti-FXa is the current gold standard despite LMWH’s varying affinities for FXa and thrombin. Aim To examine the effects of two different LMWH’s on the results of 4 different aPTT-tests, anti-FXa activity and thrombin generation and to assess the tests’ concordance. Method Enoxaparin and tinzaparin were added ex-vivo in concentrations of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 anti-FXa international units (IU)/mL, to blood from 10 volunteers. aPTT was measured using two whole blood methods (Free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and Hemochron Jr (HCJ)) and an optical plasma method using two different reagents (ActinFSL and PTT-Automat). Anti-FXa activity was quantified using a chromogenic assay. Thrombin generation (Endogenous Thrombin Potential, ETP) was measured on a Ceveron Alpha instrument using the TGA RB and more tissue-factor rich TGA RC reagents. Results Methods’ mean aPTT at 1.0 IU/mL LMWH varied between 54s (SD 11) and 69s (SD 14) for enoxaparin and between 101s (SD 21) and 140s (SD 28) for tinzaparin. ActinFSL gave significantly shorter aPTT results. aPTT and anti-FXa generally correlated well. ETP as measured with the TGA RC reagent but not the TGA RB reagent showed an inverse exponential relationship to the concentration of LMWH. The HCJ-aPTT results had the weakest correlation to anti-FXa and thrombin generation (Rs0.62–0.87), whereas the other aPTT methods had similar correlation coefficients (Rs0.80–0.92). Conclusions aPTT displays a linear dose-respone to LMWH. There is variation between aPTT assays. Tinzaparin increases aPTT and decreases thrombin generation more than enoxaparin at any given level of anti-FXa activity, casting doubt on anti-FXa’s present gold standard status. Thrombin generation with tissue factor-rich activator is

  2. Regulation of factor IXa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. Role of the endothelium and the plasma proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, H.E.; Trapp, H.G.; Griffith, M.J.; Roberts, H.R.; Pizzo, S.V.

    1984-06-01

    The regulation of human Factor IXa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. In human plasma, approximately 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to antithrombin III (ATIII) by 2 h, with no binding to alpha 2-macroglobulin or alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, as assessed by gel electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose beads. In the presence of heparin, virtually 100% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII by 1 min. The distribution of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was rapid (50% clearance in 2 min) and biphasic and was inhibited by large molar excesses of ATIII-thrombin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, but not alpha 2-macro-globulin-trypsin; it was also inhibited by large molar excesses of diisopropylphosphoryl - (DIP-) Factor Xa, DIP-thrombin, and Factor IX, but not by prothrombin or Factor X. The clearance of Factor IX was also rapid (50% clearance in 2.5 min) and was inhibited by a large molar excess of Factor IX, but not by large molar excesses of Factor X, prothrombin, DIP-Factor Xa, or DIP-thrombin. Electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose bead studies confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII. Organ distribution studies with /sup 125/I-Factor IXa demonstrated that most of the radioactivity was in the liver. These studies suggest that Factor IXa binds to at least two classes of binding sites on endothelial cells. One site apparently recognizes both Factors IX and IXa, but not Factor X, Factor Xa, prothrombin, or thrombin. The other site recognizes thrombin, Factor Xa, and Factor IXa, but not the zymogen forms of these clotting factors. After this binding, Factor IXa is bound to ATIII and the complex is cleared from the circulation by hepatocytes.

  3. Anti-coagulation assessment with prothrombin time and anti-Xa assays in real-world patients on treatment with rivaroxaban.

    PubMed

    Königsbrügge, Oliver; Quehenberger, Peter; Belik, Sabine; Weigel, Günter; Seger, Christoph; Griesmacher, Andrea; Pabinger, Ingrid; Ay, Cihan

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring of anti-coagulation with the direct factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban is considered unnecessary in a routine clinical setting. However, assessment of its anti-coagulant effect may be desirable in certain clinical situations. We assessed prothrombin time (PT) reagents and commercially available anti-Xa assays (Biophen) calibrated for rivaroxaban and heparin in comparison to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) measurements of rivaroxaban concentration in samples from patients on treatment with rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. Citrate plasma samples were obtained from 30 randomly selected patients on uninterrupted treatment with rivaroxaban for a minimum of 1 month. The anti-Xa assays, direct Xa inhibitor (DiXa-I®), and Heparin LRT® were conducted for both wide and low calibrations for rivaroxaban. Measurements were compared to LC-MS/MS using correlation, linear regression, intra-class correlation, and Bland-Altman analysis. In 30 patients (9 female) of median age 71.5 years and BMI 26.5 kg/m(2), rivaroxaban concentrations between 2.4 and 625 ng/ml (median 82 ng/ml) were measured by LC-MS/MS. PT reagents were poorly correlated with rivaroxaban concentrations (r (2) = 0.52 and 0.09). Anti-Xa assays DiXa-I (r (2) = 0.95) and Heparin LRT (r (2) = 0.97) were correlated with rivaroxaban in all concentrations, but especially in low concentrations with low calibrations (r (2) = 0.97 and 0.98, respectively). The highest agreement occurred between Heparin LRT and low rivaroxaban concentrations with a mean difference of -5.3 ng/ml (limits of agreement, 12.9 to 2.4 ng/ml). Anti-Xa assays can indirectly determine the concentration of rivaroxaban for a wide range of concentrations in real-world patients. An interpretation of anti-Xa and PT measurements in treatment with rivaroxaban requires knowledge of the local reagents. PMID:26025632

  4. Inhibitors of the Metalloproteinase Anthrax Lethal Factor.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allison B; Turk, Benjamin E

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis, a rod shaped, spore forming, gram positive bacteria, is the etiological agent of anthrax. B. anthracis virulence is partly attributable to two secreted bipartite protein toxins, which act inside host cells to disrupt signaling pathways important for host defense against infection. These toxins may also directly contribute to mortality in late stage infection. The zinc-dependent metalloproteinase anthrax lethal factor (LF) is a critical component of one of these protein toxins and a prime target for inhibitor development to produce anthrax therapeutics. Here, we describe recent efforts to identify specific and potent LF inhibitors. Derivatization of peptide substrate analogs bearing zinc-binding groups has produced potent and specific LF inhibitors, and X-ray crystallography of LFinhibitor complexes has provided insight into features required for high affinity binding. Novel inhibitor scaffolds have been identified through several approaches, including fragment-based drug discovery, virtual screening, and highthroughput screening of diverse compound libraries. Lastly, efforts to discover LF inhibitors have led to the development of new screening strategies, such as the use of full-length proteins as substrates, that may prove useful for other proteases as well. Overall, these efforts have led to a collection of chemically and mechanistically diverse molecules capable of inhibiting LF activity in vitro and in cells, as well as in animal models of anthrax infection. PMID:27072692

  5. Optogenetic Inhibitor of the Transcription Factor CREB.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmed M; Reis, Jakeb M; Xia, Yan; Rashid, Asim J; Mercaldo, Valentina; Walters, Brandon J; Brechun, Katherine E; Borisenko, Vitali; Josselyn, Sheena A; Karanicolas, John; Woolley, G Andrew

    2015-11-19

    Current approaches for optogenetic control of transcription do not mimic the activity of endogenous transcription factors, which act at numerous sites in the genome in a complex interplay with other factors. Optogenetic control of dominant negative versions of endogenous transcription factors provides a mechanism for mimicking the natural regulation of gene expression. Here we describe opto-DN-CREB, a blue-light-controlled inhibitor of the transcription factor CREB created by fusing the dominant negative inhibitor A-CREB to photoactive yellow protein (PYP). A light-driven conformational change in PYP prevents coiled-coil formation between A-CREB and CREB, thereby activating CREB. Optogenetic control of CREB function was characterized in vitro, in HEK293T cells, and in neurons where blue light enabled control of expression of the CREB targets NR4A2 and c-Fos. Dominant negative inhibitors exist for numerous transcription factors; linking these to optogenetic domains offers a general approach for spatiotemporal control of native transcriptional events. PMID:26590638

  6. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-11-01

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor-DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)). PMID:26529010

  7. Polyphenol Compound as a Transcription Factor Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seyeon

    2015-01-01

    A target-based approach has been used to develop novel drugs in many therapeutic fields. In the final stage of intracellular signaling, transcription factor–DNA interactions are central to most biological processes and therefore represent a large and important class of targets for human therapeutics. Thus, we focused on the idea that the disruption of protein dimers and cognate DNA complexes could impair the transcriptional activation and cell transformation regulated by these proteins. Historically, natural products have been regarded as providing the primary leading compounds capable of modulating protein–protein or protein-DNA interactions. Although their mechanism of action is not fully defined, polyphenols including flavonoids were found to act mostly as site-directed small molecule inhibitors on signaling. There are many reports in the literature of screening initiatives suggesting improved drugs that can modulate the transcription factor interactions responsible for disease. In this review, we focus on polyphenol compound inhibitors against dimeric forms of transcription factor components of intracellular signaling pathways (for instance, c-jun/c-fos (Activator Protein-1; AP-1), c-myc/max, Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and β-catenin/T cell factor (Tcf)). PMID:26529010

  8. Substrate-Guided Design of Selective FXIIa Inhibitors Based on the Plant-Derived Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-II (MCoTI-II) Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Joakim E; Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Abdul Ghani, Hafiza; de Veer, Simon J; Schroeder, Christina I; Harris, Jonathan M; Craik, David J

    2016-08-11

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of factor XIIa (FXIIa) provides thrombus protection without bleeding complications. Here, we defined the extended substrate specificity of FXIIa and its close homologue factor Xa and used these data, together with inhibitor-based and structure-guided methods, to engineer selective FXIIa inhibitors based on Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II. PMID:27434175

  9. Substrate-Guided Design of Selective FXIIa Inhibitors Based on the Plant-Derived Momordica cochinchinensis Trypsin Inhibitor-II (MCoTI-II) Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Swedberg, Joakim E; Mahatmanto, Tunjung; Abdul Ghani, Hafiza; de Veer, Simon J; Schroeder, Christina I; Harris, Jonathan M; Craik, David J

    2016-08-11

    Thrombosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases. Inhibition of factor XIIa (FXIIa) provides thrombus protection without bleeding complications. Here, we defined the extended substrate specificity of FXIIa and its close homologue factor Xa and used these data, together with inhibitor-based and structure-guided methods, to engineer selective FXIIa inhibitors based on Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II.

  10. Prognostic Factors in Cholinesterase Inhibitor Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Sun, In O; Yoon, Hyun Ju; Lee, Kwang Young

    2015-01-01

    Background Organophosphates and carbamates are insecticides that are associated with high human mortality. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with cholinesterase inhibitor (CI) poisoning. Material/Methods This study included 92 patients with CI poisoning in the period from January 2005 to August 2013. We divided these patients into 2 groups (survivors vs. non-survivors), compared their clinical characteristics, and analyzed the predictors of survival. Results The mean age of the included patients was 56 years (range, 16–88). The patients included 57 (62%) men and 35 (38%) women. When we compared clinical characteristics between the survivor group (n=81, 88%) and non-survivor group (n=11, 12%), there were no differences in renal function, pancreatic enzymes, or serum cholinesterase level, except for serum bicarbonate level and APACHE II score. The serum bicarbonate level was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (12.45±2.84 vs. 18.36±4.73, P<0.01). The serum APACHE II score was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (24.36±5.22 vs. 12.07±6.67, P<0.01). The development of pneumonia during hospitalization was higher in non-survivors than in survivors (n=9, 82% vs. n=31, 38%, P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bicarbonate concentration, APACHE II score, and pneumonia during hospitalization were the important prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Conclusions Serum bicarbonate and APACHE II score are useful prognostic factors in patients with CI poisoning. Furthermore, pneumonia during hospitalization was also important in predicting prognosis in patients with CI poisoning. Therefore, prevention and active treatment of pneumonia is important in the management of patients with CI poisoning. PMID:26411989

  11. The structure of heparin oligosaccharide fragments with high anti-(factor Xa) activity containing the minimal antithrombin III-binding sequence. Chemical and 13C nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies.

    PubMed Central

    Casu, B; Oreste, P; Torri, G; Zoppetti, G; Choay, J; Lormeau, J C; Petitou, M; Sinäy, P

    1981-01-01

    The chemical composition and the 13C n.m.r. spectra of heparin oligosaccharides (essentially octasaccharides), having high affinity for antithrombin III and high anti-(Factor Xa) activity, prepared by three independent approaches (extraction, partial deaminative cleavage with HNO2 and partial depolymerization with bacterial heparinase), leading to different terminal residues, have been studied and compared with those of the corresponding inactive species. Combined wit chemical data, the spectra of the active oligosaccharides and of their fragmentation products afforded information on composition and sequence. The three types of active oligosaccharides were shown to have the common hexasaccharide core I-Aa-G-As*-Is-As, where I and alpha-L-idopyranosyl-uronic acid, Aa = 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranose, G = beta-D-glucopyranosyl-uronic acid, Is = alpha-L-idopyranosyluronic acid 2-O-sulphate, As = 2-deoxy-2-sulphamino-alpha-D-glucopyranose 6-O-sulphate. The fourth residue (As*) is an unusually substituted amino sugar resistant to mild deamination. The 13C spectra of the active species are characterized by signals from the above atypical amino sugar, the most evident of which is at 57.7 p.p.m. These signals, compared with those of appropriate synthetic model compounds, are compatible with the recently proposed 3-O-sulphation of the residue As* [Lindahl, Bäckström, Thunberg & Leder (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 6551-6555]. PMID:7325974

  12. Small Molecule Inhibitors of Anthrax Lethal Factor Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John D.; Khan, Atiyya R.; Cardinale, Steven C.; Butler, Michelle M.; Bowlin, Terry L.; Peet, Norton P.

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript describes the preparation of new small molecule inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor. Our starting point was the symmetrical, bis-quinolinyl compound 1 (NSC 12155). Optimization of one half of this molecule led to new LF inhibitors that were desymmetrized to afford more drug-like compounds. PMID:24290062

  13. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sidman, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor pathway has been implicated in various tumors, including human papillomavirus (HPV) lesions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP). Due to the presence of epidermal growth factor receptors in RRP, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been utilized as adjuvant therapy. This case series examines the response to EGFR inhibitors in RRP. Four patients with life-threatening RRP were treated with EGFR inhibitors. Operative frequency and anatomical Derkay scores were calculated prior to, and following EGFR inhibitor treatment via retrospective chart review. The anatomical Derkay score decreased for all four patients after initiation of EGFR inhibitor therapy. In one patient, the operative frequency increased after switching to an intravenous inhibitor after loss of control with an oral inhibitor. In the other patients there was a greater than 20% decrease in operative frequency in one and a more than doubling in the time between procedures in two.  This study suggests that EGFR inhibitors are a potential adjuvant therapy in RRP and deserve further study in a larger number of patients. PMID:24795806

  14. Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus

    PubMed Central

    Girish, Vallerinteavide Mavelli; Kini, R. Manjunatha

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted clots lead to heart attack and stroke that result in a large number of deaths. Currently available anticoagulants have some drawbacks including their non-specific actions. Therefore novel anticoagulants that target specific steps in the coagulation pathway are being sought. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel anticoagulant protein from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus (African Ringhals cobra) that specifically inhibits factor X (FX) activation by the extrinsic tenase complex (ETC) and thus named as exactin. Exactin belongs to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, with high sequence identity to neurotoxins and low identity to the well-characterized 3FTx anticoagulants-hemextin and naniproin. It is a mixed-type inhibitor of ETC with the kinetic constants, Ki’ and Ki determined as 30.62 ± 7.73 nM and 153.75 ± 17.96 nM, respectively. Exactin does not bind to the active site of factor VIIa and factor Xa based on its weak inhibition (IC50 ≫ 300 μM) to the amidolytic activities of these proteases. Exactin shows exquisite macromolecular specificity to FX activation as compared to factor IX activation by ETC. Exactin thus displays a distinct mechanism when compared to other anticoagulants targeting ETC, with its selective preference to ETC-FX [ES] complex. PMID:27558950

  15. Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus.

    PubMed

    Girish, Vallerinteavide Mavelli; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-08-25

    Unwanted clots lead to heart attack and stroke that result in a large number of deaths. Currently available anticoagulants have some drawbacks including their non-specific actions. Therefore novel anticoagulants that target specific steps in the coagulation pathway are being sought. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel anticoagulant protein from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus (African Ringhals cobra) that specifically inhibits factor X (FX) activation by the extrinsic tenase complex (ETC) and thus named as exactin. Exactin belongs to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, with high sequence identity to neurotoxins and low identity to the well-characterized 3FTx anticoagulants-hemextin and naniproin. It is a mixed-type inhibitor of ETC with the kinetic constants, Ki' and Ki determined as 30.62 ± 7.73 nM and 153.75 ± 17.96 nM, respectively. Exactin does not bind to the active site of factor VIIa and factor Xa based on its weak inhibition (IC50 ≫ 300 μM) to the amidolytic activities of these proteases. Exactin shows exquisite macromolecular specificity to FX activation as compared to factor IX activation by ETC. Exactin thus displays a distinct mechanism when compared to other anticoagulants targeting ETC, with its selective preference to ETC-FX [ES] complex.

  16. Exactin: A specific inhibitor of Factor X activation by extrinsic tenase complex from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus.

    PubMed

    Girish, Vallerinteavide Mavelli; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted clots lead to heart attack and stroke that result in a large number of deaths. Currently available anticoagulants have some drawbacks including their non-specific actions. Therefore novel anticoagulants that target specific steps in the coagulation pathway are being sought. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a novel anticoagulant protein from the venom of Hemachatus haemachatus (African Ringhals cobra) that specifically inhibits factor X (FX) activation by the extrinsic tenase complex (ETC) and thus named as exactin. Exactin belongs to the three-finger toxin (3FTx) family, with high sequence identity to neurotoxins and low identity to the well-characterized 3FTx anticoagulants-hemextin and naniproin. It is a mixed-type inhibitor of ETC with the kinetic constants, Ki' and Ki determined as 30.62 ± 7.73 nM and 153.75 ± 17.96 nM, respectively. Exactin does not bind to the active site of factor VIIa and factor Xa based on its weak inhibition (IC50 ≫ 300 μM) to the amidolytic activities of these proteases. Exactin shows exquisite macromolecular specificity to FX activation as compared to factor IX activation by ETC. Exactin thus displays a distinct mechanism when compared to other anticoagulants targeting ETC, with its selective preference to ETC-FX [ES] complex. PMID:27558950

  17. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Hypoxia inducible factor pathway inhibitors as anticancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Burroughs, Sarah K; Kaluz, Stefan; Wang, Danzhu; Wang, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a significant feature of solid tumor cancers. Hypoxia leads to a more malignant phenotype that is resistant to chemotherapy and radiation, is more invasive and has greater metastatic potential. Hypoxia activates the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which mediates the biological effects of hypoxia in tissues. The HIF complex acts as a transcription factor for many genes that increase tumor survival and proliferation. To date, many HIF pathway inhibitors indirectly affect HIF but there have been no clinically approved direct HIF inhibitors. This can be attributed to the complexity of the HIF pathway, as well as to the challenges of inhibiting protein–protein interactions. PMID:23573973

  19. Clearance of human factor XIa-inhibitor complexes in rats.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; Bleeker, W K; Agterberg, J; Rigter, G; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E

    1996-06-01

    The serpins C1 esterase inhibitor (C1Inh), antithrombin (AT), alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) and alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) are known inhibitors of coagulation factor XIa (FXIa). Although initial studies suggested alpha 1AT to be the main inhibitor of FXIa, we recently demonstrated C1Inh to be a predominant inhibitor of FXIa in vitro in human plasma. The present study was performed to investigate the plasma elimination kinetics of preformed human FXIa-FXIa inhibitor complexes injected in rats. The amounts of complexes remaining in circulation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The plasma half-life time of clearance (t1/2) was 98 min for FXIa-alpha 1AT complexes, whereas it was considerably shorter, i.e. 19, 18 and 15 min for FXIa-C1Inh, FXIa-alpha 2AP and FXIa-AT complexes, respectively. Thus, due to this different plasma t1/2, preferentially FXIa-alpha 1AT complexes may be detected in clinical samples. Furthermore, measuring FXIa-FXIa inhibitor complexes in patient samples may not help to clarify the relative contribution of the individual serpins to inactivation of FXIa in vivo.

  20. Crystal structure of human factor VIIa/tissue factor in complex with peptide mimetic inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Kikuchi, Yasufumi; Oh-eda, Masayoshi; Yabuta, Naohiro; Koga, Takaki; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Haramura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hirofumi; Esaki, Toru; Sato, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Susumu; Ohta, Masateru; Kozono, Toshiro

    2004-11-26

    The 3D structure of human factor VIIa/soluble tissue factor in complex with a peptide mimetic inhibitor, propylsulfonamide-D-Thr-Met-p-aminobenzamidine, is determined by X-ray crystallography. As compared with the interactions between thrombin and thrombin inhibitors, the interactions at S2 and S3 sites characteristic of factor VIIa and factor VIIa inhibitors are revealed. The S2 site has a small pocket, which is filled by the hydrophobic methionine side chain in P2. The small S3 site fits the small size residue, D-threonine in P3. The structural data and SAR data of the peptide mimetic inhibitor show that these interactions in the S2 and S3 sites play an important role for the improvement of selectivity versus thrombin. The results will provide valuable information for the structure-based drug design of specific inhibitors for FVIIa/TF. PMID:15504346

  1. Cutaneous adverse reactions specific to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lupu, I; Voiculescu, VM; Bacalbasa, N; Prie, BE; Cojocaru, I; Giurcaneanu, C

    2015-01-01

    Classical antineoplastic therapy is encumbered by extensively studied adverse reactions, most often of systemic nature. The emergence of new generations of anticancer treatments, including epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors, besides improving the response to treatment and the survival rate, is accompanied by the occurrence of new specific side effects, incompletely studied. These side effects are most often cutaneous (hand foot syndrome, acneiform reactions), and in some cases are extremely severe, requiring dose reduction or drug discontinuation. The prevention of the cutaneous adverse effects and their treatment require a close collaboration between the oncologist and the dermatologist. The occurrence of some of these skin adverse effects may be a favorable prognostic factor for the response to the cancer treatment and the overall survival. Abbreviations: EGFR = epidermal growth factor receptors; EGFRI = epidermal growth factor receptors inhibitors PMID:26361513

  2. Acquired factor XI inhibitor in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Goodrick, M. J.; Prentice, A. G.; Copplestone, J. A.; Pamphilon, D. H.; Boon, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A 71 year old man with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) experienced excessive bleeding following transurethral resection of the prostate. Investigations showed a prolonged kaolin cephalin clotting time (KCCT) with low concentrations of factor XI. The prolonged KCCT was largely corrected by mixing with normal plasma but this correction was lost on incubation, confirming the presence of an inhibitor. He was treated with pulsed methylprednisolone and chlorambucil which resulted in the resolution of the bleeding problem and the loss of detectable circulating inhibitor. PMID:1577975

  3. Unexpected postpartum hemorrhage due to an acquired factor VIII inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Paidas, Michael J; Hossain, Nazli

    2014-09-01

    Unexplained postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) refractory to standard hemostatic measures should trigger a heightened clinical suspicion of an acquired bleeding disorder. When hemostatic medical interventions and surgical procedures fail to control the bleeding, then significant postoperative blood loss, debilitating morbidity, loss of fertility, and death may occur. In the setting of an autoantibody inhibitor to factor VIII (FVIII), control of life-threatening PPH and avoidance of subsequent bleeding episodes depends on a timely and accurate diagnosis, prompt hemostatic treatment and eradication of FVIII inhibitors, and appropriate long-term patient care and management. Acquired postpartum hemophilia due to a FVIII inhibitor is a rare cause of PPH; however, delayed treatment can lead to increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Acquired FVIII inhibitors also pose an emerging bleeding threat to the neonate as a result of possible transplacental transfer of FVIII autoantibodies to the fetus during the last trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness among hematologists and obstetricians/gynecologists regarding the occurrence of FVIII neutralizing autoantibodies as a cause of PPH, and emphasize the importance of collaboration between obstetrician/gynecologists and hematology specialists to optimize the diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and long-term management of women who experience PPH due to an acquired FVIII inhibitor. PMID:24338123

  4. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Muthuvel Seral; Raj Kumar, Thallur Ramakrishnan; Subramanian, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia). With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity. PMID:25624582

  5. A Novel Allosteric Inhibitor of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF)*

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Fengwei; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A.; Cirillo, Pier; Ciustea, Mihai; Ledizet, Michel; Aristoff, Paul A.; Leng, Lin; Koski, Raymond A.; Powell, Thomas J.; Bucala, Richard; Anthony, Karen G.

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a catalytic cytokine and an upstream mediator of the inflammatory pathway. MIF has broad regulatory properties, dysregulation of which has been implicated in the pathology of multiple immunological diseases. Inhibition of MIF activity with small molecules has proven beneficial in a number of disease models. Known small molecule MIF inhibitors typically bind in the tautomerase site of the MIF trimer, often covalently modifying the catalytic proline. Allosteric MIF inhibitors, particularly those that associate with the protein by noncovalent interactions, could reveal novel ways to block MIF activity for therapeutic benefit and serve as chemical probes to elucidate the structural basis for the diverse regulatory properties of MIF. In this study, we report the identification and functional characterization of a novel allosteric MIF inhibitor. Identified from a high throughput screening effort, this sulfonated azo compound termed p425 strongly inhibited the ability of MIF to tautomerize 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate. Furthermore, p425 blocked the interaction of MIF with its receptor, CD74, and interfered with the pro-inflammatory activities of the cytokine. Structural studies revealed a unique mode of binding for p425, with a single molecule of the inhibitor occupying the interface of two MIF trimers. The inhibitor binds MIF mainly on the protein surface through hydrophobic interactions that are stabilized by hydrogen bonding with four highly specific residues from three different monomers. The mode of p425 binding reveals a unique way to block the activity of the cytokine for potential therapeutic benefit in MIF-associated diseases. PMID:22782901

  6. Malaria: a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor from parasitized erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, N A; Caro, H N; Taverne, J; Playfair, J H; Rademacher, T W

    1996-01-01

    The excessive production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with the pathology of blood-stage malaria and phosphatidylinositol-containing phospholipid antigens from parasitized erythrocytes stimulate its secretion by macrophages, thus acting as toxins. This brief report describes some properties of an inhibitor present in lysates from erythrocytes infected with malarial parasites that blocked the detection of recombinant TNF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and diminished or abolished the cytotoxicity of TNF. It was not found in control lysates of normal erythrocytes. Its addition to macrophage cultures stimulated by toxic malarial preparations or by bacterial lipopolysaccharide also blocked the detection of TNF. These findings may explain the contradictory results obtained from different assays for TNF, and emphasize the need for caution when interpreting the results of a single assay system. If released when parasitized erythrocytes rupture in vivo, the inhibitor could help protect both parasite and host from the damaging effects of TNF. PMID:8778034

  7. Development of Trypsin-Like Serine Protease Inhibitors as Therapeutic Agents: Opportunities, Challenges, and their Unique Structure-Based Rationales.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guyan; Bowen, J Phillip

    2016-01-01

    There has been a revolution in the development of effective, small-molecule anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. Numerous trypsin-like serine proteases have been under active pursuit as therapeutic targets. Important examples include thrombin, factor VIIa, factor Xa, and β-tryptase with indications ranging from thrombosis and inflammation to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Trypsin-like serine proteases exhibit a highly similar tertiary folding pattern, especially for the region near the substrate binding pocket that includes the conserved catalytic triad consisting of histidine 57, aspartic acid 102, and serine 195. A rich collection of X-ray structures for many trypsin-like serine proteases is available, which greatly facilitated the optimization of small organic inhibitors as therapeutic agents. The present review surveyed those inhibitors disclosed in peer-reviewed scientific journals and patent publications with a special focus on structural features and protein-inhibitor interactions that implicated the inhibitor optimization process. The role played by the residue 190 of trypsin-like serine proteases is critical. While many inhibitors without a basic group have progressed into the clinic for ones with alanine 190, the task for those with serine 190 remains extremely challenging, if not impossible. In addition to warfarin, heparin, and low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), treatment options have expanded with the development and approval of the new oral anticoagulants (NOACs). The NOACs are superior to vitamin K antagonists in terms of rapid onset, pharmacokinetics, drug/food interactions, and regular coagulation monitoring; but one serious drawback is the lack of an effective antidote at this time. Apixaban (Eliquis), rivaroxaban (Xarelto), and edoxaban (Savaysa) are the new Xa inhibitors that have been recently approved by the U.S. FDA and are in current clinical practice. These drugs bind to the active site of factor Xa (fXa

  8. Potent inhibitors of anthrax lethal factor from green tea

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Aica, Isabella; Donà, Massimo; Tonello, Fiorella; Piris, Alejandro; Mock, Michèle; Montecucco, Cesare; Garbisa, Spiridione

    2004-01-01

    The anthrax lethal factor (LF) has a major role in the development of anthrax. LF is delivered by the protective antigen (PA) inside the cell, where it exerts its metalloprotease activity on the N-terminus of MAPK-kinases. PA+LF are cytotoxic to macrophages in culture and kill the Fischer 344 rat when injected intravenously. We describe here the properties of some polyphenols contained in green tea as powerful inhibitors of LF metalloproteolytic activity, and how the main catechin of green tea, (−)epigallocatechin-3-gallate, prevents the LF-induced death of macrophages and Fischer 344 rats. PMID:15031715

  9. Inhibitor-neutralisation assay and electro-immuno assay of human factor IX (Christmas factor).

    PubMed

    Bertina, R M; van der Linden, I K

    1977-06-15

    A rabbit antibody specifically precipitating human factor IX has been used in the assay of factor IX antigen. The results obtained with two different methods (inhibitor-neutralisation assay and electro-immunoassay) have been compared in a group of healthy individuals and in a group of hemophilia B patients and carriers. In general, identical results are obtained with both methods, except in some hemophilia B+ carriers and patients, where the electroimmuno assay gives 1.5-2.0 times higher levels. Results obtained by electroimmuno assay are more accurate and reproducible than those obtained by inhibitor-neutralisation assay, which is of importance for its potential use in carrier detection.

  10. Quantification of plasma factor XIIa-Cl(-)-inhibitor and kallikrein-Cl(-)-inhibitor complexes in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Nuijens, J H; Huijbregts, C C; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Abbink, J J; Strack van Schijndel, R J; Felt-Bersma, R J; Thijs, L G; Hack, C E

    1988-12-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that activation of the contact system of intrinsic coagulation plays a role in the pathogenesis of septic shock. To monitor contact activation in patients with sepsis, we developed highly sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for factor XIIa-Cl(-)-inhibitor (Cl(-)-Inh) and kallikrein-Cl(-)-Inh complexes using a monoclonal antibody (MoAb Kok 12) that binds to a neodeterminant exposed on both complexed and cleaved Cl(-)-Inh. Plasma samples were serially collected from 48 patients admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe sepsis. Forty percent of patients on at least one occasion had increased levels of plasma factor XIIa-Cl(-)-Inh (greater than 5 x 10(-4) U/mL) and kallikrein-Cl(-)-Inh (greater than 25 x 10(-4) U/mL), that correlated at a molar ratio of approximately 1:3. Levels of factor XII antigen in plasma and both the highest as well as the levels on admission of plasma factor XIIa-Cl(-)-Inh in 23 patients with septic shock were lower than in 25 normotensive patients (P = .015: factor XII on admission; P = .04: highest factor XIIa-Cl(-)-Inh; P = .01: factor XIIa-Cl(-)-Inh on admission). No significant differences in plasma kallikrein-Cl(-)-Inh or prekallikrein antigen were found between these patients' groups. Elevated Cl(-)-Inh complex levels were measured less frequently in serial samples from patients with septic shock than in those from patients without shock (P less than .0001). Based on these results, we conclude that plasma Cl(-)-Inh complex levels during sepsis may not properly reflect the extent of contact activation.

  11. EPAS1/HIF-2 alpha-mediated downregulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor leads to a pro-thrombotic potential in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Stavik, Benedicte; Espada, Sandra; Cui, Xue Yan; Iversen, Nina; Holm, Sverre; Mowinkel, Marie-Christine; Halvorsen, Bente; Skretting, Grethe; Sandset, Per Morten

    2016-04-01

    Neovascularization and hemorrhaging are evident in advanced atherosclerotic plaques due to hypoxic conditions, and mediate the accumulation of metabolic substrates, inflammatory cells, lipids, and other blood born factors inside the plaque. Tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is mainly expressed by endothelial cells and is the endogenous inhibitor of the coagulation activator TF, which together with the downstream product thrombin can drive plaque progression and atherogenesis. We aimed to investigate the effect of hypoxic conditions on endothelial cell expression and activity of TFPI and TF that are important in coagulation initiation. Hypoxia was induced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells using chemicals or 1% oxygen tension, and mRNA and protein expressions were measured using qRT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blot analysis. Microscopy of fluorescence-labeled cells was used to visualize cell-associated TFPI. Cell-surface factor Xa (FXa) activity was measured using a two-stage chromogenic substrate method. We found that hypoxia reduced the TFPI mRNA and protein levels and increased the TF mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner. The effect on TFPI was apparent on all the protein pools of TFPI, i.e., secreted TFPI, cell-surface associated TFPI, and intracellular TFPI, and seemed to be dependent upon hypoxia inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α). An increase in FXa activity was also observed on the endothelial cell surface, reflecting an increase in pro-thrombotic potential of the cells. Our findings indicate that hypoxic conditions may enhance the pro-coagulant activity of endothelial cells, which may promote atherogenesis in addition to clinical events and thus the severity of atherosclerotic disorders. PMID:26826018

  12. Draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1, a fecal bacterium of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-He; Pan, Guang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Wang; Ma, Qing-Yi; Hou, Rong; Tan, Xue-Mei

    2012-12-01

    Enterobacter cloacae, a common pathogenic bacterium, is a Gram-negative bacillus. We analyzed the draft genome of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1 from the feces of a giant panda in China. Genes encoding a β-lactamase and efflux pumps, as well as other factors, have been found in the genome. PMID:23209197

  13. Draft genome sequence of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1, a fecal bacterium of giant pandas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yue; Zhao, Chuan-Wu; Zhang, Yi-Zheng; Zhang, Zhi-He; Pan, Guang-Lin; Liu, Wen-Wang; Ma, Qing-Yi; Hou, Rong; Tan, Xue-Mei

    2012-12-01

    Enterobacter cloacae, a common pathogenic bacterium, is a Gram-negative bacillus. We analyzed the draft genome of Enterobacter cloacae subsp. cloacae strain 08XA1 from the feces of a giant panda in China. Genes encoding a β-lactamase and efflux pumps, as well as other factors, have been found in the genome.

  14. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor associated skin eruption.

    PubMed

    Seiverling, Elizabeth V; Fernanadez, Emmy M; Adams, David

    2006-04-01

    EGFR Inhibitors are used to treat Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). A common side effect of EGFR Inhibitors is a follicular/pustular skin eruption. We report a case of gefitinib (Iressa) associated skin eruption. The treatment regimen consisted of triamcinolone 0.1% cream twice daily, clindamycin 1% lotion twice daily and sodium sulfacetamide lotion twice daily. The clinical presentation, etiology, and management options of EGFR Inhibitor associated skin eruptions are discussed.

  15. Marker-aided Incorporation of Xa38, a Novel Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene, in PB1121 and Comparison of its Resistance Spectrum with xa13 + Xa21

    PubMed Central

    Ellur, Ranjith K.; Khanna, Apurva; S, Gopala Krishnan.; Bhowmick, Prolay K.; Vinod, K. K.; Nagarajan, M.; Mondal, Kalyan K.; Singh, Nagendra K.; Singh, Kuldeep; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    Basmati rice is preferred internationally because of its appealing taste, mouth feel and aroma. Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) is a widely grown variety known for its excellent grain and cooking quality in the international and domestic market. It contributes approximately USD 3 billion to India’s forex earning annually by being the most traded variety. However, PB1121 is highly susceptible to bacterial blight (BB) disease. A novel BB resistance gene Xa38 was incorporated in PB1121 from donor parent PR114-Xa38 using a modified marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) scheme. Phenotypic selection prior to background selection was instrumental in identifying the novel recombinants with maximum recovery of recurrent parent phenome. The strategy was effective in delimiting the linkage drag to <0.5 mb upstream and <1.9 mb downstream of Xa38 with recurrent parent genome recovery upto 96.9% in the developed NILs. The NILs of PB1121 carrying Xa38 were compared with PB1121 NILs carrying xa13 + Xa21 (developed earlier in our lab) for their resistance to BB. Both NILs showed resistance against the Xoo races 1, 2, 3 and 6. Additionally, Xa38 also resisted Xoo race 5 to which xa13 + Xa21 was susceptible. The PB1121 NILs carrying Xa38 gene will provide effective control of BB in the Basmati growing region. PMID:27403778

  16. Marker-aided Incorporation of Xa38, a Novel Bacterial Blight Resistance Gene, in PB1121 and Comparison of its Resistance Spectrum with xa13 + Xa21.

    PubMed

    Ellur, Ranjith K; Khanna, Apurva; S, Gopala Krishnan; Bhowmick, Prolay K; Vinod, K K; Nagarajan, M; Mondal, Kalyan K; Singh, Nagendra K; Singh, Kuldeep; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Singh, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Basmati rice is preferred internationally because of its appealing taste, mouth feel and aroma. Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) is a widely grown variety known for its excellent grain and cooking quality in the international and domestic market. It contributes approximately USD 3 billion to India's forex earning annually by being the most traded variety. However, PB1121 is highly susceptible to bacterial blight (BB) disease. A novel BB resistance gene Xa38 was incorporated in PB1121 from donor parent PR114-Xa38 using a modified marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB) scheme. Phenotypic selection prior to background selection was instrumental in identifying the novel recombinants with maximum recovery of recurrent parent phenome. The strategy was effective in delimiting the linkage drag to <0.5 mb upstream and <1.9 mb downstream of Xa38 with recurrent parent genome recovery upto 96.9% in the developed NILs. The NILs of PB1121 carrying Xa38 were compared with PB1121 NILs carrying xa13 + Xa21 (developed earlier in our lab) for their resistance to BB. Both NILs showed resistance against the Xoo races 1, 2, 3 and 6. Additionally, Xa38 also resisted Xoo race 5 to which xa13 + Xa21 was susceptible. The PB1121 NILs carrying Xa38 gene will provide effective control of BB in the Basmati growing region. PMID:27403778

  17. Fibroblast growth factor is an inhibitor of chondrocyte terminal differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Iwamoto, M. )

    1990-04-05

    The effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on terminal differentiation of chondrocytes and cartilage-matrix calcification were investigated. Rabbit growth-plate chondrocytes maintained as a pelleted mass in a centrifuge tube produced an abundant proteoglycan matrix during the matrix-maturation stage, yielding a cartilage-like tissue. Thereafter, they terminally differentiated to hypertrophic chondrocytes which produced high levels of alkaline phosphatase. These cells induced extensive calcification of the matrix in the absence of additional phosphate. Addition of bFGF to the chondrocyte cultures abolished the increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, {sup 45}Ca deposition, and the calcium content. These effects were dose-dependent, reversible, and observed in the presence of cytosine arabinoside, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. The inhibitory effects could be observed only when chondrocytes were exposed to bFGF in a transition period between the matrix-maturation and hypertrophic stages. As chondrocytes differentiated to hypertrophic cells, bFGF became less effective in inhibiting the expression of the mineralization-related phenotypes. The present study also shows that although the rate of ({sup 35}S)sulfate incorporation into large, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the cell-matrix fraction is very high during the matrix-maturation stage, it abruptly decreases by 90% after terminal differentiation. Furthermore, the terminal differentiation-associated decrease in proteoglycan synthesis was delayed by bFGF. These results provide evidence that bFGF inhibits terminal differentiation of chondrocytes and calcification.

  18. Pancreatitis with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ghatalia, Pooja; Morgan, Charity J; Choueiri, Toni K; Rocha, Pedro; Naik, Gurudatta; Sonpavde, Guru

    2015-04-01

    A trial-level meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relative risk (RR) of pancreatitis associated with multi-targeted vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Eligible studies included randomized phase 2 and 3 trials comparing arms with and without an FDA-approved VEGFR TKI (sunitinib, sorafenib, pazopanib, axitinib, vandetanib, cabozantinib, ponatinib, regorafenib). Statistical analyses calculated the RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 10,578 patients from 16 phase III trials and 6 phase II trials were selected. The RR for all grade and high-grade pancreatitis for the TKI vs. no TKI- arms was 1.95 (p=0.042, 95% CI: 1.02 to 3.70) and 1.89 (p=0.069, 95% CI: 0.95 to 373), respectively. No differential impact of malignancy type or specific TKI agent was seen on RR of all grade of high grade pancreatitis. Better patient selection and monitoring may mitigate the risk of severe pancreatitis.

  19. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  20. Inhibitors in childhood hemophilia A: genetic and treatment-related risk factors for development and eradication.

    PubMed

    DiMichele, Donna M

    2013-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies remains a serious complication of hemophilia replacement therapy. Factor VIII inhibiting antibodies (inhibitors) occur commonly following replacement therapy in hemophilia A, creating a significant burden of clinical disease. This article will review our current understanding of risk factors and their known impact on inhibitor development in previously untreated or minimally treated children with severe and mild hemophilia A. It will also explore how the most recently elucidated immunology of inhibitor development might hold important clues to more effective inhibitor eradication and prevention in this heavily impacted patient population. PMID:23109404

  1. Neutralisation of factor VIII inhibitors by anti-idiotypes isolated from phage-displayed libraries.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Anja; Brettschneider, Kerstin; Kahle, Jörg; Orlowski, Aleksander; Becker-Peters, Karin; Stichel, Diana; Schulze, Jörg; Braner, Markus; Tampé, Robert; Schwabe, Dirk; Königs, Christoph

    2016-07-01

    Following replacement therapy with coagulation factor VIII (FVIII), up to 30 % of haemophilia A patients develop FVIII-specific inhibitory antibodies (FVIII inhibitors). Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is not always successful, resulting in a need for alternative treatments for FVIII inhibitor-positive patients. As tolerance induction in the course of ITI appears to involve the formation of anti-idiotypes specific for anti-FVIII antibodies, such anti-idiotypes might be used to restore haemostasis in haemophilia A patients with FVIII inhibitors. We isolated anti-idiotypic antibody fragments (scFvs) binding to murine FVIII inhibitors 2-76 and 2-77 from phage-displayed libraries. FVIII inhibitor/anti-idiotype interactions were very specific as no cross-reactivity with other FVIII inhibitors or isotype controls was observed. ScFvs blocked binding of FVIII inhibitors to FVIII and neutralised their cognate inhibitors in vitro and a monoclonal mouse model. In addition, scFv JkH5 specific for FVIII inhibitor 2-76 stained 2-76-producing hybridoma cells. JkH5 residues R52 and Y226, located in complementary determining regions, were identified as crucial for the JkH5/2-76 interaction using JkH5 alanine mutants. SPR spectroscopy revealed that JkH5 interacts with FVIII inhibitor 2-76 with nanomolar affinity. Thus, FVIII inhibitor-specific, high-affinity anti-idiotypes can be isolated from phage-displayed libraries and neutralise their respective inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that anti-idiotypic scFvs might be utilised to specifically target inhibitor-specific B cells. Hence, a pool of anti-idiotypes could enable the reestablishment of haemostasis in the presence of FVIII inhibitors in patients or even allow the depletion of inhibitors by targeting inhibitor-specific B cell populations. PMID:27009573

  2. Concurrent acquired inhibitors to factor VIII and IX, a laboratory artifact: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Doma, Saša Anžej; Hillarp, Andreas; Pajič, Tadej; Andoljšek, Dušan; Černelč, Peter; Preldžnik Zupan, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Acquired inhibitors to coagulation factors other than factor VIII are extremely rare. We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with abnormal bleeding, diagnosed with concurrent inhibitor antibodies to factor VIII and IX by Bethesda testing. We demonstrate that anti-FVIII antibodies of a very high titre are capable of disturbing the aPTT-based Bethesda assay, resulting in falsely-positive antibodies to factor IX. The case also illustrates the usefulness of the immunological assay (ELISA) in complementing the inhibitor diagnosis. PMID:27346976

  3. Drug Resistance Resulting from Kinase Dimerization Is Rationalized by Thermodynamic Factors Describing Allosteric Inhibitor Effects.

    PubMed

    Kholodenko, Boris N

    2015-09-22

    Treatment of cancer patients with ATP-competitive inhibitors of BRAF/CRAF kinases surprisingly increases total kinase activity, especially in wild-type BRAF cells, subverting the desired clinical outcome. Similar inhibition resistance is observed for numerous kinases involving homo/heterodimerization in their activation cycles. Here, I demonstrate that drug resistance resulting from kinase dimerization can be explained using thermodynamic principles. I show that allosteric regulation by inhibitors is described by thermodynamic factors that quantify inhibitor-induced changes in kinase dimerization and the difference in the drug affinity for a free monomer versus a dimer harboring one drug molecule. The analysis extends to kinase homo- and heterodimers, allows for their symmetric and asymmetric conformations, and predicts how thermodynamic factors influence dose-response dependencies. I show how two inhibitors, ineffective on their own, when combined can abolish drug resistance at lower doses than either inhibitor applied alone. Thus, the mechanistic models suggest ways to overcome resistance to kinase inhibitors.

  4. Reduction of Factor VIII Inhibitor Titers During Immune Tolerance Induction With Recombinant Factor VIII-Fc Fusion Protein.

    PubMed

    Groomes, Charles L; Gianferante, David M; Crouch, Gary D; Parekh, Dina S; Scott, David W; Lieuw, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    The development of inhibitors toward factor VIII (FVIII) is a common and serious complication of hemophilia A (HA) therapy. Patients with hemophilia who develop inhibitors often undergo time- and resource-intensive immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocols. We report a 15-month-old male with severe HA and a high-titer inhibitor that occurred while receiving prophylactic treatment with recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), in whom significant inhibitor titer reduction was achieved with thrice weekly infusions of a new, prolonged half-life rFVIII-Fc fusion protein product (trade name Eloctate). Further studies are warranted to explore the potential of Eloctate in ITI protocols. PMID:26739399

  5. Src and PI3 K inhibitors affect the virulence factors of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    López-Contreras, L; Hernández-Ramírez, V I; Flores-García, Y; Chávez-Munguía, B; Talamás-Rohana, P

    2013-02-01

    Protein kinases (PKs) of parasitic protozoa are being evaluated as drug targets. A large number of protein kinases within the protein kinome of Entamoeba histolytica strongly suggest that protein phosphorylation is a key component of pathogenesis regulation by this parasite. PI3 K and Src are kinases previously described in this parasite, but their role is poorly understood. Here, the effect of Src-1-inhibitor and PI3 K inhibitor (Wortmannin) on the virulence factors of E. histolytica was evaluated. Results show that both inhibitors affect the actin cytoskeleton and the amoebic movement. Also, the proteolytic activity is diminished by Wortmannin, but not by Src-inhibitor-1; however, the phagocytic capacity is diminished by Wortmannin and Src-1-inhibitor. Finally, we found that the virulence in vivo of E. histolytica is affected by Wortmannin but not by Src-1-inhibitor. This study opens the way for the design of anti-amoebic drugs based on kinase inhibition.

  6. Evaluation of aspirin metabolites as inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylases.

    PubMed

    Lienard, Benoit M; Conejo-García, Ana; Stolze, Ineke; Loenarz, Christoph; Oldham, Neil J; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Schofield, Christopher J

    2008-12-21

    Known and potential aspirin metabolites were evaluated as inhibitors of oxygen-sensing hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) hydroxylases; some of the metabolites were found to stabilise HIF-alpha in cells. PMID:19048166

  7. Inactivation of factor XIa in human plasma assessed by measuring factor XIa-protease inhibitor complexes: major role for C1-inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; Minnema, M; Meijers, J C; Roem, D; Eerenberg, A J; Nuijens, J H; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E

    1995-03-15

    From experiments with purified proteins, it has been concluded that factor XIa (FXIa) is inhibited in plasma mainly by alpha 1-antitrypsin (a1AT), followed by antithrombin III (ATIII), C1-inhibitor (C1Inh), and alpha 2-antiplasmin (a2AP). However, the validity of this concept has never been studied in plasma. We established the relative contribution of different inhibitors to the inactivation of FXIa in human plasma, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the quantification of complexes of FXIa with a1AT, C1Inh, a2AP, and ATIII. We found that 47% of FXIa added to plasma formed complexes with C1Inh, 24.5% with a2AP, 23.5% with a1AT, and 5% with ATIII. The distribution of FXIa between these inhibitors in plasma was independent of whether FXIa was added to plasma, or was activated endogenously by kaolin, celite, or glass. However, in the presence of heparin (1 or 50 U/mL), C1Inh appeared to be the major inhibitor of FXIa, followed by ATIII. Furthermore, at lower temperatures, less FXIa-C1Inh and FXIa-a1AT complexes but more FXIa-a2AP complexes were formed. These data demonstrate that the contribution of the different inhibitors to inactivation of FXIa in plasma may vary, but C1Inh is the principal inhibitor under most conditions.

  8. Structures of adamalysin II with peptidic inhibitors. Implications for the design of tumor necrosis factor alpha convertase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Gomis-Rüth, F. X.; Meyer, E. F.; Kress, L. F.; Politi, V.

    1998-01-01

    Crotalus adamanteus snake venom adamalysin II is the structural prototype of the adamalysin or ADAM family comprising proteolytic domains of snake venom metalloproteinases, multimodular mammalian reproductive tract proteins, and tumor necrosis factor alpha convertase, TACE, involved in the release of the inflammatory cytokine, TNFalpha. The structure of adamalysin II in noncovalent complex with two small-molecule right-hand side peptidomimetic inhibitors (Pol 647 and Pol 656) has been solved using X-ray diffraction data up to 2.6 and 2.8 A resolution. The inhibitors bind to the S'-side of the proteinase, inserting between two protein segments, establishing a mixed parallel-antiparallel three-stranded beta-sheet and coordinate the central zinc ion in a bidentate manner via their two C-terminal oxygen atoms. The proteinase-inhibitor complexes are described in detail and are compared with other known structures. An adamalysin-based model of the active site of TACE reveals that these small molecules would probably fit into the active site cleft of this latter metalloproteinase, providing a starting model for the rational design of TACE inhibitors. PMID:9521103

  9. Adverse Reaction to Cetuximab, an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Štulhofer Buzina, Daška; Martinac, Ivana; Ledić Drvar, Daniela; Čeović, Romana; Bilić, Ivan; Marinović, Branka

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a new strategy in treatment of a variety of solid tumors, such as colorectal carcinoma, non-small cell lung cancer, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, and pancreatic cancer (1). Cetuximab is a chimeric human-murine monoclonal antibody against EGFR. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse reactions occurring during epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRI) therapy. Papulopustular rash (acne like rash) develop with 80-86% patients receiving cetuximab, while xerosis, eczema, fissures, teleangiectasiae, hyperpigmentations, and nail and hair changes occur less frequently (2). The mechanism underlying these skin changes has not been established and understood. It seems EGFRI alter cell growth and differentiation, leading to impaired stratum corneum and cell apoptosis (3-5). An abdominoperineal resection of the rectal adenocarcinoma (Dukes C) was performed on a 43-year-old female patient. Following surgery, adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy was applied. After two years, the patient suffered a metastatic relapse. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was detected on multi-slice computer tomography (MSCT) images, with an increased value of the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor marker (maximal value 57 ng/mL). Hematological and biochemical tests were within normal limits, so first-line chemotherapy with oxaliplatin and a 5-fluorouracil (FOLFOX4) protocol was introduced. A wild type of the KRAS gene was confirmed in tumor tissue (diagnostic prerequisite for the introduction of EGFRI) and cetuximab (250 mg per m2 of body surface) was added to the treatment protocol. The patient responded well to the treatment with confirmed partial regression of the tumor formations. Three months after the patient started using cetuximab, an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, the patient presented with a papulopustular eruption in the seborrhoeic areas (Figure 1) and eczematoid reactions on the extremities

  10. A Spider-Derived Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor That Acts as a Plasmin Inhibitor and an Elastase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Hu; Lee, Kwang Sik; Kim, Bo Yeon; Zou, Feng Ming; Yoon, Hyung Joo; Je, Yeon Ho; Li, Jianhong; Jin, Byung Rae

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. While spider-derived Kunitz-type proteins show activity in trypsin or chymotrypsin inhibition and K+ channel blocking, no additional role for these proteins has been elucidated. In this study, we identified the first spider (Araneus ventricosus) Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (AvKTI) that acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor. AvKTI possesses a Kunitz domain consisting of a 57-amino-acid mature peptide that displays features consistent with Kunitz-type inhibitors, including six conserved cysteine residues and a P1 lysine residue. Recombinant AvKTI, expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, showed a dual inhibitory activity against trypsin (Ki 7.34 nM) and chymotrypsin (Ki 37.75 nM), defining a role for AvKTI as a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. Additionally, AvKTI showed no detectable inhibitory effects on factor Xa, thrombin, or tissue plasminogen activator; however, AvKTI inhibited plasmin (Ki 4.89 nM) and neutrophil elastase (Ki 169.07 nM), indicating that it acts as an antifibrinolytic factor and an antielastolytic factor. These findings constitute molecular evidence that AvKTI acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor and also provide a novel view of the functions of a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. PMID:23308198

  11. Intra-alveolar tissue factor pathway inhibitor is not sufficient to block tissue factor procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Bastarache, Julie A; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhengming; Albertine, Kurt H; Matthay, Michael A; Ware, Lorraine B

    2008-05-01

    The alveolar compartment in acute lung injury contains high levels of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity favoring fibrin deposition. We previously reported that the alveolar epithelium can release TF procoagulant activity in response to a proinflammatory stimulus. To test the hypothesis that the alveolar epithelium further modulates intra-alveolar fibrin deposition through secretion of an endogenous inhibitor to TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), we measured TFPI levels in edema fluid (EF) from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. To determine whether the alveolar epithelium can release TFPI, both full-length TFPI and truncated TFPI were measured (ELISA) in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a control group of patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema (HYDRO). TFPI protein was also measured in conditioned media (CM) and cell lysates (CL) from human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) after exposure to cytomix (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma). TFPI protein levels were higher in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with ARDS vs. HYDRO. TFPI protein was increased in CM and did not change in CL after cytomix treatment; TFPI mRNA levels (RT-PCR) did not change. Despite the high levels of TFPI, both the EF and CM retained significant TF procoagulant activity as measured by plasma recalcification time. The majority of intra-alveolar TFPI was in a truncated, inactive form, whereas the majority of TFPI released from cells was full length, suggesting different mechanisms of inactivation. In summary, the alveolar epithelium releases TFPI in response to an inflammatory stimulus but does not increase TFPI gene transcription or protein production. Levels of intra-alveolar TFPI in ARDS are not sufficient to block intra-alveolar TF procoagulant activity due to truncation and inactivation of intra-alveolar TFPI. PMID:18310227

  12. Altered serum factor VIII-related antigen (VIII : AGN)/von Willebrand factor (VIII : vWf) in haemophiliacs with inhibitors to factor VIII procoagulant activity (VIII : C).

