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Sample records for factor-1 alpha gene

  1. Fibroblast growth factor-1-inducible gene FR-17 encodes a nonmuscle alpha-actinin isoform.

    PubMed

    Hsu, D K; Guo, Y; Alberts, G F; Peifley, K A; Winkles, J A

    1996-05-01

    Polypeptide growth factor binding to cell surface receptors activates a cytoplasmic signaling cascade that ultimately promotes the expression of specific nuclear genes. As an approach to investigate the molecular mechanism of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1 mitogenic signaling, we have begun to identify and characterize FGF-1-inducible genes in murine NIH 3T3 cells. Here we report that one of these genes, termed FGF-regulated (FR)-17, is predicted to encode a nonmuscle isoform of alpha-actinin, an actin cross-linking protein found along microfilaments and in focal adhesion plaques. FGF-1 induction of alpha-actinin mRNA expression is first detectable at 2 h after mitogen addition and is dependent on the novo RNA and protein synthesis. Maximal alpha-actinin mRNA expression, corresponding to an approximately nineteenfold level of induction, is present after 12 h of FGF-1 stimulation. Western blot analysis indicated that FGF-1-stimulated cells also produce an increased amount of alpha-actinin protein. The FGF-1-related mitogen FGF-2, calf serum, several of the polypeptide growth factors present in serum, and the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate can also induce alpha-actinin mRNA expression. Finally, nonmuscle alpha-actinin mRNA is expressed in vivo in a tissue-specific manner, with relatively high levels detected in adult mouse intestine and kidney. These results indicate that nonmuscle alpha-actinin is a serum-, polypeptide growth factor-, and tumor promoter-inducible gene in mouse fibroblasts.

  2. Advances toward DNA-based identification and phylogeny of North American Armillaria species using elongation factor-1 alpha gene

    Treesearch

    Amy L. Ross-Davis; John W. Hanna; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    The translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene was used to examine the phylogenetic relationships among 30 previously characterized isolates representing ten North American Armillaria species: A. solidipes (=A. ostoyae), A. gemina, A. calvescens, A. sinapina, A. mellea, A. gallica, A. nabsnona, North American biological species X, A. cepistipes, and A. tabescens. The...

  3. Cloning, expression and evolution of the gene encoding the elongation factor 1alpha from a low thermophilic Sulfolobus solfataricus strain.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Mariorosario; Cantiello, Piergiuseppe; Lamberti, Annalisa; Longo, Olimpia; Fiengo, Antonio; Arcari, Paolo

    2003-01-28

    The gene encoding the elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) from the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus strain MT3 (optimum growth temperature 75 degrees C) was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The structural and biochemical properties of the purified enzyme were compared to those of EF-1alpha isolated from S. solfataricus strain MT4 (optimum growth temperature 87 degrees C). Only one amino acid change (Val15-->Ile) was found. Interestingly, the difference was in the first guanine nucleotide binding consensus sequence G(13)HIDHGK and was responsible for a reduced efficiency in protein synthesis, which was accompanied by an increased affinity for both guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP), and an increased efficiency in the intrinsic GTPase activity. Despite the different thermophilicities of the two microorganisms, only very marginal effects on the thermal properties of the enzyme were observed. Molecular evolution among EF-1alpha genes from Sulfolobus species showed that the average rate of nucleotide substitution per site per year (0.0312x10(-9)) is lower than that reported for other functional genes.

  4. Variable patterns in the molecular evolution of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) gene in teleost fishes and mammals.

    PubMed

    Rytkönen, Kalle T; Ryynänen, Heikki J; Nikinmaa, Mikko; Primmer, Craig R

    2008-08-15

    The hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein is the major regulator of oxygen-dependent gene expression and a member of the bHLH-PAS family of transcription factors. In this study we compared and contrasted the rate and mode of HIF-1alpha molecular evolution between teleost fishes and mammals, as well as within teleost fishes and mammals. Various likelihood methods for estimating codon substitutions were used to detect different modes of selection. Although the overall evolutionary rate in teleost HIF-1alpha was at least twice as fast as in mammalian HIF-1alpha, the crucial interaction domains were observed to be under stringent negative selection in all vertebrates. Relaxed negative selection on less crucial regions of teleost HIF-1alpha compared to mammalian HIF-1alpha was detected, but no evidence for positive selection that was supported by all methods was found. We suggest that the relaxed selective constraints in teleost HIF-1alpha may be associated with the variable environmental oxygen levels to which teleosts have been exposed during their evolutionary history. However, in teleosts the positions with partial support for positive selection were not found in the vicinity of the HIF-1alpha domains which confer the oxygen sensitivity, but in the bHLH-PAS domain responsible for DNA binding and dimerization. The pattern of selection in the bHLH-PAS domain has some similarities with the patterns observed in the adaptive evolution of the homeodomain of Hox genes and may be typical in the molecular evolution of transcription factors.

  5. Polymorphisms in the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha gene in Mexican patients with preeclampsia: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the etiology of preeclampsia is still unclear, recent work suggests that changes in circulating angiogenic factors play a key role in its pathogenesis. In the trophoblast of women with preeclampsia, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is over-expressed, and induces the expression of non-angiogenic factors and inhibitors of trophoblast differentiation. This observation prompted the study of HIF-1α and its relation to preeclampsia. It has been described that the C1772T (P582S) and G1790A (A588T) polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene have significantly greater transcriptional activity, correlated with an increased expression of their proteins, than the wild-type sequence. In this work, we studied whether either or both HIF1A variants contribute to preeclampsia susceptibility. Results Genomic DNA was isolated from 150 preeclamptic and 105 healthy pregnant women. Exon 12 of the HIF1A gene was amplified by PCR, and the genotypes of HIF1A were determined by DNA sequencing. In preeclamptic women and controls, the frequencies of the T allele for C1772T were 4.3 vs. 4.8%, and the frequencies of the A allele for G1790A were 0.0 vs. 0.5%, respectively. No significant differences were found between groups. Conclusion The frequency of the C1772T and G1790A polymorphisms of the HIF1A gene is very low, and neither polymorphism is associated with the development of preeclampsia in the Mexican population. PMID:21414224

  6. Two genes encode related cytoplasmic elongation factors 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) in Drosophila melanogaster with continuous and stage specific expression.

    PubMed Central

    Hovemann, B; Richter, S; Walldorf, U; Cziepluch, C

    1988-01-01

    We have characterized two previously cloned genes, F1 and F2 (1) that code for elongation factor EF - 1 alpha of Drosophila melanogaster. Genomic Southern blot hybridization revealed that they are the only gene copies present. We isolated cDNA clones of both transcripts from embryonal and pupal stage of development that cover the entire transcription unit. The 5' ends of both genes have been determined by primer extension and for F1 also by RNA sequencing. These start sites have been shown to be used consistently during development. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that EF - 1 alpha,F1 consists of two and EF - 1 alpha,F2 of five exons. The two described elongation factor genes exhibit several regions of strong sequence conservation when compared to five recently cloned eucaryotic elongation factors. Images PMID:3131735

  7. A highly conserved nuclear gene for low-level phylogenetics: elongation factor-1 alpha recovers morphology-based tree for heliothine moths.

    PubMed

    Cho, S; Mitchell, A; Regier, J C; Mitter, C; Poole, R W; Friedlander, T P; Zhao, S

    1995-07-01

    Molecular systematists need increased access to nuclear genes. Highly conserved, low copy number protein-encoding nuclear genes have attractive features for phylogenetic inference but have heretofore been applied mostly to very ancient divergences. By virtue of their synonymous substitutions, such genes should contain a wealth of information about lower-level taxonomic relationships as well, with the advantage that amino acid conservatism makes both alignment and primer definition straightforward. We tested this postulate for the elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) gene in the noctuid moth subfamily Heliothinae, which has probably diversified since the middle Tertiary. We sequenced 1,240 bp in 18 taxa representing heliothine groupings strongly supported by previous morphological and allozyme studies. The single most parsimonious gene tree and the neighbor-joining tree for all nucleotides show almost complete concordance with the morphological tree. Homoplasy and pairwise divergence levels are low, transition/transversion ratios are high, and phylogenetic information is spread evenly across gene regions. The EF-1 alpha gene and presumably other highly conserved genes hold much promise for phylogenetics of Tertiary age eukaryote groups.

  8. Transcription enhancer factor 1 interacts with a basic helix-loop-helix zipper protein, Max, for positive regulation of cardiac alpha-myosin heavy-chain gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, M P; Amin, C S; Gupta, M; Hay, N; Zak, R

    1997-01-01

    The M-CAT binding factor transcription enhancer factor 1 (TEF-1) has been implicated in the regulation of several cardiac and skeletal muscle genes. Previously, we identified an E-box-M-CAT hybrid (EM) motif that is responsible for the basal and cyclic AMP-inducible expression of the rat cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain (alpha-MHC) gene in cardiac myocytes. In this study, we report that two factors, TEF-1 and a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper protein, Max, bind to the alpha-MHC EM motif. We also found that Max was a part of the cardiac troponin T M-CAT-TEF-1 complex even when the DNA template did not contain an apparent E-box binding site. In the protein-protein interaction assay, a stable association of Max with TEF-1 was observed when glutathione S-transferase (GST)-TEF-1 or GST-Max was used to pull down in vitro-translated Max or TEF-1, respectively. In addition, Max was coimmunoprecipitated with TEF-1, thus documenting an in vivo TEF-1-Max interaction. In the transient transcription assay, overexpression of either Max or TEF-1 resulted a mild activation of the alpha-MHC-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene at lower concentrations and repression of this gene at higher concentrations. However, when Max and TEF-1 expression plasmids were transfected together, the repression mediated by a single expression plasmid was alleviated and a three- to fourfold transactivation of the alpha-MHC-CAT reporter gene was observed. This effect was abolished once the EM motif in the promoter-reporter construct was mutated, thus suggesting that the synergistic transactivation function of the TEF-1-Max heterotypic complex is mediated through binding of the complex to the EM motif. These results demonstrate a novel association between Max and TEF-1 and indicate a positive cooperation between these two factors in alpha-MHC gene regulation. PMID:9199327

  9. The variant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 activates the P1 promoter of the human alpha-folate receptor gene in ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tomassetti, Antonella; Mangiarotti, Fabio; Mazzi, Mimma; Sforzini, Sabrina; Miotti, Silvia; Galmozzi, Enrico; Elwood, Patrick C; Canevari, Silvana

    2003-02-01

    The alpha folate receptor (alpha FR) is a membrane glycoprotein that binds folates, and mediates their uptake and that of antifolate drugs. alpha FR is absent on ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) but is detectable during early transforming events in this epithelium, with increasing expression levels in association with tumor progression. Analysis of transcriptional regulation of the alpha FR gene have revealed two promoter regions, P1 and P4, flanking exons 1 and 4, respectively, and a requirement for three SP1 sites and an INR element for optimal P4 activity. Here, we focused on the P1 transcription regulation in ovarian carcinoma cells. RNase protection assay indicated that the 5'-untranslated region is heterogeneous because of different start sites and alternative splicing of exon 3. A core region of the P1 promoter was sufficient for maximal promoter activity in ovarian carcinoma cell lines but not in OSE cells or in alpha FR-nonexpressing cell lines. Deletion and mutation analysis of this core promoter identified a cis-regulatory element at position +27 to +33 of the untranslated exon 1, which is responsible for maximum P1 activity. This element formed an abundant DNA-protein complex with nuclear proteins from ovarian cancer cells but not from other cell lines or OSE cells. Competition experiments and supershift assays demonstrated binding of the P1 cis-regulatory element by a transcription factor involved in embryonic development, the variant hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 (vHNF1). Analysis of RNA from various cell lines and surgical specimens confirmed that vHNF1 is expressed in ovarian carcinomas. Thus, vHNF1 regulates tissue-specific transcription in ovarian carcinoma.

  10. Peptide-matrix-mediated gene transfer of an oxygen-insensitive hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha variant for local induction of angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Trentin, Diana; Hall, Heike; Wechsler, Sandra; Hubbell, Jeffrey A

    2006-02-21

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) constitutes a target in therapeutic angiogenesis. HIF-1alpha functions as a sensor of hypoxia and induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which then induces angiogenesis. To explore the potential of HIF-1alpha gene therapy in stimulating wound healing, we delivered a gene encoding a stabilized form of HIF-1alpha, lacking the oxygen-sensitive degradation domain, namely HIF-1alpha deltaODD, by using a previously characterized peptide-based gene delivery vector in fibrin as a surgical matrix. The peptide vector consisted of multiple domains: (i) A cysteine-flanked lysine hexamer provided DNA interactions that were stable extracellularly but destabilized intracellularly after reduction of the formed disulfide bonds. This DNA-binding domain was fused to either (ii) a fibrin-binding peptide for entrapment within the matrix or (iii) a nuclear localization sequence for efficient nuclear targeting. The HIF-1alpha deltaODD gene was expressed and translocated to the nucleus under normoxic conditions, leading to up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A165 mRNA and protein levels in vitro. When the peptide-DNA nanoparticles entrapped in fibrin matrices were applied to full-thickness dermal wounds in the mouse (10 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin), angiogenesis was increased comparably strongly to that induced by VEGF-A165 protein (1.25 microg per wound in 30 microl of fibrin). However, the maturity of the vessels induced by HIF-1alpha deltaODD was significantly higher than that induced by VEGF-A165 protein, as shown by stabilization of the neovessels with smooth muscle. Nonviral, local administration of this potent angiogenesis-inducing gene by using this peptide vector represents a powerful approach in tissue engineering and therapeutic angiogenesis.

  11. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Kotaro; Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hideko; Hori, Hitoshi; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  12. Structure and expression of elongation factor 1 alpha in tomato.

    PubMed Central

    Pokalsky, A R; Hiatt, W R; Ridge, N; Rasmussen, R; Houck, C M; Shewmaker, C K

    1989-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, LeEF-1, has been isolated from tomato for the alpha subunit of elongation factor 1 (EF-1 alpha), a polypeptide which plays a central role in protein synthesis. The 448 amino acid protein encoded by this cDNA appears highly homologous to other EF-1 alpha s having a high degree of similarity (75-78%) to EF1 alpha previously described from both lower eukaryotes and animals. Southern analysis indicated that EF-1 alpha belongs to a small multigene family of 4-8 members in tomato. The pattern of expression of EF-1 alpha mRNA in various tomato tissues was analyzed by Northern analysis, in vitro translation and in situ hybridization. EF-1 alpha mRNA is an abundant species and higher levels of mRNA were found in developing tissues such as young leaves and green fruit compared to the mRNA levels observed in older tissues. The increased levels of EF-1 alpha mRNA therefore appear to correlate with higher levels of protein synthesis in developing tissues. Images PMID:2748335

  13. Cloning and characterization of the human beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) gene promoter: roles of the atypical TATA box and hepatic nuclear factor-1alpha in regulating beta2-GPI promoter activity.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsueh-Hsiao; Chiang, An-Na

    2004-01-01

    Beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2-GPI) is a plasma glycoprotein primarily synthesized in the liver. The interindividual variability of beta2-GPI expression in subjects with various metabolic syndromes and disease states suggests that it may have clinical importance. However, the regulation of beta2-GPI gene expression has not been clarified. To gain more insight into the control of beta2-GPI gene expression, we cloned the 4.1-kb 5'-flanking region and characterized the proximal promoter of the beta2- GPI gene in this study. Cis -acting elements required for beta2-GPI promoter activity were identified with transient transfection assays in the hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Huh7 and in non-hepatic HeLa cells. Serial deletion analyses of the beta2-GPI 5'-flanking sequence revealed that the region from -197 to +7 had strong promoter activity in hepatoma cells but not in HeLa cells. Truncation and site-directed mutagenesis of putative cis -elements within this region showing an atypical TATA box and a HNF-1 (hepatic nuclear factor-1) element were both essential for the beta2-GPI promoter activity. Subsequent gel mobility shift assays confirmed the interaction of HNF-1alpha with the HNF-1 site residing downstream of the TATA box. Co-transfection of beta2-GPI promoter-luciferase vector with HNF-1alpha expression vector in Huh7 and HNF-1-deficient HeLa cells demonstrated the transactivation effect of HNF-1alpha on beta2-GPI promoter activity. In addition, overexpression of HNF-1alpha enhanced the endogenous beta2-GPI expression. These results suggest that the atypical TATA box and HNF-1 cis-element are critical for beta2-GPI transcription and HNF-1alpha may play an important role in cell-specific regulation of beta2-GPI gene expression. PMID:14984368

  14. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha blocks differentiation of malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yan; Shu, Minfeng; Tang, Jianjun; Huang, Yijun; Zhou, Yuxi; Liang, Yingjie; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-12-01

    Aberrant differentiation is a characteristic feature of neoplastic transformation, while hypoxia in solid tumors is believed to be linked to aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. However, the possible relationship between hypoxia and differentiation in malignancies remains poorly defined. Here we show that rat C6 and primary human malignant glioma cells can be induced to differentiate into astrocytes by the well-known adenylate cyclase activator forskolin. However, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression stimulated by the hypoxia mimetics cobalt chloride or deferoxamine blocks this differentiation and this effectiveness is reversible upon withdrawal of the hypoxia mimetics. Importantly, knockdown of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha by RNA interference restores the differentiation capabilities of the cells, even in the presence of cobalt chloride, whereas stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through retarded ubiquitination by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene silence abrogates the induced differentiation. Moreover, targeting of HIF-1 using chetomin, a disrupter of HIF-1 binding to its transcriptional co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, abolishes the differentiation-inhibitory effect of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Administration of chetomin in combination with forskolin significantly suppresses malignant glioma growth in an in vivo xenograft model. Analysis of 95 human glioma tissues revealed an increase of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha protein expression with progressing tumor grade. Taken together, these findings suggest a key signal transduction pathway involving hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha that contributes to a differentiation defect in malignant gliomas and sheds new light on the differentiation therapy of solid tumors by targeting hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

  15. Temporal expression of the human alcohol dehydrogenase gene family during liver development correlates with differential promoter activation by hepatocyte nuclear factor 1, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, liver activator protein, and D-element-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    van Ooij, C; Snyder, R C; Paeper, B W; Duester, G

    1992-01-01

    The human class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene family consists of ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3, which are sequentially activated in early fetal, late fetal, and postnatal liver, respectively. Analysis of ADH promoters revealed differential activation by several factors previously shown to control liver transcription. In cotransfection assays, the ADH1 promoter, but not the ADH2 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF-1), which has previously been shown to regulate transcription in early liver development. The ADH2 promoter, but not the ADH1 or ADH3 promoter, was shown to respond to CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBP alpha), a transcription factor particularly active during late fetal liver and early postnatal liver development. The ADH1, ADH2, and ADH3 promoters all responded to the liver transcription factors liver activator protein (LAP) and D-element-binding protein (DBP), which are most active in postnatal liver. For all three promoters, the activation by LAP or DBP was higher than that seen by HNF-1 or C/EBP alpha, and a significant synergism between C/EBP alpha and LAP was noticed for the ADH2 and ADH3 promoters when both factors were simultaneously cotransfected. A hierarchy of ADH promoter responsiveness to C/EBP alpha and LAP homo- and heterodimers is suggested. In all three ADH genes, LAP bound to the same four sites previously reported for C/EBP alpha (i.e., -160, -120, -40, and -20 bp), but DBP bound strongly only to the site located at -40 bp relative to the transcriptional start. Mutational analysis of ADH2 indicated that the -40 bp element accounts for most of the promoter regulation by the bZIP factors analyzed. These studies suggest that HNF-1 and C/EBP alpha help establish ADH gene family transcription in fetal liver and that LAP and DBP help maintain high-level ADH gene family transcription in postnatal liver. Images PMID:1620113

  16. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup): Differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Manchado, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs), larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU). TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. Conclusion We have identified five

  17. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of five different elongation factor 1 alpha genes in the flatfish Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup): differential gene expression and thyroid hormones dependence during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Infante, Carlos; Asensio, Esther; Cañavate, José Pedro; Manchado, Manuel

    2008-01-30

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A) is one of the four subunits composing eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1. It catalyzes the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the A-site of the ribosome in a GTP-dependent manner during protein synthesis, although it also seems to play a role in other non-translational processes. Currently, little information is still available about its expression profile and regulation during flatfish metamorphosis. With regard to this, Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) is a commercially important flatfish in which eEF1A gene remains to be characterized. The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole has facilitated the identification of five different eEF1A genes, referred to as SseEF1A1, SseEF1A2, SseEF1A3, SseEF1A4, and Sse42Sp50. Main characteristics and sequence identities with other fish and mammalian eEF1As are described. Phylogenetic and tissue expression analyses allowed for the identification of SseEF1A1 and SseEF1A2 as the Senegalese sole counterparts of mammalian eEF1A1 and eEF1A2, respectively, and of Sse42Sp50 as the ortholog of Xenopus laevis and teleost 42Sp50 gene. The other two elongation factors, SseEF1A3 and SseEF1A4, represent novel genes that are mainly expressed in gills and skin. The expression profile of the five genes was also studied during larval development, revealing different behaviours. To study the possible regulation of SseEF1A gene expressions by thyroid hormones (THs), larvae were exposed to the goitrogen thiourea (TU). TU-treated larvae exhibited lower SseEF1A4 mRNA levels than untreated controls at both 11 and 15 days after treatment, whereas transcripts of the other four genes remained relatively unchanged. Moreover, addition of exogenous T4 hormone to TU-treated larvae increased significantly the steady-state levels of SseEF1A4 with respect to untreated controls, demonstrating that its expression is up-regulated by THs. We have identified five different eEF1A genes in the

  18. Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Induced Modifications of the Gene Expression Kinetics of Differentiating Skeletal Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Swanhild U.; Krebs, Stefan; Thirion, Christian; Blum, Helmut; Krause, Sabine; Pfaffl, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction TNF-α levels are increased during muscle wasting and chronic muscle degeneration and regeneration processes, which are characteristic for primary muscle disorders. Pathologically increased TNF-α levels have a negative effect on muscle cell differentiation efficiency, while IGF1 can have a positive effect; therefore, we intended to elucidate the impact of TNF-α and IGF1 on gene expression during the early stages of skeletal muscle cell differentiation. Methodology/Principal Findings This study presents gene expression data of the murine skeletal muscle cells PMI28 during myogenic differentiation or differentiation with TNF-α or IGF1 exposure at 0 h, 4 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 72 h after induction. Our study detected significant coregulation of gene sets involved in myoblast differentiation or in the response to TNF-α. Gene expression data revealed a time- and treatment-dependent regulation of signaling pathways, which are prominent in myogenic differentiation. We identified enrichment of pathways, which have not been specifically linked to myoblast differentiation such as doublecortin-like kinase pathway associations as well as enrichment of specific semaphorin isoforms. Moreover to the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a specific inverse regulation of the following genes in myoblast differentiation and response to TNF-α: Aknad1, Cmbl, Sepp1, Ndst4, Tecrl, Unc13c, Spats2l, Lix1, Csdc2, Cpa1, Parm1, Serpinb2, Aspn, Fibin, Slc40a1, Nrk, and Mybpc1. We identified a gene subset (Nfkbia, Nfkb2, Mmp9, Mef2c, Gpx, and Pgam2), which is robustly regulated by TNF-α across independent myogenic differentiation studies. Conclusions This is the largest dataset revealing the impact of TNF-α or IGF1 treatment on gene expression kinetics of early in vitro skeletal myoblast differentiation. We identified novel mRNAs, which have not yet been associated with skeletal muscle differentiation or response to TNF-α. Results of this study may facilitate

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha regulates the expression of nucleotide excision repair proteins in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Mahfouf, Walid; Ali, Nsrein; Chemin, Cecile; Ged, Cecile; Kim, Arianna L; de Verneuil, Hubert; Taïeb, Alain; Bickers, David R; Mazurier, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of DNA repair enzymes is crucial for cancer prevention, initiation, and therapy. We have studied the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the expression of the two nucleotide excision repair factors (XPC and XPD) in human keratinocytes. We show that hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is involved in the regulation of XPC and XPD. Early UVB-induced downregulation of HIF-1alpha increased XPC mRNA expression due to competition between HIF-1alpha and Sp1 for their overlapping binding sites. Late UVB-induced enhanced phosphorylation of HIF-1alpha protein upregulated XPC mRNA expression by direct binding to a separate hypoxia response element (HRE) in the XPC promoter region. HIF-1alpha also regulated XPD expression by binding to a region of seven overlapping HREs in its promoter. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed putative HREs in the genes encoding other DNA repair proteins (XPB, XPG, CSA and CSB), suggesting that HIF-1alpha is a key regulator of the DNA repair machinery. Analysis of the repair kinetics of 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers also revealed that HIF-1alpha downregulation led to an increased rate of immediate removal of both photolesions but attenuated their late removal following UVB irradiation, indicating the functional effects of HIF-1alpha in the repair of UVB-induced DNA damage.

  20. Targeted genes and interacting proteins of hypoxia inducible factor-1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Shen, Shao-Ming; Zhao, Xu-Yun; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis in almost all nucleated mammalian cells. The fundamental process adapted to cellular oxygen alteration largely depends on the refined regulation on its alpha subunit, HIF-1α. Recent studies have unraveled expanding and critical roles of HIF-1α, involving in a multitude of developmental, physiological, and pathophysiological processes. This review will focus on the current knowledge of HIF-1α-targeting genes and its interacting proteins, as well as the concomitant functional relationships between them. PMID:22773957

  1. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha signaling in aquaporin upregulation after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jamie Y; Kreipke, Christian W; Speirs, Susan L; Schafer, Patrick; Schafer, Steven; Rafols, José A

    2009-03-27

    Previous studies have demonstrated that traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes brain edema via aquaporins (AQPs), the water-transporting proteins. In the present study, we determined the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is a transcription factor in response to physiological hypoxia, in regulating expression of AQP4 and AQP9. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (400-425g) received a closed head injury using the Marmarou weight drop model with a 450g weight and survived for 1, 4, 24 and 48h. Some animals were administered 30min after injury with 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2), a naturally occurring metabolite of estradiol which is known to post-transcriptionally down-regulate HIF-1alpha expression, and sacrificed 4h after injury. Real-time PCR and Western blot were used, respectively, to detect gene and protein expressions of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, showing hypoxic stress), HIF-1alpha, AQP4, and AQP9. ANOVA analysis demonstrated a significant (p<0.05) increase in gene expression of MnSOD, HIF-1alpha, AQP4, and AQP9, starting at 1h after injury through 48h. Western blot analysis further indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in protein expression of these molecules at the same time points. Pharmacological inhibition of HIF-1alpha by 2ME2 reduced the up-regulated levels of AQP4 and AQP9 after TBI. The present study suggests that hypoxic conditions determined by MnSOD expression after closed head injury contribute to HIF-1alpha expression. HIF-1alpha, in turn, up-regulates expression of AQP4 and AQP9. These results characterize the pathophysiological mechanisms, and suggest possible therapeutic targets for TBI patients.

  2. Induction of hypervascularity without leakage or inflammation in transgenic mice overexpressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Elson, D A; Thurston, G; Huang, L E; Ginzinger, D G; McDonald, D M; Johnson, R S; Arbeit, J M

    2001-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) transactivates genes required for energy metabolism and tissue perfusion and is necessary for embryonic development and tumor explant growth. HIF-1alpha is overexpressed during carcinogenesis, myocardial infarction, and wound healing; however, the biological consequences of HIF-1alpha overexpression are unknown. Here, transgenic mice expressing constitutively active HIF-1alpha in epidermis displayed a 66% increase in dermal capillaries, a 13-fold elevation of total vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and a six- to ninefold induction of each VEGF isoform. Despite marked induction of hypervascularity, HIF-1alpha did not induce edema, inflammation, or vascular leakage, phenotypes developing in transgenic mice overexpressing VEGF cDNA in skin. Remarkably, blood vessel leakage resistance induced by HIF-1alpha overexpression was not caused by up-regulation of angiopoietin-1 or angiopoietin-2. Hypervascularity induced by HIF-1alpha could improve therapy of tissue ischemia.

  3. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha suppresses squamous carcinogenic progression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Scortegagna, Marzia; Martin, Rebecca J; Kladney, Raleigh D; Neumann, Robert G; Arbeit, Jeffrey M

    2009-03-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a known cancer progression factor, promoting growth, spread, and metastasis. However, in selected contexts, HIF-1 is a tumor suppressor coordinating hypoxic cell cycle suppression and apoptosis. Prior studies focused on HIF-1 function in established malignancy; however, little is known about its role during the entire process of carcinogenesis from neoplasia induction to malignancy. Here, we tested HIF-1 gain of function during multistage murine skin chemical carcinogenesis in K14-HIF-1alpha(Pro402A564G) (K14-HIF-1alphaDPM) transgenic mice. Transgenic papillomas appeared earlier and were more numerous (6 +/- 3 transgenic versus 2 +/- 1.5 nontransgenic papillomas per mouse), yet they were more differentiated, their proliferation was lower, and their malignant conversion was profoundly inhibited (7% in transgenic versus 40% in nontransgenic mice). Moreover, transgenic cancers maintained squamous differentiation whereas epithelial-mesenchymal transformation was frequent in nontransgenic malignancies. Transgenic basal keratinocytes up-regulated the HIF-1 target N-myc downstream regulated gene-1, a known tumor suppressor gene in human malignancy, and its expression was maintained in transgenic papillomas and cancer. We also discovered a novel HIF-1 target gene, selenium binding protein-1 (Selenbp1), a gene of unknown function whose expression is lost in human cancer. Thus, HIF-1 can function as a tumor suppressor through transactivation of genes that are themselves targets for negative selection in human cancers.

  4. The consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids differentially modulates gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Barradas, César M; Del-Río-Navarro, Blanca E; Domínguez-López, Aarón; Campos-Rodríguez, Rafael; Martínez-Godínez, María de-Los-Á; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Lara-Padilla, Eleazar; Abarca-Rojano, Edgar; Miliar-García, Ángel

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on metabolic state and gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese adolescents. Obese adolescents (n = 26, 10 girls and 16 boys) aged 12.4 ± 2.1 years were assigned to a 12-week regimen of n-3 PUFA intake. Five times per day, subjects received a food supplement consisting of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (3 g per day, 944 mg EPA, and 2,088 mg DHA). Blood parameters were measured, and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were analyzed to determine gene expression at baseline and after 12 weeks. Student's t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to estimate differences in arithmetic means of pre- and post-dietary supplementation for various anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and gene expression parameters. After 12 weeks, n-3 PUFA consumption was associated with decreased body mass index (29.7 ± 4.6 vs. 27.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), waist circumference (93.2 ± 9.9 vs. 90.5 ± 10.0 cm; P < 0.003), hip circumference (102.9 ± 10.9 vs. 101.1 ± 10.9 cm; P < 0.014), and blood triglyceride levels (220.8 ± 27.4 vs. 99.7 ± 32.7 mg/dL; P < 0.001). Fatty acid supplementation/n3 PUFA supplementation was associated with a downregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARγ and PGC-1α (P < 0.001), and an upregulated expression of the genes encoding PPARα (P < 0.007) and SREBP1 (P < 0.021). The expressions of SOD2 (P < 0.04), CAT (P < 0.001), GPX3 (P < 0.032) and HIF-1α protein also decreased. Our study demonstrated that n-3 PUFA consumption and dietary restriction improved the anthropometric parameters and decreased the triglycerides levels of the adolescents, suggesting a reduction in hypoxia in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

  5. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1; definition of regulatory domains within the alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Pugh, C W; O'Rourke, J F; Nagao, M; Gleadle, J M; Ratcliffe, P J

    1997-04-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric DNA binding complex composed of two basic-helix-loop-helix Per-AHR-ARNT-Sim proteins (HIF-1alpha and -1beta), is a key component of a widely operative transcriptional response activated by hypoxia, cobaltous ions, and iron chelation. To identify regions of HIF-1 subunits responsible for oxygen-regulated activity, we constructed chimeric genes in which portions of coding sequence from HIF-1 genes were either linked to a heterologous DNA binding domain or encoded between such a DNA binding domain and a constitutive activation domain. Sequences from HIF-1alpha but not HIF-1beta conferred oxygen-regulated activity. Two minimal domains within HIF-1alpha (amino acids 549-582 and amino acids 775-826) were defined by deletional analysis, each of which could act independently to convey inducible responses. Both these regions confer transcriptional activation, and in both cases adjacent sequences appeared functionally repressive in transactivation assays. The inducible operation of the first domain, but not the second, involved major changes in the level of the activator fusion protein in transfected cells, inclusion of this sequence being associated with a marked reduction of expressed protein level in normoxic cells, which was relieved by stimulation with hypoxia, cobaltous ions, or iron chelation. These results lead us to propose a dual mechanism of activation in which the operation of an inducible activation domain is amplified by regulation of transcription factor abundance, most likely occurring through changes in protein stability.

  6. Class II histone deacetylases are associated with VHL-independent regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Qian, David Z; Kachhap, Sushant K; Collis, Spencer J; Verheul, Henk M W; Carducci, Michael A; Atadja, Peter; Pili, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) plays a critical role in transcriptional gene activation involved in tumor angiogenesis. A novel class of agents, the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, has been shown to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and HIF-1 alpha protein expression. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this inhibition remains to be elucidated. In the current study, we investigated the molecular link between HIF-1 alpha inhibition and HDAC inhibition. Treatment of the VHL-deficient human renal cell carcinoma cell line UMRC2 with the hydroxamic HDAC inhibitor LAQ824 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of HIF-1 alpha protein via a VHL-independent mechanism and reduction of HIF-1 alpha transcriptional activity. HIF-1 alpha inhibition by LAQ824 was associated with HIF-1 alpha acetylation and polyubiquitination. HIF-1 alpha immunoprecipitates contained HDAC activity. Then, we tested different classes of HDAC inhibitors with diverse inhibitory activity of class I versus class II HDACs and assessed their capability of targeting HIF-1 alpha. Hydroxamic acid derivatives with known activity against both class I and class II HDACs were effective in inhibiting HIF-1 alpha at low nanomolar concentrations. In contrast, valproic acid and trapoxin were able to inhibit HIF-1 alpha only at concentrations that are effective against class II HDACs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that class II HDAC4 and HDAC6 were associated with HIF-1 alpha protein. Inhibition by small interfering RNA of HDAC4 and HDAC6 reduced HIF-1 alpha protein expression and transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results suggest that class II HDACs are associated with HIF-1 alpha stability and provide a rationale for targeting HIF-1 alpha with HDAC inhibitors against class II isozymes.

  7. Elongation factor-1 alpha occurs as two copies in bees: implications for phylogenetic analysis of EF-1 alpha sequences in insects.

    PubMed

    Danforth, B N; Ji, S

    1998-03-01

    We report the complete sequence of a paralogous copy of elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae). This copy differs from a previously described copy in the positions of five introns and in 25% of the nucleotide sites in the coding regions. The existence of two paralogous copies of EF-1 alpha in Drosophila and Apis suggests that two copies of EF-1 alpha may be widespread in the holometabolous insect orders. To distinguish between a single, ancient gene duplication and parallel, independent fly and bee gene duplications, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of hexapod EF-1 alpha sequences. Unweighted parsimony analysis of nucleotide sequences suggests an ancient gene duplication event, whereas weighted parsimony analysis of nucleotides and unweighted parsimony analysis of amino acids suggests the contrary: that EF-1 alpha underwent parallel gene duplications in the Diptera and the Hymenoptera. The hypothesis of parallel gene duplication is supported both by congruence among nucleotide and amino acid data sets and by topology-dependent permutation tail probability (T-PTP) tests. The resulting tree topologies are also congruent with current views on the relationships among the holometabolous orders included in this study (Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera). More sequences, from diverse orders of holometabolous insects, will be needed to more accurately assess the historical patterns of gene duplication in EF-1 alpha.

  8. Biphasic Stimulation of Translational Activity Correlates with Induction of Translation Elongation Factor 1 Subunit [alpha] upon Wounding in Potato Tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, J. K.; Shewmaker, C. K.; Vayda, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers exhibit an increase in translational activity in response to mechanical wounding. The response is biphasic, with an initial stimulation apparent within the first 2 h after wounding and a second increase occurring 12 to 24 h after wounding. Increased activity is apparent by measurement of protein synthesis both in vivo and in vitro using a cell-free extract. Accumulation of the translational elongation factor 1 subunit [alpha] (EF-1[alpha]) parallels translational activity. Changes in the steady-state level of EF-1[alpha] mRNA, and expression of a chimeric EF-1[alpha] promoter/[beta]-glucuronidase construct in transgenic potato tubers, indicate that the gene encoding EF-1[alpha] is transcribed during both periods of translational stimulation. These results indicate that stimulation of translational activity is coordinated with increased expression and accumulation of translation factors. PMID:12232374

  9. Bundling of actin filaments by elongation factor 1 alpha inhibits polymerization at filament ends

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1 alpha) is an abundant protein that binds aminoacyl-tRNA and ribosomes in a GTP-dependent manner. EF1 alpha also interacts with the cytoskeleton by binding and bundling actin filaments and microtubules. In this report, the effect of purified EF1 alpha on actin polymerization and depolymerization is examined. At molar ratios present in the cytosol, EF1 alpha significantly blocks both polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments and increases the final extent of actin polymer, while at high molar ratios to actin, EF1 alpha nucleates actin polymerization. Although EF1 alpha binds actin monomer, this monomer-binding activity does not explain the effects of EF1 alpha on actin polymerization at physiological molar ratios. The mechanism for the inhibition of polymerization is related to the actin-bundling activity of EF1 alpha. Both ends of the actin filament are inhibited for polymerization and both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are affected by pH within the same physiological range; at high pH both bundling and the inhibition of actin polymerization are reduced. Additionally, it is seen that the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to EF1 alpha releases EF1 alpha's inhibiting effect on actin polymerization. These data demonstrate that EF1 alpha can alter the assembly of F-actin, a filamentous scaffold on which non- membrane-associated protein translation may be occurring in vivo. PMID:8947553

  10. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  11. Interaction of plant chimeric calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase with a homolog of eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    A chimeric Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) was previously cloned and characterized in this laboratory. To investigate the biological functions of CCaMK, the yeast two-hybrid system was used to isolate genes encoding proteins that interact with CCaMK. One of the cDNA clones obtained from the screening (LlEF-1alpha1) has high similarity with the eukaryotic elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha). CCaMK phosphorylated LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner. The phosphorylation site for CCaMK (Thr-257) was identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, Thr-257 is located in the putative tRNA-binding region of LlEF-1alpha1. An isoform of Ca2+-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) phosphorylated multiple sites of LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-dependent but calmodulin-independent manner. Unlike CDPK, CCaMK phosphorylated only one site, and this site is different from CDPK phosphorylation sites. This suggests that the phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by these two kinases may have different functional significance. Although the phosphorylation of LlEF-1alpha1 by CCaMK is Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent, in vitro binding assays revealed that CCaMK binds to LlEF-1alpha1 in a Ca2+-independent manner. This was further substantiated by coimmunoprecipitation of CCaMK and EF-1alpha using the protein extract from lily anthers. Dissociation of CCaMK from EF-1alpha by Ca2+ and phosphorylation of EF-1alpha by CCaMK in a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent manner suggests that these interactions may play a role in regulating the biological functions of EF-1alpha.