    PubMed

    Ballard, J O; Sanders, J C; Eyster, M E

    1981-02-23

    Inhibitors to factor VIII (anti-F VIII) developing in patients with classic haemophilia have apparent specificity for the factor VIII procoagulant activity (VIII : C), rather than the factor VIII-related antigen (VIII : AGN) and von Willebrand factor (VIII : vWf) regions of the factor VIII complex. Since procoagulant function is absent following in vitro clotting, but serum retains VIII : AGN/vWf properties, we searched for differences in VIII : AGN and VIII : vWf of inhibitor serum that might relate to the presence of anti-F VIII. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis and the washed platelet ristocetin assay were performed on the plasma and serum of nine haemophiliacs with inhibitors, 23 non-inhibitor haemophiliacs and six normal subjects. Unlike normal and non-inhibitor haemophilic sera, that from five of nine inhibitor patients demonstrated absent VIII : vWf and significantly lower VIII : AGN (p less than 0.05). Furthermore, VIII : AGN of faster mobility was detected on crossed immunoelectrophoresis of the sera of three inhibitor patients. Thrombin clotting of plasma from haemophiliacs with high titer anti-F VIII was associated with a greater loss of VIII : vWf than seen with non-inhibitor haemophilic plasma. This effect was independent of the presence of platelets. These data indicate that in vitro clotting is associated with alteration in the serum VIII : AGN/vWf of some haemophiliacs with anti-F VIII.

  13. What factors determine patients' preference for tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in ankylosing spondylitis?

    PubMed

    Fajri, Dessy W; Brand, Caroline A; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Martin, Belinda J; Buchanan, Russell R C; Schachna, Lionel

    2009-05-01

    Tumour necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) therapy, either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SQ), demonstrates similar efficacy in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The objective of this study was to examine factors influencing patient preference of TNFi. Fifty-nine (79.7%) participants were male with mean age 43.9 years and disease duration of 22.0 years. Fifty-nine patients (79.7%) agreed with the statement 'My doctor gave me a choice and I made a decision based on my personal preference'. Patients commenced first on IV TNFi most commonly cited reduced frequency of injections (96.6%), administration by a trained professional (89.7%) and use of infusion time for leisure activities (86.2%). Patients commenced on SQ TNFi cited flexibility with timing of treatment (80%), shortened administration time (73.3%) and the convenience of home therapy (73.3%). Shared clinical decision-making between clinicians and patients may be desirable for AS patients commencing TNFi therapy.

  14. Modulation of tissue factor and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 by neutrophil proteases.

    PubMed

    Steppich, Birgit A; Seitz, Isabell; Busch, Gabi; Stein, Andreas; Ott, Ilka

    2008-12-01

    During systemic inflammation, neutrophil activation is accompanied by endothelial cell damage and hypercoagulability. Activated neutrophils release serine proteases that participate in tissue injury. We sought to investigate the effects of neutrophil proteases on proinflammatory and procoagulant changes in endothelial cells. The effects of elastase (HNE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase 3 (PR3) on expression of tissue factor (TF) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI) were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Flow cytometry demonstrated that these proteases proteolytically degraded endothelial cell-bound TFPI. TFPI mRNA expression was reduced by HNE and CG. PR3, but not HNE or CG, increased surface expression of TF and TF mRNA. Yet, increased TF expression did not enhance TF activity suggesting induction of encrypted TF. Using antibodies and siRNA to inhibit and silence PAR-1 and PAR-2, we observed that PR3 upregulation of TF is at least in part mediated by PAR-1. Although CG and HNE cleaved PAR-1, antibody reactivity to the PAR-1 hirudin-like sequence demonstrated inactivating cleavage, accounting for the selective ability of PR3 to induce PAR-1-mediated procoagulant effects. This was supported by induction of p42/44 MAPK by PR3. In conclusion, PR3 degradation of TFPI increases the procoagulant activity of endothelial cells. Release of PR3 after neutrophil activation may represent an important step in neutrophil-mediated vascular injury. PMID:19132232

  15. Use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gallitano, Stephanie M; McDermott, Laura; Brar, Kanwaljit; Lowenstein, Eve

    2016-05-01

    Patients with HIV and AIDS are living longer because of advancements in antiretroviral therapy. These patients are often susceptible to debilitating inflammatory disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. We discuss the relationship of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and HIV and then review 27 published cases of patients with HIV being treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. This review is limited because no randomized controlled trials have been performed with this patient population. Regardless, we propose that reliable seropositive patients, who are adherent to medication regimens and frequent monitoring and have failed other treatment modalities, should be considered for treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors.

  16. Microtubule inhibitors block the morphological changes induced in Drosophila blood cells by a parasitoid wasp factor.

    PubMed

    Rizki, R M; Rizki, T M

    1990-03-15

    The shape change of Drosophila melanogaster blood cells (lamellocytes) from discoidal to bipolar that is caused by a factor from the female parasitoid Leptopilina heterotoma is blocked by the tubulin inhibitors vinblastine and vincristine in vitro. The actin inhibitor, cytochalasin B, causes arborization of Drosophila lamellocytes and acts synergistically with the wasp factor to alter lamellocyte morphology. Lamellocyte aborization induced by cytochalasin B is blocked by simultaneous treatment with vinblastine. These observations indicate that the changes in lamellocyte shape induced by both the wasp factor and cytochalasin B require microtubule assembly. PMID:2311722

  17. XA21-specific induction of stress-related genes following Xanthomonas infection of detached rice leaves

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Furong; Chen, Huamin; Wei, Tong; Nguyen, Yen P.; Shaker, Isaac W.F.

    2016-01-01

    The rice XA21 receptor kinase confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae (Xoo). We developed a detached leaf infection assay to quickly and reliably measure activation of the XA21-mediated immune response using genetic markers. We used RNA sequencing of elf18 treated EFR:XA21:GFP plants to identify candidate genes that could serve as markers for XA21 activation. From this analysis, we identified eight genes that are up-regulated in both in elf18 treated EFR:XA21:GFP rice leaves and Xoo infected XA21 rice leaves. These results provide a rapid and reliable method to assess bacterial-rice interactions. PMID:27703843

  18. A ΩXaV motif in the Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and virulence.

    PubMed

    Cyr, Normand; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Lecoq, Lauriane; Guendel, Irene; Chabot, Philippe R; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Omichinski, James G

    2015-05-12

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus capable of inducing fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. A key component of RVFV virulence is its ability to form nuclear filaments through interactions between the viral nonstructural protein NSs and the host general transcription factor TFIIH. Here, we identify an interaction between a ΩXaV motif in NSs and the p62 subunit of TFIIH. This motif in NSs is similar to ΩXaV motifs found in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors and transcription factors known to interact with p62. Structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that NSs binds to p62 in a similar manner as these other factors. Functional studies in RVFV-infected cells show that the ΩXaV motif is required for both nuclear filament formation and degradation of p62. Consistent with the fact that the RVFV can be distinguished from other Bunyaviridae-family viruses due to its ability to form nuclear filaments in infected cells, the motif is absent in the NSs proteins of other Bunyaviridae-family viruses. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that p62 binding to NSs through the ΩXaV motif is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and enhancing RVFV virulence. In addition, these results show how the RVFV incorporates a simple motif into the NSs protein that enables it to functionally mimic host cell proteins that bind the p62 subunit of TFIIH. PMID:25918396

  19. A ΩXaV motif in the Rift Valley fever virus NSs protein is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and virulence

    PubMed Central

    Cyr, Normand; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Lecoq, Lauriane; Guendel, Irene; Chabot, Philippe R.; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Omichinski, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a single-stranded RNA virus capable of inducing fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans. A key component of RVFV virulence is its ability to form nuclear filaments through interactions between the viral nonstructural protein NSs and the host general transcription factor TFIIH. Here, we identify an interaction between a ΩXaV motif in NSs and the p62 subunit of TFIIH. This motif in NSs is similar to ΩXaV motifs found in nucleotide excision repair (NER) factors and transcription factors known to interact with p62. Structural and biophysical studies demonstrate that NSs binds to p62 in a similar manner as these other factors. Functional studies in RVFV-infected cells show that the ΩXaV motif is required for both nuclear filament formation and degradation of p62. Consistent with the fact that the RVFV can be distinguished from other Bunyaviridae-family viruses due to its ability to form nuclear filaments in infected cells, the motif is absent in the NSs proteins of other Bunyaviridae-family viruses. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that p62 binding to NSs through the ΩXaV motif is essential for degrading p62, forming nuclear filaments and enhancing RVFV virulence. In addition, these results show how the RVFV incorporates a simple motif into the NSs protein that enables it to functionally mimic host cell proteins that bind the p62 subunit of TFIIH. PMID:25918396

  20. Inhibitory spectrum of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Goldsmith, G H; Moroi, M; Aoki, N

    1979-04-01

    alpha 2-Plasmin inhibitor (alpha 2PI) has been recently characterized as a fast-reacting inhibitor of plasmin in human plasma and appears to play an important role in the regulation of fibrinolysis in vivo. We have studied the effect of purified alpha 2PI upon various proteases participating in human blood coagulation and kinin generation. At physiological concentration (50 microgram/ml), alpha 2PI inhibited the clot-promoting and prekallikrein-activating activity of Hageman factor fragments, the amidolytic, kininogenase, and clot-promoting activities of plasma kallikrein, and the clot-promoting properties of activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA, Factor XIa) and thrombin. alpha 2PI had minimal inhibitory effect on surface-bound activated PTA and activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa). alpha 2PI did not inhibit the activity of activated Christmas factor (Factor IXa) or urinary kallikrein. Heparin (1.5-2.0 units/ml) did not enhance the inhibitory function of alpha 2PI. These results suggest that, like other plasma protease inhibitors, alpha 2PI possesses a broad in vitro spectrum of inhibitory properties.

  1. Feedback Activation of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Limits Response to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hanlin; Qu, Jia; Jin, Nan; Xu, Jun; Lin, Chenchu; Chen, Yi; Yang, Xinying; He, Xiang; Tang, Shuai; Lan, Xiaojing; Yang, Xiaotong; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Min; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu

    2016-09-12

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have demonstrated clinical benefits in subtypes of hematological malignancies. However, the efficacy of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors remains uncertain. This study takes breast cancer as a model to understand mechanisms accounting for limited response of HDAC inhibitors in solid tumors and to seek combination solutions. We discover that feedback activation of leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) signaling in breast cancer limits the response to HDAC inhibition. Mechanistically, HDAC inhibition increases histone acetylation at the LIFR gene promoter, which recruits bromodomain protein BRD4, upregulates LIFR expression, and activates JAK1-STAT3 signaling. Importantly, JAK1 or BRD4 inhibition sensitizes breast cancer to HDAC inhibitors, implicating combination inhibition of HDAC with JAK1 or BRD4 as potential therapies for breast cancer. PMID:27622335

  2. Inhibitors of propagation of coagulation (factors VIII, IX and XI): a review of current therapeutic practice

    PubMed Central

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2011-01-01

    The management of patients with congenital haemophilia who develop alloantibodies against factors of the propagation phase of blood coagulation, commonly known as inhibitors, is the most important challenge facing haemophilia caregivers at present, as this complication not only compromises the efficacy of replacement therapy but also consumes an enormous amount of economic resources. Development of inhibitors further complicates the clinical course of severe haemophilia, with a prevalence of up to 30% in patients with haemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency) and up to 5% in those with haemophilia B (factor IX deficiency) and haemophilia C (factor XI deficiency). While the short-term goal of treatment of patients who develop alloantibodies is the control of bleeding, the eradication of the inhibitor is the main long-term goal. The management of severe bleeding episodes and the eradication of the autoantibody are also the mainstays of treatment of patients with acquired haemophilia, a rare but life-threatening haemorrhagic condition characterized by the development of inhibitory autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII. The most recent options available for treating patients with congenital haemophilia complicated by inhibitors and acquired haemophilia because of autoantibodies against factor VIII are summarized in this review article. PMID:21204915

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin: a recent perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harun M; Rane, Rajesh; Thapliyal, Neeta; Palkar, Mahesh; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is seen in a number of human tumors like prostate, colon, breast and ovarian. Their expression is correlated with vascularity and often difficult to diagnose. Though a number of active inhibitors and anticancer drugs against EGFR-tyrosine kinase are known, increase in resistance together with many side effects designate the need for new and improved treatments. Natural products and their analoges have significant contribution in the cancer drug discovery and development process. Therefore in the current review we mainly discuss design, synthesis and structural activity relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin.

  4. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin: a recent perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harun M; Rane, Rajesh; Thapliyal, Neeta; Palkar, Mahesh; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is seen in a number of human tumors like prostate, colon, breast and ovarian. Their expression is correlated with vascularity and often difficult to diagnose. Though a number of active inhibitors and anticancer drugs against EGFR-tyrosine kinase are known, increase in resistance together with many side effects designate the need for new and improved treatments. Natural products and their analoges have significant contribution in the cancer drug discovery and development process. Therefore in the current review we mainly discuss design, synthesis and structural activity relationship of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors from the natural origin. PMID:25763933

  5. Spontaneous disappearance of an IgA anti-factor IX inhibitor in a child with Christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R R; Panush, R S; Kitchens, C S

    1984-10-01

    The few inhibitors to blood coagulation factor IX in patients with Christmas disease (hemophilia B) that have been studied have been shown to belong to the IgG class of immunoglobulins. We report the first case in which a factor IX inhibitor was of the IgA class. Additionally, he appears to be the youngest patient with hemophilia B to have developed an inhibitor. His inhibitor complicated treatment of the patient for several years because of its anamnestic rise following factor IX concentrate administration. It then spontaneously vanished and has not returned in spite of repeated factor IX complex administration.

  6. Mutation of the rice XA21 predicted nuclear localization sequence does not affect resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yuen Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background The rice receptor kinase XA21 confers robust resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae(Xoo). We previously reported that XA21 is cleaved in transgenic plants overexpressing XA21 with a GFP tag (Ubi-XA21-GFP) and that the released C-terminal domain is localized to the nucleus. XA21 carries a predicted nuclear localization sequence (NLS) that directs the C-terminal domain to the nucleus in transient assays, whereas alanine substitutions in the NLS disrupt the nuclear localization. Methods To determine if the predicted NLS is required for XA21-mediated immunity in planta, we generated transgenic plants overexpressing an XA21 variant carrying the NLS with the same alanine substitutions (Ubi-XA21nls-GFP). Results Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants displayed slightly longer lesion lengths, higher Xoobacterial populations after inoculation and lower levels of reactive oxygen species production compared with the Ubi-XA21-GFP control plants. However, the Ubi-XA21nls-GFP plants express lower levels of protein than that observed in Ubi-XA21-GFP. Discussion These results demonstrate that the predicted NLS is not required for XA21-mediated immunity. PMID:27761320

  7. Novel inhibitors of macrophage migration inhibitory factor prevent cytokine-induced beta cell death.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Krajnovic, Tamara; Cheng, Kai-Fan; VanPatten, Sonya; He, Mingzhu; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Al-Abed, Yousef; Saksida, Tamara

    2014-10-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of immune processes and also in apoptosis induction. Elevated MIF expression is detrimental for insulin-producing beta cells and MIF inhibition protected beta cells from several cytotoxic insults such as inflammatory cytokines, high fatty acids or high glucose concentrations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate two newly synthesized small molecule MIF inhibitors (K664-1 and K647-1) and to compare them with previously established effects of the prototypical MIF inhibitor, ISO-1. Our results indicate that K664-1 and K647-1 are 160- and 40-fold more effective in inhibition of MIF׳s tautomerase activity than ISO-1. Also, new inhibitors confer beta cell protection from cytokine-triggered apoptosis at significantly lower concentrations than ISO-1. Although all three MIF inhibitors inhibit caspase 3 activity, K664-1 and K647-1 suppress pro-apoptotic BAX protein expression and up-regulate anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 mRNA. Finally, all three MIF inhibitors operate through blockade of nitric oxide production stimulated by cytokines. In conclusion, two novel MIF inhibitors are more potent than ISO-1 and operate through inhibition of the mitochondria-related apoptotic pathway. We propose that these compounds represent a unique class of anti-MIF antagonists that should be further tested for therapeutic use.

  8. IDO1 suppresses inhibitor development in hemophilia A treated with factor VIII

    PubMed Central

    Matino, Davide; Gargaro, Marco; Santagostino, Elena; Di Minno, Matteo N.D.; Castaman, Giancarlo; Morfini, Massimo; Rocino, Angiola; Mancuso, Maria E.; Di Minno, Giovanni; Coppola, Antonio; Talesa, Vincenzo N.; Volpi, Claudia; Vacca, Carmine; Orabona, Ciriana; Iannitti, Rossana; Mazzucconi, Maria G.; Santoro, Cristina; Tosti, Antonella; Chiappalupi, Sara; Sorci, Guglielmo; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Landolfi, Raffaele; Fuchs, Dietmar; Boon, Louis; Pirro, Matteo; Marchesini, Emanuela; Grohmann, Ursula; Puccetti, Paolo; Iorio, Alfonso; Fallarino, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is a major obstacle in using this clotting factor to treat individuals with hemophilia A. Patients with a congenital absence of FVIII do not develop central tolerance to FVIII, and therefore, any control of their FVIII-reactive lymphocytes relies upon peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a key regulatory enzyme that supports Treg function and peripheral tolerance in adult life. Here, we investigated the association between IDO1 competence and inhibitor status by evaluating hemophilia A patients harboring F8-null mutations that were either inhibitor negative (n = 50) or positive (n = 50). We analyzed IDO1 induction, expression, and function for any relationship with inhibitor occurrence by multivariable logistic regression and determined that defective TLR9-mediated activation of IDO1 induction is associated with an inhibitor-positive status. Evaluation of experimental hemophilic mouse models with or without functional IDO1 revealed that tryptophan metabolites, which result from IDO1 activity, prevent generation of anti-FVIII antibodies. Moreover, treatment of hemophilic animals with a TLR9 agonist suppressed FVIII-specific B cells by a mechanism that involves IDO1-dependent induction of Tregs. Together, these findings indicate that strategies aimed at improving IDO1 function should be further explored for preventing or eradicating inhibitors to therapeutically administered FVIII protein. PMID:26426076

  9. IDO1 suppresses inhibitor development in hemophilia A treated with factor VIII.

    PubMed

    Matino, Davide; Gargaro, Marco; Santagostino, Elena; Di Minno, Matteo N D; Castaman, Giancarlo; Morfini, Massimo; Rocino, Angiola; Mancuso, Maria E; Di Minno, Giovanni; Coppola, Antonio; Talesa, Vincenzo N; Volpi, Claudia; Vacca, Carmine; Orabona, Ciriana; Iannitti, Rossana; Mazzucconi, Maria G; Santoro, Cristina; Tosti, Antonella; Chiappalupi, Sara; Sorci, Guglielmo; Tagariello, Giuseppe; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Landolfi, Raffaele; Fuchs, Dietmar; Boon, Louis; Pirro, Matteo; Marchesini, Emanuela; Grohmann, Ursula; Puccetti, Paolo; Iorio, Alfonso; Fallarino, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    The development of inhibitory antibodies to factor VIII (FVIII) is a major obstacle in using this clotting factor to treat individuals with hemophilia A. Patients with a congenital absence of FVIII do not develop central tolerance to FVIII, and therefore, any control of their FVIII-reactive lymphocytes relies upon peripheral tolerance mechanisms. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) is a key regulatory enzyme that supports Treg function and peripheral tolerance in adult life. Here, we investigated the association between IDO1 competence and inhibitor status by evaluating hemophilia A patients harboring F8-null mutations that were either inhibitor negative (n = 50) or positive (n = 50). We analyzed IDO1 induction, expression, and function for any relationship with inhibitor occurrence by multivariable logistic regression and determined that defective TLR9-mediated activation of IDO1 induction is associated with an inhibitor-positive status. Evaluation of experimental hemophilic mouse models with or without functional IDO1 revealed that tryptophan metabolites, which result from IDO1 activity, prevent generation of anti-FVIII antibodies. Moreover, treatment of hemophilic animals with a TLR9 agonist suppressed FVIII-specific B cells by a mechanism that involves IDO1-dependent induction of Tregs. Together, these findings indicate that strategies aimed at improving IDO1 function should be further explored for preventing or eradicating inhibitors to therapeutically administered FVIII protein. PMID:26426076

  10. Antithrombin, an Important Inhibitor in Blood Clots.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qing-Wei; Liu, Yue; Wan, Chun-Ling; Yu, Tao; He, Guang; He, Lin; Cai, Lei; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Blood coagulation is healthy and lifesaving because it can stop bleeding. It can, however, be a troublemaker as well, causing serious medical problems including heart attack and stroke. Body has complex blood coagulation cascade to modulate the blood clots. In the environment of plasma, the blood coagulation cascade is regulated by antithrombin, which is deemed one of the most important serine protease inhibitors. It inhibits thrombin; it can inhibit factors IXa and Xa as well. Interestingly, its inhibitory ability will be significantly increased with the existence of heparin. In this minireview paper, we are to summarize the structural features of antithrombin, as well as its heparin binding modes and anti-coagulation mechanisms, in hopes that the discussion and analysis presented in this paper can stimulate new strategies to find more effective approaches or compounds to modulate the antithrombin. PMID:26411319

  11. Inhibitors of propagation of coagulation: factors V and X

    PubMed Central

    Toschi, Vincenzo; Lettino, Maddalena

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are still the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries and antithrombotic treatment is nowadays widely used. Drugs able to reduce coagulation activation are the treatment of choice for a number of arterial and/or venous thromboembolic conditions. Some of the drugs currently used for this purpose, such as heparins (UFH or LMWH) and VKA, have limitations consisting of a narrow therapeutic window and an unpredictable response with the need of laboratory monitoring in order to assess their efficacy and safety. These drawbacks have stimulated an active research aimed to develop new drugs able to act on single factors involved in the coagulation network, with predictable response. Intense experimental and clinical work on new drugs has focused on synthetic agents, which could preferably be administered orally and at fixed doses. The most advanced clinical development with new anticoagulants has been achieved for those inhibiting FXa and some of them, like fondaparinux, are already currently used in clinical practice. Other agents, such as rivaroxaban, apixaban, otamixaban and edoxaban are under development and have already been studied or are currently under investigation in large scale phase III clinical trials for prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation and acute coronary syndromes. Some of them have proved to be more effective than conventional therapy. Data on some agents inhibiting FVa are still preliminary and some of these drugs have so far been considered only in patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to sepsis. PMID:21545479

  12. Identification of inflammatory factor TNFα inhibitor from medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Yali; Jenson, A Bennett; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory response is one of the first defenses our body has to fight against potential endangerments. It plays a critical role in host defense, clearing and slowing the infection in the case of microbial invasion. During an inflammatory response, a variety of cytokines are produced by cells and trigger or enhance the specific inflammation response. TNFα, one of these factors, plays a crucial role in many immune and inflammatory processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell survival. It acts in orchestrating the cytokine cascade and the major regulator of inflammatory cytokine production. Abnormality of TNFα signaling leads to many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Due to the importance of TNFα, regulating TNFα activity is a key to treat the related diseases. There is a long history of using medicinal herbs to treat diseases related to inflammation. We searched for an ingredient that has the ability to inhibit TNFα, we examined AO herbal extract, containing 10 individual herbs and most of these herbs have anti-inflammatory activity within humans. We have tested the anti-inflammatory ability of AO herbal extract on mice. Furthermore, we used macrophage cell from young mice and found that AO extract has the ability to reduce the inflammation by inhibiting TNFα level.

  13. Identification of inflammatory factor TNFα inhibitor from medicinal herbs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hong; Wang, Yali; Jenson, A Bennett; Yan, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The inflammatory response is one of the first defenses our body has to fight against potential endangerments. It plays a critical role in host defense, clearing and slowing the infection in the case of microbial invasion. During an inflammatory response, a variety of cytokines are produced by cells and trigger or enhance the specific inflammation response. TNFα, one of these factors, plays a crucial role in many immune and inflammatory processes, such as proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell survival. It acts in orchestrating the cytokine cascade and the major regulator of inflammatory cytokine production. Abnormality of TNFα signaling leads to many diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn's disease, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Due to the importance of TNFα, regulating TNFα activity is a key to treat the related diseases. There is a long history of using medicinal herbs to treat diseases related to inflammation. We searched for an ingredient that has the ability to inhibit TNFα, we examined AO herbal extract, containing 10 individual herbs and most of these herbs have anti-inflammatory activity within humans. We have tested the anti-inflammatory ability of AO herbal extract on mice. Furthermore, we used macrophage cell from young mice and found that AO extract has the ability to reduce the inflammation by inhibiting TNFα level. PMID:26778692

  14. Arginine mimetic structures in biologically active antagonists and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Masic, Lucija Peterlin

    2006-01-01

    Peptidomimetics have found wide application as bioavailable, biostable, and potent mimetics of naturally occurring biologically active peptides. L-Arginine is a guanidino group-containing basic amino acid, which is positively charged at neutral pH and is involved in many important physiological and pathophysiological processes. Many enzymes display a preference for the arginine residue that is found in many natural substrates and in synthetic inhibitors of many trypsin-like serine proteases, e.g. thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, trypsin, and in integrin receptor antagonists, used to treat many blood-coagulation disorders. Nitric oxide (NO), which is produced by oxidation of L-arginine in an NADPH- and O(2)-dependent process catalyzed by isoforms of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), exhibits diverse roles in both normal and pathological physiologies and has been postulated to be a contributor to the etiology of various diseases. Development of NOS inhibitors as well as analogs and mimetics of the natural substrate L-arginine, is desirable for potential therapeutic use and for a better understanding of their conformation when bound in the arginine binding site. The guanidino residue of arginine in many substrates, inhibitors, and antagonists forms strong ionic interactions with the carboxylate of an aspartic acid moiety, which provides specificity for the basic amino acid residue in the active side. However, a highly basic guanidino moiety incorporated in enzyme inhibitors or receptor antagonists is often associated with low selectivity and poor bioavailability after peroral application. Thus, significant effort is focused on the design and preparation of arginine mimetics that can confer selective inhibition for specific trypsin-like serine proteases and NOS inhibitors as well as integrin receptor antagonists and possess reduced basicity for enhanced oral bioavailability. This review will describe the survey of arginine mimetics designed to mimic the function of the

  15. Acquired factor V inhibitor in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma presenting with hematuria followed by thrombosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AlJohani, Naif I; Matthews, John H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired factor V inhibitor is a rare hemostatic disorder that presents with hemorrhagic manifestations in the vast majority of patients. Factor V inhibitor may develop through a variety of mechanisms involving development of alloantibodies or autoantibodies specific to Factor V. Autoantibodies, in particular, have been reported in a number of conditions. In this report, we describe a case of acquired factor V inhibitor in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma who presented with hematuria. Seven weeks after diagnosis and successful management, the patient developed deep vein thrombosis in the right lower extremity. The patient’s factor V levels were normalized, and the inhibitor was successfully eradicated using corticosteroids. Here, we discuss this rare disorder, its unusual manifestation, and provide a mini-review of the current literature regarding factor V inhibitors. PMID:24591851

  16. Molecular Phylogeny, Homology Modeling, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Race-Specific Bacterial Blight Disease Resistance Protein (xa5) of Rice: A Comparative Agriproteomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Dehury, Budheswar; Sahu, Mousumi; Sarma, Kishore; Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a model plant belonging to the family Poaceae, is a staple food for a majority of the people worldwide. Grown in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, this important cereal crop is under constant and serious threat from both biotic and abiotic stresses. Among the biotic threats, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, causing the damaging bacterial blight disease in rice, is a prominent pathogen. The xa5 gene in the host plant rice confers race-specific resistance to this pathogen. This recessive gene belongs to the Xa gene family of rice and encodes a gamma subunit of transcription factor IIA (TFIIAγ). In view of the importance of this gene in conferring resistance to the devastating disease, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationship of this gene, developed a three-dimensional protein model, followed by long-term molecular dynamics simulation studies to gain a better understanding of the evolution, structure, and function of xa5. The modeled structure was found to fit well with the small subunit of TFIIA from human, suggesting that it may also act as a small subunit of TFIIA in rice. The model had a stable conformation in response to the atomic flexibility and interaction, when subjected to MD simulation at 20 nano second in aqueous solution. Further structural analysis of xa5 indicated that the protein retained its basic transcription factor function, suggesting that it might govern a novel pathway responsible for bacterial blight resistance. Future molecular docking studies of xa5 underway with its corresponding avirulence gene is expected to shed more direct light into plant–pathogen interactions at the molecular level and thus pave the way for richer agriproteomic insights. PMID:23758479

  17. Safety and tolerability of tumor necrosis factorinhibitors in psoriasis: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Semble, Ashley L; Davis, Scott A; Feldman, Steven R

    2014-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitors are an alternative to oral systemic therapies for psoriasis. Data regarding the safety of TNF-α inhibitors from randomized clinical trials may not fully reflect the effects on the clinic patient population receiving the therapy, but other sources of information are available. We performed a literature review to assess the safety and tolerability of the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis with TNF-α inhibitors. A literature search was conducted using PubMed for articles dating from January 2000 to October 2013. Randomized controlled, cohort, open-label, and observational studies were included, as well as case reports and letters to the editor. Articles found on PubMed describing the safety of anti-TNF-α therapy in psoriasis patients were included, while studies highlighting interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-23 inhibitors were excluded, as were non-English articles. In total, 58 articles were included in the review. TNF-α inhibitors exhibit both efficacy and tolerability in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Adverse effects associated with these medications are not common and can be minimized with routine clinical monitoring and patient education. While the risk of severe adverse events is low, the lack of very large, long-term, randomized safety trials limits the ability to fully define the safety of these agents. TNF-α inhibitors have a good efficacy/safety ratio for use in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Serious adverse effects are not common, and common injection-site reactions are usually manageable. The benefits of TNF-α inhibitors outweigh the risks for moderate-to-severe psoriasis; however, there are potential adverse effects and the patient populations at highest risk include the elderly and those with a history of malignancy.

  18. Inhibitors of von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Tsai, H M; Li, A; Rock, G

    2001-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), characterized by platelet thrombi in the arterioles and capillaries, is associated with antibodies that inhibit the activity of von Willebrand factor (vWF)-cleaving protease. Using a modified Bethesda method, we studied the inhibitor titers in patients who participated in the trial conducted by the Canadian Apheresis Group. Among the 41 patients investigated, the inhibitor titers at presentation were 1.4 +/- 1.7 U/mL (range -0.2-6.2 U/mL). Thirty-one patients (76%) had a titer > or = 0.2 U/mL, 8 patients (20%) had a titer > or = 2.0 U/mL but none had a titer > or = 10 U/mL. Among the 33 patients with an inhibitor titer < 2.0 U/mL (low titer group) and the 8 patients with an inhibitor titer > or = 2 U/mL (high titer group), 20 (61%) and 8 (100%) respectively had a platelet count < 25x10(9)/L (P = 0.04). Neurological abnormalities were among the presenting problems in 19 (58%) of the low titer and 6 (75%) of the high titer groups. Among the 23 patients who were randomized to plasma exchange, 5 patients had an inhibitor titer > or = 2 U/mL and none responded at the end of the first treatment cycle, while 8 of the 18 patients (44%) with a titer < 2 U/mL responded. This study shows that inhibitors of vWF-cleaving protease are of low titers in most cases of acquired TTP. A higher inhibitor titer is associated with a more advanced stage of the disease and may delay the response to plasma exchange.

  19. [Successful direct thrombin inhibitor treatment of a left atrial appendage thrombus developed under rivaroxaban therapy].

    PubMed

    Szegedi, Nándor; Gellér, László; Tahin, Tamás; Merkely, Béla; Széplaki, Gábor

    2016-01-24

    The authors present the history of a 62-year-old man on continuous rivaroxaban therapy who was scheduled for pulmonary vein isolation due to persistent atrial fibrillation. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography detected the presence of left atrial appendage thrombus. Thrombophilia tests showed that the patient was heterozygous carrier of the methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation. The authors hypothesized that a direct thrombin inhibitor might exert a more appropriate effect against thrombosis in this case and, therefore, a switch to dabigatran was performed. After two months of anticoagulation with the direct thrombin inhibitor and folic acid supplementation the thrombus resolved. The authors underline that thrombus formation may develop in atrial fibrillation even if the patient is adequately treated with rivaroxaban. This case suggests, that methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutation may modulate the efficacy of direct Xa factor inhibitors. According to this case history, dabigatran may be an effective therapeutic option in resolving established thrombus.

  20. Nuclear factor kappaB inhibitors induce adhesion-dependent colon cancer apoptosis: implications for metastasis.

    PubMed

    Scaife, Courtney L; Kuang, Jinqiu; Wills, Jason C; Trowbridge, D Brad; Gray, Phil; Manning, Bernadette M; Eichwald, Ernst J; Daynes, Raymond A; Kuwada, Scott K

    2002-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) is constitutively active in many types of cancercells and regulates the expression of several antiapoptotic genes. Previous studies demonstrated a role for the inhibition of NFkappaB in cancer therapyusing a transgenic approach in mice. We found that NFkappaB was transiently activated much greater than background constitutive levels during colon cancer cell readhesion, which rendered the readhering colon cancer cells exquisitely susceptible to apoptosis in the presence of soluble NFkappaB inhibitors. These compounds greatly reduced colon cancer cell implantation in an in vivo seeding model of metastasis. The ability of soluble NFkappaB inhibitors to significantly induce apoptosis of readherent colon cancer cells makes them prospective candidates for preventing colon cancer metastasis.

  1. “Antihemophilic factor is not the only answer for all factor VIII deficiencies.” Case report of odontogenic infection in a patient with hemophilia A, complicated by factor VIII inhibitors, and managed by transfusion of antihemophilic factor and factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity

    PubMed Central

    Sudheesh, K. M.; Bharani, K. S. N. Siva; Kiran, H. Y.; Hanagavadi, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Dental extraction in hemophiliacs with acquired inhibitors is always a risky procedure, which often presents a lot of problems associated with bleeding. A known case of hemophilia A complicated with factor VIII inhibitors and having odontogenic infection was successfully managed by transfusion of factor VIII inhibitor bypass activity (FEIBA) and antihemophilic factor. Past medical history was significant for multiple factor VIII transfusions. Bethesda assay done to identify inhibitors revealed low titer factor VIII inhibitors. Extraction of the involved tooth was done after transfusion of FEIBA with low-dose protocols. Minimal bleeding was noted after extraction which was controlled by local measures. FEIBA was proven to be highly effective, and no side effects of the product were observed.

  2. Identification of inhibitors for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor by using dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhao; Fang, Zheng; He, Wei; Wang, Zhixiang; Gan, Haifeng; Tian, Qitao; Guo, Kai

    2016-04-01

    The novel analysis method consisting of size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and HRMS analysis was firstly applied in the discovery of potential inhibitors towards cancer drug targets. With vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR-2) as a target, dynamic combinatorial libraries (DCLs) were prepared by reacting aldehydes with amines. Four sensitive binders targeted VEGFR-2 were directly isolated from the library. Antitumor activity test in vitro and inhibition experiments toward angiogenesis were also carried out.

  3. Evaluating and monitoring the efficacy of recombinant activated factor VIIa in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xue; Zhao, Yongqiang; Li, Kuixing; Fan, Liankai; Hua, Baolai

    2014-10-01

    Although the use of bypassing agents has dramatically improved the management of haemophilia in patients with inhibitors, questions remain regarding optimal dosing regimens and methodology for monitoring their clinical effectiveness. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of two different doses of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors and assessed the feasibility of using thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin generation assays (TGA) for monitoring the response to rFVIIa. Six patients aged 9-49 years with congenital or acquired haemophilia with inhibitors who experienced a total of nine bleeding episodes were included. Seven episodes were treated with conventional rFVIIa dosing (72.7-109.1 μg/kg), and two episodes were treated with a single high-dose regimen (254.6-264.0 μg/kg). Clinical and haemostatic responses were evaluated. Haemostasis was assessed by prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C), TEG, and TGA. Six out of seven (85.7%) bleeding episodes responded to conventional rFVIIa dosing, and half (50%) responded to the high-dose regimen. No relationships between PT, aPTT, and FVII:C levels and clinical outcome were observed. However, changes in TEG and TGA parameters tended to correspond to clinical response, although large inter-individual variation in rFVIIa efficacy was noted. A good response was seen with rFVIIa in treating acute bleeding episodes in patients with haemophilia and inhibitors. Because changes in TEG and TGA may correlate with clinical outcomes of rFVIIa, TEG and TGA may be useful for monitoring rFVIIa activity in inhibitor-positive haemophilia.

  4. AvrXa7-Xa7 mediated defense in rice can be suppressed by transcriptional activator-like effectors TAL6 and TAL11a from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhi-Yuan; Xiong, Li; Zou, Li-Fang; Li, Yu-Rong; Ma, Wen-Xiu; Liu, Liang; Zakria, Muhammad; Ji, Guang-Hai; Chen, Gong-You

    2014-09-01

    The closely related plant pathogens Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae cause bacterial leaf streak (BLS) and bacterial leaf blight (BLB), respectively, in rice. Unlike X. oryzae pv. oryzae, endogenous avirulence-resistance (avr-R) gene interactions have not been identified in the X. oryzae pv. oryzicola-rice pathosystem, though both X. oryzae pv. oryzicola and X. oryzae pv. oryzae possess transcriptional activator-like effectors (TALE), which are known to modulate R or S genes in rice. In this report, avrXa7, avrXa10, and avrXa27 from X. oryzae pv. oryzae were transferred into YNB0-17 and RS105, hypovirulent and hypervirulent strains, respectively, of X. oryzae pv. oryzicola. When YNB0-17 containing avrXa7, avrXa10, or avrXa27 was inoculated to rice, hypersensitive responses (HR) were elicited in rice cultivars containing the R genes Xa7, Xa10, and Xa27, respectively. By contrast, RS105 expressing avrXa27 elicited an HR in a rice cultivar containing Xa27 but the expression of avrXa7 and avrXa10 in RS105 did not result in HR in rice cultivars containing Xa7 and Xa10, correspondingly. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that YNB0-17 possesses only approximately nine putative tale genes, whereas the hypervirulent RS105 contains at least 20. Although YNB0-17 contains an intact type III secretion system (T3SS), its genome is lacking the T3SS effector genes avrRxo1 and xopO, which are present in RS105. The introduction of avrRxo1 and xopO into YNB0-17 did not suppress avrXa7- or avrXa10-triggered immunity in rice. However, the transference of individual tale genes from RS105 into YNB0-17 led to the identification of tal6 and tal11a that suppressed avrXa7-Xa7-mediated defense. Thus, YNB0-17 may be a useful recipient for discovering such suppressors. This is the first report that co-evolutionally generated tale genes in X. oryzae pv. oryzicola suppress gene-for-gene defense against BLB, which may explain the lack of BLS-resistant cultivars. PMID

  5. Draculin, the anticoagulant factor in vampire bat saliva, is a tight-binding, noncompetitive inhibitor of activated factor X.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, A Z; Tablante, A; Beguín, S; Hemker, H C; Apitz-Castro, R

    1999-09-14

    The kinetic mechanism of action of Draculin on activated Factor X (FXa) is established. Draculin inhibits activated Factor X within seconds of incubation at near equimolar concentration (2-6 times on molar basis). Fitting the data to the equation for a tight-binding inhibitor gives a value for K(i)(K(d)) = 14.8+/-1.5 nM. The formation of the Draculin-FXa complex can be explained by a two-step mechanism, where for the first, reversible step, k(on) = 1.117 (+/- 0.169, S.E.M.) x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and k(off) = 15.388 (+/- 1.672) x 10(-3) s(-1), while for the second, irreversible step, which is concentration-independent, k(2) = 0.072 s(-1). K(d) obtained from k(off)/k(on) = 13.76 nM. Lineweaver-Burk plot shows a noncompetitive behavior. This noncompetitive mode of inhibition of Draculin is supported by the observation that Draculin, at concentrations giving complete inhibition, does not impair binding of p-aminobenzamidine to FXa. Moreover, under the same conditions, Draculin induces <14% decrease of the fluorescence intensity of the p-aminobenzamidine-FXa complex. We conclude that Draculin is a noncompetitive, tight-binding inhibitor of FXa, a characteristic so far unique amongst natural FXa inhibitors. PMID:10556567

  6. Laboratory assessment of factor VIII inhibitor titer: the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association experience.

    PubMed

    Peerschke, Ellinor I B; Castellone, Donna D; Ledford-Kraemer, Marlies; Van Cott, Elizabeth M; Meijer, Piet

    2009-04-01

    Quantification of inhibitory antibodies against infused factor VIII (FVIII) has an important role in the management of patients with hemophilia A. This article summarizes results from the largest North American FVIII inhibitor proficiency testing challenge conducted to date. Test samples, 4 negative and 4 positive (1-3 Bethesda units [BU]/mL), were distributed by the ECAT Foundation in conjunction with the North American Specialized Coagulation Laboratory Association and analyzed by 38 to 42 laboratories in 2006 and 2007. Whereas laboratories were able to distinguish between the absence and presence of low-titer FVIII inhibitors, the intralaboratory coefficient of variation was high (30%-42%) for inhibitor-positive samples, and the definition of lower detection limits of the assay was variable (0-1 BU/mL). Most laboratories performed the Bethesda assay with commercially supplied buffered normal pooled plasma in a 1:1 mix with patient plasma. These data provide information for the development of consensus guidelines to improve FVIII inhibitor quantification.

  7. Small-molecule inhibitors of lethal factor protease activity protect against anthrax infection.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Crown, Devorah; Jiao, Guan-Sheng; Kim, Seongjin; Johnson, Alan; Leysath, Clinton; Leppla, Stephen H

    2013-09-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, manifests its pathogenesis through the action of two secreted toxins. The bipartite lethal and edema toxins, a combination of lethal factor or edema factor with the protein protective antigen, are important virulence factors for this bacterium. We previously developed small-molecule inhibitors of lethal factor proteolytic activity (LFIs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy in a rat lethal toxin challenge model. In this work, we show that these LFIs protect against lethality caused by anthrax infection in mice when combined with subprotective doses of either antibiotics or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies that target edema factor. Significantly, these inhibitors provided protection against lethal infection when administered as a monotherapy. As little as two doses (10 mg/kg) administered at 2 h and 8 h after spore infection was sufficient to provide a significant survival benefit in infected mice. Administration of LFIs early in the infection was found to inhibit dissemination of vegetative bacteria to the organs in the first 32 h following infection. In addition, neutralizing antibodies against edema factor also inhibited bacterial dissemination with similar efficacy. Together, our findings confirm the important roles that both anthrax toxins play in establishing anthrax infection and demonstrate the potential for small-molecule therapeutics targeting these proteins.

  8. Nonhypoxic regulation and role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in aromatase inhibitor resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although aromatase inhibitors (AIs; for example, letrozole) are highly effective in treating estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, a significant percentage of patients either do not respond to AIs or become resistant to them. Previous studies suggest that acquired resistance to AIs involves a switch from dependence on ER signaling to dependence on growth factor-mediated pathways, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). However, the role of HER2, and the identity of other relevant factors that may be used as biomarkers or therapeutic targets remain unknown. This study investigated the potential role of transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in acquired AI resistance, and its regulation by HER2. Methods In vitro studies using AI (letrozole or exemestane)-resistant and AI-sensitive cells were conducted to investigate the regulation and role of HIF-1 in AI resistance. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses were conducted to compare protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of ERα, HER2, and HIF-1α (inducible HIF-1 subunit) in AI-resistant versus AI-sensitive cells. Similar expression analyses were also done, along with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), to identify previously known HIF-1 target genes, such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), that may also play a role in AI resistance. Letrozole-resistant cells were treated with inhibitors to HER2, kinase pathways, and ERα to elucidate the regulation of HIF-1 and BCRP. Lastly, cells were treated with inhibitors or inducers of HIF-1α to determine its importance. Results Basal HIF-1α protein and BCRP mRNA and protein are higher in AI-resistant and HER2-transfected cells than in AI-sensitive, HER2- parental cells under nonhypoxic conditions. HIF-1α expression in AI-resistant cells is likely regulated by HER2 activated-phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt-protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway, as its expression was inhibited

  9. Discovery of the first known small-molecule inhibitors of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (HRI) kinase.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Mark D; Woods, Craig R; Goldberg, Steven D; Hack, Michael D; Bounds, A Dawn; Yang, Young; Wagaman, Pamela C; Phuong, Victor K; Ameriks, Angela P; Barrett, Terrance D; Kanelakis, Kimon C; Chuang, Jui Chang; Chang, Jui; Shankley, Nigel P; Rabinowitz, Michael H

    2009-12-01

    A series of indeno[1,2-c]pyrazoles were discovered to be the first known inhibitors of heme-regulated eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (HRI) kinase. The synthesis, structure-activity relationship profile, and in-vitro pharmacological characterization of this inaugural series of HRI kinase inhibitors are detailed.

  10. Betrixaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: results of a phase 2, randomized, dose-ranging study (Explore-Xa)

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Stuart J.; Eikelboom, John; Dorian, Paul; Hohnloser, Stefan H.; Gretler, Daniel D.; Sinha, Uma; Ezekowitz, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at increased risk of stroke. Betrixaban is a novel oral factor Xa inhibitor administered once daily, mostly excreted unchanged in the bile and with low (17%) renal excretion. Methods and results Patients with AF and more than one risk factor for stroke were randomized to one of three blinded doses of betrixaban (40, 60, or 80 mg once daily) or unblinded warfarin, adjusted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0–3.0. The primary outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding. The mean follow-up was 147 days. Among 508 patients randomized, the mean CHADS2 score was 2.2; 87% of patients had previously received vitamin K antagonist therapy. The time in therapeutic range on warfarin was 63.4%. There were one, five, five, and seven patients with a primary outcome on betrixaban 40, 60, 80 mg daily, or warfarin, respectively. The rate of the primary outcome was lowest on betrixaban 40 mg (hazard ratio compared with warfarin = 0.14, exact stratified log-rank P-value 0.04, unadjusted for multiple testing). Rates of the primary outcome with betrixaban 60 or 80 mg were more similar to those of wafarin. Two ischaemic strokes occurred, one each on betrixaban 60 and 80 mg daily. There were two vascular deaths, one each on betrixaban 40 mg and warfarin. Betrixaban was associated with higher rates of diarrhoea than warfarin. Conclusion Betrixaban was well tolerated and had similar or lower rates of bleeding compared with well-controlled warfarin in patients with AF at risk for stroke. PMID:23487517

  11. Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor: Multiple Anticoagulant Activities for a Single Protein.

    PubMed

    Mast, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is an anticoagulant protein that inhibits early phases of the procoagulant response. Alternatively spliced isoforms of TFPI are differentially expressed by endothelial cells and human platelets and plasma. The TFPIβ isoform localizes to the endothelium surface where it is a potent inhibitor of TF-factor VIIa complexes that initiate blood coagulation. The TFPIα isoform is present in platelets. TFPIα contains a stretch of 9 amino acids nearly identical to those found in the B-domain of factor V that are well conserved in mammals. These amino acids provide exosite binding to activated factor V, which allows for TFPIα to inhibit prothrombinase during the initiation phase of blood coagulation. Endogenous inhibition at this point in the coagulation cascade was only recently recognized and has provided a biochemical rationale to explain the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying several clinical disorders. These include the east Texas bleeding disorder that is caused by production of an altered form of factor V with high affinity for TFPI and a paradoxical procoagulant effect of heparins. In addition, these findings have led to ideas for pharmacological targeting of TFPI that may reduce bleeding in hemophilia patients.

  12. Creating Novel Activated Factor XI Inhibitors through Fragment Based Lead Generation and Structure Aided Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Fjellström, Ola; Akkaya, Sibel; Beisel, Hans-Georg; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Erixon, Karl; Gustafsson, David; Jurva, Ulrik; Kang, Daiwu; Karis, David; Knecht, Wolfgang; Nerme, Viveca; Nilsson, Ingemar; Olsson, Thomas; Redzic, Alma; Roth, Robert; Sandmark, Jenny; Tigerström, Anna; Öster, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Activated factor XI (FXIa) inhibitors are anticipated to combine anticoagulant and profibrinolytic effects with a low bleeding risk. This motivated a structure aided fragment based lead generation campaign to create novel FXIa inhibitor leads. A virtual screen, based on docking experiments, was performed to generate a FXIa targeted fragment library for an NMR screen that resulted in the identification of fragments binding in the FXIa S1 binding pocket. The neutral 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one and the weakly basic quinolin-2-amine structures are novel FXIa P1 fragments. The expansion of these fragments towards the FXIa prime side binding sites was aided by solving the X-ray structures of reported FXIa inhibitors that we found to bind in the S1-S1’-S2’ FXIa binding pockets. Combining the X-ray structure information from the identified S1 binding 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment and the S1-S1’-S2’ binding reference compounds enabled structure guided linking and expansion work to achieve one of the most potent and selective FXIa inhibitors reported to date, compound 13, with a FXIa IC50 of 1.0 nM. The hydrophilicity and large polar surface area of the potent S1-S1’-S2’ binding FXIa inhibitors compromised permeability. Initial work to expand the 6-chloro-3,4-dihydro-1H-quinolin-2-one fragment towards the prime side to yield molecules with less hydrophilicity shows promise to afford potent, selective and orally bioavailable compounds. PMID:25629509

  13. A Novel Malate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibitor Suppresses Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 by Regulating Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kusik; Kim, Inhyub; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Kyeong; Won, Misun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 inhibitor LW6, an aryloxyacetylamino benzoic acid derivative, inhibits malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) activity during the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we present a novel MDH2 inhibitor compound 7 containing benzohydrazide moiety, which was identified through structure-based virtual screening of chemical library. Similar to LW6, compound 7 inhibited MDH2 activity in a competitive fashion, thereby reducing NADH level. Consequently, compound 7 reduced oxygen consumption and ATP production during the mitochondrial respiration cycle, resulting in increased intracellular oxygen concentration. Therefore, compound 7 suppressed the accumulation of HIF-1α and expression of its target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Moreover, reduction in ATP content activated AMPK, thereby inactivating ACC and mTOR the downstream pathways. As expected, compound 7 exhibited significant growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Compound 7 demonstrated substantial anti-tumor efficacy in an in vivo xenograft assay using HCT116 mouse model. Taken together, a novel MDH2 inhibitor, compound 7, suppressed HIF-1α accumulation via reduction of oxygen consumption and ATP production, integrating metabolism into anti-cancer efficacy in cancer cells. PMID:27611801

  14. NOVEL ATYPICAL PKC INHIBITORS PREVENT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Titchenell, Paul M.; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Keil, Jason M.; Sundstrom, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Charles D.; Antonetti, David A.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute to the loss of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and subsequent macular edema in various retinal pathologies. VEGF signaling requires conventional PKC (PKCβ) activity; however, PKCβ inhibition only partially prevents VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and does not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced permeability suggesting the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) signaling in VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and identify a novel class of inhibitors of aPKC that prevent BRB breakdown in vivo. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of aPKC isoforms were used to assess their contribution to endothelial permeability in culture. A chemical library was screened using an in vitro kinase assay to identify novel small molecule inhibitors and further medicinal chemistry was performed to delineate a novel pharmacophore. We demonstrate that aPKC isoforms are both sufficient and required for VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Furthermore, these specific, potent, non-competitive, small molecule inhibitors prevented VEGF-induced tight junction internalization and retinal endothelial permeability in response to VEGF in both primary culture and in rodent retina. These data suggest that aPKC inhibition with 2-amino-4-phenyl-thiophene derivatives may be developed to preserve the BRB in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or uveitis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of brain tumors. PMID:22721706

  15. Rational Design of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Seiya; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Niu, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D; Madden, Dean R; Morisseau, Christophe

    2016-05-26

    The virulence factor cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and is the founding member of a distinct class of epoxide hydrolases (EHs) that triggers the catalysis-dependent degradation of the CFTR. We describe here the development of a series of potent and selective Cif inhibitors by structure-based drug design. Initial screening revealed 1a (KB2115), a thyroid hormone analog, as a lead compound with low micromolar potency. Structural requirements for potency were systematically probed, and interactions between Cif and 1a were characterized by X-ray crystallography. On the basis of these data, new compounds were designed to yield additional hydrogen bonding with residues of the Cif active site. From this effort, three compounds were identified that are 10-fold more potent toward Cif than our first-generation inhibitors and have no detectable thyroid hormone-like activity. These inhibitors will be useful tools to study the pathological role of Cif and have the potential for clinical application. PMID:27120257

  16. Identification and analysis of the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 of Sciaenops ocellatus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Xiao, Zhi-zhong; Sun, Li

    2011-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI-2) is a structural homologue of TFPI, a potent inhibitor of tissue factor (TF)-mediated coagulation. Although TFPI-2 has been identified at sequence level in several fish species, no study on piscine TFPI-2 has been documented. In this report, we identified and analyzed a TFPI-2 homologue, SoTFPI2, from red drum Sciaenops ocellatus. The open reading frame of SoTFPI2 is 681 bp, which encodes a 226-residue protein that shares 59.2-82.3% overall sequence identities with known fish TFPI-2. SoTFPI2 possesses three tandem Kunitz domains and is negatively charged at the N-terminus and positively charged at the C-terminus. Expression of SoTFPI2 was detected, in increasing order, in spleen, muscle, gill, brain, liver, kidney, blood, and heart. Bacterial challenge and lipopolysaccharide treatment significantly upregulated SoTFPI2 expression in kidney in time-dependent manners. Recombinant SoTFPI2 purified from Escherichia coli inhibits the proteolytic activity of trypsin and exhibits bactericidal effect on a fish pathogen. Take together, these results indicate that SoTFPI2 is a biologically active serine protease inhibitor with antibacterial property and is likely to play a role in anti-bacterial infection. PMID:20970505

  17. Identification of inhibitors of a bacterial sigma factor using a new high-throughput screening assay.

    PubMed

    El-Mowafi, S A; Sineva, E; Alumasa, J N; Nicoloff, H; Tomsho, J W; Ades, S E; Keiler, K C

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are formidable pathogens because their cell envelope presents an adaptable barrier to environmental and host-mediated challenges. The stress response pathway controlled by the alternative sigma factor σ(E) is critical for maintenance of the cell envelope. Because σ(E) is required for the virulence or viability of several Gram-negative pathogens, it might be a useful target for antibiotic development. To determine if small molecules can inhibit the σ(E) pathway, and to permit high-throughput screening for antibiotic lead compounds, a σ(E) activity assay that is compatible with high-throughput screening was developed and validated. The screen employs a biological assay with positive readout. An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under negative regulation by the σ(E) pathway, such that inhibitors of the pathway increase the production of YFP. To validate the screen, the reporter strain was used to identify σ(E) pathway inhibitors from a library of cyclic peptides. Biochemical characterization of one of the inhibitory cyclic peptides showed that it binds σ(E), inhibits RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation, and inhibits σ(E)-dependent transcription in vitro. These results demonstrate that alternative sigma factors can be inhibited by small molecules and enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of the σ(E) pathway. PMID:25331704

  18. Induction of DNA synthesis in isolated nuclei by cytoplasmic factors: inhibition by protease inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.; Gutowski, J.K.; Katz, M.; Goldfarb, R.H.; Cohen, S.

    1987-01-01

    Cytoplasmic extracts from spontaneously proliferating and mitogen-activated lymphoid cells contain a protein factor called ADR (activator of DNA replication) that induces DNA synthesis in isolated quiescent nuclei. ADR-containing preparations have proteolytic activity, as indicated by their ability to degrade fibrin in a plasminogen-independent and plasminogen-dependent manner. In addition, aprotinin, a nonspecific protease inhibitor, abrogates ADR-induced DNA synthesis in a dose-dependent fashion. Preincubation studies demonstrated that the effect of aprotinin is not due to its suppressive effects on the nuclei themselves. Other protease inhibitors such as leupeptin, p-aminobenzamidine, and N-..cap alpha..-tosyllysine chloromethyl ketone are also inhibitory, but soybean trypsin inhibitor is without effect. ADR activity can be removed from active extracts by adsorption with aprotinin-conjugated agarose beads and can be recovered by elution with an acetate buffer (pH 5). These finding are consistent with the interpretation that the initiation of DNA synthesis in resting nuclei may be protease dependent and, further, that the cytoplasmic stimulatory factor the authors have called ADR may be a protease itself.

  19. Identification of Inhibitors of a Bacterial Sigma Factor Using a New High-Throughput Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    El-Mowafi, S. A.; Alumasa, J. N.; Nicoloff, H.; Tomsho, J. W.; Ades, S. E.

    2014-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria are formidable pathogens because their cell envelope presents an adaptable barrier to environmental and host-mediated challenges. The stress response pathway controlled by the alternative sigma factor σE is critical for maintenance of the cell envelope. Because σE is required for the virulence or viability of several Gram-negative pathogens, it might be a useful target for antibiotic development. To determine if small molecules can inhibit the σE pathway, and to permit high-throughput screening for antibiotic lead compounds, a σE activity assay that is compatible with high-throughput screening was developed and validated. The screen employs a biological assay with positive readout. An Escherichia coli strain was engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) under negative regulation by the σE pathway, such that inhibitors of the pathway increase the production of YFP. To validate the screen, the reporter strain was used to identify σE pathway inhibitors from a library of cyclic peptides. Biochemical characterization of one of the inhibitory cyclic peptides showed that it binds σE, inhibits RNA polymerase holoenzyme formation, and inhibits σE-dependent transcription in vitro. These results demonstrate that alternative sigma factors can be inhibited by small molecules and enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of the σE pathway. PMID:25331704

  20. A Novel Malate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibitor Suppresses Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 by Regulating Mitochondrial Respiration.

    PubMed

    Ban, Hyun Seung; Xu, Xuezhen; Jang, Kusik; Kim, Inhyub; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Lee, Kyeong; Won, Misun

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 inhibitor LW6, an aryloxyacetylamino benzoic acid derivative, inhibits malate dehydrogenase 2 (MDH2) activity during the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. In this study, we present a novel MDH2 inhibitor compound 7 containing benzohydrazide moiety, which was identified through structure-based virtual screening of chemical library. Similar to LW6, compound 7 inhibited MDH2 activity in a competitive fashion, thereby reducing NADH level. Consequently, compound 7 reduced oxygen consumption and ATP production during the mitochondrial respiration cycle, resulting in increased intracellular oxygen concentration. Therefore, compound 7 suppressed the accumulation of HIF-1α and expression of its target genes, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). Moreover, reduction in ATP content activated AMPK, thereby inactivating ACC and mTOR the downstream pathways. As expected, compound 7 exhibited significant growth inhibition of human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. Compound 7 demonstrated substantial anti-tumor efficacy in an in vivo xenograft assay using HCT116 mouse model. Taken together, a novel MDH2 inhibitor, compound 7, suppressed HIF-1α accumulation via reduction of oxygen consumption and ATP production, integrating metabolism into anti-cancer efficacy in cancer cells. PMID:27611801

  1. Hypoxia inducible factor 1α expression and effects of its inhibitors in canine lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    KAMBAYASHI, Satoshi; IGASE, Masaya; KOBAYASHI, Kosuke; KIMURA, Ayana; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; BABA, Kenji; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxic conditions in various cancers are believed to relate with their malignancy, and hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) has been shown to be a major regulator of the response to low oxygen. In this study, we examined HIF-1α expression in canine lymphoma using cell lines and clinical samples and found that these cells expressed HIF-1α. Moreover, the HIF-1α inhibitors, echinomycin, YC-1 and 2-methoxyestradiol, suppressed the proliferation of canine lymphoma cell lines. In a xenograft model using NOD/scid mice, echinomycin treatment resulted in a dose-dependent regression of the tumor. Our results suggest that HIF-1α contributes to the proliferation and/or survival of canine lymphoma cells. Therefore, HIF-1α inhibitors may be potential agents to treat canine lymphoma. PMID:26050843

  2. Unique presentations of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption related to bacterial superinfection.

    PubMed

    Wiznia, Lauren Elyse; Choi, Jennifer Nam

    2013-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have been reported to induce numerous cutaneous side effects, the most notable of which is a papulopustular eruption on the face, scalp, and central chest. The typical presentation consists of inflamed papules, often with pustules, favoring a seborrheic distribution. The pustules of the EGFR inhibitor-induced papulopustular eruption are commonly sterile but bacterial superinfection is not uncommon. We report two unique presentations of the papulopustular eruption that were found to be associated with Staphylococcus aureus superinfection. One patient presented with an abrupt onset of nearly confluent red plaques on the cheeks, forehead, chin, and neck, with innumerable studded pinpoint pustules. The other patient had a long-standing untreated papulopustular eruption on the scalp, which resulted in widespread erythema, large thick plaques of serous crust, pustular exudate, and associated alopecia. Both patients quickly resolved with non-tetracycline oral antibiotics combined with topical steroid treatment. PMID:23552005

  3. Anti Xa monitoring during treatment with low molecular weight heparin or danaparoid: inter-assay variability.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, S; Iampietro, R; Woolley, A M; Preston, F E

    1999-10-01

    If laboratory monitoring of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) therapy is required the test of choice is the anti Xa activity assay. The relationship between anti Xa results obtained using different techniques is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare anti Xa results obtained with eight different commercially available anti Xa activity assays (five chromogenic and three clotting based assays) in samples from patients receiving either therapeutic or prophylactic LMWH (enoxaparin or dalteparin) or danaparoid. We have demonstrated that highly significant differences exist between results obtained using different techniques. The mean anti Xa activity in patients receiving treatment or prophylaxis with enoxaparin ranged from 0.28 to 0.64 iu/ml. A similar relationship was present in samples from patients treated with dalteparin, mean anti Xa results ranging from 0.43 to 0.69 iu/ml. The Heptest clotting assay as used here in combination with the Automated Coagulation Laboratory instrument, was associated with lower results than other clotting or chromogenic techniques. In patients receiving danaparoid for heparin induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) mean results with three clotting based assays were 0.30 to 0.36 u/ml, compared to mean results of 0.47 to 0.65 u/ml for chromogenic assays. Our data clearly indicate that the selection of anti Xa assay method could influence patient management since the dose required to achieve the therapeutic range would differ according to the assay employed. This is particularly important since the frequency of haemorrhagic side effects has been shown by others to be dose dependent, irrespective of the concomitant anti Xa activity results. In danaparoid therapy the clotting assays studied here should not be employed for monitoring without a modified target range, unless it can be demonstrated that the higher doses required to achieve the therapeutic range are safe. PMID:10544915

  4. Clinical Use of Anti-Xa Monitoring in Malignancy-Associated Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Yentz, Sarah; Onwuemene, Oluwatoyosi A; Stein, Brady L; Cull, Elizabeth H; McMahon, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is preferred for malignancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). Many providers monitor LMWH with anti-Xa levels, despite little validation on correspondence with patient outcome. Methods. This is a retrospective, single institution study of anti-Xa measurement in malignancy-associated thrombosis. Cases were identified using the Electronic Data Warehouse, and inclusion was confirmed by two independent reviewers. Malignancy type, thrombotic history, measurement rationale and accuracy, clinical context, and management changes were evaluated. Results. 167 cases met inclusion criteria. There was no clear rationale for anti-Xa testing in 56%. Impaired renal function (10%), documented or suspected recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation (9%), and bleeding (6%) were the most common reasons for testing. Incorrect measurement occurred in 44%. Renal impairment was not a significant impetus for testing, as 70% had a GFR > 60. BMI > 30 was present in 40%, and 28% had a BMI < 25. Clinical impact was low, as only 11% of patients had management changes. Conclusions. Provider education in accuracy and rationale for anti-Xa testing is needed. Our study illustrates uncertainty of interpretation and clinical impact of routine anti-Xa testing, as management was affected in few patients. It is not yet clear in which clinical context providers should send anti-Xa levels. PMID:26543644

  5. Clinical Use of Anti-Xa Monitoring in Malignancy-Associated Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Yentz, Sarah; Onwuemene, Oluwatoyosi A.; Stein, Brady L.; Cull, Elizabeth H.; McMahon, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is preferred for malignancy-associated venous thromboembolism (VTE). Many providers monitor LMWH with anti-Xa levels, despite little validation on correspondence with patient outcome. Methods. This is a retrospective, single institution study of anti-Xa measurement in malignancy-associated thrombosis. Cases were identified using the Electronic Data Warehouse, and inclusion was confirmed by two independent reviewers. Malignancy type, thrombotic history, measurement rationale and accuracy, clinical context, and management changes were evaluated. Results. 167 cases met inclusion criteria. There was no clear rationale for anti-Xa testing in 56%. Impaired renal function (10%), documented or suspected recurrent thrombosis despite anticoagulation (9%), and bleeding (6%) were the most common reasons for testing. Incorrect measurement occurred in 44%. Renal impairment was not a significant impetus for testing, as 70% had a GFR > 60. BMI > 30 was present in 40%, and 28% had a BMI < 25. Clinical impact was low, as only 11% of patients had management changes. Conclusions. Provider education in accuracy and rationale for anti-Xa testing is needed. Our study illustrates uncertainty of interpretation and clinical impact of routine anti-Xa testing, as management was affected in few patients. It is not yet clear in which clinical context providers should send anti-Xa levels. PMID:26543644

  6. Fast rotation of a subkilometer-sized near-Earth object 2011 XA{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Urakawa, Seitaro; Ohtsuka, Katsuhito; Abe, Shinsuke; Ito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomoki

    2014-05-01

    We present light curve observations and their multiband photometry for near-Earth object (NEO) 2011 XA{sub 3}. The light curve has shown a periodicity of 0.0304 ± 0.0003 days (= 43.8 ± 0.4 minutes). The fast rotation shows that 2011 XA{sub 3} is in a state of tension (i.e., a monolithic asteroid) and cannot be held together by self-gravitation. Moreover, the multiband photometric analysis indicates that the taxonomic class of 2011 XA{sub 3} is S-complex, or V-type. Its estimated effective diameter is 225 ± 97 m (S-complex) and 166 ± 63 m (V-type), respectively. Therefore, 2011 XA{sub 3} is a candidate for the second-largest, fast-rotating, monolithic asteroid. Moreover, the orbital parameters of 2011 XA{sub 3} are apparently similar to those of NEO (3200) Phaethon, but F/B-type. We computed the orbital evolutions of 2011 XA{sub 3} and Phaethon. However, the results of the computation and distinct taxonomy indicate that neither of the asteroids is of common origin.

  7. Hepatocyte growth factor activator is a potential target proteinase for Kazal-type inhibitor in turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Słowińska, Mariola; Bukowska, Joanna; Hejmej, Anna; Bilińska, Barbara; Kozłowski, Krzysztof; Jankowski, Jan; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2015-08-01

    A peculiar characteristic of turkey seminal plasma is the increased activity of serine proteinases. It is of interest if the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor controls the activity of turkey seminal plasma proteinases. Pure preparations of the Kazal-type inhibitor and anti-Kazal-type inhibitor monospecific immunoglobulin Gs were used as ligands in affinity chromatography for proteinase isolation from turkey seminal plasma. Gene expression and the immunohistochemical detection of the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor in the reproductive tract of turkey toms are described. The hepatocyte growth factor activator (HGFA) was identified in the binding fraction in affinity chromatography. Hepatocyte growth factor activator activity was inhibited by the Kazal-type inhibitor in a dose-dependent manner. This protease was a primary physiological target for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. Numerous proteoforms of HGFA were present in turkey seminal plasma, and phosphorylation was the primary posttranslational modification of HGFA. In addition to HGFA, acrosin was a target proteinase for the single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor. In seminal plasma, acrosin was present only in complexes with the Kazal-type inhibitor and was not present as a free enzyme. The single-domain Kazal-type inhibitor was specific for the reproductive tract. The germ cell-specific expression of Kazal-type inhibitors in the testis indicated an important function in spermatogenesis; secretion by the epithelial cells of the epididymis and the ductus deferens indicated that the Kazal-type inhibitor was an important factor involved in the changes in sperm membranes during maturation and in the maintenance of the microenvironment in which sperm maturation occurred and sperm was stored. The role of HGFA in these processes remains to be established.

  8. Fullerenes and their derivatives as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α with highly promoted affinities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaoyin; Gao, Xuejiao J; Jang, Joonkyung; Gao, Xingfa

    2016-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cell signalling protein involved in systemic inflammation in infectious and other malignant diseases. Physiologically, it plays an important role in regulating host defence, but its overexpression can lead to serious illnesses including cancer, autoimmune disease and inflammatory disease. Gadolinium-based metallofullerenols, e.g., Gd@C82(OH) x (x ≈ 22), are well known for their abundant biological activities with low toxicity experimentally and theoretically; however, their activity in direct TNF-α inhibition has not been explored. In this work, we investigated the inhibiting effects of four types of fullerene-based ligands: fullerenes, fullerenols, metallofullerenes, and metallofullerenols. We reported previously that fullerenes, metallofullerenes and their hydroxylated derivatives (fullerenols) can reside in the same pocket of the TNF-α dimer as that of SPD304-a known inhibitor of TNF-α [He et al. (2005) Science 310:1022, 18]. Ligand docking and binding free energy calculations suggest that, with a similar nonpolar interaction dominated binding pattern, the fullerene-based ligands, C60, C60(OH)12, Gd@C60, C82, C82(OH)12, Gd@C82, Gd@C82(OH)13 and Gd@C82(OH)21, have larger affinity than currently known inhibitors, and could be used to design novel inhibitors of TNF-α in the future. Graphical Abstract Fullerene-material/TNF-α.

  9. A stonemason with accelerated silicosis in the setting of tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Timothy; Putt, Michael; Dettrick, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old stonemason with accelerated silicosis in the setting of treatment for psoriasis with the tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor adalimumab. Accelerated silicosis is an important occupational lung disease with a poor prognosis and limited treatment options [1]. Although the exact pathogenesis remains unknown, it is suggested that secretion of cytokines, including TNF-alpha, plays a central role in disease progression [1,2]. Importantly, however, TNF-alpha inhibitors, in addition to resulting in an increased risk of infection, are also now being seen to cause interstitial lung disease [3,4]. To our knowledge, this is the first documented patient to develop silicosis whilst on TNF-alpha inhibitor therapy. This case challenges the theory behind TNF-alpha's exact role in the pathogenesis of silicosis and lung fibrosis, highlights the importance of monitoring individuals with both occupational and drug exposures, and illustrates the increasing difficulties physicians face in investigating patients with pulmonary infiltrates and multiple possible aetiologies. PMID:27516887

  10. Design, Synthesis, and Protein Crystallography of Biaryltriazoles as Potent Tautomerase Inhibitors of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dziedzic, Pawel; Cisneros, José A.; Robertson, Michael J.; Hare, Alissa A.; Danford, Nadia E.; Baxter, Richard H. G.; Jorgensen, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Optimization is reported for biaryltriazoles as inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. A combined approach was taken featuring organic synthesis, enzymatic assaying, crystallography, and modeling including free-energy perturbation (FEP) calculations. X-ray crystal structures for 3a and 3b bound to MIF are reported and provided a basis for the modeling efforts. The accommodation of the inhibitors in the binding site is striking with multiple hydrogen bonds and aryl–aryl interactions. Additional modeling encouraged pursuit of 5-phenoxyquinolinyl analogues, which led to the very potent compound 3s. Activity was further enhanced by addition of a fluorine atom adjacent to the phenolic hydroxyl group as in 3w, 3z, 3aa, and 3bb to strengthen a key hydrogen bond. It is also shown that physical properties of the compounds can be modulated by variation of solvent-exposed substituents. Several of the compounds are likely the most potent known MIF tautomerase inhibitors; the most active ones are more than 1000-fold more active than the well-studied (R)-ISO-1 and more than 200-fold more active than the chromen-4-one Orita-13. PMID:25697265

  11. Fullerenes and their derivatives as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α with highly promoted affinities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gaoyin; Gao, Xuejiao J; Jang, Joonkyung; Gao, Xingfa

    2016-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a cell signalling protein involved in systemic inflammation in infectious and other malignant diseases. Physiologically, it plays an important role in regulating host defence, but its overexpression can lead to serious illnesses including cancer, autoimmune disease and inflammatory disease. Gadolinium-based metallofullerenols, e.g., Gd@C82(OH) x (x ≈ 22), are well known for their abundant biological activities with low toxicity experimentally and theoretically; however, their activity in direct TNF-α inhibition has not been explored. In this work, we investigated the inhibiting effects of four types of fullerene-based ligands: fullerenes, fullerenols, metallofullerenes, and metallofullerenols. We reported previously that fullerenes, metallofullerenes and their hydroxylated derivatives (fullerenols) can reside in the same pocket of the TNF-α dimer as that of SPD304-a known inhibitor of TNF-α [He et al. (2005) Science 310:1022, 18]. Ligand docking and binding free energy calculations suggest that, with a similar nonpolar interaction dominated binding pattern, the fullerene-based ligands, C60, C60(OH)12, Gd@C60, C82, C82(OH)12, Gd@C82, Gd@C82(OH)13 and Gd@C82(OH)21, have larger affinity than currently known inhibitors, and could be used to design novel inhibitors of TNF-α in the future. Graphical Abstract Fullerene-material/TNF-α. PMID:27316702

  12. Transforming Growth Factor Beta Receptor I Inhibitor Sensitizes Drug-resistant Pancreatic Cancer Cells to Gemcitabine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon Jeong; Hwang, Jae Seok; Hong, Young Bin; Bae, Insoo; Seong, Yeon-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Background Resistance to gemcitabine is a major obstacle in the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Previous exploration of protein kinase inhibitors demonstrated that blocking transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signal enhances the efficacy of gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. Materials and Methods We analyzed the cell viability after combinational treatment of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI) inhibitors, SB431542 and SB525334 with gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, apoptotic cell death and cell migration were measured. Results Combination with TβRI inhibitors significantly augmented the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine in both parental and gemcitabine resistant pancreatic cancer cells. SB525334 significantly increased apoptotic cell death in gemcitabine-resistant cells. Treatment of SB525334 also reduced AKT signal pathway, which plays crucial role in gemcitabine resistance. Migration assay also revealed that blocking TβRI reduces cell migration. Conclusion Chemotherapeutic approaches using SB525334 might enhance the treatment benefit of the gemcitabine-containing regimens in the treatment of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:22399597

  13. Physicochemical properties of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors and development of a nanoliposomal formulation of gefitinib.

    PubMed

    Trummer, Brian J; Iyer, Vandana; Balu-Iyer, Sathy V; O'Connor, Robert; Straubinger, Robert M

    2012-08-01

    Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases show efficacy in cancers that are highly addicted to nonmutated EGF signaling, but off-target effects limit therapy. Carrier-based formulations could reduce drug deposition in normal tissues, enhance tumor deposition, and reduce free drug concentrations, thereby reducing the side effects. Therefore, the feasibility of developing nanoliposomal formulations of EGFR inhibitors was investigated. Gefitinib and erlotinib fluorescence was characterized as a tool for formulation development. Peak excitation was 345 nm and peak emission was 385-465 nm, depending upon the environment polarity. Emission was negligible in water but intense in nonpolar solvents, membranes, or bound to serum proteins. Cellular uptake and distribution could also be imaged by fluorescence in drug-resistant tumor spheroids. Gefitinib fluorescence characteristics enabled facile optimization of formulations. Although 4-6 mol % gefitinib could be incorporated in the liposome bilayer, 40-60 mol % could be encapsulated in stable, remote-loaded liposomes consisting of distearoylphosphatidylcholine-polyethylene glycol-distereoylphosphatidylethanolamine-cholesterol (9:1:5 mol:mol:mol). Drug leakage in serum, monitored by fluorescence, was minimal over 24 h at 37°C. The results provide both promising lead formulations as well as novel tools for evaluating new formulations of structurally similar receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their cellular uptake and tissue biodistribution.

  14. Trypsinogen 4 boosts tumor endothelial cells migration through proteolysis of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2.

    PubMed

    Ghilardi, Carmen; Silini, Antonietta; Figini, Sara; Anastasia, Alessia; Lupi, Monica; Fruscio, Robert; Giavazzi, Raffaella; Bani, Maria Rosa

    2015-09-29

    Proteases contribute to cancer in many ways, including tumor vascularization and metastasis, and their pharmacological inhibition is a potential anticancer strategy. We report that human endothelial cells (EC) express the trypsinogen 4 isoform of the serine protease 3 (PRSS3), and lack both PRSS2 and PRSS1. Trypsinogen 4 expression was upregulated by the combined action of VEGF-A, FGF-2 and EGF, angiogenic factors representative of the tumor microenvironment. Suppression of trypsinogen 4 expression by siRNA inhibited the angiogenic milieu-induced migration of EC from cancer specimens (tumor-EC), but did not affect EC from normal tissues. We identified tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a matrix associated inhibitor of cell motility, as the functional target of trypsinogen 4, which cleaved TFPI-2 and removed it from the matrix put down by tumor-EC. Silencing tumor-EC for trypsinogen 4 accumulated TFPI2 in the matrix. Showing that angiogenic factors stimulate trypsinogen 4 expression, which hydrolyses TFPI-2 favoring a pro-migratory situation, our study suggests a new pathway linking tumor microenvironment signals to endothelial cell migration, which is essential for angiogenesis and blood vessel remodeling. Abolishing trypsinogen 4 functions might be an exploitable strategy as anticancer, particularly anti-vascular, therapy. PMID:26318044

  15. Intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor injection in unrecognised early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kianersi, Farzan; Ghanbari, Heshmatollah; Naderi Beni, Zahra; Naderi Beni, Afsaneh

    2016-10-01

    The use of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor medications has widened considerably to include indications affecting females of reproductive age. Our patient was inadvertently exposed to bevacizumab within the first trimester when placental growth and fetal organogenesis take place and patient suffered pregnancy loss. There is insufficient information to suggest that such use is safe, nor is there definitive evidence to suggest that it causes harm. We advise that ophthalmologists discuss pregnancy with women of childbearing age undergoing intraocular anti-VEGF injections and in pregnant woman counselling is needed to explain the potential risks and benefits. PMID:27251054

  16. Structure-based design of inhibitors of coagulation factor XIa with novel P1 moieties.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Donald J P; Smallheer, Joanne M; Corte, James R; Austin, Erin J D; Wang, Cailan; Fang, Tianan; Smith, Leon M; Rossi, Karen A; Rendina, Alan R; Bozarth, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Ge; Wei, Anzhi; Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Sheriff, Steven; Myers, Joseph E; Morin, Paul E; Luettgen, Joseph M; Seiffert, Dietmar A; Quan, Mimi L; Wexler, Ruth R

    2015-04-01

    Compound 2 was previously identified as a potent inhibitor of factor XIa lacking oral bioavailability. A structure-based approach was used to design analogs of 2 with novel P1 moieties with good selectivity profiles and oral bioavailability. Further optimization of the P1 group led to the identification of a 4-chlorophenyltetrazole P1 analog, which when combined with further modifications to the linker and P2' group provided compound 32 with FXIa Ki=6.7 nM and modest oral exposure in dogs.

  17. Caspase-2 cleaves DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD).

    PubMed

    Dahal, Giri Raj; Karki, Pratap; Thapa, Arjun; Shahnawaz, Mohammad; Shin, Song Yub; Lee, Jung Sup; Cho, Byungyun; Park, Il-Seon

    2007-12-01

    To investigate the signal transduction pathway of caspase-2, cell permeable Tat-reverse-caspase-2 was constructed, characterized and utilized for biochemical and cellular studies. It could induce the cell death as early as 2h, and caspase-2-specific VDVADase activity but not other caspase activities including DEVDase and IETDase. Interestingly, nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred and consistently DNA fragmentation factor (DFF45)/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (ICAD) was cleaved inside the cell as well as in vitro, suggesting a role of caspase-2 in nuclear DNA fragmentation. PMID:17945178

  18. Factor VIII gene variants and inhibitor risk in African American hemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Gunasekera, Devi; Ettinger, Ruth A; Nakaya Fletcher, Shelley; James, Eddie A; Liu, Maochang; Barrett, John C; Withycombe, Janice; Matthews, Dana C; Epstein, Melinda S; Hughes, Richard J; Pratt, Kathleen P

    2015-08-13

    African American hemophilia A (HA) patients experience a higher incidence of neutralizing anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies ("inhibitors") vis-à-vis white patients. Nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (ns-SNPs) in the F8 gene encoding FVIII-H484, FVIII-E1241, and FVIII-V2238 are more prevalent in African Americans. This study tested the hypothesis that immune responses to these sites provoke inhibitors. Blood samples were obtained from 174 African American and 198 white HA subjects and their F8 gene sequences determined. Major histocompatibility complex class II binding and T-cell recognition of polymorphic sequences were evaluated using quantitative binding assays and HLA-DRB1 tetramers. Peptides corresponding to 4 common ns-SNPs showed limited binding to 11 HLA-DRB1 proteins. CD4 T cells from 22 subjects treated with FVIII products having sequences at residues FVIII-484, 1241, and 2238 differing from those of putative proteins encoded by their F8 genes did not show high-avidity tetramer binding, whereas positive-control staining of tetanus-specific CD4 T cells was routinely successful. African Americans with an intron-22 inversion mutation showed a 2-3 times-higher inhibitor incidence than whites with the same mutation (odds ratio = 2.3 [1.1-5.0, P = .04]), but this did not correlate with any of the ns-SNPs. We conclude that immune responses to "sequence-mismatched" FVIII products are unlikely to contribute appreciably to the inhibitor incidence in African Americans.

  19. Identification of human urinary trefoil factor 1 as a novel calcium oxalate crystal growth inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Pittayamateekul, Jeeraporn; Parichatikanond, Paisal; Westley, Bruce R.; May, Felicity E.B.; Malasit, Prida; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2005-01-01

    Previous research on proteins that inhibit kidney stone formation has identified a relatively small number of well-characterized inhibitors. Identification of additional stone inhibitors would increase understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis. We have combined conventional biochemical methods with recent advances in mass spectrometry (MS) to identify a novel calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal growth inhibitor in normal human urine. Anionic proteins were isolated by DEAE adsorption and separated by HiLoad 16/60 Superdex 75 gel filtration. A fraction with potent inhibitory activity against CaOx crystal growth was isolated and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The protein in 2 subfractions that retained inhibitory activity was identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–time-of-flight MS and electrospray ionization–quadrupole–time-of-flight tandem MS as human trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). Western blot analysis confirmed the mass spectrometric protein identification. Functional studies of urinary TFF1 demonstrated that its inhibitory potency was similar to that of nephrocalcin. The inhibitory activity of urinary TFF1 was dose dependent and was inhibited by TFF1 antisera. Anti–C-terminal antibody was particularly effective, consistent with our proposed model in which the 4 C-terminal glutamic residues of TFF1 interact with calcium ions to prevent CaOx crystal growth. Concentrations and relative amounts of TFF1 in the urine of patients with idiopathic CaOx kidney stone were significantly less (2.5-fold for the concentrations and 5- to 22-fold for the relative amounts) than those found in controls. These data indicate that TFF1 is a novel potent CaOx crystal growth inhibitor with a potential pathophysiological role in nephrolithiasis. PMID:16308573

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, inhibits leiomyoma cell proliferation through the nuclear factor κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung Bin; Jee, Byung Chul; Kim, Seok Hyun; Cho, Yeon Jean; Han, Myoungseok

    2014-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitor, decreases the in vitro proliferation of leiomyoma cells if the inflammatory pathway is blocked. Menstruation is an inflammation of uterus that produces cytokines and prostanoids, but the inflammatory mechanism underlying the growth of leiomyoma remains unexplained. Using in vitro cultures of leiomyoma cells obtained from 5 patients who underwent hysterectomy, cell proliferation, inflammatory signaling, transcription factors, growth factors, and extracellular matrix were examined by (4,5-dimethylthiaxol-2-yi)-2,5-diphenyltetraxolium bromide assay, immunoblotting, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Prostaglandin E2 was used to induce menstruation-like condition in the cells. We found that celecoxib inhibited COX-2 through the expression of nuclear factor κB in the cells. Celcoxib also decreased the gene expression of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor α, collagen A, fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, and transforming growth factor β. In conclusion, the present study indicated that celecoxib could inhibit leiomyoma cell proliferation through blocking the inflammatory pathway that is probably one of the mechanisms underlying its pathogenesis.

  1. Small molecule inhibitors of Late SV40 Factor (LSF) abrogate hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): Evaluation using an endogenous HCC model

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Siddiq, Ayesha; Willoughby, Jennifer L.S.; Biagi, Jessica M.; Christadore, Lisa M.; Yunes, Sarah A.; Gredler, Rachel; Jariwala, Nidhi; Robertson, Chadia L.; Akiel, Maaged A.; Shen, Xue-Ning; Subler, Mark A.; Windle, Jolene J.; Schaus, Scott E.; Fisher, Paul B.; Hansen, Ulla; Sarkar, Devanand

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal malignancy with high mortality and poor prognosis. Oncogenic transcription factor Late SV40 Factor (LSF) plays an important role in promoting HCC. A small molecule inhibitor of LSF, Factor Quinolinone Inhibitor 1 (FQI1), significantly inhibited human HCC xenografts in nude mice without harming normal cells. Here we evaluated the efficacy of FQI1 and another inhibitor, FQI2, in inhibiting endogenous hepatocarcinogenesis. HCC was induced in a transgenic mouse with hepatocyte-specific overexpression of c-myc (Alb/c-myc) by injecting N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) followed by FQI1 or FQI2 treatment after tumor development. LSF inhibitors markedly decreased tumor burden in Alb/c-myc mice with a corresponding decrease in proliferation and angiogenesis. Interestingly, in vitro treatment of human HCC cells with LSF inhibitors resulted in mitotic arrest with an accompanying increase in CyclinB1. Inhibition of CyclinB1 induction by Cycloheximide or CDK1 activity by Roscovitine significantly prevented FQI-induced mitotic arrest. A significant induction of apoptosis was also observed upon treatment with FQI. These effects of LSF inhibition, mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis by FQI1s provide multiple avenues by which these inhibitors eliminate HCC cells. LSF inhibitors might be highly potent and effective therapeutics for HCC either alone or in combination with currently existing therapies. PMID:26313006

  2. Discovery of Novel Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Inhibitors by Structure-based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zheng; Yu, Tian; Sun, Rong; Wang, Shan; Chen, Xiao-Qian; Cheng, Li-Jia; Liu, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is a trans-membrane receptor like protein, and aberrant signaling of HER2 is implicated in many human cancers, such as ovarian cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, most notably breast cancer. Moreover, it has been in the spotlight in the recent years as a promising new target for therapy of breast cancer. Objective: Since virtual screening has become an integral part of the drug discovery process, it is of great significant to identify novel HER2 inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening. Materials and Methods: In this study, we carried out a series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, such as virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to identify HER2 inhibitors from Food and Drug Administration-approved small molecule drug as potential “new use” drugs. Results: Molecular docking identified top 10 potential drugs which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Moreover, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) might exert potential inhibitory effects against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Conclusion: Together, our findings may provide successful application of virtual screening studies in the lead discovery process, and suggest that our discovered small molecules could be effective HER2 inhibitor candidates for further study. SUMMARY A series of elegant bioinformatics approaches, including virtual screening and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were took advantage to identify human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) inhibitors. Molecular docking recognized top 10 candidate compounds, which showed spectrum affinity to HER2. Further, MD simulations suggested that ZINC08214629 (Nonoxynol-9) and ZINC03830276 (Benzonatate) in candidate compounds were identified as potential “new use” drugs against HER2-targeted anti-breast cancer therapeutics. Abbreviations used: HER2: Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2

  3. Effect of nadroparin on anti-Xa activity during nocturnal hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Buitenwerf, Edward; Risselada, Arne J.; van Roon, Eric N.; Veeger, Nic J.G.M.; Hemmelder, Marc H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nadroparin is used during hemodialysis to prevent clotting of the extra corporeal system. During nocturnal hemodialysis patients receive an increased dosage of nadroparin compared to conventional hemodialysis. We tested whether the prescribed dosage regimen of nadroparin, according to Dutch guidelines, causes accumulation of nadroparin. Methods Anti-Xa levels were used as an indicator of nadroparin accumulation. Anti-Xa was measured photometrically in 13 patients undergoing nocturnal hemodialysis for 4 nights a week. Nadroparin was administered according to Dutch dosage guidelines. We assessed anti-Xa levels at 4 time points during 1 dialysis week: before the start of the first dialysis session of the week (baseline), prior to (T1) and after the last dialysis session of the week (T2) and before the first dialysis of the following week (T3). Results Patients received 71–95 IU/kg at the start of dialysis and another 50% of the initial dosage after 4 h with a total cumulative dosage of 128 ± 24 IU/kg. Anti-Xa levels increased from 0.017 at baseline to 0.019 at T1 (p = 0.03). Anti-Xa levels were 0.419 ± 0.252 IU/ml at T2 (p < 0.001 vs baseline and T1), whereas anti-Xa levels were not changed at T3 compared to baseline. Conclusion Dosing of nadroparin according to Dutch guidelines in patients on nocturnal hemodialysis does not lead to accumulation of nadroparin. We therefore consider the Dutch dosage guidelines for nadroparin an effective and safe strategy. General significance This article is the first to present data on anti-Xa activity during nocturnal hemodialysis which is a widely used and potentially dangerous therapy. PMID:26672512

  4. Malignancies after heart transplantation: incidence, risk factors, and effects of calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Doesch, A O; Müller, S; Konstandin, M; Celik, S; Kristen, A; Frankenstein, L; Ehlermann, P; Sack, F-U; Katus, H A; Dengler, T J

    2010-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the incidence of malignancies and to describe the effects of immunosuppression on survival and recurrence of malignancies after heart transplantation (HTX). Data were analyzed in 211 cardiac allograft recipients, in whom HTX was performed between 1989 and 2005. All of these patients survived for more than 2 years after HTX and received induction therapy with antithymocyte globulin (RATG) guided by T-cell monitoring since 1994. An immunosuppressive regimen consisting of cyclosporine A (CsA) combined with azathioprine was followed by CsA and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in 2001; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (everolimus/sirolimus) were used since 2003. Mean patient age at HTX was 51.4 ± 10.5 years; mean follow-up time after HTX 9.2 ± 4.7 years. Overall incidence of neoplasias was 30.8%. Individual risk factors associated with a higher risk of malignancy after HTX were higher age at transplantation (P = .003), male gender (P = .005) and ischemic cardiomyopathy before HTX (P = .04). Administration of azathioprine (P < .0001) or a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) (P = .02) for more than 1 year was associated with development of malignancy, whereas significantly fewer malignancies were noticed in patients receiving an mTOR-inhibitor (P < .0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a strong statistical trend toward an improved survival in patients with a noncutaneous neoplasia switched to a CNI-free protocol (P = .05). This study demonstrated the impact of a variety of individual risk factors and immunosuppressive drugs on development of malignancy after HTX. Markedly fewer patients with noncutaneous malignancies died after switch to a CNI-free regimen, not quite reaching statistical significance by Kaplan-Meier analysis, however. PMID:21094840

  5. Sepsis-induced coagulation in the baboon lung is associated with decreased tissue factor pathway inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Haiwang; Ivanciu, Lacramioara; Popescu, Narcis; Peer, Glenn; Hack, Erik; Lupu, Cristina; Taylor, Fletcher B; Lupu, Florea

    2007-09-01

    Increased tissue factor (TF)-dependent procoagulant activity in sepsis may be partly due to decreased expression or function of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). To test this hypothesis, baboons were infused with live Escherichia coli and sacrificed after 2, 8, or 24 hours. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed increased leukocyte infiltration and fibrin deposition in the intravascular and interstitial compartments. Large amounts of TF were detected by immunostaining in leukocytes and platelet-rich microthrombi. TF induction was documented by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and coagulation assays. Lung-associated TFPI antigen and mRNA decreased during sepsis, and TFPI activity diminished abruptly at 2 hours. Blocking antibodies against TFPI increased fibrin deposition in septic baboon lungs, suggesting that TF-dependent coagulation might be aggravated by reduced endothelial TFPI. Decreased TFPI activity coincided with the release of tissue plasminogen activator and the peak of plasmin generation, suggesting that TFPI could undergo proteolytic inactivation by plasmin. Enhanced plasmin produced in septic baboons by infusion of blocking antibodies against plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 led to decreased lung-associated TFPI and unforeseen massive fibrin deposition. We conclude that activation of TF-driven coagulation not adequately countered by TFPI may underlie the widespread thrombotic complications of sepsis.

  6. Polymer-conjugated inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α for local control of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Washburn, Newell R.; Prata, Joseph E.; Friedrich, Emily E.; Ramadan, Mohamed H.; Elder, Allison N.; Sun, Liang Tso

    2013-01-01

    Burns, chronic wounds, osteoarthritis, and uveitis are examples of conditions characterized by local, intense inflammatory responses that can impede healing or even further tissue degradation. The most powerful anti-inflammatory drugs available are often administered systemically, but these carry significant side effects and are not compatible for patients that have underlying complications associated with their condition. Conjugation of monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pro-inflammatory cytokines to high molecular weight hydrophilic polymers has been shown to be an effective strategy for local control of inflammation. Lead formulations are based on antibody inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-α conjugated to hyaluronic acid having molecular weight greater than 1 MDa. This review will discuss fundamental aspects of medical conditions that could be treated with these conjugates and design principles for preparing these cytokine-neutralizing polymer conjugates. Results demonstrating that infliximab, an approved inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α, can be incorporated into the conjugates using a broad range of water-soluble polymers are also presented, along with a prospectus for clinical translation. PMID:23903893

  7. Xa21D encodes a receptor-like molecule with a leucine-rich repeat domain that determines race-specific recognition and is subject to adaptive evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, G L; Ruan, D L; Song, W Y; Sideris, S; Chen, L; Pi, L Y; Zhang, S; Zhang, Z; Fauquet, C; Gaut, B S; Whalen, M C; Ronald, P C

    1998-01-01

    The rice Xa21 gene confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae in a race-specific manner. Analysis of the inheritance patterns and resistance spectra of transgenic plants carrying six Xa21 gene family members indicated that one member, designated Xa21D, displayed a resistance spectrum identical to that observed for Xa21 but conferred only partial resistance. Xa21D encodes a receptor-like protein carrying leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motifs in the presumed extracellular domain. The Xa21D transcript terminates shortly after the stop codon introduced by the retrotransposon Retrofit. Comparison of nucleotide substitutions in the LRR coding regions of Xa21 and Xa21D provided evidence of adaptive selection. Both functional and evolutionary evidence indicates that the Xa21D LRR domain controls race-specific pathogen recognition. PMID:9596635

  8. Nannocystin A: an Elongation Factor 1 Inhibitor from Myxobacteria with Differential Anti-Cancer Properties.

    PubMed

    Krastel, Philipp; Roggo, Silvio; Schirle, Markus; Ross, Nathan T; Perruccio, Francesca; Aspesi, Peter; Aust, Thomas; Buntin, Kathrin; Estoppey, David; Liechty, Brigitta; Mapa, Felipa; Memmert, Klaus; Miller, Howard; Pan, Xuewen; Riedl, Ralph; Thibaut, Christian; Thomas, Jason; Wagner, Trixie; Weber, Eric; Xie, Xiaobing; Schmitt, Esther K; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2015-08-24

    Cultivation of myxobacteria of the Nannocystis genus led to the isolation and structure elucidation of a class of novel cyclic lactone inhibitors of elongation factor 1. Whole genome sequence analysis and annotation enabled identification of the putative biosynthetic cluster and synthesis process. In biological assays the compounds displayed anti-fungal and cytotoxic activity. Combined genetic and proteomic approaches identified the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) as the primary target for this compound class. Nannocystin A (1) displayed differential activity across various cancer cell lines and EEF1A1 expression levels appear to be the main differentiating factor. Biochemical and genetic evidence support an overlapping binding site of 1 with the anti-cancer compound didemnin B on EF-1α. This myxobacterial chemotype thus offers an interesting starting point for further investigations of the potential of therapeutics targeting elongation factor 1. PMID:26179970

  9. Total Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor and Venous Thrombosis: The Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Zakai, Neil A.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) inhibits tissue factor, a potent coagulation initiator. Limited evidence suggests that low TFPI levels are associated with increased risk of venous thrombosis (VTE). We measured total TFPI in a nested case-control study in the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology. Control subjects were frequency matched 2:1 to cases on age, sex, race, and cohort. Odds ratio for VTE by TFPI levels were computed using logistic regression models adjusting for age, race, sex, coagulation factors (factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, D-dimer), and body mass index. To evaluate for greater than additive interactions, we calculated the percent relative excess risk due to interaction between TFPI and other VTE risk factors. 534 cases of VTE occurred and matched to 1091 controls. Mean baseline TFPI in ng/mL (standard deviation) in those who developed VTE and controls was 36.4 (12.8) and 35.0 (11.1), respectively. Higher TFPI was associated with male sex, age, body mass index, factors VII, VIII, IX, XI, and D-dimer. TFPI level did not differ by ethnicity, factor V Leiden, or prothrombin G20210A. Compared with those in the upper 95%, the bottom 5% of TFPI had an age-, sex-, race-, and study-adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) of 1.35 (0.86, 2.12) for VTE. Adjusting for factors VII, VIII, IX, and XI the odds ratio was 1.93 (1.05, 3.53). Further addition of D-dimer and BMI to this model the odds ratio was 1.70 (0.98, 2.93). Low TFPI did not demonstrate greater than additive interaction with other VTE risk factors. PMID:20431849

  10. Non-genetic risk factors in haemophilia A inhibitor management - the danger theory and the use of animal models.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, K M; Søndergaard, H; Skov, S; Wiinberg, B

    2016-09-01

    In haemophilia A (HA) management, antidrug antibodies, or inhibitors, are a serious complication that renders factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy ineffective, increases morbidity and reduces quality of life for affected patients. Inhibitor development aetiology is multifactorial and covers both genetic and therapy related risk factors. Many therapy-related risk factors have proven difficult to confirm due to several confounding factors and the small study populations available. However, clinical studies indicate that e.g. on-demand treatment and surgery affect inhibitor development, and explanations for this association are being investigated. A potential explanation is the danger signal effect, where the immune response is activated by endogenous or exogenous danger or damage signals present at the time and site of FVIII administration. The danger theory explains how alarm signals from stressed, injured or dying cells can activate an immune reaction, without the involvement of foreign antigens. Bleeds, trauma, surgery or concomitant infection could be events initiating danger signalling in HA patients, resulting in an immune reaction towards administered FVIII that otherwise would pass unnoticed. This role of danger in HA inhibitor formation has previously been suggested, but a thorough discussion of this subject is lacking. The present review will discuss the potential role of danger signals in haemophilia and inhibitor development, with focus on treatment related risk factors with a suspected danger signal aetiology; on-demand treatment, treatment during major bleeds or surgery, and treatment during infection or vaccination. Clinical studies as well as animal experiments addressing these factors will be reviewed. PMID:27562315

  11. Non-genetic risk factors in haemophilia A inhibitor management - the danger theory and the use of animal models.

    PubMed

    Lövgren, K M; Søndergaard, H; Skov, S; Wiinberg, B

    2016-09-01

    In haemophilia A (HA) management, antidrug antibodies, or inhibitors, are a serious complication that renders factor VIII (FVIII) replacement therapy ineffective, increases morbidity and reduces quality of life for affected patients. Inhibitor development aetiology is multifactorial and covers both genetic and therapy related risk factors. Many therapy-related risk factors have proven difficult to confirm due to several confounding factors and the small study populations available. However, clinical studies indicate that e.g. on-demand treatment and surgery affect inhibitor development, and explanations for this association are being investigated. A potential explanation is the danger signal effect, where the immune response is activated by endogenous or exogenous danger or damage signals present at the time and site of FVIII administration. The danger theory explains how alarm signals from stressed, injured or dying cells can activate an immune reaction, without the involvement of foreign antigens. Bleeds, trauma, surgery or concomitant infection could be events initiating danger signalling in HA patients, resulting in an immune reaction towards administered FVIII that otherwise would pass unnoticed. This role of danger in HA inhibitor formation has previously been suggested, but a thorough discussion of this subject is lacking. The present review will discuss the potential role of danger signals in haemophilia and inhibitor development, with focus on treatment related risk factors with a suspected danger signal aetiology; on-demand treatment, treatment during major bleeds or surgery, and treatment during infection or vaccination. Clinical studies as well as animal experiments addressing these factors will be reviewed.

  12. 3D/3D registration of coronary CTA and biplane XA reconstructions for improved image guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Dibildox, Gerardo Baka, Nora; Walsum, Theo van; Punt, Mark; Aben, Jean-Paul; Schultz, Carl; Niessen, Wiro

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The authors aim to improve image guidance during percutaneous coronary interventions of chronic total occlusions (CTO) by providing information obtained from computed tomography angiography (CTA) to the cardiac interventionist. To this end, the authors investigate a method to register a 3D CTA model to biplane reconstructions. Methods: The authors developed a method for registering preoperative coronary CTA with intraoperative biplane x-ray angiography (XA) images via 3D models of the coronary arteries. The models are extracted from the CTA and biplane XA images, and are temporally aligned based on CTA reconstruction phase and XA ECG signals. Rigid spatial alignment is achieved with a robust probabilistic point set registration approach using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). This approach is extended by including orientation in the Gaussian mixtures and by weighting bifurcation points. The method is evaluated on retrospectively acquired coronary CTA datasets of 23 CTO patients for which biplane XA images are available. Results: The Gaussian mixture model approach achieved a median registration accuracy of 1.7 mm. The extended GMM approach including orientation was not significantly different (P > 0.1) but did improve robustness with regards to the initialization of the 3D models. Conclusions: The authors demonstrated that the GMM approach can effectively be applied to register CTA to biplane XA images for the purpose of improving image guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions.