  12. Oxygen-dependent expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in renal medullary cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Yang, Z Z; Li, P L; Cowley AW, J R

    2001-08-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcription factor that regulates the oxygen-dependent expression of a number of genes. This transcription factor may contribute to the abundant expression of many genes in renal medullary cells that function normally under hypoxic conditions. The present study was designed to determine the characteristics of HIF-1alpha cDNA cloned from the rat kidney and the expression profile of HIF-1alpha in different kidney regions and to explore the mechanism activating or regulating HIF-1alpha expression in renal medullary cells. A 3,718-bp HIF-1alpha cDNA from the rat kidney was first cloned and sequenced using RT-PCR and TA cloning technique. It was found that 823 amino acids deduced from this renal HIF-1alpha cDNA had 99%, 96%, and 90% identity with rat, mouse, or human HIF-1alpha deposited in GenBank, respectively. The 3'-untranslated region of HIF-1alpha mRNA from the rat kidney contained seven AUUUA instability elements, five of which were found to be conserved among rat, mouse, and human HIF-1alpha. Northern blot analyses demonstrated a corticomedullary gradient of HIF-1alpha mRNA expression in the kidney, with the greatest abundance in the renal inner medulla. Western blot analyses also detected a higher HIF-1alpha protein level in the nuclear extracts from the renal medulla than the renal cortex. A classic loop diuretic, furosemide (10 mg/kg ip), markedly increased renal medullary Po(2) levels from 22.5 to 52.2 mmHg, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of HIF-1alpha transcripts in renal medullary tissue. In in vitro experiments, low Po(2), but not elevated osmolarity, was found to significantly increase HIF-1alpha mRNA in renal medullary interstitial cells and inner medullary collecting duct cells. These results indicate that HIF-1alpha is more abundantly expressed in the renal medulla compared with the renal cortex. Increased abundance of HIF-1alpha mRNA in the renal medulla may represent an adaptive

  13. Elongation factor 1-alpha is released into the culture medium during growth of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Skarin, Hanna; Ringqvist, Emma; Hellman, Ulf; Svärd, Staffan G

    2011-04-01

    The molecular pathogenesis of the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is still not fully understood but excretory-secretory products have been suggested to be important during host-parasite interactions. Here we used SDS-PAGE gels and MALDI-TOF analysis to identify proteins released by Giardia trophozoites during in vitro growth. Serum proteins (mainly bovine serum albumin) in the growth medium, bind to the parasite surface and they are continuously released, which interfere with parasite secretome characterization. However, we identified two released Giardia proteins: elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and a 58 kDa protein, identified as arginine deiminase (ADI). This is the first description of EF-1α as a released/secreted Giardia protein, whereas ADI has been identified in an earlier secretome study. Two genes encoding EF-1α were detected in the Giardia WB genome 35 kbp apart with almost identical coding sequences but with different promoter and 3' regions. Promoter luciferase-fusions showed that both genes are transcribed in trophozoites. The EF-1α protein localizes to the nuclear region in trophozoites but it relocalizes to the cytoplasm during host-cell interaction. Recombinant EF-1α is recognized by serum from giardiasis patients. Our results suggest that released EF-1α protein can be important during Giardia infections.

  14. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  15. Structure and chromosomal localization of the human stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Shirozu, Michio; Takano, Toru; Tada, Hideaki; Honjo, Tasuku

    1995-08-10

    Stromal cell-derived factors 1{alpha} and 1{beta} are small cytokines belonging to the intercrine CXC subfamily and originally isolated from a murine bone-marrow stroma cell line by the signal sequence trap method. cDNA and genomic clones of human SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} (SDF1A and SDF1B) were isolated and characterized. cDNAs of SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} encode proteins of 89 and 93 amino acids, respectively. SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} sequences are more than 92% identical to those of the human counterparts. The genomic structure of the SDF1 gene revealed that human SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} are encoded by a single gene and arise by alternative splicing. SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} are encoded by 3 and 4 exons, respectively. Ubiquitous expression of the SDF1 gene, except in blood cells, was consistent with the presence of the GC-rich sequence in the 5{prime}-flanking region of the SDF1 gene, as is often the case in the {open_quotes}housekeeping{close_quotes} genes. Although genes encoding other members of the intercrine family are localized on chromosome 4q or 17q, the human SDF1 gene was mapped to chromosome 10q by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Strong evolutionary conservation and unique chromosomal localization of the SDF1 gene suggest that SDF1{alpha} and SDF1{beta} may have important functions distinct from those of other members of the intercrine family. 37 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Distribution of elongation factor-1alpha in larval tissues of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Javad; Goodman, Cynthia L; Stuart, Melissa K

    2006-01-01

    Elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) promotes the delivery of aminoacyl-tRNA to the acceptor site of the ribosome during protein synthesis. The enzyme has a number of additional functions, including regulation of apoptosis and interaction with the cytoskeleton. We determined the distribution of EF-1alpha in larval tissues of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda , with a monoclonal antibody generated to EF-1alpha from Sf21 cells, a cell line developed from ovarian tissue of S. frugiperda. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that EF-1alpha comprised 1.9-9.9% of the total protein within the tissues that were examined, which included fat body, Malpighian tubules, midgut, muscle, salivary glands, trachea, and ventral nerve cord. To a certain extent, EF-1alpha concentrations reflected the expected metabolic activity level of each of the represented tissues. Closer examination by immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that EF-1alpha concentrations varied among different cell types within a given tissue, i.e. midgut columnar epithelial cells yielded strong signals, while goblet cells failed to react with the EF-1alpha-specific antibody.

  17. Elongation factor 1 alpha concentration is highly correlated with the lysine content of maize endosperm.

    PubMed Central

    Habben, J E; Moro, G L; Hunter, B G; Hamaker, B R; Larkins, B A

    1995-01-01

    Lysine is the most limiting essential amino acid in cereals, and for many years plant breeders have attempted to increase its concentration to improve the nutritional quality of these grains. The opaque2 mutation in maize doubles the lysine content in the endosperm, but the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We show that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is overexpressed in opaque2 endosperm compared with its normal counterpart and that there is a highly significant correlation between EF-1 alpha concentration and the total lysine content of the endosperm. This relationship is also true for two other cereals, sorghum and barley. It appears that genetic selection for genotypes with a high concentration of EF-1 alpha can significantly improve the nutritional quality of maize and other cereals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7567989

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Three Cassava Elongation Factor 1 Alpha (MeEF1A) Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Suhandono, Sony; Apriyanto, Ardha; Ihsani, Nisa

    2014-01-01

    In plant genetic engineering, the identification of gene promoters leading to particular expression patterns is crucial for the development of new genetically modified plant generations. This research was conducted in order to isolate and characterize several new promoters from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A) gene family. Three promoters MeEF1A3, MeEF1A4 and MeEF1A5 were successfully isolated. Sequence analyses showed that all of the promoters contain three conserved putative cis-acting elements which are located upstream of the transcription start site. These elements are included a TEF1, a TELO and TATA boxes. In addition, all of the promoters also have the 5′UTR intron but with a different lengths. These promoters were constructed translationally with gusA reporter gene (promoter::gusA fusion) in pBI-121 binary vector to build a new binary vector using Overlap Extension PCR Cloning (OEPC) technique. Transient expression assay that was done by using agroinfiltration method was used to show functionality of these promoters. Qualitative and quantitative analysis from GUS assay showed that these promoters were functional and conferred a specific activity in tobacco seedlings (Nicotiana tabacum), tomato fruits (Solanum lycopersicum) and banana fruits (Musa acuminata). We hypothesized that MeEF1A6 could be categorized as a constitutive promoter because it was able to drive the gene expression in all transformed tissue described in here and also comparable to CaMV35S. On the other hand, MeEF1A3 drove specific expression in the aerial parts of seedlings such as hypocotyl and cotyledon thus MeEF1A5 drove specific expression in fruit tissue. The results obtained from transient analysis showed that these promoters had a distinct activity although they came from same gene family. The DNA sequences identified here are new promoters potentially use for genetic engineering in cassava or other plants. PMID:24404183

  19. Synthesis of the alpha and beta subunits of coupling factor 1 by polysomes from pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Bhaya, D; Jagendorf, A T

    1985-02-15

    Washed thylakoids of pea chloroplasts, containing tightly bound polysomes, incorporate radioactive amino acids into protein when supplied with soluble factors from Escherichia coli. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with lithium dodecyl sulfate, followed by autoradiography of the labeled products, showed the synthesis of a number of different polypeptides. Two of the most heavily labeled products were in the region expected for the alpha and beta subunits of coupling factor 1, at 57 and 54 kDa. Positive identification of the subunits was made using monospecific antibodies. Furthermore, the same two polypeptides made by soluble polysomes located in the chloroplast stroma were found. While the major proportion of the newly formed alpha and beta subunits made by thylakoid-bound polysomes remained with the thylakoids after protein synthesis occurred, no evidence was found of incorporation into complete, EDTA-extractable coupling factor 1.

  20. Synapse loss regulated by matrix metalloproteinases in traumatic brain injury is associated with hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jamie Y; Kreipke, Christian W; Schafer, Patrick; Schafer, Steven; Speirs, Susan L; Rafols, José A

    2009-05-01

    The present study assessed the role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and -9 in synapse loss after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the role of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a transcription factor up-regulated during hypoxia, in the regulation of MMP-2 and -9 expression post-TBI. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 per group, 400 g-425 g) were injured using Marmarou's closed-head acceleration impact model and allowed to survive for 1, 4, 24 and 48 h. In another set of experiments, 30 min after TBI, animals were treated with Minocycline (inhibitor of MMPs), or 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2, inhibitor of HIF-1alpha) and sacrificed at 4 h after injury. Relative amounts of synaptophysin, a presynaptic vesicular protein, HIF-1alpha, as well as MMP-2 and -9 were assessed by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activity levels of MMP-2 and -9 were determined by zymography. Synaptophysin expression was significantly (p<0.05) decreased at 1 h through 48 h after TBI. A significant increase in gene and protein expressions of HIF-1alpha, MMP-2 and -9, as well as enzyme activity of MMP-2 and -9 at the same time points was also detected. Inhibition of either MMPs or HIF-1alpha significantly reversed the TBI-induced decrease in synaptophysin. Inhibition of HIF-1alpha reduced expression of MMP-2 and -9. This study showed an early detection of a correlation between synaptic loss and MMP expression after TBI. The data also supports a role for HIF-1alpha in the MMP regulatory cascade in synapse loss after TBI, suggesting potential targets for reducing loss of synaptic terminals.

  1. Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Is Expressed in Germ Cells throughout the Murine Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Natsumi; Davy, Philip M C; Gardner, Lauren H; Mathews, Juanita; Yamazaki, Yuki; Allsopp, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells of the early embryo, and germ line cells, are essential to ensure uncompromised development to adulthood as well as species propagation, respectively. Recently, the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) has been shown to have important roles in embryonic stem cells; in particular, regulation of conversion to glycolytic metabolism and, as we have shown, maintenance of functional levels of telomerase. In the present study, we sought to assess whether Hif1α was also expressed in the primitive cells of the murine embryo. We observed expression of Hif1α in pre-implantation embryos, specifically the 2-cell stage, morula, and blastocyst. Robust Hif1α expression was also observed in male and female primordial germ cells. We subsequently assessed whether Hif1α was expressed in adult male and female germ cells. In the testis, Hif1α was robustly expressed in spermatogonial cells, in both juvenile (6-week old) and adult (3-month old) males. In the ovaries, Hif1α was expressed in mature oocytes from adult females, as assessed both in situ and in individual oocytes flushed from super-ovulated females. Analysis of Hif1α transcript levels indicates a mechanism of regulation during early development that involves stockpiling of Hif1α protein in mature oocytes, presumably to provide protection from hypoxic stress until the gene is re-activated at the blastocyst stage. Together, these observations show that Hif1α is expressed throughout the life-cycle, including both the male and female germ line, and point to an important role for Hif1α in early progenitor cells.

  2. The role of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha in cobalt chloride induced cell death in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vengellur, A; LaPres, J J

    2004-12-01

    Cobalt has been widely used in the treatment of anemia and as a hypoxia mimic in cell culture and it is known to activate hypoxic signaling by stabilizing the hypoxia inducible transcription factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha). However, cobalt exposure can lead to tissue and cellular toxicity. These studies were conducted to determine the role of HIF1alpha in mediating cobalt-induced toxicity. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) that were null for the HIF1alpha protein were used to show that HIF1alpha protein plays a major role in mediating cobalt-induced cytotoxicity. Previous work from our lab and others has shown that two BH3 domain containing cell death genes, BNip3 and NIX, are targets of hypoxia signaling. These experiments document that BNip3 and NIX expression is HIF1alpha-dependent, and cobalt induces their expression in a time and dose dependent manner. In addition, their expression is correlated with an increase in BNIP3 and NIX protein. Characteristically, the elevated level of BNIP3 was correlated with an increased presence of chromatin condensation, one marker for cell injury. Interestingly, this increased chromosomal condensation was not coupled to caspase-3 activation as usually seen in a typical apoptotic response. These results show that HIF1alpha is playing a major role in mediating cobalt-induced toxicity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and may offer a possible mechanism for the underlying pathology of injuries seen in workers exposed to environmental contaminants that can influence the hypoxia signaling system, such as cobalt.

  3. Thermosensitive chitosan-based hydrogels releasing stromal cell derived factor-1 alpha recruit MSC for corneal epithelium regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qiaomei; Luo, Chenqi; Lu, Bing; Fu, Qiuli; Yin, Houfa; Qin, Zhenwei; Lyu, Danni; Zhang, Lifang; Fang, Zhi; Zhu, Yanan; Yao, Ke

    2017-10-01

    Corneal epithelium integrity depends on continuous self-renewing of epithelium and connections between adjacent cells or between the cells and the basement membrane. Self-renewing epithelium cells mainly arise from the continuous proliferation and differentiation of the basal layer and limbal stem cells. The aim of the present study was to generate a bioactive, thermosensitive chitosan-gelatin hydrogel (CHI hydrogel) by incorporating exogenous recombinant human stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) for corneal epithelium regeneration. The exogenous SDF-1 alpha could enhance the stem cells proliferation, chemotaxis and migration, and the expression levels of related genes were significantly elevated in LESCs and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. Moreover, the MSCs promoted the proliferation and maintained the corneal fate of the LESCs. The rat alkali injury model was used for in vivo study. The injured eyes were covered with CHI hydrogel alone or rhSDF-1 alpha-loaded CHI hydrogel. All rats were followed for 13days. Histological examination showed that the SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complex group had a nearly normal thickness; moreover, it was also found that this group could upregulate the expression of some genes and had more ΔNp63-positive cells. The SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complex group had a more tightly arranged epithelium compared with the control group using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism for this may have involved the activation of stem cell homing and the secretion of growth factors via the SDF-1/CXCR4 chemokine axis. Therefore, SDF-1 alpha/CHI hydrogel complexes could provide a new idea for the clinical application. The clarity of cornea is important for normal vision. The loss or dysfunction of LESCs leads to the impairment of corneal epithelium. The complete regeneration of corneal epithelium has not been achieved. Our study demonstrated that the incorporation of rhSDF-1 alpha with CHI hydrogel accelerated corneal

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha suppresses the expression of macrophage scavenger receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Ken; Kizaki, Takako; Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Jun-Etsu; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Iijima, Takehiko; Okada, Chikako; Noguchi, Izumi; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Ohno, Hideki

    2009-11-01

    Macrophages are distributed in all peripheral tissues and play a critical role in the first line of the innate immune defenses against bacterial infection by phagocytosis of bacterial pathogens through the macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1). Within tissues, the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) decreases depending on the distance of cells from the closest O2-supplying blood vessel. However, it is not clear how the expression of MSR1 in macrophages is regulated by low pO2. On the other hand, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha is well known to control hypoxic responses through regulation of hypoxia-inducible genes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypoxia and HIF-1alpha on MSR1 expression and function in the macrophage cell line RAW264. Exposure to 1% O2 or treatment with the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride (CoCl2) significantly suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA, accompanied by a markedly increase in levels of nuclear HIF-1alpha protein. The overexpression of HIF-1alpha in RAW264 cells suppressed the expression of MSR1 mRNA and protein, transcriptional activity of the MSR1 gene, and phagocytic capacity against the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes. The suppression of MSR1 mRNA by hypoxia or CoCl2 was inhibited by YC-1, an inhibitor of HIF-1alpha, or by the depletion of HIF-1alpha expression by small interference RNA. These results indicate that hypoxia transcriptionally suppresses MSR1 expression through HIF-1alpha.

  5. Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 induces synthesis of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Kondo, Satoru; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu; Murono, Shigeyuki; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Pagano, Joseph S

    2004-06-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor composed of HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta that is the central regulator of responses to hypoxia. The specific binding of HIF-1 to the hypoxia-responsive element (HRE) induces the transcription of genes that respond to hypoxic conditions, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Here we report that expression of HIF-1 alpha is increased in diverse Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected type II and III cell lines, which express EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), the principal EBV oncoprotein, as well as other latency proteins, but not in the parental EBV-negative cell lines. We show first that transfection of an LMP1 expression plasmid into Ad-AH cells, an EBV-negative nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, induces synthesis of HIF-1 alpha protein without increasing its stability or mRNA level. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase inhibitor PD98059 markedly reduces induction of HIF-1 alpha by LMP1. Catalase, an H(2)O(2) scavenger, strongly suppresses LMP1-induced production of H(2)O(2), which results in a decrease in the expression of HIF-1 alpha induced by LMP1. Inhibition of the NF-kappa B, c-jun N-terminal kinase, p38 MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathways did not affect HIF-1 alpha expression. Moreover, LMP1 induces HIF-1 DNA binding activity and upregulates HRE and VEGF promoter transcriptional activity. Finally, LMP1 increases the appearance of VEGF protein in extracellular fluids; induction of VEGF is suppressed by PD98059 or catalase. These results suggest that LMP1 increases HIF-1 activity through induction of HIF-1 alpha protein expression, which is controlled by p42/p44 MAPK activity and H(2)O(2). The ability of EBV, and specifically its major oncoprotein, LMP1, to induce HIF-1 alpha along with other invasiveness and angiogenic factors reported previously discloses additional oncogenic properties of this tumor virus.

  6. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha improves immunomodulation by dental mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Victor G; Ontoria-Oviedo, Imelda; Ricardo, Carolina P; Harding, Sian E; Sacedon, Rosa; Varas, Alberto; Zapata, Agustin; Sepulveda, Pilar; Vicente, Angeles

    2017-09-29

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered as highly accessible and attractive MSCs for use in regenerative medicine, yet some of their features are not as well characterized as other MSCs. Hypoxia-preconditioning and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) alpha overexpression significantly improves MSC therapeutics, but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In the present study, we characterize immunomodulatory properties of dental MSCs and determine changes in their ability to modulate adaptive and innate immune populations after HIF-1 alpha overexpression. Human dental MSCs were stably transduced with green fluorescent protein (GFP-MSCs) or GFP-HIF-1 alpha lentivirus vectors (HIF-MSCs). A hypoxic-like metabolic profile was confirmed by mitochondrial and glycolysis stress test. Capacity of HIF-MSCs to modulate T-cell activation, dendritic cell differentiation, monocyte migration, and polarizations towards macrophages and natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity was assessed by a number of functional assays in co-cultures. The expression of relevant factors were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). While HIF-1 alpha overexpression did not modify the inhibition of T-cell activation by MSCs, HIF-MSCs impaired dendritic cell differentiation more efficiently. In addition, HIF-MSCs showed a tendency to induce higher attraction of monocytes, which differentiate into suppressor macrophages, and exhibited enhanced resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis, which supports the improved therapeutic capacity of HIF-MSCs. HIF-MSCs also displayed a pro-angiogenic profile characterized by increased expression of CXCL12/SDF1 and CCL5/RANTES and complete loss of CXCL10/IP10 transcription. Immunomodulation and expression of trophic factors by dental MSCs make them perfect candidates for cell therapy. Overexpression of HIF-1 alpha enhances these features and increases their resistance to allogenic NK

  7. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Alpha is Cardioprotective After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ankur; Fish, Jason E.; White, Michael D.; Yu, Sangho; Smyth, James WP; Shaw, Robin M.; DiMaio, J. Michael; Srivastava, Deepak

    2009-01-01

    Background Heart disease is a leading cause of mortality throughout the world. Tissue damage from vascular occlusive events results in the replacement of contractile myocardium by nonfunctional scar tissue. The potential of new technologies to regenerate damaged myocardium is significant, although cell-based therapies must overcome several technical barriers. One possible cell-independent alternative is the direct administration of small proteins to damaged myocardium. Methods and Results Here we show that the secreted signaling protein stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α), which activates the cell-survival factor protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) via the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, protected tissue after an acute ischemic event in mice and activated Akt within endothelial cells and myocytes of the heart. Significantly better cardiac function than in control mice was evident as early as 24 hours post-infarction as well as at 3, 14 and 28 days post-infarction. Prolonged survival of hypoxic myocardium was followed by an increase in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and neo-angiogenesis. Consistent with improved cardiac function, mice exposed to SDF-1α demonstrated significantly decreased scar formation than control mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that SDF-1α may serve a tissue-protective and regenerative role for solid organs suffering a hypoxic insult. PMID:18427137

  8. Cloning of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha cDNA from a high hypoxia tolerant mammal-plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, T B; Ning, H X; Zhu, S S; Sun, P; Xu, S X; Chang, Z J; Zhao, X Q

    2004-04-02

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 is a transcription factor composed of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta. It plays an important role in the signal transduction of cell response to hypoxia. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a high hypoxia-tolerant and cold adaptation species living only at 3000-5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. In this study, HIF-1alpha cDNA of plateau pika was cloned and its expression in various tissues was studied. The results indicated that plateau pika HIF-1alpha cDNA was highly identical to those of the human (82%), bovine (89%), mouse (82%), and Norway rat (77%). The deduced amino acid sequence (822bp) showed 90%, 92%, 86%, and 86% identities with those of the human, bovine, house mouse, and Norway rat, respectively. Northern blot analyses detected two isoforms named pLHIF-1alpha and pSHIF-1alpha. The HIF-1alpha mRNA was highly expressed in the brain and kidney, and much less in the heart, lung, liver, muscle, and spleen, which was quite different from the expression pattern of mouse mRNA. Meanwhile, a new variant of plateau pika HIF-1alpha mRNA was identified by RT-PCR and characterized. The deduced protein, composed of 536 amino acids, lacks a part of the oxygen-dependent degradation domain (ODD), both transactivation domains (TADs), and the nuclear localization signal motif (NLS). Our results suggest that HIF-1alpha may play an important role in the pika's adaptation to hypoxia, especially in brain and kidney, and pika HIF-1alpha function pattern may be different from that of mouse HIF-1alpha. Furthermore, for the high ratio of HIF-1alpha homology among the animals, the HIF-1alpha gene may be a good phylogenetic performer in recovering the true phylogenetic relationships among taxa.

  9. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha mutation in normal glucose-tolerant subjects and early-onset type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Mee; Huh, Nam; Park, Keun Yong

    2008-12-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in Korea is reported to be approximately 10%, but cases of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) are rare in Korea. A diagnostic technique for autosomal dominant MODY is being actively sought. In this regard, we used a DNA chip to investigate the frequency of mutations of the MODY3 gene (hepatocyte nuclear factor-1alpha) in Korean patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes. The genomic DNA of 30 normal individuals [age, 24.9+/-8.6 years] and 25 patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes (age, 27+/-5.9 years) was extracted, and the MODY3 gene was amplified. The amplified DNA was hybridized onto a MODY3 chip, which has oligonucleotides of 15-25 bases, representing wild-type and mutant MODY3 sequences in both forward and reverse orientations, immobilized on its surface. Among the normal subjects, there was no mutation of MODY3. Among those with early-onset type 2 diabetes, there was one case of MODY3 mutation. Our results indicate that MODY3 mutations are not rare in Korean early-onset type 2 diabetes patients in Korea and suggest that MODY3 mutations in patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes need to be further evaluated.

  10. A viral vector expressing hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha inhibits hippocampal neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Xiqing; Kong, Weina; Liu, Lingyun; Yu, Wenguo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Sun, Yimin

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) attenuates amyloid-beta protein neurotoxicity and decreases apoptosis induced by oxidative stress or hypoxia in cortical neurons. In this study, we constructed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing the human HIF-1α gene (rAAV-HIF-1α), and tested the assumption that rAAV-HIF-1α represses hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein. Our results confirmed that rAAV-HIF-1α significantly reduces apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. Direct intracerebral rAAV-HIF-1α administration also induced robust and prolonged HIF-1α production in rat hippocampus. Single rAAV-HIF-1α administration resulted in decreased apoptosis of hippocampal neurons in an Alzheimer's disease rat model established by intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated amyloid-beta protein (25–35). Our in vitro and in vivo findings demonstrate that HIF-1 has potential for attenuating hippocampal neuronal apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta protein, and provides experimental support for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases using gene therapy. PMID:25206774

  11. Wortmannin influences hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression and glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ling; Zhou, Hai-Yun; Tang, Na-Na; Zhang, Wei-Feng; He, Gui-Jun; Hao, Bo; Feng, Ya-Dong; Zhu, Hong

    2016-05-28

    To investigate the influence of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT)-HIF-1α signaling pathway on glycolysis in esophageal carcinoma cells under hypoxia. Esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13 were cultured under hypoxia environment, and the protein, mRNA and activity levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), glucose transporter 1, hexokinase-II, phosphofructokinase 2 and lactate dehydrogenase-A were determined. Supernatant lactic acid concentrations were also detected. The PI3K/AKT signaling pathway was then inhibited with wortmannin, and the effects of hypoxia on the expression or activities of HIF-1α, associated glycolytic enzymes and lactic acid concentrations were observed. Esophageal carcinoma cells were then transfected with interference plasmid with HIF-1α-targeting siRNA to assess impact of the high expression of HIF-1α on glycolysis. HIF-1α is highly expressed in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines tested, and with decreasing levels of oxygen, the expression of HIF-1α and the associated glycolytic enzymes and the extracellular lactic acid concentration were enhanced in the esophageal carcinoma cell lines Eca109 and TE13. In both normoxia and hypoxic conditions, the level of glycolytic enzymes and the secretion of lactic acid were both reduced by wortmannin. The expression and activities of glycolytic enzymes and the lactic acid concentration in cells were reduced by inhibiting HIF-1α, especially the decreasing level of glycolysis was significant under hypoxic conditions. The PI3K/AKT pathway and HIF-1α are both involved in the process of glycolysis in esophageal cancer cells.

  12. Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 Alpha Is Decreased in Women With Migraine With Aura.

    PubMed

    Liman, Thomas G; Neeb, Lars; Rosinski, Jana; Reuter, Uwe; Endres, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of migraine with aura. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1α) is involved in the maintenance of endothelial integrity via mobilization of vascular stem cells. We sought to determine whether SDF-1α levels are decreased in women with MA. In this post hoc analysis of a case-cohort study, levels of SDF-1α were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Endothelial function was assessed using peripheral arterial tonometry. Arterial stiffness was assessed by fingertip tonometry derived and heart-rate-adjusted augmentation index (AI). Twenty-eight women with MA and 27 age-matched healthy women were included in this study. Levels of SDF-1α were significantly lower in women with MA compared to age- and risk factor-matched healthy women (1763 ± 281 vs 2013 ± 263 pg/mL, P = 0.006). SDF-1α levels were positively correlated with AI in healthy women (r = 0.49, P = 0.009), but not in women with MA (r = 0.05, P = 0.78). SDF-1α levels were negatively correlated with CD144-positive endothelial microparticles (EMP; r = -0.31, P = .02), and activated CD62E-positive EMP (r = -0.35, P = .01). Levels of SDF-1α are decreased in women with MA and are associated with EMPs as a surrogate marker of endothelial dysfunction. This might contribute to the pathophysiology and vascular risk in MA, but evidence from larger prospective studies is warranted. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  13. Functional properties of an isolated. cap alpha beta. heterodimeric human placenta insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor complex

    SciTech Connect

    Feltz, S.M.; Swanson, M.L.; Wemmie, J.A.; Pessin, J.E.

    1988-05-03

    Treatment of human placenta membranes at pH 8.5 in the presence of 2.0 mM dithiothreitol (DTT) for 5 min, followed by the simultaneous removal of the DTT and pH adjustment of pH 7.6, resulted in the formation of a functional ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) receptor complex from the native ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state. The membrane-bound ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complex displayed similar curvilinear /sup 125/I-IGF-1 equilibrium binding compared to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric complex. /sup 125/I-IGF-1 binding to both the isolated ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes demonstrated a marked straightening of the Scatchard plots, compared to the placenta membrane-bound IGF-1 receptors, with a 2-fold increase in the high-affinity binding component. IGF-1 stimulation of IGF-1 receptor autophosphorylation indicated that the ligand-dependent activation of ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric protein kinase activity occurred concomitant with the reassociation into a covalent ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric state. These data demonstrate that (i) a combination of alkaline pH and DTT treatment of human placenta membranes results in the formation of an ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex, (ii) unlike the insulin receptor, high-affinity homogeneous IGF-1 binding occurs in both the ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric and ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric complexes, and (iii) IGF-1-dependent autophosphorylation of the ..cap alpha beta.. heterodimeric IGF-1 receptor complex correlates wit an IGF-1 dependent covalent reassociation into an ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta../sub 2/ heterotetrameric disulfide-linked state.

  14. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  15. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus viral IFN regulatory factor 3 stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha to induce vascular endothelial growth factor expression.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young C; Joo, Chul-Hyun; Gack, Michaela U; Lee, Hye-Ra; Jung, Jae U

    2008-03-15

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent associated with Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman's disease. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is the master regulator of both developmental and pathologic angiogenesis, composed of an oxygen-sensitive alpha-subunit and a constitutively expressed beta-subunit. HIF-1 activity in tumors depends on the availability of the HIF-1 alpha subunit, the levels of which are increased under hypoxic conditions. Recent studies have shown that HIF-1 plays an important role in KSHV reactivation from latency and pathogenesis. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which KSHV activates HIF-1 activity. Specific interaction between KSHV viral IFN regulatory factor 3 (vIRF3) and the HIF-1 alpha subunit led to the HIF-1 alpha stabilization and transcriptional activation, which induced vascular endothelial growth factor expression and ultimately facilitated endothelial tube formation. Remarkably, the central domain of vIRF3, containing double alpha-helix motifs, was sufficient not only for binding to HIF-1 alpha but also for blocking its degradation in normoxic conditions. This indicates that KSHV has developed a unique mechanism to enhance HIF-1 alpha protein stability and transcriptional activity by incorporating a viral homologue of cellular IRF gene into its genome, which may contribute to viral pathogenesis.

  16. Functional defect of truncated hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young

    SciTech Connect

    Kooptiwut, Suwattanee; Sujjitjoon, Jatuporn; Plengvidhya, Nattachet; Boonyasrisawat, Watip; Chongjaroen, Nalinee; Jungtrakoon, Prapapron; Semprasert, Namoiy; Furuta, Hiroto; Nanjo, Kishio; Banchuin, Napatawn; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2009-05-22

    A novel frameshift mutation attributable to 14-nucleotide insertion in hepatocyte nuclear factor-1{alpha} (HNF-1{alpha}) encoding a truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) with 76-amino acid deletion at its carboxyl terminus was identified in a Thai family with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} proteins were expressed by in vitro transcription and translation (TNT) assay and by transfection in HeLa cells. The wild-type and mutant HNF-1{alpha} could similarly bind to human glucose-transporter 2 (GLUT2) promoter examined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). However, the transactivation activities of mutant HNF-1{alpha} on human GLUT2 and rat L-type pyruvate kinase (L-PK) promoters in HeLa cells determined by luciferase reporter assay were reduced to approximately 55-60% of the wild-type protein. These results suggested that the functional defect of novel truncated HNF-1{alpha} (G554fsX556) on the transactivation of its target-gene promoters would account for the {beta}-cell dysfunction associated with the pathogenesis of MODY.

  17. Expression of DDX3 Is Directly Modulated by Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Breast Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botlagunta, Mahendran; Krishnamachary, Balaji; Vesuna, Farhad; Winnard, Paul T.; Bol, Guus M.; Patel, Arvind H.; Raman, Venu

    2011-01-01

    DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia inducible factor-1α is a transcriptional activator of DDX3 in breast cancer cells. Within the promoter region of the human DDX3 gene, we identified three putative hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements. By luciferase reporter assays in combination with mutated hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements, we determined that the hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive element at position -153 relative to the translation start site is essential for transcriptional activation of DDX3 under hypoxic conditions. We also demonstrated that hypoxia inducible factor-1 binds to the DDX3 promoter and that the binding is specific, as revealed by siRNA against hypoxia inducible factor-1 and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Thus, the activation of DDX3 expression during hypoxia is due to the direct binding of hypoxia inducible factor-1 to hypoxia responsive elements in the DDX3 promoter. In addition, we observed a significant overlap in the protein expression pattern of hypoxia inducible factor-1α and DDX3 in MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors. Taken together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, the role of DDX3 as a hypoxia-inducible gene that exhibits enhanced expression through the interaction of hypoxia inducible factor-1 with hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements in its promoter region. PMID:21448281

  18. Activation of the oxidative stress pathway by HIV-1 Vpr leads to induction of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha expression.

    PubMed

    Deshmane, Satish L; Mukerjee, Ruma; Fan, Shongshan; Del Valle, Luis; Michiels, Carine; Sweet, Thersa; Rom, Inna; Khalili, Kamel; Rappaport, Jay; Amini, Shohreh; Sawaya, Bassel E

    2009-04-24

    The detection of biomarkers of oxidative stress in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV)-associated dementia indicates the involvement of stress pathways in the neuropathogenesis of AIDS. Although the biological importance of oxidative stress on events involved in AIDS neuropathogenesis and the HIV-1 proteins responsible for oxidative stress remain to be elucidated, our results point to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) upon HIV-1 infection and its elevation in brain cells of AIDS patients with dementia. HIF-1 is a transcription factor that is responsive to oxygen. Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha becomes stable and translocates to the nucleus where it dimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and modulates gene transcription. Activation of HIF-1 can also be mediated by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr. In addition, cellular components, including reactive oxygen species, contribute to the induction of HIF-1alpha. Our results show that Vpr induces reactive oxygen species by increasing H(2)O(2) production, which can contribute to HIF-1alpha accumulation. Interestingly, increased levels of HIF-1alpha stimulated HIV-1 gene transcription through HIF-1 association with HIV-1 long terminal repeat. These observations point to the existence of a positive feedback interplay between HIF-1alpha and Vpr and that, by inducing oxidative stress via activation of HIF-1, Vpr can induce HIV-1 gene expression and dysregulate multiple host cellular pathways.

  19. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha release after intracoronary versus intramyocardial stem cell therapy in myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Hemetsberger, Rayyan; Posa, Aniko; Charwat, Silvia; Pavo, Noemi; Petnehazy, Ors; Petrasi, Zsolt; Pavo, Imre J; Hemetsberger, Hani; Benedek, Imre; Benedek, Teodora; Benedek, Istvan; Kovacs, Istvan; Kaun, Christoph; Maurer, Gerald

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effect of stem cell delivery on the release of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) in peripheral circulation and myocardium in experimental myocardial ischemia. Closed-chest, reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) was created in domestic pigs. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured and delivered (9.8 +/- 1.2 x 10(6)) either percutaneously NOGA-guided transendocardially (Group IM) or intracoronary (Group IC) 22 +/- 4 days post-MI. Pigs without MSC delivery served as sham control (Group S). Plasma HIF-1alpha was measured at baseline, immediately post- and at follow-up (FUP; 2 h or 24 h) post-MSC delivery by ELISA kit. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression of infarcted, normal myocardium, or border zone was determined by Western blot. Plasma level of HIF-1alpha increased immediately post-MI (from 278 +/- 127 to 631 +/- 375 pg/ml, p < 0.05). Cardiac delivery of MSCs elevated the plasma levels of HIF-1alpha significantly (p < 0.05) in groups IC and IM immediately post-MSC delivery, and returned to baseline level at FUP, without difference between the groups IC and IM. The myocardial tissue HIF-1alpha expression in the infarcted area was higher in Group IM than in Group IC or S (1,963 +/- 586 vs. 1,307 +/- 392 vs. 271 +/- 110 activity per square millimeter, respectively, p < 0.05), while the border zone contained similarly lower level of HIF-1alpha, but still significantly higher as compared with Group S. Trend towards increase in myocardial expression of HIF-1alpha was measured in Group IM at 24 h, in contrast to Group IC. In conclusion, both stem cell delivery modes increase the systemic and myocardial level of HIF-1alpha. Intramyocardial delivery of MSC seems to trigger the release of angiogenic HIF-1alpha more effectively than does intracoronary delivery.

  20. Cobalt chloride-induced estrogen receptor alpha down-regulation involves hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jungyoon; Kim, Dukkyung; Lee, SeungKi; Lee, YoungJoo

    2005-05-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is down-regulated under hypoxia via a proteasome-dependent pathway. We studied the mechanism of ERalpha degradation under hypoxic mimetic conditions. Cobalt chloride-induced ERalpha down-regulation was dependent on the expression of newly synthesized protein(s), one possibility of which was hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha). To examine the role of HIF-1alpha expression in ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxic-mimetic conditions, we used a constitutively active form of HIF-1alpha, HIF-1alpha/herpes simplex viral protein 16 (VP16), constructed by replacing the transactivation domain of HIF-1alpha with that of VP16. Western blot analysis revealed that HIF-1alpha/VP16 down-regulated ERalpha in a dose-dependent manner via a proteasome-dependent pathway. The kinase pathway inhibitors PD98059, U0126, wortmannin, and SB203580 did not affect the down-regulation. A mammalian two-hybrid screen and immunoprecipitation assays indicated that ERalpha interacted with HIF-1alpha physically. These results suggest that ERalpha down-regulation under hypoxia involves protein-protein interactions between the ERalpha and HIF-1alpha.

  1. Immunohistochemical detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human renal allograft biopsies.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Christian; Pratschke, Johann; Rudolph, Birgit; Heyman, Samuel N; Schindler, Ralf; Babel, Nina; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Frei, Ulrich; Rosen, Seymour; Reinke, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Although it generally is accepted that renal hypoxia may occur in various situations after renal transplantation, direct evidence for such hypoxia is lacking, and possible implications on graft pathophysiology remain obscure. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF) are regulated at the protein level by oxygen-dependent enzymes and, hence, allow for tissue hypoxia detection. With the use of high-amplification HIF-1alpha immunohistochemistry in renal biopsies, hypoxia is shown at specific time points after transplantation with clinicohistologic correlations. Immediately after engraftment, in primarily functioning grafts, abundant HIF-1alpha is present and correlates with cold ischemic time >15 h and/or graft age >50 yr (P < 0.04). In contrast, a low HIF-1alpha score correlates with primary nonfunction, likely reflecting loss of oxygen consumption for tubular transport. Protocol biopsies at 2 wk show widespread HIF-1alpha induction, irrespective of histology. Beyond 3 mo, both protocol biopsies and indicated biopsies are virtually void of HIF-1alpha, with the only exception being clinical/subclinical rejection. HIF-derived transcriptional adaptation to hypoxia may counterbalance, at least partly, the negative impact of cold preservation and warm reflow injury. Transient hypoxia at 2 wk may be induced by hyperfiltration, hypertrophy, calcineurin inhibitor-induced toxicity, or a combination of these. Lack of detectable HIF-1alpha at 3 mo and beyond suggests that at this time point, graft oxygen homeostasis occurs. The strong correlation between hypoxia and clinical/subclinical rejection in long-term grafts suggests that hypoxia is involved in such graft dysfunction, and HIF-1alpha immunohistochemistry could enhance the specific diagnosis of acute rejection.

  2. Noninvasive Imaging of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Gene Therapy for Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ian Y.; Gheysens, Olivier; Li, Zongjin; Rasooly, Julia A.; Wang, Qian; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin; Willmann, Juergen K.; Wang, David S.; Contag, Christopher H.; Robbins, Robert C.; Wu, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of myocardial ischemia. Both preclinical and clinical evaluations of this therapy are underway and can benefit from a vector strategy that allows noninvasive assessment of HIF-1α expression as an objective measure of gene delivery. We have developed a novel bidirectional plasmid vector (pcTnT-HIF-1α-VP2-TSTA-fluc), which employs the cardiac troponin T (cTnT) promoter in conjunction with a two-step transcriptional amplification (TSTA) system to drive the linked expression of a recombinant HIF-1α gene (HIF-1α-VP2) and the firefly luciferase gene (fluc). The firefly luciferase (FLuc) activity serves as a surrogate for HIF-1α-VP2 expression, and can be noninvasively assessed in mice using bioluminescence imaging after vector delivery. Transfection of cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes with pcTnT-HIF-1α-VP2-TSTA-fluc led to a strong correlation between FLuc and HIF-1α-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor expression (r2=0.88). Intramyocardial delivery of pcTnT-HIF-1α-VP2-TSTA-fluc into infarcted mouse myocardium led to persistent HIF-1α-VP2 expression for 4 weeks, even though it improved neither CD31+ microvessel density nor echocardiographically determined left ventricular systolic function. These results lend support to recent findings of suboptimal efficacy associated with plasmid-mediated HIF-1α therapy. The imaging techniques developed herein should be useful for further optimizing HIF-1α-VP2 therapy in preclinical models of myocardial ischemia. PMID:23937265

  3. The protein level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is increased in the plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) inhabiting high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Ge; Ren, Yong-Ming; Guo, Song-Chang; Cheng, Long; Wang, De-Peng; Yang, Jie; Chang, Zhi-Jie; Zhao, Xin-Quan

    2009-02-01

    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) is a high hypoxia-tolerant species living only at 3,000-5,000 m above sea-level on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a key transcription factor that regulates a variety of cellular and systemic adaptations to hypoxia. To investigate how the plateau pika adapts to a high-altitude hypoxic environment at the molecular level, we examined the expression pattern of the HIF-1alpha protein in the pika by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. We found that HIF-1alpha protein is expressed at a significantly high level in the pika, which is higher in most tissues (particularly in the lung, liver, spleen and kidney) of the plateau pika than that of mice living at sea-level. Importantly, we found that the protein levels of HIF-1alpha in the lung, liver, spleen and kidney of the pika were increased with increased habitat altitudes. We observed that the plateau pika HIF-1alpha localized to the nucleus of cells by an immunostaining analysis, and enhanced HRE-driven gene expression by luciferase reporter assays. Our study suggests that the HIF-1alpha protein levels are related to the adaptation of the plateau pika to the high-altitude hypoxic environment.

  4. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha-induced lymphocyte polarization and chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Vicente-Manzanares, M; Rey, M; Jones, D R; Sancho, D; Mellado, M; Rodriguez-Frade, J M; del Pozo, M A; Yáñez-Mó, M; de Ana, A M; Martínez-A, C; Mérida, I; Sánchez-Madrid, F

    1999-10-01

    The role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), an important enzyme involved in signal transduction events, has been studied in the polarization and chemotaxis of lymphocytes induced by the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha). This chemokine was able to directly activate p85/p110 PI3-kinase in whole human PBL and to induce the association of PI3-kinase to the SDF-1 alpha receptor, CXCR4, in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. Two unrelated chemical inhibitors of PI3-kinase, wortmannin and Ly294002, prevented ICAM-3 and ERM protein moesin polarization as well as the chemotaxis of PBL in response to SDF-1 alpha. However, they did not interfere with the reorganization of either tubulin or the actin cytoskeleton. Moreover, the transient expression of a dominant negative form of the PI3-kinase 85-kDa regulatory subunit in the constitutively polarized Peer T cell line inhibited ICAM-3 polarization and markedly reduced SDF-1 alpha-induced chemotaxis. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively activated mutant of the PI3-kinase 110-kDa catalytic subunit in the round-shaped PM-1 T cell line induced ICAM-3 polarization. These results underline the role of PI3-kinase in the regulation of lymphocyte polarization and motility and indicate that PI3-kinase plays a selective role in the regulation of adhesion and ERM proteins redistribution in the plasma membrane of lymphocytes.

  5. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} in modulating cobalt-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Yogesh; Kim, Kyung Y; Lewandowski, Ryan; Bramble, Lori A; Harkema, Jack R; Lapres, John J

    2010-02-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in development, cellular homeostasis, and pathological conditions, such as cancer and stroke. There is also growing evidence that hypoxia is an important modulator of the inflammatory process. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are a family of proteins that regulate the cellular response to oxygen deficit, and loss of HIFs impairs inflammatory cell function. There is little known, however, about the role of epithelial-derived HIF signaling in modulating inflammation. Cobalt is capable of eliciting an allergic response and promoting HIF signaling. To characterize the inflammatory function of epithelial-derived HIF in response to inhaled cobalt, a conditional lung-specific HIF1alpha, the most ubiquitously expressed HIF, deletion mouse, was created. Control mice showed classic signs of metal-induced injury following cobalt exposure, including fibrosis and neutrophil infiltration. In contrast, HIF1alpha-deficient mice displayed a Th2 response that resembled asthma, including increased eosinophilic infiltration, mucus cell metaplasia, and chitinase-like protein expression. The results suggest that epithelial-derived HIF signaling has a critical role in establishing a tissue's inflammatory response, and compromised HIF1alpha signaling biases the tissue towards a Th2-mediated reaction.

  6. [Prenatal gene diagnosis of alpha-thalassemias].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Li, Q; Wu, Y

    1998-03-01

    To study the value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in prenatal diagnosis of alpha thalassemias. Amniotic fluid prenatal gene diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction was carried out on eleven fetuses whose parents are both heterozygotes with alpha-globin gene deficiency. A DNA fragment of 224bp in the production means normal alpha-globin gene sequence, while a 630bp fragment indicated the alpha-globin gene deficiency. Both 224bp and 630bp fragments in the same sample means heterozygote. Three of the 11 fetuses (one pregnancy was twin) were with normal alpha-globin gene sequence, while 4 were homozygotes and the other 4 were heterozygotes. For the 3 fetuses with ascitic fluid under ultrasound examination, 2 were homozygotes and the other one was heterozygote by gene diagnosis. Two of the 4 homozygotes from induced abortion were typical Bart's syndrome, one was edema in the whole body and the other one with short limbs and abdominal hernia. The method of PCR in prenatal diagnoses for detection of alpha-thalassemias is simple, accurate and rapid.

  7. Prognostic Significance of Tumor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1{alpha} Expression for Outcome After Radiotherapy in Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Priyamal; Slevin, Nick J.; Sloan, Philip; Valentine, Helen; Cresswell, Jo; Ryder, David; Price, Patricia; Homer, Jarrod J.; West, Catharine

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: Head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents a heterogeneous group of patients in terms of subsite, treatment, and biology. Currently most management decisions are based on clinical parameters with little appreciation of patient differences in underlying tumor biology. We investigated the prognostic significance of clinicopathologic features and tumor hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) expression in a homogeneous series of patients who underwent radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: An audit identified 133 consecutive patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil or tongue base. All patients received primary radiotherapy between 1996 and 2001. Tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was examined in 79 patients. Results: Features associated with poor locoregional control were low Hb level (p = 0.05) and advancing T (p = 0.008), N (p = 0.03), and disease (p = 0.008) stage. HIF-1{alpha} expression was a more significant adverse prognostic factor in the tonsil (hazard ratio [HR], 23.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 3.04-176.7) than the tongue-base tumor (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.14-7.19) group (p = 0.03, test for interaction). High tumor HIF-1{alpha} expression was associated with low blood Hb levels (p = 0.03). In a multivariate analysis HIF-1{alpha} expression retained prognostic significance for locoregional control (HR, 7.10; 95% CI, 3.07-16.43) and cancer-specific survival (HR, 9.19; 95% CI, 3.90-21.6). Conclusions: There are significant differences in radiation therapy outcome within a homogeneous subsite of the oropharynx related to molecular marker expression. The work highlights the importance of studying homogeneous groups of patients in HNSCC, and the complex interrelationships between tumor biology and clinicopathologic factors. The establishment of tumor-type specific markers would represent a major advance in this area.

  8. Nutrition-induced catch-up growth increases hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha RNA levels in the growth plate.

    PubMed

    Even-Zohar, N; Jacob, J; Amariglio, N; Rechavi, G; Potievsky, O; Phillip, M; Gat-Yablonski, G

    2008-03-01

    Although catch-up growth is a well-known phenomenon, the local pathways at the epiphyseal growth plate that govern this process remain poorly understood. To study the mechanisms governing catch-up growth in the growth plate, we subjected prepubertal rats to 10 days of 40% food restriction, followed by a renewal of the regular food supply to induce catch-up growth. The animals were weighed daily, and their humeral length was measured at sacrifice. The proximal tibial epiphyseal growth plates (EGPs) were studied, and findings were compared with EGPs from animals fed ad libitum and animals under food restriction. The gene expression profile in the growth plates was examined using DNA microarrays, and the expression levels of selected genes were validated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To localize gene expression in different growth plate zones, microdissection was used. Protein levels and localization were examined using immunohistochemistry. We showed that the expression level of 550 genes decreased during food restriction and increased during catch-up growth, starting already one day after refeeding. HIF-1alpha, as well as several of its downstream targets, was found among these genes. Immunohistochemistry showed a similar pattern for HIF-1alpha protein abundance. Additionally, HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels were higher in the proliferating than in the hypertrophic zone, and this distribution was unaffected by nutritional status. These findings indicate that nutrition has a profound effect on gene expression level during growth plate growth, and suggest an important role for HIF-1alpha in the growth plate and its response to nutritional manipulation.

  9. Myeloid derived hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha is required for protection against pulmonary Aspergillus fumigatus infection.

    PubMed

    Shepardson, Kelly M; Jhingran, Anupam; Caffrey, Alayna; Obar, Joshua J; Suratt, Benjamin T; Berwin, Brent L; Hohl, Tobias M; Cramer, Robert A

    2014-09-01

    Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) is the mammalian transcriptional factor that controls metabolism, survival, and innate immunity in response to inflammation and low oxygen. Previous work established that generation of hypoxic microenvironments occurs within the lung during infection with the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we demonstrate that A. fumigatus stabilizes HIF1α protein early after pulmonary challenge that is inhibited by treatment of mice with the steroid triamcinolone. Utilizing myeloid deficient HIF1α mice, we observed that HIF1α is required for survival and fungal clearance early following pulmonary challenge with A. fumigatus. Unlike previously reported research with bacterial pathogens, HIF1α deficient neutrophils and macrophages were surprisingly not defective in fungal conidial killing. The increase in susceptibility of the myeloid deficient HIF1α mice to A. fumigatus was in part due to decreased early production of the chemokine CXCL1 (KC) and increased neutrophil apoptosis at the site of infection, resulting in decreased neutrophil numbers in the lung. Addition of recombinant CXCL1 restored neutrophil survival and numbers, murine survival, and fungal clearance. These results suggest that there are unique HIF1α mediated mechanisms employed by the host for protection and defense against fungal pathogen growth and invasion in the lung. Additionally, this work supports the strategy of exploring HIF1α as a therapeutic target in specific immunosuppressed populations with fungal infections.

  10. [Expression of elongation factor-1 alpha-A and beta-actin promoters in embryos of transgenic Medaka (Oryzias latipes)].

    PubMed

    Long, Hua

    2003-06-01

    Two expression vectors with the promoter of either Medaka (Oryzias latipes) elongation factor gene or beta-actin gene were constructed based on pBluescript SK+. Both of them are linked with green-fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. And they are named as pB-EF and pB-BA, respectively. The microinjection experiments were conducted with fertilized Medaka eggs at one-cell stage. The expression of two vectors, pB-EF and pB-BA, was observed under stereo-fluorescence microscope. The detection results showed that both EF-1 alpha-A promoter and beta-actin promoter are strong. In the process of embryo development, the activity of beta-actin promoter became stronger while that of EF-1 alpha-A promoter weaker gradually. beta-actin promoter was but EF-1 alpha-A promoter distributed throughout fish body uniformly. The expression rate of two vectors, pB-EF and pB-BA, are 8.23% and 6.10%, respectively.

  11. [Sequential expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha and its significance in secondary spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingfei; Jia, Changqing; Wang, Nan; Chen, Xiaochun; Chi, Renjie; Bai, Shuling

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the expression pattern of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in experimental secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) in rats and its potential effects on SSCI. A total of 66 SD rats (female or male) with weight (250 +/- 20) g were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group (group A, n = 6), pseudo injury group (group B, n = 6), and spinal cord injury (SCI) group (group C, n = 54). In group A, no treatment was given as normal control. In group B, only laminectomy was applied. In group C, laminectomy was applied and static compression model of SCI was built at T10 level. The expression of HIF-1alpha was measured with HE and immunohistochemical staining in groups A, B (1 hour after pseudo injury), and C (1, 3, 6, 12 hours and 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 days after SCI). Results All rats survived to the end of the experiment. HE staining showed that the spinal tissue of groups A and B were dense and the nucleus were round and big with light staining and clear nucleolus. The injured neuron at 1-12 hours after SCI of group C presented pyknosis and deep eosin staining. The swelling axon with bubbles and the disintegrated and disorganized medullary sheath in white matter appeared at 1-3 days after SCI. The hyperplasia of glial cells were obvious and gray matter cells were broken and apoptosis with cavities in injured spinal segment was observed at 7 and 14 days after SCI. Immunohistochemical staining showed that HIF-la was poorly expressed in group A and increased a little in group B. The positive expression in group C increased at 3 hours after SCI, which was found in spinal cord anterior horn neurons and a small amount of ganglion cells. It reached peak at 1 day, maintained at a high level during 1-3 days and then declined. At 14 days, it appeared only in a small amount of ganglion cells of white matter. There was no significant difference in the number of HIF-1alpha positive cells between groups A and B (t = 1.325, P = 0.137). The number of HIF-1alpha

  12. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP-2 or

  13. High glucose concentrations attenuate hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} expression and signaling in non-tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dehne, Nathalie; Bruene, Bernhard

    2010-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is the major transcription factor mediating adaption to hypoxia e.g. by enhancing glycolysis. In tumor cells, high glucose concentrations are known to increase HIF-1{alpha} expression even under normoxia, presumably by enhancing the concentration of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, while reactions of non-tumor cells are not well defined. Therefore, we analyzed cellular responses to different glucose concentrations in respect to HIF activation comparing tumor to non-tumor cells. Using cells derived from non-tumor origin, we show that HIF-1{alpha} accumulation was higher under low compared to high glucose concentrations. Low glucose allowed mRNA expression of HIF-1 target genes like adrenomedullin. Transfection of C{sub 2}C{sub 12} cells with a HIF-1{alpha} oxygen-dependent degradation domaine-GFP fusion protein revealed that prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity is impaired at low glucose concentrations, thus stabilizing the fusion protein. Mechanistic considerations suggested that neither O{sub 2} redistribution nor an altered redox state explains impaired PHD activity in the absence of glucose. In order to affect PHD activity, glucose needs to be metabolized. Amino acids present in the medium also diminished HIF-1{alpha} expression, while the addition of fatty acids did not. This suggests that glucose or amino acid metabolism increases oxoglutarate concentrations, which enhances PHD activity in non-tumor cells. Tumor cells deprived of glutamine showed HIF-1{alpha} accumulation in the absence of glucose, proposing that enhanced glutaminolysis observed in many tumors enables these cells to compensate reduced oxoglutarate production in the absence of glucose.

  14. Regulation of genes encoding steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) and gonadotropin subunits in the ovine pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Baratta, M; Turzillo, A M; Arreguin-Arevalo, A; Clay, C M; Nett, T M

    2003-07-01

    Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is a transcription factor originally characterized as a mediator of gene expression in steroidogenic tissues. Studies in SF-1 knockout mice revealed that SF-1 has additional roles at multiple levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, including regulation of gene expression in pituitary gonadotropes. Specific binding sites for SF-1 have been demonstrated in several pituitary genes with essential roles in gonadotropin synthesis, including alpha subunit, LHbeta subunit, and GnRH receptor. In studies aimed at identifying physiological factors controlling pituitary expression of SF-1, GnRH has been implicated as a co-regulator of SF-1 and gonadotropin subunit genes. In both rats and ewes, elevated endogenous secretion of GnRH following ovariectomy was associated with increased amounts of SF-1 mRNA in the anterior pituitary gland. Conversely, removal of GnRH input to the pituitary gland by hypothalamic-pituitary disconnection (HPD) in ovariectomized (OVX) ewes reduced SF-1 expression. Despite these changes, however, treatment of OVX ewes with GnRH following HPD only partially restored levels of SF-1 mRNA in the pituitary gland. Therefore, it is possible that regulation of SF-1 gene expression by GnRH during the estrous cycle may involve ovarian hormones or other hypothalamic factors. Additional studies are required to further define the physiological roles of SF-1 in regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in domestic ruminants.

  15. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail: bajetto@cba.unige.it; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail: florio@cba.unige.it; Schettini, Gennaro

    2005-08-15

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  16. In cultured astrocytes, p53 and MDM2 do not alter hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha function regardless of the presence of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Rempe, David A; Lelli, Katherine M; Vangeison, Grace; Johnson, Randall S; Federoff, Howard J

    2007-06-01

    A principal molecular mechanism by which cells respond to hypoxia is by activation of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha). Several studies describe a binding of p53 to HIF-1alpha in a protein complex, leading to attenuated function, half-life, and abundance of HIF-1alpha. However, these reports almost exclusively utilized transformed cell lines, and many employed transfection of p53 or HIF-1alpha plasmid constructs and/or p53 and HIF-1alpha reporter constructs as surrogates for endogenous protein activity and target expression, respectively. Thus, it remains an open and important question as to whether p53 inhibits HIF-1alpha-mediated transactivation of endogenous HIF-1alpha targets in nontransformed cells. After determining in primary astrocyte cultures the HIF-1alpha targets that were most dependent on HIF-1alpha function, we examined the effect of the loss of p53 function either alone or in combination with MDM2 on expression of these targets. Although p53 null astrocyte cultures resulted in markedly increased HIF-1alpha-dependent target expression compared with controls, this altered expression was determined to be the result of increased cell density of p53 null cultures and the accompanying acidosis, not loss of p53 protein. Although activation of p53 by DNA damage induced p53 target expression in astrocytes, it did not alter hypoxia-induced HIF-1alpha target expression. Finally, a combined loss of MDM2 and p53 did not alter HIF-1alpha target expression compared with loss of p53 alone. These data strongly suggest that p53 and MDM2 do not influence the hypoxia-induced transactivation of HIF-1alpha targets, regardless of p53 activation, in primary astrocytes.

  17. Characterization and phylogeny of Isaria spp. strains (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Celeste P; Jones, Leandro R; Humber, Richard A; López Lastra, Claudia C; Sosa-Gomez, Daniel R

    2014-07-01

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-α) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and to identify Isaria isolates from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi from the order Hypocreales. The molecular characterization, which was performed by PCR-RFLP of EF1-α and ITS1-5.8-ITS2 genes, was useful for resolving representative isolates of Isaria fumosorosea, Isaria farinosa, and Isaria tenuipes and to confirm the taxonomic identity of fungi from Argentina, Mexico, and Brazil. The phylogenetic analyses showed three clades corresponding to three families of Hypocreales. The genus Isaria was confirmed as polyphyletic and in family Cordycipitaceae, Isaria species were related to anamorphic species of Beauveria, Lecanicillium, and Simplicillium and to teleomorphic Cordyceps and Torrubiella. Therefore, EF1-α and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genes were found to be powerful tools for improving the characterization, identification, and phylogenetic relationship of the Isaria species and other entomopathogenic fungi.

  18. MUC1 mucin stabilizes and activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha to regulate metabolism in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chaika, Nina V.; Gebregiworgis, Teklab; Lewallen, Michelle E.; Purohit, Vinee; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Bo; Mehla, Kamiya; Brown, Roger B.; Caffrey, Thomas; Yu, Fang; Johnson, Keith R.; Powers, Robert; Hollingsworth, Michael A.; Singh, Pankaj K.

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer that facilitates cancer cell survival and proliferation. Here, we demonstrate that MUC1, a large, type I transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in several carcinomas including pancreatic adenocarcinoma, modulates cancer cell metabolism to facilitate growth properties of cancer cells. MUC1 occupies the promoter elements of multiple genes directly involved in glucose metabolism and regulates their expression. Furthermore, MUC1 expression enhances glycolytic activity in pancreatic cancer cells. We also demonstrate that MUC1 expression enhances in vivo glucose uptake and expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in orthotopic implantation models of pancreatic cancer. The MUC1 cytoplasmic tail is known to activate multiple signaling pathways through its interactions with several transcription factors/coregulators at the promoter elements of various genes. Our results indicate that MUC1 acts as a modulator of the hypoxic response in pancreatic cancer cells by regulating the expression/stability and activity of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). MUC1 physically interacts with HIF-1α and p300 and stabilizes the former at the protein level. By using a ChIP assay, we demonstrate that MUC1 facilitates recruitment of HIF-1α and p300 on glycolytic gene promoters in a hypoxia-dependent manner. Also, by metabolomic studies, we demonstrate that MUC1 regulates multiple metabolite intermediates in the glucose and amino acid metabolic pathways. Thus, our studies indicate that MUC1 acts as a master regulator of the metabolic program and facilitates metabolic alterations in the hypoxic environments that help tumor cells survive and proliferate under such conditions. PMID:22869720

  19. Toxoplasma gondii Elongation Factor 1-Alpha (TgEF-1α) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate Antigen against Toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Gadahi, Javaid A; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite which can infect almost all warm-blood animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. Screening and discovery of an effective vaccine candidate or new drug target is crucial for the control of this disease. In this study, the recombinant T. gondii elongation factor 1-alpha (rTgEF-1α) was successfully expressed in in Escherichia coli. Passive immunization of mice with anti-rTgEF-1α polyclonal antibody following challenge with a lethal dose of tachyzoites significantly increased the survival time compared with PBS control group. The survival time of mice challenged with tachyzoites pretreated with anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb also was significantly increased. Invasion of tachyzoites into mouse macrophages was significantly inhibited in the anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb pretreated group. Mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies and production of IFN-gamma, interleukin-4. The expression levels of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules as well as the percentages of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α was significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05), compared with all the controls. Immunization with rTgEF-1α significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged survival time (14.53 ± 1.72 days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain. These results indicate that T. gondii EF-1α plays an essential role in mediating host cell invasion by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against toxoplasmosis.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii Elongation Factor 1-Alpha (TgEF-1α) Is a Novel Vaccine Candidate Antigen against Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Zhenchao; Wang, Yujian; Gadahi, Javaid A.; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Li, Xiangrui

    2017-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular parasite which can infect almost all warm-blood animals, leading to toxoplasmosis. Screening and discovery of an effective vaccine candidate or new drug target is crucial for the control of this disease. In this study, the recombinant T. gondii elongation factor 1-alpha (rTgEF-1α) was successfully expressed in in Escherichia coli. Passive immunization of mice with anti-rTgEF-1α polyclonal antibody following challenge with a lethal dose of tachyzoites significantly increased the survival time compared with PBS control group. The survival time of mice challenged with tachyzoites pretreated with anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb also was significantly increased. Invasion of tachyzoites into mouse macrophages was significantly inhibited in the anti-rTgEF-1α PcAb pretreated group. Mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α induced a high level of specific anti-T. gondii antibodies and production of IFN-gamma, interleukin-4. The expression levels of MHC-I and MHC-II molecules as well as the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in mice vaccinated with rTgEF-1α was significantly increased, respectively (P < 0.05), compared with all the controls. Immunization with rTgEF-1α significantly (P < 0.05) prolonged survival time (14.53 ± 1.72 days) after challenge infection with the virulent T. gondii RH strain. These results indicate that T. gondii EF-1α plays an essential role in mediating host cell invasion by the parasite and, as such, could be a candidate vaccine antigen against toxoplasmosis. PMID:28243226

  1. Mathematically-Engineered Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1alpha Stem Cell Cytokine Analogue Enhances Mechanical Properties of Infarcted Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Jr, John W. MacArthur; Trubelja, Alen; Shudo, Yasuhiro; Hsiao, Philip; Fairman, Alex; Yang, Elaine; Hiesinger, William; Atluri, Pavan; Woo, Y Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background The biomechanical response to a myocardial infarction consists of ventricular remodeling that leads to dilation, loss of contractile function, abnormal stress patterns and ultimately heart failure. We hypothesized that intramyocardial injection of our previously designed pro-angiogenic chemokine, an engineered stromal cell derived factor 1alpha analogue(ESA), improves mechanical properties of the heart post-infarction. Methods Male rats (n=54) underwent either sham surgery (n=17) with no coronary artery ligation or ligation of the LAD (n=37). Rats in the MI group were then randomized to receive either saline (0.1cc, n=18) or ESA (6μg/kg, n=19) injected into the myocardium at 4 predetermined spots around the borderzone. Echocardiograms were performed preoperatively and before the terminal surgery. After 4 weeks the hearts were explanted and longitudinally sectioned. Uniaxial tensile testing was completed using an Instron 5543 Microtester. Optical strain was evaluated utilizing custom image acquisition software, Digi-Velpo, and analyzed in MATLAB. Results Compared to the saline control group at 4 weeks, the ESA injected hearts had higher ejection fractions (71.8% ± 9.0 vs. 55.3% ± 12.6, p= 0.0004) smaller end-diastolic left ventricular internal dimensions (0.686cm ± 0.110 vs. 0.763cm ± 0.160, p= 0.04), higher cardiac output (36ml/min ± 11.6 vs. 26.9ml/min ± 7.3, p= 0.05) and the tensile modulus was lower(251kPa ± 56 vs. 301kPa ± 81, p= 0.04). The tensile modulus for the sham group was 195kPa ± 56, indicating ESA injection results in a less stiff ventricle. Conclusions Direct injection of ESA alters the biomechanical response to MI, improving the mechanical properties in the post-infarct heart. PMID:23244259

  2. Characterization and phylogeny of entomopathogenic Isaria spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) using ITS1-5.8X-ITS2 and elongation factor 1-alpha sequences

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1-a) and the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) sequences were used to characterize and identify Isaria isolates from Argentina and Brazil, as well as to study the phylogenetic relationships among these isolates and other related fungi...

  3. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Sun, Tian-Hu; Wang, Ning; Ling, Hong-Qing; Lu, Shan; Li, Li

    2011-04-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Orange (Or) gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring β-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis for the effects of the Or gene mutation in on plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2), a member of the eRF1 family, by yeast two-hybrid analysis and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Concomitantly, the Or mutant showed reduced expression of the BoeRF1 family genes. Transgenic cauliflower plants with suppressed expression of BoeRF1-2 and BoeRF1-3 were generated by RNA interference. Like the Or mutant, the BoeRF1 RNAi lines showed increased elongation of the leaf petiole. This long-petiole phenotype was largely caused by enhanced cell elongation, which resulted from increased cell length and elevated expression of genes involved in cell-wall loosening. These findings demonstrate that the cauliflower Or gene controls petiole elongation by suppressing the expression of eRF1 genes, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf petiole regulation. © 2010 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2010 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 regulates ESC chromatin organization and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kooistra, Susanne M; van den Boom, Vincent; Thummer, Rajkumar P; Johannes, Frank; Wardenaar, René; Tesson, Bruno M; Veenhoff, Liesbeth M; Fusetti, Fabrizia; O'Neill, Laura P; Turner, Bryan M; de Haan, Gerald; Eggen, Bart J L

    2010-10-01

    Previous reports showed that embryonic stem (ES) cells contain hyperdynamic and globally transcribed chromatin-properties that are important for ES cell pluripotency and differentiation. Here, we demonstrate a role for undifferentiated embryonic cell transcription factor 1 (UTF1) in regulating ES cell chromatin structure. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip analysis, we identified >1,700 UTF1 target genes that significantly overlap with previously identified Nanog, Oct4, Klf-4, c-Myc, and Rex1 targets. Gene expression profiling showed that UTF1 knock down results in increased expression of a large set of genes, including a significant number of UTF1 targets. UTF1 knock down (KD) ES cells are, irrespective of the increased expression of several self-renewal genes, Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) dependent. However, UTF1 KD ES cells are perturbed in their differentiation in response to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or after LIF withdrawal and display increased colony formation. UTF1 KD ES cells display extensive chromatin decondensation, reflected by a dramatic increase in nucleosome release on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) treatment and enhanced MNase sensitivity of UTF1 target genes in UTF1 KD ES cells. Summarizing, our data show that UTF1 is a key chromatin component in ES cells, preventing ES cell chromatin decondensation, and aberrant gene expression; both essential for proper initiation of lineage-specific differentiation of ES cells.

  5. Isolation and characterization of the human Gs alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kozasa, T; Itoh, H; Tsukamoto, T; Kaziro, Y

    1988-01-01

    The gene for Gs alpha (the alpha subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein Gs) was isolated from human genomic libraries using rat Gs alpha cDNA as a probe. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the human gene with that of the rat cDNA revealed that the human Gs alpha gene spans approximately equal to 20 kilobases and is composed of 13 exons and 12 introns. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggests that the human haploid genome contains a single Gs alpha gene. Previous reports indicated the presence of multiple species of Gs alpha cDNA. The structure of the human Gs alpha gene suggests that four types of Gs alpha mRNAs may be generated from a single Gs alpha gene by alternate use of exon 3 and/or of two 3' splice sites of intron 3, where an unusual splice junction sequence (TG) instead of the consensus (AG) is used. S1 nuclease mapping analysis of human Gs alpha mRNA identified multiple transcriptional initiation sites. The promoter region of the human Gs alpha gene has extremely high G + C content (85%). It contains 4 "GC" boxes, but no typical "TATA" or "CAAT" box sequence. In the 5' flanking region, there are several blocks of sequences that are similar to the sequences of the 5' flanking region of the human c-Ki-ras2 gene. Images PMID:3127824

  6. F-actin sequesters elongation factor 1alpha from interaction with aminoacyl-tRNA in a pH-dependent reaction

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The machinery of eukaryotic protein synthesis is found in association with the actin cytoskeleton. A major component of this translational apparatus, which is involved in the shuttling of aa-tRNA, is the actin- binding protein elongation factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha). To investigate the consequences for translation of the interaction of EF-1alpha with F- actin, we have studied the effect of F-actin on the ability of EF- 1alpha to bind to aa-tRNA. We demonstrate that binding of EF-1alpha:GTP to aa-tRNA is not pH sensitive with a constant binding affinity of approximately 0.2 microM over the physiological range of pH. However, the sharp pH dependence of binding of EF-1alpha to F-actin is sufficient to shift the binding of EF-1alpha from F-actin to aa-tRNA as pH increases. The ability of EF-1alpha to bind either F-actin or aa- tRNA in competition binding experiments is also consistent with the observation that EF-1alpha's binding to F-actin and aa-tRNA is mutually exclusive. Two pH-sensitive actin-binding sequences in EF-1alpha are identified and are predicted to overlap with the aa-tRNA-binding sites. Our results suggest that pH-regulated recruitment and release of EF- 1alpha from actin filaments in vivo will supply a high local concentration of EF-1alpha to facilitate polypeptide elongation by the F-actin-associated translational apparatus. PMID:8922379

  7. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in the susceptibility to gamma-rays and chemotherapeutic drugs of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sasabe, Eri; Zhou, Xuan; Li, Dechao; Oku, Naohisa; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Osaki, Tokio

    2007-01-15

    The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the key regulator that controls the hypoxic response of mammalian cells. The overexpression of HIF-1alpha has been demonstrated in many human tumors. However, the role of HIF-1alpha in the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in cancer cells is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of HIF-1alpha expression on the susceptibility of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells to chemotherapeutic drugs (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum and 5-fluorouracil) and gamma-rays. Treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs and gamma-rays enhanced the expression and nuclear translocation of HIF-1alpha, and the susceptibility of OSCC cells to the drugs and gamma-rays was negatively correlated with the expression level of HIF-1alpha protein. The overexpression of HIF-1alpha induced OSCC cells to become more resistant to the anticancer agents, and down-regulation of HIF-1alpha expression by small interfering RNA enhanced the susceptibility of OSCC cells to them. In the HIF-1alpha-knockdown OSCC cells, the expression of P-glycoprotein, heme oxygenase-1, manganese-superoxide dismutase and ceruloplasmin were downregulated and the intracellular levels of chemotherapeutic drugs and reactive oxygen species were sustained at higher levels after the treatment with the anticancer agents. These results suggest that enhanced HIF-1alpha expression is related to the resistance of tumor cells to chemo- and radio-therapy and that HIF-1alpha is an effective therapeutic target for cancer treatment.

  8. Differential dependence of hypoxia-inducible factors 1 alpha and 2 alpha on mTORC1 and mTORC2.

    PubMed

    Toschi, Alfredo; Lee, Evan; Gadir, Noga; Ohh, Michael; Foster, David A

    2008-12-12

    Constitutive expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been implicated in several proliferative disorders. Constitutive expression of HIF1 alpha and HIF2 alpha has been linked to a number of human cancers, especially renal cell carcinoma (RCC), in which HIF2 alpha expression is the more important contributor. Expression of HIF1 alpha is dependent on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and is sensitive to rapamycin. In contrast, there have been no reports linking HIF2 alpha expression with mTOR. mTOR exists in two complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which are differentially sensitive to rapamycin. We report here that although there are clear differences in the sensitivity of HIF1 alpha and HIF2 alpha to rapamycin, both HIF1 alpha and HIF2 alpha expression is dependent on mTOR. HIF1 alpha expression was dependent on both Raptor (a constituent of mTORC1) and Rictor (a constitutive of mTORC2). In contrast, HIF2 alpha was dependent only on the mTORC2 constituent Rictor. These data indicate that although HIF1 alpha is dependent on both mTORC1 and mTORC2, HIF2 alpha is dependent only on mTORC2. We also examined the dependence of HIF alpha expression on the mTORC2 substrate Akt, which exists as three different isoforms, Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3. Interestingly, the expression of HIF2 alpha was dependent on Akt2, whereas that of HIF1 alpha was dependent on Akt3. Because HIF2 alpha is apparently more critical in RCC, this study underscores the importance of targeting mTORC2 and perhaps Akt2 signaling in RCC and other proliferative disorders in which HIF2 alpha has been implicated.

  9. Differential expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and tumor cell proliferation between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas among operable non-small cell lung carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Min Ki; Kang, Chi Duk; Kim, Young Dae; Park, Do Youn; Kim, Jee Yeon; Sol, Mee Young; Suh, Kang Suek

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the elevated level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) correlated with histologic types, angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation, and clinical parameters in common non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs). We performed immunohistochemical stains using paraffin-embedded tissue blocks from 84 cases of operable NSCLC [No. of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 45; No. of adenocarcinoma (AC), 39]. HIF-1alpha expression was related with histologic types (66.7% in SCCs vs 20.5% in ACs, p<0.001), but not with lymph node status, tumor stage, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, microvessel density (MVD), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) index (p>0.05, respectively). As for the histologic types, MVD and PCNA index were significantly higher in SCCs than in ACs (p=0.009 and p=0.016, respectively). Among HIF-1alpha positive carcinomas, MVD was significantly higher in HIF-1alpha positive SCCs than in HIF-1alpha positive ACs (p=0.023). The overall survival curves were not associated with HIF-1alpha expression or any other histologic parameters (p>0.05). These findings suggest that HIF-1alpha expression in NSCLCs may play a differential role according to histologic types, but its prognostic significance is indeterminate. PMID:12692416

  10. Ras oncogene and Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818) exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Grazyelle Sebrenski; Fé, Luciana Mara Lopes; da Silva, Maria de Nazaré Paula; Val, Vera Maria Fonseca de Almeida e

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a petroleum derivative capable of inducing cancer in human and animals. In this work, under laboratory conditions, we analyzed the responses of Colossoma macropomum to B[a]P acute exposure through intraperitoneal injection of four different B[a]P concentrations (4, 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg) or corn oil (control group). We analyzed expression of the ras oncogene and the Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (hif-1α) gene using quantitative real-time PCR. Additionally, liver histopathological changes and genotoxic effects were evaluated through the comet assay. Ras oncogene was overexpressed in fish exposed to 4, 8 of 16 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 4.96, 7.10 and 6.78-fold increases, respectively. Overexpression also occurred in hif-1α in fish injected with 4 and 8 μmol/kg B[a]P, showing 8.82 and 4.64-fold increases, respectively. Histopathological damage in fish liver was classified as irreparable in fish exposed to 8, 16 and 32 μmol/kg μM B[a]P. The genotoxic damage increased in fish injected with 8 and 16 μmol/kg in comparison with the control group. Acute exposure of B[a]P was capable to interrupt the expression of ras oncogene and hif-1α, and increase DNA breaks due to tissue damage. PMID:28486571

  11. Functional significance of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 gene in kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kazumori; Hirata, Hiroshi; Yamamura, Soichiro; Kikuno, Nobuyuki; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kawamoto, Ken; Enokida, Hideki; Nakagawa, Masayuki; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2009-11-15

    Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) has been identified as one of the secreted antagonists that bind Wnt protein. WIF-1 has been described as a tumor suppressor in various types of cancer. However, the molecular function of WIF-1 gene has never been examined in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, we hypothesized that WIF-1 functions as a tumor suppressor gene and overexpression of this gene may induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor growth in RCC cells. Immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-PCR revealed that WIF-1 was significantly downregulated in RCC samples and RCC cell lines, respectively. Bisulfite sequencing of the WIF-1 promoter region in RCC cell lines showed it to be densely methylated, whereas there was no methylation of WIF-1 promoter in normal kidney. Significant inhibition of cell growth and colony formation in WIF-1-transfected cells compared with controls were observed. WIF-1 transfection significantly induced apoptosis and suppressed in vivo tumor growth. Also, Wnt signaling activity and beta-catenin expression were reduced by WIF-1 transfection. In conclusion, this is the first report documenting that the WIF-1 is downregulated by promoter methylation and functions as a tumor suppressor gene by inducing apoptosis in RCC cells.

  12. Effect of elongation factor 1alpha promoter and SUMF1 over in vitro expression of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase.

    PubMed

    Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Rueda-Paramo, Maria A; Espejo, Angela J; Echeverri, Olga Y; Montaño, Adriana; Tomatsu, Shunji; Barrera, Luis A

    2009-09-01

    Morquio A is an autosomal recessive disease caused by the deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), leading to the lysosomal accumulation of keratan-sulfate and chondroitin-6-sulfate. We evaluated in HEK293 cells the effect of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV) or the elongation factor 1alpha (EF1alpha) promoters, and the coexpression with the sulfatase modifying factor 1 (SUMF1) on GALNS activity. Four days postransfection GALNS activity in transfected cells with CMV-pIRES-GALNS reached a plateau, whereas in cells transfected with EF1alpha-pIRES-GALNS continued to increase until day 8. Co-transfection with pCXN-SUMF1 showed an increment up to 2.6-fold in GALNS activity. Finally, computational analysis of transcription factor binding-sites and CpG islands showed that EF1alpha promoter has long CpG islands and high-density binding-sites for Sp1 compared to CMV. These results show the advantage of the SUMF1 coexpression on GALNS activity and indicate a considerable effect on the expression stability using EF1alpha promoter compared to CMV.

  13. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II modulates endothelial cell responses by degrading hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha through interaction with PSMA7, a component of the proteasome

    SciTech Connect

    Tandle, Anita T.; Calvani, Maura; Uranchimeg, Badarch; Zahavi, David; Melillo, Giovanni; Libutti, Steven K.

    2009-07-01

    The majority of human tumors are angiogenesis dependent. Understanding the specific mechanisms that contribute to angiogenesis may offer the best approach to develop therapies to inhibit angiogenesis in cancer. Endothelial monocyte activating polypeptide-II (EMAP-II) is an anti-angiogenic cytokine with potent effects on endothelial cells (ECs). It inhibits EC proliferation and cord formation, and it suppresses primary and metastatic tumor growth in-vivo. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-angiogenic activity of EMAP-II. In the present study, we explored the molecular mechanism behind the anti-angiogenic activity exerted by this protein on ECs. Our results demonstrate that EMAP-II binds to the cell surface {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin receptor. The cell surface binding of EMAP-II results in its internalization into the cytoplasmic compartment where it interacts with its cytoplasmic partner PSMA7, a component of the proteasome degradation pathway. This interaction increases hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) degradation under hypoxic conditions. The degradation results in the inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} mediated transcriptional activity as well as HIF-1{alpha} mediated angiogenic sprouting of ECs. HIF-1{alpha} plays a critical role in angiogenesis by activating a variety of angiogenic growth factors. Our results suggest that one of the major anti-angiogenic functions of EMAP-II is exerted through its inhibition of the HIF-1{alpha} activities.