  13. The influence of trigger factors on hereditary angioedema due to C1-inhibitor deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hereditary angioedema (HAE) resulting from C1-inhibitor deficiency is characterized by attacks of subcutaneous and submucosal edema. Many factors have been presumed to induce edema. Our study analyzed these factors in a fairly large patient population. Methods In the first stage of our study, we analyzed the data recorded by 92 subjects in their patient diaries over seven years. The second phase included 27 HAE patients, who had been completing the diary entry ‘Trigger factors’ every day for seven months whether or not they had experienced an attack. Results During the initial stage, 91% of the subjects described some factor possibly related to the onset of an attack. They could identify a trigger factor – most commonly (21%) mental stress – in 30% of the 3176 attacks. We found a significant (p < 0.001) difference in the distribution of the trigger factors of the edematous attacks of different locations. The 27 participants of the second phase identified 882 potential trigger factors and recorded 365 attacks. Of these, 246 (67%) occurred on days when the patients identified a potential trigger factor. The likelihood of edema-formation associated with the latter was as follows: menstruation – 63%, infection – 38%, mental stress – 26%, physical exertion – 25%, meteorological changes – 21%, fatigue – 17%. Conclusion This analysis of the trigger factors explored, for the first time, their potential role in inducing HAE attacks. Our findings might open new perspectives in extending the indications for edema-prophylaxis, and could contribute to a better understanding of the pathomechanism of HAE attacks. PMID:24678771

  14. Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors protect against platelet-activating factor-induced neuronal damage

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Clive; Rumbold, Louis; Williams, Alun

    2007-01-01

    Background Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is implicated in the neuronal damage that accompanies ischemia, prion disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since some epidemiological studies demonstrate that statins, drugs that reduce cholesterol synthesis, have a beneficial effect on mild AD, we examined the effects of two cholesterol synthesis inhibitors on neuronal responses to PAF. Methods Primary cortical neurons were treated with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors (simvastatin or squalestatin) prior to incubation with different neurotoxins. The effects of these drugs on neuronal cholesterol levels and neuronal survival were measured. Immunoblots were used to determine the effects of simvastatin or squalestatin on the distribution of the PAF receptor and an enzyme linked immunoassay was used to quantify the amounts of PAF receptor. Results PAF killed primary neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Pre-treatment with simvastatin or squalestatin reduced neuronal cholesterol and increased the survival of PAF-treated neurons. Neuronal survival was increased 50% by 100 nM simvastatin, or 20 nM squalestatin. The addition of mevalonate restored cholesterol levels, and reversed the protective effect of simvastatin. Simvastatin or squalestatin did not affect the amounts of the PAF receptor but did cause it to disperse from within lipid rafts. Conclusion Treatment of neurons with cholesterol synthesis inhibitors including simvastatin and squalestatin protected neurons against PAF. Treatment caused a percentage of the PAF receptors to disperse from cholesterol-sensitive domains. These results raise the possibility that the effects of statins on neurodegenerative disease are, at least in part, due to desensitisation of neurons to PAF. PMID:17233902

  15. [Analysis of the Cochrane Review: Direct thrombin inhibitors versus vitamin K antagonists for preventing cerebral or systemic embolism in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014,3:CD009893].

    PubMed

    Vaz Carneiro, António; Costa, João

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is one of the most important complications of lone (non-valvular) atrial fibrillation. Its prevention is usually accomplished through oral anticoagulation. Until a few years ago warfarin was the most used agent, but recently two new pharmacologic classes have been introduced for stroke prevention in these patients: oral direct thrombin inhibitors (dabigatran and ximelagatran) and oral factor Xa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban). In this systematic review, oral direct thrombin inhibitors were compared with warfarin for efficacy and safety. The results indicate that there is no difference in terms of efficacy (except dabigatran 150 mg BID). Oral direct thrombin inhibitors presented less hemorrhages but increased treatment withdrawal due to adverse side-effects (the authors performed post-hoc analyses excluding ximelagatran because this drug was withdrawn from the market owing to safety concerns). There was no difference in terms of mortality between the agents.

  16. Discovery of Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Kinase Inhibitors by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranathan, Krishna P.; Mandiyan, Valsan; Ekkati, Anil R.; Bae, Jae H.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Jorgensen, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs) play important roles in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and cell proliferation and differentiation. In search of inhibitors of FGFR1 kinase, 2.2 million compounds were docked into the ATP binding site of the protein. A co-crystal structure, which shows two alternative conformations for the nucleotide binding loop, is reported. Docking was performed on both conformations and, ultimately, 23 diverse compounds were purchased and assayed. Following hit validation, two compounds 10 and 16, a benzylidene derivative of pseudothiohydantoin and a thienopyrimidinone derivative, were discovered that inhibit FGFR1 kinase with IC50 values of 23 and 50 µM. Initial optimization of 16 led to the more unsaturated 40, which has significantly enhanced potency, 1.9 µM. The core structures represent new structural motifs for FGFR1 kinase inhibitors. The study also illustrates complexities associated with the choice of protein structures for docking, possible use of multiple kinase structures to seek selectivity, and hit identification. PMID:20121196

  17. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lina; Zhou, Wenhao; Wang, Huijun; Zhang, Jin; Deng, Shanshan; Li, Weihua; Li, Huawei; Mao, Zuohua; Ma, Duan

    2013-09-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (Tfpi-2) is an important serine protease inhibitor in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but its precise physiological significance remains unknown. This work is part of a series of studies intended to investigate functional roles of Tfpi-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we cloned and identified zebrafish Tfpi-2 (zTfpi-2) as an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for zebrafish development. We also demonstrated that ztfpi-2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of zebrafish, and embryonic depletion of ztfpi-2 caused severe CNS defects. In addition, changes of neural markers, including pax2a, egr2b, huC, ngn1, gfap and olig2, confirmed the presence of developmental abnormalities in the relevant regions of ztfpi-2 morphants. Using microarray analysis, we found that members of the Notch pathway, especially her4 and mib, which mediate lateral inhibition in CNS development, were also downregulated. Intriguingly, both her4 and mib were able to partially rescue the ztfpi-2 morphant phenotype. Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development.

  18. Interactions of ABCG2 (BCRP) with epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors developed for molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Qawasmi, Israa; Shmuel, Miriam; Eyal, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate in vitro the interactions between novel epidermal growth factor receptor kinase inhibitors (EGFRIs) developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and the major efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). Seven compounds were evaluated, using the ATPase activity assays and Madin-Darbey canine kidney (MDCK) cells overexpressing BCRP. Five of the tested compounds activated BCRP ATPase to various extent. Overexpression of BCRP conferred resistance to ML04, ML06, methoxy-Br-ML03, and PEG6-ML05 (IC50 values for inhibition of control cell proliferation 2.1 ± 0.6, 2.2 ± 0.7, 1.8 ± 1.2, and 2.8 ± 3.1 μM, respectively, compared to >50 μM in MDCK-BCRP cells). At submicromolar concentrations, none of the EGFRIs significantly inhibited BCRP. Immunoblotting studies indicated that BCRP expression is evident in cell lines utilized for in vivo tumor grafting in small animal PET imaging studies. Thus, the intensity of EGFRIs radioactivity signals previously observed in tumor xenografts reflects an interplay between transporter-mediated distribution of the probe into tumor cells and target binding. Concomitant use of efflux transporter inhibitors may help distinguish between the contribution of efflux transport and EGFR binding to the tissue signal.

  19. KRAS mutational status as a predictor of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor efficacy in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Baynes, Roy D; Gansert, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have demonstrated promising potential in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer. However, a proportion of patients do not respond to therapy with EGFR inhibitors, and therefore, there has been interest in identifying those patients most likely to benefit from therapy with these agents. KRAS, a member of the RAS family of signaling proteins, plays an important role in EGFR-mediated regulation of cellular proliferation and survival. Although there is still some debate regarding the prognostic importance of KRAS mutations in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, several recent phase 2 and 3 studies have identified the presence of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of KRAS as predictors of poor response to the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies panitumumab and cetuximab. Patients with wild-type KRAS were found to have significantly better progression-free survival, overall survival, and/or objective response rate compared with patients harboring KRAS mutations. As a result, there has been growing interest in the development of KRAS mutational status as a biomarker for predicting patient response to EGFR-targeted therapy. Screening colorectal tumors for the absence of KRAS mutations may help identify patients most likely to benefit from anti-EGFR therapies.

  20. Brunner's gland lesions in rats induced by a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Akira; Nakano-Ito, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Yasuhiro; Sonoda, Jiro; Hayakawa, Kazuhiro; Ohta, Etsuko; Taketa, Yoshikazu; Van Gessel, Yvonne; Akare, Sandeep; Hutto, David; Hosokawa, Satoru; Tsukidate, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitors are reported to cause reversible mucosal hyperplasia (adenosis) in the duodenum of rats; however, the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Using lenvatinib, a VEGF RTK inhibitor, we characterized the histologic time course of this duodenal change in rats. At 4 weeks, there was degeneration and necrosis of Brunner's gland epithelium accompanied by neutrophil infiltration around the affected glands. At 13 weeks, the inflammation was more extensive, and Brunner's gland epithelium was attenuated and flattened and was accompanied by reactive hyperplasia of duodenal epithelium. At 26 weeks, the changes became more severe and chronic and characterized by marked cystic dilation, which extended to the external muscular layer. These dilated glands exhibited morphological characteristics of duodenal crypt epithelium, suggestive of replacement of disappeared Brunner's glands by regenerative duodenal crypt epithelial cells. Similar changes were not present in similar time course studies in dog and monkey studies, suggesting that this is a rodent- or species-specific change. Based on the temporal progression of Brunner's gland lesion, we identify degeneration and necrosis of the Brunner's glands as the primary change leading to inflammation, cystic dilatation, and regeneration with cells that are morphologically suggestive of duodenal crypt epithelium.

  1. Discovery of Novel Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Kinase Inhibitors by Structure-Based Virtual Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindranathan, K.; Mandiyan, V; Ekkati, A; Bae, J; Schlessinger, J; Jorgensen, W

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in embryonic development, angiogenesis, wound healing, and cell proliferation and differentiation. In search of inhibitors of FGFR1 kinase, 2.2 million compounds were docked into the ATP binding site of the protein. A co-crystal structure, which shows two alternative conformations for the nucleotide binding loop, is reported. Docking was performed on both conformations and, ultimately, 23 diverse compounds were purchased and assayed. Following hit validation, two compounds 10 and 16, a benzylidene derivative of pseudothiohydantoin and a thienopyrimidinone derivative, respectively, were discovered that inhibit FGFR1 kinase with IC{sub 50} values of 23 and 50 {micro}M. Initial optimization of 16 led to the more unsaturated 40, which has significantly enhanced potency, 1.9 {micro}M. The core structures represent new structural motifs for FGFR1 kinase inhibitors. The study also illustrates complexities associated with the choice of protein structures for docking, possible use of multiple kinase structures to seek selectivity, and hit identification.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors: from risk factors to clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2013-05-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are oral incretin-based glucose-lowering agents with proven efficacy and safety in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition, preclinical data and mechanistic studies suggest a possible additional non-glycemic beneficial action on blood vessels and the heart, via both glucagon-like peptide-1-dependent and glucagon-like peptide-1-independent effects. As a matter of fact, DPP-4 inhibitors improve several cardiovascular risk factors: they improve glucose control (mainly by reducing the risk of postprandial hyperglycemia) and are weight neutral; may lower blood pressure somewhat; improve postprandial (and even fasting) lipemia; reduce inflammatory markers; diminish oxidative stress; improve endothelial function; and reduce platelet aggregation in patients with T2DM. In addition, positive effects on the myocardium have been described in patients with ischemic heart disease. Results of post hoc analyses of phase 2/3 controlled trials suggest a possible cardioprotective effect with a trend (sometimes significant) toward lower incidence of major cardiovascular events with sitagliptin, vildagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, or alogliptin compared with placebo or other active glucose-lowering agents. However, the definite relationship between DPP-4 inhibition and better cardiovascular outcomes remains to be proven. Major prospective clinical trials involving various DPP-4 inhibitors with predefined cardiovascular outcomes are under way in patients with T2DM and a high-risk cardiovascular profile: the Sitagliptin Cardiovascular Outcome Study (TECOS) on sitagliptin, the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (SAVOR-TIMI) 53 trial on saxagliptin, the Cardiovascular Outcomes Study of Alogliptin in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome (EXAMINE) trial on alogliptin, and the Cardiovascular Outcome

  3. Hippuristanol - A potent steroid inhibitor of eukaryotic initiation factor 4A.

    PubMed

    Cencic, Regina; Pelletier, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Protein synthesis and its regulatory signaling pathways play essential roles in the initiation and maintenance of the cancer phenotype. Insight obtained over the last 3 decades on the mechanisms regulating translation in normal and transformed cells have revealed that perturbed control in cancer cells may offer an Achilles' heel for the development of novel anti-neoplastic agents. Several small molecule inhibitors have been identified and characterized that target translation initiation - more specifically, the rate-limiting step where ribosomes are recruited to mRNA templates. Among these, hippuristanol, a polyhydroxysteroid from the gorgonian Isis hippuris has been found to inhibit translation initiation by blocking the activity of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4A, an essential RNA helicase involved in this process. Herein, we highlight the biological properties of this compound, its potential development as an anti-cancer agent, and its use to validate eIF4A as an anti-neoplastic target. PMID:27335721

  4. QSAR and 3D QSAR of inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto-Bazurco, Mariano; Tsakovska, Ivanka; Pajeva, Ilza

    This article reports quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) and 3D QSAR models of 134 structurally diverse inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase. Free-Wilson analysis was used to derive the QSAR model. It identified the substituents in aniline, the polycyclic system, and the substituents at the 6- and 7-positions of the polycyclic system as the most important structural features. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were used in the 3D QSAR modeling. The steric and electrostatic interactions proved the most important for the inhibitory effect. Both QSAR and 3D QSAR models led to consistent results. On the basis of the statistically significant models, new structures were proposed and their inhibitory activities were predicted.

  5. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 enhances thyroid cancer cell motile response to Hepatocyte Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Frasca, F; Vigneri, P; Vella, V; Vigneri, R; Wang, J Y

    2001-06-28

    The Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and its receptor Met are physiological regulators of cell migration. HGF and Met have also been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. We show here that the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 has a stimulatory effect on HGF-induced migration and branching morphogenesis in thyroid cancer but not in primary or immortalized thyroid epithelial cells. These stimulatory effects of STI571 are observed at a concentration that is clinically relevant. The STI571-enhanced motile response can be correlated with an increase in the Met receptor tyrosine phosphorylation as well as ERK and Akt activation by HGF. Interestingly, one of the targets of STI571, namely the c-Abl tyrosine kinase, is activated by HGF and is recruited at the migrating edge of thyroid cancer cells. These data suggests that c-Abl and/or STI571-inhibited tyrosine kinases can negatively regulate the Met receptor to restrain the motile response in thyroid cancer cells.

  6. "XA6" octahedra influencing the arrangement of anionic groups and optical properties in inverse-perovskite [B6O10]XA3 (X = Cl, Br; A = alkali metal).

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihua; Lei, Bing-Hua; Yang, Bin; Pan, Shilie

    2016-06-01

    Exploring the effect of microscopic units, which set up the perovsikte framework, is of importance for material design. In this study, a series of borate halides with inverse-perovskite structures [B6O10]XA3 (X = Cl, Br; A = alkali metal) have been studied. It was revealed that the distortion and volume of XA6 octahedra influence the arrangement of anionic groups, which leads to the flexibility of the perovskite-related framework and differences in optical properties. Under the structural control scheme, the structure of Rb3B6O10Cl was predicted. The stability of the predicted structure was confirmed by an ab initio density functional theory-based method. The calculation shows Rb3B6O10Cl has a short UV cutoff edge of less than 200 nm, a moderate birefringence and a large second harmonic generation response. PMID:27211304

  7. Delirium in the geriatric unit: proton-pump inhibitors and other risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Otremba, Iwona; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Szewieczek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Delirium remains a major nosocomial complication of hospitalized elderly. Predictive models for delirium may be useful for identification of high-risk patients for implementation of preventive strategies. Objective Evaluate specific factors for development of delirium in a geriatric ward setting. Methods Prospective cross-sectional study comprised 675 consecutive patients aged 79.2±7.7 years (66% women and 34% men), admitted to the subacute geriatric ward of a multiprofile university hospital after exclusion of 113 patients treated with antipsychotic medication because of behavioral disorders before admission. Comprehensive geriatric assessments including a structured interview, physical examination, geriatric functional assessment, blood sampling, ECG, abdominal ultrasound, chest X-ray, Confusion Assessment Method for diagnosis of delirium, Delirium-O-Meter to assess delirium severity, Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale to assess sedation or agitation, visual analog scale and Doloplus-2 scale to assess pain level were performed. Results Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed five independent factors associated with development of delirium in geriatric inpatients: transfer between hospital wards (odds ratio [OR] =2.78; confidence interval [CI] =1.54–5.01; P=0.001), preexisting dementia (OR =2.29; CI =1.44–3.65; P<0.001), previous delirium incidents (OR =2.23; CI =1.47–3.38; P<0.001), previous fall incidents (OR =1.76; CI =1.17–2.64; P=0.006), and use of proton-pump inhibitors (OR =1.67; CI =1.11–2.53; P=0.014). Conclusion Transfer between hospital wards, preexisting dementia, previous delirium incidents, previous fall incidents, and use of proton-pump inhibitors are predictive of development of delirium in the geriatric inpatient setting. PMID:27103793

  8. Mechanisms of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Resistance and Strategies to Overcome Resistance in Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yoon Soo; Choi, Chang-Min

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations that lead to hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling are detected in approximately 50% of lung adenocarcinoma in people from the Far East population and tyrosine kinase inhibitors are now the standard first line treatment for advanced disease. They have led to a doubling of progression-free survival and an increase in overall survival by more than 2 years. However, emergence of resistant clones has become the primary cause for treatment failure, and has created a new challenge in the daily management of patients with EGFR mutations. Identification of mechanisms leading to inhibitor resistance has led to new therapeutic modalities, some of which have now been adapted for patients with unsuccessful tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this review, we describe mechanisms of tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance and the available strategies to overcoming resistance. PMID:27790276

  9. Molecular analysis of two cDNAs encoding Xa1 and oxysterol binding proteins in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and subsequent microarray analysis, expression profiles of sorghum genes responsive to greenbug phloem-feeding were obtained and identified. Among the profiles, two cDNAs designated to MM73 and MM95 were identified to encode Xa1 (Xa1) and oxysterol ...

  10. Platelet-Derived Short-Chain Polyphosphates Enhance the Inactivation of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor by Activated Coagulation Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Puy, Cristina; Tucker, Erik I.; Ivanov, Ivan S.; Gailani, David; Smith, Stephanie A.; Morrissey, James H.; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Factor (F) XI supports both normal human hemostasis and pathological thrombosis. Activated FXI (FXIa) promotes thrombin generation by enzymatic activation of FXI, FIX, FX, and FV, and inactivation of alpha tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPIα), in vitro. Some of these reactions are now known to be enhanced by short-chain polyphosphates (SCP) derived from activated platelets. These SCPs act as a cofactor for the activation of FXI and FV by thrombin and FXIa, respectively. Since SCPs have been shown to inhibit the anticoagulant function of TFPIα, we herein investigated whether SCPs could serve as cofactors for the proteolytic inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa, further promoting the efficiency of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation to generate thrombin. Methods and Results Purified soluble SCP was prepared by size-fractionation of sodium polyphosphate. TFPIα proteolysis was analyzed by western blot. TFPIα activity was measured as inhibition of FX activation and activity in coagulation and chromogenic assays. SCPs significantly accelerated the rate of inactivation of TFPIα by FXIa in both purified systems and in recalcified plasma. Moreover, platelet-derived SCP accelerated the rate of inactivation of platelet-derived TFPIα by FXIa. TFPIα activity was not affected by SCP in recalcified FXI-depleted plasma. Conclusions Our data suggest that SCP is a cofactor for TFPIα inactivation by FXIa, thus, expanding the range of hemostatic FXIa substrates that may be affected by the cofactor functions of platelet-derived SCP. PMID:27764259

  11. Synergistic inhibition with a dual epidermal growth factor receptor/HER-2/neu tyrosine kinase inhibitor and a disintegrin and metalloprotease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Witters, Lois; Scherle, Peggy; Friedman, Steven; Fridman, Jordan; Caulder, Eian; Newton, Robert; Lipton, Allan

    2008-09-01

    The ErbB family of receptors is overexpressed in numerous human tumors. Overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Use of ErbB-specific antibodies to the receptors (Herceptin or Erbitux) or ErbB-specific small-molecule inhibitors of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity (Iressa or Tarceva) has shown clinical efficacy in several solid tumors. An alternative method of affecting ErbB-initiated tumor growth and survival is to block sheddase activity. Sheddase activity is responsible for cleavage of multiple ErbB ligands and receptors, a necessary step in availability of the soluble, active form of the ligand and a constitutively activated ligand-independent receptor. This sheddase activity is attributed to the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) family of proteins. ADAM 10 is the main sheddase of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and HER-2/neu cleavage, whereas ADAM17 is required for cleavage of additional EGF receptor (EGFR) ligands (transforming growth factor-alpha, amphiregulin, heregulin, heparin binding EGF-like ligand). This study has shown that addition of INCB3619, a potent inhibitor of ADAM10 and ADAM17, reduces in vitro HER-2/neu and amphiregulin shedding, confirming that it interferes with both HER-2/neu and EGFR ligand cleavage. Combining INCB3619 with a lapatinib-like dual inhibitor of EGFR and HER-2/neu kinases resulted in synergistic growth inhibition in MCF-7 and HER-2/neu-transfected MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Combining the INCB7839 second-generation sheddase inhibitor with lapatinib prevented the growth of HER-2/neu-positive BT474-SC1 human breast cancer xenografts in vivo. These results suggest that there may be an additional clinical benefit of combining agents that target the ErbB pathways at multiple points.

  12. Treatment with didemnin B, an elongation factor 1A inhibitor, improves hepatic lipotoxicity in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Sutherland, Brian G; Robson, Debra L; Arya, Rigya; Kelly, Karen; Jacobs, René L; Borradaile, Nica M

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A1 is induced by oxidative and ER stress, and contributes to subsequent cell death in many cell types, including hepatocytes. We recently showed that blocking the protein synthesis activity of EEF1A1 with the peptide inhibitor, didemnin B, decreases saturated fatty acid overload-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. In light of this and other recent work suggesting that limiting protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating ER stress-related disease, we hypothesized that acute intervention with didemnin B would decrease hepatic ER stress and lipotoxicity in obese mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hyperphagic male ob/ob mice were fed semipurified diet for 4 weeks, and during week 5 received i.p. injections of didemnin B or vehicle on days 1, 4, and 7. Interestingly, we observed that administration of this compound modestly decreased food intake without evidence of illness or distress, and thus included an additional control group matched for food consumption with didemnin B-treated animals. Treatment with didemnin B improved several characteristics of hepatic lipotoxicity to a greater extent than the effects of caloric restriction alone, including hepatic steatosis, and some hepatic markers of ER stress and inflammation (GRP78, Xbp1s, and Mcp1). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles and histopathological measures of NAFLD, including lobular inflammation, and total NAFLD activity score were also improved by didemnin B. These data indicate that acute intervention with the EEF1A inhibitor, didemnin B, improves hepatic lipotoxicity in obese mice with NAFLD through mechanisms not entirely dependent on decreased food intake, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for this ER stress-related disease. PMID:27613825

  13. Treatment with didemnin B, an elongation factor 1A inhibitor, improves hepatic lipotoxicity in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Alexandra M; Sawyez, Cynthia G; Sutherland, Brian G; Robson, Debra L; Arya, Rigya; Kelly, Karen; Jacobs, René L; Borradaile, Nica M

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor EEF1A1 is induced by oxidative and ER stress, and contributes to subsequent cell death in many cell types, including hepatocytes. We recently showed that blocking the protein synthesis activity of EEF1A1 with the peptide inhibitor, didemnin B, decreases saturated fatty acid overload-induced cell death in HepG2 cells. In light of this and other recent work suggesting that limiting protein synthesis may be beneficial in treating ER stress-related disease, we hypothesized that acute intervention with didemnin B would decrease hepatic ER stress and lipotoxicity in obese mice with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Hyperphagic male ob/ob mice were fed semipurified diet for 4 weeks, and during week 5 received i.p. injections of didemnin B or vehicle on days 1, 4, and 7. Interestingly, we observed that administration of this compound modestly decreased food intake without evidence of illness or distress, and thus included an additional control group matched for food consumption with didemnin B-treated animals. Treatment with didemnin B improved several characteristics of hepatic lipotoxicity to a greater extent than the effects of caloric restriction alone, including hepatic steatosis, and some hepatic markers of ER stress and inflammation (GRP78, Xbp1s, and Mcp1). Plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles and histopathological measures of NAFLD, including lobular inflammation, and total NAFLD activity score were also improved by didemnin B. These data indicate that acute intervention with the EEF1A inhibitor, didemnin B, improves hepatic lipotoxicity in obese mice with NAFLD through mechanisms not entirely dependent on decreased food intake, suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy for this ER stress-related disease.

  14. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor does not influence inflammatory pathways during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E; Dekkers, P E; Creasey, A A; Hack, C E; Paulson, S K; Karim, A; Kesecioglu, J; Levi, M; van Deventer, S J; van der Poll, T

    2001-06-15

    Activation of coagulation induces a proinflammatory response in in vitro and animal experiments. Inhibition of the tissue factor-dependent pathway of coagulation inhibits cytokine release and prevents death in gram-negative sepsis models in primates. This study investigated the influence of blocking the coagulation system by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on endotoxin-induced inflammatory responses in healthy humans. Eight men were studied in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. They received a bolus intravenous injection of 4 ng/kg of endotoxin, followed by a 6-h continuous infusion of either TFPI (0.2 mg/kg/h after a bolus of 0.05 mg/kg) or placebo. Endotoxin induced-activation of coagulation was prevented completely by TFPI. In contrast, TFPI did not influence leukocyte activation, chemokine release, endothelial cell activation, or the acute phase response. Thus, complete prevention of coagulation activation by TFPI does not influence activation of inflammatory pathways during human endotoxemia.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 in osteogenesis: Facilitator or Inhibitor?

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Aditi; Rotwein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a central role in controlling somatic growth in mammals and exert anabolic effects on most tissues, including bone. IGF action is mediated by the IGF-I receptor and additionally is regulated by six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-1 through IGFBP-6), of which IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5 are most abundant in bone. The focus of this brief review is on the role of IGFBP-5 in bone biology. IGFBP-5 has been implicated as a pro-osteogenic factor in several studies but conversely has been shown to act as an inhibitor of bone formation, primarily by interfering with IGF actions on osteoblasts. These potentially contradictory effects of IGFBP-5 in bone are further complicated by observations indicating that IGFBP-5 additionally may function in an IGF-independent way, and may have been accentuated by differences in both experimental design and methodology among published studies. Suggestions are made for a more systematic approach to help discern the true roles of IGFBP-5 in bone physiology. PMID:17317255

  16. Insulin-like Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Baby or the Bathwater?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The success of targeted therapies for cancer is undisputed; strong preclinical evidence has resulted in the approval of several new agents for cancer treatment. The type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) appeared to be one of these promising new targets. Substantial population and preclinical data have all pointed toward this pathway as an important regulator of tumor cell biology. Although early results from clinical trials that targeted the IGF1R showed some evidence of response, larger randomized phase III trials have not shown clear clinical benefit of targeting this pathway in combination with conventional strategies. These disappointing results have resulted in the discontinuation of several anti-IGF1R programs. However, the conduct of these trials has brought to the forefront several important factors that need to be considered in the conduct of future clinical trials. The need to develop biomarkers, a clearer understanding of insulin receptor function, and defining rational combination regimens all require further consideration. In this commentary, the current state of IGF1R inhibitors in cancer therapy is reviewed. PMID:22761272

  17. Comparison of Clot-based, Chromogenic, and Fluorescence Assays for Measurement of Factor VIII Inhibitors in the U.S. Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Connie H.; Rice, Anne S.; Boylan, Brian; Shapiro, Amy D.; Lentz, Steven R.; Wicklund, Brian M.; Kelly, Fiona M.; Soucie, J. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Detection and validation of inhibitors (antibodies) to hemophilia treatment products are important for clinical care, evaluation of product safety, and assessment of population trends. Methods Centralized monitoring for factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors was conducted for patients in the Hemophilia Inhibitor Research Study using a previously reported modified Nijmegen-Bethesda clotting assay (NBA), a chromogenic Bethesda assay (CBA), and a novel fluorescence immunoassay (FLI). Results NBA and CBA were performed on 1005 specimens and FLI on 272 specimens. CBA was negative on 880/883 specimens (99.7%) with Nijmegen-Bethesda units (NBU)<0.5 and positive on 42/42 specimens (100%) with NBU≥2.0 and 43/80 specimens (53.8%) with NBU 0.5–1.9. Among specimens with positive NBA and negative CBA, 58.1% were FLI-negative, 12.9% had evidence of lupus anticoagulant, and 35.5% had non-time-dependent inhibition. CBA and FLI were positive on 72.4% and 100% of 1.0–1.9 NBU specimens and 43.1% and 50.0% of 0.5–0.9 NBU specimens. FLI detected antibodies in 98.0% of CBA-positive and 81.6% of NBA-positive specimens (P=0.004). Among 21 new inhibitors detected by NBA, 5 (23.8%) with 0.7–1.3 NBU did not react in CBA or FLI. Among previously positive patients with 0.5–1.9 NBU, 7/25 (28%) were not CBA or FLI positive. FLI was positive on 36/169 NBU-negative specimens (21.3%). Conclusions FVIII specificity could not be demonstrated by CBA or FLI for 26% of inhibitors of 0.5–1.9 NBU; such results must be interpreted with caution. Low titer inhibitors detected in clot-based assays should always be repeated, with consideration given to evaluating their reactivity with FVIII using more specific assays. PMID:23601690

  18. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto–enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein–ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl–aryl, and cation−π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  19. A Fluorescence Polarization Assay for Binding to Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor and Crystal Structures for Complexes of Two Potent Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cisneros, José A; Robertson, Michael J; Valhondo, Margarita; Jorgensen, William L

    2016-07-13

    Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is both a keto-enol tautomerase and a cytokine associated with numerous inflammatory diseases and cancer. Consistent with observed correlations between inhibition of the enzymatic and biological activities, discovery of MIF inhibitors has focused on monitoring the tautomerase activity using l-dopachrome methyl ester or 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic acid as substrates. The accuracy of these assays is compromised by several issues including substrate instability, spectral interference, and short linear periods for product formation. In this work, we report the syntheses of fluorescently labeled MIF inhibitors and their use in the first fluorescence polarization-based assay to measure the direct binding of inhibitors to the active site. The assay allows the accurate and efficient identification of competitive, noncompetitive, and covalent inhibitors of MIF in a manner that can be scaled for high-throughput screening. The results for 22 compounds show that the most potent MIF inhibitors bind with Kd values of ca. 50 nM; two are from our laboratory, and the other is a compound from the patent literature. X-ray crystal structures for two of the most potent compounds bound to MIF are also reported here. Striking combinations of protein-ligand hydrogen bonding, aryl-aryl, and cation-π interactions are responsible for the high affinities. A new chemical series was then designed using this knowledge to yield two more strong MIF inhibitors/binders. PMID:27299179

  20. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation.

  1. Developing an Anti-Xa-Based Anticoagulation Protocol for Patients with Percutaneous Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Adam; Mardis, B Andrew; Mardis, Caitlin R; Huber, Michelle R; New, James P; Meadows, Holly B; Cook, Jennifer L; Toole, J Matthew; Uber, Walter E

    2015-01-01

    Because of the complexities associated with anticoagulation in temporary percutaneous ventricular assist device (pVAD) recipients, a lack of standardization exists in their management. This retrospective analysis evaluates current anticoagulation practices at a single center with the aim of identifying an optimal anticoagulation strategy and protocol. Patients were divided into two cohorts based on pVAD implanted (CentriMag (Thoratec; Pleasanton, CA) / TandemHeart (CardiacAssist; Pittsburgh, PA) or Impella (Abiomed, Danvers, MA)), with each group individually analyzed for bleeding and thrombotic complications. Patients in the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort were subdivided based on the anticoagulation monitoring strategy (activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) or antifactor Xa unfractionated heparin (anti-Xa) values). In the CentriMag/TandemHeart cohort, there were five patients with anticoagulation titrated based on anti-Xa values; one patient developed a device thrombosis and a major bleed, whereas another patient experienced major bleeding. Eight patients received an Impella pVAD. Seven total major bleeds in three patients and no thrombotic events were detected. Based on distinct differences between the devices, anti-Xa values, and outcomes, two protocols were created to guide anticoagulation adjustments. However, anticoagulation in patients who require pVAD support is complex with constantly evolving anticoagulation goals. The ideal level of anticoagulation should be individually determined using several coagulation laboratory parameters in concert with hemodynamic changes in the patient's clinical status, the device, and the device cannulation. PMID:26273933

  2. Exploring the importance of zinc binding and steric/hydrophobic factors in novel HCV replication inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Talley, Daniel C; Delang, Leen; Neyts, Johan; Leyssen, Pieter; Smith, Paul J

    2016-02-15

    Several novel compounds have been identified that inhibit the replication of hepatitis C virus in a replicon assay with EC50 values as low as 0.6 μM. Lead compounds were modified to investigate the possible role that zinc binding may play in inhibitor efficacy. In addition, the structure-activity relationship was explored to increase inhibitor efficacy and possibly identify favorable interactions within the currently unknown inhibitor binding pocket. The rationale for inhibitor design and biological results are presented herein.

  3. Induction of an inhibitor antibody to factor XI in a patient with severe inherited factor XI deficiency by Rh immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Michal; Zivelin, Ariella; Teitel, Jerome; Seligsohn, Uri

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we report an inhibitor antibody to factor XI (FXI) in a woman with severe inherited FXI deficiency, induced by FXI present in an Rh immune globulin preparation. The patient is homozygous for the Glu117Stop mutation, associated with a FXI level of less than 1 U/dL. Unlike all previously described patients with severe FXI deficiency and an inhibitor, the patient had never been exposed to blood products. Following 3 injections of Rh immune globulin during pregnancy, she developed an inhibitor to FXI (8 Bethesda units) that was shown to bind specifically to FXI and inhibit factor IX cleavage by purified FXIa. The administered Rh immune globulin and 2 other similar products were shown to contain FXI. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for immunization of severely FXI-deficient patients by FXI present in Rh immune globulin preparations.

  4. Evidence That Sisterless-a and Sisterless-B Are Two of Several Discrete ``numerator Elements'' of the X/a Sex Determination Signal in Drosophila That Switch Sxl between Two Alternative Stable Expression States

    PubMed Central

    Cline, T. W.

    1988-01-01

    The primary signal for Drosophila sex determination is the number of X chromosomes relative to the number of sets of autosomes. The present report shows that the numerator of this X/A signal appears to be determined by the cumulative dose of a relatively limited number of discrete X-linked genetic elements, two of which are sisterless-a and sisterless-b. This discovery regarding the nature of the sex determination signal grew out of previous studies of both the likely X/A signal target (the feminizing switch gene, Sex-lethal) and two positive regulators of that target gene (sis-a and daughterless). Combinations of genetic perturbations in these three genes had been shown to have synergistic effects. A model proposed in part to account for these interactions generated a large variety of strong predictions for sex-specific synergistic interactions that would be diagnostic for X/A numerator elements and could distinguish them from other components of the sex determination system. All these predictions, as well as other predictions for X/A numerator elements, are shown here to be fulfilled. The most compelling observations involve sexually reciprocal viability effects of duplications of wild-type genes: combinations of sis-a(+), sis-b(+) and/or Sxl(+) duplications are lethal to males but rescue females from the otherwise lethal effects of changes in other components of the sex determination machinery. The many interactions described here illustrate an important principle that may seem counter-intuitive: perturbations of the sex determination signal for Drosophila generally will not appear to affect adult sexual phenotype. This principle follows from the fact that Sxl is involved in dosage compensation as well as sex determination, and from important aspects of the nature and timing of Sxl's regulation both by the X/A signal and by Sxl's own products (positive autoregulation). These factors mask potential effects on adult sexual differentiation by causing the premature

  5. Analysis of F8 inversions as risk factors for FVIII inhibitor development in Indian severe haemophilia A patients.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Patricia; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2014-09-01

    FVIII inhibitor development in haemophilia A (HA) patients, especially those with severe manifestations is a serious adverse effect in patients with haemophilia A, and the clinical management of these patients is very difficult as most don't respond to conventional treatment. Many genetic and non-genetic risk factors have been proposed however, these are diverse in different population groups, highlighting the importance of determining specific risk factors for each population. F8 mutations and especially inversions, which are the most common causative mutation in severe HA, have been significantly associated with inhibitor development earlier, however there is no conclusive data so far with regard to Indian haemophiliacs. This study provides novel evidence that intron 22 inversions in the F8 gene are indeed significantly associated with FVIII inhibitor development in Indian haemophiliacs. Further studies with other risk factors would enable better insights into the immune response towards FVIII in these patients, and possibly help to characterize patients at a higher risk for inhibitor development.

  6. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress. PMID:25531554

  7. Transforming growth factor-beta requires its target plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 for cytostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kortlever, Roderik M; Nijwening, Jeroen H; Bernards, René

    2008-09-01

    The cytokine transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) has strong antiproliferative activity in most normal cells but contributes to tumor progression in the later stages of oncogenesis. It is not fully understood which TGFbeta target genes are causally involved in mediating its cytostatic activity. We report here that suppression of the TGFbeta target gene encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by RNA interference leads to escape from the cytostatic activity of TGFbeta both in human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) and primary mouse embryo fibroblasts. Consistent with this, PAI-1 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts are also resistant to TGFbeta growth arrest. Conversely, we show that ectopic expression of PAI-1 in proliferating HaCaT cells induces a growth arrest. PAI-1 knockdown does not interfere with canonical TGFbeta signaling as judged by SMAD phosphorylation and induction of bona fide TGFbeta target genes. Instead, knockdown of PAI-1 results in sustained activation of protein kinase B. Significantly, we find that constitutive protein kinase B activity leads to evasion of the growth-inhibitory action of TGFbeta. Our data are consistent with a model in which induction of PAI-1 by TGFbeta is critical for the induction of proliferation arrest.

  8. Essential role of insulin-like growth factor 2 in resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Chan; Min, Hye-Young; Jung, Hyun Jin; Park, Kwan Hee; Hyun, Seung Yeob; Cho, Jaebeom; Woo, Jong Kyu; Kwon, So Jung; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Lee, Ho-Young

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) are promising anticancer therapies and have been clinically used for the treatment of hematological malignancy. However, their efficacy in solid tumors is marginal and drug resistance hampers their further clinical utility. To develop novel strategies for the HDI-based anticancer therapeutics in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), in the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying resistance to HDI treatment in NSCLC cells. We show the STAT3-mediated IGF2/IGF-1R signaling cascade as a key modulator for both acquired and primary HDI resistance. Treatment with HDI up-regulated IGF2 transcription in NSCLC cells carrying intrinsic or acquired drug resistance via direct binding of STAT3 in IGF2 P3 and P4 promoters. Acetylated STAT3 emerged upon HDAC inhibition was protected from the proteasome-mediated degradation of STAT3 and functioned as a direct transcription factor for IGF2 expression. Genomic or pharmacological strategies targeting STAT3 diminished the HDI-induced IGF2 mRNA expression and overcame the resistance to HDI treatment in HDI-resistant NSCLC- or patient-derived tumor xenograft models. These findings provide new insights into the role of acetylated STAT3-mediated activation of IGF2 transcription in HDI resistance, suggesting IGF2 or STAT3 as novel targets to overcome HDI resistance in NSCLC. PMID:27086926

  9. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor protects against abdominal aortic aneurysm in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Obama, Takashi; Tsuji, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Fukuda, Yamato; Takayanagi, Takehiko; Taro, Yoshinori; Kawai, Tatsuo; Forrester, Steven J; Elliott, Katherine J; Choi, Eric; Daugherty, Alan; Rizzo, Victor; Eguchi, Satoru

    2015-05-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been implicated in the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), Ang II activates epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mediating growth promotion. We hypothesized that inhibition of EGFR prevents Ang II-dependent AAA. C57BL/6 mice were co-treated with Ang II and β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to induce AAA with or without treatment with EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib. Without erlotinib, 64.3% of mice were dead due to aortic rupture. All surviving mice had AAA associated with EGFR activation. Erlotinib-treated mice did not die and developed far fewer AAA. The maximum diameters of abdominal aortas were significantly shorter with erlotinib treatment. In contrast, both erlotinib-treated and non-treated mice developed hypertension. The erlotinib treatment of abdominal aorta was associated with lack of EGFR activation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, oxidative stress, interleukin-6 induction and matrix deposition. EGFR activation in AAA was also observed in humans. In conclusion, EGFR inhibition appears to protect mice from AAA formation induced by Ang II plus BAPN. The mechanism seems to involve suppression of vascular EGFR and ER stress.

  10. A silencer inhibitor confers specific expression of intestinal trefoil factor in gobletlike cell lines.

    PubMed

    Iwakiri, D; Podolsky, D K

    2001-06-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is selectively expressed in intestinal goblet cells. Previous studies identified cis-regulatory elements in the proximal promoter of ITF, but these were insufficient to recapitulate the exquisite tissue- and cell-specific expression of native ITF in vivo. Preliminary studies suggested that goblet cell-specific expression of murine ITF requires elements far upstream that include a silencer element that effectively prevents ITF expression in non-goblet cells. Transient transfection studies using native or mutant ITF 5'-flanking sequences identified a region that restores expression in goblet cells. This element, designated goblet cell silencer inhibitor (GCSI) element, enables human and murine goblet cell-like cell lines to override the silencing effect of more proximal elements. The GCSI has no intrinsic enhancer activity and regulates expression only when the silencer element is present. Ligation of GCSI and silencer elements to sucrase-isomaltase conferred goblet cell-specific expression. Goblet cells but not non-goblet cells possess a nuclear protein that binds to the GCSI regulatory element (GCSI binding protein; GCSI-BP). Both transient transfection and gel mobility shift assay studies localize the GCSI and GCSI-BP to -2216 to -2204. We conclude that goblet cell-specific transcription of ITF in vivo depends on a regulatory element designated GCSI.

  11. The nuclear factor κB inhibitor (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene inhibits firefly luciferase.

    PubMed

    Braeuning, Albert; Vetter, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Photinus pyralis (firefly) luciferase is widely used as a reporter system to monitor alterations in gene promoter and/or signalling pathway activities in vitro. The enzyme catalyses the formation of oxyluciferin from D-luciferin in an ATP-consuming reaction involving photon emission. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the luciferase-inhibiting potential of (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, which is known as a potent inhibitor of the NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling pathway that is used to modulate the NF-κB signalling pathway in vitro. Results show that (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene effectively inhibits firefly luciferase activity in cell lysates and living cells in a non-competitive manner with respect to the luciferase substrates D-luciferin and ATP. By contrast, the compound has no effect on Renilla and Gaussia luciferases. The mechanism of firefly luciferase inhibition by (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene, as well as its potency is comparable to its structure analogue resveratrol. The in vitro use of trans-stilbenes such as (E)-2-fluoro-4'-methoxystilbene or resveratrol compromises firefly luciferase reporter assays as well as ATP/luciferase-based cell viability assays.

  12. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy on Osteoclasts Precursors in Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Lopes, Joana; Vieira-Sousa, Elsa; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Ponte, Cristina; Canhão, Helena; Ainola, Mari; Fonseca, João E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is characterized by excessive local bone formation and concomitant systemic bone loss. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in the inflammation of axial skeleton and enthesis of AS patients. Despite reduction of inflammation and systemic bone loss, AS patients treated with TNF inhibitors (TNFi) have ongoing local bone formation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNFi in the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts (OC) in AS patients. Methods 13 AS patients treated with TNFi were analyzed at baseline and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. 25 healthy donors were recruited as controls. Blood samples were collected to assess receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) surface expression on circulating leukocytes and frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations. Quantification of serum levels of bone turnover markers and cytokines, in vitro OC differentiation assay and qRT-PCR for OC specific genes were performed. Results RANKL+ circulating lymphocytes (B and T cells) and IL-17A, IL-23 and TGF-β levels were decreased after TNFi treatment. We found no differences in the frequency of the different monocyte subpopulations, however, we found decreased expression of CCR2 and increased expression of CD62L after TNFi treatment. OC number was reduced in patients at baseline when compared to controls. OC specific gene expression was reduced in circulating OC precursors after TNFi treatment. However, when cultured in OC differentiating conditions, OC precursors from AS TNFi-treated patients showed increased activity as compared to baseline. Conclusion In AS patients, TNFi treatment reduces systemic pro osteoclastogenic stimuli. However, OC precursors from AS patients exposed to TNFi therapy have increased in vitro activity in response to osteoclastogenic stimuli. PMID:26674064

  13. The M358R variant of α(1)-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(2) M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. PMID:26797521

  14. Minimal and inducible regulation of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 in human gliomas.

    PubMed

    Konduri, Santhi D; Osman, Francis Ali; Rao, Chilukuri N; Srinivas, Harish; Yanamandra, Niranjan; Tasiou, Anastasia; Dinh, Dzung H; Olivero, William C; Gujrati, Meena; Foster, Donald C; Kisiel, Walter; Kouraklis, Gregory; Rao, Jasti S

    2002-01-31

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), a serine protease inhibitor abundant in the extra cellular matrix, is highly expressed in non-invasive cells but undetectable levels in highly invasive human glioma cells. The mechanisms responsible for its transcriptional regulation are not well elucidated. In this study, we made several deletion constructs from a 3.6 kb genomic fragment from Hs683 cells containing the 5'-flanking region of the TFPI-2 gene, transiently transfected with these constructs into non-invasive (Hs683) and highly invasive (SNB19) human glioma cells, and assessed their expression by using a luciferase reporter gene. Three constructs showed high promoter activity (pTF5, -670 to +1; pTF6, -312 to +1; pTF2, -1511 to +1). Another construct, pTF8 (-81 to +1), showed no activity. PTF9, a variant of pTF5 in which a further 231 bp fragment (-312 to -81) was deleted, from the [-670 to +1] pTF5 region, also showed no promoter activity. Hence, (-312 to -81) this region is essential for the transcription of TFPI-2 in glioma cells. Sequencing of this promoter region revealed that it has a high G+C content, contains potential SP1 and AP1 binding motifs, and lacks canonical TATA and CAAT boxes immediately upstream of the major transcriptional initiation site, although CAAT boxes were found about -3000 bp upstream of the transcription start site. We also found a strong repressor in the region between -927 to -1181, upstream of the major transcriptional initiation site, followed by positive elements or enhancers between -1511 to -1181. These positive elements masked the silencer effect. Finally TFPI-2 was induced in Hs683 cells transfected with the pTF6 construct (-312 to +1) and stimulated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). We conclude that the -312 to +1 region is critical for the minimal and inducible regulation of TFPI-2 in non-invasive (Hs683) and highly invasive (SNB19) human glioma cell lines.

  15. Discovery of Novel Nonactive Site Inhibitors of the Prothrombinase Enzyme Complex.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; McGill, Nicole; Peterson, Cynthia B; Meyers, Harold V; Blackburn, Michael N; Baudry, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    The risk of serious bleeding is a major liability of anticoagulant drugs that are active-site competitive inhibitors targeting the Factor Xa (FXa) prothrombin (PT) binding site. The present work identifies several new classes of small molecule anticoagulants that can act as nonactive site inhibitors of the prothrombinase (PTase) complex composed of FXa and Factor Va (FVa). These new classes of anticoagulants were identified, using a novel agnostic computational approach to identify previously unrecognized binding pockets at the FXa-FVa interface. From about three million docking calculations of 281,128 compounds in a conformational ensemble of FXa heavy chains identified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, 97 compounds and their structural analogues were selected for experimental validation, through a series of inhibition assays. The compound selection was based on their predicted binding affinities to FXa and their ability to successfully bind to multiple protein conformations while showing selectivity for particular binding sites at the FXa/FVa interface. From these, thirty-one (31) compounds were experimentally identified as nonactive site inhibitors. Concentration-based assays further identified 10 compounds represented by four small-molecule families of inhibitors that achieve dose-independent partial inhibition of PTase activity in a nonactive site-dependent and self-limiting mechanism. Several compounds were identified for their ability to bind to protein conformations only seen during MD, highlighting the importance of accounting for protein flexibility in structure-based drug discovery approaches.

  16. Discovery of Novel Nonactive Site Inhibitors of the Prothrombinase Enzyme Complex.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Karan; McGill, Nicole; Peterson, Cynthia B; Meyers, Harold V; Blackburn, Michael N; Baudry, Jerome

    2016-03-28

    The risk of serious bleeding is a major liability of anticoagulant drugs that are active-site competitive inhibitors targeting the Factor Xa (FXa) prothrombin (PT) binding site. The present work identifies several new classes of small molecule anticoagulants that can act as nonactive site inhibitors of the prothrombinase (PTase) complex composed of FXa and Factor Va (FVa). These new classes of anticoagulants were identified, using a novel agnostic computational approach to identify previously unrecognized binding pockets at the FXa-FVa interface. From about three million docking calculations of 281,128 compounds in a conformational ensemble of FXa heavy chains identified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, 97 compounds and their structural analogues were selected for experimental validation, through a series of inhibition assays. The compound selection was based on their predicted binding affinities to FXa and their ability to successfully bind to multiple protein conformations while showing selectivity for particular binding sites at the FXa/FVa interface. From these, thirty-one (31) compounds were experimentally identified as nonactive site inhibitors. Concentration-based assays further identified 10 compounds represented by four small-molecule families of inhibitors that achieve dose-independent partial inhibition of PTase activity in a nonactive site-dependent and self-limiting mechanism. Several compounds were identified for their ability to bind to protein conformations only seen during MD, highlighting the importance of accounting for protein flexibility in structure-based drug discovery approaches. PMID:26848511

  17. Metabolism of ATP-binding cassette drug transporter inhibitors: complicating factor for multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cnubben, Nicole H P; Wortelboer, Heleen M; van Zanden, Jelmer J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; van Bladeren, Peter J

    2005-08-01

    Membrane transport proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transport proteins play a central role in the defence of organisms against toxic compounds, including anticancer drugs. However, for compounds that are designed to display a toxic effect, this defence system diminishes their effectiveness. This is typically the case in the development of cellular resistance to anticancer drugs. Inhibitors of these transporters are thus potentially useful tools to reverse this transporter-mediated cellular resistance to anticancer drugs and, eventually, to enhance the effectiveness of the treatment of patients with drug-resistant cancer. This review highlights the various types of inhibitors of several multidrug resistance-related ABC proteins, and demonstrates that the metabolism of inhibitors, as illustrated by recent data obtained for various natural compound inhibitors, may have considerable implications for their effect on drug transport and their potential for treatment of drug resistance.

  18. Characterization of the rat DNA fragmentation factor 35/Inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (Short form). The endogenous inhibitor of caspase-dependent DNA fragmentation in neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Stetler, R A; Cao, G; Pei, W; O'Horo, C; Yin, X M; Chen, J

    2000-12-01

    Nuclear changes, including internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, are classical manifestations of apoptosis for which the biochemical mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, particularly in neuronal cells. We have cloned the rat DNA fragmentation factor 35/inhibitor of caspase-activated DNase (short form) (DFF35/ICAD(S)) and found it to be the predominant form of ICAD present in rodent brain cells as well as in many other types of cells. DFF35/ICAD(S) forms a functional complex with DFF40/caspase-activated DNase (CAD) in the nucleus, and when its caspase-resistant mutant is over-expressed, it inhibits the nuclease activity, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, and nuclear fragmentation but not the shrinkage and condensation of the nucleus, in neuron-differentiated PC12 cells in response to apoptosis inducers. DFF40/CAD is found to be localized mainly in the nucleus, and during neuronal apoptosis, there is no evidence of further nuclear translocation of this molecule. It is further suggested that inactivation of DFF40/CAD-bound DFF35 and subsequent activation of DFF40/CAD during apoptosis of neuronal cells may not occur in the cytosol but rather in the nucleus through a novel mechanism that requires nuclear translocation of caspases. These results establish that DFF35/ICAD(S) is the endogenous inhibitor of DFF40/CAD and caspase-dependent apoptotic DNA fragmentation in neurons.