  14. Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Inscribes a Gene Expression Profile for Angiogenic Factors and Cancer Progression in Breast Epithelial Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Oh, JS; Kucab, JE; Bushel, PR; Martin, K; Bennett, L; Collins, J; DiAugustine, RP; Barrett, JC; Afshari, CA; Dunn, SE

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activation of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) by IGF-1 is associated with the risk and progression of many types of cancer, although despite this it remains unclear how activated IGF-1R contributes to cancer progression. In this study, gene expression changes elicited by IGF-1 were profiled in breast epithelial cells. We noted that many genes are functionally linked to cancer progression and angiogenesis. To validate some of the changes observed, the RNA and/or protein was confirmed for c-fos, cytochrome P450 1A1, cytochrome P450 1B1, interleukin-1 beta, fas ligand, vascular endothelial growth factor, and urokinase plasminogen activator. Nuclear proteins were also temporally monitored to address how gene expression changes were regulated. We found that IGF-1 stimulated the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated AKT, hypoxic-inducible factor-1 alpha, and phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, which correlated with temporal changes in gene expression. Next, the promoter regions of IGF-1-regulated genes were searched in silico. The promoters of genes that clustered together had similar regulatory regions. In summary, IGF-1 inscribes a gene expression profile relevant to cancer progression, and this study provides insight into the mechanism(s) whereby some of these changes occur. PMID:11988840

  15. HNF1alpha is involved in tissue-specific regulation of CFTR gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Mouchel, Nathalie; Henstra, Sytse A; McCarthy, Victoria A; Williams, Sarah H; Phylactides, Marios; Harris, Ann

    2004-01-01

    The CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene shows a complex pattern of expression with tissue-specific and temporal regulation. However, the genetic elements and transcription factors that control CFTR expression are largely unidentified. The CFTR promoter does not confer tissue specificity on gene expression, suggesting that there are regulatory elements outside the upstream region. Analysis of potential regulatory elements defined as DNase 1-hypersensitive sites within introns of the gene revealed multiple predicted binding sites for the HNF1alpha (hepatocyte nuclear factor 1alpha) transcription factor. HNF1alpha, which is expressed in many of the same epithelial cell types as CFTR and shows similar differentiation-dependent changes in gene expression, bound to these sites in vitro. Overexpression of heterologous HNF1alpha augmented CFTR transcription in vivo. In contrast, antisense inhibition of HNF1 alpha transcription decreased the CFTR mRNA levels. Hnf1 alpha knockout mice showed lower levels of CFTR mRNA in their small intestine in comparison with wild-type mice. This is the first report of a transcription factor, which confers tissue specificity on the expression of this important disease-associated gene. PMID:14656222

  16. Andrographolide down-regulates hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui-Hsuan; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chou, Fen-Pi; Wang, Chau-Jong; Hsuan, Shu-Wen; Wang, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Jing-Hsien

    2011-02-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), a diterpenoid lactone isolated from a traditional herbal medicine Andrographis paniculata, is known to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In our previous study, Andro had been shown to inhibit non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell migration and invasion via down-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. Here we demonstrated that Andro inhibited the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) in A549 cells. HIF-1{alpha} plays an important role in tumor growth, angiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of NSCLC. The Andro-induced decrease of cellular protein level of HIF-1{alpha} was correlated with a rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of HIF-1{alpha}, and was accompanied by increased expressions of hydroxyl-HIF-1{alpha} and prolyl hydroxylase (PHD2), and a later decrease of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) upon the treatment of Andro. The Andro-inhibited VEGF expression appeared to be a consequence of HIF-1{alpha} inactivation, because its DNA binding activity was suppressed by Andro. Molecular data showed that all these effects of Andro might be mediated via TGF{beta}1/PHD2/HIF-1{alpha} pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of TGF{beta}1 overexpression vector and PHD2 siRNA, and the usage of a pharmacological MG132 inhibitor. Furthermore, we elucidated the involvement of Andro in HIF-1{alpha} transduced VEGF expression in A549 cells and other NSCLC cell lines. In conclusion, these results highlighted the potential effects of Andro, which may be developed as a chemotherapeutic or an anti-angiogenesis agent for NSCLC in the future.

  17. Identification of Dictyostelium G alpha genes expressed during multicellular development.

    PubMed Central

    Hadwiger, J A; Wilkie, T M; Strathmann, M; Firtel, R A

    1991-01-01

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-mediated signal transduction constitutes a common mechanism by which cells receive and respond to a diverse set of environmental signals. Many of the signals involved in the developmental life cycle of the slime mold Dictyostelium have been postulated to be transduced by such pathways and, in some cases, these pathways have been demonstrated to be dependent on specific G proteins. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we have identified two additional Dictyostelium G alpha genes, G alpha 4 and G alpha 5, that are developmentally regulated. Transcripts from both of these genes are primarily expressed during the multicellular stages of development, suggesting possible roles in cell differentiation or morphogenesis. The entire G alpha 4 gene was sequenced and found to encode a protein consisting of 345 amino acids. The G alpha 4 subunit is homologous to other previously identified G alpha subunits, including the Dictyostelium G alpha 1 (43% identity) and G alpha 2 (41% identity) subunits. However, the G alpha 4 subunit contains some unusual sequence divergences in residues highly conserved among most eukaryotic G alpha subunits, suggesting that G alpha 4 may be a member of another class of G alpha subunits. Images PMID:1910174

  18. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Antiviral activity of limitin against encephalomyocarditis virus, herpes simplex virus, and mouse hepatitis virus: diverse requirements by limitin and alpha interferon for interferon regulatory factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Oritani, Kenji; Asada, Hideo; Takahashi, Isao; Ishikawa, Jun; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahide; Ishida, Naoko; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2003-09-01

    Limitin has sequence homology with alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) and IFN-beta and utilizes the IFN-alpha/beta receptor. However, it has no influence on the proliferation of normal myeloid and erythroid progenitors. In this study, we show that limitin has antiviral activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Limitin inhibited not only cytopathic effects in encephalomyocarditis virus- or herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-infected L929 cells, but also plaque formation in mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) type 2-infected DBT cells. In addition, administration of limitin to mice suppressed MHV-induced hepatitis and HSV-induced death. The antiviral activity may be mediated in part by 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, RNA-dependent protein kinase, and Mx protein, which inhibit viral replication or degrade viral components, because limitin induced their mRNA expression and enzyme activity. While limitin has antiviral activity as strong as that of IFN-alpha in vitro (the concentration that provided 50% inhibition of cytopathic effect is approximately 30 pg/ml), IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) dependencies for induction of an antiviral state were different for limitin and IFN-alpha. In IRF-1-deficient fibroblasts, a higher concentration of limitin than of IFN-alpha was required for the induction of antiviral activity and the transcription of proteins from IFN-stimulated response element. The unique signals and the fewer properties of myelosuppression suggest that a human homolog of limitin may be used as a new antiviral drug.

  20. Plasmid-based transient human stromal cell-derived factor-1 gene transfer improves cardiac function in chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaman, S; Miller, T J; Pastore, J M; Kiedrowski, M; Aras, R; Penn, M S

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that transient stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1) improved cardiac function when delivered via cell therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy at a time remote from acute myocardial infarction (MI) rats. We hypothesized that non-viral gene transfer of naked plasmid DNA-expressing hSDF-1 could similarly improve cardiac function. To optimize plasmid delivery, we tested SDF-1 and luciferase plasmids driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter with (pCMVe) or without (pCMV) translational enhancers or α myosin heavy chain (pMHC) promoter in a rodent model of heart failure. In vivo expression of pCMVe was 10-fold greater than pCMV and pMHC expression and continued over 30 days. We directly injected rat hearts with SDF-1 plasmid 1 month after MI and assessed heart function. At 4 weeks after plasmid injection, we observed a 35.97 and 32.65% decline in fractional shortening (FS) in control (saline) animals and pMHC-hSDF1 animals, respectively, which was sustained to 8 weeks. In contrast, we observed a significant 24.97% increase in animals injected with the pCMVe-hSDF1 vector. Immunohistochemistry of cardiac tissue revealed a significant increase in vessel density in the hSDF-1-treated animals compared with control animals. Increasing SDF-1 expression promoted angiogenesis and improved cardiac function in rats with ischemic heart failure along with evidence of scar remodeling with a trend toward decreased myocardial fibrosis. These data demonstrate that stand-alone non-viral hSDF-1 gene transfer is a strategy for improving cardiac function in ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:21472007

  1. The chromosomal arrangement of human alpha-like globin genes: sequence homology and alpha-globin gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Lauer, J; Shen, C K; Maniatis, T

    1980-05-01

    We report the isolation of a cluster of four alpha-like globin genes from a bacteriophage lambda library of human DNA (Lawn et al., 1978). Analysis of the cloned DNA confirms the linkage arrangement of the two adult alpha-globin genes (alpha 1 and alpha 2) previously derived from genomic blotting experiments (Orkin, 1978) and identifies two additional closely linked alpha-like genes. The nucleotide sequence of a portion of each of these alpha-like genes was determined. One of these sequences is tentatively identified as an embryonic zeta-globin gene (zeta 1) by comparison with structural data derived from purified zeta-globin protein (J. Clegg, personal communication), while the other sequence cannot be matched with any known alpha-like polypeptide sequence (we designate this sequence phi alpha 1). Localization of the four alpha-like sequences on a restriction map of the gene cluster indicates that the genes have the same transcriptional orientation and are arranged in the order 5'-zeta 1-phi alpha 1-alpha 2-alpha 1-3'. Genomic blotting experiments identified a second, nonallelic zeta-like globin gene (phi 2) located 10-12 kb 5' to the cloned zeta-globin gene. Comparison of the locations of restriction sites within alpha 1 and alpha 2 and heteroduplex studies reveal extensive sequence homology within and flanking the two genes. The homologous sequences, which are interrupted by two blocks of nonhomology, span a region of approximately 4 kb. This extensive sequence homology between two genes which are thought to be the products of an ancient duplication event suggests the existence of a mechanism for sequence matching during evolution. One consequence of this arrangement of homologous sequences is the occurrence of two types of deletions in recombinant phage DNA during propagation in E. coli. The locations and sizes of the two types of deletions are indistinguishable from those of the two types of deletions associated with alpha-thalassemia 2 (Embury et al., 1979

  2. Both microtubule-stabilizing and microtubule-destabilizing drugs inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha accumulation and activity by disrupting microtubule function.

    PubMed

    Escuin, Daniel; Kline, Erik R; Giannakakou, Paraskevi

    2005-10-01

    We have recently identified a mechanistic link between disruption of the microtubule cytoskeleton and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis via the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) pathway. Based on this model, we hypothesized that other microtubule-targeting drugs may have a similar effect on HIF-1alpha. To test that hypothesis, we studied the effects of different clinically relevant microtubule-disrupting agents, including taxotere, epothilone B, discodermolide, vincristine, 2-methoxyestradiol, and colchicine. In all cases, HIF-1alpha protein, but not mRNA, was down-regulated in a drug dose-dependent manner. In addition, HIF-1alpha transcriptional activity was also inhibited by all drugs tested. To further examine whether these effects were dependent on microtubule network disruption, we tested the ability of epothilone B to inhibit HIF-1alpha protein in the human ovarian cancer cell line 1A9 and its beta-tubulin mutant epothilone-resistant subclone 1A9/A8. Our data showed that epothilone B treatment down-regulated HIF-1alpha protein in the parental 1A9 cells but had no effect in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. These observations were confirmed by confocal microscopy, which showed impaired nuclear accumulation of HIF-1alpha in parental 1A9 cells at epothilone B concentrations that induced extensive microtubule stabilization. In contrast, epothilone B treatment had no effect on either microtubules or HIF-1alpha nuclear accumulation in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. Furthermore, epothilone B inhibited HIF-1 transcriptional activity in 1A9 cells, as evidenced by a hypoxia response element-luciferase reporter assay, but had no effect on HIF-1 activity in the resistant 1A9/A8 cells. These data directly link beta-tubulin drug binding with HIF-1alpha protein inhibition. Our results further provide a strong rationale for testing taxanes and epothilones in clinical trials targeting HIF-1 in cancer patients.

  3. Regulation of chick early B-cell factor-1 gene expression in feather development.

    PubMed

    El-Magd, Mohammed Abu; Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed; Awad, Ashraf; Shukry, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The chick Ebf1 (early B-cell factor-1) gene is a member of a novel family of helix loop helix transcription factors. The expression profile, regulation and significance of this gene have been extensively studied in lymphatic, nervous, adipose and muscular tissues. However, cEbf1 expression, regulation and function in the feather of chick embryo have not yet been investigated. cEbf1 expression was first detected throughout the mesenchymal core of some few feather placodes (D7-D7.5). After feathers became mature and grew distally (D9 and D10), the mesenchymal expression of cEbf1 became confined to the caudal margin of the proximal half of all formed feather buds. Because this dynamic pattern of expression resembles that of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) protein and bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp4) plus the crucial role of these two major signals in feather development, we hypothesized that cEbf1 expression in the feather may be regulated by Shh and Bmp4. In a feather explant culture system, Shh signals are necessary to initiate and maintain cEbf1 expression in the posterior half of the feather bud, while Bmp4 is crucial for the initial cEbf1 expression in the anterior half of the feather bud. Inhibition of Shh, not only down-regulates cEbf1, but also changes the morphology of feather buds, which become irregular and fused. This is the first study to demonstrate that cEbf1 expression in the feather bud is under the control of Shh and Bmp4 signals and that expression may play a role in the normal development of feathers.

  4. Association between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma risk

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun Kyong; Lee, Shin-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Seok; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yang Ki; Kim, Yong Hoon; Choi, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Lae

    2010-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the innate immune response, which is regarded as an important aspect of asthma development. Genetic alterations in the CSF1R gene may contribute to the development of asthma. We investigated whether CSF1R gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of asthma. Through direct DNA sequencing of the CSF1R gene, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyped them in 303 normal controls and 498 asthmatic patients. Expression of CSF1R protein and mRNA were measured on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood of asthmatic patients using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Among the 28 polymorphisms, two intronic polymorphism (+20511C>T and +22693T>C) were associated with the risk of asthma by logistic regression analysis. The frequencies of the minor allele at CSF1R +20511C>T and +22693T>C were higher in asthmatic subjects than in normal controls (4.6 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.001 in co-dominant and dominant models; 16.4 vs. 25.8%, p = 0.0006 in a recessive model). CSF1R mRNA levels in neutrophils of the asthmatic patients having the +22693CC allele were higher than in those having the +22693TT allele (p = 0.026). Asthmatic patients with the +22693CC allele also showed significantly higher CSF1R expression on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils than did those with the +22693TT allele (p = 0.045 and p = 0.044). The +20511C>T SNP had no association with CSF1R mRNA or protein expression. In conclusion, the minor allele at CSF1R +22693T>C may have a susceptibility effect in the development of asthma, via increased CSF1R protein and mRNA expression in inflammatory cells. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0850-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20574656

  5. Association between colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor gene polymorphisms and asthma risk.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun Kyong; Lee, Shin-Hwa; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Seok; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Park, Jong Sook; Uh, Soo Taek; Kim, Yang Ki; Kim, Yong Hoon; Choi, Jae-Sung; Park, Byung-Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2010-09-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed in monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the innate immune response, which is regarded as an important aspect of asthma development. Genetic alterations in the CSF1R gene may contribute to the development of asthma. We investigated whether CSF1R gene polymorphisms were associated with the risk of asthma. Through direct DNA sequencing of the CSF1R gene, we identified 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyped them in 303 normal controls and 498 asthmatic patients. Expression of CSF1R protein and mRNA were measured on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood of asthmatic patients using flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Among the 28 polymorphisms, two intronic polymorphism (+20511C>T and +22693T>C) were associated with the risk of asthma by logistic regression analysis. The frequencies of the minor allele at CSF1R +20511C>T and +22693T>C were higher in asthmatic subjects than in normal controls (4.6 vs. 7.7%, p = 0.001 in co-dominant and dominant models; 16.4 vs. 25.8%, p = 0.0006 in a recessive model). CSF1R mRNA levels in neutrophils of the asthmatic patients having the +22693CC allele were higher than in those having the +22693TT allele (p = 0.026). Asthmatic patients with the +22693CC allele also showed significantly higher CSF1R expression on CD14-positive monocytes and neutrophils than did those with the +22693TT allele (p = 0.045 and p = 0.044). The +20511C>T SNP had no association with CSF1R mRNA or protein expression. In conclusion, the minor allele at CSF1R +22693T>C may have a susceptibility effect in the development of asthma, via increased CSF1R protein and mRNA expression in inflammatory cells.

  6. A murrel interferon regulatory factor-1: molecular characterization, gene expression and cell protection activity.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Bhatt, Prasanth; Gnanam, Annie J; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Arasu, Abirami

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a first murrel interferon regulatory factor-1 (designated as Murrel IRF-1) which is identified from a constructed cDNA library of striped murrel Channa striatus. The identified sequence was obtained by internal sequencing method from the library. The Murrel IRF-1 varies in size of the polypeptide from the earlier reported fish IRF-1. It contains a DNA binding domain along with a tryptophan pentad repeats, a nuclear localization signal and a transactivation domain. The homologous analysis showed that the Murrel IRF-1 had a significant sequence similarity with other known fish IRF-1 groups. The phylogenetic analysis exhibited that the Murrel IRF-1 clustered together with IRF-1 members, but the other members including IRF-2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 were clustered individually. The secondary structure of Murrel IRF-1 contains 27% α-helices (85 aa residues), 5.7% β-sheets (19 aa residues) and 67.19% random coils (210 aa residues). Furthermore, we predicted a tertiary structure of Murrel IRF-1 using I-Tasser program and analyzed the structure on PyMol surface view. The RNA structure of the Murrel IRF-1 along with its minimum free energy (-284.43 kcal/mol) was also predicted. The highest gene expression was observed in spleen and its expression was inducted with pathogenic microbes which cause epizootic ulcerative syndrome in murrels such as fungus, Aphanomyces invadans and bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila, and poly I:C, a viral RNA analog. The results of cell protection assay suggested that the Murrel IRF-1 regulates the early defense response in C. striatus. Moreover, it showed Murrel IRF-1 as a potential candidate which can be developed as a therapeutic agent to control microbial infections in striped murrel. Overall, these results indicate the immune importance of IRF-1, however, the interferon signaling mechanism in murrels upon infection is yet to be studied at proteomic level.

  7. Human brain factor 1, a new member of the fork head gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.B.; Wiese, S.; Burfeind, P.

    1994-06-01

    Analysis of cDNA clones that cross-hybridized with the fork head domain of the rat HNF-3 gene family revealed 10 cDNAs from human fetal brain and human testis cDNA libraries containing this highly conserved DNA-binding domain. Three of these cDNAs (HFK1, HFK2, and HFK3) were further analyzed. The cDNA HFK1 has a length of 2557 nucleotides and shows strong homology at the nucleotide level (91.2%) to brain factor 1 (BF-1) from rat. The HFK1 cDNA codes for a putative 476 amino acid protein. The homology to BF-1 from rat in the coding region at the amino acid level is 87.5%. The fork head homologous region includes 111 amino acids starting at amino acid 160 and has a 97.5% homology to BF-1. Southern hybridization revealed that HFK1 is highly conserved among mammalian species and possibly birds. Northern analysis with total RNA from human tissues and poly(A)-rich RNA from mouse revealed a 3.2-kb transcript that is present in human and mouse fetal brain and in adult mouse brain. In situ hybridization with sections of mouse embryo and human fetal brain reveals that HFK1 expression is restricted to the neuronal cells in the telencepthalon, with strong expression being observed in the developing dentate gyrus and hippocampus. HFK1 was chromosomally localized by in situ hybridization to 14q12. The cDNA clones HFK2 and HFK3 were analyzed by restriction analysis and sequencing. HFK2 and HFK3 were found to be closely related but different from HFK1. Therefore, it would appear that HFK1, HFK2, HFK3, and BF-1 form a new fork head related subfamily. 33 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Self-renewal and pluripotency is maintained in human embryonic stem cells by co-culture with human fetal liver stromal cells expressing hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha.

    PubMed

    Ji, Lei; Liu, Yu-xiao; Yang, Chao; Yue, Wen; Shi, Shuang-shuang; Bai, Ci-xian; Xi, Jia-fei; Nan, Xue; Pei, Xue-Tao

    2009-10-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are typically maintained on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeders or with MEF-conditioned medium. However, these xenosupport systems greatly limit the therapeutic applications of hES cells because of the risk of cross-transfer of animal pathogens. The stem cell niche is a unique tissue microenvironment that regulates the self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells. Recent evidence suggests that stem cells are localized in the microenvironment of low oxygen. We hypothesized that hypoxia could maintain the undifferentiated phenotype of embryonic stem cells. We have co-cultured a human embryonic cell line with human fetal liver stromal cells (hFLSCs) feeder cells stably expressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is known as the key transcription factor in hypoxia. The results suggested HIF-1alpha was critical for preventing differentiation of hES cells in culture. Consistent with this observation, hypoxia upregulated the expression of Nanog and Oct-4, the key factors expressed in undifferentiated stem cells. We further demonstrated that HIF-1alpha could upregulate the expression of some soluble factors including bFGF and SDF-1alpha, which are released into the microenvironment to maintain the undifferentiated status of hES cells. This suggests that the targets of HIF-1alpha are secreted soluble factors rather than a cell-cell contact mechanism, and defines an important mechanism for the inhibition of hESCs differentiation by hypoxia. Our findings developed a transgene feeder co-culture system and will provide a more reliable alternative for future therapeutic applications of hES cells.

  9. Alpha thalassaemia and extended alpha globin genes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sasikala; Fisher, Christopher; Ayyub, Helena; Premawardhena, Anuja; Allen, Angela; Perera, Ashok; Bandara, Dayananda; Olivieri, Nancy; Weatherall, David

    2013-02-01

    The α-globin genes were studied in nine families with unexplained hypochromic anaemia and in 167 patients with HbE β thalassaemia in Sri Lanka. As well as the common deletion forms of α(+) thalassaemia three families from an ethnic minority were found to carry a novel form of α(0) thalassaemia, one family carried a previously reported form of α(0) thalassaemia, --(THAI), and five families had different forms of non-deletional thalassaemia. The patients with HbE β thalassaemia who had co-inherited α thalassaemia all showed an extremely mild phenotype and reduced levels of HbF and there was a highly significant paucity of α(+) thalassaemia in these patients compared with the normal population. Extended α gene arrangements, including ααα, αααα and ααααα, occurred at a low frequency and were commoner in the more severe phenotypes of HbE β thalassaemia. As well as emphasising the ameliorating effect of α thalassaemia on HbE β thalassaemia the finding of a novel form of α(0) thalassaemia in an ethnic minority, together with an unexpected diversity of forms of non-deletion α thalassaemia in Sri Lanka, further emphasises the critical importance of micro-mapping populations for determining the frequency of clinically important forms of the disease. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  11. EFFECTS OF HEAT AND BROMOCHLOROACETIC ACID ON MALE REPRODUCTION IN HEAT SHOCK FACTOR-1 GENE KNOCKOUT MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of heat and bromochloroacetic acid on male reproduction in heat shock factor-1 gene knockout mice.
    Luft JC1, IJ Benjamin2, JB Garges1 and DJ Dix1. 1Reproductive Toxicology Division, USEPA, RTP, NC, 27711 and 2Dept of Internal Medicine, Univ.of Texas Southwestern Med C...

  12. Enhancement of glucocorticoid receptor-mediated gene expression by constitutively active heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas J; Li, Dapei; Wolf, Irene M; Wadekar, Subhagya A; Periyasamy, Sumudra; Sánchez, Edwin R

    2004-03-01

    To further define the role of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in the stress potentiation of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, we placed a constitutively active mutant of human HSF1 (hHSF1-E189) under the control of a doxycycline (DOX)-inducible vector. In mouse L929 cells, DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189 correlated with in vivo occupancy of the human heat shock protein 70 (hHsp70) promoter (chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay) and with increased activity under nonstress conditions at the hHsp70 promoter controlling expression of chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) (p2500-CAT). Comparison of hHSF1-E189 against stress-activated, endogenous HSF1 for DNA-binding, p2500-CAT, and Hsp70 protein expression activities showed the mutant factor to have lower, but clearly detectable, activities as compared with wild-type factor. Thus, the hHSF1-E189 mutant is capable of replicating these key functions of endogenous HSF1, albeit at reduced levels. To assess the involvement of hHSF1-E189 in GR activity, DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189 was performed in L929 cells expressing the minimal pGRE(2)E1B-CAT reporter. hHSF1-E189 protein expression in these cells was maximal at 24 h of DOX and remained constant up to 72 h. hHSF1-E189 expressed under these conditions was found both in the cytosolic and nuclear compartments, in a state capable of binding DNA. More importantly, GR activity at the pGRE(2)E1B-CAT promoter was found to increase after DOX-induced expression of hHSF1-E189. The potentiation of GR by hHSF1-E189 occurred at saturating concentrations of hormone and was dependent on at least 48 h of hHSF1-E189 up-regulation, suggesting that time was needed for an HSF1-induced factor to accumulate to a threshold level. Initial efforts to characterize how hHSF1-E189 controls GR signaling showed that it does not occur through alterations of GR protein levels or changes in GR hormone binding capacity. In summary, our observations provide the first molecular evidence for the

  13. A novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide, attenuates allergic airway disease by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Sun; Kim, So Ri; Park, Hee Sun; Park, Seoung Ju; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Ka Young; Choe, Yeong Hun; Hong, Sang Hyun; Han, Hyo Jin; Lee, Young Rae; Kim, Jong Suk; Atlas, Daphne; Lee, Yong Chul

    2007-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies have demonstrated that antioxidants are able to reduce airway inflammation and hyperreactivity in animal models of allergic airway disease. A newly developed antioxidant, small molecular weight thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) has been shown to increase cellular levels of glutathione and to attenuate oxidative stress related disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the effects of AD4 on allergic airway disease such as asthma are unknown. We used ovalbumin (OVA)-inhaled mice to evaluate the role of AD4 in allergic airway disease. In this study with OVA-inhaled mice, the increased ROS generation, the increased levels of Th2 cytokines and VEGF, the increased vascular permeability, the increased mucus production, and the increased airway resistance in the lungs were significantly reduced by the administration of AD4. We also found that the administration of AD4 decreased the increases of the NF-kappaB and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) levels in nuclear protein extracts of lung tissues after OVA inhalation. These results suggest that AD4 attenuates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness by regulating activation of NF-kappaB and HIF-1alpha as well as reducing ROS generation in allergic airway disease.

  14. Human mast cells transmigrate through human umbilical vein endothelial monolayers and selectively produce IL-8 in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Lin, T J; Issekutz, T B; Marshall, J S

    2000-07-01

    Mature mast cells are generally considered to be less mobile cells residing within tissue sites. However, mast cell numbers are known to increase in the context of inflammation, and mast cells are recognized to be important in regulating local neutrophil infiltration. CXC chemokines may play a critical role in this process. In this study two human mast cell-like lines, HMC-1 and KU812, and human cord blood-derived primary cultured mast cells were employed to examine role of stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in regulating mast cell migration and mediator production. It was demonstrated that human mast cells constitutively express mRNA and protein for CXCR4. Stimulation of human mast cells with SDF-1, the only known ligand for CXCR4, induced a significant increase in intracellular calcium levels. In vitro, SDF-1 alpha mediated dose-dependent migration of human cord blood-derived mast cells and HMC-1 cells across HUVEC monolayers. Although SDF-1 alpha did not induce mast cell degranulation, it selectively stimulated production of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 without affecting TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, or RANTES production, providing further evidence of the selective modulation of mast cell function by this chemokine. These findings provide a novel, SDF-1-dependent mechanism for mast cell transendothelial migration and functional regulation, which may have important implications for the local regulation of mast cells in disease.

  15. A DC-81-indole conjugate agent suppresses melanoma A375 cell migration partially via interrupting VEGF production and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}-mediated signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Ming-Chu; Hu, Wan-Ping; Yu, Hsin-Su; Wu, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Long-Sen; Kao, Ying-Hsien; Wang, Jeh-Jeng

    2011-09-01

    Pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD) chemicals are antitumor antibiotics inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis. An indole carboxylate-PBD hybrid with six-carbon spacer structure (IN6CPBD) has been previously demonstrated to induce melanoma cell apoptosis and reduce metastasis in mouse lungs. This study aimed at investigating the efficacy of the other hybrid compound with four-carbon spacer (IN4CPBD) and elucidating its anti-metastatic mechanism. Human melanoma A375 cells with IN4CPBD treatment underwent cytotoxicity and apoptosis-associated assays. Transwell migration assay, Western blotting, and ELISA were used for mechanistic study. IN4CPBD exhibited potent melanoma cytotoxicity through interrupting G1/S cell cycle progression, increasing DNA fragmentation and hypodipoidic DNA contents, and reducing mitochondrial membrane potential. Caspase activity elevation suggested that both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were involved in IN4CPBD-induced melanoma apoptosis. IN4CPBD up-regulated p53 and p21, thereby concomitantly derailing the equilibrium between Bcl-2 and Bax levels. Transwell migration assay demonstrated that stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}) stimulated A375 cell motility, while kinase inhibitors treatment confirmed that Rho/ROCK, Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways were involved in SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced melanoma migration. IN4CPBD not only abolished the SDF-1{alpha}-enhanced chemotactic motility but also suppressed constitutive MMP-9 and VEGF expression. Mechanistically, IN4CPBD down-regulated Akt, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK total proteins and MYPT1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, beyond the fact that IN4CPBD induces melanoma cell apoptosis at cytotoxic dose, the interruption in the VEGF expression and the SDF-1{alpha}-related signaling at cytostatic dose may partially constitute the rationale for its in vivo anti-metastatic potency. - Research Highlights: > A novel carboxylate-PBD hybrid as anti-melanoma drug. > IN4CPBD interrupts melanoma cell

  16. Determination of alpha-2-MRAP gene polymorphisms in nephrolithiasis patients.

    PubMed

    Mehde, Atheer Awad; Mehdi, Wesen Adel; Yusof, Faridah; Raus, Raha Ahmed; Abidin, Zaima Azira Zainal; Ghazali, Hamid; Rahman, Azlina Abd

    2017-07-29

    The intron 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism of Alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor-associated protein gene (Alpha-2-MRAP) has been implicated in numerous diseases. The current study was designed to analyze the association of intron 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism of Alpha-2-MRAP with nephrolithiasis patients. PCR was conducted on genomic DNA of patients and control to look for Alpha-2-MRAP insertion/deletion polymorphism. Besides that, serum level of Alpha-2-MRAP, oxidative stress marker myeloperoxidase, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), and uric acid were determined. The D and I allele frequencies were 57.50% and 42.50% in patients, 77.50% and 22.50% in control, individually. The result showed that II genotype was associated with nephrolithiasis patients group. A significant decrease was observed in serum Alpha-2-MRAP,myeloperoxidase and TAS,while TOS,OSI,MDA,AOPP and uric acid were substantially increased in II and ID when compared to DD genotype in patients with nephrolithiasis. Our results demonstrate for the first time that patients with II genotype had an increased risk of stones. Also, the results demonstrate that I allele of the 5 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the Alpha-2-MRAP gene is related with an increase of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis patients and may possibly impose a risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with II genotype of Alpha-2-MRAP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients.

  18. The distribution of Elongation Factor-1 Alpha (EF-1alpha), Elongation Factor-Like (EFL), and a non-canonical genetic code in the ulvophyceae: discrete genetic characters support a consistent phylogenetic framework.

    PubMed

    Gile, Gillian H; Novis, Philip M; Cragg, David S; Zuccarello, Giuseppe C; Keeling, Patrick J

    2009-01-01

    The systematics of the green algal class Ulvophyceae have been difficult to resolve with ultrastructural and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Therefore, we investigated relationships among ulvophycean orders by determining the distribution of two discrete genetic characters previously identified only in the order Dasycladales. First, Acetabularia acetabulum uses the core translation GTPase Elongation Factor 1alpha (EF-1alpha) while most Chlorophyta instead possess the related GTPase Elongation Factor-Like (EFL). Second, the nuclear genomes of dasycladaleans A. acetabulum and Batophora oerstedii use a rare non-canonical genetic code in which the canonical termination codons TAA and TAG instead encode glutamine. Representatives of Ulvales and Ulotrichales were found to encode EFL, while Caulerpales, Dasycladales, Siphonocladales, and Ignatius tetrasporus were found to encode EF-1alpha, in congruence with the two major lineages previously proposed for the Ulvophyceae. The EF-1alpha of I. tetrasporus supports its relationship with Caulerpales/Dasycladales/Siphonocladales, in agreement with ultrastructural evidence, but contrary to certain small subunit rRNA analyses that place it with Ulvales/Ulotrichales. The same non-canonical genetic code previously described in A. acetabulum was observed in EF-1alpha sequences from Parvocaulis pusillus (Dasycladales), Chaetomorpha coliformis, and Cladophora cf. crinalis (Siphonocladales), whereas Caulerpales use the universal code. This supports a sister relationship between Siphonocladales and Dasycladales and further refines our understanding of ulvophycean phylogeny.

  19. Human GABAA receptor alpha 1 and alpha 3 subunits genes and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Parsian, A; Cloninger, C R

    1997-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA effects are largely mediated by binding to the postsynaptic GABAA receptor, causing the opening of an integral chloride-ion channel. The GABAA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline reduce some ethanol-induced behaviors, such as motor impairment, sedation, and hypnosis. The role of this receptor in alcoholism is further supported by effective alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms by GABAA agonists. To determine the role of the GABAA receptor (GABR) genes in the development of alcoholism, we have used alpha 1 and alpha 3 simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in a sample of unrelated alcoholics, alcoholic probands with both parents, and psychiatrically normal controls. For the GABR alpha 1 gene, the differences between allele frequencies, when all alleles were compared together, were not significant between total alcoholics, subtypes of alcoholics, and normal controls. However, for GABR alpha 3, the differences between total alcoholics and normal controls were significant when all alleles were compared together. The differences between subtypes of alcoholics and normal controls were not significant. The results of haplotype relative risk analysis for both genes, GABR alpha 1 and GABR alpha 3, were also negative. It is possible that the sample size in the haplotype relative risk is too small to have power to detect the differences in transmitted versus nontransmitted alleles. There is a need for a replication study in a large family sample that will allow haplotype relative risk or affected sib-pair analysis.

  20. Cloning and targeted mutations of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8, two developmentally regulated G protein alpha-subunit genes in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, L; Gaskins, C; Zhou, K; Firtel, R A; Devreotes, P N

    1994-01-01

    GTP-binding protein (G protein)-mediated signal transduction pathways play essential roles during the aggregation and differentiation process of Dictyostelium. In addition to the five known G protein alpha-subunit genes, we recently identified three novel alpha-subunit genes, G alpha 6, G alpha 7, and G alpha 8, using the polymerase chain reaction technique. We present here a more complete analysis of G alpha 7 and G alpha 8. The cDNAs of these two genes were cloned, and their complete nucleotide sequences were determined. Sequence analyses indicate that G alpha 8 possesses some unusual features. It lacks the "TCATDT" motif, a sequence of amino acids highly conserved among G alpha subunits, and has an additional 50 amino acids at its C-terminus consisting of long stretches of asparagine. Moreover, G alpha 8 is unusually resistant to protease digestion, which may indicate a slow GTP hydrolysis rate. The possible functions of these alpha-subunits were assessed by generating mutants lacking G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 by gene targeting through homologous recombination and by overexpressing G alpha 7 or G alpha 8 protein. Overexpression of G alpha 7 resulted in abnormal morphogenesis starting at the slug stage, whereas analysis of the other strains failed to reveal any obvious growth or developmental defects under either normal or stressful conditions. The implications of these results are discussed. Images PMID:7949425

  1. [Effects of feixin decoction on the contents of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Jun; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2012-05-01

    To explore the effects of Feixin Decoction (FXD) on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and to study its mechanisms for treating HPH. Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i. e., the normal control group, the HPH model group, the FXD group, and the Nifedipine group, 10 rats in each group. The HPH rat model was prepared using normal pressure intermittent hypoxia method. Except the normal control group, rats in the rest groups were fed in a self-made hypoxic plexiglass cabin, with the poor oxygen condition for 8 h daily for 14 successive days. Then the distilled water (at 30 mL/kg) was given by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group and the HPH model group. FXD (at 28 g/kg) and Nifedipine (at 20 mg/kg) were given by gastrogavage to rats in the FXD group and the Nifedipine group respectively, once daily, for 14 successive days. Besides, hypoxia was continued for 14 days while medicating. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected on the second day after the last medication. The morphology of the pulmonary arteriole was detected. The ratio of pulmonary artery wall area and tube area (WA%) was determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique. Compared with the normal control group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the HPH model group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly decreased in the FXD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). FXD down-regulated the expression of VEGF through decreasing the expression of HIF-1alpha. One of its mechanisms for treating HPH might be partially due to reversing the remodeling of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

  2. Fibrin patch-based insulin-like growth factor-1 gene-modified stem cell transplantation repairs ischemic myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhu, Kai; Yang, Shan; Wang, Yulin; Guo, Changfa; Yin, Kanhua; Wang, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), tissue-engineered cardiac patch, and therapeutic gene have all been proposed as promising therapy strategies for cardiac repair after myocardial infarction. In our study, BMSCs were modified with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene, loaded into a fibrin patch, and then transplanted into a porcine model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) myocardium injury. The results demonstrated that IGF-1 gene overexpression could promote proliferation of endothelial cells and cardiomyocyte-like differentiation of BMSCs in vitro. Four weeks after transplantation of fibrin patch loaded with gene-modified BMSCs, IGF-1 overexpression could successfully promote angiogenesis, inhibit remodeling, increase grafted cell survival and reduce apoptosis. In conclusion, the integrated strategy, which combined fibrin patch with IGF-1 gene modified BMSCs, could promote the histological cardiac repair for a clinically relevant porcine model of I/R myocardium injury. PMID:25767192

  3. The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The cauliflower Or gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring beta-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis of the Or gene mutation in controlling plant growth. The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis e...

  4. The human T cell receptor alpha variable (TRAV) genes.

    PubMed

    Scaviner, D; Lefranc, M P

    2000-01-01

    'Human T Cell Receptor Alpha Variable (TRAV) Genes', the eighth report of the 'IMGT Locus in Focus' section, comprises four tables: (1) 'Number of human germline TRAV genes at 14q11 and potential repertoire'; (2) 'Human germline TRAV genes at 14q11'; (3) 'Human TRAV allele table', and (4) 'Correspondence between the different human TRAV gene nomenclatures'. These tables are available at the IMGT Marie-Paule page of IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr:8104) created by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, France. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Involvement of the clock gene Rev-erb alpha in the regulation of glucagon secretion in pancreatic alpha-cells.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Elaine; Marroquí, Laura; Figueroa, Ana Lucia C; Merino, Beatriz; Fernandez-Ruiz, Rebeca; Nadal, Angel; Burris, Thomas P; Gomis, Ramon; Quesada, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60-70% inhibition) in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05) and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold) and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001). High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05). AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01) and glucagon release (p<0.05). These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway.

  6. The transcriptional regulation of the Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor (csf1r) gene during hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Bonifer, Constanze; Hume, David A

    2008-01-01

    The colony-stimulating-factor 1 receptor (CSF-1 R) is a tyrosine kinase receptor that is absolutely required for macrophage differentiation and thus occupies a central role in hematopoiesis. Mice deficient for the csf1r gene show multiple defects in macrophage development, reproduction and tissue remodeling. Moreover, deregulation of this gene is a hallmark of many tumors. This includes repression of expression in acute myeloid leukemia and aberrant activation in certain solid tumors, such as breast cancer. Expression of this gene therefore needs to be tightly controlled. This review summarizes experiments providing a detailed picture of how transcription of csf1r gene expression is regulated. Aside from the direct relevance to hematopoiesis, studies of csf1r transcriptional regulation provide a model for understanding the molecular mechanisms that control mammalian cell fate.

  7. Evaluation of CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein (C/EBP) Alpha (CEBPA) and Runt-Related Transcription Factor 1 (RUNX1) Expression in Patients with De Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Salarpour, Fatemeh; Goudarzipour, Kourosh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Faraahi, Sara; Farsani, Mehdi Allahbakhshian

    2017-09-11

    The CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) alpha (CEBPA) and Runt-related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1) genes have been traditionally regarded as two essential genes involved in normal myeloid maturation. Although the link between mutations in these genes and the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been extensively documented, the ramifications of gene expression dysregulations of CEBPA and RUNX1 has drawn less attention. The present study investigated CEBPA and RUNX1 gene expression levels in 96 primary AML specimens against a normal control group by way of real-time RT-PCR. Our results reveal that CEBPA and RUNX1 gene expression levels were unexpectedly and significantly higher in patients with AML when compared to the levels detected in the normal control group (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the correlation between CEBPA and RUNX1 was significant and positive (P-value: 0.011, r: 0.257). Our data contradicts the widely established role of CEBPA and RUNX1 in myeloid differentiation, as we saw lower levels of CEBPA and RUNX1 expression to be exhibited in patients with AML. Likely, our data demonstrates that higher levels of CEBPA and RUNX1 expression were closely correlated with reduced myeloid maturation, but this idea needs to approved. It suggests that despite the current established functions of genes involved in cell differentiation, the leukemogenesis process has the capability to transform normal hematopoietic precursors in a manner that may employ the differentiation related gene at the service of malignancy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  8. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Target Genes Contribute to Retinal Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lin; Yu, Honghua; Yan, Naihong; Lai, Kunbei; Xiang, Mengqing

    2017-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a transcription factor that facilitates cellular adaptation to hypoxia and ischemia. Long-standing evidence suggests that one isotype of HIF, HIF-1α, is involved in the pathogenesis of various solid tumors and cardiac diseases. However, the role of HIF-1α in retina remains poorly understood. HIF-1α has been recognized as neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia in the past two decades. Additionally, an increasing number of studies has shown that HIF-1α and its target genes contribute to retinal neuroprotection. This review will focus on recent advances in the studies of HIF-1α and its target genes that contribute to retinal neuroprotection. A thorough understanding of the function of HIF-1α and its target genes may lead to identification of novel therapeutic targets for treating degenerative retinal diseases including glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and retinal vein occlusions. PMID:28289375

  9. HRF, a putative basic helix-loop-helix-PAS-domain transcription factor is closely related to hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and developmentally expressed in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Flamme, I; Fröhlich, T; von Reutern, M; Kappel, A; Damert, A; Risau, W

    1997-04-01

    Transcription factors of the bHLH-PAS protein family are important regulators of developmental processes such as neurogenesis and tracheal development in invertebrates. Recently a bHLH-PAS protein, named trachealess (trl) was identified as a master regulator of tracheogenesis. Hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1 alpha, is a vertebrate relative of trl which is likely to be involved in growth of blood vessels by the induction of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in response to hypoxia. In the present study we describe mRNA cloning and mRNA expression pattern of mouse HIF-related factor (HRF), a novel close relative of HIF-1 alpha which is expressed most prominently in brain capillary endothelial cells and other blood vessels as well as in bronchial epithelium in the embryo and the adult. In addition, smooth muscle cells of the uterus, neurons, brown adipose tissue and various epithelial tissues express HRF mRNA as well. High expression levels of HRF mRNA in embryonic choroid plexus and kidney glomeruli, places where VEGF is highly expressed, suggest a role of this factor in VEGF gene activation similar to that of HIF-1 alpha. Given the similarity between morphogenesis of the tracheal system and the vertebrate vascular system, the expression pattern of HRF in the vasculature and the bronchial tree raises the possibility that this family of transcription factors may be involved in tubulogenesis.

  10. Cloning and expression of a chicken alpha-amylase gene.

    PubMed

    Benkel, B F; Nguyen, T; Ahluwalia, N; Benkel, K I; Hickey, D A

    1997-06-19

    We have isolated and sequenced a genomic clone for a pancreatic alpha-amylase gene (amy) of the chicken (Gallus gallus). The gene is interrupted by nine introns, spans over 4 kb, and encodes a protein (AMY) of 512 aa that is 83% identical to the human pancreatic alpha-amylase enzyme. Southern blot analysis of chicken DNA revealed two distinct pancreatic amy loci. In addition, we have generated a cDNA from chicken pancreatic RNA corresponding to the coding sequence of the genomic clone. The cDNA was inserted into a yeast expression vector, and the resulting construct used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Transformed yeast cells synthesized and secreted active AMY enzyme, and the gel migration pattern of the alpha-amylase produced by the yeast cells was identical to that of the native chicken enzyme.

  11. Metal transcription factor-1 regulation via MREs in the transcribed regions of selenoprotein H and other metal- responsive genes

    PubMed Central

    Stoytcheva, Zoia R.; Vladimirov, Vladimir; Douet, Vanessa; Stoychev, Ilko; Berry, Marla J.

    2009-01-01

    Selenoprotein H is a redox-sensing DNA binding protein that upregulates genes involved in antioxidant responses. Given the known links between oxidative stress and heavy metals, we investigated the potential for regulation of selenoprotein H by metals. In silico analysis of the selenoprotein H genes from nine species reveals multiple predicted metal response elements (MREs). To validate MRE function, we investigated the effects of zinc or cadmium addition and metal-responsive transcription factor 1 (MTF-1) knockout on selenoprotein H mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation was used to directly assess physical binding of the transcription factor to MREs in the human and mouse selenoprotein H genes. The results reported herein show that selenoprotein H is a newly identified target for MTF-1. Further, whereas nearly all prior studies of MREs focused on those located in promoters, we demonstrate binding of MTF-1 to MREs located downstream of the transcription start sites in the human and murine selenoprotein H genes. Finally, we identified MREs in downstream sequences in 15 additional MTF-1 regulated genes lacking promoter MREs, and demonstrated MTF-1 binding in three of these genes. This regulation via sequences downstream of promoters highlights a new direction for identifying previously unrecognized target genes for MTF-1. PMID:19913599

  12. Association of allograft inflammatory factor-1 gene polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pawlik, A; Kurzawski, M; Szczepanik, T; Dziedziejko, V; Safranow, K; Borowiec-Chłopek, Z; Giedrys-Kalemba, S; Drozdzik, M

    2008-08-01

    Human allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is a cytoplasmic protein primarily identified in human and rat allografts, and data from several studies suggest an important role for AIF-1 in inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between AIF1 rs2269475:C>T polymorphism and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). AIF1 genotype was determined by means of the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method in 276 White patients with RA and 236 healthy subjects. The frequency of the AIF1 rs2269475 TT genotype was significantly higher in the patients with RA than in the controls (OR=5.59, 95% CI: 1.22-25.55). The frequency of T allele carriers in the patient group with RA was 31.9% vs 19.1% among controls (P=0.0003). Moreover, the frequency of individuals positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies was significantly elevated in the T allele carriers (OR=8.82, 95% CI: 2.06-37.7). It is noteworthy that no significant linkage disequilibria between the AIF1 C/T and DRB1 alleles associated with RA development and anti-CCP antibody production [including the most frequent, i.e. *04 (32.7%) and *01 (23.5%)] (P>0.1) were found. Our results show that the AIF1 rs2269475 T allele is associated with increased risk of RA development. Moreover, the frequency of individuals positive for anti-CCP antibodies is significantly increased among T allele carriers.

  13. Identification of the human ApoAV gene as a novel ROR{alpha} target gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, Ulrika; Nilsson, Tina; McPheat, Jane; Stroemstedt, Per-Erik; Bamberg, Krister; Balendran, Clare; Kang, Daiwu . E-mail: Daiwu.Kang@astrazeneca.com

    2005-04-29

    Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor-{alpha} (ROR{alpha}) (NR1F1) is an orphan nuclear receptor with a potential role in metabolism. Previous studies have shown that ROR{alpha} regulates transcription of the murine Apolipoprotein AI gene and human Apolipoprotein CIII genes. In the present study, we present evidence that ROR{alpha} also induces transcription of the human Apolipoprotein AV gene, a recently identified apolipoprotein associated with triglyceride levels. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of ROR{alpha} increased the endogenous expression of ApoAV in HepG2 cells and ROR{alpha} also enhanced the activity of an ApoAV promoter construct in transiently transfected HepG2 cells. Deletion and mutation studies identified three AGGTCA motifs in the ApoAV promoter that mediate ROR{alpha} transactivation, one of which overlaps with a previously identified binding site for PPAR{alpha}. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism whereby ROR{alpha} modulates lipid metabolism and implies ROR{alpha} as a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  14. Drosophilia alpha-tubulin genes and their transcription patterns.

    PubMed

    Kalfayan, L; Loewenberg, J; Wensink, P C

    1982-01-01

    There are four different alpha-tubulin genes in D. melanogaster DNA; three of them appear as single copies and the other is present as either one or two copies in the haploid genome. The transcripts of three of these genes were examined. Each of them is complementary to a transcript of different length, implying that each is transcribed. Since these transcripts are found on polysomes, it is likely that they are translated. At least two of the genes are complementary to several transcripts, indicating that each of them has more than one transcription start or stop site or perhaps that there are alternative paths of posttranscriptional processing. There is a different developmental pattern of concentrations for transcripts from each of these genes, and different RNAs from the same gene also have different patterns. We conclude that the concentration of transcripts from each gene appears to be independently controlled and that even different transcription products from the same gene appear to independently controlled.

  15. The Xenopus laevis ribosomal gene promoter contains a binding site for nuclear factor-1.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, P; Reeder, R H

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear Factor I (NF1) is a DNA binding protein that is known to function in the replication of Adeno virus and also binds to many promoters recognized by RNA polymerase II. We have found that there is also an NF1 binding site within the ribosomal gene promoter from Xenopus laevis as well as in several other promoters recognized by RNA polymerase I. The function of a binding site for a polymerase II transcription factor within a promoter recognized by polymerase I is not known. However, its presence suggests interesting regulatory possibilities. Images PMID:3205719

  16. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α downregulates HBV gene expression and replication by activating the NF-κB signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhongliang; Liu, Yanfeng; Wang, Wei; Tao, Shuai; Cui, Xiaoxian; Liu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) in the regulation of gene expression and replication of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is not fully understood. Previous reports have documented the induction of the expression of viral large surface protein (LHBs) by HNF1α through activating viral Sp1 promoter. Large amount of LHBs can block the secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Here we found that HNF1α overexpression inhibited HBV gene expression and replication in Huh7 cells, resulting in marked decreases in HBsAg, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and virion productions. In contrast, knockdown of endogenous HNF1α expression enhanced viral gene expression and replication. This HNF1α-mediated inhibition did not depend on LHBs. Instead, HNF1α promoted the expression of NF-κB p65 and slowed p65 protein degradation, leading to nuclear accumulation of p65 and activation of the NF-κB signaling, which in turn inhibited HBV gene expression and replication. The inhibitor of the NF-κB signaling, IκBα-SR, could abrogate this HNF1α-mediated inhibition. While the dimerization domain of HNF1α was dispensable for the induction of LHBs expression, all the domains of HNF1α was required for the inhibition of HBV gene expression. Our findings identify a novel role of HNF1α in the regulation of HBV gene expression and replication. PMID:28319127

  17. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1alpha gene in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P Darrell

    2003-02-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1alpha transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, were higher in the trained than the untrained leg prior to exercise. Exercise induced a marked transient increase (P < 0.05) in PGC-1alpha transcription (10- to > 40-fold) and mRNA content (7- to 10-fold), peaking within 2 h after exercise. Activation of PGC-1alpha was greater in the trained leg despite the lower relative workload. Interestingly, exercise did not affect nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) mRNA, a gene induced by PGC-1alpha in cell culture. HKII, mitochondrial transcription factor A, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, and calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta mRNA were elevated (approximately 2- to 6-fold; P < 0.05) at 6 h of recovery in the untrained leg but did not change in the trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1alpha transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator, these findings suggest that PGC-1alpha may coordinate the activation of metabolic genes in human muscle in response to exercise.

  18. Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor (Valproic Acid) on the Expression of Hypoxia-inducible Factor-1 Alpha in Human Retinal Müller Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Jun; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Na Rae

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI), on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human retinal Müller cells under hypoxic conditions. Methods Chemical hypoxia was induced in human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1) by treatment with increasing concentrations of cobalt(II) chloride (CoCl2). Müller cells were also treated with a set concentration of CoCl2, along with various concentrations of VPA. The expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in the treated Müller cells was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Exposure of human retinal Müller cells to increasing concentrations of CoCl2 produced a dose-dependent increase in HIF-1α expression. The addition of increasing concentrations of VPA lead to a dose-dependent decrease in expression of HIF-1α and VEGF in Müller cells exposed to a set concentration of CoCl2. Conclusions HDACI VPA downregulated the expressions of HIF-1α and VEGF in human retinal Müller cells under hypoxic conditions. Using HDACI to target HIF-1α expression in Müller cells could be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:28243027

  19. Ethanol Enhances Tumor Angiogenesis In Vitro Induced by Low-Dose Arsenic in Colon Cancer Cells Through Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xianglin

    2012-01-01

    Health effects due to environmental exposure to arsenic are a major global health concern. Arsenic has been known to induce carcinogenesis and enhance tumor development via complex and unclear mechanism. Ethanol is also a well-established risk factor for many malignancies. However, little is known about the effects of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol in tumor development. In this study, we investigate the signaling and angiogenic effect of coexposure of arsenic and ethanol on different colon cancer cell lines. Results show that ethanol markedly enhanced arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in vitro. These responses are related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NADPH oxidase activation, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling. We have also found that ethanol increases the arsenic-induced expression and secretion of angiogenic signaling molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which further confirmed the above observation. Antioxidant enzymes inhibited arsenic/ethanol-induced tumor angiogenesis, demonstrating that the responsive signaling pathways of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol are related to ROS generation. We conclude that ethanol is able to enhance arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration in the investigation of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in arsenic-exposed populations. PMID:22872060

  20. Ethanol enhances tumor angiogenesis in vitro induced by low-dose arsenic in colon cancer cells through hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Son, Young-Ok; Ding, Songze; Wang, Xin; Hitron, John Andrew; Budhraja, Amit; Lee, Jeong-Chae; Lin, Qinchen; Poyil, Pratheeshkumar; Zhang, Zhuo; Luo, Jia; Shi, Xianglin

    2012-12-01

    Health effects due to environmental exposure to arsenic are a major global health concern. Arsenic has been known to induce carcinogenesis and enhance tumor development via complex and unclear mechanism. Ethanol is also a well-established risk factor for many malignancies. However, little is known about the effects of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol in tumor development. In this study, we investigate the signaling and angiogenic effect of coexposure of arsenic and ethanol on different colon cancer cell lines. Results show that ethanol markedly enhanced arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in vitro. These responses are related to intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, NADPH oxidase activation, and upregulation of PI3K/Akt and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) signaling. We have also found that ethanol increases the arsenic-induced expression and secretion of angiogenic signaling molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which further confirmed the above observation. Antioxidant enzymes inhibited arsenic/ethanol-induced tumor angiogenesis, demonstrating that the responsive signaling pathways of coexposure to arsenic and ethanol are related to ROS generation. We conclude that ethanol is able to enhance arsenic-induced tumor angiogenesis in colorectal cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. These results indicate that alcohol consumption should be taken into consideration in the investigation of arsenic-induced carcinogenesis in arsenic-exposed populations.

  1. In Vivo Therapeutic Silencing of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF-1α) Using Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Noncovalently Coated with siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomeusz, Geoffrey; Cherukuri, Paul; Kingston, John; Cognet, Laurent; Lemos, Robert; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Gumbiner-Russo, Laura; Weisman, R. Bruce; Powis, Garth

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is described for delivering small interfering RNA (siRNA) into cancer cells by noncovalently complexing unmodified siRNA with pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The complexes were prepared by simple sonication of pristine SWCNTs in a solution of siRNA, which then served both as the cargo and as the suspending agent for the SWCNTs. When complexes containing siRNA targeted to hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) were added to cells growing in serum containing culture media, there was strong specific inhibition of cellular HIF-1α activity. The ability to obtain a biological response to SWCNT/siRNA complexes was seen in a wide variety of cancer cell types. Moreover, intratumoral administration of SWCNT-HIF-1α siRNA complexes in mice bearing MiaPaCa-2/HRE tumors significantly inhibited the activity of tumor HIF-1α. As elevated levels of HIF-1α are found in many human cancers and are associated with resistance to therapy and decreased patient survival, these results imply that SWCNT/siRNA complexes may have value as therapeutic agents. PMID:20052401

  2. tRNA is entrapped in similar, but distinct, nuclear and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes, both of which contain vigilin and elongation factor 1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, C; Grünweller, A; Willkomm, D K; Pfeiffer, T; Hartmann, R K; Müller, P K

    1998-01-01

    Vigilin, which is found predominantly in cells and tissues with high levels of protein biosynthesis, was isolated in its native form from human HEp-2 cells (A.T.C.C. CCL23) by immunoaffinity chromatography. Here we demonstrate that vigilin is part of a novel large tRNA-binding ribonucleoprotein complex (tRNP), found not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nuclei of human cells. Compositional differences in the protein pattern were detected between the nuclear and cytoplasmic tRNPs, although some properties of the purified nuclear tRNP, such as tRNA protection against nuclease attack, were identical with those of the cytoplasmic tRNP. By using either a pool of total human nuclear RNA or radioactively labelled yeast tRNAAsp in rebinding experiments, we could show that tRNA is specifically recaptured by the RNA-depleted, vigilin-containing nuclear complex. We could also show that vigilin is capable of binding tRNA in vitro. Another tRNA-binding protein is elongation factor 1 alpha, which appears to be enriched in the cytoplasmic and nuclear tRNP complexes. This suggests that the cytoplasmic tRNP may be involved in the channelled tRNA cycle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Our results also suggest that the nuclear vigilin-containing tRNP may be related to the nuclear export of tRNA. PMID:9445390

  3. Mice devoid of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) show normal expression of type I interferon genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, L F; Ruffner, H; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Weissmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binds tightly to the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter and has been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs. We generated mice devoid of functional IRF-1 by targeted gene disruption. As reported by others, IRF-1-deficient mice showed a discrete phenotype: the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased and IFN-gamma-induced levels of macrophage iNO synthase mRNA were strongly diminished. However, type I IFN induction in vivo by virus or double-stranded RNA was unimpaired, as evidenced by serum IFN titers and IFN mRNA levels in spleen, liver and lung. There was also no impairment in the response of type I IFN-inducible genes. Therefore, IRF-1 is not essential for these processes in vivo. Images PMID:7957048

  4. Eye-Specific Gene Expression following Embryonic Ethanol Exposure in Zebrafish: Roles for Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A.; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 hours post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. PMID:24355176

  5. Eye-specific gene expression following embryonic ethanol exposure in zebrafish: roles for heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, Bhavani; Pegorsch, Laurel; Frey, Ruth A; Sun, Chi; Shelden, Eric A; Stenkamp, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms through which ethanol exposure results in developmental defects remain unclear. We used the zebrafish model to elucidate eye-specific mechanisms that underlie ethanol-mediated microphthalmia (reduced eye size), through time-series microarray analysis of gene expression within eyes of embryos exposed to 1.5% ethanol. 62 genes were differentially expressed (DE) in ethanol-treated as compared to control eyes sampled during retinal neurogenesis (24-48 h post-fertilization). The EDGE (extraction of differential gene expression) algorithm identified >3000 genes DE over developmental time in ethanol-exposed eyes as compared to controls. The DE lists included several genes indicating a mis-regulated cellular stress response due to ethanol exposure. Combined treatment with sub-threshold levels of ethanol and a morpholino targeting heat shock factor 1 mRNA resulted in microphthalmia, suggesting convergent molecular pathways. Thermal preconditioning partially prevented ethanol-mediated microphthalmia while maintaining Hsf-1 expression. These data suggest roles for reduced Hsf-1 in mediating microphthalmic effects of embryonic ethanol exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of remodeling and spacing factor 1 in histone H2A ubiquitination-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo; Jones, Amanda E; Wu, Wei; Kim, Jinman; Kang, Yue; Bi, Xiaobao; Gu, Yue; Popov, Ivan K; Renfrow, Matthew B; Vassylyeva, Marina N; Vassylyev, Dmitry G; Giles, Keith E; Chen, Dongquan; Kumar, Ashwath; Fan, Yuhong; Tong, Yufeng; Liu, Chuan-Fa; An, Woojin; Chang, Chenbei; Luo, Jianjun; Chow, Louise T; Wang, Hengbin

    2017-08-30

    Posttranslational histone modifications play important roles in regulating chromatin-based nuclear processes. Histone H2AK119 ubiquitination (H2Aub) is a prevalent modification and has been primarily linked to gene silencing. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely obscure. Here we report the identification of RSF1 (remodeling and spacing factor 1), a subunit of the RSF complex, as a H2Aub binding protein, which mediates the gene-silencing function of this histone modification. RSF1 associates specifically with H2Aub, but not H2Bub nucleosomes, through a previously uncharacterized and obligatory region designated as ubiquitinated H2A binding domain. In human and mouse cells, genes regulated by RSF1 overlap significantly with those controlled by RNF2/Ring1B, the subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) which catalyzes the ubiquitination of H2AK119. About 82% of H2Aub-enriched genes, including the classic PRC1 target Hox genes, are bound by RSF1 around their transcription start sites. Depletion of H2Aub levels by Ring1B knockout results in a significant reduction of RSF1 binding. In contrast, RSF1 knockout does not affect RNF2/Ring1B or H2Aub levels but leads to derepression of H2Aub target genes, accompanied by changes in H2Aub chromatin organization and release of linker histone H1. The action of RSF1 in H2Aub-mediated gene silencing is further demonstrated by chromatin-based in vitro transcription. Finally, RSF1 and Ring1 act cooperatively to regulate mesodermal cell specification and gastrulation during Xenopus early embryonic development. Taken together, these data identify RSF1 as a H2Aub reader that contributes to H2Aub-mediated gene silencing by maintaining a stable nucleosome pattern at promoter regions.

  7. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects. PMID:26413996

  8. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects.

  9. Alpha 2A adrenergic receptor gene and suicide.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Adolfo; Mamdani, Firoza; Lalovic, Aleksandra; Anguelova, Milena; Lesage, Alain; Seguin, Monique; Chawky, Nadia; Desautels, Alex; Turecki, Gustavo

    2004-02-15

    Suicide is a complex trait resulting from the interaction of several predisposing factors, among which genes seem to play an important role. Alterations in the noradrenergic system have been observed in postmortem brain studies of suicide victims when compared to controls. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that genetic variants of the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor gene are implicated in suicide and/or have a modulatory effect on personality traits that are believed to mediate suicidal behavior. We studied a sample of suicides (N=110) and control subjects (N=130) for genetic variation at four loci, including three in the promoter region (g-1800t, c-1291 g and the g-261a) of the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor gene, and a potentially functional locus, N251K, which leads to an amino acid change (asparagine to lysine). No significant differences were observed at the promoter loci in terms of allelic or genotypic distribution between suicides and controls. However, analysis of the functional polymorphism N251K revealed that the 251 K allele was only present among suicides, though only three suicide cases had this allele, two of which were homozygous. These results are preliminary. If confirmed, they suggest that variation at the alpha(2A) adrenergic receptor gene may play a role in a small proportion of suicide cases.

  10. Alpha-globin gene markers identify genetic differences between Australian aborigines and Melanesians.

    PubMed Central

    Tsintsof, A S; Hertzberg, M S; Prior, J F; Mickleson, K N; Trent, R J

    1990-01-01

    Australian aborigines exhibit a number of alpha-globin cluster rearrangements involving both alpha- and zeta-globin genes. alpha+-Thalassemia (-alpha/) in this population is heterogeneous and includes the 3.7 types I, II, and III gene deletions. The alpha alpha alpha/ and zeta zeta zeta/ rearrangements are each found in association with two haplotypes, indicating origins from at least two separate DNA crossover events. Differences in alpha-globin cluster rearrangements and in haplotypes between Australian aborigines, Papua New Guinea highlanders and island Melanesians, are consistent with multiple colonizing events into Australia. PMID:2294746

  11. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene.

    PubMed

    Wolfgang, W J; Hoskote, A; Roberts, I J; Jackson, S; Forte, M

    2001-07-01

    One of the best understood signal transduction pathways activated by receptors containing seven transmembrane domains involves activation of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes containing Gs(alpha), the subsequent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and the phosphorylation of substrates that control a wide variety of cellular responses. Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs). Seven mutants have been identified that are either complemented by transgenes representing the wild-type dgs gene or contain nucleotide sequence changes resulting in the production of altered Gs(alpha) protein. Examination of mutant alleles representing loss-of-Gs(alpha) function indicates that the phenotypes generated do not mimic those created by mutational elimination of PKA. These results are consistent with the conclusion reached in previous studies that activation of PKA, at least in these developmental contexts, does not depend on receptor-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, in contrast to the predictions of models developed primarily on the basis of studies in cultured cells.

  12. Genetic analysis of the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfgang, W J; Hoskote, A; Roberts, I J; Jackson, S; Forte, M

    2001-01-01

    One of the best understood signal transduction pathways activated by receptors containing seven transmembrane domains involves activation of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes containing Gs(alpha), the subsequent stimulation of adenylyl cyclase, production of cAMP, activation of protein kinase A (PKA), and the phosphorylation of substrates that control a wide variety of cellular responses. Here, we report the identification of "loss-of-function" mutations in the Drosophila Gs(alpha) gene (dgs). Seven mutants have been identified that are either complemented by transgenes representing the wild-type dgs gene or contain nucleotide sequence changes resulting in the production of altered Gs(alpha) protein. Examination of mutant alleles representing loss-of-Gs(alpha) function indicates that the phenotypes generated do not mimic those created by mutational elimination of PKA. These results are consistent with the conclusion reached in previous studies that activation of PKA, at least in these developmental contexts, does not depend on receptor-mediated increases in intracellular cAMP, in contrast to the predictions of models developed primarily on the basis of studies in cultured cells. PMID:11454767

  13. Zinc-controlled gene expression by metal-regulatory transcription factor 1 (MTF1) in a model vertebrate, the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Hogstrand, Christer; Zheng, Dongling; Feeney, Graham; Cunningham, Phil; Kille, Peter

    2008-12-01

    There is a growing appreciation for the diverse roles of zinc as a signalling substance in biological systems. Zinc signalling is brought about by changes in intracellular concentrations of labile Zn(2+), resulting in both genomic and non-genomic effects. The genomic responses are largely mediated by MTF1 (metal-regulatory transcription factor 1), which binds to MREs (metal-response elements) in the 5' regulatory region of genes in response to zinc. Treatment of cultured zebrafish ZF4 cells with siRNA (small interfering RNA) to MTF1 changed the transcriptional response to zinc for over 1000 genes, as assessed using an oligonucleotide microarray. From this primary list of MTF1-dependent genes, we identified a relatively small cohort that showed a configuration of MREs in their 5' regulatory regions similar to known MTF1 targets. This group showed a remarkable dominance of nucleic acid-binding proteins and other proteins involved in embryological development, implicating MTF1 as a master regulator of gene expression during development.

  14. Control of yeast cell type by the mating type locus: positive regulation of the alpha-specific STE3 gene by the MAT alpha 1 product.

    PubMed

    Sprague, G F; Jensen, R; Herskowitz, I

    1983-02-01

    The mating type locus (MAT) determines the three yeast cell types, a, alpha, and a/alpha. It has been proposed that alleles of this locus, MATa and MAT alpha, encode regulators that control expression of unlinked genes necessary for mating and sporulation. Specifically, the alpha 1 product of MAT alpha is proposed to be a positive regulator of alpha-specific genes. To test this view, we have assayed RNA production from the alpha-specific STE3 gene in the three cell types and in mutants defective in MAT alpha. The STE3 gene was cloned by screening a yeast genomic clone bank for plasmids that complement the mating defect of ste3 mutants. Using the cloned STE3 gene as a probe, we find that alpha cells produce STE3 RNA, whereas a and a/alpha cells do not. Furthermore, mat alpha 1 mutants do not produce STE3 RNA, whereas mat alpha 2 mutants do. These results show that the STE3 gene, required for mating only by alpha cells, is expressed only in alpha cells. They show also that production of RNA from the STE3 gene requires that alpha 1 product of MAT alpha. Thus alpha 1 positively regulates at least one alpha-specific gene by increasing the level of that gene's RNA product.

  15. A putative fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha-subunit gene is expressed in testis.

    PubMed Central

    Shamraj, O I; Lingrel, J B

    1994-01-01

    The Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha subunit has three known isoforms, alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3, each encoded by a separate gene. This study was undertaken to determine the functional status of a fourth human alpha-like gene, ATP1AL2. Partial genomic sequence analysis revealed regions exhibiting sequence similarity with exons 3-6 of the Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform genes. ATP1AL2 cDNAs spanning the coding sequence of a novel P-type ATPase alpha subunit were isolated from a rat testis library. The predicted polypeptide is 1028 amino acids long and exhibits 76-78% identity with the rat Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms, indicating that ATP1AL2 may encode a fourth Na+,K(+)-ATPase alpha isoform. A 3.9-kb mRNA is expressed abundantly in human and rat testis. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 PMID:7809153

  16. Buffalo alpha S1-casein gene 5'-flanking region and its interspecies comparison.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amrutlal K; Singh, Mahavir; Suryanarayana, V V S

    2014-02-01

    The expression of milk protein genes is tightly regulated in a spatio-temporal manner through the combinatorial interaction of lactogenic hormones and a set of transcription factors mediating developmental and tissue-specific gene expression. The recruitment of a unique set of transcription factors is determined by the cis-regulatory motifs present in the gene promoter region. Here, we report the isolation, sequencing, structural analysis and interspecies comparison of the 5'cis-regulatory region of the buffalo alpha S1 (αS1)-casein gene. The proximal promoter region of the buffalo αS1-casein gene harbored the insertion of a 72-bp fragment of long interspersed nuclear element of the L1_BT retrotransposon family. Among the core and vertebrate-specific promoter elements, the motifs for the binding of Brn POU domain factors (BRNF), Lim homeodomain factors (LHXF), NK6 homeobox transcription factors (NKX6), nuclear factor kappa B/c-rel (NFKB), AT-rich interactive domain factor (ARID), Brn POU domain factor 5 (BRN5), pancreatic and intestinal homeodomain transcription factor (PDX1), Distal-less homeodomain transcription factors (DLXF), T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor-1 (LEFF) and GHF-1 pituitary-specific POU domain transcription factor (PIT1) were over-represented in the αS1-casein gene regulatory region (Z score >4.0). The Multiple EM for Motif elicitation predicted three motifs which consisted of the sequences known to bind mammary gland factor/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (MGF/STAT5), estrogen receptor-related alpha (ERα), steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), indicating their potential role in the mammary gland-specific gene expression. The interspecies comparison of the proximal promoter region revealed conserved sequences for TATA boxes and MGF/STAT5 in all species, whereas activator protein 1 (AP1), pregnancy-specific mammary nuclear factor (PMF), CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), double

  17. Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

  18. Antiviral Activity of Limitin against Encephalomyocarditis Virus, Herpes Simplex Virus, and Mouse Hepatitis Virus: Diverse Requirements by Limitin and Alpha Interferon for Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Shin-Ichiro; Oritani, Kenji; Asada, Hideo; Takahashi, Isao; Ishikawa, Jun; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Yamada, Masahide; Ishida, Naoko; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Tomiyama, Yoshiaki; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    Limitin has sequence homology with alpha interferon (IFN-α) and IFN-β and utilizes the IFN-α/β receptor. However, it has no influence on the proliferation of normal myeloid and erythroid progenitors. In this study, we show that limitin has antiviral activity in vitro as well as in vivo. Limitin inhibited not only cytopathic effects in encephalomyocarditis virus- or herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-infected L929 cells, but also plaque formation in mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) type 2-infected DBT cells. In addition, administration of limitin to mice suppressed MHV-induced hepatitis and HSV-induced death. The antiviral activity may be mediated in part by 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase, RNA-dependent protein kinase, and Mx protein, which inhibit viral replication or degrade viral components, because limitin induced their mRNA expression and enzyme activity. While limitin has antiviral activity as strong as that of IFN-α in vitro (the concentration that provided 50% inhibition of cytopathic effect is ∼30 pg/ml), IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) dependencies for induction of an antiviral state were different for limitin and IFN-α. In IRF-1-deficient fibroblasts, a higher concentration of limitin than of IFN-α was required for the induction of antiviral activity and the transcription of proteins from IFN-stimulated response element. The unique signals and the fewer properties of myelosuppression suggest that a human homolog of limitin may be used as a new antiviral drug. PMID:12915574

  19. Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha impacts FoxP3 levels in mycosis fungoides--cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Alcántara-Hernández, M; Torres-Zárate, C; Pérez-Montesinos, G; Jurado-Santacruz, F; Domínguez-Gómez, M A; Peniche-Castellanos, A; Ferat-Osorio, E; Neri, N; Nambo, M J; Alvarado-Cabrero, I; Moreno-Lafont, M; Huerta-Yepez, S; Bonifaz, L C

    2014-05-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common variant of primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and decreased forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression has been reported in MF late stages. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) may regulate FoxP3 expression; however, it is unknown whether HIF-1α is expressed in the CD4(+) T cells of MF patients and how it could affect the expression of FoxP3. Therefore, we evaluated the expression of HIF-1α and FoxP3 in CD4(+) T cells obtained from the skin lesions of MF patients. We found increased cell proliferation and an increase in CD4(+) T cells with an aberrant phenotype among early stage MF patients. HIF-1α was overexpressed in these CD4(+) T cells. In addition, we found a decrease in the percentage of FoxP3(+) cells both in the skin of MF patients, when compared with control skin samples, and with disease progression. In addition, a negative correlation was established between HIF-1α and FoxP3 expression. Skin HIF-1α expression in MF patients correlated with the extent of the affected area and increased with the disease progression. Finally, we showed that ex vivo inhibition of HIF-1α degradation increases the percentage of FoxP3(+) T cells in skin lesions. Our results suggest that overexpression of HIF-1α affects the levels of FoxP3 in MF patients, which could have relevant implications in terms of disease outcome.

  20. Stromal Cell-Derived Growth Factor-1 Alpha-Elastin Like Peptide Fusion Protein Promotes Cell Migration and Revascularization of Experimental Wounds in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yeboah, Agnes; Maguire, Tim; Schloss, Rene; Berthiaume, Francois; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In previous work, we demonstrated the development of a novel fusion protein containing stromal cell-derived growth factor-1 alpha juxtaposed to an elastin-like peptide (SDF1-ELP), which has similar bioactivity, but is more stable in elastase than SDF1. Herein, we compare the ability of a single topical application of SDF1-ELP to that of SDF1 in healing 1 × 1 cm excisional wounds in diabetic mice. Approach: Human Leukemia-60 cells were used to demonstrate the chemotactic potential of SDF1-ELP versus SDF1 in vitro. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells were used to demonstrate the angiogenic potential of SDF1-ELP versus SDF1 in vitro. The bioactivity of SDF1-ELP versus SDF1 after incubation in ex-vivo diabetic wound fluid was compared. The in-vivo effectiveness of SDF1-ELP versus SDF1 was compared in diabetic mice wound model by monitoring for the number of CD31+ cells in harvested wound tissues. Results: SDF1-ELP promotes the migration of cells and induces vascularization similar to SDF1 in vitro. SDF1-ELP is more stable in wound fluids compared to SDF1. In vivo, SDF1-ELP induced a higher number of vascular endothelial cells (CD31+ cells) compared to SDF1 and other controls, suggesting increased vascularization. Innovation: While growth factors have been shown to improve wound healing, this strategy is largely ineffective in chronic wounds. In this work, we show that SDF1-ELP is a promising agent for the treatment of chronic skin wounds. Conclusion: The superior in vivo performance and stability of SDF1-ELP makes it a promising agent for the treatment of chronic skin wounds. PMID:28116224

  1. Enhancement of CYP3A4 activity in Hep G2 cells by lentiviral transfection of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tsai-Shin; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chiou, Ling-Ling; Huang, Guan-Tarn; Lee, Hsuan-Shu

    2014-01-01

    Human hepatoma cell lines are commonly used as alternatives to primary hepatocytes for the study of drug metabolism in vitro. However, the phase I cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities in these cell lines occur at a much lower level than their corresponding activities in primary hepatocytes, and thus these cell lines may not accurately predict drug metabolism. In the present study, we selected hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) from six transcriptional regulators for lentiviral transfection into Hep G2 cells to optimally increase their expression of the CYP3A4 enzyme, which is the major CYP enzyme in the human body. We subsequently found that HNF1α-transfected Hep G2 enhanced the CYP3A4 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner and the activity was noted to increase with time and peaked 7 days. With a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 100, CYP3A4 expression increased 19-fold and enzyme activity more than doubled at day 7. With higher MOI (1,000 to 3,000), the activity increased 8- to 10-fold; however, it was noted the higher MOI, the higher cell death rate and lower cell survival. Furthermore, the CYP3A4 activity in the HNF1α-transfected cells could be induced by CYP3A4-specific inducer, rifampicin, and metabolized nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. With an MOI of 3,000, nifedipine-metabolizing activity was 6-fold of control and as high as 66% of primary hepatocytes. In conclusion, forceful delivery of selected transcriptional regulators into human hepatoma cells might be a valuable method to enhance the CYP activity for a more accurate determination of drug metabolism in vitro.

  2. Modulation of stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) and its receptor CXCR4 in Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang; Nemoto, Eiji; Hong, Guang; Sasaki, Keiichi

    2016-07-22

    The production of chemokines by tissue resident cells during inflammation is considered one of the main mechanisms involved in the formation of inflammatory infiltrates. Fibroblasts are the main resident cell type in gingival and periodontal ligament tissues, and their ability to produce chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) and its receptor CXCR4 under stimulation by gram negative bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, commonly found in periodontal infections was investigated. Western blots were used to assess SDF-1α and CXCR4 protein expression levels in human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from P. gingivalis in the presence or absence of LY294002, a highly selective inhibitor of PI-3K/Akt. RT-PCR and quantitative Real-time PCR was performed using gingival mRNAs from periodontitis patients. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression and subcellular localization of SDF-1α and CXCR4, together with NF-kβ phosphorylation, in specimens from patients with periodontitis and in an experimental rat periodontitis model. We found that P. gingivalis LPS up-regulated SDF-1α and CXCR4 protein levels and elevated phosphorylation of the SDF-1α-responsive NF-kβ and Akt at 24 h in HGF-1 cells. SDF-1α and CXCR4 mRNA and protein expression levels were high in all patients with periodontitis. In the P. gingivalis-induced rat experimental periodontitis model, SDF-1α and CXCR4 immunoreactivity was higher in gingival and periodontal ligament tissues compared to the control. Our data showed that PI-3K/Akt is an upstream participant in the P. gingivalis LPS-mediated induction of SDF-1α. Taken together, these results suggest that the chemokine SDF-1α and its receptor CXCR4 contribute to P. gingivalis-induced periodontal inflammation.