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A enhances myogenesis by coordinating muscle regulatory factors and myogenic repressors

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Hiroki; Saito, Fumiaki; Masaki, Toshihiro; Ikeda, Miki; Nakamura-Ohkuma, Ayami; Shimizu, Teruo; Matsumura, Kiichiro

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the effect of TSA, one of most potent HDACIs, on myogenesis using the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, and suppresses the late MRF, myogenin, after 24 h treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA enhances the expression of the myogenic repressors, Ids, which inhibit myogenic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TSA promotes myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors. -- Abstract: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are known to promote skeletal muscle formation. However, their mechanisms that include effects on the expression of major muscle components such as the dystrophin-associated proteins complex (DAPC) or myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of HDACIs on skeletal muscle formation using the C2C12 cell culture system. C2C12 myoblasts were exposed to trichostatin A (TSA), one of the most potent HDACIs, and differentiation was subsequently induced. We found that TSA enhances the expression of myosin heavy chain without affecting DAPC expression. In addition, TSA increases the expression of the early MRFs, Myf5 and MEF2, whereas it suppresses the expression of the late MRF, myogenin. Interestingly, TSA also enhances the expression of Id1, Id2, and Id3 (Ids). Ids are myogenic repressors that inhibit myogenic differentiation. These findings suggest that TSA promotes gene expression in proliferation and suppresses it in the differentiation stage of muscle formation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that TSA enhances myogenesis by coordinating the expression of MRFs and myogenic repressors.

  20. Enacyloxin IIa, an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis that acts on elongation factor Tu and the ribosome.

    PubMed

    Cetin, R; Krab, I M; Anborgh, P H; Cool, R H; Watanabe, T; Sugiyama, T; Izaki, K; Parmeggiani, A

    1996-05-15

    This work analyzes the action of enacyloxin Ila, an inhibitor of bacterial protein biosynthesis. Enacyloxin IIa [IC50 on poly(Phe) synthesis approximately 70 nM] is shown to affect the interaction between elongation factor (EF) Tu and GTP or GDP; in particular, the dissociation of EF-Tu-GTP is strongly retarded, causing the Kd of EF- Tu-GTP to decrease from 500 to 0.7 nM. In its presence, the migration velocity of both GTP- and GDP-bound EF-Tu on native PAGE is increased. The stimulation of EF-Tu-GDP dissociation by EF-Ts is inhibited. EF- Tu-GTP can still form a stable complex with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA), but it no longer protects aa-tRNA against spontaneous deacylation, showing that the EF-Tu-GTP orientation with respect to the 3' end of aa-tRNA is modified. However, the EF-Tu-dependent binding of aa-tRNA to the ribosomal A-site is impaired only slightly by the antibiotic and the activity of the peptidyl-transferase center, as determined by puromycin reactivity, is not affected. In contrast, the C-terminal incorporation of Phe into poly(Phe)-tRNA bound to the P-site is inhibited, an effect that is observed if Phe-tRNA is bound to the A-site nonenzymatically as well. Thus, enacyloxin IIa can affect both EF-Tu and the ribosomal A-site directly, inducing an anomalous positioning of aa-tRNA, that inhibits the incorporation of the amino acid into the polypeptide chain. Therefore, it is the first antibiotic found to have a dual specificity targeted to EF-Tu and the ribosome.

  1. Polymorphisms in the tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene are not associated with ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Sayer, Milly S; Cole, Vanessa J; Adams, Murray J; Baker, Ross I; Staton, Janelle M

    2007-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether four previously described polymorphisms found within the tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene are associated with free plasma TFPI levels or with TFPI activity as well as the risk of ischaemic stroke in stroke patients and control individuals. We conducted a case-control study of 162 first-ever ischaemic stroke cases and 170 randomly selected community control individuals. The TFPI genotype was determined for the T-287C, C-399T, Intron 7 C-33T, and Val264Met (G874A) polymorphisms. Free plasma TFPI and TFPI activity were measured during the first 7 days and 3-6 months after the acute stroke event. Free plasma TFPI levels were significantly lowered 3-6 months after stroke compared with levels observed in the patient group during the acute phase of the stroke (mean, 16.3 versus 22.46 ng/ml; P = 0.046) and among the control group (mean, 16.3 versus 22.79 ng/ml; P < 0.0001). Conversely, TFPI activity was significantly up-regulated during the acute phase (mean, 1.30 versus 1.11 U/ml; P = 0.0051) and remained elevated 3-6 months later (mean, 1.28 versus 1.11 U/ml; P = 0.03). The TFPI gene polymorphisms studied were not significantly associated with TFPI levels or activity, nor with the risk of ischaemic stroke. In conclusion, the TFPI activity and concentration in plasma varied significantly after an ischaemic stroke; however, these variations were not found to be due to the presence of any of the genetic mutations analysed in this study. Our results are consistent with the emerging model suggesting the lipoprotein-bound portion of TFPI has a significant influence on coagulation and diseases of haemostasis.

  2. Protease Inhibitors in View of Peptide Substrate Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protease substrate profiling has nowadays almost become a routine task for experimentalists, and the knowledge on protease peptide substrates is easily accessible via the MEROPS database. We present a shape-based virtual screening workflow using vROCS that applies the information about the specificity of the proteases to find new small-molecule inhibitors. Peptide substrate sequences for three to four substrate positions of each substrate from the MEROPS database were used to build the training set. Two-dimensional substrate sequences were converted to three-dimensional conformations through mutation of a template peptide substrate. The vROCS query was built from single amino acid queries for each substrate position considering the relative frequencies of the amino acids. The peptide-substrate-based shape-based virtual screening approach gives good performance for the four proteases thrombin, factor Xa, factor VIIa, and caspase-3 with the DUD-E data set. The results show that the method works for protease targets with different specificity profiles as well as for targets with different active-site mechanisms. As no structure of the target and no information on small-molecule inhibitors are required to use our approach, the method has significant advantages in comparison with conventional structure- and ligand-based methods. PMID:27247997

  3. Fast rotation of a sub-km-sized near-Earth object 2011 XA_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urakawa, S.; Ohtsuka, K.; Abe, S.; Ito, T.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-07-01

    We present lightcurve observations and multiband photometry for the near-Earth object (NEO) 2011 XA{_3} [1]. Previous studies had shown that most asteroids with rotation periods of < 2.2 h were smaller than 200 m in diameter [2]. The fast-rotating asteroids have structurally significant tensile strength (so-called monolithic asteroids) because such asteroids need to overcome their own centrifugal force. On the other hand, the slow-rotating asteroids larger than 200 m in diameter maintain themselves by their gravity or the cohesive force of bonded aggregates [3], which generally take on a rubble-pile structure [4]. According to a numerical simulation, the fast-rotating asteroids are provided by the collisional disruptions of parent bodies [5]. In-situ observations of the Rosetta spacecraft have revealed that the size frequency distribution of the boulders on (21) Lutetia become shallower in a region of < 150 m in size [6]. When we regard that the size frequency distribution of > 150 m-sized boulders is corresponding to that of the impact ejecta, some ejecta of < 150 m in size may escape from the parent body and likely become small and fast-rotating asteroids. To confirm this hypothesis, we must accumulate more observational data of such asteroids. The purpose of our study is to obtain the rotational period and taxonomic class of the NEO 2011 XA{_3}. The absolute magnitude H = 20.402 ± 0.399 (JPL Small-Body database) of 2011 XA{_3} implies the asteroid to be a subkilometer-sized one. The orbital parameters, a=1.48 au, e=0.93, i=28°, Ω=273°, and ω=323°, are apparently similar to those of the NEO (3200) Phaethon, a=1.27 au, e=0.89, i=22°, Ω=265°, and ω=322°, though indicating a somewhat large difference in the orbital energy. Phaethon is a B/F-type asteroid and probably the main body among the Phaethon-Geminid complex (PGC). The NEOs 2005 UD (F-type) and 1999 YC (C-type) are the other candidates of the PGC along with the Geminid meteor stream [7,8]. We also

  4. Chemical biology approach for the development of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) inhibitor LW6 as a potential anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Naik, Ravi; Han, Seunghyeon; Lee, Kyeong

    2015-09-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia has long been considered to be a driving force in tumor progression as well as a negative prognostic factor in human cancers. The discovery of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs), which mediate transcriptional responses to changes in oxygen levels, has renewed enthusiasm for drug discovery and the development of targeted therapies in this field. LW6 represents an important new class of small molecules that inhibit HIF-1; it has been major source for diverse lead compounds including HIF-1α inhibitors. Through a chemical biology approach, LW6-derived chemical probes were successfully utilized for the identification of the direct targeting of a protein in cancer. LW6 provides a valuable platform for the discovery and development of small molecule inhibitors of HIF-1α-dependent tumor progression, metabolic reprogramming, and angiogenesis.

  5. Acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Murakami, Akiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Kato, Motoyasu; Shukuya, Takehito; Tajima, Ken; Shimada, Naoko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-03-01

    Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers anti-apoptotic signaling, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, which leads to development and progression of human epithelial cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibition of EGFR by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib has provided a new hope for the cure of NSCLC patients. However, acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib via EGFR-mutant NSCLC has occurred through various molecular mechanisms such as T790M secondary mutation, MET amplification, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, PTEN downregulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and other mechanisms. This review will discuss the biology of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition and focus on the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  6. Overcoming resistance to first/second generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ALK inhibitors in oncogene-addicted advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Romanidou, Ourania; Landi, Lorenza; Cappuzzo, Federico; Califano, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represent the two oncogenic events with an impact on current clinical practice. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and crizotinib are the standard of care for the treatment of EGFR mutant and ALK gene rearranged advanced NSCLC patients. Unfortunately, despite initial clinical benefit, acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs or crizotinib usually develops after an average of 10–12 months of treatment. The aim of this review is to describe the mechanisms of resistance to first/second generation EGFR-TKIs and crizotinib. In particular, we focus on strategies to overcome resistance due to secondary EGFR T790M mutation and mutations of the ALK domain. PMID:27239236

  7. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 transcription factor promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bal Krishan; Kolhe, Ravindra; Black, Stephen M; Keller, Jonathan R; Mivechi, Nahid F; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2016-01-01

    Reprograming of metabolism is one of the central hallmarks of cancer. The majority of cancer cells depend on high rates of glycolysis and glutaminolysis for their growth and survival. A number of oncogenes and tumor suppressors have been connected to the regulation of altered glucose and glutamine metabolism in cancer cells. For example, the oncogene c-Myc plays vital roles in cancer cell metabolic adaptation by directly regulating various genes that participate in aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis. Inhibitor of differentiation 1 (Id1) is a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays important roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and cell fate determination. Overexpression of Id1 causes intestinal adenomas and thymic lymphomas in mice, suggesting that Id1 could function as an oncogene. Despite it being an oncogene, whether Id1 plays any prominent role in cancer cell metabolic reprograming is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that Id1 is strongly expressed in human and mouse liver tumors and in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, whereas its expression is very low or undetectable in normal liver tissues. In HCC cells, Id1 expression is regulated by the MAPK/ERK pathway at the transcriptional level. Knockdown of Id1 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and glutaminolysis, suggesting that Id1 promotes a metabolic shift toward aerobic glycolysis. At the molecular level, Id1 mediates its metabolic effects by regulating the expression levels of c-Myc. Knockdown of Id1 resulted in down-regulation (∼75%) of c-Myc, whereas overexpression of Id1 strongly induced (3-fold) c-Myc levels. Interestingly, knockdown of c-Myc resulted in down-regulation (∼60%) of Id1, suggesting a positive feedback-loop regulatory mechanism between Id1 and c-Myc. Under anaerobic conditions, both Id1 and c-Myc are down-regulated (50-70%), and overexpression of oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) or its downstream target Mxi1 resulted in a significant reduction

  8. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity. PMID:27695181

  9. Hemopericardium with tamponade following rivaroxaban administration and its attenuation by CYP3A4 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Denisse

    2016-01-01

    Novel oral anticoagulants including the factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban are important alternatives to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolic stroke in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. The pharmacology and metabolism of these agents differ from those of the vitamin K antagonists used over the decades preceding their introduction. We present a case of spontaneous hemopericardium and cardiac tamponade following administration of rivaroxaban. A review of the patient's medications revealed a total of seven agents known to be metabolized through cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the major pathway for rivaroxaban metabolism. While most physicians are familiar with recommendations to monitor renal function in patients prescribed rivaroxaban, we suspect that many fail to evaluate possible interactions with other agents having CYP3A4 inhibitory or inducer activity.

  10. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of the DC-XA Composite Liquid Hydrogen Tank During Structural Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkerson, C.

    1996-01-01

    The results of acoustic emission (AE) monitoring of the DC-XA composite liquid hydrogen tank are presented in this report. The tank was subjected to pressurization, tensile, and compressive loads at ambient temperatures and also while full of liquid nitrogen. The tank was also pressurized with liquid hydrogen. AE was used to monitor the tank for signs of structural defects developing during the test.

  11. The development of novel inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production based on substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrozolones

    SciTech Connect

    Laufersweiler, Matthew; Brugel, Todd; Clark, Michael; Golebiowski, Adam; Bookland, Roger; Laughlin, Steven; Sabat, Mark; Townes, Jennifer; VanRens, John; De, Biswanath; Hsieh, Lily; Heitmeyer, Sandra; Juergens, Karen; Brown, Kimberly; Mekel, Marlene; Walter, Richard; Janusz, Michael

    2010-11-16

    Novel substituted [5,5]-bicyclic pyrzazolones are presented as inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) production. Many of these compounds show low nanomolar activity against lipopolysaccaride (LPS)-induced TNF-{alpha} production in THP-1 cells. This class of molecules was co-crystallized with mutated p38, and several analogs showed good oral bioavailability in the rat. Oral activity of these compounds in the rat iodoacetate model for osteoarthritis is discussed.

  12. DEPRESSION and SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITOR TREATMENT AS RISK FACTORS FOR PRETERM BIRTH

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Norwitz, Errol R.; Smith, Megan V.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Gotman, Nathan; Luchansky, Edward; Lin, Haiqun; Belanger, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder as well as the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy have been associated with preterm birth. Studies that have attempted to separate effects of illness from treatment have been inconclusive. We sought to explore the separate effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and major depressive episodes in pregnancy on risk of preterm birth. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2793 pregnant women, oversampled for a recent episode of major depression or use of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We extracted data on birth outcomes from hospital charts and used binary logistic regression to model preterm birth (<37 weeks’ gestation). We used ordered logistic regression to model early (<34 weeks’ gestation) or late (34-36 weeks) preterm birth, and we used nominal logistic regression to model preterm birth antecedents (spontaneous preterm labor/preterm premature rupture of membranes/preterm for medical indications/term). Results Use of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, both with (odds ratio=2.1 [95% confidence interval=1.0—4.6]) and without (1.6=[1.0—2.5]) a major depressive episode, was associated with preterm birth. A major depressive episode without serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (1.2; [0.68—2.1]) had no clear effect on preterm risk. None of these exposures was associated with early preterm birth. Use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy was associated with increases in spontaneous but not medically indicated preterm birth. Conclusions Serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increased risk of preterm birth. Although the effect of a major depressive episode alone was unclear, symptomatic women undergoing antidepressant treatment had elevated risk. PMID:22627901

  13. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa

    PubMed Central

    Vuimo, Tatiana A.; Surov, Stepan S.; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A.; Korneeva, Vera A.; Vorobiev, Ivan I.; Orlova, Nadezhda A.; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V.; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in ‘global’ assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5–20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  14. New Infestin-4 Mutants with Increased Selectivity against Factor XIIa.

    PubMed

    Kolyadko, Vladimir N; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Vuimo, Tatiana A; Surov, Stepan S; Ovsepyan, Ruzanna A; Korneeva, Vera A; Vorobiev, Ivan I; Orlova, Nadezhda A; Minakhin, Leonid; Kuznedelov, Konstantin; Severinov, Konstantin V; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    Factor XIIa (fXIIa) is a serine protease that triggers the coagulation contact pathway and plays a role in thrombosis. Because it interferes with coagulation testing, the need to inhibit fXIIa exists in many cases. Infestin-4 (Inf4) is a Kazal-type inhibitor of fXIIa. Its specificity for fXIIa can be enhanced by point mutations in the protease-binding loop. We attempted to adapt Inf4 for the selective repression of the contact pathway under various in vitro conditions, e.g., during blood collection and in 'global' assays of tissue factor (TF)-dependent coagulation. First, we designed a set of new Inf4 mutants that, in contrast to wt-Inf4, had stabilized canonical conformations during molecular dynamics simulation. Off-target activities against factor Xa (fXa), plasmin, and other coagulation proteases were either reduced or eliminated in these recombinant mutants, as demonstrated by chromogenic assays. Interactions with fXIIa and fXa were also analyzed using protein-protein docking. Next, Mutant B, one of the most potent mutants (its Ki for fXIIa is 0.7 nM) was tested in plasma. At concentrations 5-20 μM, this mutant delayed the contact-activated generation of thrombin, as well as clotting in thromboelastography and thrombodynamics assays. In these assays, Mutant B did not affect coagulation initiated by TF, thus demonstrating sufficient selectivity and its potential practical significance as a reagent for coagulation diagnostics. PMID:26670620

  15. Materials Testing on the DC-X and DC-XA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dane; Carroll, Carol; Marschall, Jochen; Pallix, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Flight testing of thermal protection materials has been carried out over a two year period on the base heat shield of the Delta Clipper (DC-X and DC-XA), as well on a body flap. The purpose was to use the vehicle as a test bed for materials and more efficient repair or maintenance processes which would be potentially useful for application on new entry vehicles (i.e., X-33, RLV, planetary probes), as well as on the existing space shuttle orbiters. Panels containing Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and/or structural materials were constructed either at NASA Ames Research Center or at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) and attached between two of the four thrusters in the base heat shield of the DC-X or DC-XA. Three different panels were flown on DC-X flights 6, 7, and 8. A total of 7 panels were flown on DC-XA flights 1, 2, and 3. The panels constructed at Ames contained a variety of ceramic TPS including flexible blankets, tiles with high emissivity coatings, lightweight ceramic ablators and other ceramic composites. The MDS test panels consisted primarily of a variety of metallic composites. This report focuses on the ceramic TPS test results.

  16. Comparative nutritional compositions and proteomics analysis of transgenic Xa21 rice seeds compared to conventional rice.

    PubMed

    Gayen, Dipak; Paul, Soumitra; Sarkar, Sailendra Nath; Datta, Swapan K; Datta, Karabi

    2016-07-15

    Transgenic rice expressing the Xa21 gene have enhanced resistant to most devastating bacterial blight diseases caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). However, identification of unintended modifications, owing to the genetic modification, is an important aspect of transgenic crop safety assessment. In this study, the nutritional compositions of seeds from transgenic rice plants expressing the Xa21 gene were compared against non-transgenic rice seeds. In addition, to detect any changes in protein translation levels as a result of Xa21 gene expression, rice seed proteome analyses were also performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. No significant differences were found in the nutritional compositions (proximate components, amino acids, minerals, vitamins and anti-nutrients) of the transgenic and non-transgenic rice seeds. Although gel electrophoresis identified 11 proteins that were differentially expressed between the transgenic and non-transgenic seed, only one of these (with a 20-fold up-regulation in the transgenic seed) shows nutrient reservoir activity. No new toxins or allergens were detected in the transgenic seeds. PMID:26948618

  17. Anticoagulant and antithrombotic evaluation of native fucosylated chondroitin sulfates and their derivatives as selective inhibitors of intrinsic factor Xase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mingyi; Wen, Dandan; Gao, Na; Xiao, Chuang; Yang, Lian; Xu, Li; Lian, Wu; Peng, Wenlie; Jiang, Jianmin; Zhao, Jinhua

    2015-03-01

    Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), a structurally unusual glycosaminoglycan, has distinct anticoagulant properties, and is an especially strong inhibitor of the intrinsic factor Xase (anti-Xase). To obtain a highly selective inhibitor of human Xase, we purified six native FCSs with various sulfation patterns, prepared a series of FCS derivatives, and then elucidated the relationship between the structures and the anticoagulant activities of FCSs. FCSs 1-3 containing higher Fuc2S4S exhibit stronger AT-dependent anti-IIa activities, whereas 4-6 containing more Fuc3S4S produce potent HCII-dependent anti-IIa activities. Saccharides containing a minimum of 6-8 trisaccharide units, free carboxyl groups, and full fucosylation of GlcA may be required for potent anti-Xase activity, and approximately six trisaccharide units and partial fucosylation of GlcA may contribute to potent HCII-dependent activity. Decreasing of the molecular weights markedly reduces their AT-dependent anti-IIa activities, and even eliminates human platelet and factor XII activation. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies suggested that fractions of 6-12 kDa may be very promising compounds as putative selective intrinsic Xase inhibitors with antithrombotic action, but without the consequences of major bleeding and factor XII activation.

  18. α-Ketobenzothiazole Serine Protease Inhibitors of Aberrant HGF/c-MET and MSP/RON Kinase Pathway Signaling in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhenfu; Harris, Peter K W; Karmakar, Partha; Kim, Tommy; Owusu, Ben Y; Wildman, Scott A; Klampfer, Lidija; Janetka, James W

    2016-03-17

    Upregulation of the HGF and MSP growth-factor processing serine endopeptidases HGFA, matriptase and hepsin is correlated with increased metastasis in multiple tumor types driven by c-MET or RON kinase signaling. We rationally designed P1' α-ketobenzothiazole mechanism-based inhibitors of these proteases. Structure-activity studies are presented, which resulted in the identification of potent inhibitors with differential selectivity. The tetrapeptide inhibitors span the P1-P1' substrate cleavage site via a P1' amide linker off the benzothiazole, occupying the S3' pocket. Optimized inhibitors display sub-nanomolar enzyme inhibition against one, two, or all three of HGFA, matriptase, and hepsin. Several compounds also have good selectivity against the related trypsin-like proteases, thrombin and Factor Xa. Finally, we show that inhibitors block the fibroblast (HGF)-mediated migration of invasive DU145 prostate cancer cells. In addition to prostate cancer, breast, colon, lung, pancreas, gliomas, and multiple myeloma tumors all depend on HGF and MSP for tumor survival and progression. Therefore, these unique inhibitors have potential as new therapeutics for a diverse set of tumor types. PMID:26889658

  19. F8 gene mutation profile in Indian hemophilia A patients: Identification of 23 novel mutations and factor VIII inhibitor risk association.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Patricia; Ghosh, Kanjaksha; Shetty, Shrimati

    2016-04-01

    'FVIII inhibitors', especially in severe hemophilia A (HA) patients, is a serious adverse effect that complicates their clinical management. Many genetic and non-genetic risk factors have been proposed for FVIII inhibitor development, diverse in different population groups. This is the first study in Indian hemophiliacs that analyzes inhibitor risk in relation to the complete F8 mutation profile, in a case-control study that included 145 Indian severe HA patients, i.e. 69 inhibitor positive (with 18 inhibitor concordant/discordant family members), and 58 inhibitor negative patients, after informed consent. While 53.54% (68/127) index cases were positive for intron 22 or intron 1 inversions, 55 causative F8 mutations were detected in the 59 inversion negative patients, of which 23 were novel mutations (in 24 patients) and 32 were reported earlier (in 35 patients). A higher incidence of mutations, in the C1 and C2 domains in inhibitor positive patients, and in the A1 domain in inhibitor negative patients was observed, though not significantly different. The study suggests that large F8 rearrangements (significantly higher in the inhibitor positive patients) pose the highest risk, while missense mutations (significantly higher in the inhibitor negative patients) pose the lowest risk of inhibitor development in Indian hemophilia A patients.

  20. Acquired Factor XIII Inhibitor in Hospitalized and Perioperative Patients: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series.

    PubMed

    Tone, Kira J; James, Tyler E; Fergusson, Dean A; Tinmouth, Alan; Tay, Jason; Avey, Marc T; Kilty, Shaun; Lalu, Manoj M

    2016-07-01

    Factor XIII (FXIII) cross-links fibrin monomers to support clot stabilization and wound healing. Acquired FXIII deficiency is caused by autoantibodies that inhibit FXIII and can result in bleeding despite normal routine coagulation test results. Given the rarity of this disease, large clinical studies are not feasible. We therefore conducted a systematic review of case reports and case series of acquired FXIII inhibitor to evaluate potential management and treatment strategies for acquired FXIII inhibitor in hospitalized and/or perioperative patients. A systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science identified reports of hospitalized and perioperative patients with acquired FXIII deficiency. No restrictions were placed on language or publication type. Article screening and data extraction were performed independently by 2 abstractors. Completeness of reporting was evaluated according to modified elements from the CAse REport (CARE) guidelines. A total of 1028 citations were reviewed, with 36 case reports and 3 case series meeting eligibility criteria (63 patients total). The mean age was 60 (range, 9-87) years with balanced sex representation. At presentation, 48 patients (76%) had intramuscular or subcutaneous bleeding, and 34 patients (54%) had external or surgical bleeding. All cases were diagnosed by initially detecting a FXIII deficiency and then identifying the inhibitor. Clinical improvement in bleeding was seen in patients receiving FXIII concentrate (13/17 patients), cryoprecipitate (5/8), and plasma (10/18). Inhibitor reduction was seen in patients who received rituximab (6/6 patients), plasma exchange (2/2), intravenous immunoglobulin (4/5), steroid (15/20), and cyclophosphamide (10/15). Concurrent initiation of multiple therapies and obvious lack of control comparisons made direct association to outcomes difficult to establish. Outcomes were reported for 55 patients, with 25 patients (45%) having complete inhibitor eradication and 15 patients

  1. A novel sensitive assay for functional factor XII based on the generation of kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complexes in factor XII-deficient plasma by glass-bound factor XII.

    PubMed

    Dors, D M; Nuijens, J H; Huijbregts, C C; Hack, C E

    1992-06-01

    We developed a very sensitive assay for functional factor XII. This assay is based on the property of glass-bound factor XII to activate prekallikrein (PK) into kallikrein in factor XII-deficient plasma, which is assessed by measuring the formation of kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complexes in this plasma by radioimmunoassay. Incubation of varying amounts of factor XII in glass tubes led to a dose-dependent increase in kallikrein-C1-inhibitor complexes in factor XII-deficient plasma with a lower limit of detection of +/- 20 pg of factor XII. The specificity of the assay for factor XII was demonstrated by experiments with plasmas deficient for factor XII, PK or high molecular weight kininogen (HK) and by incubation of factor XII with Polybrene or with a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the amidolytic and procoagulant activity of factor XII. The high sensitivity of the assay appeared to be due to the inability of C1-inhibitor to inhibit factor XII bound to glass, which resulted in a molar ratio of generated kallikrein to glass-bound factor XII of at least 100:1. This assay for factor XII may be a feasible tool in studies on structural and functional aspects of (recombinant) factor XII species synthesized by cultured cells.

  2. The Phylogenetically-Related Pattern Recognition Receptors EFR and XA21 Recruit Similar Immune Signaling Components in Monocots and Dicots

    PubMed Central

    Holton, Nicholas; Nekrasov, Vladimir; Ronald, Pamela C.; Zipfel, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    During plant immunity, surface-localized pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The transfer of PRRs between plant species is a promising strategy for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance. Thus, there is a great interest in understanding the mechanisms of PRR-mediated resistance across different plant species. Two well-characterized plant PRRs are the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) EFR and XA21 from Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice, respectively. Interestingly, despite being evolutionary distant, EFR and XA21 are phylogenetically closely related and are both members of the sub-family XII of LRR-RKs that contains numerous potential PRRs. Here, we compared the ability of these related PRRs to engage immune signaling across the monocots-dicots taxonomic divide. Using chimera between Arabidopsis EFR and rice XA21, we show that the kinase domain of the rice XA21 is functional in triggering elf18-induced signaling and quantitative immunity to the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pto) DC3000 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, the EFR:XA21 chimera associates dynamically in a ligand-dependent manner with known components of the EFR complex. Conversely, EFR associates with Arabidopsis orthologues of rice XA21-interacting proteins, which appear to be involved in EFR-mediated signaling and immunity in Arabidopsis. Our work indicates the overall functional conservation of immune components acting downstream of distinct LRR-RK-type PRRs between monocots and dicots. PMID:25607985

  3. Factor VIII brand and the incidence of factor VIII inhibitors in previously untreated UK children with severe hemophilia A, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter W; Palmer, Benedict P; Chalmers, Elizabeth A; Hart, Daniel P; Liesner, Ri; Rangarajan, Savita; Talks, Katherine; Williams, Michael; Hay, Charles R M

    2014-11-27

    The effect of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) brand on inhibitor development was investigated in all 407 severe hemophilia A previously untreated patients born in the United Kingdom (UK) between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2011. Eighty-eight (22%) had been in the RODIN study. Information was extracted from the National Haemophilia Database. Because exposure days (EDs) were not known for some patients, time from first treatment was used as a surrogate for rFVIII exposure. An inhibitor developed in 118 (29%) patients, 60 high and 58 low titer, after a median (interquartile range) of 7.8 (3.3-13.5) months from first exposure and 16 (9-30) EDs. Of 128 patients treated with Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen, 45 (35.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 27.4-43.8) developed an inhibitor compared with 42/172 (24.4%, 95% CI 18.6% to 31.4%) with Advate (P = .04). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) (95% CI) for Kogenate Bayer/Helixate NexGen compared with Advate was 2.14 (1.12-4.10) (P = .02) for high titer and 1.75 (1.11-2.76) (P = .02) for all inhibitors. When excluding UK-RODIN patients, the adjusted HR (95% CI) for high-titer inhibitors was 2.00 (0.93-4.34) (P = .08). ReFacto AF was associated with a higher incidence of all, but not high-titer, inhibitors than Advate. These results will help inform debate around the relative immunogenicity and use of rFVIII brands.

  4. The cytotoxic activity of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor is inhibited by leukotriene A4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Menard, A; Papini, E; Mock, M; Montecucco, C

    1996-01-01

    The lethal factor of Bacillus anthracis is central to the pathogenesis of anthrax. Its mechanism of action is still unknown. Recently, on the basis of sequence similarities, we suggested that lethal factor might act similarly to leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4), a bifunctional enzyme also endowed with a metallopeptidase activity. Here we show that some inhibitors of the LTA4 hydrolase and metallopeptidase activities of LTA4 hydrolase also affect the cytotoxicity of the anthrax lethal factor on macrophage cell lines, without interfering with the ability of the lethal factor to enter cells. These results support the proposal that anthrax lethal factor might display in the cytosol of intoxicated cells a peptidase activity similar to that of LTA4 hydrolase. PMID:8973585

  5. Activation of coagulation after administration of tumor necrosis factor to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Büller, H R; ten Cate, H; Wortel, C H; Bauer, K A; van Deventer, S J; Hack, C E; Sauerwein, H P; Rosenberg, R D; ten Cate, J W

    1990-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor has been implicated in the activation of blood coagulation in septicemia, a condition commonly associated with intravascular coagulation and disturbances of hemostasis. To evaluate the early dynamics and the route of the in vivo coagulative response to tumor necrosis factor, we performed a controlled study in six healthy men, monitoring the activation of the common and intrinsic pathways of coagulation with highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor, administered as an intravenous bolus injection (50 micrograms per square meter of body-surface area), induced an early and short-lived rise in circulating levels of the activation peptide of factor X, reaching maximal values after 30 to 45 minutes (mean +/- SEM increase after 45 minutes, 34.2 +/- 18.2 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P = 0.015). This was followed by a gradual and prolonged increase in the plasma concentration of the prothrombin fragment F1+2, peaking after four to five hours (mean increase after five hours, 348.0 +/- 144.8 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P less than 0.0001). These findings signify the formation of factor Xa (activated factor X) and the activation of prothrombin. Activation of the intrinsic pathway could not be detected by a series of measurements of the plasma levels of factor XII, prekallikrein, factor XIIa-C1 inhibitor complexes, kallikrein-C1 inhibitor complexes, and the activation peptide of factor IX. The delay between the maximal activation of factor X and that of prothrombin amounted to several hours, indicating that neutralization of factor Xa activity was slow. We conclude that a single injection of tumor necrosis factor elicits a rapid and sustained activation of the common pathway of coagulation, probably induced through the extrinsic route. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor could play an important part in the early activation of the hemostatic mechanism in septicemia.

  6. Lichenoid Reactions in Association with Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitors: A Review of the Literature and Addition of a Fourth Lichenoid Reaction.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Morgan; Basile, Amy; Bair, Brooke; Fivenson, David

    2015-06-01

    In this manuscript, a clinical case of a patient treated with adalimumab for Behcet's disease develops lichen planopilaris. A variety of mucocutaneous lichenoid eruptions have recently been described in association with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors. The authors briefly discuss the clinical and pathological presentation of lichen planopilaris as well as a potential pathogenesis of cutaneous adverse effects seen as the result of tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy. They review all case reports of lichen planopilaris occurring on tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors and suggest its classification as a fourth recognized pattern on this therapy.

  7. Association Between Ischemic Stroke and Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Low, Audrey S. L.; Lunt, Mark; Mercer, Louise K.; Watson, Kath D.; Dixon, William G.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are at an increased risk of ischemic stroke. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) may influence risk and mortality after ischemic stroke by reducing inflammation. This study was undertaken to examine the association of TNFi with the risk of incident ischemic stroke and with 30‐day and 1‐year mortality after ischemic stroke. Methods Patients with RA starting therapy with TNFi and a biologics‐naive comparator group treated with synthetic disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) only were recruited to the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for Rheumatoid Arthritis from 2001 to 2009. Patients were followed up via clinical and patient questionnaires as well as the national death register. Incident strokes were classified as ischemic if brain imaging reports suggested ischemia or if ischemic stroke was reported as the underlying cause of death on a death certificate. Patients with a previous stroke were excluded. Risk of ischemic stroke was compared between patients receiving synthetic DMARDs only and those ever‐exposed to TNFi using a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusted for potential confounders. Mortality after ischemic stroke was compared between synthetic DMARD–treated patients and TNFi‐treated patients using logistic regression, adjusted for age and sex. Results To April 2010, 127 verified incident ischemic strokes (21 in 3,271 synthetic DMARD–treated patients and 106 in 11,642 TNFi‐treated patients) occurred during 11,973 and 61,226 person‐years of observation, respectively (incidence rate 175 versus 173 per 100,000 person‐years). After adjustment for confounders, there was no association between ever‐exposure to TNFi and ischemic stroke (hazard ratio 0.99 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.54–1.81]). Mortality 30 days or 1 year after ischemic stroke was not associated with concurrent TNFi exposure (odds ratio 0.18 [95% CI 0.03–1.21] and 0.60 [95

  8. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Viviana P; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K; Abdeladhim, Maha; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host's skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  9. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Viviana P.; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A.; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Horácio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host’s skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  10. Active tuberculosis in a psoriasis patient treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors despite an initial negative tuberculin skin test and no known risk factors.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Kathleen E Gilbert E; Manalo, Iviesan F; Wu, Jashin J

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors are becoming more common in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic plaque psoriasis. These medications have a low incidence of serious adverse events and are generally considered safe; however, they do make patients more susceptible to tuberculosis (TB) infection both through latent reactivation and primary infection. We describe a case of a patient who had an initial negative tuberculin skin test (TST), began TNF inhibitor therapy, and then 11 years later was diagnosed with active TB. After the initial screening, the patient did not have any subsequent screenings for TB and no apparent change to his TB risk status. TB is still common in many areas of the United States and travel is not necessary to be exposed. Patients on TNF inhibitors that develop active TB have increased morbidity and mortality than those who are not. It is necessary that dermatologists limit the risk of TB to patients by screening them before initiation and annually when they are on the TNF inhibitor. PMID:27617949

  11. Development of a cell death-based method for the screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Puneet; Bajpai, Malini; Dastidar, Sunanda G; Ray, Abhijit

    2008-06-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) plays a significant role in immunity and inflammation and represents a first choice as pharmacological target for anti-inflammatory therapy. However, research in this field has been hampered by the fact that no convenient assay suitable for large-scale screening procedures is available. The present study provides a cell death-based assay method for screening of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors. In this study, we observed that four distinct pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), N-tosyl-L-lysyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), genistein and BAY11-7082, resulted in the cell death of murine macrophages, J774A.1. DNA-binding experiments showed that lethal doses were consistent with those required for NF-kappaB inhibition. DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cell death is apoptotic in nature. Further studies suggested that NF-kappaB inhibitors induced apoptosis is independent of the involvement of other markers of cell death such as caspases and p38 MAP (Mitogen activated protein) kinase. From this study, we conclude that NF-kappaB activation may represent an important survival mechanism in macrophages. This study also provides a new cell-based screening method, as any compound that will inhibit NF-kappaB activity will result in the death of macrophages.

  12. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PMID:17441906

  13. The discovery of novel vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases inhibitors: pharmacophore modeling, virtual screening and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hui; Wang, Zhanli; Zhang, Liangren; Zhang, Jufeng; Huang, Qian

    2007-03-01

    We have applied pharmacophore generation, database searching and docking methodologies to discover new structures for the design of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, the tyrosine kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors. The chemical function based pharmacophore models were built for kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase inhibitors from a set of 10 known inhibitors using the algorithm HipHop, which is implemented in the CATALYST software. The highest scoring HipHop model consists of four features: one hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor and one ring aromatic function. Using the algorithm CatShape within CATALYST, the bound conformation of 4-amino-furo [2, 3-d] pyrimidine binding to kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase was used to generate a shape query. A merged shape and hypothesis query that is in an appropriate alignment was then built. The combined shape and hypothesis model was used as a query to search Maybridge database for other potential lead compounds. A total of 39 compounds were retrieved as hits. The hits obtained were docked into kinase insert domain-containing receptor kinase active site. One novel potential lead was proposed based on CATALYST fit value, LigandFit docking scores, and examination of how the hit retain key interactions known to be required for kinase binding. This compound inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor stimulated kinase insert domain-containing receptor phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

  14. Metabolic factors, adipose tissue, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in Type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) production by adipose tissue is increased in obesity, and its circulating levels are high in type 2 diabetes. PAI-1 increases cardiovascular risk by favoring clot stability, interfering with vascular remodeling, or both. We investigated in obese diabetic per...

  15. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, −0.99; 95% CI, −1.61 to −0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, −0.58; 95% CI, −1.10 to −0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, −0.31; 95% CI, −0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, −0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with

  16. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as highly potent pan-fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jun; Dai, Yang; Shao, Jingwei; Peng, Xia; Wang, Chen; Cao, Sufen; Zhao, Bin; Ai, Jing; Geng, Meiyu; Duan, Wenhu

    2016-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) are important oncology targets due to the dysregulation of this signaling pathway in a wide variety of human cancers. We identified a series of pyrazolylaminoquinazoline derivatives as potent FGFR inhibitors with low nanomolar potency. The representative compound 29 strongly inhibited FGFR1-3 kinase activity and suppressed FGFR signaling transduction in FGFR-addicted cancer cells; FGFRs-driven cell proliferation was also strongly inhibited regardless of mechanistic complexity implicated in FGFR activation, which further confirmed that 29 was a potent pan-FGFR inhibitor. The flexibility of our structure offered the potential to preserve good affinity for mutant FGFR, which is important for developing TKIs with long-term efficacy.

  17. Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) gene: Complete genomic structure and localization on the genetic map of chromosome 2q

    SciTech Connect

    Enjyoji, Kei-ichi; Emi, Mitsuru; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Imada, Motohiro; Kato, Hisao ); Leppert, M.L.; Lalouel, J.M. Univ. of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City, UT )

    1993-08-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a protease inhibitor that circulates in association with plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL), helps to regulate the extrinsic blood coagulation cascade. The authors have cloned a 125-kb genomic region containing the entire human TFPI gene on six overlapping cosmids and prepared a restriction map of this contig to clarify gene structure. More than half (45 kb) of the 85-kb gene is occupied with 5[prime] noncoding elements: coding begins at exon 3. A HindIII RFLP identified with one cosmid was genotyped in the CEPH panel of 559 reference families. Linkage analysis using markers on human chromosome 2 located the TFPI gene on 2q, 36 cM proximal to D2S43(pYNZ15) and 13 cM distal to the crystalline [gamma]-polypeptide locus CRYGP1(p5G1). 31 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. A Novel Small-molecule Tumor Necrosis Factor α Inhibitor Attenuates Inflammation in a Hepatitis Mouse Model*

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Gong, Haiyan; Zhu, Haiyan; Ji, Qing; Su, Pei; Liu, Peng; Cao, Shannan; Yao, Jianfeng; Jiang, Linlin; Han, Mingzhe; Ma, Xiaotong; Xiong, Dongsheng; Luo, Hongbo R.; Wang, Fei; Zhou, Jiaxi; Xu, Yuanfu

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) is a hallmark of many inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and septic shock and hepatitis, making it a potential therapeutic target for clinical interventions. To explore chemical inhibitors against TNFα activity, we applied computer-aided drug design combined with in vitro and cell-based assays and identified a lead chemical compound, (E)-4-(2-(4-chloro-3-nitrophenyl) (named as C87 thereafter), which directly binds to TNFα, potently inhibits TNFα-induced cytotoxicity (IC50 = 8.73 μm) and effectively blocks TNFα-triggered signaling activities. Furthermore, by using a murine acute hepatitis model, we showed that C87 attenuates TNFα-induced inflammation, thereby markedly reducing injuries to the liver and improving animal survival. Thus, our results lead to a novel and highly specific small-molecule TNFα inhibitor, which can be potentially used to treat TNFα-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24634219

  19. Virtual Screening and Optimization Yield Low-Nanomolar Inhibitors of the Tautomerase Activity of Plasmodium falciparum Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dahlgren, Markus K.; Garcia, Alvaro Baeza; Hare, Alissa A.; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Leng, Lin; Bucala, Richard; Jorgensen, William L.

    2012-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum ortholog of the human cytokine, macrophage migratory inhibitory factor (PfMIF), is produced by the parasite during malaria infection and modulates the host’s immune response. As for other MIF orthologs, PfMIF has tautomerase activity, whose inhibition may influence the cytokine activity. To identify small-molecule inhibitors of the tautomerase activity of PfMIF, virtual screening has been performed by docking 2.1 million compounds into the enzymatic site. Assaying of 17 compounds identified four as active. Substructure search for the most potent of these compounds, a 4-phenoxypyridine analogue, identified four additional compounds that were purchased and also shown to be active. Thirty-one additional analogues were then designed, synthesized, and assayed. Three were found to be potent PfMIF tautomerase inhibitors with Ki values of ca. 40 nM; they are also highly selective with Ki values of >100 μM for human MIF. PMID:23067344

  20. Prediction of Inhibitory Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors Using Grid Search-Projection Pursuit Regression Method

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongying; Hu, Zhide; Bazzoli, Andrea; Zhang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) is an important protein target for anti-tumor drug discovery. To identify potential EGFR inhibitors, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) study on the inhibitory activity of a series of quinazoline derivatives against EGFR tyrosine kinase. Two 2D-QSAR models were developed based on the best multi-linear regression (BMLR) and grid-search assisted projection pursuit regression (GS-PPR) methods. The results demonstrate that the inhibitory activity of quinazoline derivatives is strongly correlated with their polarizability, activation energy, mass distribution, connectivity, and branching information. Although the present investigation focused on EGFR, the approach provides a general avenue in the structure-based drug development of different protein receptor inhibitors. PMID:21811593

  1. Predictive factors of response to mTOR inhibitors in neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Malandrino, Pasqualino; Ramundo, Valeria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    Medical treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) has drawn a lot of attention due to the recent demonstration of efficacy of several drugs on progression-free survival, including somatostatin analogs, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors (or rapalogs). The latter are approved as therapeutic agents in advanced pancreatic NETs and have been demonstrated to be effective in different types of NETs, with variable efficacy due to the development of resistance to treatment. Early detection of patients that may benefit from rapalogs treatment is of paramount importance in order to select the better treatment and avoid ineffective and expensive treatments. Predictive markers for therapeutic response are under intensive investigation, aiming at a tailored patient management and more appropriate resource utilization. This review summarizes the available data on the tissue, circulating and imaging markers that are potentially predictive of rapalog efficacy in NETs. PMID:26666705

  2. Predictive factors of response to mTOR inhibitors in neuroendocrine tumours.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Malandrino, Pasqualino; Ramundo, Valeria; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Colao, Annamaria

    2016-03-01

    Medical treatment of neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) has drawn a lot of attention due to the recent demonstration of efficacy of several drugs on progression-free survival, including somatostatin analogs, small tyrosine kinase inhibitors and mTOR inhibitors (or rapalogs). The latter are approved as therapeutic agents in advanced pancreatic NETs and have been demonstrated to be effective in different types of NETs, with variable efficacy due to the development of resistance to treatment. Early detection of patients that may benefit from rapalogs treatment is of paramount importance in order to select the better treatment and avoid ineffective and expensive treatments. Predictive markers for therapeutic response are under intensive investigation, aiming at a tailored patient management and more appropriate resource utilization. This review summarizes the available data on the tissue, circulating and imaging markers that are potentially predictive of rapalog efficacy in NETs.

  3. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor reduces ventilation-induced lung injury via nuclear factor-κB and NF-κB repressing factor in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Fu; Lai, Yi-Ting; Chang, Chih-Hao; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liu, Yung-Yang; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2014-04-11

    Mechanical ventilation used in patients with acute lung injury can damage pulmonary epithelial cells through production of inflammatory cytokines, oxygen radicals, and neutrophil infiltration, termed ventilator-induced lung injury. Neutrophil elastase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and NF-κB repressing factor (NRF) have previously been shown to participate in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) during airway inflammation. However, the mechanisms regulating interactions among mechanical ventilation, neutrophil influx, and NF-κB/NRF remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that neutrophil elastase inhibitor attenuated ventilation-induced neutrophil recruitment and MIP-2 production through inhibition of the NF-κB/NRF pathway. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to low-tidal-volume (6 mL/kg) or high-tidal-volume (30 mL/kg) mechanical ventilation using room air with or without 2 µg/g NF-κB inhibitor SN50 or 6 µg/g NRF short interfering RNA or 100 µg/g neutrophil elastase inhibitor administration. Nonventilated mice served as a control group. Evan blue dye, lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, free radicals, myeloperoxidase, histopathologic grading of lung tissue, inflammatory cytokines, Western blot of NF-κB and NRF, and gene expression of NRF were measured to establish the extent of lung injury. Neutrophil elastase inhibitor ameliorated high-tidal-volume ventilation-induced lung injury, neutrophil influx, production of MIP-2 and malondialdehyde, activation of NF-κB and NRF, apoptotic epithelial cell death, and disruption of bronchial microstructure in mice. Mechanical stretch-augmented acute lung injury was also attenuated through pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB activity by SN50 and NRF expression by NRF short interfering RNA. Our data suggest that neutrophil elastase inhibitor attenuates high-tidal-volume mechanical ventilation-induced neutrophil influx, oxidative stress, and production of MIP-2, at least partly, through inhibition of

  4. Macrophage Migration Inhibitor Factor Upregulates MCP-1 Expression in an Autocrine Manner in Hepatocytes during Acute Mouse Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jieshi; Yang, Le; Tian, Lei; Li, Weiyang; Yang, Lin; Li, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitor factor (MIF), a multipotent innate immune mediator, is an upstream component of the inflammatory cascade in diseases such as liver disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), a highly representative chemokine, is critical in liver disease pathogenesis. We investigated the role of MIF in regulating hepatocytic MCP-1 expression. MIF and MCP-1 expression were characterized by immunochemistry, RT-PCR, ELISA, and immunoblotting in CCl4-treated mouse liver and isolated hepatocytes. MIF was primarily distributed in hepatocytes, and its expression increased upon acute liver injury. Its expression was also increased in injured hepatocytes, induced by LPS or CCl4, which mimic liver injury in vitro. MIF was expressed earlier than MCP-1, strongly inducing hepatocytic MCP-1 expression. Moreover, the increase in MCP-1 expression induced by MIF was inhibited by CD74- or CD44-specific siRNAs and SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Further, CD74 or CD44 deficiency effectively inhibited MIF-induced p38 activation. MIF inhibitor ISO-1 reduced MCP-1 expression and p38 phosphorylation in CCl4-treated mouse liver. Our results showed that MIF regulates MCP-1 expression in hepatocytes of injured liver via CD74, CD44, and p38 MAPK in an autocrine manner, providing compelling information on the role of MIF in liver injury, and implying a new regulatory mechanism for liver inflammation. PMID:27273604

  5. Sensitivity and kinase activity of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 and others to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Furuyama, Kazuto; Harada, Taishi; Iwama, Eiji; Shiraishi, Yoshimasa; Okamura, Kyoko; Ijichi, Kayo; Fujii, Akiko; Ota, Keiichi; Wang, Shuo; Li, Heyan; Takayama, Koichi; Giaccone, Giuseppe; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2013-05-01

    The presence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) somatic mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer patients is associated with response to treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib. More than 100 mutations in the kinase domain of EGFR have been identified. In particular there are many variations of deletion mutations in exon 19. In this study, using yellow fluorescent protein-tagged fragments of the EGFR intracellular domain, we examined the differences in sensitivity to gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib between several exon 19 mutants and other common EGFR mutations. We also used serum of patients undergoing treatment with EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors in this system. In addition, we examined the relative kinase activity of these mutants by measuring relative fluorescent intensity after immunofluorescence staining. We found that both sensitivity to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors and relative kinase activity differed among several EGFR mutations found in the same region of the kinase domain. This study underscores the importance of reporting the clinical outcome of treatment in relation to different EGFR mutations.

  6. MET inhibitor PHA-665752 suppresses the hepatocyte growth factor-induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tongxin; Li, Qi; Sun, Quanquan; Zhang, Yuqin; Yang, Hua; Wang, Rong; Chen, Longhua; Wang, Wei

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We demonstrated that irradiation induced MET overexpression and activation. • The aberrant MET signal mediated by HGF induced proliferation and radioresistance of NPC cells. • MET inhibitor PHA-665752 effectively suppressed HGF induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in NPC cells. • PHA-665752 suppressed the three downstream pathway of HGF/MET signal in a dose-dependent manner. - Abstract: Although ionizing radiation (IR) has provided considerable improvements in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), in subsets of patients, radioresistance is still a major problem in the treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that irradiation induced MET overexpression and activation, and the aberrant MET signal mediated by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) induced radioresistance. We also found that MET inhibitor PHA-665752 effectively suppressed HGF induced cell proliferation and radioresistance in NPC cells. Further investigation indicated that PHA-665752 suppressed the phosphorylation of the Akt, ERK1/2, and STAT3 proteins in a dose-dependent manner. Our data indicated that the combination of IR with a MET inhibitor, such as PHA-665752, might be a promising therapeutic strategy for NPC.