  3. Analysis of Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1alpha in Patients Operated on Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Honguero Martínez, Antonio Francisco; Arnau Obrer, Antonio; Figueroa Almánzar, Santiago; León Atance, Pablo; Guijarro Jorge, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recent studies show that expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) favours expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and these biomarkers are linked to cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis in different cancers. We analyze expression of HIF-1α and VEGF-A to clinicopathologic features and survival of patients operated on stage I non-small-cell lung cancer. Methodology. Prospective study of 52 patients operated on with stage I. Expression of VEGF-A and HIF-1α was performed through real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results. Mean age was 64.7 and 86.5% of patients were male. Stage IA represented 23.1% and stage IB 76.9%. Histology classification was 42.3% adenocarcinoma, 34.6% squamous cell carcinoma, and 23.1% others. Median survival was 81.0 months and 5-year survival 67.2%. There was correlation between HIF-1α and VEGF-A (P = 0.016). Patients with overexpression of HIF-1α had a tendency to better survival with marginal statistical significance (P = 0.062). Patients with overexpression of VEGF-A had worse survival, but not statistically significant (P = 0.133). Conclusion. The present study revealed that VEGF-A showed correlation with HIF-1α. HIF-1α had a tendency to protective effect with a P value close to statistical significance. VEGF-A showed a contrary effect but without statistical significance. PMID:26316946

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is required for the tumourigenic and aggressive phenotype associated with Rab25 expression in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Roman, Natividad; Sahasrabudhe, Neha Mohan; McGregor, Fiona; Chalmers, Anthony J.; Cassidy, Jim; Plumb, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab25 has been functionally linked to tumour progression and aggressiveness in ovarian cancer and promotes invasion in three-dimensional environments. This type of migration has been shown to require the expression of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α). In this report we demonstrate that Rab25 regulates HIF-1α protein expression in an oxygen independent manner in a panel of cancer cell lines. Regulation of HIF-1α protein expression by Rab25 did not require transcriptional upregulation, but was dependent on de novo protein synthesis through the Erbb2/ERK1/2 and p70S6K/mTOR pathways. Rab25 expression induced HIF-1 transcriptional activity, increased cisplatin resistance, and conferred intraperitoneal growth to the A2780 cell line in immunocompromised mice. Targeting HIF1 activity by silencing HIF-1β re-sensitised cells to cisplatin in vitro and reduced tumour formation of A2780-Rab25 expressing cells in vivo in a mouse ovarian peritoneal carcinomatosis model. Similar effects on cisplatin resistance in vitro and intraperitoneal tumourigenesis in vivo were obtained after HIF1b knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3, which expresses endogenous Rab25 and HIF-1α at atmospheric oxygen concentrations. Our results suggest that Rab25 tumourigenic potential and chemoresistance relies on HIF1 activity in aggressive and metastatic ovarian cancer. Targeting HIF-1 activity may potentially be effective either alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy for aggressive metastatic ovarian cancer. PMID:26967059

  5. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha expression is increased in infected positive HPV16 DNA oral squamous cell carcinoma and positively associated with HPV16 E7 oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence for the role of High Risk (HR) Human PapillomaVirus (HPV) in the pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). The E6 and E7 oncogenes from HR HPVs are responsible for the deregulation of p53 and pRB proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptotic pathways. In cell lines experiments, the HPV E7 protein seems to be able to enhance Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) activity, normally involved in the response to hypoxia and able to enhance angiogenesis. Results We studied tumor specimens from 62 OSCC; a higher prevalence of tumors in TNM stage II and also in pT2 class between OSCC infected positive HPV16 DNA than non-infected ones was observed. HIF-1α positivity was detected throughout the analysed fields, not associated with areas of necrosis and also observed in cells immediately adjacent to blood vessels. A significant increase in mean values of the HIF-1α labeling indexes was observed for pT1-T2, as well for stage I-II, in the infected positive HPV16 DNA tumors than non-infected ones. HIF-1α and HPV16 E7 labeling indexes showed a significantly positive correlation which suggested a positive association between HPV16 E7 and HIF-1α expression. Conclusions In our specimens HIF-1α immunoreactivity hints for an O2-independent regulatory mechanism in infected positive HPV16 DNA tumors, especially for pT1-T2 and stage I-II tumors, suggesting a very early involvement in the development of HPV-induced OSCC. HIF-1α and HPV16 E7 labeling indexes suggest also a positive association between the two proteins in infected positive HPV16 DNA OSCC. PMID:22032288

  6. {alpha}-Synuclein gene duplication impairs reward learning.

    PubMed

    Kéri, Szabolcs; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Myers, Catherine E; Benedek, György; Gluck, Mark A

    2010-09-07

    alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) plays an important role in the regulation of dopaminergic neurotransmission and neurodegeneration in Parkinson disease. We investigated reward and punishment learning in asymptomatic carriers of a rare SNCA gene duplication who were healthy siblings of patients with Parkinson disease. Results revealed that healthy SNCA duplication carriers displayed impaired reward and intact punishment learning compared with noncarriers. These results demonstrate that a copy number variation of the SNCA gene is associated with selective impairments on reinforcement learning in asymptomatic carriers without the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease.

  7. Mutations in Kruppel-like factor 1 cause transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia and persistence of embryonic globin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Viprakasit, Vip; Ekwattanakit, Supachai; Riolueang, Suchada; Chalaow, Nipon; Fisher, Chris; Lower, Karen; Kanno, Hitoshi; Tachavanich, Kalaya; Bejrachandra, Sasithorn; Saipin, Jariya; Juntharaniyom, Monthana; Sanpakit, Kleebsabai; Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S; Songdej, Duantida; Babbs, Christian; Gibbons, Richard J; Philipsen, Sjaak; Higgs, Douglas R

    2014-03-06

    In this study, we report on 8 compound heterozygotes for mutations in the key erythroid transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 1 in patients who presented with severe, transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia. In most cases, the red cells were hypochromic and microcytic, consistent with abnormalities in hemoglobin synthesis. In addition, in many cases, the red cells resembled those seen in patients with membrane defects or enzymopathies, known as chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA). Analysis of RNA and protein in primary erythroid cells from these individuals provided evidence of abnormal globin synthesis, with persistent expression of fetal hemoglobin and, most remarkably, expression of large quantities of embryonic globins in postnatal life. The red cell membranes were abnormal, most notably expressing reduced amounts of CD44 and, consequently, manifesting the rare In(Lu) blood group. Finally, all tested patients showed abnormally low levels of the red cell enzyme pyruvate kinase, a known cause of CNSHA. These patients define a new type of severe, transfusion-dependent CNSHA caused by mutations in a trans-acting factor (Krüppel-like factor 1) and reveal an important pathway regulating embryonic globin gene expression in adult humans.

  8. Adeno-associated virus gene transfer in Morquio A disease - effect of promoters and sulfatase-modifying factor 1.

    PubMed

    Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Montaño, Adriana M; Tomatsu, Shunji; Barrera, Luis A

    2010-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalatosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS), which leads to the accumulation of keratan sulfate and chondroitin 6-sulfate, mainly in bone. To explore the possibility of gene therapy for Morquio A disease, we transduced the GALNS gene into HEK293 cells, human MPS IVA fibroblasts and murine MPS IVA chondrocytes by using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors, which carry human GALNS cDNA. The effects of the promoter and the cotransduction with the sulfatase-modifying factor 1 gene (SUMF1) on GALNS activity levels was evaluated. Downregulation of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter was not observed for 10 days post-transduction. The eukaryotic promoters induced equal or higher levels of GALNS activity than those induced by the CMV promoter in HEK293 cells. Transduction of human MPS IVA fibroblasts induced GALNS activity levels that were 15-54% of those of normal human fibroblasts, whereas in transduced murine MPS IVA chondrocytes, the enzyme activities increased up to 70% of normal levels. Cotransduction with SUMF1 vector yielded an additional four-fold increase in enzyme activity, although the level of elevation depended on the transduced cell type. These findings suggest the potential application of AAV vectors for the treatment of Morquio A disease, depending on the combined choice of transduced cell type, selection of promoter, and cotransduction of SUMF1.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  11. Adenoviral-mediated delivery of early growth response factor-1 gene increases tissue perfusion in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Sam; Jang, Hyung-Suk; Kim, Jeong-Min; Lee, Jung-Sun; Lee, Jae-Young; Li Kim, Koung; Shin, In-Soon; Suh, Wonhee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Byun, Jonghoe; Kim, Duk-Kyung

    2005-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that overexpression of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) contributes to the revascularization of ischemic limbs, a constitutively active form of Egr-1 (Egr-1*) was made and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Analyses of the transduced myocytes revealed significant upregulation of bFGF, PDGF-A, PDGF-B, IGF-II, and TGF-beta1. A coculture assay of the paracrine effects indicated that Ad-Egr-1* promoted proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. When Ad-Egr-1* was injected into the tibialis anterior muscle of mice, followed by explant culture in growth factor-reduced Matrigel, many capillary-like structures were observed in the Egr-1* group compared with minimal sprouting from the LacZ group, suggesting an angiogenic potential of Egr-1*. Next we evaluated Ad-Egr-1* in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. Compared with slow revascularization in the control PBS or LacZ group, a rapid increase in tissue perfusion was observed in the Egr-1* group and the difference in flux ratio was statistically significant at day 7. In the injected muscle, expression of Egr-1*, upregulation of its target genes, and increased number of vessels staining positive for smooth muscle alpha-actin were observed. These results suggest that Egr-1 plays an important role in vascular recovery after occlusion and could be a potential target for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  12. Sugar modulation of alpha-amylase genes under anoxia.

    PubMed

    Loreti, Elena; Yamaguchi, Junji; Alpi, Amedeo; Perata, Pierdomenico

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance to low oxygen availability is likely to be due to the interaction of several factors. Sugar availability is one of the elements required to support anaerobic metabolism. In cereal grains the availability of soluble sugars is limited, while starch is stored in large amounts. Degradation of starch under anoxia is therefore needed to avoid sugar starvation leading to rapid cell death. The striking difference in the ability to produce alpha-amylase when comparing the anoxia-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains with grains of other cereals is not easily explained. Rice is able to respond to gibberellins under anoxia, but the response is too slow to explain the rapid production of alpha-amylase enzyme. In the present work we demonstrated that alpha-amylase production during the first 2 d after imbibition is mostly due to the activity of the Ramy3D gene, encoding for the G and H isoforms of alpha-amylase. The induction of Ramy3D transcription is likely to result from a low sugar content in the grains incubated under anoxia. The ability of rice embryos to sense sugars under anoxia is reported.

  13. The stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha dependent migration of human cord blood CD34 haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells switches from protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha dependence to PKC-alpha independence upon prolonged culture in the presence of Flt3-ligand and interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Kassmer, Susannah H; Niggemann, Bernd; Schiermeier, Sven; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Addition of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 to the culture medium of human cord blood haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) has been shown to lead to an altered stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha-dependent migratory phenotype. This study investigated whether this effect was attributed to a differential engagement of protein kinase C (PKC) isotypes. The migratory activity of both Flt3-ligand and Flt3-ligand/IL-6 cultured cord blood HSPCs was PKC-alpha dependent on day 1, but PKC-alpha independent after 5 d of cultivation. PKC-alpha expression was not down-regulated in cells cultured for 5 d indicating a switch of signalling molecules directing cell migration.

  14. T cell receptor V[alpha] gene segment with alternate splicing in the junctional region

    SciTech Connect

    Marche, P.N.; Six, A.; Gahery, H.; Gris-Liebe, C.; Cazenave, P.A.; Jouvin-Marche, E. )

    1993-11-15

    The locus encoding mouse TCR-[alpha] chain includes approximately 100 V[alpha] gene segments that can be organized in about 20 structural subfamilies. Southern blot analysis of a T cell line derived from the BALB/c strain, M5T, has indicated that both [alpha] loci were rearranged, as assessed by the deletion of the [delta] locus, and that the V[alpha] gene-segment involved in one of the rearrangements did not belong to any of the V[alpha] subfamilies already described. Transcripts of TCR-[alpha] chains from the M5T line were cloned after cDNA synthesis and anchored-polymerase chain reaction, revealing a V[alpha] gene segment of an as yet unidentified subfamily, V[alpha]5T. Molecular cloning of germ-line V[alpha]5T gene segments has shown that this subfamily contained two members, one of them being a pseudogene. The two members were located to each extremity of the [alpha] locus associated with a member of the V[alpha]13 and V[alpha]BWB subfamilies. Analysis of transcripts bearing the V[alpha]5T gene segment in the M5T line as well as in thymocytes has revealed that J[alpha] are frequently absent. This is due to an alternate donor splice site generated at the V[alpha]5T-J[alpha] junction that leads to a splicing from the end of V[alpha]5T to C[alpha] instead of the J[alpha] to C[alpha] conventional splicing. The impact of J[alpha] spliced-out transcripts on the allelic exclusion process is discussed. 41 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis. PMID:27994464

  16. Polymorphism of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with breast muscle yields in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shinichi; Ohtake, Tsuyoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Okumura, Yumi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) plays an important role in muscle development in chickens. In this study, an F2 chicken population of 362 individuals, obtained from an intercross between high breast muscle yield line males and low breast muscle yield (LB) line females, was constructed for investigating the associations between IGF1 gene and breast muscle yields. The IGF1 sequence was investigated in the grandparents. There were no differences in the exon sequences. However, sequence analysis of the IGF1 promoter revealed a known single nucleotide polymorphism (g.570C>A) in LB line grandparents. PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism was used for screening the F2 population, which was evaluated for body weight (BW), carcass weight (CW), breast muscle weight (BMW), and breast fillet weight (BFW). Significant associations with the polymorphism were detected for BMW, BFW, BMW% and BFW%, although there were no associations between the polymorphism and BW or CW. The allelic effect on BMW, BFW, BMW% and BFW% acted in additive and dominance modes. We confirmed that the g.570C>A polymorphism is significantly associated with breast muscle yields in the F2 population. Therefore, this polymorphism in the IGF1 gene may help improve breast muscle yields by marker-assisted selection.

  17. Silver nanoparticles inhibit the function of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and target genes: insight into the cytotoxicity and antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tieshan; Yao, Qian; Cao, Fei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Binlei; Wang, Xiu-Hong

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is activated upon exposure to hypoxic stress. It modulates a number of cellular responses including proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metabolism by activating a panel of target genes in response to hypoxia. The HIF-1 level is often upregulated in the hypoxic microenvironment of solid tumors, which contributes to cancer treatment failure. Here we report that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are widely used as an antimicrobial agent, are an effective inhibitor of HIF-1. AgNPs inhibited the activation of a HIF-dependent reporter construct after the cells were exposed to hypoxic conditions or treated with cobalt chloride, a hypoxia mimetic agent. The AgNPs also interfered with the accumulation of HIF-1α protein and the induction of the endogenous HIF target genes, VEGF-A and GLUT1. Since both HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A play an important role in angiogenesis, AgNPs also inhibited angiogenesis in vitro. Our data reveal a new mechanism of how AgNPs act on cellular function, that is, they disrupt HIF signaling pathway. This finding provides a novel insight into how AgNPs can inhibit cancer cell growth and angiogenesis.

  18. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside.

  19. Follicular development and expression of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 alpha in ovaries of fetal and neonatal doelings.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Wan, Y; Zhang, Y; Wang, Z; Jia, R; Fan, Y; Nie, H; Ying, S; Huang, P; Wang, F

    2012-11-01

    In livestock, the ovarian reserve of follicles is established during the fetal stage. However, at least two-thirds of the oocytes present in the reserve die because of apoptosis before birth. Notably, mitochondria have been reported to play a crucial role in the fate (life/death) of oocytes. In this study, mitochondrial regulators nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) and PPAR γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) were examined during this period of follicle development to investigate their effects on follicular development and apoptosis. Fetal and neonatal Capra haimen were used, ranging in age from 60 d postcoitum (dpc) to 30 d postpartum (dpp). Our data demonstrated that egg nests were the earliest recognizable gamete cells in ovaries of fetal and neonatal doelings. Proportions of egg nests decreased from 92.68 to 25.08% whereas single follicles increased from 7.32 to 74.92% between 60 and 120 dpc. Subsequently, between 90 and 120 dpc, the proportion of primordial follicles increased from 9.98 to 61.56% (P < 0.01). However, it did not change between 1 and 30 dpp (P = 0.12). The proportion of primary follicles increased from 1.23 to 37.93% between 90 dpc to 1 dpp (P = 0.01) but did not change between 1 and 30 dpp (P = 0.11). Meanwhile, proportions of secondary and tertiary follicles increased in an age-dependent manner. In addition, results of this study suggested that NRF-1 and PGC-1α proteins are mainly localized in germ cells of egg nests, cytoplasm of oocytes, and granulosa cells of follicles ranging from primordial to tertiary follicles. The transcript abundance of NRF-1 mRNA was up-regulated in 60-dpc-old ovaries compared with 1-dpp-old ovaries (P < 0.05), but the PGC-1α mRNA expression pattern did not change (P = 0.05). Nevertheless, the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase UTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells and caspase-3 activity in 60-dpc-old ovaries was less than those in 1-dpp-old ovaries (P < 0.01, P = 0.01). In conclusion, our results

  20. Human hTM. cap alpha. gene: Expression in muscle and nonmuscle tissue

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, A.R.; Gooding, C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors isolated a cDNA clone from a human skeletal muscle library which contains the complete protein-coding sequence of a skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. This cDNA sequence defines a fourth human tropomyosin gene, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene, which is distinct from the hTM/sub nm/ gene encoding a closely related isoform of skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-tropomyosin. In cultured human fibroblasts, the hTM..cap alpha.. gene encodes both skeletal-muscle- and smooth-muscle-type ..cap alpha..-tropomyosins by using an alternative mRNA-splicing mechanism.

  1. Hepatic nuclear factor 3 and nuclear factor 1 regulate 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene expression and are involved in insulin repression.

    PubMed

    Scassa, María E; Guberman, Alejandra S; Ceruti, Julieta M; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2004-07-02

    Although the negative regulation of gene expression by insulin has been widely studied, the transcription factors responsible for the insulin effect are still unknown. The purpose of this work was to explore the molecular mechanisms involved in the insulin repression of the 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) gene. Deletion analysis of the 5'-regulatory region allowed us to identify an insulin-responsive region located at -459 to -354 bp. This fragment contains a highly homologous insulin-responsive (IRE) sequence. By transient transfection assays, we determined that hepatic nuclear factor 3 (HNF3) and nuclear factor 1 (NF1) are necessary for an appropriate expression of the ALAS gene. Insulin overrides the HNF3beta or HNF3beta plus NF1-mediated stimulation of ALAS transcriptional activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and Southwestern blotting indicate that HNF3 binds to the ALAS promoter. Mutational analysis of this region revealed that IRE disruption abrogates insulin action, whereas mutation of the HNF3 element maintains hormone responsiveness. This dissociation between HNF3 binding and insulin action suggests that HNF3beta is not the sole physiologic mediator of insulin-induced transcriptional repression. Furthermore, Southwestern blotting assay shows that at least two polypeptides other than HNF3beta can bind to ALAS promoter and that this binding is dependent on the integrity of the IRE. We propose a model in which insulin exerts its negative effect through the disturbance of HNF3beta binding or transactivation potential, probably due to specific phosphorylation of this transcription factor by Akt. In this regard, results obtained from transfection experiments using kinase inhibitors support this hypothesis. Due to this event, NF1 would lose accessibility to the promoter. The posttranslational modification of HNF3 would allow the binding of a protein complex that recognizes the core IRE. These results provide a potential mechanism for the insulin

  2. Cloning and characterization of the rat HIF-1 alpha prolyl-4-hydroxylase-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Ronald R; McClary, John; Manzana, Warren; Finster, Silke; Larsen, Brent; Blasko, Eric; Pearson, Jennifer; Biancalana, Sara; Kauser, Katalin; Bringmann, Peter; Light, David R; Schirm, Sabine

    2005-08-01

    Prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain-containing enzymes (PHDs) mediate the oxygen-dependent regulation of the heterodimeric transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). Under normoxic conditions, one of the subunits of HIF-1, HIF-1alpha, is hydroxylated on specific proline residues to target HIF-1alpha for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation by the PHDs is attenuated by lack of the oxygen substrate, allowing HIF-1 to accumulate, translocate to the nucleus, and mediate HIF-mediated gene transcription. In several mammalian species including humans, three PHDs have been identified. We report here the cloning of a full-length rat cDNA that is highly homologous to the human and murine PHD-1 enzymes and encodes a protein that is 416 amino acids long. Both cDNA and protein are widely expressed in rat tissues and cell types. We demonstrate that purified and crude baculovirus-expressed rat PHD-1 exhibits HIF-1alpha specific prolyl hydroxylase activity with similar substrate affinities and is comparable to human PHD-1 protein.

  3. Inhibition of oxygen-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha degradation unmasks estradiol induction of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in ECC-1 cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Molitoris, Kristin Happ; Kazi, Armina A; Koos, Robert D

    2009-12-01

    Estradiol (E(2)) rapidly and strongly induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription in uterine endometrial epithelial cells in vivo. We have shown that this is mediated by both the estrogen receptor-alpha and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha. By contrast, E(2) induces little or no VEGF expression in cultured breast or endometrial cancer cells, which lack HIF-1alpha due to the abnormally high concentration of oxygen ( approximately 20%) to which they are exposed. To test the hypothesis that restoring HIF-1alpha in cultured cells would restore the ability of E(2) to induce VEGF expression, we treated human endometrial cancer cells (ECC-1) with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2);100 microm), which prevents oxygen-induced HIF-1alpha degradation. HIF-1alpha was absent in untreated ECC-1 cells but detectable by 4 h after treatment with CoCl(2) alone, as was a significant increase in VEGF mRNA. E(2) plus CoCl(2) induced detectable HIF-1alpha expression at 2 h and an even higher level than that induced by CoCl(2) alone at 4 h; this HIF-1alpha was localized in the nuclei. This was accompanied by increasing VEGF expression, with the increase at 4 h severalfold higher than that induced by CoCl(2) alone and was concurrent with recruitment of both HIF-1alpha and estrogen receptor-alpha to the VEGF promoter. These results confirm that HIF-1alpha plays an essential role in E(2)-induced expression of VEGF. Through the induction of increased microvascular permeability and the consequent exudation of plasma growth factors, VEGF in turn may play an essential role in cancer cell proliferation in vivo.

  4. Activation of nicotinamide N-methyltransferase gene promoter by hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta in human papillary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jimin; Capezzone, Marco; Xu, Xiao; Hershman, Jerome M

    2005-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that the human nicotinamide N-methytransferase (NNMT) gene was highly expressed in many papillary thyroid cancers and cell lines. The expression in other papillary and follicular cancers or cell lines and normal thyroid cells was low or undetectable. To gain an understanding of the molecular mechanism of this cell-specific expression, the NNMT promoter was cloned and studied by luciferase reporter gene assay. The promoter construct was expressed highly in papillary cancer cell lines, including those with higher (e.g. BHP 2-7) and lower (e.g. BHP 14-9) NNMT gene expression, and expressed weakly in follicular thyroid cancer cell lines. Further study with 5'-deletion promoter construct suggested that the NNMT promoter was regulated differently in BHP 2-7 and BHP 14-9 cells. In BHP 2-7 cells, promoter activity was dependent on an upstream sequence. In BHP 14-9 cells, sequence in the basal promoter region contributed notably to the overall promoter activity. RT-PCR or Western blot analysis indicated that hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) was expressed in only papillary cancer cell lines with high NNMT gene expression. HNF-1beta was not expressed or expressed very weakly in other papillary, follicular, and Hurthle cancer cell lines and primary cultures of normal thyroid cells and benign thyroid conditions. A HNF-1 binding site was identified in the NNMT basal promoter region. Mutations in this site decreased NNMT promoter activity in the HNF-1beta-positive BHP 2-7 cells, but not in the HNF-1beta-negative BHP 14-9 cells. HNF-1beta bound to the HNF-1 site specifically as a homodimer as determined by gel retardation assays with HNF-1beta-specific antibody. Cotransfection of a HNF-1beta expression plasmid increased NNMT promoter activity significantly in both HNF-1beta-positive and -negative thyroid cancer cell lines and Hep G2 liver cancer cells. Furthermore, transient expression of HNF-1beta in BHP 14-9 cells increased endogenous NNMT

  5. The human HLA class II alpha chain gene DZ alpha is distinct from genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions.

    PubMed Central

    Trowsdale, J; Kelly, A

    1985-01-01

    A new human HLA class II alpha gene DZ alpha was sequenced. The structure and organisation of the gene was similar to other alpha chain genes except for a particularly small intron (95 bp) after the exon encoding the alpha 2 domain, and the position of the stop codon, which was on a different exon to that encoding the cytoplasmic portion of the molecule. Comparison of the DZ alpha sequence with other class II genes showed that the gene is about as distantly related to alpha chain genes in the DP, DQ and DR subregions as they are to each other. The DZ alpha gene results in an unusually large mRNA transcript of greater than 3.0 kb, detected on Northern blots of B cell lines. From the sequence, there are no obvious features that would render DZ alpha a pseudogene, except for an unusual poly(A)+ addition signal, ACTAAA. Analysis of Northern blots shows that sequences downstream (3') of this signal are present in mature mRNA. The large transcripts are probably due to defects in the signals for processing of the mRNA transcript at the 3' end. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3000765

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha mediates epidermal growth factor-induced down-regulation of E-cadherin expression and cell invasion in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jung-Chien; Klausen, Christian; Leung, Peter C K

    2013-02-28

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) regulates the transcription of a number of genes under hypoxia and other extracellular stimulations. It has been shown that E-cadherin is down-regulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) stimulation, and that cells with low E-cadherin expression are more invasive. Our recent study demonstrated a novel mechanism by which EGF down-regulates E-cadherin expression through production of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the activation of p38 MAPK in human ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we were interested in examining the potential role of HIF-1α in cell invasion under normoxic conditions, specifically when cells are treated with EGF, which is known to down-regulate E-cadherin and increase invasiveness. We show that EGF treatment induces HIF-1α expression in two human ovarian cancer cell lines (SKOV3 and OVCAR5), and that this effect is diminished by treatment with a membrane-permeable H(2)O(2) scavenger, PEG-catalase. However, the induction of HIF-1α by EGF did not require the activation of p38 MAPK. Treatment with siRNA targeting HIF-1α reduces both basal and EGF-induced HIF-1α levels. Importantly, treatment with HIF-1α siRNA diminishes the up-regulation of Snail and Slug as well as the down-regulation of E-cadherin by EGF. The involvement of HIF-1α in the down-regulation of E-cadherin was confirmed with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)), a hypoxia-mimetic reagent. Finally, we also show that EGF-induced cell invasion is attenuated by treatment with HIF-1α siRNA. This study demonstrates an important role for HIF-1α in mediating the effects of EGF on Snail, Slug and E-cadherin expression as well as invasiveness in human ovarian cancer cells.

  7. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-03-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance.

  8. Radioprotective effect on HepG2 cells of low concentrations of cobalt chloride: induction of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and clearance of reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wensen; Wang, Juan; Xu, Shiguo; Xiao, Linlin; Chen, Guangfu; Zhang, Wukui; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    It has been found that low doses of certain toxicants might generate a protective response to cellular damage. Previous data have shown that elevated doses of cobalt (Co) induce injury to cells and organisms or result in radiological combined toxicity. Whether low doses of Co generate a protective effect or not, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of action of low dose cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 100 μM) on the viability of irradiated cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetric assay was used to observe the radio-sensitivity of HepG2 cells under different pretreatments. The alteration of intracellular DNA damage was further measured using micronucleus (MN) assay. Levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and its target gene, EPO, were monitored by western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content was determined by 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe staining. Our results show that low dose CoCl2does not influence HepG2 cell viability, but induces the expression of HIF-1α, followed by increased radio-resistance. Additionally, cells treated with HIF-1α siRNA retained a partial refractory response to irradiation concomitant with a marked reduction in intracellular ROS. The change of MN further indicated that the reduction of DNA damage was confirmed with the alteration of ROS. Our results demonstrate that low dose CoCl2may protect cells against irradiative harm by two mechanisms, namely HIF-1α expression and ROS clearance. PMID:23065176

  9. Cloning of alpha-beta fusion gene from Clostridium perfringens and its expression.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jia-Ning; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Bao-Hua

    2006-02-28

    To study the cloning of alpha-beta fusion gene from Clostridium perfringens and the immunogenicity of alpha-beta fusion expression. Cloning was accomplished after PCR amplification from strains NCTC64609 and C58-1 of the protective antigen genes of alpha-toxin and beta-toxin. The fragment of the gene was cloned using plasmid pZCPAB. This fragment coded for the gene with the stable expression of alpha-beta fusion gene binding. In order to verify the exact location of the alpha-beta fusion gene, domain plasmids were constructed. The two genes were fused into expression vector pBV221. The expressed alpha-beta fusion protein was identified by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and neutralization assay. The protective alpha-toxin gene (cpa906) and the beta-toxin gene (cpb930) were obtained. The recombinant plasmid pZCPAB carrying alpha-beta fusion gene was constructed and transformed into BL21(DE3). The recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB) was obtained. After the recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB) was induced by 42 degC, its expressed product was about 22.14% of total cellular protein at SDS-PAGE and thin-layer gel scanning analysis. Neutralization assay indicated that the antibody induced by immunization with alpha-beta fusion protein could neutralize the toxicity of alpha-toxin and beta-toxin. The obtained alpha-toxin and beta-toxin genes are correct. The recombinant strain BL21(DE3)(pZCPAB) could produce alpha-beta fusion protein. This protein can be used for immunization and is immunogenic. The antibody induced by immunization with alpha-beta fusion protein could neutralize the toxicity of alpha-toxin and beta-toxin.

  10. The association of genetic polymorphisms of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor with increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhen-Gang; Wang, Bing-Zhe; Cheng, Zhao-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Accumulated data over the years have suggested that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and its downstream vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene may be linked with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study aims to investigate the association of HIF-1α and VEGF genetic polymorphisms and their correlated risks with COPD. COPD patients (case group) and healthy individuals (control group) were recruited. DNA was extracted to detect HIF-1α and VEGF genetic polymorphisms. Basal lung volume and forced expiratory capacity in 1st second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/predicted value (pred)% were calculated. Genotype and allele distributions in HIF-1α and VEGF genes were analyzed. Kaplan-Meier curves and logistic regression model were used for analysis of survival and COPD risk factors. Haplotypes for HIF-1α rs11549465 and rs11549467 were analyzed. FEV1/FVC and FEV1/pred% in the case group were lower than the control group. Frequencies of HIF-1α rs11549465 CT + TT genotype and T allele, and rs11549467 GA + AA genotype and A allele were higher in the case group than the control group. Patients with rs11549465 CT + TT had higher COPD risk than those with the CC genotype. Patients with rs11549467 GA + AA showed higher COPD risk and lower FEV1/FVC and FEV1/pred% than those with the GG genotype. Patients with HIF-1α TA haplotype showed higher COPD risk than those with the CG haplotype. Survival rate of patients with HIF-1α rs11549467 GG genotype was higher than those with the GA + AA genotype. HIF-1α rs11549467 polymorphism may be associated with COPD risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Association of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Gene Polymorphisms with Different Types of Myopia in Egyptian Patients.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Haidy E; Rezk, Noha A; Fouda, Sameh M; Mattout, Hala K

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene's rs6214 and rs5742632 polymorphisms on IGF-1 expression levels and their association with different types of myopia in Egyptian patients. A case-control format was used that included 272 patients with myopia and 136 controls. The IGF-1 gene rs6214 and rs5742632 polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses. IGF-1 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In patients with high-grade myopia, the frequencies of the IGF-1 rs6214 GA and AA genotypes, and the A allele were significantly increased compared to the control group: 41.9% vs. 33.8%, 17.7% vs. 8.9%, and 38.9% vs. 25.7%, respectively. Subjects with the GA and AA genotypes and carriers of A allele were significantly more likely to have high-grade myopia: odds ratios (OR) = 1.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-2.9, and p = 0.03; OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.3-6.0, and p = 0.003; and OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.25-2.61, and p = 0.001, respectively. A nonsignificant association of the IGF-1 gene rs5742632 polymorphism with the two myopia groups was also observed. The IGF-1 levels were significantly increased in patients with high-grade myopia and simple myopia compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In addition, our results showed a nonsignificant association of the IGF-1 (rs6214-rs5742632) haplotype with either simple myopia or high-grade myopia. We found a significant association of the IGF-1 gene rs6214 polymorphism in Egyptian patients with simple myopia and high-grade myopia. IGF-1 levels were significantly increased in relation to the IGF-1 rs6214 genotypes, while a nonsignificant association was found between IGF-1 level and the IGF-1 (rs5742632) genotypes.

  12. Developmental expression and gene/enzyme identifications in the alpha esterase gene cluster of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P M; de Q Robin, G C; Court, L N; Dorrian, S J; Russell, R J; Oakeshott, J G

    2003-10-01

    Here we show how the 10 genes of the alpha esterase cluster of Drosophila melanogaster have diverged substantially in their expression profiles. Together with previously described sequence divergence this suggests substantial functional diversification. By peptide mass fingerprinting and in vitro gene expression we have also shown that two of the genes encode the isozymes EST9 (formerly ESTC) and EST23. EST9 is the major 'alpha staining' esterase in zymograms of gut tissues in feeding stages while orthologues of EST23 confer resistance to organophosphorus insecticides in other higher Diptera. The results for EST9 and EST23 concur with previous suggestions that the products of the alpha esterase cluster function in digestion and detoxification of xenobiotic esters. However, many of the other genes in the cluster show developmental or tissue-specific expression that seems inconsistent with such roles. Furthermore, there is generally poor correspondence between the mRNA expression patterns of the remaining eight genes and isozymes previously characterized by standard techniques of electrophoresis and staining, suggesting that the alpha cluster might only account for a small minority of the esterase isozyme profile.

  13. Identification of potential target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 and HUVEC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Cagri; Coban, Neslihan; Ozsait-Selcuk, Bilge; Sirma-Ekmekci, Sema; Yildirim, Ozlem; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan

    2017-04-01

    ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocytic and endothelial cell lines. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by tiling array (ChIP-on-chip) for ROR-alpha in monocytic cell line THP1 and endothelial cell line HUVEC. Following bioinformatic analysis of the array data, we tested four candidate genes in terms of dependence of their expression level on ligand-mediated ROR-alpha activity, and two of them in terms of promoter occupancy by ROR-alpha. Bioinformatic analyses of ChIP-on-chip data suggested that ROR-alpha binds to genomic regions near the transcription start site (TSS) of more than 3000 genes in THP1 and HUVEC. Potential ROR-alpha target genes in both cell types seem to be involved mainly in membrane receptor activity, signal transduction and ion transport. While SPP1 and IKBKA were shown to be direct target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 monocytes, inflammation related gene HMOX1 and heat shock protein gene HSPA8 were shown to be potential target genes of ROR-alpha. Our results suggest that ROR-alpha may regulate signaling receptor activity, and transmembrane transport activity through its potential target genes. ROR-alpha seems also to play role in cellular sensitivity to environmental substances like arsenite and chloroprene. Although, the expression analyses have shown that synthetic ROR-alpha ligands can modulate some of potential ROR-alpha target genes, functional significance of ligand-dependent modulation of gene expression needs to be confirmed with further analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M; Antony, Paul M; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; Del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels.

  15. Gene Regulatory Network Inference of Immunoresponsive Gene 1 (IRG1) Identifies Interferon Regulatory Factor 1 (IRF1) as Its Transcriptional Regulator in Mammalian Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Tallam, Aravind; Perumal, Thaneer M.; Antony, Paul M.; Jäger, Christian; Fritz, Joëlle V.; Vallar, Laurent; Balling, Rudi; del Sol, Antonio; Michelucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) is one of the highest induced genes in macrophages under pro-inflammatory conditions. Its function has been recently described: it codes for immune-responsive gene 1 protein/cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (IRG1/CAD), an enzyme catalysing the production of itaconic acid from cis-aconitic acid, a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate. Itaconic acid possesses specific antimicrobial properties inhibiting isocitrate lyase, the first enzyme of the glyoxylate shunt, an anaplerotic pathway that bypasses the TCA cycle and enables bacteria to survive on limited carbon conditions. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying itaconic acid production through IRG1 induction in macrophages, we examined the transcriptional regulation of IRG1. To this end, we studied IRG1 expression in human immune cells under different inflammatory stimuli, such as TNFα and IFNγ, in addition to lipopolysaccharides. Under these conditions, as previously shown in mouse macrophages, IRG1/CAD accumulates in mitochondria. Furthermore, using literature information and transcription factor prediction models, we re-constructed raw gene regulatory networks (GRNs) for IRG1 in mouse and human macrophages. We further implemented a contextualization algorithm that relies on genome-wide gene expression data to infer putative cell type-specific gene regulatory interactions in mouse and human macrophages, which allowed us to predict potential transcriptional regulators of IRG1. Among the computationally identified regulators, siRNA-mediated gene silencing of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1) in macrophages significantly decreased the expression of IRG1/CAD at the gene and protein level, which correlated with a reduced production of itaconic acid. Using a synergistic approach of both computational and experimental methods, we here shed more light on the transcriptional machinery of IRG1 expression and could pave the way to therapeutic approaches targeting itaconic acid levels

  16. Molecular mechanisms of alpha-fetoprotein gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lazarevich, N L

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main component of mammalian fetal serum. It is synthesized by visceral endoderm of the yolk sac and by fetal liver. Immediately after birth AFP level in blood decreases dramatically. AFP synthesis is reactivated in liver tumors and germinogeneous teratoblastomas, in a lesser degree after chemical and mechanical liver injuries followed by regeneration (i.e., acute viral hepatitis). AFP blood level change is an important marker for liver tumors that is widely used in clinical practice. Therefore, the study of the molecular and cellular mechanisms participating in regulation of the oncoembryonal protein AFP is an important task. On various experimental models it has been shown that the expression is regulated mainly on the transcriptional level, the AFP gene having a 7 kb regulatory region upstream. Within this region a tissue-specific promoter, three independent enhancers, and a silencer that is at least partially responsible for AFP gene expression decrease in adult liver have been defined. Some ubiquitous and some tissue-specific transcription factors, including hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs), which mediate the transcription of most of the liver-specific genes, have been shown to bind to the promoter. However, the mechanisms determining drastic changes of AFP synthesis level in the course of ontogenesis and carcinogenesis remain incompletely clarified. Also, little is known about negative regulators of AFP gene expression in cells of non-hepatic origin and in adult liver.

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J.; Jiang Canwen

    2007-12-21

    In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

  18. Mutations in the paralogous human alpha-globin genes yielding identical hemoglobin variants.

    PubMed

    Moradkhani, Kamran; Préhu, Claude; Old, John; Henderson, Shirley; Balamitsa, Vera; Luo, Hong-Yuan; Poon, Man-Chiu; Chui, David H K; Wajcman, Henri; Patrinos, George P

    2009-06-01

    The human alpha-globin genes are paralogues, sharing a high degree of DNA sequence similarity and producing an identical alpha-globin chain. Over half of the alpha-globin structural variants reported to date are only characterized at the amino acid level. It is likely that a fraction of these variants, with phenotypes differing from one observation to another, may be due to the same mutation but on a different alpha-globin gene. There have been very few previous examples of hemoglobin variants that can be found at both HBA1 and HBA2 genes. Here, we report the results of a systematic multicenter study in a large multiethnic population to identify such variants and to analyze their differences from a functional and evolutionary perspective. We identified 14 different Hb variants resulting from identical mutations on either one of the two human alpha-globin paralogue genes. We also showed that the average percentage of hemoglobin variants due to a HBA2 gene mutation (alpha2) is higher than the percentage of hemoglobin variants due to the same HBA1 gene mutation (alpha1) and that the alpha2/alpha1 ratio varied between variants. These alpha-globin chain variants have most likely occurred via recurrent mutations, gene conversion events, or both. Based on these data, we propose a nomenclature for hemoglobin variants that fall into this category.

  19. A Leader Intron of a Soybean Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A) Gene Interacts with Proximal Promoter Elements to Regulate Gene Expression in Synthetic Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; McHale, Leah K.; Finer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Introns, especially the first intron in the 5’ untranslated region (5’UTR), can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME). In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) gene (GmScreamM8) was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene. Element tetramers, placed upstream of a GmScreamM8 core promoter, showed very high activity using both transient expression in lima bean cotyledons and stable expression in soybean hairy roots, only if the native leader intron was included, suggesting an interaction between intronic sequences and promoter elements. Partial deletions of the leader intron showed that a 222 bp intronic sequence significantly contributed to very high levels of GFP expression. Generation of synthetic intron variants with a monomeric or trimeric repeat of the 222 bp intronic sequence, yielded almost two-fold higher expression compared to the original intron, while partial deletion of the 222 bp intronic repeated sequence significantly decreased gene expression, indicating that this intronic sequence was essential for the intron-element interaction enhancement. PMID:27806110

  20. A Leader Intron of a Soybean Elongation Factor 1A (eEF1A) Gene Interacts with Proximal Promoter Elements to Regulate Gene Expression in Synthetic Promoters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; McHale, Leah K; Finer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Introns, especially the first intron in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR), can significantly impact gene expression via intron-mediated enhancement (IME). In this study, we demonstrate the leader intron of a soybean elongation factor 1A (eEF1A) gene (GmScreamM8) was essential for the high activity of the native promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of the GmScreamM8 leader intron with regulatory element sequences from several soybean eEF1A promoters was studied using synthetic promoters, which consisted of element tetramers upstream of a core promoter used to regulate a green fluorescent protein (gfp) reporter gene. Element tetramers, placed upstream of a GmScreamM8 core promoter, showed very high activity using both transient expression in lima bean cotyledons and stable expression in soybean hairy roots, only if the native leader intron was included, suggesting an interaction between intronic sequences and promoter elements. Partial deletions of the leader intron showed that a 222 bp intronic sequence significantly contributed to very high levels of GFP expression. Generation of synthetic intron variants with a monomeric or trimeric repeat of the 222 bp intronic sequence, yielded almost two-fold higher expression compared to the original intron, while partial deletion of the 222 bp intronic repeated sequence significantly decreased gene expression, indicating that this intronic sequence was essential for the intron-element interaction enhancement.

  1. Methylation of an alpha-foetoprotein gene intragenic site modulates gene activity.

    PubMed Central

    Opdecamp, K; Rivière, M; Molné, M; Szpirer, J; Szpirer, C

    1992-01-01

    By comparing the methylation pattern of Mspl/Hpall sites in the 5' region of the mouse alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) gene of different cells (hepatoma cells, foetal and adult liver, fibroblasts), we found a correlation between gene expression and unmethylation of a site located in the first intron of the gene. Other sites did not show this correlation. In transfection experiments of unmethylated and methylated AFP-CAT chimeric constructions, we then showed that methylation of the intronic site negatively modulates expression of CAT activity. We also found that a DNA segment centered on this site binds nuclear proteins; however methylation did not affect protein binding. Images PMID:1371343

  2. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Gene Profiling Uncovers Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 as a PPARα Target Gene in Cardioprotection*

    PubMed Central

    el Azzouzi, Hamid; Leptidis, Stefanos; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Armand, Anne-Sophie; van der Nagel, Roel; van Bilsen, Marc; Da Costa Martins, Paula A.; De Windt, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors and consist of the three isoforms, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. Considerable evidence indicates the importance of PPARs in cardiovascular lipid homeostasis and diabetes, yet the isoform-dependent cardiac target genes remain unknown. Here, we constructed murine ventricular clones allowing stable expression of siRNAs to achieve specifically knockdown for each of the PPAR isoforms. By combining gene profiling and computational peroxisome proliferator response element analysis following PPAR isoform activation in normal versus PPAR isoform-deficient cardiomyocyte-like cells, we have, for the first time, determined PPAR isoform-specific endogenous target genes in the heart. Electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the existence of an evolutionary conserved peroxisome proliferator response element consensus-binding site in an insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1) enhancer. In line, Wy-14643-mediated PPARα activation in the wild-type mouse heart resulted in up-regulation of igf-1 transcript abundance and provided protection against cardiomyocyte apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion or biomechanical stress. Taken together, these data confirm igf-1 as an in vivo target of PPARα and the involvement of a PPARα/IGF-1 signaling pathway in the protection of cardiomyocytes under ischemic and hemodynamic loading conditions. PMID:21245137

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene profiling uncovers insulin-like growth factor-1 as a PPARalpha target gene in cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    el Azzouzi, Hamid; Leptidis, Stefanos; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Armand, Anne-Sophie; van der Nagel, Roel; van Bilsen, Marc; Da Costa Martins, Paula A; De Windt, Leon J

    2011-04-22

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors and consist of the three isoforms, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. Considerable evidence indicates the importance of PPARs in cardiovascular lipid homeostasis and diabetes, yet the isoform-dependent cardiac target genes remain unknown. Here, we constructed murine ventricular clones allowing stable expression of siRNAs to achieve specifically knockdown for each of the PPAR isoforms. By combining gene profiling and computational peroxisome proliferator response element analysis following PPAR isoform activation in normal versus PPAR isoform-deficient cardiomyocyte-like cells, we have, for the first time, determined PPAR isoform-specific endogenous target genes in the heart. Electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the existence of an evolutionary conserved peroxisome proliferator response element consensus-binding site in an insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1) enhancer. In line, Wy-14643-mediated PPARα activation in the wild-type mouse heart resulted in up-regulation of igf-1 transcript abundance and provided protection against cardiomyocyte apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion or biomechanical stress. Taken together, these data confirm igf-1 as an in vivo target of PPARα and the involvement of a PPARα/IGF-1 signaling pathway in the protection of cardiomyocytes under ischemic and hemodynamic loading conditions.

  4. [Nucleotide sequence of genes for alpha- and beta-subunits of luciferase from Photobacterium leiognathi].

    PubMed

    Illarionov, B A; Protopopova, M V; Karginov, V A; Mertvetsov, N P; Gitel'zon, I I

    1988-03-01

    Nucleotide sequence of the Photobacterium leiognathi DNA containing genes of alpha and beta subunits of luciferase has been determined. We also deduced amino acid sequence and molecular mass of luciferase and localized luciferase genes in the sequenced DNA fragment.

  5. Immunohistochemical detection of osteopontin in advanced head-and-neck cancer: Prognostic role and correlation with oxygen electrode measurements, hypoxia-inducible-factor-1{alpha}-related markers, and hemoglobin levels

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Matthias; Reddemann, Rolf; Said, Harun M.; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Taubert, Helge; Becker, Axel; Kuhnt, Thomas; Haensgen, Gabriele; Dunst, Juergen; Vordermark, Dirk . E-mail: vordermark_d@klinik.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: The tumor-associated glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is discussed as a plasma marker of tumor hypoxia. However, the association of immunohistochemical OPN expression in tumor sections with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), the hypoxia-related markers hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), or hemoglobin and systemic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels has not been investigated. Methods and Materials: Tumor tissue sections of 34 patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer treated with radiotherapy were assessed by immunochemistry for the expression of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX. Relationship of OPN expression with tumor oxygenation parameters (HF5, median pO{sub 2}), HIF-1{alpha} and CA IX expression, hemoglobin and serum VEGF level, and clinical parameters was studied. Results: Bivariate analysis showed a significant correlation of positive OPN staining with low hemoglobin level (p = 0.02), high HIF-1{alpha} expression (p = 0.02), and high serum vascular endothelial growth factor level (p = 0.02) for advanced head-and-neck cancer. Furthermore, considering the 31 Stage IV patients, the median pO{sub 2} correlated significantly with the OPN expression (p = 0.02). OPN expression alone had only a small impact on prognosis. However, in a univariate Cox proportional hazard regression model, the expression of either OPN or HIF-1{alpha} or CA IX was associated with a 4.1-fold increased risk of death (p = 0.02) compared with negativity of all three markers. Conclusion: Osteopontin expression detected immunohistochemically is associated with oxygenation parameters in advanced head-and-neck cancer. When the results of OPN, HIF-1{alpha}, and CA IX immunohistochemistry are combined into a hypoxic profile, a strong and statistically significant impact on overall survival is found.

  6. [Effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Que, Hua-fa; Zhu, Yuan-yin; Wang, Yun-fei; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Jie-nan; Xing, Jie; Tang, Han-jun

    2007-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with syndrome of blood stasis and qi deficiency. Diabetic rats with back full-thickness skin lesion and syndrome of blood stasis and qi deficiency were divided in to five groups: untreated group, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-treated group, Yiqi Huayu Recipe (a recipe for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation)-treated group, Yiqi Recipe (a recipe for replenishing qi)-treated group and Huayu Recipe (a recipe for resolving stagnation)-treated group, and another eight normal rats served as normal control group. Immunohistochemical method and image analysis were used to test the expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes. In the untreated group, the expression of HIF-1alpha was significantly increased and the expression of VEGF was significantly decreased as compared with those in the normal control group (P<0.01). The expression of HIF-1alpha was obviously lower (P<0.01) and the expression of VEGF was significantly higher in the four drug treated groups as compared with those in the untreated group. In the Yiqi Huayu Recipe-treated group, the expression of HIF-1alpha was obviously lower than those in the bFGF-treated, Yiqi Recipe-treated and Huayu Recipe-treated groups (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and the expression of VEGF was significantly higher than that in the bFGF-treated group (P<0.01). Chinese herbs for replenishing qi and resolving stagnation can promote the wound healing in rats through reducing the expression of HIF-1alpha, accelerating the expression of VEGF in granulation tissue of skin ulcers in rats with diabetes and ameliorating the status of ischemia and hypoxia.

  7. Involvement of PPAR gamma co-activator-1, nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2, and PPAR alpha in the adaptive response to endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Baar, Keith

    2004-05-01

    Endurance exercise training induces an increase in the respiratory capacity of muscle, resulting in an increased capacity to generate ATP as well as improved efficiency of muscle contraction. Such adaptations are largely the result of a coordinated genetic response that increases mitochondrial proteins, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and the exercise- and insulin-stimulated glucose transporter GLUT4, and shifts the contractile and regulatory proteins to their more efficient isoforms. In recent years a number of the transcriptional regulators involved in this genetic response have been identified and these factors can be classified into two different groups. The first group comprises transcription factors such as nuclear respiratory factors (NRF) 1 and 2 and PPAR alpha that bind DNA in a sequence-specific manner. The second group, referred to as transcriptional co-activators, alter transcription without directly binding to DNA. The PPAR gamma co-activator (PGC) family of proteins have been identified as the central family of transcriptional co-activators for induction of mitochondrial biogenesis. PGC-1 alpha is activated by exercise, and is sufficient to produce the endurance phenotype through direct interactions with NRF-1 and PPAR alpha, and potentially NRF-2. Furthering the understanding of the activation of PGC proteins following exercise has implications beyond improving athletic performance, including the possibility of providing targets for the treatment of frailty in the elderly, obesity and diseases such as mitochondrial myopathies and diabetes.

  8. Bioinformatic analysis of benzo-α-pyrene-induced damage to the human placental insulin-like growth factor-1 gene.

    PubMed

    Fadiel, A; Epperson, B; Shaw, M I; Hamza, A; Petito, J; Naftolin, F

    2013-08-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been associated with exposure to polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are released in the combustion of oil, fuel, gas, garbage, and tobacco. Pregnant women exposed to PAHs are at risk of the effects of these environmental toxins; for example, benzo-α-pyrene (BαP) is able to enter the blood stream and could contribute to IUGR or other developmental abnormalities via effects on the placental cells. Since IUGR has been associated with decreased cord blood concentrations of immunoreactive insulin-like growth factor 1 (ir-IGF-1) and IUGR has been associated with disordered development and fetal programming, we tested the effects of BαP on human placental trophoblast cells in culture. IGF-1 expression and activation was studied using an immortalized human placental trophoblast cell line (HTR-8). The cells were treated with vehicle control or 1 µmol/L BαP, or 5 µmol/L BαP for 12 hours. RNA was extracted and the exons of IGF-1 were amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The ir-IGF-1 expression levels were compared using gel electrophoresis. The PCR products were sequenced, and levels of mutation were measured with comparative sequence analysis. A computational protein analysis (computer simulation) was performed in order to assess the potential impact of BαP-associated mutation on IGF-1 protein function. The IGF-1 expression decreased considerably in BαP-treated cells relative to untreated controls (P < .05), also in a dose-dependent manner. Comparative sequence analysis indicated that the level of BαP exposure correlated with the percentage of base pair mutations in IGF-1 nucleotide sequences for both treatment groups (P < .05). Shifts were observed in the open reading frame, indicating a possible change in the IGF-1 start codon. Protein folding simulation analysis indicated that the base pair changes induced by BαP weakened IGF-1-IGF binding protein (IGFBP) interaction. In

  9. The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit gene: Cloning, mapping, structure, and targeting in mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Orr-Urtreger, A.; Baldini, A.; Beaudet, A.L.

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor {alpha}7 subunit is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels, and is the only subunit know to bind {alpha}-bungarotoxin in mammalian brain. {alpha}-Bungarotoxin binding sites are known to be more abundant in the hippocampus of mouse strains that are particularly sensitive to nicotine-induced seizures. The {alpha}7 receptor is highly permeable to calcium, which could suggest a role in synaptic plasticity in the nervous system. Auditory gating deficiency, an abnormal response to a second auditory stimulus, is characteristic of schizophrenia. Mouse strains that exhibit a similar gating deficit have reduced hippocampal expression of the {alpha}7 subunit. We have cloned and sequenced the full length cDNA for the mouse {alpha}7 gene (Acra-7) and characterized its gene structure. The murine {alpha}7 shares amino acid identity of 99% and 93% with the rat and human {alpha}7 subunits, respectively. Using an interspecies backcross panel, the murine gene was mapped to chromosome 7 near the p locus, a region syntenic with human chromosome 15; the human gene (CHRNA7) was confirmed to map to 15q13-q14 by FISH. To generate a mouse {alpha}7 mutant by homologous recombination, we have constructed a replacement vector which will delete transmembrane domains II-IV and the cytoplasmic domain from the gene product. Recombinant embryonic stem (ES) cell clones were selected and used to develop mouse chimeras that are currently being bred to obtain germline transmission.

  10. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Sebastian B; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Viollet, Benoit; Andreelli, Fabrizio; Birk, Jesper B; Hellsten, Ylva; Schjerling, Peter; Vaulont, Sophie; Neufer, P Darrell; Richter, Erik A; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-07-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body alpha2- and alpha1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmill running (90 min), and in recovery. Running increased alpha1-AMPK kinase activity, phosphorylation (P) of AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)beta in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO muscles and increased alpha2-AMPK kinase activity in alpha2-WT. In alpha2-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P were markedly lower compared with alpha2-WT. However, in alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, AMPK-P and ACCbeta-P levels were identical at rest and increased similarly during exercise in the two genotypes. The alpha2-KO decreased peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha, uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3), and hexokinase II (HKII) transcription at rest but did not affect exercise-induced transcription. Exercise increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, Forkhead box class O (FOXO)1, HKII, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) similarly in alpha2-WT and alpha2-KO mice, whereas glucose transporter GLUT 4, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPTI), lipoprotein lipase, and UCP3 mRNA were unchanged by exercise in both genotypes. CPTI mRNA was lower in alpha2-KO muscles than in alpha2-WT muscles at all time-points. In alpha1-WT and alpha1-KO muscles, running increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha and FOXO1 similarly. The alpha2-KO was associated with lower muscle adenosine 5'-triphosphate content, and the inosine monophosphate content increased substantially at the end of exercise only in alpha2-KO muscles. In addition, subcutaneous injection of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR) increased the mRNA content of PGC-1alpha, HKII, FOXO1, PDK4, and UCP3, and alpha2-KO abolished the AICAR-induced increases in PGC-1alpha and HKII mRNA. In

  11. Vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene polymorphisms and coronary collateral formation in patients with coronary chronic total occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Amoah, Vincent; Wrigley, Benjamin; Holroyd, Eric; Smallwood, Andrew; Armesilla, Angel L; Nevill, Alan; Cotton, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We evaluated the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene and one of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α gene and the degree of coronary collateral formation in patients with a coronary chronic total occlusion. Methods: Totally, 98 patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and a chronic total occlusion observed during coronary angiography were recruited. Genotyping of two vascular endothelial growth factor promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (−152G>A and −165C>T) and the C1772T single nucleotide polymorphism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α were performed using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The presence and extent of collateral vessel filling was scored by blinded observers using the Rentrop grade. Results: We found no association between the vascular endothelial growth factor −152G>A, −165C>T and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α −1772C>T with the presence and filling of coronary collateral vessels. A history of percutaneous coronary intervention and transient ischaemic attack/cerebrovascular accident were associated with the presence of enhanced collateral vessel formation following binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that coronary collateral formation is not associated with the tested polymorphic variants of vascular endothelial growth factor and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease and the presence of a chronic total occlusion. PMID:27621802

  12. Transcriptional regulation of human retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-{alpha}) by Wilms` tumour gene product

    SciTech Connect

    Goodyer, P.R.; Torban, E.; Dehbi, M.

    1994-09-01

    The Wilms` tumor gene encodes a 47-49 kDa transcription factor expressed in kidney, gonads and mesothelium during embryogenesis. Inherited mutations of WT1 lead to aberrant urogenital development and Wilms` tumor, but the role of WT1 in development is not fully understood. Since the human RAR-{alpha} gene contains a potential WT1 binding site at its 5{prime} end, we studied the effect of WT1 co-transfection on expression of an RAR-{alpha} promoter/CAT reporter construct in COS cells. COS cells were plated at 5X10{sup 5} cells/dish in DMEM with 10% FBS and transfected by the Ca/PO4 method with an expression plasmid containing the full-length WT1 (-/-) cDNA under the control of the CMV promoter, plasmid containing the RAR-{alpha} promoter (-519 to +36)/CAT reporter and TK/growth hormone plasmid to control for efficiency of transfection. CAT/GH activity at 48 hours was inhibited by co-transfection with increasing amounts of WT1 (-/-); maximum inhibition = 5% of control. WT1 co-transfection did not affect expression of TKGH, nor of a CMV-CAT vector. Expression of WT1 protein in tranfected COS cells was demonstrated by Western blotting. Minimal inhibiton of RAR-{alpha}/CAT activity was seen when cells were co-transfected with vectors containing WT1 deletion mutants, alternate WT1 splicing variants, or WT1 (-/-) cDNA bearing a mutation identified in a patient with Drash syndrome. Gel shift assays indicated binding of WT1 to RAR-{alpha} cDNA but not to an RAR-{alpha} deletion mutant lacking the GCGGGGGGCG site. These observations suggest that WT1 may function to regulate RAR-{alpha} expression during normal development.

  13. Alpha tubulin genes from Leishmania braziliensis: genomic organization, gene structure and insights on their expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpha tubulin is a fundamental component of the cytoskeleton which is responsible for cell shape and is involved in cell division, ciliary and flagellar motility and intracellular transport. Alpha tubulin gene expression varies according to the morphological changes suffered by Leishmania in its life cycle. However, the objective of studying the mechanisms responsible for the differential expression has resulted to be a difficult task due to the complex genome organization of tubulin genes and to the non-conventional mechanisms of gene regulation operating in Leishmania. Results We started this work by analyzing the genomic organization of α-tubulin genes in the Leishmania braziliensis genome database. The genomic organization of L. braziliensis α-tubulin genes differs from that existing in the L. major and L. infantum genomes. Two loci containing α-tubulin genes were found in the chromosomes 13 and 29, even though the existence of sequence gaps does not allow knowing the exact number of genes at each locus. Southern blot assays showed that α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains at least 8 gene copies, which are tandemly organized with a 2.08-kb repetition unit; the locus at chromosome 29 seems to contain a sole α-tubulin gene. In addition, it was found that L. braziliensis α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains two types of α-tubulin genes differing in their 3′ UTR, each one presumably containing different regulatory motifs. It was also determined that the mRNA expression levels of these genes are controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms tightly linked to the growth temperature. Moreover, the decrease in the α-tubulin mRNA abundance observed when promastigotes were cultured at 35°C was accompanied by parasite morphology alterations, similar to that occurring during the promastigote to amastigote differentiation. Conclusions Information found in the genome databases indicates that α-tubulin genes have been reorganized in a drastic

  14. Alpha tubulin genes from Leishmania braziliensis: genomic organization, gene structure and insights on their expression.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, César A; Requena, José M; Puerta, Concepción J

    2013-07-06

    Alpha tubulin is a fundamental component of the cytoskeleton which is responsible for cell shape and is involved in cell division, ciliary and flagellar motility and intracellular transport. Alpha tubulin gene expression varies according to the morphological changes suffered by Leishmania in its life cycle. However, the objective of studying the mechanisms responsible for the differential expression has resulted to be a difficult task due to the complex genome organization of tubulin genes and to the non-conventional mechanisms of gene regulation operating in Leishmania. We started this work by analyzing the genomic organization of α-tubulin genes in the Leishmania braziliensis genome database. The genomic organization of L. braziliensis α-tubulin genes differs from that existing in the L. major and L. infantum genomes. Two loci containing α-tubulin genes were found in the chromosomes 13 and 29, even though the existence of sequence gaps does not allow knowing the exact number of genes at each locus. Southern blot assays showed that α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains at least 8 gene copies, which are tandemly organized with a 2.08-kb repetition unit; the locus at chromosome 29 seems to contain a sole α-tubulin gene. In addition, it was found that L. braziliensis α-tubulin locus at chromosome 13 contains two types of α-tubulin genes differing in their 3' UTR, each one presumably containing different regulatory motifs. It was also determined that the mRNA expression levels of these genes are controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms tightly linked to the growth temperature. Moreover, the decrease in the α-tubulin mRNA abundance observed when promastigotes were cultured at 35°C was accompanied by parasite morphology alterations, similar to that occurring during the promastigote to amastigote differentiation. Information found in the genome databases indicates that α-tubulin genes have been reorganized in a drastic manner along Leishmania

  15. Therapeutics: Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gruntman, Alisha M; Flotte, Terence R

    2017-01-01

    This review seeks to give an overview of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including the different disease phenotypes that it encompasses. We then describe the different therapeutic endeavors that have been undertaken to address these different phenotypes. Lastly we discuss future potential therapeutics, such as genome editing, and how they may play a role in treating alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

  16. Cloning of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alpha-actin, myosin regulatory light chain genes and the 5'-flanking region of alpha-tropomyosin. Functional assessment of promoters.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Aleksei; Teerijoki, Heli; Gorodilov, Yuri; Mölsä, Hannu

    2003-02-01

    We report PCR cloning of rainbow trout alpha-actin (alpha-OnmyAct), myosin regulatory light chain (OnmyMLC2) genes and the 5'-flanking region of alpha-tropomyosin (alpha-OnmyTM). Being expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscle, alpha-OnmyAct was a predominant isoform in trunk muscle of adult rainbow trout. Exon structure of this gene was identical to all known vertebrate skeletal and to some of the cardiac alpha-Act genes. Two distinct OnmyMLC2 promoters were cloned and both included transposon-like sequences. The coding part of OnmyMLC2 consisted of seven exons whose length was typical for vertebrate MLC2 genes. The upstream regions of alpha-OnmyAct and OnmyMLC2 included a TATA box and a number of putative regulatory motifs (E-boxes in all three sequences and CArG-boxes in alpha-OnmyAct), whereas there were no canonical motifs in the alpha-OnmyTM promoter. LacZ reporter gene was fused with the 5'-flanking regions of alpha-OnmyAct, two OnmyMLC2 genes and alpha-OnmyTM promoters. These constructs were transferred into rainbow trout eggs. At the stage of 39 somite pairs, LacZ reporter was detected in the myotomes, neural plate and neural crest, brain and yolk syncytial layer of all analysed embryos. alpha-OnmyTMLacZ was also expressed in the heart. Functionality of promoters and the alpha-OnmyAct terminator was confirmed in rainbow trout primary embryonic cell cultures. We cloned rainbow trout glucose transporter type I (OnmyGLUT1) into vectors including the alpha-OnmyAct and OnmyMLC2 promoters and the alpha-SkAct terminator. Recombinant OnmyGLUT1 transcripts were detected in rainbow trout embryos during somitogenesis.

  17. Hb Bronte or alpha93(FG5)Val-->Gly: a new unstable variant of the alpha2-globin gene, associated with a mild alpha(+)-thalassemia phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lacerra, Giuseppina; Testa, Rosario; De Angioletti, Maria; Schilirò, Gino; Carestia, Clementina

    2003-08-01

    We report a new unstable variant identified in three carriers of a family from East Sicily; it was named Hb Bronte after the place from which the family originated. DNA sequencing from nucleotides -181 to +894 (alpha1) and to +884 (alpha2) revealed a GTG-->GGG substitution at codon 93 of the alpha2-globin gene. The MCV and MCH values were at the lower end of the normal range in the carriers. On cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the Hb A2 level was apparently increased to around 6%, and a small abnormal peak (0.3-0.4%) was detected after Hb A2. Two abnormal bands were detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: a major band (about 3-4%) migrated between Hb A and Hb F; a minor band (<1%) migrated between Hb A2 and carbonic anhydrase. Normal values of Hb A2 were detected by DEAE microchromatography. On reversed phase HPLC the variant chain was not detected, and most likely it was eluted with the alpha chain peak. The isopropanol stability test was very slightly positive in the carriers. Hemolytic symptoms were absent with the exception of indirect bilirubin, which was at high borderline in 2/3 carriers. In biosynthesis in vitro, the specific activity of the alpha chains was much higher than that of the beta-globin chains, and the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio in the mother and proband was of the beta-thalassemia (thal) type (2.24 and 2.54, respectively). Time course experiments showed that the increase of the 3H-specific activity of the peak containing normal and variant alpha chains was not linear and was much higher than that of beta chains; moreover, the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio varied during the 2 hours incubation.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Equus and the evolution of alpha and theta globin genes.

    PubMed

    Oakenfull, E A; Clegg, J B

    1998-12-01

    Sequences of the alpha1, alpha2 and theta globin genes from six equid species have been determined to investigate relationships within the genus Equus. Analyses using standard phylogenetic methods, or an approach designed to account for the effects of gene conversion between the alpha genes, gave broadly similar results and show that the horses diverged from the zebra/ass ancestor approximately 2.4 million years ago and that the zebra and ass species arose in a rapid radiation approximately 0.9 million years ago. These results from the alpha genes are corroborated by theta gene data and are in contrast to mitochondrial DNA studies of the phylogeny of this genus, which suggest a more gradual set of speciation events.

  19. Up-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha by cobalt chloride prevents hearing loss in noise-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jong Woo; Shin, Jung-Eun; Han, Kwang Woo; Ahn, Joong Ho; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Jong-Wan; So, Hong-Seob

    2011-01-01

    Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is the key transcription factor that enables cells to survive in hypoxia, we have investigated whether an upregulation of HIF-1α prevents the noise-induced hearing loss in BALB/c hybrid mice, which were intraperitoneally injected with CoCl(2) (a HIF-1α inducer) and exposed to white band noise with 120 dB peak equivalent sound pressure level for 3h once daily for 3 days. In the CoCl(2) treatment group, HIF-1α was found to be up-regulated in the cochlear tissues and the hearing loss was largely prevented. Histologically, the loss of sensory hair cells was also significantly lower in the CoCl(2) treatment group than the Control group. However, YC-1 (a HIF-1α inhibitor) attenuated the preventive effect of CoCl(2) on the noise-induced hearing loss. These results suggest that HIF-1α plays a crucial role in the prevention against noise trauma in the inner ear.

  20. Association of elongation factor 1 alpha and ribosomal protein L3 with the proline-rich region of yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein CAP.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, C; Shinkai, M; Kariya, K; Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y; Hu, C D; Masuda, T; Kataoka, T

    1997-03-17

    CAP is a multifunctional protein; the N-terminal region binds adenylyl cyclase and controls its response to Ras while the C-terminal region is involved in cytoskeletal regulation. In between the two regions, CAP possesses two proline-rich segments, P1 and P2, resembling a consensus sequence for binding SH3 domains. We have identified two yeast proteins with molecular sizes of 48 and 46 kDa associated specifically with P2. Determination of partial protein sequences demonstrated that the 48-kDa and 46-kDa proteins correspond to EF1 alpha and rL3, respectively, neither of which contains any SH3-domain-like sequence. Deletion of P2 from CAP resulted in loss of the activity to bind the two proteins either in vivo or in vitro. Yeast cells whose chromosomal CAP was replaced by the P2-deletion mutant displayed an abnormal phenotype represented by dissociated localizations of CAP and F-actin, which were colocalized in wild-type cells. These results suggest that these associations may have functional significance.

  1. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi . E-mail: INOUE-GER@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERR{alpha} in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERR{alpha} and ERR{alpha}-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) and PGC-1{beta}, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERR{alpha}-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPAR{gamma}, and PGC-1{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERR{alpha} and PGC-1{beta} mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERR{alpha} in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERR{alpha} may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  2. Methylation impact analysis of erythropoietin (EPO) Gene to hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity

    PubMed Central

    Dewi, Firli Rahmah Primula; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that play a role as key regulator in the production of red blood cells. The promoter region of EPO is methylated in normoxic (non-hypoxia) condition, but not in hypoxic condition. Methylation of the EPO enhancer region decline the transcription activity of EPO gene. The aim of this study is to investigate how different methylation percentage affected on the regulation and transcriptional activity of EPO gene. The DNA sequence of erythropoietin gene and protein sequence was retrieved from the sequence database of NCBI. DNA structure was constructed using 3D-DART web server and modeling structure of HIF1 predicted using SWISS-MODEL web server. Methylated DNA sequence of EPO gene using performed with YASARA View software and docking of EPO gene and transcription factor HIF1 analyzed by using HADDOCK webserver. Our result showed that binding energy in 46% methylated DNA was higher (-161,45 kcal/mol) than in unmethylated DNA (-194,16 kcal/mol) and 8% methylated DNA (-175,94 kcal/mol). So, we presume that a silencing mechanism of the Epo gene by methylation is correlated with the binding energy, which is required for interaction. A higher methylation percentage correlates with a higher binding energy which can cause an unstable interaction between DNA and transcription factor. In conclution, methylation of promoter and enhancer region of Epo gene leads to silencing. PMID:24023421

  3. Methylation impact analysis of erythropoietin (EPO) Gene to hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) activity.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Firli Rahmah Primula; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2013-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone that play a role as key regulator in the production of red blood cells. The promoter region of EPO is methylated in normoxic (non-hypoxia) condition, but not in hypoxic condition. Methylation of the EPO enhancer region decline the transcription activity of EPO gene. The aim of this study is to investigate how different methylation percentage affected on the regulation and transcriptional activity of EPO gene. The DNA sequence of erythropoietin gene and protein sequence was retrieved from the sequence database of NCBI. DNA structure was constructed using 3D-DART web server and modeling structure of HIF1 predicted using SWISS-MODEL web server. Methylated DNA sequence of EPO gene using performed with YASARA View software and docking of EPO gene and transcription factor HIF1 analyzed by using HADDOCK webserver. Our result showed that binding energy in 46% methylated DNA was higher (-161,45 kcal/mol) than in unmethylated DNA (-194,16 kcal/mol) and 8% methylated DNA (-175,94 kcal/mol). So, we presume that a silencing mechanism of the Epo gene by methylation is correlated with the binding energy, which is required for interaction. A higher methylation percentage correlates with a higher binding energy which can cause an unstable interaction between DNA and transcription factor. In conclution, methylation of promoter and enhancer region of Epo gene leads to silencing.

  4. The primary transcription unit of the human alpha 2 globin gene defined by quantitative RT/PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Owczarek, C M; Enriquez-Harris, P; Proudfoot, N J

    1992-01-01

    We have set up an experimental system to map the primary transcription unit of the human alpha 2 globin gene. The duplicated human alpha globin genes (alpha 2-alpha 1) were linked to the alpha globin locus Positive Regulatory Element (PRE) and stably transfected into murine erythroleukaemia cells. We then developed a quantitative reverse transcriptase, polymerase chain reaction assay to map alpha 2 primary transcripts using primer pairs derived from different parts of the alpha 2 globin gene and its 3' flanking region. This approach has revealed the presence of steady state nuclear RNA past the poly(A) site of the alpha 2 globin gene at approximately 40% of the level of unspliced intron transcript. Furthermore, these 3' flanking transcripts diminish 500 bp into the 3' flanking region, identifying this part of the alpha 2 globin gene as the principal region of termination of transcription. Images PMID:1371868

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha is regulated by RBM38, a RNA-binding protein and a p53 family target, via mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Yin, Tiffany; Jung, Yong-Sam; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xinbin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1), a heterodimeric transcription factor, consists of HIF1α and HIF1β and is necessary for cell growth and survival under a hypoxic condition. Thus, the level and activity of HIF1α needs to be tightly controlled. Indeed, HIF1α protein stability is controlled by prolyl hydroxylase and von Hippel-Lindau-mediated proteosomal degradation. However, it remains unclear whether HIF1α expression is controlled by other pathways. Here, we showed that RNA-binding protein RBM38, a target of the p53 family, regulates HIF1α expression via mRNA translation. Specifically, we showed that under a hypoxic condition, ectopic expression of RBM38 decreased, whereas knockdown of RBM38 increased, the level of HIF1α protein. We also showed that the rate of de novo HIF1α protein synthesis was increased by knockdown of RBM38. Additionally, we showed that RBM38 directly bound to HIF1α 5′ and 3′UTRs. Consistently, we showed that the rate of mRNA translation for a heterologous reporter that carries HIF1α 5′and/or 3′UTRs was increased upon knockdown of RBM38. Furthermore, we showed that knockdown of RBM38 increased, whereas ectopic expression of RBM38 decreased, the binding of eIF4E to HIF1α mRNA. Together, our data suggest that RBM38 is a novel translational regulator of HIF1α under a hypoxic condition. PMID:25622105

  6. High Nuclear Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Expression Is a Predictor of Distant Recurrence in Patients With Resected Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Colbert, Lauren E.; Fisher, Sarah B.; Balci, Serdar; Saka, Burcu; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Maithel, Shishir K.; Landry, Jerome C.; and others

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression as a prognostic factor for distant recurrence (DR) and local recurrence (LR) after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Methods and Materials: Tissue specimens were collected from 98 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy between January 2000 and December 2011. Local recurrence was defined as radiographic or pathologic evidence of progressive disease in the pancreas, pancreatic bed, or associated nodal regions. Distant recurrence was defined as radiographically or pathologically confirmed recurrent disease in other sites. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored by an independent pathologist blinded to patient outcomes. High HIF-1α overall expression score was defined as high percentage and intensity staining and thus score >1.33. Univariate analysis was performed for HIF-1α score with LR alone and with DR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LR and DR. Results: Median follow-up time for all patients was 16.3 months. Eight patients (8%) demonstrated isolated LR, 26 patients (26.5%) had isolated DR, and 13 patients had both LR and DR. Fifty-three patients (54%) had high HIF-1α expression, and 45 patients (46%) had low HIF-1α expression. High HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with DR (P=.03), and low HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with isolated LR (P=.03). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high HIF-1α was the only significant predictor of DR (odds ratio 2.46 [95% confidence interval 1.06-5.72]; P=.03). In patients with a known recurrence, an HIF-1α score ≥2.5 demonstrated a specificity of 100% for DR. Conclusions: High HIF-1α expression is a significant predictor of distant failure versus isolated local failure in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of HIF-1α may have utility in determining candidates for

  7. Zinc promotes the death of hypoxic astrocytes by upregulating hypoxia-induced hypoxiainducible factor-1alpha expression via Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase -1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Chen; Liu, Wenlan; Liu, Ke Jian

    2013-01-01

    Aim Pathological release of excess zinc ions has been implicated in ischemic brain cell death. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In stroke, ischemia-induced zinc release and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) accumulation concurrently occur in the ischemic tissue. The present study testes the hypothesis that the presence of high intracellular zinc concentration is a major cause of modifications to PARP-1 and HIF-1α during hypoxia, which significantly contributes to cell death during ischemia. Methods Primary cortical astrocytes and C8-D1A cells were exposed to different concentrations of zinc chloride. Cell death rate and protein expression of HIF-1 and Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 were examined after 3-hour hypoxic treatment. Results Although 3-hr hypoxia or 100 μM of zinc alone did not induce noticeable cytotoxicity, their combination led to a dramatic increase in astrocytic cell death in a zinc concentration dependent manner. Exposure of astrocytes to hypoxia for 3-hr remarkably increased the levels of intracellular zinc and HIF-1α protein, which was further augmented by added exogenous zinc. Notably HIF-1α knockdown blocked zinc-induced astrocyte death. Moreover, knockdown of PARP-1, another important protein in the response of hypoxia, attenuated the overexpression of HIF-1α and reduced the cell death rate. Conclusions Our studies show that zinc promotes hypoxic cell death through overexpression of the hypoxia response factor HIF-1α via the cell fate determine factor PARP-1 modification, which provides a novel mechanism for zinc-mediated ischemic brain injury. PMID:23582235

  8. High nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha expression is a predictor of distant recurrence in patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colbert, Lauren E; Fisher, Sarah B; Balci, Serdar; Saka, Burcu; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; El-Rayes, Bassel F; Adsay, N Volkan; Maithel, Shishir K; Landry, Jerome C; Curran, Walter J

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate nuclear hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression as a prognostic factor for distant recurrence (DR) and local recurrence (LR) after pancreatic adenocarcinoma resection. Tissue specimens were collected from 98 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent resection without neoadjuvant therapy between January 2000 and December 2011. Local recurrence was defined as radiographic or pathologic evidence of progressive disease in the pancreas, pancreatic bed, or associated nodal regions. Distant recurrence was defined as radiographically or pathologically confirmed recurrent disease in other sites. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and scored by an independent pathologist blinded to patient outcomes. High HIF-1α overall expression score was defined as high percentage and intensity staining and thus score >1.33. Univariate analysis was performed for HIF-1α score with LR alone and with DR. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of LR and DR. Median follow-up time for all patients was 16.3 months. Eight patients (8%) demonstrated isolated LR, 26 patients (26.5%) had isolated DR, and 13 patients had both LR and DR. Fifty-three patients (54%) had high HIF-1α expression, and 45 patients (46%) had low HIF-1α expression. High HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with DR (P=.03), and low HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with isolated LR (P=.03). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high HIF-1α was the only significant predictor of DR (odds ratio 2.46 [95% confidence interval 1.06-5.72]; P=.03). In patients with a known recurrence, an HIF-1α score ≥2.5 demonstrated a specificity of 100% for DR. High HIF-1α expression is a significant predictor of distant failure versus isolated local failure in patients undergoing resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Expression of HIF-1α may have utility in determining candidates for adjuvant local radiation therapy and systemic

  9. Expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML fusion gene in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Alcalay, M; Zangrilli, D; Fagioli, M; Pandolfi, P P; Mencarelli, A; Lo Coco, F; Biondi, A; Grignani, F; Pelicci, P G

    1992-01-01

    Two chimeric genes, PML-RAR alpha and RAR alpha-PML, are formed as a consequence of the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)-specific reciprocal translocation of chromosomes 15 and 17 [t(15;17)]. PML-RAR alpha is expressed as a fusion protein. We investigated the organization and expression pattern of the RAR alpha-PML gene in a series of APL patients representative of the molecular heterogeneity of the t(15;17) and found (i) two types of RAR alpha-PML mRNA junctions (RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 4 or RAR alpha exon 2/PML exon 7) that maintain the RAR alpha and PML longest open reading frames aligned and are the result of chromosome 15 breaking at two different sites; and (ii) 10 different RAR alpha-PML fusion transcripts that differ for the assembly of their PML coding exons. A RAR alpha-PML transcript was present in most, but not all, APL patients. Images PMID:1317574

  10. AMPK activation represses the human gene promoter of the cardiac isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Role of nuclear respiratory factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Tasneem; Opie, Lionel H.; Essop, M. Faadiel

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} AMPK inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta gene promoter activity. {yields} Nuclear respiratory factor-1 inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta promoter activity. {yields} AMPK regulates acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta at transcriptional level. -- Abstract: The cardiac-enriched isoform of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC{beta}) produces malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. AMPK inhibits ACC{beta} activity, lowering malonyl-CoA levels and promoting mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation. Previously, AMPK increased promoter binding of nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), a pivotal transcriptional modulator controlling gene expression of mitochondrial proteins. We therefore hypothesized that NRF-1 inhibits myocardial ACC{beta} promoter activity via AMPK activation. A human ACC{beta} promoter-luciferase construct was transiently transfected into neonatal cardiomyocytes {+-} a NRF-1 expression construct. NRF-1 overexpression decreased ACC{beta} gene promoter activity by 71 {+-} 4.6% (p < 0.001 vs. control). Transfections with 5'-end serial promoter deletions revealed that NRF-1-mediated repression of ACC{beta} was abolished with a pPII{beta}-18/+65-Luc deletion construct. AMPK activation dose-dependently reduced ACC{beta} promoter activity, while NRF-1 addition did not further decrease it. We also investigated NRF-1 inhibition in the presence of upstream stimulatory factor 1 (USF1), a known transactivator of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter. Here NRF-1 blunted USF1-dependent induction of ACC{beta} promoter activity by 58 {+-} 7.5% (p < 0.001 vs. control), reversed with a dominant negative NRF-1 construct. NRF-1 also suppressed endogenous USF1 transcriptional activity by 55 {+-} 6.2% (p < 0.001 vs. control). This study demonstrates that NRF-1 is a novel transcriptional inhibitor of the human ACC{beta} gene promoter in the mammalian heart. Our data extends AMPK regulation of ACC{beta} to the transcriptional level.