  7. Effects of ketoconazole or rifampin on the pharmacokinetics of tivozanib hydrochloride, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cotreau, Monette M; Siebers, Nicholas M; Miller, James; Strahs, Andrew L; Slichenmyer, William

    2015-03-01

    The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is associated with the promotion of endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival necessary for angiogenesis. VEGF and its three receptor isoforms are often overexpressed in many human solid tumors. Tivozanib is a potent, selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3, with a long half-life. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the effect of ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4, and rifampin, a potent inducer of CYP3A4, on the pharmacokinetics of tivozanib. Two phase I, open-label, 2-period, single-sequence studies evaluated the effect of steady-state ketoconazole (NCT01363778) or rifampin (NCT01363804) on the pharmacokinetic profile, safety, and tolerability of a single oral 1.5-mg dose of tivozanib. Tivozanib was well tolerated in both studies. Steady-state ketoconazole did not cause a clinically significant change in the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of tivozanib; therefore, dosing of tivozanib with a CYP3A4 pathway inhibitor should not cause a clinically significant change in serum tivozanib levels. However, coadministration of tivozanib with rifampin caused a significant decrease in the area under the curve from 0 to infinity and half-life and an increase in clearance of tivozanib, which suggest increased clearance via the enhanced CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of tivozanib. PMID:27128217

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha processing inhibitor-1 inhibits skin fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced murine model of scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mika; Murota, Hiroyuki; Kitaba, Shun; Katayama, Ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor p55 (sTNFRp55) is known to correlate with the severity of systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, it has not been verified whether this increase contributes to the pathogenesis of SSc. In this study, we found that sTNFRp55 also is increased in the bleomycin (BLM)-induced murine model of SSc. Therefore, we examined the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha processing inhibitor-1 (TAPI-1), the inhibitor of TNFRp55 sheddase, in this model. TAPI-1 was administered weekly to mice with skin fibrosis induced by daily BLM injections. TAPI-1 significantly suppressed BLM-induced skin thickness and the number of myofibroblasts. It also inhibited the increase of serum sTNFRp55 after 3 weeks of BLM injections. The mRNA expression of collagen type I alpha1, transforming growth factor-beta1 and alpha smooth muscle actin were decreased by TAPI-1 administration. Taken together, these findings indicate that targeting the TNFalpha converting enzyme might be a new type of therapy for patients with SSc. PMID:19758314

  9. Early eradication of factor VIII inhibitor in patients with congenital hemophilia A by immune tolerance induction with a high dose of immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Yoko; Furue, Aya; Kagawa, Reiko; Chijimatsu, Ikue; Tomioka, Keita; Shimomura, Maiko; Imanaka, Yusuke; Nishimura, Shiho; Saito, Satoshi; Miki, Mizuka; Ono, Atsushi; Konishi, Nakao; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-04-01

    The production of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitory antibodies is a serious problem in patients with hemophilia A. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the only strategy proven to eradicate persistent inhibitors and has been shown to be successful in 70 % of patients with hemophilia A. However, a minority of hemophilia patients present life-long inhibitors. To eliminate such inhibitors, we designed an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) strategy in combination with high dose recombinant FVIII for ITI in hemophilia A children with inhibitors. Four previously untreated patients produced inhibitors within 16 exposures to FVIII. The peak inhibitor titers in these patients ranged from 3 to 14 BU/mL. The patients received ITI combined with IVIG within 1.5 months after the inhibitors were detected. All patients showed a negative titer for inhibitors by 28 days, with no anamnestic responses. The recovery of FVIII in the plasma concentration was normalized within three months after initiation of ITI. An additional course of IVIG administration led to induction of complete tolerance by 20 months after initiation of ITI therapy in all patients. ITI treatment with high-dose FVIII combined with IVIG may be effective for the early elimination of inhibitors. PMID:26830966

  10. Incidence and risk factors for inhibitor development in previously untreated severe haemophilia A patients born between 2005 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Vézina, C; Carcao, M; Infante-Rivard, C; Lillicrap, D; Stain, A M; Paradis, E; Teitel, J; Rivard, G E

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the inhibitor development (ID) in previously untreated patients (PUPs) with severe haemophilia A (FVIII ≤ 0.01 IU mL(-1) ). All Canadian Haemophilia Treatment Centres completed a questionnaire on patients born between September 2005 and August 2010 and followed for up to 7 years. Eligible patients had at least 20 exposure days (ED) or had developed an inhibitor. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for risk factors to develop an inhibitor were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. A total of 99 haemophilia A PUPs were studied. Thirty-four (34%) developed an inhibitor (24/34 of high titre). Inhibitors developed in 25/63 (40%) patients with a high-risk mutation. ID was most frequent in Aboriginals (86%). Dose intensity (IU kg(-1)  day(-1) X number of ED) at first exposure to factor VIII (FVIII) was associated with a crude OR increase of 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99-1.23) with each increase of 100 dose-intensity units. Haemarthrosis and intracranial bleeding as the indication for first exposure to FVIII concentrate were associated with a crude OR for ID of 7.63 (95% CI: 2.14-27.17) and 5.08 (95% CI: 1.11-23.31) respectively. ID according to FVIII concentrate used was: Advate (®) 18/50 (36%), Kogenate FS(®) or Helixate FS(®) 15/36 (42%), Wilate(®) 0/11 and Xyntha(®) 1/2. In multivariate analysis, Aboriginal ethnicity (OR = 11.69; 95% CI: 1.11-122.86) and haemarthrosis (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.08-18.61) were statistically significant. The cumulative incidence of ID in severe haemophilia A PUPs was 34% and varied according to ethnicity, type of bleeding at first ED, type of FVIII product and dose intensity at first exposure.

  11. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Amanda C.; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  12. Immune-Modulation by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors: Implication on Anti-Tumor Immunity in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Im, Jin S; Herrmann, Amanda C; Bernatchez, Chantale; Haymaker, Cara; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Hong, Waun Ki; Perez-Soler, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Skin toxicity is the most common toxicity caused by Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and has been associated with clinical efficacy. As EGFR inhibitors enhance the expression of antigen presenting molecules in affected skin keratinocytes, they may concurrently facilitate neo-antigen presentation in lung cancer tumor cells contributing to anti-tumor immunity. Here, we investigated the modulatory effect of the EGFR inhibitor, erlotinib on antigen presenting molecules and PD-L1, prominent immune checkpoint protein, of skin keratinocytes and lung cancer cell lines to delineate the link between EGFR signaling pathway inhibition and potential anti-tumor immunity. Erlotinib up-regulated MHC-I and MHC-II proteins on IFNγ treated keratinocytes but abrogated IFNγ-induced expression of PD-L1, suggesting the potential role of infiltrating autoreactive T cells in the damage of keratinocytes in affected skin. Interestingly, the surface expression of MHC-I, MHC-II, and PD-L1 was up-regulated in response to IFNγ more often in lung cancer cell lines sensitive to erlotinib, but only expression of PD-L1 was inhibited by erlotinib. Further, erlotinib significantly increased T cell mediated cytotoxicity on lung cancer cells. Lastly, the analysis of gene expression dataset of 186 lung cancer cell lines from Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia demonstrated that overexpression of PD-L1 was associated with sensitivity to erlotinib and higher expression of genes related to antigen presenting pathways and IFNγ signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that the EGFR inhibitors can facilitate anti-tumor adaptive immune responses by breaking tolerance especially in EGFR driven lung cancer that are associated with overexpression of PD-L1 and genes related to antigen presentation and inflammation. PMID:27467256

  13. Antiestrogen fulvestrant enhances the antiproliferative effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in human non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garon, Edward B.; Pietras, Richard J.; Finn, Richard S.; Kamranpour, Naeimeh; Pitts, Sharon; Márquez-Garbán, Diana C.; Desai, Amrita J.; Dering, Judy; Hosmer, Wylie; von Euw, Erika M.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Estrogen receptor (ER) signaling and its interaction with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a potential therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To explore cross-communication between ER and EGFR, we have correlated ER pathway gene and protein expression profiles and examined effects of antiestrogens with or without EGFR inhibitors in preclinical models of human NSCLC. Methods We evaluated 54 NSCLC cell lines for growth inhibition with EGFR inhibitors, antiestrogen treatment or the combination. Each line was evaluated for baseline ER pathway protein expression. The majority were also evaluated for baseline ER pathway gene expression. Human NSCLC xenografts were evaluated for effects of inhibition of each pathway either individually or in combination. Results The specific antiestrogen fulvestrant has modest single agent activity in vitro, but in many lines fulvestrant adds to effects of EGFR inhibitors, including synergy in the EGFR mutant, erlotinib-resistant H1975 line. ERα, ERβ, progesterone receptor (PR)-A, PR-B and aromatase proteins are expressed in all lines to varying degrees, with trends towards lower aromatase in more sensitive cell lines. Sensitivity to fulvestrant correlates with greater baseline ERα gene expression. Tumor stability is achieved in human tumor xenografts with either fulvestrant or EGFR inhibitors, but tumors regress significantly when both pathways are inhibited. Conclusions These data provide a rationale for further investigation of the antitumor activity of combined therapy with antiestrogen and anti-EGFR agents in the clinic. Future work should also evaluate dual ER and EGFR inhibition in the setting of secondary resistance to EGFR inhibition. PMID:23399957

  14. Explicit polynomial formulas for solutions of the matrix equation AX-XA=C

    SciTech Connect

    Demenchuk, Alexandr K.; Makarov, Evgenii K.

    2009-08-15

    We provide some mathematical tool to analyze the possible theoretical structure of Hamiltonian reconstructed from von Neumann or Heisenberg's equation for a finite-dimensional quantum system. To this end, we give an explicit polynomial representation for the general solution of the matrix equation AX-XA=C together with some (also polynomial) solvability conditions when A and C are some complex square matrices of the same size and the matrix A is semisimple. When the matrix A is normal, we derive a polynomial existence condition for Hermitian solutions and a similar formula for all solutions of this type.

  15. The rice immune receptor XA21 recognizes a tyrosine-sulfated protein from a Gram-negative bacterium.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Rory N; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Joe, Anna; Thomas, Nicholas; Liu, Furong; Albert, Markus; Robinson, Michelle R; Chan, Leanne Jade G; Luu, Dee Dee; Chen, Huamin; Bahar, Ofir; Daudi, Arsalan; De Vleesschauwer, David; Caddell, Daniel; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Li, Xiang; Heazlewood, Joshua L; Ruan, Deling; Majumder, Dipali; Chern, Mawsheng; Kalbacher, Hubert; Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B; Sonti, Ramesh V; Petzold, Christopher J; Liu, Chang C; Brodbelt, Jennifer S; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C

    2015-07-01

    Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We report the identification of a previously undescribed Xoo protein, called RaxX, which is required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity. Xoo strains that lack RaxX, or carry mutations in the single RaxX tyrosine residue (Y41), are able to evade XA21-mediated immunity. Y41 of RaxX is sulfated by the prokaryotic tyrosine sulfotransferase RaxST. Sulfated, but not nonsulfated, RaxX triggers hallmarks of the plant immune response in an XA21-dependent manner. A sulfated, 21-amino acid synthetic RaxX peptide (RaxX21-sY) is sufficient for this activity. Xoo field isolates that overcome XA21-mediated immunity encode an alternate raxX allele, suggesting that coevolutionary interactions between host and pathogen contribute to RaxX diversification. RaxX is highly conserved in many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. The new insights gained from the discovery and characterization of the sulfated protein, RaxX, can be applied to the development of resistant crop varieties and therapeutic reagents that have the potential to block microbial infection of both plants and animals.

  16. The rice immune receptor XA21 recognizes a tyrosine-sulfated protein from a Gram-negative bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Pruitt, Rory N.; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Joe, Anna; Thomas, Nicholas; Liu, Furong; Albert, Markus; Robinson, Michelle R.; Chan, Leanne Jade G.; Luu, Dee Dee; Chen, Huamin; Bahar, Ofir; Daudi, Arsalan; De Vleesschauwer, David; Caddell, Daniel; Zhang, Weiguo; Zhao, Xiuxiang; Li, Xiang; Heazlewood, Joshua L.; Ruan, Deling; Majumder, Dipali; Chern, Mawsheng; Kalbacher, Hubert; Midha, Samriti; Patil, Prabhu B.; Sonti, Ramesh V.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Chang C.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Felix, Georg; Ronald, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of the extracellular environment by immune receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic survival. The rice receptor kinase XA21, which confers robust resistance to most strains of the Gram-negative bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is representative of a large class of cell surface immune receptors in plants and animals. We report the identification of a previously undescribed Xoo protein, called RaxX, which is required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity. Xoo strains that lack RaxX, or carry mutations in the single RaxX tyrosine residue (Y41), are able to evade XA21-mediated immunity. Y41 of RaxX is sulfated by the prokaryotic tyrosine sulfotransferase RaxST. Sulfated, but not nonsulfated, RaxX triggers hallmarks of the plant immune response in an XA21-dependent manner. A sulfated, 21–amino acid synthetic RaxX peptide (RaxX21-sY) is sufficient for this activity. Xoo field isolates that overcome XA21-mediated immunity encode an alternate raxX allele, suggesting that coevolutionary interactions between host and pathogen contribute to RaxX diversification. RaxX is highly conserved in many plant pathogenic Xanthomonas species. The new insights gained from the discovery and characterization of the sulfated protein, RaxX, can be applied to the development of resistant crop varieties and therapeutic reagents that have the potential to block microbial infection of both plants and animals. PMID:26601222

  17. Platelet factor V supports hemostasis in a patient with an acquired factor V inhibitor, as shown by prothrombinase and tenase assays.

    PubMed

    Perdekamp, Maria T Grosse; Rubenstein, David A; Jesty, Jolyon; Hultin, Mae B

    2006-10-01

    A woman with gross hematuria was shown to have a severe isolated factor V deficiency due to a factor V inhibitor of 200 U/ml titer. Hematuria persisted despite multiple infusions of plasma but, after one transfusion with 1 U platelets, urine red blood cells decreased by more than 98%. To evaluate the patient's platelet function we performed prothrombinase and tenase assays with platelets from the patient and from normal donors. By prothrombinase assay, ionophore-activated patient platelets showed 42% of the activity of normal platelets in their ability to support prothrombin activation by activated factor X; whereas in a 'tenase' assay, which measures the platelets' ability to support factor X activation by activated factor IX + activated factor VIII, their activity was 117% of normal. The addition of excess bovine activated factor V to the prothrombinase assay fully corrected the defect. The results demonstrate the benefit of platelet transfusion and indicate that in this case the platelets are the primary source of factor V for hemostasis.

  18. Synergistic and multidimensional regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 expression by transforming growth factor type β and epidermal growth factor

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaoling; Thalacker, F.W.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2012-04-06

    The major physiological inhibitor of plasminogen activator, type I plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), controls blood clotting and tissue remodeling events that involve cell migration. Transforming growth factor type β (TGFβ) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) interact synergistically to increase PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels in human HepG2 and mink Mv1Lu cells. Other growth factors that activate tyrosine kinase receptors can substitute for EGF. EGF and TGFβ regulate PAI-1 by synergistically activating transcription, which is further amplified by a decrease in the rate of mRNA degradation, the latter being regulated only by EGF. The combined effect of transcriptional activation and mRNA stabilization results in a rapid 2-order of magnitude increase in the level of PAI-1. TGFβ also increases the sensitivity of the cells to EGF, thereby recruiting the cooperation of EGF at lower than normally effective concentrations. The contribution of EGF to the regulation of PAI-1 involves the MAPK pathway, and the synergistic interface with the TGFβ pathway is downstream of MEK1/2 and involves phosphorylation of neither ERK1/2 nor Smad2/3. Synergism requires the presence of both Smad and AP-1 recognition sites in the promoter. This work demonstrates the existence of a multidimensional cellular mechanism by which EGF and TGFβ are able to promote large and rapid changes in PAI-1 expression.

  19. Molecular Design, Functional Characterization and Structural Basis of a Protein Inhibitor Against the HIV-1 Pathogenicity Factor Nef

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Sebastian; Schievink, Simone I.; Schulte, Antje; Blankenfeldt, Wulf; Fackler, Oliver T.; Geyer, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Increased spread of HIV-1 and rapid emergence of drug resistance warrants development of novel antiviral strategies. Nef, a critical viral pathogenicity factor that interacts with host cell factors but lacks enzymatic activity, is not targeted by current antiviral measures. Here we inhibit Nef function by simultaneously blocking several highly conserved protein interaction surfaces. This strategy, referred to as “wrapping Nef”, is based on structure-function analyses that led to the identification of four target sites: (i) SH3 domain interaction, (ii) interference with protein transport processes, (iii) CD4 binding and (iv) targeting to lipid membranes. Screening combinations of Nef-interacting domains, we developed a series of small Nef interacting proteins (NIs) composed of an SH3 domain optimized for binding to Nef, fused to a sequence motif of the CD4 cytoplasmic tail and combined with a prenylation signal for membrane association. NIs bind to Nef in the low nM affinity range, associate with Nef in human cells and specifically interfere with key biological activities of Nef. Structure determination of the Nef-inhibitor complex reveals the molecular basis for binding specificity. These results establish Nef-NI interfaces as promising leads for the development of potent Nef inhibitors. PMID:21625496

  20. Ceramide inhibitor myriocin restores insulin/insulin growth factor signaling for liver remodeling in experimental alcohol-related steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lizarazo, Diana; Zabala, Valerie; Tong, Ming; Longato, Lisa; de la Monte, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is mediated in part by insulin resistance. Attendant dysregulation of lipid metabolism increases accumulation of hepatic ceramides that worsen insulin resistance and compromise the structural and functional integrity of the liver. Insulin and insulin growth factor (IGF) stimulate aspartyl-asparaginyl-β-hydroxylase (AAH), which promotes cell motility needed for structural maintenance and remodeling of the liver. AAH mediates its effects by activating Notch, and in ALD, insulin/IGF signaling, AAH, and Notch are inhibited. Method To test the hypothesis that in ALD, hepatic ceramide load contributes to impairments in insulin, AAH, and Notch signaling, control and chronic ethanol-fed adult Long–Evans rats were treated with myriocin, an inhibitor of serine palmitoyl transferase. Livers were used to assess steatohepatitis, insulin/IGF pathway activation, and expression of AAH–Notch signaling molecules. Results Chronic ethanol-fed rats had steatohepatitis with increased ceramide levels; impairments in signaling through the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate, and Akt; and decreased expression of AAH, Notch, Jagged, Hairy–Enhancer of Split-1, hypoxiainducible factor 1α, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Myriocin abrogated many of these adverse effects of ethanol, particularly hepatic ceramide accumulation, steatohepatitis, and impairments of insulin signaling through Akt, AAH, and Notch. Conclusions In ALD, the histopathology and impairments in insulin/IGF responsiveness can be substantially resolved by ceramide inhibitor treatments, even in the context of continued chronic ethanol exposure. PMID:23802886

  1. Major surgery in severe haemophilia A with inhibitors using a recombinant factor VIIa and activated prothrombin complex concentrate hybrid regimen.

    PubMed

    van Veen, J J; Maclean, R M; Hampton, K K; Hamer, A; Makris, M

    2014-07-01

    Major surgery in persons with haemophilia A and inhibitors is increasingly being performed. Both recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) and activated prothrombin complex concentrate (APCC) are used to cover surgery but it remains unclear what the optimal dosing schedules are. We describe the use of a hybrid regimen in four inhibitor patients undergoing eight major surgical procedures using rFVIIa in the initial 2-6 postoperative days followed by FEIBA for the remaining period. All patients were also treated with tranexamic acid while receiving rFVIIa. We performed six major orthopaedic procedures, one emergency orchidectomy and one open appendectomy. The dosing schedules were at the higher end of those described in the literature but within the recommendations of the summary of product characteristics. Despite this, we encountered non-surgical bleeding in four of eight episodes. Three of these occurred in one individual suggesting a patient factor. The overall outcome was good for all episodes. The hybrid regimen combines flexibility of dose and dosing frequency of rFVIIa in the immediate postoperative setting with the advantage of a reduced dosing frequency with FEIBA in the subsequent days. This study also emphasizes that surgical procedures in this patient group remain a challenge.

  2. A present status of CD-ROM XA and its future - Introduction to "TIBETAN ART in LADAKH" -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Fumio; Nomura, Kounoshin

    The first release of CD-ROM XA was anounced in March, 1989. This anouncement means that the interleaved ADPCM Audio system of the GREEN BOOK is applied to the specifications of CD-ROM. Accordingly it could lead to expanding application areas of CD-ROM. On the other hand within this year the logical format of video and graphics of CD-ROM XA will be probably confirmed. It will open the door to the new technology of CD-ROM, the real multimedia in the future. Hereafter will mention the summary of this release and the introduction of our first trial sample software, "TIBETAN ART in LADAKH" on CD-ROM XA.

  3. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein functions as a cofactor in transforming growth factor-beta signaling.

    PubMed

    Birkey Reffey, S; Wurthner, J U; Parks, W T; Roberts, A B; Duckett, C S

    2001-07-13

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent suppressor of apoptotic cell death, which functions by directly inhibiting caspases, the principal effectors of apoptosis. Here we report that XIAP can also function as a cofactor in the regulation of gene expression by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). XIAP, but not the related proteins c-IAP1 or c-IAP2, associated with several members of the type I class of the TGF-beta receptor superfamily and potentiated TGF-beta-induced signaling. Although XIAP-mediated activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and nuclear factor kappa B was found to require the TGF-beta signaling intermediate Smad4, the ability of XIAP to suppress apoptosis was found to be Smad4-independent. These data implicate a role for XIAP in TGF-beta-mediated signaling that is distinct from its anti-apoptotic functions.

  4. A nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitor BAY 11-7082 suppresses endothelin-1 production in cultured vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohkita, Mamoru; Takaoka, Masanori; Shiota, Yasuko; Nojiri, Rumi; Sugii, Masato; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2002-05-01

    BAY 11-7082, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), which prevents a step of the phosphorylation of inhibitory protein IkappaB bound to NF-kappaB, suppressed basal and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced prepro endothelin (ET)-1 mRNA expression and NF-kappaB activation in cultured vascular endothelial cells. BAY 11-7082 significantly decreased basal and TNF-alpha-induced ET-1 release from endothelial cells. These results indicate that the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation contributes to the suppressive effect of BAY 11-7082 on ET-1 gene expression and ET-1 release, thereby suggesting that NF-kappaB plays an important role in the regulation of ET-1 production.

  5. Inhibitors incidence rate in Czech previously untreated patients with haemophilia A has not increased since introduction of recombinant factor VIII treatment in 2003.

    PubMed

    Blatny, Jan; Komrska, Vladimir; Blazek, Bohumir; Penka, Miroslav; Ovesna, Petra

    2015-09-01

    Our objective was to assess the incidence of inhibitors development in Czech Republic since the introduction of recombinant factor VIII (rFVIII) and to look for the factors potentially influencing this parameter. It is to be expected that inhibitors risk may be increased after the introduction of recombinant products. Data of Czech National Haemophilia Programme registry entered from 2003 till 2013 were analysed. Both annual and absolute incidences of newly developed inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) were calculated. Bleeding and treatment data were also extracted, and association to the treatment regimen and development of inhibitors were analysed. Within the given period, we commenced 45 PUPs with haemophilia A on rFVIII and treated them for 137 treatment-years. Twenty-two of the PUPs had severe haemophilia A, being treated for 88 treatment-years. Treatment strategy for them was prophylaxis. Other PUPs were treated on demand. Median annual bleeding rate was 5 for boys with severe haemophilia, 3 for moderate haemophilia and 1 for mild form of the disease. No inhibitors developed in PUPs with moderate/mild haemophilia A. Annual inhibitor incidence rate in PUPs with severe haemophilia A treated with rFVIII was 56.8 per 1000 treatment-years. Absolute incidence was 22.7% (5/22). All inhibitors appeared within the first 50 exposure days. Comparing rFVIII-treated group with the control group treated under same/similar conditions with plasma-derived FVIII during the same follow-up period, we were not able to find significant difference in inhibitor development between these two groups. Our results support the finding that use of rFVIII is not a proven risk factor for inhibitor development in patients with haemophilia A.

  6. Da0324, an inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB activation, demonstrates selective antitumor activity on human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Rong; Xia, Yiqun; Chen, Qiuxiang; Li, Wulan; Chen, Dahui; Ye, Hui; Zhao, Chengguang; Du, Xiaojing; Shi, Dengjian; Wu, Jianzhang; Liang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is constitutively activated in a variety of human cancers, including gastric cancer. NF-κB inhibitors that selectively kill cancer cells are urgently needed for cancer treatment. Curcumin is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation. Unfortunately, the therapeutic potential of curcumin is limited by its relatively low potency and poor cellular bioavailability. In this study, we presented a novel NF-κB inhibitor named Da0324, a synthetic asymmetric mono-carbonyl analog of curcumin. The purpose of this study is to research the expression of NF-κB in gastric cancer and the antitumor activity and mechanism of Da0324 on human gastric cancer cells. Methods The expressions between gastric cancer tissues/cells and normal gastric tissues/cells of NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot. The inhibition viability of compounds on human gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901, BGC-823, MGC-803, and normal gastric mucosa epithelial cell line GES-1 was assessed with the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Absorption spectrum method and high-performance liquid chromatography method detected the stability of the compound in vitro. The compound-induced changes of inducible NF-κB activation in the SGC-7901 and BGC-823 cells were examined by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence methods. The antitumor activity of compound was performed by clonogenic assay, matrigel invasion assay, flow cytometric analysis, Western blot analysis, and Hoechst 33258 staining assay. Results High levels of p65 were found in gastric cancer tissues and cells. Da0324 displayed higher growth inhibition against several types of gastric cancer cell lines and showed relatively low toxicity to GES-1. Moreover, Da0324 was more stable than curcumin in vitro. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence methods showed that Da0324 blocked NF-κB activation. In addition, Da0324 significantly inhibited tumor proliferation

  7. Antihuman epidermal growth factor receptor 2 antibody herceptin inhibits autocrine motility factor (AMF) expression and potentiates antitumor effects of AMF inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Amjad H; Bagheri-Yarmand, Rozita; Williams, Ruth R E; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Kumar, Rakesh; Raz, Avraham

    2002-10-01

    Overexpression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) 2 has been linked to the development and maintenance of malignant phenotypes in breast tumors. In addition, the growth and dissemination of human cancers are regulated in part by the autocrine motility factor (AMF)/phosphoglucose isomerase shown to be up-regulated by heregulin (HRG) in breast cancer cells. This study was undertaken to explore the effect of anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody 4D5 [Herceptin (HCT)] on AMF expression and the potential of its augmentation by specific simple sugar AMF inhibitors. Here we show that HCT treatment of high HER2-expressing breast cancer SK-BR3, BT-474, and ZR-75R cells resulted in down-regulation of AMF mRNA and protein. HCT inhibited the ability of HRG to induce AMF expression in cells with a normal HER2 level, and HCT-mediated down-regulation could be reversed by HRG treatment in breast cancer cells with a high HER2 level. HCT also inhibited transcription from a chimeric pGL3-Luc vector-based reporter system containing the 1.8-kb promoter region of human AMF. Treatment of breast cancer cells with the combination of HCT and specific AMF inhibitors, erythrose 4-phosphate or D-mannose 6-phosphate, resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on both the growth rate and invasiveness of cells as compared with treatment with each agent alone. Results presented here suggest that HCT can effectively block both ligand-induced and constitutive expression of AMF associated with high HER2 overexpression, implying a role of the AMF pathway in the action of HCT. Accordingly, the combination of AMF inhibitor with HCT can potentiate the growth-inhibitory and anti-invasive action of HCT in breast cancer cells.

  8. Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients receiving tumor-necrosis-factor-inhibitor therapy: implications for chemoprophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, James A; Baddley, John W

    2014-10-01

    Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an important opportunistic infection that has been increasingly reported in patients with rheumatic disease. Reported incidence among patients taking TNF inhibitors (TNFi) has varied, but has usually been low. Still, disease causes significant mortality among those affected and must be considered in patients with rheumatological disease presenting with dyspnea and cough. Diagnosis can be difficult in the non-HIV population, and our understanding of the epidemiology and natural history after exposure is changing. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is believed to be the most effective agent for treatment and prophylaxis, but is associated with significant adverse effects. Given the low incidence reported in most studies of patients on TNFi, prophylaxis is probably not beneficial for this patient population as a whole. PMID:25182673

  9. Acquisition of complement inhibitor serine protease factor I and its cofactors C4b-binding protein and factor H by Prevotella intermedia.

    PubMed

    Malm, Sven; Jusko, Monika; Eick, Sigrun; Potempa, Jan; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2012-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Prevotella intermedia gives rise to periodontitis and a growing number of studies implies an association of P. intermedia with rheumatoid arthritis. The serine protease Factor I (FI) is the central inhibitor of complement degrading complement components C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and Factor H (FH). Yet, the significance of complement inhibitor acquisition in P. intermedia infection and FI binding by Gram-negative pathogens has not been addressed. Here we show that P. intermedia isolates bound purified FI as well as FI directly from heat-inactivated human serum. FI bound to bacteria retained its serine protease activity as shown in degradation experiments with (125)I-labeled C4b. Since FI requires cofactors for its activity we also investigated the binding of purified cofactors C4BP and FH and found acquisition of both proteins, which retained their activity in FI mediated degradation of C3b and C4b. We propose that FI binding by P. intermedia represents a new mechanism contributing to complement evasion by a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen associated with chronic diseases.

  10. Molecular predictors of sensitivity to the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor Figitumumab (CP-751,871).

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Adam; Lira, Maruja E; Lee, Nathan V; Ching, Keith A; Ye, Jingjing; Cao, Joan; Garza, Scott J; Hook, Kenneth E; Ozeck, Mark; Shi, Stephanie T; Yuan, Jing; Zheng, Xianxian; Rejto, Paul A; Kan, Julie L C; Christensen, James G

    2013-12-01

    Figitumumab (CP-751,871), a potent and fully human monoclonal anti-insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) antibody, has been investigated in clinical trials of several solid tumors. To identify biomarkers of sensitivity and resistance to figitumumab, its in vitro antiproliferative activity was analyzed in a panel of 93 cancer cell lines by combining in vitro screens with extensive molecular profiling of genomic aberrations. Overall response was bimodal and the majority of cell lines were resistant to figitumumab. Nine of 15 sensitive cell lines were derived from colon cancers. Correlations between genomic characteristics of cancer cell lines with figitumumab antiproliferative activity revealed that components of the IGF pathway, including IRS2 (insulin receptor substrate 2) and IGFBP5 (IGF-binding protein 5), played a pivotal role in determining the sensitivity of tumors to single-agent figitumumab. Tissue-specific differences among the top predictive genes highlight the need for tumor-specific patient selection strategies. For the first time, we report that alteration or expression of the MYB oncogene is associated with sensitivity to IGF1R inhibitors. MYB is dysregulated in hematologic and epithelial tumors, and IGF1R inhibition may represent a novel therapeutic opportunity. Although growth inhibitory activity with single-agent figitumumab was relatively rare, nine combinations comprising figitumumab plus chemotherapeutic agents or other targeted agents exhibited properties of synergy. Inhibitors of the ERBB family were frequently synergistic and potential biomarkers of drug synergy were identified. Several biomarkers of antiproliferative activity of figitumumab both alone and in combination with other therapies may inform the design of clinical trials evaluating IGF1R inhibitors. PMID:24107449

  11. Calpain Inhibitor PD150606 Attenuates Glutamate Induced Spiral Ganglion Neuron Apoptosis through Apoptosis Inducing Factor Pathway In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ying; Chen, Fu-Quan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective This research aimed to investigate whether glutamate induced spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) apoptosis through apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway. And verify whether PD150606, a calpain inhibitor could prevent apoptosis by inhibiting cleaving and releasing AIF in mitochondrion. Methods SGNs of postnatal days 0-3 were harvested and cultured in dishes. 20 mM Glu, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and calpain inhibitor PD150606 were added into cultured dishes separately. We used optical microscope and immunofluoresence staining to observe cell morphology and AIF distribution, RT-PCR and Westernblot to analyse AIF and calpain expression in SGNs. TUNEL assay was used to test cell apoptosis. Results Cell morphology and nuclear translocation of AIF were altered in SGNs by 20 mM Glu treated in vitro. The axon of SGN shortened, more apoptosis SGN were observed and the expression of AIF and calpain were up-regulated in Glu-treated group than the normal one (P<0.05). The same experiments were conducted in 20 mM+PD150606 treated group and 20 mM+Z-VAD-FMK group. Obviously AIF were located from cytoplasm to the nuclear and the expressions of AIF and calpain were down-regulated by PD150606 (P<0.05). Positive cells in TUNEL staining decreased after PD150606 treating. However, Z-VAD-FMK had no influence on AIF, calpain expression or cell apoptosis. Conclusion The AIF-related apoptosis pathway is involved in the process of Glu-induced SGN injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of calpain can prevent AIF from releasing the nuclear or inducing SGN apoptosis. PMID:25874633

  12. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  13. P-glycoprotein efflux and other factors limit brain amyloid beta reduction by beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitors in mice.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Jere E; Thompson, Lorin A; Toyn, Jeremy H; Marcin, Lawrence; Barten, Donna M; Marcinkeviciene, Jovita; Kopcho, Lisa; Kim, Young; Lin, Alan; Guss, Valerie; Burton, Catherine; Iben, Lawrence; Polson, Craig; Cantone, Joe; Ford, Michael; Drexler, Dieter; Fiedler, Tracey; Lentz, Kimberley A; Grace, James E; Kolb, Janet; Corsa, Jason; Pierdomenico, Maria; Jones, Kelli; Olson, Richard E; Macor, John E; Albright, Charles F

    2008-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides are hypothesized to cause the initiation and progression of AD based on pathologic data from AD patients, genetic analysis of mutations that cause early onset forms of AD, and preclinical studies. Based on this hypothesis, beta-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors are an attractive therapeutic approach for AD because cleavage of the APP by BACE1 is required to form Abeta. In this study, three potent BACE1 inhibitors are characterized. All three inhibitors decrease Abeta formation in cultured cells with IC(50) values less than 10 nM. Analysis of APP C-terminal fragments by immunoblotting and Abeta peptides by mass spectrometry showed that these inhibitors decreased Abeta by inhibiting BACE1. An assay for Abeta1-40 in mice was developed and used to show that these BACE1 inhibitors decreased plasma Abeta1-40, but not brain Abeta1-40, in wild-type mice. Because these BACE1 inhibitors were substrates for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters, these inhibitors were administered to P-gp knockout (KO) mice. These studies showed that all three BACE1 inhibitors decreased brain Abeta1-40 in P-gp KO mice, demonstrating that P-gp is a major limitation for development of BACE1 inhibitors to test the amyloid hypothesis. A comparison of plasma Abeta1-40 and brain Abeta1-40 dose responses for these three compounds revealed differences in relative ED(50) values, indicating that factors other than P-gp can also contribute to poor brain activity by BACE1 inhibitors.

  14. Novel diphenylamine 2,4'-dicarboxamide based azoles as potential epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: synthesis and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Abou-Seri, Sahar Mahmoud; Farag, Nahla Ahmed; Hassan, Ghaneya Sayed

    2011-01-01

    Several hybrid molecules of diphenylamine-2,4'-dicarboxamide with various azolidinones and related heterocyclic rings have been synthesized and explored as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors. Most of them displayed promising in vitro tyrosine kinase inhibition as well as potent cellular antiproliferative activity in the EGFR over-expressing breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Compounds 12b and 13b that exhibited the highest inhibition in the kinase assay (89, 81% inhibition at 10 μM, respectively), showed potent antiproliferative effect against MCF-7 tumor cell line (IC(50) 1.04, 0.91 μM respectively). Molecular docking studies revealed that these compounds can bind to ATP binding site of the EGFR kinase domain and were involved in H-bonding with Met 793, in analogy to the known EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Moreover, compounds 15a-c possessed profound antitumor activity (IC(50) 0.59-0.73 μM) and significant EGFR-TK inhibition, making them of particular interest. In summary, the newly synthesized compounds provide promising new lead for the future design and development of anticancer agents of potential EGFR-TK inhibitory activity.

  15. Effects of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors and its implication on natural killer T-cell lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihyun; Ryu, Kyoungju; Ko, Younghyeh; Park, Chaehwa

    2005-10-01

    Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) is a highly aggressive disease. Despite the use of various treatment regimens, the prognosis of NKTL is poor, and new treatment strategies need to be determined. Because of the significant survival potential, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB has become one of the major targets for drug development. In this study, we explored the effect and action mechanism of NF-kappaB inhibitors, BAY 11-7082 and curcumin, on NKTL cell lines (NKL, NK-92 and HANK1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that NF-kappaB was constitutively active in HANK1, a chemoresistant cell line. BAY 11-7082 and curcumin suppressed NF-kappaB activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which finally resulted in cell death. BAY 11-7082- and curcumin-induced cell death was associated with downregulation of Bcl-xL, cyclin D1, XIAP and c-FLIP, followed by caspase-8, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and activation. Given that the chemoresistant NK-92 cells respond to NF-kappaB inhibitors but not to conventional drugs, BAY 11-7082 and curcumin could be potentially useful for achieving improved outcome in chemotherapy-refractory NKTL.

  16. Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha synthesis inhibitors on rat trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced chronic colitis.

    PubMed

    Bobin-Dubigeon, C; Collin, X; Grimaud, N; Robert, J M; Le Baut, G; Petit, J Y

    2001-11-01

    The fact that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is clearly involved in the pathogenesis of intestinal bowel disease, especially Crohn's disease, suggests that TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitors could be beneficial for treatment. The present study assessed the effect of chronic oral gavage of two in vitro TNF-alpha synthesis inhibitors, JM 34 maleate or [N-(4,6-dimethylpyridin-2-yl)-furane-2-carboxamide)] maleate and XC 21 or (N-betapicolyl-tetrafluorophtalimide), on colonic inflammation in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rats received JM 34 maleate (100 mg/kg) and XC 21 (50 mg/kg) 1 h before colitis induction and then daily for 8 days by oral gavage. The colon was removed on day 8 and processed for clinical score, myeloperoxidase activity, and soluble TNF-alpha release. Treatment with XC 21, as well as dexamethasone and sulphasalazine, reduced colonic damage and decreased (except with dexamethasone) the incidence of diarrhoea. JM 34 maleate failed to improve the clinical signs of chronic colitis. After trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis, myeloperoxidase activity and TNF-alpha colonic mucosal production were substantially increased compared to the control (saline instillation). Both of these inflammatory indicators were then significantly decreased (P< or =0.05) after the four chronic treatments (JM 34 maleate, XC 21, sulphasalazine, and dexamethasone). XC 21 appeared to be as efficient as sulphasalazine in improving colonic inflammation. PMID:11716848

  17. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate), a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Herbertz, Stephan; Sawyer, J Scott; Stauber, Anja J; Gueorguieva, Ivelina; Driscoll, Kyla E; Estrem, Shawn T; Cleverly, Ann L; Desaiah, Durisala; Guba, Susan C; Benhadji, Karim A; Slapak, Christopher A; Lahn, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate) is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle) of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab) in patients with cancer with high unmet medical needs such as glioblastoma, pancreatic cancer, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The present review summarizes the past and current experiences with different pharmacological treatments that enabled galunisertib to be investigated in patients. PMID:26309397

  18. [Modification of complement factors and their inhibitors during meningococcal sepsis (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blanco, A; Solís, P; Alvarez Guisasola, F J; Valbuena, C; Gómez, C; Prieto, P; Ruíz, C

    1980-08-01

    Various complement components (C'1s, C'3, C'4, C'5, C'8, C'9, C'3 act., C'1 inh., C'3b inact.) and seric immunocomplexes (by polyethylene glycol, PEG) were evaluated in 43 children with meningococcal sepsis. 28 patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), group I, and 15 did not show it, group II; 14 patients died in group I and none of group II. In 21 cases studies were repeated 24 hours later. In group I all complement components were decreased, specially C'3 (x: 67 mg./100 ml., p < 0.01) and C'5 (x: 8 mg./100 ml., p < 0.01) and they were lower 24 h. later. Results of group II were normal, except a decrease of C'5. Catabolic products of C'3 were founded in 11/14 cases of group I and two/nine of group II and products of C'3 act. in four/14 and one/10. PEG precipitation was positive in 10/14 cases of group I and 10/12 of group II and IgG, IgM, C'3 and C'4 were found in precipitations. This complement components were more frequently present in sepsis without DIC and after 24 h. of evolution. C'1 and C'3b inhibitors decreased after evolution in group I and by contrast increased in group II. This fall enhances complement activation.

  19. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 11. Soluble analogues of pyrrolo- and pyrazoloquinazolines as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors: synthesis, biological evaluation, and modeling of the mode of binding.

    PubMed

    Palmer, B D; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, S; Fry, D W; Nelson, J M; Showalter, H D; Denny, W A

    1997-05-01

    A new route to N-1-substituted pyrazolo- and pyrroloquinazolines has been developed from the known quinazolones 19 and 23, via conversion to the corresponding thiones, S-methylation to the thioethers, N-1-alkylation, and coupling with 3-bromoaniline. C-3-Substituted pyrroloquinazolines were prepared by Mannich base chemistry. A series of compounds bearing solubilizing side chains at these positions has been prepared and evaluated for inhibition of the tyrosine kinase activity of the isolated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its autophosphorylation in EGF-stimulated A431 cells. Several analogues, particularly C-3-substituted pyrroloquinazolines, retained high potency in both assays. A model for the binding of the general class of 4-anilinoquinazolines to the EGFR was constructed from structural information (particularly for the catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase) and structure-activity relationships (SAR) in the series. In this model, the pyrrole ring in pyrroloquinazolines (and the 6- and 7-positions of quinazoline and related pyridopyrimidine inhibitors) occupies the entrance of the ATP binding pocket of the enzyme, with the pyrrole nitrogen located at the bottom of the cleft and the pyrrole C-3 position pointing toward a pocket corresponding to the ribose binding site of ATP. This allows considerable bulk tolerance for C-3 substituents and lesser but still significant bulk tolerance for N-1 substituents. The observed high selectivity of these compounds for binding to EGFR over other similar tyrosine kinases is attributed to the 4-anilino ring binding in an adjacent hydrophobic pocket which has an amino acid composition unique to the EGFR. The SAR seen for inhibition of the isolated enzyme by the pyrazolo- and pyrroloquinazolines discussed here is fully consistent with this binding model. For the N-1-substituted compounds, inhibition of autophosphorylation in A431 cells correlates well with inhibition of the isolated enzyme, as

  20. Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1--insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 cascade regulates stress-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Elzi, David J; Lai, Yanlai; Song, Meihua; Hakala, Kevin; Weintraub, Susan T; Shiio, Yuzuru

    2012-07-24

    Cellular senescence is widely believed to play a key role in tumor suppression, but the molecular pathways that regulate senescence are only incompletely understood. By using a secretome proteomics approach, we identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) as a secreted mediator of breast cancer senescence upon chemotherapeutic drug treatment. The senescence-inducing activity of IGFBP3 is inhibited by tissue-type plasminogen activator-mediated proteolysis, which is counteracted by plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), another secreted mediator of senescence. We demonstrate that IGFBP3 is a critical downstream target of PAI-1-induced senescence. These results suggest a role for an extracellular cascade of secreted proteins in the regulation of cellular senescence.

  1. Epiderstatin, a new inhibitor of the mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Osada, H; Sonoda, T; Kusakabe, H; Isono, K

    1989-11-01

    Inhibitors of mitogenic activity induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) were screened from culture broths of soil microorganisms. A strain of actinomycetes has been found to produce a new glutarimide antibiotic named epiderstatin which inhibits the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent animal cells stimulated by EGF. Taxonomic studies have revealed that the producing strain belongs to a subspecies of Streptomyces pulveraceus, thus the name, Streptomyces pulveraceus subsp. epiderstagenes was given to this strain. The molecular formula (C15H20N2O4) and UV profile (lambda max 295 nm) of the antibiotic are distinct from other known antibiotics. It inhibited the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into quiescent cells stronger than into growing cells. PMID:2584144

  2. Hybrids from 4-anilinoquinazoline and hydroxamic acid as dual inhibitors of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Peng, Fan-Wei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Ren, Zi-Wei; Xue, Jia-Yu; Shi, Lei

    2015-11-15

    A series of hybrids derived from 4-anilinoquinazoline and hydroxamic acid were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as dual inhibitors of vascular endothelia growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) tyrosine kinase and histone deacetylase (HDAC). Most of these compounds exhibited potent HDAC inhibition and moderate VEGFR-2 inhibition. Among them, compound 6l exhibited the most potent inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2 (IC50=84 nM) and HDAC (IC50=2.8 nM). It also showed the most potent antiproliferative ability against MCF-7, a human breast cancer line, with IC50 of 1.2 μM. Docking simulation supported the initial pharmacophoric hypothesis and suggested a common mode of interaction of compound 6l at the active binding sites of VEGFR-2 and HDAC. PMID:26475519

  3. Hepatitis B and C reactivation with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: synopsis and interpretation of screening and prophylaxis recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Inbal; Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Sikuler, Emanuel

    2013-06-01

    Information on reactivation of chronic viral hepatitis infection in patients who are candidates for tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNFi) is in a constant state of flux. We retrieved the most updated guidelines (in English) of prominent rheumatological and gastroenterological professional socienties for the mangement of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the context of treatment with TNFi. Subsequently, the major areas of uncertainty and absence of consensus in the guidelines were located and a secondary search for additional studies addressing those areas was performed. Based on our search we formulated a personal interpretation applicable to health care settings with virological laboratories capable of performing viral load measurements, and health systems that can support use of potent nucleoside/tide analogues in well-defined patient populations. PMID:23882898

  4. Data mining PubChem using a support vector machine with the Signature molecular descriptor: classification of factor XIa inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weis, Derick C; Visco, Donald P; Faulon, Jean-Loup

    2008-11-01

    The amount of high-throughput screening (HTS) data readily available has significantly increased because of the PubChem project (http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). There is considerable opportunity for data mining of small molecules for a variety of biological systems using cheminformatic tools and the resources available through PubChem. In this work, we trained a support vector machine (SVM) classifier using the Signature molecular descriptor on factor XIa inhibitor HTS data. The optimal number of Signatures was selected by implementing a feature selection algorithm of highly correlated clusters. Our method included an improvement that allowed clusters to work together for accuracy improvement, where previous methods have scored clusters on an individual basis. The resulting model had a 10-fold cross-validation accuracy of 89%, and additional validation was provided by two independent test sets. We applied the SVM to rapidly predict activity for approximately 12 million compounds also deposited in PubChem. Confidence in these predictions was assessed by considering the number of Signatures within the training set range for a given compound, defined as the overlap metric. To further evaluate compounds identified as active by the SVM, docking studies were performed using AutoDock. A focused database of compounds predicted to be active was obtained with several of the compounds appreciably dissimilar to those used in training the SVM. This focused database is suitable for further study. The data mining technique presented here is not specific to factor XIa inhibitors, and could be applied to other bioassays in PubChem where one is looking to expand the search for small molecules as chemical probes.

  5. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-κB activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulated NF-κB activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-κB inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-κB activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  6. Quorum sensing signals are produced by Aeromonas salmonicida and quorum sensing inhibitors can reduce production of a potential virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Maria; Kastbjerg, Vicky Gaedt; Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Dalsgaard, Inger; Givskov, Michael; Gram, Lone

    2007-12-13

    Many pathogens control production of virulence factors by self-produced signals in a process called quorum sensing (QS). We demonstrate that acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signals, which enable bacteria to express certain phenotypes in relation to cell density, are produced by a wide spectrum of Aeromonas salmonicida strains. All 31 typical strains were AHL producers as were 21 of 26 atypical strains, but on a strain population basis, production of virulence factors such as protease, lipase, A-layer or pigment did not correlate with the production and accumulation of AHLs in the growth medium. Pigment production was only observed in broth under highly aerated conditions. Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) are compounds that specifically block QS systems without affecting bacterial growth and 2 such compounds, sulphur-containing AHL-analogues, reduced production of protease in a typical strain of Aeromonas salmonicida. The most efficient compound N-(heptylsulfanylacetyl)-L-homoserine lactone (HepS-AHL), reduced protease production by a factor of 10. Five extracellular proteases were detected on gelatin-containing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels and 3 of these were completely down regulated by HepS-AHL. Hence, QSIs can curb virulence in some strains and could potentially be pursued as bacterial disease control measures in aquaculture.

  7. Establishing the heparin therapeutic range using aPTT and anti-Xa measurements for monitoring unfractionated heparin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Jung-Hyun; Jang, In-Seok; Kim, Jong Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background Unfractionated heparin (UFH) has unstable pharmacokinetics and requires close monitoring. The activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test has been used to monitor UFH therapy for decades in Korea, but its results can be affected by numerous variables. We established an aPTT heparin therapeutic range (HTR) corresponding to therapeutic anti-Xa levels for continuous intravenous UFH administration, and used appropriate monitoring to determine if an adequate dose of UFH was applied. Methods A total of 134 ex vivo samples were obtained from 71 patients with a variety of thromboembolisms. All patients received intravenous UFH therapy and were enrolled from June to September 2015 at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. All laboratory protocols were in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines and the College of American Pathologist requirements for aPTT HTR. Results An aPTT range of 87.1 sec to 128.7 sec corresponded to anti-Xa levels of 0.3 IU/mL to 0.7 IU/mL for HTR under our laboratory conditions. Based on their anti-Xa levels, blood specimen distribution were as follows: less than 0.3 IU/mL, 65.7%; 0.3–0.7 IU/mL (therapeutic range), 33.6%; and more than 0.7 IU/mL, 0.7%. No evidence of recurring thromboembolism was observed. Conclusion Using the conventional aPTT target range may lead to inappropriate dosing of UFH. Transitioning from the aPTT test to the anti-Xa assay is required to avoid the laborious validation of the aPTT HTR test, even though the anti-Xa assay is more expensive. PMID:27722127

  8. Transforming growth factor-1 promotes the transcriptional activation of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Yin, Wan-Le; Ba, Yu-Feng; Tian, Lin; Gu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Ming-Sheng; Zhong, Chu-Nan

    2012-11-01

    Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a pivotal role in promoting the growth, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. However, to date little is known about the oncogenic mechanisms of CAFs. This study aimed to identify the microenvironmental factors involved in tumor development and progression directed by CAFs in liver metastases. Tissue samples collected from 20 patients with colorectal liver metastases were used in this study. Histological and morphological characterization of the samples was performed using hybridization and immunohistological assays. The mRNA expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was measured by northern blotting. The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). As a result, co-expression of Thy-1 (CD90) and α-SMA was identified in CAFs, while normal liver samples were negative for α-SMA and Thy-1. Compared with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) incubation, the expression of α-SMA increased significantly following transforming growth factor-1 (TGF-1) incubation (P<0.05), while platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) caused a significant suppression of α-SMA expression (P<0.05). PAI-1 expression was significantly lower in unstimulated fibroblasts compared to TGF-1-treated fibroblasts (P<0.01). The levels of PAI-1 transcription were significantly higher in CAFs from the patient samples compared with the healthy controls. Taken together, our findings suggest that CAFs may be important in migration, matrix degradation, invasion and angiogenesis of tumors, and TGF-1 may promote the activation of PAI-1 transcription in CAFs.

  9. The rationale and strategy used to develop a series of highly potent, irreversible, inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor family of tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Bridges, A J

    1999-09-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGFr) was one of the first oncogenes identified, and it, or its ligands Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Transforming Growth Factor a (TGFa) are overexpressed in most clinical tumours. As EGF and TGFa are potent mitogens, it appeared that inhibition of EGFr signaling would be a viable anti-proliferative strategy. Screening found several classes of EGFr inhibitor, one of which, the indolinethiones was developed. The SAR, in common with that of other first generation tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitors was flat, and potency was poor. Rescreening in presence of a thiol, to remove chemically reactive species, identified only two leads, a pyridopyrimidine and a quinazoline. These were developed into a very broad class of EGFr inhibitors, with great potency and selectivity for EGFr, but poor physicochemical properties, and little if any in vivo anti-tumour activity. Meanwhile the complex role of other members of the EGFr TK family in oncogenesis, was becoming apparent, suggesting that the whole EGFr family should be inhibited. The difficulty of finding potent compounds with acceptable pharmacokinetics also suggested that irreversible inhibitors of the TK might produce better in vivo profiles. Modeling suggested that the unusual Cys773 residue might be reached from the 6/7-positions of quinazoline and pyridopyrimidine inhibitors. Inhibitors with acrylamides at these positions proved to be irreversible alkylating agents for both EGFr and erbB-2 with cellular inhibitory activities in the low nanomolar range, and very potent in vivo antitumour activity. Optimized inhibitors had exceptionally potent oral antitumour activity, with negligible cytotoxicity.

  10. Effects of nuclear factor-κB and ERK signaling transduction pathway inhibitors on human melanoma cell proliferation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, YI-CHUAN; PAN, MIN; LIU, NING; XIAO, JUN-GANG; CHEN, HONG-QUAN

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of blocking nuclear factor (NF)-κB and/or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways on proliferation and apoptosis of melanoma cells in vitro. A375 Human melanoma cells were treated with U0126 (ERK signaling pathway inhibitor) and BMS-345541 (NF-κB inhibitor), alone or in combination. At 12, 24 and 48 h after treatment, cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, cell cycle progression and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry, and Bcl-2 protein content was determined by western blot analysis. BMS-345541 and U0126 significantly inhibited A375 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner (P<0.01). The rate of proliferation inhibition at 24 h was 35.41±1.38% for BMS-345541 alone, 30.64±2.86% for U0126 alone, and 77.27±2.70% for BMS-345541 and U0126 in combination. The difference between combination and single treatment was significantly different (P<0.01). The proportion of cells in S phase was 14.20, 18.40 and 22.64% following treatment with BMS-345541, U0126, and BMS-345541 and U0126 in combination, respectively; these values were all significantly reduced compared with the untreated control group (P<0.01). The apoptosis rate was 24.98±1.03% in the BMS-345541 group, 13.96±0.96% in the U0126 group and 38.91±1.46% in the combination group; all significantly increased compared with the control group (P<0.01). Bcl-2 protein content in A375 cells was significantly increased following treatment with BMS-345541 and U0126, alone or in combination, when compared with the untreated control group (P<0.01). Therefore, NF-κB and ERK signaling pathway inhibitors may serve as potential therapeutic targets for melanoma. PMID:26722318

  11. Successful treatment of a spontaneous haemothorax with recombinant factor VIIa in a haemophilic child with inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gidaris, D; Economou, M; Valeri, R; Gombakis, N; Athanasiou - Metaxa, M

    2010-01-01

    Haemophilia A is an X-linked disorder caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. Haemorrhage in various sites may occur spontaneously or secondary to trauma depending on the severity of the deficiency. Common manifestations include haemarthrosis, epistaxis, gastrointestinal haemorrhage and haematuria. Spontaneous haemothorax has rarely been reported both in children and adults1,2. We report the case of a haemophiliac child presenting with spontaneous haemothorax due to the rarity of this clinical presentation in order to raise the awareness among clinicians. PMID:21311642

  12. Axl mediates acquired resistance of head and neck cancer cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Giles, Keith M; Kalinowski, Felicity C; Candy, Patrick A; Epis, Michael R; Zhang, Priscilla M; Redfern, Andrew D; Stuart, Lisa M; Goodall, Gregory J; Leedman, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Elevated expression and activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development and progression of head and neck cancer (HNC) and a poor prognosis. Clinical trials with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., erlotinib) have been disappointing in HNC. To investigate the mechanisms mediating resistance to these agents, we developed an HNC cell line (HN5-ER) with acquired erlotinib resistance. In contrast to parental HN5 HNC cells, HN5-ER cells exhibited an epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) phenotype with increased migratory potential, reduced E-cadherin and epithelial-associated microRNAs (miRNA), and elevated vimentin expression. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase profiling identified Axl activation in HN5-ER cells. Growth and migration of HN5-ER cells were blocked with a specific Axl inhibitor, R428, and R428 resensitized HN5-ER cells to erlotinib. Microarray analysis of HN5-ER cells confirmed the EMT phenotype associated with acquired erlotinib resistance, and identified activation of gene expression associated with cell migration and inflammation pathways. Moreover, increased expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in HN5-ER cells suggested a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in EMT and erlotinib resistance. Expression of the tumor suppressor miR-34a was reduced in HN5-ER cells and increasing its expression abrogated Axl expression and reversed erlotinib resistance. Finally, analysis of 302 HNC patients revealed that high tumor Axl mRNA expression was associated with poorer survival (HR = 1.66, P = 0.007). In summary, our results identify Axl as a key mediator of acquired erlotinib resistance in HNC and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Axl by small molecule drugs or specific miRNAs might overcome anti-EGFR therapy resistance. PMID:24026012

  13. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor prevents airway obstruction, respiratory failure and death due to sulfur mustard analog inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Rancourt, Raymond C. Veress, Livia A. Ahmad, Aftab Hendry-Hofer, Tara B. Rioux, Jacqueline S. Garlick, Rhonda B. White, Carl W.

    2013-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) inhalation causes airway injury, with enhanced vascular permeability, coagulation, and airway obstruction. The objective of this study was to determine whether recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) could inhibit this pathogenic sequence. Methods: Rats were exposed to the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) via nose-only aerosol inhalation. One hour later, TFPI (1.5 mg/kg) in vehicle, or vehicle alone, was instilled into the trachea. Arterial O{sub 2} saturation was monitored using pulse oximetry. Twelve hours after exposure, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and plasma were analyzed for prothrombin, thrombin–antithrombin complex (TAT), active plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels, and fluid fibrinolytic capacity. Lung steady-state PAI-1 mRNA was measured by RT-PCR analysis. Airway-capillary leak was estimated by BALF protein and IgM, and by pleural fluid measurement. In additional animals, airway cast formation was assessed by microdissection and immunohistochemical detection of airway fibrin. Results: Airway obstruction in the form of fibrin-containing casts was evident in central conducting airways of rats receiving CEES. TFPI decreased cast formation, and limited severe hypoxemia. Findings of reduced prothrombin consumption, and lower TAT complexes in BALF, demonstrated that TFPI acted to limit thrombin activation in airways. TFPI, however, did not appreciably affect CEES-induced airway protein leak, PAI-1 mRNA induction, or inhibition of the fibrinolytic activity present in airway surface liquid. Conclusions: Intratracheal administration of TFPI limits airway obstruction, improves gas exchange, and prevents mortality in rats with sulfur mustard-analog-induced acute lung injury. - Highlights: • TFPI administration to rats after mustard inhalation reduces airway cast formation. • Inhibition of thrombin activation is the likely mechanism for limiting casts. • Rats given TFPI

  14. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Ekyalongo, Roudy Chiminch; Mukohara, Toru; Kataoka, Yu; Funakoshi, Yohei; Tomioka, Hideo; Kiyota, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Minami, Hironobu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism of acquired resistance to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541. We developed an acquired resistant model by continuously exposing MCF-7 breast cancer cells to NVP-AEW541 (MCF-7-NR). MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR were comparatively analyzed for cell signaling and cell growth. While phosphorylation of Akt was completely inhibited by 3 μM NVP-AEW541 in both MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR, phosphorylation of S6K remained high only in MCF-7-NR, suggesting a disconnection between Akt and S6K in MCF-7-NR. Consistently, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus inhibited phosphorylation of S6K and cell growth equally in both lines. Screening of both lines for phosphorylation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases with and without NVP-AEW541 showed that Tyro3 phosphorylation remained high only in MCF-7-NR. Protein expression of Tyro3 was found to be higher in MCF-7-NR than in MCF-7. Gene silencing of Tyro3 using siRNA resulted in reduced cell growth and cyclin D1 expression in both lines. While Tyro3 expression was inhibited by NVP-AEW541 and everolimus in MCF-7, it was reduced only by everolimus in MCF-7-NR. These findings suggested that cyclin D1 expression was regulated in a S6K/Tyro3-dependent manner in both MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR, and that the disconnection between IGF-1R/Akt and S6K may enable MCF-7-NR to keep cyclin D1 high in the presence of NVP-AEW541. In summary, acquired resistance to NVP-AEW541 appears to result from IGF-1R/Akt-independent activation of S6K and expression of Tyro3 and cyclin D1.

  15. Zinc-rich inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) as regulatory factors in the epithelium of normal and inflamed airways.

    PubMed

    Roscioli, Eugene; Hamon, Rhys; Lester, Susan; Murgia, Chiara; Grant, Janet; Zalewski, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Integrity of the airway epithelium (AE) is important in the context of inhaled allergens and noxious substances, particularly during asthma-related airway inflammation where there is increased vulnerability of the AE to cell death. Apoptosis involves a number of signaling pathways which activate procaspases leading to cleavage of critical substrates. Understanding the factors which regulate AE caspases is important for development of strategies to minimize AE damage and airway inflammation, and therefore to better control asthma. One such factor is the essential dietary metal zinc. Zinc deficiency results in enhanced AE apoptosis, and worsened airway inflammation. This has implications for asthma, where abnormalities in zinc homeostasis have been observed. Zinc is thought to suppress the steps involved in caspase-3 activation. One target of zinc is the family of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) which are endogenous regulators of caspases. More studies are needed to identify the roles of IAPs in regulating apoptosis in normal and inflamed airways and to study their interaction with labile zinc ions. This new information will provide a framework for future clinical studies aimed at monitoring and management of airway zinc levels as well as minimising airway damage and inflammation in asthma.

  16. Transcription factor Sox4 is required for PUMA-mediated apoptosis induced by histone deacetylase inhibitor, TSA.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sang-Min; Kang, Eun-Jin; Kim, Jung-Woong; Kim, Chul-Hong; An, Joo-Hee; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2013-08-23

    PUMA is a crucial regulator of apoptotic cell death mediated by p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. In many cancer cells, PUMA expression is induced in response to DNA-damaging reagent in a p53-dependent manner. However, few studies have investigated transcription factors that lead to the induction of PUMA expression via p53-independent apoptotic signaling. In this study, we found that the transcription factor Sox4 increased PUMA expression in response to trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor in the p53-null human lung cancer cell line H1299. Ectopic expression of Sox4 led to the induction of PUMA expression at the mRNA and protein levels, and TSA-mediated up-regulation of PUMA transcription was repressed by the knockdown of Sox4. Using luciferase assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation, we also determined that Sox4 recruits p300 on the PUMA promoter region and increases PUMA gene expression in response to TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that Sox4 is required for p53-independent apoptotic cell death mediated by PUMA induction via TSA treatment.

  17. Virtual screening of specific insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) molecular database.

    PubMed

    Fan, Cong; Huang, Yan-Xin; Bao, Yong-Li; Sun, Lu-Guo; Wu, Yin; Yu, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Yu; Song, Zhen-Bo; Zheng, Li-Hua; Sun, Ying; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2012-12-14

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has a nearly identical sequence. A few potent inhibitors that are selective for IGF1R have been discovered experimentally with the aid of computational methods. However, studies on the rapid identification of IGF1R-selective inhibitors using virtual screening and confidence-level inspections of ligands that show different interactions with IGF1R and IR in docking analysis are rare. In this study, we established virtual screening and binding-mode prediction workflows based on benchmark results of IGF1R and several kinase receptors with IGF1R-like structures. We used comprehensive analysis of the known complexes of IGF1R and IR with their binding ligands to screen specific IGF1R inhibitors. Using these workflows, 17 of 139,735 compounds in the NCI (National Cancer Institute) database were identified as potential specific inhibitors of IGF1R. Calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) with GROMACS were further conducted for three of the identified compounds to assess their binding affinity differences towards IGF1R and IR.

  18. Virtual Screening of Specific Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R) Inhibitors from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Molecular Database

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cong; Huang, Yan-Xin; Bao, Yong-Li; Sun, Lu-Guo; Wu, Yin; Yu, Chun-Lei; Zhang, Yu; Song, Zhen-Bo; Zheng, Li-Hua; Sun, Ying; Wang, Guan-Nan; Li, Yu-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) is an attractive drug target for cancer therapy and research on IGF1R inhibitors has had success in clinical trials. A particular challenge in the development of specific IGF1R inhibitors is interference from insulin receptor (IR), which has a nearly identical sequence. A few potent inhibitors that are selective for IGF1R have been discovered experimentally with the aid of computational methods. However, studies on the rapid identification of IGF1R-selective inhibitors using virtual screening and confidence-level inspections of ligands that show different interactions with IGF1R and IR in docking analysis are rare. In this study, we established virtual screening and binding-mode prediction workflows based on benchmark results of IGF1R and several kinase receptors with IGF1R-like structures. We used comprehensive analysis of the known complexes of IGF1R and IR with their binding ligands to screen specific IGF1R inhibitors. Using these workflows, 17 of 139,735 compounds in the NCI (National Cancer Institute) database were identified as potential specific inhibitors of IGF1R. Calculations of the potential of mean force (PMF) with GROMACS were further conducted for three of the identified compounds to assess their binding affinity differences towards IGF1R and IR. PMID:23242155

  19. The Arabidopsis NIM1 protein shows homology to the mammalian transcription factor inhibitor I kappa B.

    PubMed Central

    Ryals, J; Weymann, K; Lawton, K; Friedrich, L; Ellis, D; Steiner, H Y; Johnson, J; Delaney, T P; Jesse, T; Vos, P; Uknes, S

    1997-01-01

    The NIM1 (for noninducible immunity) gene product is involved in the signal transduction cascade leading to both systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and gene-for-gene disease resistance in Arabidopsis. We have isolated and characterized five new alleles of nim1 that show a range of phenotypes from weakly impaired in chemically induced pathogenesis-related protein-1 gene expression and fungal resistance to very strongly blocked. We have isolated the NIM1 gene by using a map-based cloning procedure. Interestingly, the NIM1 protein shows sequence homology to the mammalian signal transduction factor I kappa B subclass alpha. NF-kappa B/I kappa B signaling pathways are implicated in disease resistance responses in a range of organisms from Drosophila to mammals, suggesting that the SAR signaling pathway in plants is representative of an ancient and ubiquitous defense mechanism in higher organisms. PMID:9090885

  20. Assessment of the frequency of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+CD127-) in children with hemophilia A: relation to factor VIII inhibitors and disease severity.

    PubMed

    El-Asrar, Mohamed Abo; Hamed, Ahmed El-Saeed; Darwish, Yasser Wagih; Ismail, Eman Abdel Rahman; Ismail, Noha Ali

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly growing evidence showed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a crucial role in tolerance to coagulation factors and may be involved in the pathogenesis of inhibitor formation in patients with hemophilia. We determined the percentage of Tregs (CD4CD25CD127) in 45 children with hemophilia A compared with 45 healthy controls, and assessed their relation to the clinical characteristics of patients and factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. Patients were studied stressing on frequency of bleeding attacks, joint pain, history of viral hepatitis, and the received therapy (FVIII precipitate/cryotherapy). FVIII activity and FVIII inhibitors were assessed with flow cytometric analysis of CD4CD25CD127 Tregs. According to residual FVIII activity levels, 30 patients (66.7%) had mild/moderate hemophilia A, whereas 15 (33.3%) patients had severe hemophilia A. The frequency of Tregs was significantly lower among all patients with hemophilia A compared with controls (2.59 ± 1.1 versus 3.73 ± 1.12%; P = 0.002). Tregs were significantly decreased among patients with FVIII inhibitors compared with the inhibitor-negative group (P < 0.001). Patients with hematuria or severe hemophilia A had lower Tregs levels than those without (P = 0.34 and P = 0.011, respectively). A significant positive correlation was found between the percentage of Tregs and FVIII among hemophilia A patients. ROC curve analysis revealed that the cut-off value of Tregs at 1.91% could differentiate patients with and without FVIII inhibitors, with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 91.3%. We suggest that alteration in the frequency of Tregs in young patients with hemophilia A may contribute to inhibitor formation and disease severity.

  1. Risk Factors for Nursing Home Placement in Alzheimer's Disease: A Longitudinal Study of Cognition, ADL, Service Utilization, and Cholinesterase Inhibitor Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattmo, Carina; Wallin, Asa K.; Londos, Elisabet; Minthon, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To identify risk factors for early nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), focusing on the impact of longitudinal change in cognition, activities of daily living (ADL), service utilization, and cholinesterase inhibitor treatment (ChEI). Design and Methods: In an open, 3-year, prospective, multicenter study…

  2. CD8+ T Cells Specific to Apoptosis-Associated Antigens Predict the Response to Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Citro, Alessandra; Scrivo, Rossana; Martini, Helene; Martire, Carmela; De Marzio, Paolo; Vestri, Anna Rita; Sidney, John; Sette, Alessandro; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Valesini, Guido

    2015-01-01

    CD8+ T cells specific to caspase-cleaved antigens derived from apoptotic T cells (apoptotic epitopes) represent a principal player in chronic immune activation, which is known to amplify immunopathology in various inflammatory diseases. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship involving these autoreactive T cells, the rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology, and the response to tumor necrosis factorinhibitor therapy. The frequency of autoreactive CD8+ T cells specific to various apoptotic epitopes, as detected by both enzyme-linked immunospot assay and dextramers of major histocompatibility complex class I molecules complexed with relevant apoptotic epitopes, was longitudinally analyzed in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients who were submitted to etanercept treatment (or other tumor necrosis factor inhibitors as a control). The percentage of apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells was significantly higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients than in healthy donors, and correlated with the disease activity. More important, it was significantly more elevated in responders to tumor necrosis factorinhibitor therapy than in non-responders before the start of therapy; it significantly dropped only in the former following therapy. These data indicate that apoptotic epitope-specific CD8+ T cells may be involved in rheumatoid arthritis immunopathology through the production of inflammatory cytokines and that they may potentially represent a predictive biomarker of response to tumor necrosis factorinhibitor therapy to validate in a larger cohort of patients. PMID:26061065

  3. Adverse events with intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors: nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Sudeep S; Bronskill, Susan E; Paterson, J Michael; Whitehead, Marlo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of systemic adverse events associated with intravitreal injections of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs. Design Population based nested case-control study. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants 91 378 older adults with a history of physician diagnosed retinal disease identified between 1 April 2006 and 31 March 2011. Cases were 1477 patients admitted to hospital for ischaemic stroke, 2229 admitted for an acute myocardial infarction, 1059 admitted or assessed in an emergency department for venous thromboembolism, and 2623 admitted for congestive heart failure. Event-free controls (at a ratio of 5:1) were matched to cases on the basis of year of birth, sex, history of the outcome in the previous 5 years, and diabetes. Main exposure measure Exposure to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibiting drugs identified within 180 days before the index date. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, participants who had ischaemic stroke, acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or venous thromboembolism were not more likely than control participants to have been exposed to either bevacizumab (adjusted odds ratios of 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 1.34) for ischaemic stroke, 1.04 (0.77 to 1.39) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.81 (0.49 to 1.34) for venous thromboembolism, and 1.21 (0.91 to 1.62) for congestive heart failure) or ranibizumab (adjusted odds ratios 0.87 (0.68 to 1.10) for ischaemic stroke, 0.90 (0.72 to 1.11) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.88 (0.67 to 1.16) for venous thromboembolism, and 0.87 (0.70 to 1.07) for congestive heart failure). Similarly, a secondary analysis of exclusive users of bevacizumab or ranibizumab showed no differences in risk between the two drugs (adjusted odds ratios for bevacizumab relative to ranibizumab of 1.03 (0.67 to 1.60) for ischaemic stroke, 1.23 (0.85 to 1.77) for acute myocardial infarction, 0.92 (0.51 to 1.69) for venous thromboembolism, and

  4. New member of the trefoil factor family of proteins is an alpha-macroglobulin protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Ida B; Hammes, Stephen R; Rubenstein, David S; Pizzo, Salvatore V; Valnickova, Zuzana; Enghild, Jan J

    2002-07-29

    The amino acid sequence of the monomeric alpha-macroglobulin (alphaM) from the American bullfrog, Rana catesbiana, was determined. The mature protein consisted of 1469 amino acid residues and shared sequence identity with other members of the alphaM family of protein. The central portion of the frog monomeric alphaM contained Cys residues positioned analogously to the Cys residues in human alpha(2)-macroglobulin (alpha(2)M), known to be involved in disulfide bridges. Additionally, the frog monomeric alphaM contained six Cys residues in a approximately 60 residue COOH-terminal extension not present in previously characterized alphaMs. The spacing of the Cys residues and the overall sequence identity of this COOH-terminal extension were consistent with a trefoil motif. This is the first time a member of the trefoil factor family has been identified in the circulatory system. The "bait region" was located between Arg(675)-Lys(685) and contained mainly basic amino acid residues. The COOH-terminal receptor-binding domain was not exposed prior to proteolysis of this highly susceptible region. The proximity of the receptor-binding and trefoil domains implied that the trefoil domain is similarly concealed before bait region cleavage. PMID:12147353

  5. Dialkoxyquinazolines: Screening Epidermal Growth Factor ReceptorTyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Potential Tumor Imaging Probes

    SciTech Connect

    VanBrocklin, Henry F.; Lim, John K.; Coffing, Stephanie L.; Hom,Darren L.; Negash, Kitaw; Ono, Michele Y.; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Taylor,Scott E.; Vanderpoel, Jennifer L.; Slavik, Sarah M.; Morris, Andrew B.; Riese II, David J.

    2005-09-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a long-standingdrug development target, is also a desirable target for imaging. Sixteendialkoxyquinazoline analogs, suitable for labeling with positron-emittingisotopes, have been synthesized and evaluated in a battery of in vitroassays to ascertain their chemical and biological properties. Thesecharacteristics provided the basis for the adoption of a selection schemato identify lead molecules for labeling and in vivo evaluation. A newEGFR tyrosine kinase radiometric binding assay revealed that all of thecompounds possessed suitable affinity (IC50 = 0.4 - 51 nM) for the EGFRtyrosine kinase. All of the analogs inhibited ligand-induced EGFRtyrosine phosphorylation (IC50 = 0.8 - 20 nM). The HPLC-estimatedoctanol/water partition coefficients ranged from 2.0-5.5. Four compounds,4-(2'-fluoroanilino)- and 4-(3'-fluoroanilino)-6,7-diethoxyquinazoline aswell as 4-(3'-chloroanilino)- and4-(3'-bromoanilino)-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline, possess the bestcombination of characteristics that warrant radioisotope labeling andfurther evaluation in tumor-bearing mice.

  6. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor dose-dependently inhibits coagulation activation without influencing the fibrinolytic and cytokine response during human endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, E; Dekkers, P E; Creasey, A A; Hack, C E; Paulson, S K; Karim, A; Kesecioglu, J; Levi, M; van Deventer, S J; van Der Poll, T

    2000-02-15

    Inhibition of the tissue factor pathway has been shown to attenuate the activation of coagulation and to prevent death in a gram-negative bacteremia primate model of sepsis. It has been suggested that tissue factor influences inflammatory cascades other than the coagulation system. The authors sought to determine the effects of 2 different doses of recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) on endotoxin-induced coagulant, fibrinolytic, and cytokine responses in healthy humans. Two groups, each consisting of 8 healthy men, were studied in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. Subjects were studied on 2 different occasions. They received a bolus intravenous injection of 4 ng/kg endotoxin, which was followed by a 6-hour continuous infusion of TFPI or placebo. Eight subjects received 0.05 mg/kg per hour TFPI after a bolus of 0.0125 mg/kg (low-dose group), and 8 subjects received 0.2 mg/kg per hour after a bolus of 0.05 mg/kg (high-dose group). Endotoxin injection induced the activation of coagulation, the activation and subsequent inhibition of fibrinolysis, and the release of proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokines. TFPI infusion induced a dose-dependent attenuation of thrombin generation, as measured by plasma F1 + 2 and thrombin-antithrombin complexes, with a complete blockade of coagulation activation after high-dose TFPI. Endotoxin-induced changes in the fibrinolytic system and cytokine levels were not altered by either low-dose or high-dose TFPI. The authors concluded that TFPI effectively and dose-dependently attenuates the endotoxin-induced coagulation activation in humans without influencing the fibrinolytic and cytokine response. (Blood. 2000;95:1124-1129)

  7. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitor therapy in ankylosing spondylitis: differential effects on pain and fatigue and brain correlates.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Inman, Robert D; Davis, Karen D

    2015-02-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is associated with back pain and fatigue and impacts mobility but can be treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi). The differential effects of TNFi treatment on multiple symptoms and the brain is not well delineated. Thus, we conducted a 2-part study. In study 1, we conducted a retrospective chart review in 129 ankylosing spondylitis patients to assess TNFi effects on pain, fatigue, motor function, mobility, and quality of life (QoL). After at least 10 weeks of TNFi treatment, patients had clinically significant improvements (>30%) in pain (including neuropathic pain), most disease and QoL factors, and normalized sensory detection thresholds. However, residual fatigue (mean = 5.3) was prominent. Although 60% of patients had significant relief of pain, only 22% of patients had significant relief of both pain and fatigue. Therefore, the preferential TNFi treatment effect on pain compared with fatigue could contribute to suboptimal effects on QoL. Part 2 was a prospective study in 14 patients to identify TNFi treatment effects on pain, fatigue, sensory and psychological factors, and brain cortical thickness based on 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Centrally, TNFi was associated with statistically significant cortical thinning of motor, premotor, and posterior parietal regions. Pain intensity reduction was associated with cortical thinning of the secondary somatosensory cortex, and pain unpleasantness reduction was associated with the cortical thinning of motor areas. In contrast, fatigue reduction correlated with cortical thinning of the insula, primary sensory cortex/inferior parietal sulcus, and superior temporal polysensory areas. This indicates that TNFi treatment produces changes in brain areas implicated in sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive functions.

  8. Transforming growth factor beta 1-responsive element: closely associated binding sites for USF and CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I in the type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, A; Pedone, P V; Lund, L R; Olesen, T; Olsen, H S; Andreasen, P A

    1992-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is the name of a group of closely related polypeptides characterized by a multiplicity of effects, including regulation of extracellular proteolysis and turnover of the extracellular matrix. Its cellular mechanism of action is largely unknown. TGF-beta 1 is a strong and fast inducer of type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene transcription. We have identified a TGF-beta 1-responsive element in the 5'-flanking region of the human type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor gene and shown that it is functional both in its natural context and when fused to a heterologous nonresponsive promoter. Footprinting and gel retardation experiments showed that two different nuclear factors, present in extracts from both TGF-beta 1-treated and nontreated cells, bind to adjacent sequences contained in the responsive unit. A palindromic sequence binds a trans-acting factor(s) of the CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I family. A partially overlapping dyad symmetry interacts with a second protein that much evidence indicates to be USF. USF is a transactivator belonging to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. Mutations which abolish the binding of either CCAAT-binding transcription factor-nuclear factor I or USF result in reduction of transcriptional activation upon exposure to TGF-beta 1, thus showing that both elements of the unit are necessary for the TGF-beta 1 response. We discuss the possible relationship of these findings to the complexity of the TGF-beta action. Images PMID:1549130

  9. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them.

  10. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; Della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-07-28

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them. PMID:27605871

  11. Eugenol: a dual inhibitor of platelet-activating factor and arachidonic acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Saeed, S A; Simjee, R U; Shamim, G; Gilani, A H

    1995-07-01

    Eugenol is an active principal and responsible for several pharmacological activities of clove oil. We studied the effects of eugenol on human platelet aggregation, arachidonic acid (AA) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) metabolism and in vivo effects on AA and PAF-induced shock in rabbits. Eugenol strongly inhibited PAF-induced platelet aggregation with lesser effect against AA and collegen. The IC(50) values were against AA: 31 ± 0.5; collagen: 64 ± 0.7 and PAF 7 ± 0.2 μM (n=9) respectively. In addition, eugenol stimulated PAF-acetylhydrolase activity suggesting that inhibition of PAF could be due to its inactivation to lyso-PAF. Pretreatment of rabbits with eugenol (50-100 mg/kg) prevented the lethal effects of intravenous PAF (11 μgg/kg) or AA (2 mg/kg) in a dose-dependent fashion. The protective effects of eugenol in the rabbits, however, were more pronounced against PAF-induced mortality (100% protection). In addition, eugenol also inhibited AA metabolism via cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways in human platelets. Both the production of thromboxane-A(2) and 12-hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid was inhibited by eugenol in a concentration-related manner (30-120 μM). In vivo, eugenol (50-100 mg/kg; i.p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema (P < 0.001). In this test, eugenol was 5 times more potent than aspirin. These results provide evidence that eugenol acts as a dual antagonist of AA and PAF. PMID:23196096

  12. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; Della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-07-28

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them.

  13. Mechanisms of resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sforza, Vincenzo; Martinelli, Erika; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Gambardella, Valentina; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; della Corte, Carminia; Cardone, Claudia; Ferrara, Marianna L; Reginelli, Alfonso; Liguori, Giuseppina; Belli, Giulio; Troiani, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) remain poor despite the impressive improvement of treatments observed over the last 20 years that led to an increase in median overall survival from 6 mo, with the only best supportive care, to approximately 30 mo with the introduction of active chemotherapy drugs and targeted agents. The monoclonal antibodies (moAbs) cetuximab and panitumumab, directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), undoubtedly represent a major step forward in the treatment of mCRC, given the relevant efficacy in terms of progression-free survival, overall survival, response rate, and quality of life observed in several phase III clinical trials among different lines of treatment. However, the anti-EGFR moAbs were shown only to be effective in a subset of patients. For instance, KRAS and NRAS mutations have been identified as biomarkers of resistance to these drugs, improving the selection of patients who might derive a benefit from these treatments. Nevertheless, several other alterations might affect the response to these drugs, and unfortunately, even the responders eventually become resistant by developing secondary (or acquired) resistance in approximately 13-18 mo. Several studies highlighted that the landscape of responsible alterations of both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR drugs biochemically converge into MEK-ERK and PIK3CA-AKT pathways. In this review, we describe the currently known mechanisms of primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR moAbs together with the various strategies evaluated to prevent, overcame or revert them. PMID:27605871

  14. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

    2004-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition

  15. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Domenis, Rossana; Bisetto, Elena; Rossi, Davide; Comelli, Marina; Mavelli, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis) or “negative” (silencing) mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1). Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation. PMID:22408432

  16. Cinnamide Derivatives of d‐Mannose as Inhibitors of the Bacterial Virulence Factor LecB from Pseudomonas aeruginosa †

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Roman; Hauck, Dirk; Varrot, Annabelle; Wagner, Stefanie; Audfray, Aymeric; Prestel, Andreas; Möller, Heiko M.; Imberty, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram‐negative pathogen with high antibiotic resistance. Its lectin LecB was identified as a virulence factor and is relevant in bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Inhibition of LecB with carbohydrate‐based ligands results in a decrease in toxicity and biofilm formation. We recently discovered two classes of potent drug‐like glycomimetic inhibitors, that is, sulfonamides and cinnamides of d‐mannose. Here, we describe the chemical synthesis and biochemical evaluation of more than 20 derivatives with increased potency compared to the unsubstituted cinnamide. The structure–activity relationship (SAR) obtained and the extended biophysical characterization allowed the experimental determination of the binding mode of these cinnamides with LecB. The established surface binding mode now allows future rational structure‐based drug design. Importantly, all glycomimetics tested showed extended receptor residence times with half‐lives in the 5–20 min range, a prerequisite for therapeutic application. Thus, the glycomimetics described here provide an excellent basis for future development of anti‐infectives against this multidrug‐resistant pathogen. PMID:27308201

  17. The next generation of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Conor E; Khuri, Fadlo R; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2015-04-15

    The discovery of "driver" genomic alterations in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has dramatically changed the field of thoracic oncology in recent years. The best understood of these molecular drivers are those involving the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which when aberrantly activated are integral to the development of a subset of NSCLC tumors. First-generation and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) specific to the activated EGFR have shown significant efficacy and have brought about the era of targeted therapy for NSCLC. The most common resistance mechanism is a threonine-to-methionine substitution (T790M) in exon 20 of the EGFR gene. Although the previous standard of care in patients with EGFR-mutated NSCLC that progressed on initial TKI therapy was chemotherapy, third-generation EGFR TKIs have now been developed and have yielded promising results for this population of patients with NSCLC. This article reviews the emerging data regarding third-generation agents in the treatment of patients with advanced NSCLC.

  18. Protective Effects of the Nuclear Factor Kappa B Inhibitor Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate on Experimental Testicular Torsion and Detorsion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ozden, Hilmi; Guven, Gul; Burukoglu, Dilek; Ustuner, Mehmet Cengiz; Topal, Fatma; Gunes, Hasan Veysi; Ustuner, Derya; Ozbayer, Cansu

    2014-01-01

    Testicular torsion results with the damage of the testis and it is a surgical emergency. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) is a low-molecular-weight antioxidant and potent inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of PDTC to testicular torsion-detorsion (T/D) injury. Forty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups. A sham operation was performed in group I. In group II, torsion is performed 2 hours by 720 degree extravaginally testis. In group III, 4 h reperfusion of the testis was performed after 2 h of testicular torsion. In group IV, after performing the same surgical procedures as in group III, PDTC (100 mg/kg, intravenous's) was administered before 30 min of detorsion. The testes tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) level was evaluated. Histological evaluations were performed after hematoxylin and eosin staining. Testicular tissue MDA levels were the highest in the T/D groups compared with treatment group. Administration of PDTC prevented a further increase in MDA levels. Significant decrease occurred in CAT and SOD levels in treatment group compared with the control group. The rats in the treatment group had normal testicular architecture. The results suggest that PDTC can be a potential protective agent for preventing the biochemical and histological changes related to oxidative stress in testicular injury caused by testis torsion. PMID:25177164

  19. The Coagulation Factor XIIa Inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 Improves Outcome after Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krupka, Jennifer; May, Frauke; Weimer, Thomas; Pragst, Ingo; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Stoll, Guido; Panousis, Con; Dickneite, Gerhard; Nolte, Marc W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ischemic stroke provokes severe brain damage and remains a predominant disease in industrialized countries. The coagulation factor XII (FXII)-driven contact activation system plays a central, but not yet fully defined pathogenic role in stroke development. Here, we investigated the efficacy of the FXIIa inhibitor rHA-Infestin-4 in a rat model of ischemic stroke using both a prophylactic and a therapeutic approach. Methods For prophylactic treatment, animals were treated intravenously with 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4 or an equal volume of saline 15 min prior to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) of 90 min. For therapeutic treatment, 100 mg/kg rHA-Infestin-4, or an equal volume of saline, was administered directly after the start of reperfusion. At 24 h after tMCAO, rats were tested for neurological deficits and blood was drawn for coagulation assays. Finally, brains were removed and analyzed for infarct area and edema formation. Results Within prophylactic rHA-Infestin-4 treatment, infarct areas and brain edema formation were reduced accompanied by better neurological scores and survival compared to controls. Following therapeutic treatment, neurological outcome and survival were still improved although overall effects were less pronounced compared to prophylaxis. Conclusions With regard to the central role of the FXII-driven contact activation system in ischemic stroke, inhibition of FXIIa may represent a new and promising treatment approach to prevent cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:26815580

  20. Stimulation of mammalian translation initiation factor eIF4A activity by a small molecule inhibitor of eukaryotic translation

    PubMed Central

    Bordeleau, Marie-Eve; Matthews, James; Wojnar, Joanna M.; Lindqvist, Lisa; Novac, Olivia; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Sonenberg, Nahum; Northcote, Peter; Teesdale-Spittle, Paul; Pelletier, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    RNA helicases are the largest group of enzymes in eukaryotic RNA metabolism. The DEXD/H-box putative RNA helicases form the helicase superfamily II, whose members are defined by seven highly conserved amino acid motifs, making specific targeting of selected members a challenging pharmacological problem. The translation initiation factor eIF4A is the prototypical DEAD-box RNA helicase that works in conjunction with eIF4B and eIF4H and as a subunit of eIF4F to prepare the mRNA template for ribosome binding, possibly by unwinding the secondary structure proximal to the 5′ m7GpppN cap structure. We report the identification and characterization of a small molecule inhibitor of eukaryotic translation initiation that acts in an unusual manner by stimulating eIF4A-associated activities. Our results suggest that proper control of eIF4A helicase activity is necessary for efficient ribosome binding and demonstrate the feasibility of selectively targeting DEAD-box RNA helicases with small molecules. PMID:16030146

  1. The intron-22-inverted F8 locus permits factor VIII synthesis: explanation for low inhibitor risk and a role for pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Sauna, Zuben E; Lozier, Jay N; Kasper, Carol K; Yanover, Chen; Nichols, Timothy; Howard, Tom E

    2015-01-01

    Intron-22-inversion patients express the entire Factor VIII (FVIII)-amino-acid sequence intracellularly as 2 non-secreted polypeptides and have a positive "intracellular (I)-FVIII-CRM" status. Mutations conferring a positive I-FVIII-CRM status are associated with low inhibitor risk and are pharmacogenetically relevant because inhibitor risk may be affected by the nature of the therapeutic FVIII-protein (tFVIII), the affinity of any tFVIII-derived foreign peptide (tFVIII-fp) for any HLA class-II isomer (HLA-II) comprising individual major histocompatibility complex (MHC) repertoires, and the stability of any tFVIII-fp/HLA-II complex. We hypothesize that mutations conferring a completely or substantially negative I-FVIII-CRM status are pharmacogenetically irrelevant because inhibitor risk is high with any tFVIII and individual MHC repertoire.

  2. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones: A Novel Class of Antiinflammatory Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor Inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hui; Hutta, Daniel A.; Rinker, James M.; Hu, Huaping; Parsons, William H.; Schubert, Carsten; DesJarlais, Renee L.; Crysler, Carl S.; Chaikin, Margery A.; Donatelli, Robert R.; Chen, Yanmin; Cheng, Deping; Zhou, Zhao; Yurkow, Edward; Manthey, Carl L.; Player, Mark R.

    2010-10-01

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones has been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the kinase domain of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (FMS). FMS inhibitors may be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Structure-based optimization of the lead amide analogue 10 led to hydroxamate analogue 37, which possessed excellent potency and an improved pharmacokinetic profile. During the chronic phase of streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis in rats, compound 37 (10, 3, and 1 mg/kg) was highly effective at reversing established joint swelling. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats, 37 prevented joint swelling partially at 10 mg/kg. In this model, osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion were prevented by low doses (1 or 0.33 mg/kg) that had minimal impact on inflammation. These data underscore the potential of FMS inhibitors to prevent erosions and reduce symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones: a novel class of antiinflammatory macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Hutta, Daniel A; Rinker, James M; Hu, Huaping; Parsons, William H; Schubert, Carsten; DesJarlais, Renee L; Crysler, Carl S; Chaikin, Margery A; Donatelli, Robert R; Chen, Yanmin; Cheng, Deping; Zhou, Zhao; Yurkow, Edward; Manthey, Carl L; Player, Mark R

    2009-02-26

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ones has been synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of the kinase domain of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (FMS). FMS inhibitors may be useful in treating rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Structure-based optimization of the lead amide analogue 10 led to hydroxamate analogue 37, which possessed excellent potency and an improved pharmacokinetic profile. During the chronic phase of streptococcal cell wall-induced arthritis in rats, compound 37 (10, 3, and 1 mg/kg) was highly effective at reversing established joint swelling. In an adjuvant-induced arthritis model in rats, 37 prevented joint swelling partially at 10 mg/kg. In this model, osteoclastogenesis and bone erosion were prevented by low doses (1 or 0.33 mg/kg) that had minimal impact on inflammation. These data underscore the potential of FMS inhibitors to prevent erosions and reduce symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis.

  4. Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors activate the heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) stress response pathway and improve glucose regulation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Hyung; Gao, Jiaping; Kosinski, Penelope A; Elliman, Stephen J; Hughes, Thomas E; Gromada, Jesper; Kemp, Daniel M

    2013-01-18

    The cytoprotective stress response factor HSF1 regulates the transcription of the chaperone HSP70, which exhibits anti-inflammatory effects and improves insulin sensitivity. We tested the therapeutic potential of this pathway in rodent models of diabetes using pharmacological tools. Activation of the HSF1 pathway was achieved using potent inhibitors of the upstream regulatory protein, HSP90. Treatment with AUY922, a selective HSP90 inhibitor led to robust inhibition of JNK1 phosphorylation, cytoprotection and improved insulin signaling in cells, consistent with effects observed with HSP70 treatment. Chronic dosing with HSP90 inhibitors reversed hyperglycemia in the diabetic db/db mouse model, and improved insulin sensitivity in the diet-induced obese mouse model of insulin resistance, further supporting the concept that the HSF1 pathway is a potentially viable anti-diabetes target. PMID:23261432

  5. The selective hypoxia inducible factor-1 inhibitor PX-478 provides in vivo radiosensitization through tumor stromal effects

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, David L.; Powis, Garth; Thitai-Kumar, Arun; He, Yi; Bankson, James; Williams, Ryan; Lemos, Robert; Oh, Junghwan; Volgin, Andrei; Soghomonyan, Suren; Nishii, Ryuichi; Alauddin, Mian; Mukhopadhay, Uday; Peng, Zhenghong; Bornmann, William; Gelovani, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) promotes tumor cell adaptation to microenvironmental stress. HIF-1 is up-regulated in irradiated tumors and serves as a promising target for radiosensitization. We initially confirmed that the orally bioavailable HIF-1 inhibitor PX-478 reduces HIF-1 protein levels and signaling in vitro in a dose-dependent manner and provides direct radiosensitization of hypoxic cancer cells in clonogenic survival assays using C6 glioma, HN5 and UMSCCa10 squamous cells, and Panc-1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines. However, PX-478 yields striking in vivo tumor sensitization to single-dose irradiation, which cannot be explained by incremental improvement in direct tumor cell killing. We show that PX-478 prevents postradiation HIF-1 signaling and abrogates downstream stromal adaptation in C6 and HN5 reporter xenografts as measured by serial ultrasound, vascular magnetic resonance imaging, and hypoxia response element–specific micro–positron emission tomography imaging. The primacy of indirect PX-478 in vivo effects was corroborated by our findings that (a) either concurrent or early postradiation sequencing of PX-478 provides roughly equivalent sensitization and (b) constitutive vascular endothelial growth factor expression maintains refractory tumor vessel function and progression following combined radiation and PX-478. These results confirm that disruption of postradiation adaptive HIF-1 signaling by PX-478 imparts increased therapeutic efficacy through blockade of HIF-1–dependent reconstitution of tumor stromal function. Successful translation of targeted HIF-1 radiosensitization to the clinical setting will require specific consideration of tumor microenvironmental effects and mechanisms. PMID:19372568

  6. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance the Apoptotic Activity of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 by Blocking PKC-Induced IGFBP-3 Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung Hyun; Whang, Young Mi; Min, Hye-Young; Han, Seung Ho; Kang, Ju-Hee; Song, Ki-Hoon; Glisson, Bonnie S.; Kim, Yeul Hong; Lee, Ho-Young

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 induces apoptosis of cancer cells. However, preexisting resistance to IGFBP-3 could limit its antitumor activities. This study characterizes the efficacy and mechanism of the combination of recombinant IGFBP-3 (rIGFBP-3) and HDAC inhibitors to overcome IGFBP-3 resistance in a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. The effects of the combination of rIGFBP-3 and a number of HDAC inhibitors on cell proliferation and apoptosis were assessed in vitro and in vivo by using the MTT assay, a flow cytometry-based TUNEL assay, western blot analyses, and the NSCLC xenograft tumor model. Combined treatment with HDAC inhibitors and rIGFBP-3 had synergistic antiproliferative effects accompanied by increased apoptosis rates in a subset of NSCLC and HNSCC cell lines in vitro. Moreover, combined treatment with depsipeptide and rIGFBP-3 completely suppressed tumor growth and increased the apoptosis rate in vivo in H1299 NSCLC xenografts. Evidence suggests that HDAC inhibitors increased the half-life of rIGFBP-3 protein by blocking protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of rIGFBP-3. In addition, combined treatment of IGFBP-3 with an HDAC inhibitor facilitates apoptosis through up-regulation of rIGFBP-3 stability and Akt signaling inhibition. The ability of HDAC inhibitors to decrease PKC activation may enhance apoptotic activities of rIGFBP-3 in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. These results indicated that combined treatment with HDAC inhibitor and rIGFBP-3 could be an effective treatment strategy for NSCLC and HNSCC with highly activated PKC. PMID:22362554

  7. PK10453, a nonselective platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor, prevents the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signaling pathway has been found to be activated in human pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in animal models of the disease. Our study tested the hypothesis that a novel, nonselective inhaled PDGF receptor inhibitor, PK10453, would decrease pulmonary hypertension both in the rat monocrotaline (MCT) model and the rat MCT plus pneumonectomy (MCT+PN) model of PAH. PK10453, delivered by inhalation for 4 (D4)- and 8 (D8)-minute exposures 3 times a day for 2 weeks, decreased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) in both the rat MCT and rat MCT+PN models: RVSP was 80.4 ± 2.6 mmHg in the vehicle MCT group (n = 6), 44.4 ± 5.8 mmHg in the D4 MCT group (n = 6), and 37.1 ± 4.5 mmHg in the D8 MCT group (n = 5; P < 0.001 vs. vehicle); RVSP was 75.7 ± 7.1 mmHg in the vehicle MCT+PN group (n = 9), 40.4 ± 2.7 mmHg in the D4 MCT+PN group (n = 10), and 43.0 ± 3.0 mmHg in the D8 MCT+PN group (n = 8; P < 0.001). In the rat MCT+PN model, continuous telemetry monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures also demonstrated that PK10453 prevented the progression of PAH. Imatinib given by inhalation was equally effective in the MCT model but was not effective in the MCT+PN model. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated increased activation of the PDGFβ receptor compared to the PDGFα receptor in neointimal and perivascular lesions found in the MCT+PN model. We show that imatinib is selective for the PDGFα receptor, whereas PK10453 has a lower half-maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) for inhibition of kinase activity of both the PDGFα and PDGFβ receptors compared to imatinib. In conclusion, PK10453, when delivered by inhalation, significantly decreased the progression of PAH in the rat MCT and MCT+PN models. Nonselective inhibition of both the PDGFα and PDGFβ receptors may have a therapeutic advantage over selective PDGFα receptor inhibition in PAH. PMID:25006424

  8. Dose Optimization for Single Intradiscal Administration of the Tumor Necrosis FactorInhibitor, Etanercept, in Rat Disc Injury Models

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Go; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Experimental animal study. Purpose We aimed to determine the optimal dose of a single direct injection of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α inhibitor, etanercept, by using the rat model of degenerative intervertebral disc from injury. Overview of Literature The pain-related peptide expression was suppressed in the etanercept (100 µg and 1,000 µg)-administered groups in a dose-dependent manner. Methods The neurotracer FluoroGold (FG) was applied to the surfaces of L4/5 discs to label their innervating dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (n=50). Ten rats were included in the nonpunctured disc sham surgery control group, whereas the other 40 were included in the experimental group in which intervertebral discs were punctured with a 23-gauge needle. Saline or etanercept (10 µg, 100 µg, or 1,000 µg) was injected into the punctured discs (n=10 for each treatment). After 14 days of surgery, DRGs from L1 to L6 were harvested, sectioned, and immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). The proportion of FG-labeled CGRP-immunoreactive DRG neurons was evaluated in all the groups. Results There were no significant differences between the puncture+saline group and the puncture+10-µg etanercept group (p >0.05). However, a significant decrease in the percentage of FG and CGRP double-positive cells in FG-positive cells was observed in the etanercept (100 µg and 1,000 µg)-administered groups in a dose-dependent manner (p <0.05). Conclusions When a low dose of the TNF-α inhibitor (10 µg of etanercept) was directly administered to the rat intervertebral disc in the rat model of degenerative intervertebral disc from injury, no suppressive effect on the pain-related peptide expression was observed. However, when a higher dose of etanercept (100 µg and 1,000 µg) was administered, the pain-related peptide expression was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27559439

  9. Novel interactions of large P3 moiety and small P4 moiety in the binding of the peptide mimetic factor VIIa inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kadono, Shojiro; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Kikuchi, Yasufumi; Oh-Eda, Masayoshi; Yabuta, Naohiro; Yoshihashi, Kazutaka; Kitazawa, Takehisa; Suzuki, Tsukasa; Koga, Takaki; Hattori, Kunihiro; Shiraishi, Takuya; Haramura, Masayuki; Kodama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yoshiyuki; Esaki, Toru; Sato, Haruhiko; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Itoh, Susumu; Ohta, Masateru; Kozono, Toshiro

    2005-01-28

    Selective factor VIIa-tissue factor complex (FVIIa/TF) inhibition is seen as a promising target for developing new anticoagulant drugs. A novel peptide mimetic factor VIIa inhibitor, ethylsulfonamide-d-biphenylalanine-Gln-p-aminobenzamidine, shows 100-fold selectivity against thrombin in spite of its large P3 moiety, unlike previously reported FVIIa/TF selective inhibitors. X-ray crystal structure analysis reveals that the large P3 moiety, d-biphenylalanine, and the small P4 moiety, ethylsulfonamide, make novel interactions with the 170-loop and Lys192 of FVIIa/TF, respectively, accompanying ligand-induced conformational changes of the 170-loop, Gln217, and Lys192. Structural comparisons of FVIIa with thrombin and amino acid sequence comparisons among coagulation serine proteases suggest that these interactions play an important role in achieving selective inhibition for FVIIa/TF. PMID:15607748

  10. Discovery of Selective and Noncovalent Diaminopyrimidine-Based Inhibitors of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Containing the T790M Resistance Mutation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Activating mutations within the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain, commonly L858R or deletions within exon 19, increase EGFR-driven cell proliferation and survival and are correlated with impressive responses to the EGFR inhibitors erlotinib and gefitinib in nonsmall cell lung cancer patients. Approximately 60% of acquired resistance to these agents is driven by a single secondary mutation within the EGFR kinase domain, specifically substitution of the gatekeeper residue threonine-790 with methionine (T790M). Due to dose-limiting toxicities associated with inhibition of wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR), we sought inhibitors of T790M-containing EGFR mutants with selectivity over wtEGFR. We describe the evolution of HTS hits derived from Jak2/Tyk2 inhibitors into selective EGFR inhibitors. X-ray crystal structures revealed two distinct binding modes and enabled the design of a selective series of novel diaminopyrimidine-based inhibitors with good potency against T790M-containing mutants of EGFR, high selectivity over wtEGFR, broad kinase selectivity, and desirable physicochemical properties. PMID:25383627

  11. Rational design of small-molecule inhibitors for β-catenin/T-cell factor protein-protein interactions by bioisostere replacement.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binxun; Huang, Zheng; Zhang, Min; Dillard, Darren R; Ji, Haitao

    2013-03-15

    A new hot spot-based design strategy using bioisostere replacement is reported to rationally design nonpeptidic small-molecule inhibitors for protein-protein interactions. This method is applied to design new potent inhibitors for β-catenin/T-cell factor (Tcf) interactions. Three hot spot regions of Tcf for binding to β-catenin were quantitatively evaluated; the key binding elements around K435 and K508 of β-catenin were derived; a bioisostere library was used to generate new fragments that can match the proposed critical binding elements. The most potent inhibitor, with a molecular weight of 230, has a Kd of 0.531 μM for binding to β-catenin and a Ki of 3.14 μM to completely disrupt β-catenin/Tcf interactions. The binding mode of the designed inhibitors was validated by the site-directed mutagenesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies. This study provides a new approach to design new small-molecule inhibitors that bind to β-catenin and effectively disrupt β-catenin/Tcf interactions specific for canonical Wnt signaling. PMID:23272635

  12. Development and evaluation of PEGylated Enoxaparin: a novel approach for enhanced anti-Xa activity.

    PubMed

    Choubey, Anupam Kumar; Dora, Chander Parkash; Bhatt, Tara Dutt; Gill, Manjinder Singh; Suresh, Sarasija

    2014-06-01

    Enoxaparin (ENX) is one of the most widely prescribed low molecular weight heparin inprophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism. In this study, Enoxaparin-PEG conjugate (P-ENX) was synthesized from Enoxaparin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) and evaluated for its potential for extended duration of action. The esterification of the carboxyl groups of the drug moiety with the hydroxyl groups of mPEG-2000 was done by employing carbodiimide coupling chemistry. P-ENX conjugate was purified by dialysis and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton-Nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass analysis techniques. FTIR analysis revealed frequency of the carbonyl group in accord with ester linkage formation between the drug and the PEG moiety. (1)H NMR of the conjugate showed significant change in the chemical shift further indicative of ENX and PEG chemical interaction. In MALDI spectra, small peaks at 12,907 and 16,137 m/z confirmed the probability of conjugation of ENX and PEG. P-ENX exhibited considerable enhancement in anti-Xa activity (by three-folds) in comparison to free ENX. Further, an increase in AUC (over four-folds) was observed in P-ENX. Thus, PEGylation of ENX is a novel approach for extended and enhanced activity of ENX with a potential for decreased dosing frequency. PMID:24681308

  13. Activation of factor X by rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, A.K.; Matschiner, J.T.

    1986-05-01

    Synthesis and secretion of blood coagulation factor X was studied in hepatocytes prepared by perfusion of rat livers with collagenase. Hepatocytes were incubated in the presence of vitamin K and /sup 3/H-leucine for up to 4h at 37/sup 0/C. Factor X was isolated from the incubation medium by immunochemical techniques and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The recovered /sup 3/H-labeled proteins migrated, after reduction of disulfides, as two polypeptide chains with apparent molecular weights (M/sub r/) of approximately 42,000 and 22,000 representing the heavy and light chains of factor X respectively. The apparent M/sub r/ of the heavy chain was about 10,000 daltons lighter than seen with the heavy chain of factor X isolated from rat plasma and was more characteristic of the heavy chain of factor Xa. When the levels of factor X secreted by hepatocytes were determined by clotting assays, activity was present as factor Xa. Also, when purified plasma factor X was added to incubations of hepatocytes (>95% parenchymal cells) the added factor X was rapidly converted to factor Xa. Plasma membranes prepared from isolated hepatocytes or from liver homogenates contained an enzyme that converted factor X to factor Xa in a calcium dependent reaction. The physiological significance of a factor X activating enzyme on hepatocyte plasma membranes is not clear.

  14. The broadly effective recessive resistance gene xa5 of rice is a virulence effector-dependent quantitative trait for bacterial blight.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng; Antony, Ginny; Li, Ting; Liu, Bo; Obasa, Ken; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in disease susceptibility (S) genes, here referred to as recessive resistance genes, have promise for providing broad durable resistance in crop species. However, few recessive disease resistance genes have been characterized. Here, we show that the broadly effective resistance gene xa5,for resistance to bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa), is dependent on the effector genes present in the pathogen. Specifically, the effectiveness of xa5 in preventing disease by strains of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae is dependent on major transcription activation-like (TAL) effector genes, and correlates with reduced expression of the cognate S genes. xa5 is ineffective in preventing disease by strains containing the TAL effector gene pthXo1, which directs robust expression of the S gene OsSWEET11, a member of sucrose transporter gene family. Incompatibility is associated with major TAL effectors that target the known alternative S genes OsSWEET14 and OsSWEET13. Incompatibility is defeated by transfer of pthXo1 to otherwise xa5-incompatible strains or by engineering a synthetic designer TAL effector to boost SWEET gene expression. In either case, compatible or incompatible, target gene expression and lesion formation are reduced in the presence of xa5. The results indicate that xa5 functions as a quantitative trait locus, dampening effector function, and, regardless of compatibility, target gene expression. Resistance is hypothesized to occur when S gene expression, and, by inference, sucrose leakage, falls below a threshold level.

  15. Combined Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Blockade Inhibits Tumor Growth in Xenograft Models of EGFR Inhibitor Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Naumov, George N.; Nilsson, Monique B.; Cascone, Tina; Briggs, Alexandra; Straume, Oddbjorn; Akslen, Lars A.; Lifshits, Eugene; Byers, Lauren Averett; Xu, Li; Wu, Hua-kang; Jänne, Pasi; Kobayashi, Susumu; Halmos, Balazs; Tenen, Daniel; Tang, Xi M.; Engelman, Jeffrey; Yeap, Beow; Folkman, Judah; Johnson, Bruce E.; Heymach, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) gefitinib and erlotinib benefit some non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but most do not respond (primary resistance) and those who initially respond eventually progress (acquired resistance). EGFR TKI resistance is not completely understood and has been associated with certain EGFR and K-RAS mutations and MET amplification. Experimental Design We hypothesized that dual inhibition of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and EGFR pathways may overcome primary and acquired resistance. We investigated the VEGF receptor/EGFR TKI vandetanib, and the combination of bevacizumab and erlotinib in vivo using xenograft models of EGFR TKI sensitivity, primary resistance, and three models of acquired resistance, including models with mutated K-RAS and secondary EGFR T790M mutation. Results Vandetanib, gefitinib, and erlotinib had similar profiles of in vitro activity and caused sustained tumor regressions in vivo in the sensitive HCC827 model. In all four resistant models, vandetanib and bevacizumab/erlotinib were significantly more effective than erlotinib or gefitinib alone. Erlotinib resistance was associated with a rise in both host and tumor-derived VEGF but not EGFR secondary mutations in the KRAS mutant-bearing A549 xenografts. Dual inhibition reduced tumor endothelial proliferation compared with VEGF or EGFR blockade alone, suggesting that the enhanced activity of dual inhibition is due at least in part to antiendothelial effects. Conclusion These studies suggest that erlotinib resistance may be associated with a rise in both tumor cell and host stromal VEGF and that combined blockade of the VEGFR and EGFR pathways can abrogate primary or acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs. This approach merits further evaluation in NSCLC patients. PMID:19447865

  16. Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Alessandro; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Falasconi, Fabiano; De Feo, Gianfranco; Del Giudice, Antonia; Bryce, Jane; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Normanno, Nicola; Perrone, Francesco

    2009-04-01

    Vandetanib is a novel, orally available inhibitor of different intracellular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and REarranged during Transfection tyrosine kinase activity. Phase I clinical trials have shown that vandetanib is well tolerated as a single agent at daily doses < or =300 mg. In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma. In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy. Rash, diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, and asymptomatic QTc prolongation were the most common adverse events. Antitumor activity was also observed in medullary thyroid cancer. Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials. Based on a press release by the sponsor of these trials, the PFS time was longer with vandetanib in the ZODIAC and ZEAL trials; the ZEST trial was negative for its primary superiority analysis, but was successful according to a preplanned noninferiority analysis of PFS. Ongoing phase II and III clinical trials will better define the appropriate schedule, the optimal setting of evaluation, and the safety of long-term use of vandetanib.

  17. Vandetanib (ZD6474), a dual inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Alessandro; Piccirillo, Maria Carmela; Falasconi, Fabiano; De Feo, Gianfranco; Del Giudice, Antonia; Bryce, Jane; Di Maio, Massimo; De Maio, Ermelinda; Normanno, Nicola; Perrone, Francesco

    2009-04-01

    Vandetanib is a novel, orally available inhibitor of different intracellular signaling pathways involved in tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis: vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and REarranged during Transfection tyrosine kinase activity. Phase I clinical trials have shown that vandetanib is well tolerated as a single agent at daily doses < or =300 mg. In the phase II setting, negative results were observed with vandetanib in small cell lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and multiple myeloma. In contrast, three randomized phase II studies showed that vandetanib prolonged the progression-free survival (PFS) time of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as a single agent when compared with gefitinib or when added to chemotherapy. Rash, diarrhea, hypertension, fatigue, and asymptomatic QTc prolongation were the most common adverse events. Antitumor activity was also observed in medullary thyroid cancer. Four randomized phase III clinical trials in NSCLC are exploring the efficacy of vandetanib in combination with docetaxel, the Zactima in cOmbination with Docetaxel In non-small cell lung Cancer (ZODIAC) trial, or with pemetrexed, the Zactima Efficacy with Alimta in Lung cancer (ZEAL) trial, or as a single agent, the Zactima Efficacy when Studied versus Tarceva (ZEST) and the Zactima Efficacy trial for NSCLC Patients with History of EGFR-TKI chemo-Resistance (ZEPHYR) trials. Based on a press release by the sponsor of these trials, the PFS time was longer with vandetanib in the ZODIAC and ZEAL trials; the ZEST trial was negative for its primary superiority analysis, but was successful according to a preplanned noninferiority analysis of PFS. Ongoing phase II and III clinical trials will better define the appropriate schedule, the optimal setting of evaluation, and the safety of long-term use of vandetanib. PMID:19349511

  18. The response to epidermal growth factor of human maxillary tumor cells in terms of tumor growth, invasion and expression of proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, H; Komiyama, S; Matsui, K; Hamanaka, R; Ono, M; Kiue, A; Kobayashi, M; Shimizu, N; Welgus, H G; Kuwano, M

    1991-11-11

    Three cancer cell lines, IMC-2, IMC-3 and IMC-4, were established from a single tumor of a patient with maxillary cancer. We examined responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) of these 3 cell lines with regard to cell growth and tumor invasion. The growth rate of IMC-2 in nude mice was markedly faster than that of the IMC-3 and IMC-4 cell lines. Assay for invasion through fibrin gels showed significantly enhanced invasive capacity of IMC-2 cells in response to EGF, but no change for IMC-3 and IMC-4 cells. We examined response to EGF of IMC-2 cells with regard to expression of a growth-related oncogene (c-fos), proteinases and their inhibitors. Expression of c-fos was transiently increased in IMC-2 cells at rates comparable to those seen in the 2 other lines in the presence of EGF. There was no apparent effect of EGF on the expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and 72-kDa type-IV collagenase in IMC-2 cells. In contrast, EGF specifically enhanced the expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor-I (PAI-I) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-I (TIMP-I) in IMC-2 cells. Our data suggest that proteinase inhibitors or other related factors may play an important role in tumor growth and invasion in response to EGF.

  19. Fruit Ripening Regulation of α-Mannosidase Expression by the MADS Box Transcription Factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and Ethylene.

    PubMed

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-01-01

    α-Mannosidase (α-Man), a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site) that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN) was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression. PMID:26834776

  20. A unique binding mode of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E for guiding the design of novel peptide inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Di Marino, Daniele; D'Annessa, Ilda; Tancredi, Holly; Bagni, Claudia; Gallicchio, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) and eIF4E binding proteins (4E-BP) is a promising template for the inhibition of eIF4E and the treatment of diseases such as cancer and a spectrum of autism disorders, including the Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Here, we report an atomically detailed model of the complex between eIF4E and a peptide fragment of a 4E-BP, the cytoplasmic Fragile X interacting protein (CYFIP1). This model was generated using computer simulations with enhanced sampling from an alchemical replica exchange approach and validated using long molecular dynamics simulations. 4E-BP proteins act as post-transcriptional regulators by binding to eIF4E and preventing mRNA translation. Dysregulation of eIF4E activity has been linked to cancer, FXS, and autism spectrum disorders. Therefore, the study of the mechanism of inhibition of eIF4E by 4E-BPs is key to the development of drug therapies targeting this regulatory pathways. The results obtained in this work indicate that CYFIP1 interacts with eIF4E by an unique mode not shared by other 4E-BP proteins and elucidate the mechanism by which CYFIP1 interacts with eIF4E despite having a sequence binding motif significantly different from most 4E-BPs. Our study suggests an alternative strategy for the design of eIF4E inhibitor peptides with superior potency and specificity than currently available.

  1. The Effect of Antenatal Depression and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Treatment on Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Human Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Kaihola, Helena; Olivier, Jocelien; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Åkerud, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Depressive symptoms during pregnancy are common and may have impact on the developing child. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most prescribed antidepressant treatment, but unfortunately, these treatments can also negatively affect the behavioral development and health of a child during pregnancy. In addition, serotonin (5-HT) exerts neurotrophic actions with thus far not fully known effects in the offspring. The neurotrophic growth factor (NGF) is involved in neuronal cell survival and differentiation, and altered placenta levels have been found to increase the risk for pregnancy complications, similar to those found in women treated with SSRIs. We therefore investigated whether the NGF signaling pathway was altered in the placenta from women treated with SSRIs (n = 12) and compared them with placenta from depressed (n = 12) and healthy mothers (n = 12). Results from immunohistochemical stainings revealed that placental NGF protein levels of SSRI-treated women were increased in both trophoblasts and endothelial cells compared with depressed and control women. In addition, downstream of the NGF receptor TrkA, increased levels of the signaling proteins ROCK2 and phosphorylated Raf-1 were found in stromal cells and a tendency towards increased levels of ROCK2 in trophoblasts and endothelial cells in SSRI-treated women when compared to healthy controls. SSRI-treated women also displayed increased levels of phosphorylated ROCK2 in all placental cell types studied in comparison with depressed and control women. Interestingly, in placental endothelial cells from depressed women, NGF levels were significantly lower compared to control women, but ROCK2 levels were increased compared with control and SSRI-treated women. Taken together, these results show that the NGF signaling and downstream pathways in the placenta are affected by SSRI treatment and/or antenatal depression. This might lead to an altered placental function, although the clinical

  2. Amino acid residues in the laminin G domains of protein S involved in tissue factor pathway inhibitor interaction.

    PubMed

    Somajo, Sofia; Ahnström, Josefin; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Gierula, Magdalena; Villoutreix, Bruno O; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2015-05-01

    Protein S functions as a cofactor for tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and activated protein C (APC). The sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG)-like region of protein S, consisting of two laminin G-like domains (LG1 and LG2), contains the binding site for C4b-binding protein (C4BP) and TFPI. Furthermore, the LG-domains are essential for the TFPI-cofactor function and for expression of full APC-cofactor function. The aim of the current study was to localise functionally important interaction sites in the protein S LG-domains using amino acid substitutions. Four protein S variants were created in which clusters of surface-exposed amino acid residues within the LG-domains were substituted. All variants bound normally to C4BP and were fully functional as cofactors for APC in plasma and in pure component assays. Two variants, SHBG2 (E612A, I614A, F265A, V393A, H453A), involving residues from both LG-domains, and SHBG3 (K317A, I330A, V336A, D365A) where residues in LG1 were substituted, showed 50-60 % reduction in enhancement of TFPI in FXa inhibition assays. For SHBG3 the decreased TFPI cofactor function was confirmed in plasma based thrombin generation assays. Both SHBG variants bound to TFPI with decreased affinity in surface plasmon resonance experiments. The TFPI Kunitz 3 domain is known to contain the interaction site for protein S. Using in silico analysis and protein docking exercises, preliminary models of the protein S SHBG/TFPI Kunitz domain 3 complex were created. Based on a combination of experimental and in silico data we propose a binding site for TFPI on protein S, involving both LG-domains.

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor blockade by a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor for human gastrointestinal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Piao, Wenhua; Wang, Yu; Adachi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Li, Rong; Imsumran, Arisa; Li, Hua; Maehata, Tadateru; Ii, Masanori; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Lee, Choon-Taek; Shinomura, Yasuhisa; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh

    2008-06-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of a new tyrosine kinase inhibitor of IGF-IR, NVP-AEW541, on the signal transduction and the progression of GI carcinomas. We assessed the effect of NVP-AEW541 on signal transduction, proliferation, survival, and migration in four GI cancer cells: colorectal adenocarcinoma HT29, pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma TE1, and hepatoma PLC/PRF/5. The effects of NVP-AEW541 alone and with chemotherapy were studied in vitro and in nude mouse xenografts. We also analyzed the effects of NVP-AEW541 on insulin signals and hybrid receptor formation between IGF-IR and insulin receptor. NVP-AEW541 blocked autophosphorylation of IGF-IR and both Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation by IGF but not by insulin. NVP-AEW541 suppressed proliferation and tumorigenicity in vitro in a dose-dependent manner in all cell lines. The drug inhibited tumor as a single agent and, when combined with stressors, up-regulated apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion and inhibited mobility. NVP-AEW541 augmented the effects of chemotherapy on in vitro growth and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of NVP-AEW541 and chemotherapy was highly effective against tumors in mice. This compound did not influence hybrid receptor formation. Thus, NVP-AEW541 may have significant therapeutic utility in human GI carcinomas both alone and in combination with chemotherapy.

  4. Fruit Ripening Regulation of α-Mannosidase Expression by the MADS Box Transcription Factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and Ethylene

    PubMed Central

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Meli, Vijaykumar S.; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2016-01-01

    α-Mannosidase (α-Man), a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site) that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN) was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression. PMID:26834776

  5. 18F-FDG PET/CT for Monitoring Treatment Responses to the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor Erlotinib

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Franziska; Garon, Edward B.; Reckamp, Karen L.; Figlin, Robert; Phelps, Michael E.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Czernin, Johannes; Allen-Auerbach, Martin S.

    2016-01-01

    Response rates of unselected non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib are low and range from 10% to 20%. Early response assessments are needed to avoid costs and side effects of inefficient treatments. Here we determined whether early changes in tumor uptake of 18F-FDG can predict progression-free and overall survival in NSCLC patients who are treated with erlotinib. Methods Twenty-two patients (6 men, 16 women; mean age ± SD, 64 ± 13 y) with stage III or stage IV NSCLC who received erlotinib treatment were enrolled prospectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed before the initiation of treatment (n = 22), after 2 wk (n = 22), and after 78 ± 21 d (n = 11). Tumor maximum standardized uptake values were measured for a maximum of 5 lesions for each patient. Tumor responses were classified using modified PET Response Criteria in Solid Tumors (use of maximum standardized uptake values). Median overall survival by Kaplan–Meier analysis was compared between groups using a log-rank test. Results The overall median time to progression was 52 d (95% confidence interval, 47–57 d). The overall median survival time was 131 d (95% confidence interval, 0–351 d). Patients with progressive metabolic disease on early follow-up PET showed a significantly shorter time to progression (47 vs. 119 d; P < 0.001) and overall survival (87 vs. 828 d; P = 0.01) than patients classified as having stable metabolic disease or partial or complete metabolic response. Conclusion These data suggest that 18F-FDG PET/CT performed early after the start of erlotinib treatment can help to identify patients who benefit from this targeted therapy. PMID:22045706

  6. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors. 15. 4-(Phenylamino)quinazoline and 4-(phenylamino)pyrido[d]pyrimidine acrylamides as irreversible inhibitors of the ATP binding site of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Smaill, J B; Palmer, B D; Rewcastle, G W; Denny, W A; McNamara, D J; Dobrusin, E M; Bridges, A J; Zhou, H; Showalter, H D; Winters, R T; Leopold, W R; Fry, D W; Nelson, J M; Slintak, V; Elliot, W L; Roberts, B J; Vincent, P W; Patmore, S J

    1999-05-20

    A series of 6- and 7-acrylamide derivatives of the 4-(phenylamino)quinazoline and -pyridopyrimidine classes of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors were prepared from the corresponding amino compounds by reaction with either acryloyl chloride/base or acrylic acid/1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. All of the 6-acrylamides, but only the parent quinazoline 7-acrylamide, were irreversible inhibitors of the isolated enzyme, confirming that the former are better-positioned, when bound to the enzyme, to react with the critical cysteine-773. Quinazoline, pyrido[3,4-d]pyrimidine, and pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine 6-acrylamides were all irreversible inhibitors and showed similar high potencies in the enzyme assay (likely due to titration of the available enzyme). However the pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine analogues were 2-6-fold less potent than the others in a cellular autophosphorylation assay for EGFR in A431 cells. The quinazolines were generally less potent overall toward inhibition of heregulin-stimulated autophosphorylation of erbB2 (in MDA-MB-453-cells), whereas the pyridopyrimidines were equipotent. Selected compounds were evaluated in A431 epidermoid and H125 non-small-cell lung cancer human tumor xenografts. The compounds showed better activity when given orally than intraperitoneally. All showed significant tumor growth inhibition (stasis) over a dose range. The poor aqueous solubility of the compounds was a drawback, requiring formulation as fine particulate emulsions.

  7. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

    2004-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition

  8. Systematic Review of the Risk of Adverse Outcomes Associated with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Inhibitors for the Treatment of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Labib Imran; Lin, Meng; Battistella, Marisa; Wiebe, Natasha; Reiman, Tony; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Thomas, Chandra; Tonelli, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Background Anti-angiogenic therapy targeted at vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is now used to treat several types of cancer. We did a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to summarize the adverse effects of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors (VEGFi), focusing on those with vascular pathogenesis. Methods and Findings We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library until April 19, 2012 to identify parallel RCTs comparing a VEGFi with a control among adults with any cancer. We pooled the risk of mortality, vascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and thromboembolism), hypertension and new proteinuria using random-effects models and calculated unadjusted relative risk (RR). We also did meta-regression and assessed publication bias. We retrieved 83 comparisons from 72 studies (n = 38,078) on 11 different VEGFi from 7901 identified citations. The risk of mortality was significantly lower among VEGFi recipients than controls (pooled RR 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 0.98, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0; risk difference 2%). Compared to controls, VEGFi recipients had significantly higher risk of myocardial infarction (MI) (RR 3.54, 95% CI 1.61 to 7.80, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0), arterial thrombotic events (RR 1.80, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.59, I2 = 0%, tau2 = 0); hypertension (RR 3.46, 95% CI 2.89 to 4.15, I2 = 58%, tau2 = 0.16), and new proteinuria (RR 2.51, 95% CI 1.60 to 3.94, I2 = 87%, tau2 = 0.65). The absolute risk difference was 0.8% for MI, 1% for arterial thrombotic events, 15% for hypertension and 12% for new proteinuria. Meta-regression did not suggest any statistically significant modifiers of the association between VEGFi treatment and any of the vascular events. Limitations include heterogeneity across the trials. Conclusions VEGFi increases the risk of MI, hypertension, arterial thromboembolism and proteinuria. The absolute magnitude of the excess risk appears

  9. The role of factor XIa (FXIa) catalytic domain exosite residues in substrate catalysis and inhibition by the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain of protease nexin 2.

    PubMed

    Su, Ya-Chi; Miller, Tara N; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Schoonmaker, Robert T; Sinha, Dipali; Walsh, Peter N

    2011-09-01

    To select residues in coagulation factor XIa (FXIa) potentially important for substrate and inhibitor interactions, we examined the crystal structure of the complex between the catalytic domain of FXIa and the Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of a physiologically relevant FXIa inhibitor, protease nexin 2 (PN2). Six FXIa catalytic domain residues (Glu(98), Tyr(143), Ile(151), Arg(3704), Lys(192), and Tyr(5901)) were subjected to mutational analysis to investigate the molecular interactions between FXIa and the small synthetic substrate (S-2366), the macromolecular substrate (factor IX (FIX)) and inhibitor PN2KPI. Analysis of all six Ala mutants demonstrated normal K(m) values for S-2366 hydrolysis, indicating normal substrate binding compared with plasma FXIa; however, all except E98A and K192A had impaired values of k(cat) for S-2366 hydrolysis. All six Ala mutants displayed deficient k(cat) values for FIX hydrolysis, and all were inhibited by PN2KPI with normal values of K(i) except for K192A, and Y5901A, which displayed increased values of K(i). The integrity of the S1 binding site residue, Asp(189), utilizing p-aminobenzamidine, was intact for all FXIa mutants. Thus, whereas all six residues are essential for catalysis of the macromolecular substrate (FIX), only four (Tyr(143), Ile(151), Arg(3704), and Tyr(5901)) are important for S-2366 hydrolysis; Glu(98) and Lys(192) are essential for FIX but not S-2366 hydrolysis; and Lys(192) and Tyr(5901) are required for both inhibitor and macromolecular substrate interactions. PMID:21778227

  10. Spitzer IRS observations of the XA region in the cygnus loop supernova remnant

    SciTech Connect

    Sankrit, Ravi; Bautista, Manuel; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Long, Knox S.

    2014-05-20

    We report on spectra of two positions in the XA region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant obtained with the InfraRed Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The spectra span the 10-35 μm wavelength range, which contains a number of collisionally excited forbidden lines. These data are supplemented by optical spectra obtained at the Whipple Observatory and an archival UV spectrum from the International Ultraviolet Explorer. Coverage from the UV through the IR provides tests of shock wave models and tight constraints on model parameters. Only lines from high ionization species are detected in the spectrum of a filament on the edge of the remnant. The filament traces a 180 km s{sup –1} shock that has just begun to cool, and the oxygen to neon abundance ratio lies in the normal range found for Galactic H II regions. Lines from both high and low ionization species are detected in the spectrum of the cusp of a shock-cloud interaction, which lies within the remnant boundary. The spectrum of the cusp region is matched by a shock of about 150 km s{sup –1} that has cooled and begun to recombine. The post-shock region has a swept-up column density of about 1.3 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –2}, and the gas has reached a temperature of 7000-8000 K. The spectrum of the Cusp indicates that roughly half of the refractory silicon and iron atoms have been liberated from the grains. Dust emission is not detected at either position.

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of GSK-3β ATP competitive inhibitors: understanding the factors contributing to selectivity.

    PubMed

    Arfeen, Minhajul; Patel, Rahul; Khan, Tosif; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2015-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a constitutively acting, multifunctional serine threonine kinase, the role of which has been implicated in several physiological pathways and has emerged as a promising target for the treatment of type-II diabetes and Alzheimer's disease. In order to provide a detailed understanding of the origin of selectivity determinants of ATP competitive inhibitors, molecular dynamics simulations in combination with MM-PBSA binding energy calculations were performed using crystal structures of GSK-3β and CDK-2 in complex with 12 ATP competitive inhibitors. Analysis of energy contributions indicate that electrostatic interaction energy dictates the selectivity of ATP competitive inhibitors against CDK-2. Key interactions as well as residues that potentially make a major contribution to the binding free energy were identified at the ATP binding site. This analysis stresses the need for the inhibitors to interact with Lys85, Thr138, and Arg141 in the binding site of GSK-3β to show selectivity. The residue-wise energy decomposition analysis further suggested the additional role of Gln185 in determining the selectivity of maleimides. The results obtained in this study can be utilized to design new selective GSK-3 ATP competitive inhibitors.

  12. Limiting the Number of Potential Binding Modes by Introducing Symmetry into Ligands: Structure-Based Design of Inhibitors for Trypsin-Like Serine Proteases.

    PubMed

    Furtmann, Norbert; Häußler, Daniela; Scheidt, Tamara; Stirnberg, Marit; Steinmetzer, Torsten; Bajorath, Jürgen; Gütschow, Michael

    2016-01-11

    In the absence of X-ray data, the exploration of compound binding modes continues to be a challenging task. For structure-based design, specific features of active sites in different targets play a major role in rationalizing ligand binding characteristics. For example, dibasic compounds have been reported as potent inhibitors of various trypsin-like serine proteases, the active sites of which contain several binding pockets that can be targeted by cationic moieties. This results in several possible orientations within the active site, complicating the binding mode prediction of such compounds by docking tools. Therefore, we introduced symmetry in bi- and tribasic compounds to reduce conformational space in docking calculations and to simplify binding mode selection by limiting the number of possible pocket occupations. Asymmetric bisbenzamidines were used as starting points for a multistage and structure-guided optimization. A series of 24 final compounds with either two or three benzamidine substructures was ultimately synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of five serine proteases, leading to potent symmetric inhibitors for the pharmaceutical drug targets matriptase, matriptase-2, thrombin and factor Xa. This study underlines the relevance of ligand symmetry for chemical biology.

  13. The tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 of Sciaenops ocellatus possesses antimicrobial activity and is involved in the immune response against bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Sun, Li

    2011-03-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor 1 (TFPI-1) is a Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that regulates the activation of tissue factor-induced coagulation. In teleosts, TFPI-1-like sequences have been found to exist in two species (Danio rerio and Cyprinus carpio); however, the potential function of fish TFPI-1 has not been investigated. In this study, we identified and analyzed a TFPI-1 homologue, SoTFPI-1, from red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). The deduced amino acid sequence of SoTFPI-1 is 284 residues in length and contains three Kunitz domains, an acidic N-terminus, and a basic C-terminus. SoTFPI-1 shares 49.5% and 46.9% overall sequence identities with the TFPI-1 of D. rerio and C. carpio, respectively. Quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis showed that constitutive SoTFPI-1 expression occurred, in increasing order, in kidney, brain, liver, gill, blood, spleen, muscle, and heart. Bacterial infection and lipopolysaccharide exposure upregulated SoTFPI-1 expression in kidney in time-dependent manners. Recombinant SoTFPI-1 (rSoTFPI-1) purified from Escherichia coli exhibits not only serine protease inhibitor activity but also bactericidal activity in a manner that is independent of any host factors. A synthetic peptide, TO17, corresponding to the C-terminal basic region of SoTFPI-1 also possesses antibacterial effect that is more potent than that of the full-length rSoTFPI-1. Taken together, these results demonstrate that (i) SoTFPI-1 is a biologically active serine protease inhibitor endowed with bactericidal property; (ii) provide the first indication that teleost TFPI-1 is likely to be involved in anti-microbial infection and thus is linked to innate immune defense. PMID:20970444

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1,2-dithiol-3-thiones and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazines as novel hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hun; Lee, Jung Min; Kim, Sang Geon; Lee, Yong Sup

    2016-06-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor which is strongly associated with tumor survival, progression, and therapeutic resistance. Accordingly, it has been suggested that the inhibition of the HIF-1 pathway can suppress tumor, and it has become an important therapeutic target. In present study, oltipraz, its metabolite M2, and their derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as HIF-1α inhibitors. Among the synthesized, benzyl-substituted pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine 2g most potently inhibited HIF-1α protein accumulation (81% at 10μM) and VEGF, GLUT-1 transcription (77% and 92% at 10μM, respectively). PMID:27157007

  15. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutation-positive non-small cell lung cancers: an update for recent advances in therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chung, Clement

    2016-06-01

    The presence of activating gene mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor of non-small cell lung cancer patients is predictive (improved progression-free survival and improved response rate) when treated with small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib. The two most common mutations that account for greater than 85% of all EGFR gene mutations are in-frame deletions in exon 19 (LREA deletions) and substitution in exon 21 (L858R). Exon 18 mutations occur much less frequently at about 4% of all EGFR gene mutations. Together, exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R gene substitution are present in about 10% of Caucasian patients and 20-40% of Asian patients with non-small cell lung cancer. T790M gene mutation at exon 20 is associated with acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Early studies showed that activating EGFR gene mutations are most common in patients with adenocarcinoma histology, women, never smokers and those of Asian ethnicity. A recent multi-center phase III trial suggested that frontline epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy with afatinib is associated with improved progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy regardless of race. Moreover, guidelines now suggest EGFR gene mutation testing should be conducted in all patients with lung adenocarcinoma or mixed lung cancers with an adenocarcinoma component, regardless of characteristics such as smoking status, gender or race. The success of targeted therapies in non-small cell lung cancer patients has changed the treatment paradigm in metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, despite a durable response of greater than a year, resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors inevitably occurs. This mini-review describes the clinically relevant EGFR gene mutations and the efficacy/toxicity of small molecule epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase

  16. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W; Ravoori, Murali K; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M

    2012-03-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with X-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1-induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p<0.05); moreover, it resulted in significantly less bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor-bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa growth

  17. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W; Ravoori, Murali K; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M

    2012-03-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with X-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1-induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p<0.05); moreover, it resulted in significantly less bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor-bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa growth

  18. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W.; Ravoori, Murali K.; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M.

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with x-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1–induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6 weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p < 0.05); moreover, it resulted in significantly less bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor–bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa

  19. Orchard factors associated with resistance and cross resistance to sterol demethylation inhibitor fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis from Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Pfeufer, Emily E; Ngugi, Henry K

    2012-03-01

    Orchard management practices, such as destroying of overwintered inoculum and limiting the number of fungicide applications, are often recommended as tactics for slowing the development of resistance to sterol demethylation-inhibitor (DMI) fungicides in populations of Venturia inaequalis. However, there is little quantitative evidence relating the use of such practices to levels of resistance in orchards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of V. inaequalis isolates from Pennsylvania to DMI fungicides, and to identify orchard management factors related to the incidence of resistant isolates. In total, 644 single-spore V. inaequalis cultures obtained from 20 apple orchards in 2008 or 2009 were tested for sensitivity to myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, or difenoconazole. Growers provided management history of the sampled plots. Widespread shifts toward resistance to the three fungicides were noted, with mean effective concentration for 50% inhibition (EC(50)) values of 2.136, 0.786, and 0.187 μg/ml for myclobutanil, fenbuconazole, and difenoconazole, respectively. Cross resistance to the three fungicides was documented in high correlation (Spearman's r > 0.6) between mean EC(50) values for 14 orchards. Based on a 0.5-μg/ml threshold, 66 and 26% of isolates were resistant to myclobutanil and fenbuconazole, respectively, and 22% were cross resistant to the two fungicides. A significant between-year shift toward increased resistance was noted in two of three orchards surveyed in both years. Failure to use dormant copper sprays, older trees, larger orchards, orchards with ≤10 cultivars, and application of >4 DMI sprays were positively correlated (0.0001 < P < 0.05) with the incidence of resistant isolates. Isolates from orchards with >4 DMI sprays were four times as likely to be resistant to fenbuconazole (odds ratio = 4.57; P = 0.015). Isolates from orchards without dormant copper sprays were twice as likely to be cross-shifted toward resistance to all

  20. Challenges of the management of severe hemophilia A with inhibitors: two case reports emphasizing the potential interest of a high-purity human Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate and individually tailored prophylaxis guided by thrombin-generation test.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Crampe, Carine; Dargaud, Yesim; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Escuriola-Ettingshausen, Carmen; Tardy, Brigitte; Meley, Roland; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Stephan, Jean L; Berger, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Severe hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the best strategy of treatment when patients develop inhibitors. The objective is to illustrate the benefit of a high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrate (Octanate) in the management of ITI. We also wanted to raise the potential interest of laboratory assays such as thrombin-generation test (TGT) and epitope mapping. Two patients were treated during ITI, first with a recombinant FVIII and then with plasma-derived factor VIII without success, and, finally, with Octanate. Bypassing agents were used based on the results of TGT. Epitope mapping was performed during ITI therapy. These observations suggest the potential contribution of Octanate in the management of ITI in difficult cases. The use of bypassing agents can be necessary in prophylaxis or to treat bleedings, and may be guided by TGT results. Epitope mapping is used to describe the inhibitor. This article shows a decrease of the inhibitor directed against the C2 domain after initiation of Octanate. A high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate (Octanate) may be a valuable therapeutical option for ITI therapy. TGT and epitope mapping could be of help in the management of ITI.

  1. Challenges of the management of severe hemophilia A with inhibitors: two case reports emphasizing the potential interest of a high-purity human Factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate and individually tailored prophylaxis guided by thrombin-generation test.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Sophie; Crampe, Carine; Dargaud, Yesim; Lavigne-Lissalde, Géraldine; Escuriola-Ettingshausen, Carmen; Tardy, Brigitte; Meley, Roland; Thouvenin, Sandrine; Stephan, Jean L; Berger, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Severe hemophilia A is an X-linked bleeding disorder. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the best strategy of treatment when patients develop inhibitors. The objective is to illustrate the benefit of a high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor (VWF) concentrate (Octanate) in the management of ITI. We also wanted to raise the potential interest of laboratory assays such as thrombin-generation test (TGT) and epitope mapping. Two patients were treated during ITI, first with a recombinant FVIII and then with plasma-derived factor VIII without success, and, finally, with Octanate. Bypassing agents were used based on the results of TGT. Epitope mapping was performed during ITI therapy. These observations suggest the potential contribution of Octanate in the management of ITI in difficult cases. The use of bypassing agents can be necessary in prophylaxis or to treat bleedings, and may be guided by TGT results. Epitope mapping is used to describe the inhibitor. This article shows a decrease of the inhibitor directed against the C2 domain after initiation of Octanate. A high-purity human factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrate (Octanate) may be a valuable therapeutical option for ITI therapy. TGT and epitope mapping could be of help in the management of ITI. PMID:26517064

  2. Targeting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 2 and Protein Kinase D1 Related Pathways by a Multiple Kinase Inhibitor in Angiogenesis and Inflammation Related Processes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Attila; Gyulavári, Pál; Greff, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Németh, Tamás; Simon-Szabó, Laura; Kerekes, Krisztina; Szántai-Kis, Csaba; Brauswetter, Diána; Kokas, Márton; Borbély, Gábor; Erdei, Anna; Mócsai, Attila; Kéri, György; Vántus, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and protein kinase D1 (PKD1) signaling axis plays a critical role in normal and pathological angiogenesis and inflammation related processes. Despite all efforts, the currently available therapeutic interventions are limited. Prior studies have also proved that a multiple target inhibitor can be more efficient compared to a single target one. Therefore, development of novel inflammatory pathway-specific inhibitors would be of great value. To test this possibility, we screened our molecular library using recombinant kinase assays and identified the previously described compound VCC251801 with strong inhibitory effect on both VEGFR2 and PKD1. We further analyzed the effect of VCC251801 in the endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cell line and in different inflammatory cell types. In EA.hy926 cells, VCC251801 potently inhibited the intracellular activation and signaling of VEGFR2 and PKD1 which inhibition eventually resulted in diminished cell proliferation. In this model, our compound was also an efficient inhibitor of in vitro angiogenesis by interfering with endothelial cell migration and tube formation processes. Our results from functional assays in inflammatory cellular models such as neutrophils and mast cells suggested an anti-inflammatory effect of VCC251801. The neutrophil study showed that VCC251801 specifically blocked the immobilized immune-complex and the adhesion dependent TNF-α -fibrinogen stimulated neutrophil activation. Furthermore, similar results were found in mast cell degranulation assay where VCC251801 caused significant reduction of mast cell response. In summary, we described a novel function of a multiple kinase inhibitor which strongly inhibits the VEGFR2-PKD1 signaling and might be a novel inhibitor of pathological inflammatory pathways. PMID:25874616

  3. Inhibition of transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)-mediated growth effects in ovarian cancer cell lines by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZM 252868

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, B J B; Bartlett, J M S; Macleod, K G; Rabiasz, G; Miller, E P; Rae, A L; Gordge, P; Leake, R E; Miller, W R; Smyth, J; Langdon, S P

    1999-01-01

    The modulating effects of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor ZM 252868 on cell growth and signalling have been evaluated in four ovarian carcinoma cell lines PE01, PE04, SKOV-3 and PE01CDDP. Transforming growth factor α (TGF-α)-stimulated growth was completely inhibited by concentrations ≥ 0.3 μM in the PE01 and PE04 cell lines and by ≥ 0.1 μM in SKOV-3 cells. TGF-α inhibition of PE01CDDP growth was reversed by concentrations ≥ 0.1 μM ZM 252868. TGF-α-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of both the EGF receptor and c-erbB2 receptor in all four cell lines. The inhibitor ZM 252868, at concentrations ≥ 0.3 μM, completely inhibited TGF-α-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and reduced phosphorylation of the c-erbB2 protein. EGF-activated EGF receptor tyrosine kinase activity was completely inhibited by 3 μM ZM 252868 in PE01, SKOV-3 and PE01CDDP cells. These data indicate that the EGF receptor-targeted TK inhibitor ZM 252868 can inhibit growth of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro consistent with inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation at the EGF receptor. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098742

  4. Characterization and Pharmacological Properties of a Novel Multifunctional Kunitz Inhibitor from Erythrina velutina Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Richele J. A.; Monteiro, Norberto K. V.; Migliolo, Ludovico; Silva, Osmar N.; Pinto, Michele F. S.; Oliveira, Adeliana S.; Franco, Octávio L.; Kiyota, Sumika; Bemquerer, Marcelo P.; Uchoa, Adriana F.; Morais, Ana H. A.; Santos, Elizeu A.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptidases isolated from leguminous seeds have been studied for their pharmacological properties. The present study focused on purification, biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant evaluation of a novel Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Erythrina velutina seeds (EvTI). Trypsin inhibitors were purified by ammonium sulfate (30–60%), fractionation followed by Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The purified inhibitor showed molecular mass of 19,210.48 Da. Furthermore, a second isoform with 19,228.16 Da was also observed. The inhibitor that showed highest trypsin specificity and enhanced recovery yield was named EvTI (P2) and was selected for further analysis. The EvTI peptide fragments, generated by trypsin and pepsin digestion, were further analyzed by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass spectrometry, allowing a partial primary structure elucidation. EvTI exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin with IC50 of 2.2×10−8 mol.L−1 and constant inhibition (Ki) of 1.0×10−8 mol.L−1, by a non-competitive mechanism. In addition to inhibit the activity of trypsin, EvTI also inhibited factor Xa and neutrophil elastase, but do not inhibit thrombin, chymotrypsin or peptidase 3. EvTI was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. Firstly, EvTI showed no cytotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Nevertheless, the inhibitor was able to prolong the clotting time in a dose-dependent manner by using in vitro and in vivo models. Due to anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant EvTI properties, two sepsis models were here challenged. EvTI inhibited leukocyte migration and specifically acted by inhibiting TNF-α release and stimulating IFN-α and IL-12 synthesis. The data presented clearly contribute to a better understanding of the use of Kunitz inhibitors in sepsis as a bioactive agent capable of interfering in blood coagulation and inflammation. PMID

  5. PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR INHIBITOR-1 (PAI-1): A KEY FACTOR LINKING FIBRINOLYSIS AND AGE-RELATED SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL CONDITIONS

    PubMed Central

    Cesari, Matteo; Pahor, Marco; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli

    2010-01-01

    The close relationship existing between aging and thrombosis has growingly been studied in this last decade. The age-related development of a pro-thrombotic imbalance in the fibrinolysis homeostasis has been hypothesized at the basis of this increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. Fibrinolysis is the resulting of the interactions among multiple plasminogen activators and inhibitors constituing the enzymatic cascade, and ultimately leading to the degradation of fibrin. The plasminogen activator system plays a key role in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a member of the superfamily of serine-protease inhibitors (or serpins), and the principal inhibitor of both the tissue-type and the urinary-type plasminogen activator, the two plasminogen activators able to activate plasminogen. In this review, current evidence describing the central role played by PAI-1 in a number of age-related subclinical (i.e., inflammation, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance) and clinical (i.e., obesity, comorbidities, Werner syndrome) conditions is presented. Despite some controversial and unclear issues, PAI-1 represents an extremely promising marker which may become a biological parameter to be growingly considered in the prognostic evaluation, in the disease monitoring, and as treatment target of age-related conditions in the next future. PMID:20626406

  6. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for

  7. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) therapy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Haoran; Zhong, Wenzhao; Yang, Xuening

    2015-01-01

    The Lung Adjuvant Cisplatin Evaluation (LACE) meta-analysis and the meta-analysis of individual participant data reported by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) Meta-analysis Collaborative Group in neo-adjuvant setting validated respectively that adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy would significantly improve overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival for resectable NSCLC. However, chemotherapy has reached a therapeutic plateau. It has been confirmed that epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) targeting therapy provides a dramatic response to patients with advanced EGFR-mutation positive NSCLC. Researchers have paid more attention to exploring applications of TKIs to early resectable NSCLCs. Several studies on adjuvant TKI treatment concluded its safety and feasibility. But there existed certain limitations of these studies as inference factors to interpret data accurately: the BR19 study recruited patients among which almost 52% had stage IB and only 15 (3.0%, 15/503) had been confirmed with EGFR-mutant type; retrospective studies performed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) selected EGFR mutant-type NSCLC patients but couldn’t avoid inherent defects inside retrospective researches; the RADIANT study revised endpoints from targeting at EGFR immunohistochemistry (IHC)+ and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)+ mutation to only EGFR IHC+ mutation, leading to selective bias; despite that the SELECT study validated efficacy of adjuvant TKI and second round of TKI after resistance occurred, a single-arm clinical trial is not that persuasive in the absence of comparison with chemotherapy. Taking all these limitations into account, CTONG1104 in China and IMPACT in Japan have been conducted and recruiting patients to offer higher level of evidences to explore efficacy of preoperative TKI therapy for early resectable EGFR mutation positive NSCLC patients (confirmed by pathological results of tumor tissue or

  8. Genistein reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 transcription but not urokinase expression in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergh, V W; Vermeer, M; Koolwijk, P; Grimbergen, J; Kooistra, T

    1994-11-01

    The plasminogen activator inhibitor PAI-1 is markedly elevated in vivo and in vitro upon exposure to the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Here we report that the isoflavone compound genistein prevents the increase in synthesis of PAI-1 induced by these inflammatory mediators in human endothelial cells in vitro, and partially reduces the basal PAI-1 production by these cells. These effects of genistein were accompanied by a decrease in PAI-1 mRNA and in a suppression of the PAI-1 transcription rate as shown by run-on assay. A specific action of genistein, probably by inhibiting a tyrosine protein kinase, is likely, because the structural genistein analogue daidzein, which has a low tyrosine protein kinase inhibitor activity, did not inhibit PAI-1 synthesis. Vanadate, a tyrosine protein phosphatase inhibitor, increased PAI-1 production. The effect of genistein on PAI-1 synthesis was rather selective. Herbimycin A also reduced PAI-1 synthesis, but several other tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors, namely tyrphostin A47, methyl-2,5-dihydroxy-cinnamate, and compound 5, were unable to do so. All these tyrosine protein kinase inhibitors reduced basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF)-induced [3H]thymidine incorporation in endothelial cells. This indicates that the effect of genistein on PAI-1 transcription proceeds independently of its effect on mitogenesis. In contrast to TNF-alpha-induced PAI-1 production, the transcription and synthesis of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) was not inhibited by genistein. A TNF-alpha-mutant (Trp32Thr86TNF alpha) that specifically recognizes the 55-kD TNF-receptor, mimicked the effects of TNF alpha on both PAI-1 and u-PA. Because genistein affected PAI-1, but not u-PA induced by this mutant, involvement of different TNF-receptors cannot underlie the difference in the effects of genistein on PAI-1 and u-PA synthesis. Because genistein also

  9. Detection of activation of the contact system of coagulation in vitro and in vivo: quantitation of activated Hageman factor-C-1-inhibitor and kallikrein-C-1-inhibitor complexes by specific radioimmunoassays.

    PubMed

    Nuijens, J H; Huijbregts, C C; Cohen, M; Navis, G O; de Vries, A; Eerenberg, A J; Bakker, J C; Hack, C E

    1987-08-01

    Radioimmunoassays (RIAs) for the detection of C-1-inhibitor (C-1-Inh) complexed to either kallikrein or activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa) are described. Kallikrein-C-1-Inh or factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes were bound to Sepharose to which monospecific antibodies against (pre)kallikrein or factor XII, respectively, were coupled. Bound complexes were subsequently detected by an incubation with affinity purified 125I-labeled antibodies against C-1-Inh. These RIAs were used to detect activation of the contact system of coagulation in vitro and in vivo. Addition of dextran sulfate (DXS) (20 micrograms/ml) to fresh plasma resulted at 37 degrees C in the rapid generation of amidolytic kallikrein activity, which was maximal after 1 to 2 min of incubation and subsequently decreased within a few minutes. The generation of kallikrein activity coincided with the appearance of both kallikrein-C-1-Inh and factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes. However, in contrast to kallikrein activity, both types of complexes remained detectable in the incubation mixtures during the incubation period. Experiments with purified kallikrein. C-1-Inh and partly purified beta-factor XIIa, and activation experiments in plasmas deficient in either factor XII or prekallikrein, demonstrated the specificity of both RIAs. The minimal amount of DXS that resulted in the generation of measurable amounts of both types of complexes in plasma was 2-3 micrograms per ml. Similar experiments with kaolin showed that with limiting amounts of activator (1-2 mg/ml), only kallikrein-C-1-Inh complexes were detected in plasma. When larger amounts of kaolin were added to plasma, factor XIIa-C-1-Inh complexes were additionally detected in plasma.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Indole-3-carbinol enhances the resolution of rat liver fibrosis and stimulates hepatic stellate cell apoptosis by blocking the inhibitor of κB kinase α/inhibitor of κB-α/nuclear factor-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jie; Gao, Ai-mei; Qin, Hai-quan; Wei, Xiao-ning; Bai, Jing; Liu, Lian; Li, Xiao-hai; Li, Rui-wen; Ao, Ying; Wang, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) play a pivotal role in liver fibrosis, and the clearance of activated HSC by apoptosis is associated with the resolution of liver fibrosis. The development of strategies that promote this process in a selective way is therefore important. We evaluated the effects of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a nutritional component derived from vegetables from the Brassica family, on liver fibrosis and HSC apoptosis. The in vivo therapeutic effects of I3C were monitored in three rat models of liver fibrosis induced by porcine serum, bile duct ligation, or multiple hepatotoxic factors, and its proapoptotic effect and molecular mechanism were studied in vitro in HSC-T6, a rat HSC line. The results showed that I3C treatment significantly reduced the number of activated HSC in the livers of rats with liver fibrosis. In histopathology, I3C reduced hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, accelerated collagen degradation, and promoted the reversal of liver fibrosis. I3C prescribed to HSC-T6 resulted in morphologic alterations typical of apoptosis and DNA cleavage to a nucleosomal ladder. Moreover, I3C significantly increased the HSC-T6 apoptosis rate and the expression ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. High-throughput protein array analysis indicated that the tumor necrosis factor-α/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signal pathway participated in I3C-induced HSC-T6 apoptosis. Western blot and electrophoretic mobility-shift assay confirmed that I3C inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinase α and inhibitor of κB-α and NF-κB DNA binding activity. In conclusion, I3C could promote the reverse process of liver fibrosis in vivo and induce apoptosis of activated HSC in vitro, which indicates the use of I3C as a potential therapeutic agent in liver fibrosis treatment.

  11. Development of Nano-Liposomal Formulations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitors and their Pharmacological Interactions on Drug-Sensitive and Drug-Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trummer, Brian J.

    A rapidly expanding understanding of molecular derangements in cancer cell function has led to the development of selective, targeted chemotherapeutic agents. Growth factor signal transduction networks are frequently activated in an aberrant fashion, particularly through the activity of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). This has spurred an intensive effort to develop receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKI) that are targeted to specific receptors, or receptor subfamilies. Chapter 1 reviews the pharmacology, preclinical, and clinical aspects of RTKIs that target the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). EGFR inhibitors demonstrate significant success at inhibiting phosphorylation-based signaling pathways that promote cancer cell proliferation. Additionally RTKIs have physicochemical and structural characteristics that enable them to function as inhibitors of multi-drug resistance transport proteins. Thus EGFR inhibitors and other RTKIs have both on-target and off-target activities that could be beneficial in cancer therapy. However, these agents exert a number of side effects, some of which arise from their hydrophobic nature and large in vivo volume of distribution. Side effects of the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib include skin rash, severe myelotoxicity when combined with certain chemotherapeutic agents, and impairment of the blood brain barrier to xenobiotics. Weighing the preclinical and clinical observations with the EGFR inhibitors, we developed the primary overall hypothesis of this research: that drug-carrier formulations of RTKIs such as the EGFR inhibitors could be developed based on nanoparticulate liposomal carriers. Theoretically, this carrier strategy would ameliorate toxicity and improve the biodistribution and tumor selectivity of these agents. We hypothesized specifically that liposomal formulations could shift the biodistribution of EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib away from skin, bone marrow, and the blood brain barrier, and toward solid tumors

  12. The Staphylococcus aureus Protein Sbi Acts as a Complement Inhibitor and Forms a Tripartite Complex with Host Complement Factor H and C3b

    PubMed Central

    van den Elsen, Jean; Burman, Julia; Hälbich, Steffi; Richter, Julia; Skerka, Christine; Zipfel, Peter F.

    2008-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, similar to other pathogens, binds human complement regulators Factor H and Factor H related protein 1 (FHR-1) from human serum. Here we identify the secreted protein Sbi (Staphylococcus aureus binder of IgG) as a ligand that interacts with Factor H by a—to our knowledge—new type of interaction. Factor H binds to Sbi in combination with C3b or C3d, and forms tripartite Sbi∶C3∶Factor H complexes. Apparently, the type of C3 influences the stability of the complex; surface plasmon resonance studies revealed a higher stability of C3d complexed to Sbi, as compared to C3b or C3. As part of this tripartite complex, Factor H is functionally active and displays complement regulatory activity. Sbi, by recruiting Factor H and C3b, acts as a potent complement inhibitor, and inhibits alternative pathway-mediated lyses of rabbit erythrocytes by human serum and sera of other species. Thus, Sbi is a multifunctional bacterial protein, which binds host complement components Factor H and C3 as well as IgG and β2-glycoprotein I and interferes with innate immune recognition. PMID:19112495

  13. Association between tumour necrosis factorinhibitors and risk of serious infections in people with inflammatory bowel disease: nationwide Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Björn; Friis-Møller, Nina; Andersson, Mikael; Jess, Tine

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether people with inflammatory bowel disease treated with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are at increased risk of serious infections. Design Nationwide register based propensity score matched cohort study. Setting Denmark, 2002-12. Participants The background cohort eligible for matching comprised 52 392 people with inflammatory bowel disease, aged 15 to 75 years, of whom 4300 were treated with TNF-α inhibitors. To limit confounding, a two stage matching method was applied; firstly matching on age, sex, disease duration, and inflammatory bowel disease subtype, and secondly matching on propensity scores (1:1 ratio); this yielded 1543 people treated with TNF-α inhibitors and 1543 untreated to be included in the analyses. Main outcome measures The main outcome was any serious infection, defined as a diagnosis of infection associated with hospital admission. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios for two risk periods (90 and 365 days after the start of TNF-α inhibitor treatment). Hazard ratios of site specific serious infections were obtained solely for the 365 days risk period. Results Within the 90 days risk period, 51 cases of infection were observed in users of TNF-α inhibitors (incidence rate 14/100 person years), compared with 33 cases in non-users (9/100 person years), yielding a hazard ratio of 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.63). Within the risk period of 365 days, the hazard ratio was 1.27 (0.92 to 1.75). In analyses of site specific infections, the hazard ratio was above 2 for several of the subgroups but only reached statistical significance for skin and soft tissue infections (2.51, 1.23 to 5.12). Conclusions This nationwide propensity score matched cohort study suggests an increased risk of serious infections associated with use of TNF-α inhibitors within the first 90 days of starting treatment and a subsequent decline in risk. This calls for increased clinical awareness of potential