  11. Alpha-thalassemia phenotype induced by the new IVS-II-2 (T --> A) splice donor site mutation on the alpha2-globin gene.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, Cornelis L; Jebbink, Max C W; van der Lely, Nico; van Delft, Peter; Akkermans, Nicole; Arkesteyn, Sandra; Giordano, Piero C

    2006-01-01

    We present a family of North European extraction referred for a refractory non iron depleted microcytic anemia. The proband, a 36 year-old male, presented with chronic borderline anemia and microcytic hypochromic parameters. No abnormal hemoglobin (Hb) fractions were observed on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or on alkaline electrophoresis. Gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR) excluded the seven common alpha-thalassemia (thal) deletion defects. However, the beta/alpha-globin chain synthesis ratio measured in vitro was unbalanced, indicating a reduced expression of the alpha-globin genes. Direct sequencing of the alpha-globin genes revealed heterozygosity for a T --> A transversion at the IVS-II-2 position of the alpha2 gene. This is the first IVS-II splice donor site mutation described on the alpha2-globin gene.

  12. Characterization of the translation elongation factor 1gene in a wide range of pathogenic Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Nouripour-Sisakht, Sadegh; Ahmadi, Bahram; Makimura, Koichi; Hoog, Sybren de; Umeda, Yoshiko; Alshahni, Mohamed Mahdi; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2017-04-21

    We aimed to evaluate the resolving power of the translation elongation factor (TEF)-1α gene for phylogenetic analysis of Aspergillus species. Sequences of 526 bp representing the coding region of the TEF-1α gene were used for the assessment of levels of intra- and inter-specific nucleotide polymorphism in 33 species of Aspergillus, including 57 reference, clinical and environmental strains. Analysis of TEF-1α sequences indicated a mean similarity of 92.6 % between the species, with inter-species diversity ranging from 0 to 70 nucleotides. The species with the closest resemblance were A. candidus/A. carneus, and A. flavus/A. oryzae/A. ochraceus, with 100 and 99.8 % identification, respectively. These species are phylogenetically very close and the TEF-1α gene appears not to have sufficient discriminatory power to differentiate them. Meanwhile, intra-species differences were found within strains of A. clavatus, A. clavatonanicus, A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus, A. alliaceus, A. flavus, Eurotium amstelodami and E. chevalieri. The tree topology with strongly supported clades (≥70 % bootstrap values) was almost compatible with the phylogeny inferred from analysis of the DNA sequences of the beta tubulin gene (BT2). However, the backbone of the tree exhibited low bootstrap values, and inter-species correlations were not obvious in some clades; for example, tree topologies based on BT2 and TEF-1α genes were incompatible for some species, such as A. deflectus, A. janus and A. penicillioides. The gene was not phylogenetically more informative than other known molecular markers. It will be necessary to test other genes or larger genomic regions to better understand the taxonomy of this important group of fungi.

  13. The Anti-Proliferative Effect of L-Carnosine Correlates with a Decreased Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 alpha in Human Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases. PMID

  14. The anti-proliferative effect of L-carnosine correlates with a decreased expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Iovine, Barbara; Oliviero, Giorgia; Garofalo, Mariangela; Orefice, Maria; Nocella, Francesca; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Centore, Roberto; Mazzone, Massimiliano; Piccialli, Gennaro; Bevilacqua, Maria Assunta

    2014-01-01

    In recent years considerable attention has been given to the use of natural substances as anticancer drugs. The natural antioxidant dipeptide L-carnosine belongs to this class of molecules because it has been proved to have a significant anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Previous studies have shown that L-carnosine inhibits the proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells by affecting the ATP and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. In the present study we identified the Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α (HIF-1α) as a possible target of L-carnosine in HCT-116 cell line. HIF-1α protein is over-expressed in multiple types of human cancer and is the major cause of resistance to drugs and radiation in solid tumours. Of particular interest are experimental data supporting the concept that generation of ROS provides a redox signal for HIF-1α induction, and it is known that some antioxidants are able to suppress tumorigenesis by inhibiting HIF-1α. In the current study we found that L-carnosine reduces the HIF-1α protein level affecting its stability and decreases the HIF-1 transcriptional activity. In addition, we demonstrated that L-carnosine is involved in ubiquitin-proteasome system promoting HIF-1α degradation. Finally, we compared the antioxidant activity of L-carnosine with that of two synthetic anti-oxidant bis-diaminotriazoles (namely 1 and 2, respectively). Despite these three compounds have the same ability in reducing intracellular ROS, 1 and 2 are more potent scavengers and have no effect on HIF-1α expression and cancer cell proliferation. These findings suggest that an analysis of L-carnosine antioxidant pathway will clarify the mechanism underlying the anti-proliferative effects of this dipeptide on colon cancer cells. However, although the molecular mechanism by which L-carnosine down regulates or inhibits the HIF-1α activity has not been yet elucidated, this ability may be promising in treating hypoxia-related diseases.

  15. Central venous hypoxemia is a determinant of human atrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression: evidence for a novel hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-Forkhead box class O signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Raeis, Véronique; Philip-Couderc, Pierre; Roatti, Angela; Habre, Walid; Sierra, Jorge; Kalangos, Afksendyios; Beghetti, Maurice; Baertschi, Alex J

    2010-05-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium channels couple cell excitability to energy metabolism, thereby providing life-saving protection of stressed cardiomyocytes. The signaling for ATP-sensitive potassium channel expression is still unknown. We tested involvement of biochemical and biophysical parameters and potential transcription factors Forkhead box (FOX) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1alpha). Right atrial tissues were obtained during surgery from 28 children with heart disease. Expression of K(+)-inward-rectifier subunits Kir6.1/Kir6.2; sulfonyl urea receptors (SURs) SUR1A/B and SUR2A/B; and FOX class O (FOXO) 1, FOXO3, FOXF2, and HIF-1alpha were related to 31 parameters, including personal data, blood chemistry, and echocardiography. Venous hypoxemia (but not other ischemia indicators, such as venous hypercapnia or low glucose) predicts increased Kir6.1 (P<0.003) and Kir6.2 (P<0.03) protein. Kir6.1 associates with SUR2A/B mRNA (P<0.05) and correlates with FOXOs (P<0.002). FOXOs correlate with HIF-1alpha (P<0.01) and HIF-1alpha with venous hypoxemia (P<0.003). Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays suggest causal links among hypoxia, HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and Kir6.1. To mimic mild ischemia encountered in some patients, cultured rat atrial myocytes were tested in hypoxia, hypercapnia, or low glucose, with normal conditions serving as the control. Mild hypoxia (24-hour) increases expression of HIF-1alpha, FOXO1, and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 in culture (P<0.01), whereas hypercapnia and low glucose have no or opposite effects. Gene knockdown of HIF-1alpha or FOXO1 by small-interfering RNAs abolishes hypoxia-induced expression of FOXO1 and SUR2A/B/Kir6.1. These results suggest that low tissue oxygen determines increased expression of the atrial SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 gene via activation of HIF-1alpha-FOXO1. Because increased SUR2A/B/Kir6.1 has known survival benefits, this pathway offers novel therapeutic targets for children with heart disease.

  16. Concomitant T-cell receptor alpha and delta gene rearrangements in individual T-cell precursors.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, S D; Pelkonen, J; Hurwitz, J L

    1990-01-01

    A debate has recently surfaced concerning the degree of precommitment attained by alpha beta and gamma delta T-cell precursors prior to T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement. It has been suggested that precursors may be precommitted to rearrange either alpha or delta genes, but not both, thus giving rise to alpha beta- and gamma delta-producing T cells, respectively. Alternatively, the precursors may be flexible with regard to potential TCR gene rearrangements. To address this controversy, the gene rearrangements among a group of T-cell hybridomas from fetal, newborn, and early postnatal mouse thymi were examined. Six probes spanning the delta and alpha loci were used in Southern blot analyses to characterize the rearrangements which occurred on homologous chromosomes in each cell. Although homologous chromosomes often rearranged in synchrony within the alpha locus, a number of hybridomas were found which had retained a delta rearrangement on one chromosome and an alpha rearrangement on the second. Results show that a precommitment by T cells to rearrange delta or alpha genes in a mutually exclusive manner is not an absolute feature of mouse thymocyte development. Images PMID:2164690

  17. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-07-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements.

  18. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers.

    PubMed

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  19. Mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-1β Gene Are Associated with Familial Hypoplastic Glomerulocystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bingham, Coralie; Bulman, Michael P.; Ellard, Sian; Allen, Lisa I. S.; Lipkin, Graham W.; Hoff, William G. van't; Woolf, Adrian S.; Rizzoni, Gianfranco; Novelli, Giuseppe; Nicholls, Anthony J.; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2001-01-01

    Familial glomerulocystic kidney disease (GCKD) is a dominantly inherited condition characterized by glomerular cysts and variable renal size and function; the molecular genetic etiology is unknown. Mutations in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)–1β have been associated with early-onset diabetes and nondiabetic renal disease—particularly renal cystic disease. We investigated a possible role for the HNF-1β gene in four unrelated GCKD families and identified mutations in two families: a nonsense mutation in exon 1 (E101X) and a frameshift mutation in exon 2 (P159fsdelT). The family members with HNF-1β gene mutations had hypoplastic GCKD and early-onset diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. We conclude that there is genetic heterogeneity in familial GCKD and that the hypoplastic subtype is a part of the clinical spectrum of the renal cysts and diabetes syndrome that is associated with HNF-1β mutations. PMID:11085914

  20. Transgenic Over Expression of Nicotinic Receptor Alpha 5, Alpha 3, and Beta 4 Subunit Genes Reduces Ethanol Intake in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gallego, Xavier; Ruiz, Jessica; Valverde, Olga; Molas, Susanna; Robles, Noemí; Sabrià, Josefa; Crabbe, John C.; Dierssen, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and smoking are extensively co-morbid. Some studies suggest partial commonality of action of alcohol and nicotine mediated through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested mice with transgenic over expression of the alpha 5, alpha 3, beta 4 receptor subunit genes, which lie in a cluster on human chromosome 15, that were previously shown to have increased nicotine self-administration, for several responses to ethanol. Transgenic and wild-type mice did not differ in sensitivity to several acute behavioral responses to ethanol. However, transgenic mice drank less ethanol than wild-type in a two-bottle (ethanol vs. water) preference test. These results suggest a complex role for this receptor subunit gene cluster in the modulation of ethanol’s as well as nicotine’s effects. PMID:22459873

  1. Parathyroid hormone regulation of bone sialoprotein (BSP) gene transcription is mediated through a pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) motif in the rat BSP gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Y; Nakao, S; Kim, R H; Li, J J; Furuyama, S; Sugiya, H; Sodek, J

    2000-09-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is a mineralized tissue-specific protein expressed by differentiated osteoblasts that appears to function in the initial mineralization of bone. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which regulates serum calcium through its actions on bone cells, increases the expression of BSP in the rat osteosarcoma cell line (ROS 17/2.8). At 10(-8) M PTH (human 1-34 PTH), stimulation of BSP mRNA was first evident at 3 h ( approximately 3.8-fold), reached maximal levels at 6 h ( approximately 4.7-fold), and declined slowly thereafter. The effects of PTH, which were abrogated by cycloheximide (28 microg/ml), did not alter the stability of the BSP mRNA. The increased transcription was mimicked by both forskolin (10(-6) M) and isoproterenol (10(-7) M), and was also increased by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX; 10(-5) M), while the transcriptional activity induced by PTH was inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89 (5x10(-6) M). From transient transfection assays using various BSP promoter-luciferase constructs, a pituitary-specific transcription factor-1 (Pit-1) regulatory element (nts -111 to -105) was identified as the target of transcriptional activation by PTH. Thus, transcriptional activity of constructs including the Pit-1 was enhanced approximately 4.7-fold by 10(-8) M PTH while 5'-ligation of the Pit-1 element conferred PTH regulation in an SV40 promoter construct. Binding of a nuclear protein, recognized by anti-Pit-1 antibodies, to a radiolabelled Pit-1-BSP probe was decreased in nuclear extracts prepared from PTH, forskolin and isoproterenol-stimulated ROS 17/2.8 cells. Moreover, co-transfection of ROS cells with a double-stranded Pit-1 oligonucleotide also increased luciferase activity. Collectively, these results indicate that PTH acts through a protein kinase A pathway involving cAMP to stimulate BSP transcription by blocking the action of a Pit-1-related nuclear protein that suppresses BSP transcription by binding a cognate element in the BSP

  2. Identification of the T-cell receptor alpha variable (TRAV) gene(s) in T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hinz, T; Kabelitz, D

    2000-12-01

    Due to the lack of a complete range of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) it is often impossible to rapidly identify by flow cytometry the T-cell receptor variable genes in patients suffering from T-cell malignancies. This applies especially to the alpha variable genes (TRAV), since only very few anti-TcR variable alpha mAb are available. We describe a very rapid method for inverse PCR amplification of the TcR alpha chain without prior purification of the double-stranded cDNA, provide the sequences for appropriate oligonucleotides, and describe a buffer system that dramatically enhances the amplification efficiency as compared to standard conditions.

  3. UV-induced expression of key component of the tanning process, the POMC and MC1R genes, is dependent on the p-38-activated upstream stimulating factor-1 (USF-1).

    PubMed

    Corre, Sébastien; Primot, Aline; Sviderskaya, Elena; Bennett, Dorothy C; Vaulont, Sophie; Goding, Colin R; Galibert, Marie-Dominique

    2004-12-03

    Protection against UV-mediated DNA damage and the onset of oncogenesis is afforded by the tanning response in which UV irradiation triggers melanocytes to increase production of melanin that is then transferred to keratinocytes. A key component of the tanning process is the UV-mediated induction of the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and MC1R genes encoding the alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and its receptor, respectively, which play a crucial role in pigmentation by regulating the intracellular levels of cAMP. How these genes are regulated in response to UV irradiation is not known. Here we have shown that UV-induced activation of the POMC and MC1R promoters is mediated by p38 stress-activated kinase signaling to the transcription factor, upstream stimulating factor-1 (USF-1). Importantly, melanocytes derived from USF-1 -/- mice exhibit a defective UV response and fail to activate POMC and MC1R expression in response to UV irradiation. The results define USF-1 as a critical UV-responsive activator of genes implicated in protection from solar radiation.

  4. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  5. Mutations in the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) gene cause hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, Rosa; Baker, Matt; Nicholson, Alexandra M; Rutherford, Nicola J; Finch, NiCole; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra; Lash, Jennifer; Wider, Christian; Wojtas, Aleksandra; DeJesus-Hernandez, Mariely; Adamson, Jennifer; Kouri, Naomi; Sundal, Christina; Shuster, Elizabeth A; Aasly, Jan; MacKenzie, James; Roeber, Sigrun; Kretzschmar, Hans A; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Cairns, Nigel J; Ghetti, Bernardino; Spina, Salvatore; Garbern, James; Tselis, Alexandros C; Uitti, Ryan; Das, Pritam; Van Gerpen, Jay A; Meschia, James F; Levy, Shawn; Broderick, Daniel F; Graff-Radford, Neill; Ross, Owen A; Miller, Bradley B; Swerdlow, Russell H; Dickson, Dennis W; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-12-25

    Hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids (HDLS) is an autosomal-dominant central nervous system white-matter disease with variable clinical presentations, including personality and behavioral changes, dementia, depression, parkinsonism, seizures and other phenotypes. We combined genome-wide linkage analysis with exome sequencing and identified 14 different mutations affecting the tyrosine kinase domain of the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (encoded by CSF1R) in 14 families with HDLS. In one kindred, we confirmed the de novo occurrence of the mutation. Follow-up sequencing identified an additional CSF1R mutation in an individual diagnosed with corticobasal syndrome. In vitro, CSF-1 stimulation resulted in rapid autophosphorylation of selected tyrosine residues in the kinase domain of wild-type but not mutant CSF1R, suggesting that HDLS may result from partial loss of CSF1R function. As CSF1R is a crucial mediator of microglial proliferation and differentiation in the brain, our findings suggest an important role for microglial dysfunction in HDLS pathogenesis.

  6. Physical and Functional Interaction between the Bloom's Syndrome Gene Product and the Largest Subunit of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Renjie; Bachrati, Csanád Z.; Pedrazzi, Graziella; Kuster, Patrick; Petkovic, Maja; Li, Ji-Liang; Egli, Dieter; Hickson, Ian D.; Stagljar, Igor

    2004-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is a genomic instability disorder characterized by cancer susceptibility. The protein defective in BS, BLM, belongs to the RecQ family of DNA helicases. In this study, we found that BLM interacts with hp150, the largest subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), in vitro and in vivo. Colocalization of a proportion of the cellular complement of these two proteins is found at specific nuclear foci coinciding with sites of DNA synthesis in the S phase. This colocalization increases in the presence of agents that damage DNA or inhibit DNA replication. In support of a functional interaction between BLM and CAF-1, we show that BLM inhibits CAF-1-mediated chromatin assembly during DNA repair in vitro. Although CAF-1 activity is not altered in BLM-deficient cells, the absence of BLM does impair the ability of CAF-1 to be mobilized within the nucleus in response to hydroxyurea treatment. Our results provide the first link between BLM and chromatin assembly coupled to DNA repair and suggest that BLM and CAF-1 function in a coordinated way to promote survival in response to DNA damage and/or replication blockade. PMID:15143166

  7. Bacillus stearothermophilus contains a plasmid-borne gene for alpha-amylase.

    PubMed Central

    Mielenz, J R

    1983-01-01

    The gene for thermostable alpha-amylase from the thermophilic bacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Each alpha-amylase-producing colony contained at least a 9.7-kilobase-pair (kb) chimeric plasmid composed of the vector pBR322 and a common 5.4-kb HindIII fragment of DNA. B. stearothermophilus contains four plasmids with sizes from 12 kb to over 108 kb. Restriction endonuclease analysis of these naturally occurring plasmids showed they also contain a 5.4-kb HindIII fragment of DNA. Cloning experiments with the four plasmids yielded alpha-amylase-producing E. coli that contained the same 9.7-kb chimeric plasmid. Restriction endonuclease analysis and further recombinant DNA experiments identified a 26-kb plasmid that contains the gene for alpha-amylase. A spontaneous mutant of B. stearothermophilus unable to produce alpha-amylase was missing the 26-kb plasmid but contained a 20-kb plasmid. A 6-kb deletion within the region of the 5.4-kb HindIII fragment yielded the 20-kb plasmid unable to code for alpha-amylase. A nick-translated probe for the alpha-amylase coding region did not hybridize to either plasmid or total cellular DNA from this mutant strain of B. stearothermophilus. These results demonstrate the gene for alpha-amylase is located exclusively on a 26-kb plasmid in B. stearothermophilus with no genetic counterpart present on the chromosome. Images PMID:6193526

  8. Gene cloning and characterization of alpha-glucuronidase of Bacillus stearothermophilus no. 236.

    PubMed

    Choi, I D; Kim, H Y; Choi, Y J

    2000-12-01

    The alpha-glucuronidase gene of Bacillus stearothermophilus No. 236 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene, designated aguA, encoded a 691-residue polypeptide with calculated molecular weight of 78,156 and pI of 5.34. The alpha-glucuronidase produced by a recombinant E. coli strain containing the aguA gene was purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The molecular weight of the alpha-glucuronidase was 77,000 by SDS-PAGE and 161,000 by gel filtration; the functional form of the alpha-glucuronidase therefore was dimeric. The optimal pH and temperature for the enzyme activity were pH 6.5 and 40 degrees C, respectively. The enzyme's half-life at 50 degrees C was 50 min. The values for the kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax were 0.78 mM and 15.3 U/mg for aldotriouronic acid [2-O-alpha-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic)-D-xylobiose]. The alpha-glucuronidase acted mainly on small substituted xylo-oligomers and did not release methylglucuronic acid from intact xylan. Nevertheless, synergism in the release of xylose from xylan was found when alpha-glucuronidase was added to a mixture of endoxylanase and beta-xylosidase.

  9. Allelic forms of the alpha- and beta-chain genes encoding DQw1-positive heterodimers.

    PubMed

    Turco, E; Care, A; Compagnone-Post, P; Robinson, C; Cascino, I; Trucco, M

    1987-01-01

    On chromosome 6, in the HLA region, the DQ subregion is located immediately centromeric to the DR subregion. Even though only three serological specificities to date have been officially recognized (DQw1, DQw2, and DQw3), it seems likely that the phenotypical polymorphism expressed by DQ molecules is much more complex. There are reasons to believe that fixed alpha-beta combinations exist, each of them associated with a different DR allele. DQw1 is a determinant present on DQ molecules that are found associated with DR1-, DR2-, and DRw6-positive haplotypes. By restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, we recognized three allelic DQ-alpha and three allelic DQ-beta patterns associated with DQw1. In addition, one of these alpha/beta pairs associated with DR1, two with DR2, and a fourth with DRw6. We have obtained evidence using nucleotide sequencing that there are as many allelic forms of DQ-alpha and DQ-beta genes as there are different molecular DQ-alpha and DQ-beta patterns. The DQ-alpha and DQ-beta chains of DQw1-positive molecules each are encoded by at least three distinctly different allelic genes, and particular alpha/beta gene combinations are associated with the same DR alleles as their corresponding molecular alpha/beta pairs.

  10. The alpha-tubulin gene family expressed during cell differentiation in Naegleria gruberi

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Genes that direct the programmed synthesis of flagellar alpha-tubulin during the differentiation of Naegleria gruberi from amebae to flagellates have been cloned, and found to be novel with respect to gene organization, sequence, and conservation. The flagellar alpha- tubulin gene family is represented in the genome by about eight homologous DNA segments that are exceptionally similar and yet are neither identical nor arrayed in a short tandem repeat. The coding regions of three of these genes have been sequenced, two from cDNA clones and one from an intronless genomic gene. These three genes encode an identical alpha-tubulin that is conserved relative to the alpha-tubulins of other organisms except at the carboxyl terminus, where the protein is elongated by two residues and ends in a terminal glutamine instead of the canonical tyrosine. In spite of the protein conservation, the Naegleria DNA sequence has diverged markedly from the alpha-tubulin genes of other organisms, a counterexample to the idea that tubulin genes are conserved. alpha-Tubulin mRNA homologous to this gene family has not been detected in amebae. This mRNA increases markedly in abundance during the first hour of differentiation, and then decreases even more rapidly with a half-life of approximately 8 min. The abundance of physical alpha-tubulin mRNA rises and subsequently falls in parallel with the abundance of translatable flagellar tubulin mRNA and with the in vivo rate of flagellar tubulin synthesis, which indicates that flagellar tubulin synthesis is directly regulated by the relative rates of transcription and mRNA degradation. PMID:2838492

  11. Eliciting hyperacute xenograft response to treat human cancer: alpha(1,3) galactosyltransferase gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Link, C J; Seregina, T; Atchison, R; Hall, A; Muldoon, R; Levy, J P

    1998-01-01

    Xenograft hyperacute rejection in humans occurs as a secondary response to a cellular glycosylation incompatibility with most non-human mammalian species. A key component of hyperacute rejection, alpha(1,3)galactosyl (agal) epitopes present on the surface of most non-human mammal cells, is bound by host anti-agal IgG antibodies leading to the activation of complement and, cellular lysis (1). The enzyme causing specific glycosylation patterns, alpha(1,3)galactosyltransferase [alpha(1,3)GT], directs the addition of agal to N-acetyl glucosamine residues in the trans Golgi apparatus in most mammalian species including Mus musculus, but not old world primates, apes or humans. In this report, we cloned both a truncated and full length murine alpha(1,3)GT gene into a retroviral vector backbone in order to transfer alpha(1,3)galactosyl epitopes into human A375 melanoma cells. Expression of agal epitopes on A375 cells after alpha(1,3)GT gene transfer was demonstrated using FITC-labeled ligand and FACS analysis. These cells were exposed to human serum for 30 minutes and > 90% of the agal expressing cells were killed by this treatment. These pretreated cells failed to establish tumors after implantation into athymic nude mice. This is the first report of retroviral vector transfer of the alpha(1,3)GT gene into human tumor cells in an attempt to elicit hyperacute rejection as a novel anti-cancer gene therapy strategy.

  12. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takahashi, Iwao; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Suzuki, Iwao; Uruno, Akira; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi Sugawara, Akira

    2009-02-13

    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  13. A delayed-early gene activated by fibroblast growth factor-1 encodes a protein related to aldose reductase.

    PubMed

    Donohue, P J; Alberts, G F; Hampton, B S; Winkles, J A

    1994-03-18

    The addition of polypeptide mitogens to quiescent cell lines induces the expression of various gene products, some of which are likely to perform functions critical for cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, and mitosis. We have used a differential display approach to identify fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1-inducible genes in NIH-3T3 cells. One of these genes, termed FGF-regulated (FR)-1, encodes a 316-amino acid protein with approximately 82% amino acid sequence identity to an abundant protein expressed in mouse vas deferens and approximately 70% identity to human aldose reductase. The function of the vas deferens protein is unknown; however, aldose reductase is an NADPH-dependent monomeric oxidoreductase implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. FGF-1 induction of FR-1 mRNA expression is first detectable at 4 h after mitogen addition and is dependent on de novo RNA and protein synthesis. FGF-2 or phorbol ester treatment can also increase FR-1 mRNA levels; in contrast, whole blood serum or individual growth factors present in serum have only minimal effects on FR-1 mRNA expression. FR-1 mRNA is detectable in a number of mouse tissues but is most abundant in newborn liver and in adult intestine, ovary, and testis. These results raise the possibility that aldose reductase-related proteins may play a role in FGF-1- and FGF-2-stimulated mitogenesis.

  14. Structure, organization, and transcription units of the human {alpha}-platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene, PDGFRA

    SciTech Connect

    Kawagishi, Jun; Yamamoto, Tokuo; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Yoshimoto, Takashi

    1995-11-20

    Isolation and characterization of genomic clones encoding human {alpha}-platelet derived growth factor receptor (HGAM-approved symbol PDGFRA) revealed that the gene spans approximately 65 kb and contains 23 exons. The 5{prime}-untranslated region of the mRNA is encoded by exon 1, and a large intron of 23 kb separates exon 2 encoding the translation initiator codon AUG and the signal sequence. The locations of exon/intron boundaries in the extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, the transmembrane domain, the two cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains, and the kinase insertion domain are very similar to those in c-kit and macrophage colony stimulating factor-1 receptor genes. The transcription start site was mapped to a position 393 bp upstream of the AUG translation initiator codon by Si mapping and primer extension analysis. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene lacks a typical TATA box but contains a typical CCAAT box and GATA motifs. This region also contains potential sites for AP-1, AP-2, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Sp1. The 5{prime}-flanking region of the gene was fused to the luciferase reporter gene, and transcription units of the gene were determined. 49 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Liver alpha-amylase gene expression as an early obesity biomarker.

    PubMed

    Mojbafan, Marzieh; Afsartala, Zohreh; Amoli, Mahsa M; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Parichehreh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide, for which preventive and therapeutic means are still needed. Alpha-amylase is a digestive enzyme whose inhibition has been targeted as a potential anti-obesity strategy. However, alpha-amylase gene expression has not been particularly attended to, and in contrast with pancreatic and salivary amylases, fewer studies have focused on liver alpha-amylase. The present study aimed at investigating the expression of alpha-amylase gene in obese and normal mice at RNA and protein level as well as acarbose effect on this gene expression in hepatocyte cell culture. Control and case groups were fed by normal mouse pellet and high-fat diet respectively, during 8 weeks. After this period, serum biochemical parameters including glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, AST, ALT and alpha-amylase were assayed. Liver alpha-amylase gene was analyzed by real time PCR, and liver enzyme was assayed with Bernfeld and ELISA methods Hepatocyte cell culture derived from both group were also treated by acarbose and alpha-amylase activity and gene expression was analyzed by above mentioned methods. All biochemical factors showed an increase in obese mice, but the increase in ALT and AST were not statistically significant. Alpha-amylase levels were also increased in obese mice, both at RNA and protein level, while a decrease was seen in obese mice derived hepatocytes after acarbose treatment. Elevated liver alpha-amylase levels may be indicative of initial stages of obesity and the use of acarbose could be considered as a treatment of obesity which could be potentially effective at multiple levels. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o.

  16. The human glucokinase gene beta-cell-type promoter: an essential role of insulin promoter factor 1/PDX-1 in its activation in HIT-T15 cells.

    PubMed

    Watada, H; Kajimoto, Y; Umayahara, Y; Matsuoka, T; Kaneto, H; Fujitani, Y; Kamada, T; Kawamori, R; Yamasaki, Y

    1996-11-01

    The glycolytic enzyme glucokinase plays a primary role in the glucose-responsive secretion of insulin, and defects of this enzyme can cause NIDDM. As a step toward understanding the molecular basis of glucokinase (GK) gene regulation, we assessed the structure and regulation of the human GK gene beta-cell-type promoter. The results of reporter gene analyses using HIT-T15 cells revealed that the gene promoter was comprised of multiple cis-acting elements, including two primarily important cis-motifs: a palindrome structure, hPal-1, and the insulin gene cis-motif A element-like hUPE3. While both elements were bound specifically by nuclear proteins, it was the homeodomain-containing transcription factor insulin promoter factor 1 (IPF1)/STF-1/PDX-1 that bound to the hUPE3 site: IPF1, when expressed in CHO-K1 cells, became bound to the hUPE3 site and activated transcription. An anti-IPF1 antiserum used in gel-mobility shift analysis supershifted the DNA protein complex formed with the hUPE3 probe and nuclear extracts from HIT-T15 cells, thus supporting the involvement of IPF1 in GK gene activation in HIT-T15 cells. In contrast to the insulin gene, however, neither the synergistic effect of the Pan1 expression on the IPF1-induced promoter activation nor the glucose responsiveness of the activity was observed for the GK gene promoter. These results revealed some conservative but unique features for the transcriptional regulation of the beta-cell-specific genes in humans. Being implicated in insulin and GK gene regulations as a common transcription factor, IPF1/STF-1/PDX-1 is likely to play an essential role in maintaining normal beta-cell functions.

  17. Insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (CA)n repeats and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene in Brazilian children born small for gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Coletta, Rocio R D; Jorge, Alexander A L; D' Alva, Catarina Brasil; Pinto, Emília M; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa C; Pachi, Paulo R; Longui, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo M; Boguszewski, Margaret; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Mendonca, Berenice B; Costa, Elaine M F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age and to correlate these polymorphisms with serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels and insulin sensitivity in children who are small for gestational age, with and without catch-up growth. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated 439 infants: 297 that were adequate-sized for gestational age and 142 that were small for gestational age (66 with and 76 without catch-up). The number of (CA)n repeat in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats in the insulin gene were analyzed using GENESCAN software and polymerase chain reaction followed by enzymatic digestion, respectively. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from all patients. RESULTS: The height, body mass index, paternal height, target height and insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels were higher in children who were small for gestational age with catch-up. There was no difference in the allelic and genotypic distributions of both polymorphisms between the adequate-sized and small infants or among small infants with and without catch-up. Similarly, the polymorphisms were not associated with clinical or laboratory variables. CONCLUSION: Polymorphisms of the (CA)n repeats of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene, separately or in combination, did not influence pre- or postnatal growth, insulin-like growth factor 1 serum levels or insulin resistance. PMID:23778474

  18. Drift diffusion model of reward and punishment learning in rare alpha-synuclein gene carriers.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kéri, Szabolcs; Polner, Bertalan; White, Corey

    2017-03-20

    To understand the cognitive effects of alpha-synuclein polymorphism, we employed a drift diffusion model (DDM) to analyze reward- and punishment-guided probabilistic learning task data of participants with the rare alpha-synuclein gene duplication and age- and education-matched controls. Overall, the DDM analysis showed that, relative to controls, asymptomatic alpha-synuclein gene duplication carriers had significantly increased learning from negative feedback, while they tended to show impaired learning from positive feedback. No significant differences were found in response caution, response bias, or motor/encoding time. We here discuss the implications of these computational findings to the understanding of the neural mechanism of alpha-synuclein gene duplication.

  19. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha gene regulation by virus and lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Goldfeld, A E; Doyle, C; Maniatis, T

    1990-12-01

    We have identified a region of the human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) gene promoter that is necessary for maximal constitutive, virus-induced, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced transcription. This region contains three sites that match an NF-kappa B binding-site consensus sequence. We show that these three sites specifically bind NF-kappa B in vitro, yet each of these sites can be deleted from the TNF-alpha promoter with little effect on the induction of the gene by virus or LPS. Moreover, when multimers of these three sites are placed upstream from a truncated TNF-alpha promoter, or a heterologous promoter, an increase in the basal level of transcription is observed that is influenced by sequence context and cell type. However, these multimers are not sufficient for virus or LPS induction of either promoter. Thus, unlike other virus- and LPS-inducible promoters that contain NF-kappa B binding sites, these sites from the TNF-alpha promoter are neither required nor sufficient for virus or LPS induction. Comparison of the sequence requirements of virus induction of the human TNF-alpha gene in mouse L929 and P388D1 cells reveals significant differences, indicating that the sequence requirements for virus induction of the gene are cell type-specific. However, the sequences required for virus and LPS induction of the gene in a single cell type, P388D1, overlap.

  20. Cloning, characterisation and expression of the alpha-tubulin genes of the leech, Hirudo medicinalis.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, A; Johnston, H; Korneev, S; Blackshaw, S; Davies, J

    1999-02-04

    We have isolated two alpha-tubulin cDNAs from the leech, Hirudo medicinalis. Both encode putative proteins of 451 amino-acids which differ from each other at only two positions. Southern blotting suggests that there are only two alpha-tubulin genes in the leech. The genes contain two introns and, because of the extremely high homology of the nucleotide sequence from the second intron to the end of the genes, we have inferred that a gene conversion event about 9.5 million years ago has homogenised the Hirudo alpha-tubulin sequences. Using in situ hybridisation to tissue sections, we have shown that the two genes are probably expressed in all neurons of the leech ganglia and that their spatial distribution remains unchanged during neuronal regeneration. The deduced amino-acid sequences of the leech alpha-tubulins show that they have greatest similarity to those from a platyhelminth, echiuran and mollusc with rather less to arthropod alpha-tubulins. The protein sequences of the leech alpha-tubulins have been compared with representatives of those from across all phyla to determine if any specific feature labels certain isotypes of tubulin for neuronal expression.

  1. Phytol directly activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) and regulates gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Goto, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kato, Sota; Egawa, Kahori; Ebisu, Shogo; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Fushiki, Tohru; Kawada, Teruo . E-mail: fat@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-18

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is one of the indispensable transcription factors for regulating lipid metabolism in various tissues. In our screening for natural compounds that activate PPAR using luciferase assays, a branched-carbon-chain alcohol (a component of chlorophylls), phytol, has been identified as a PPAR{alpha}-specific activator. Phytol induced the increase in PPAR{alpha}-dependent luciferase activity and the degree of in vitro binding of a coactivator, SRC-1, to GST-PPAR{alpha}. Moreover, the addition of phytol upregulated the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes at both mRNA and protein levels in PPAR{alpha}-expressing HepG2 hepatocytes. These findings indicate that phytol is functional as a PPAR{alpha} ligand and that it stimulates the expression of PPAR{alpha}-target genes in intact cells. Because PPAR{alpha} activation enhances circulating lipid clearance, phytol may be important in managing abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  2. Tobacco plants transformed with the bean. alpha. ai gene express an inhibitor of insect. alpha. -amylase in their seeds. [Nicotiana tabacum; Tenebrio molitor

    SciTech Connect

    Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds contain a putative plant defense protein that inhibits insect and mammalian but not plant {alpha}-amylases. We recently presented strong circumstantial evidence that this {alpha}-amylase inhibitor ({alpha}Al) is encoded by an already-identified lectin gene whose product is referred to as lectin-like-protein (LLP). We have now made a chimeric gene consisting of the coding sequence of the lectin gene that encodes LLP and the 5{prime} and 3{prime} flanking sequences of the lectin gene that encodes phytohemagglutinin-L. When this chimeric gene was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we observed in the seeds a series of polypeptides (M{sub r} 10,000-18,000) that cross-react with antibodies to the bean {alpha}-amylase inhibitor. Most of these polypeptides bind to a pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase affinity column. An extract of the seeds of the transformed tobacco plants inhibits pig pancreas {alpha}-amylase activity as well as the {alpha}-amylase present in the midgut of Tenebrio molitor. We suggest that introduction of this lectin gene (to be called {alpha}ai) into other leguminous plants may be a strategy to protect the seeds from the seed-eating larvae of Coleoptera.

  3. Late reperfusion of a totally occluded infarct-related artery increases granulocyte-colony stimulation factor and reduces stroma-derived factor-1alpha blood levels in patients with ongoing ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Li-Tang; Chen, Shih-Jen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Yang, Ning-I; Lee, Chen-Chin; Cheng, Chi-Wen; Verma, Subodh; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2009-07-01

    After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), reopening of a totally occluded infarct-related artery (IRA) at a subacute stage is still controversial in symptom-free patients. However, in patients with persistent ischemic symptoms and inadequate collaterals to the infarct area, recanalization is thought to provide beneficial effects. In addition to augmenting myocardial perfusion, we hypothesized that the benefit of recanalization involves the manipulation of circulating stem cell-mobilizing cytokines. This study included 30 patients with a totally occluded IRA and ongoing ischemic symptoms (the study group) and 30 patients with a partially occluded IRA (the control group). All patients underwent successful angioplasty and/or stenting. Before and immediately after the coronary intervention, blood granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), stem-cell factor (SCF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1alpha) were measured. After recanalization, G-CSF levels significantly increased in the study group compared to the control group (P=0.03). SDF-1alpha levels in the study group decreased relative to the controls (P=0.02). However, no significant changes in VEGF or SCF levels between the two groups were found. In the multivariate analysis, reopening of a totally occluded IRA was independently and significantly associated with changes in G-CSF and SDF-1alpha levels after recanalization. In conclusion, our data suggest that the benefits of late reperfusion of a totally occluded IRA in patients with ongoing myocardial ischemia may involve mechanisms associated with stem cell-mobilizing and plaque-stabilizing cytokines. This study provides the rationale to investigate serial changes in cytokines and the numbers of circulating progenitors after reperfusion in the future.

  4. The mating-type locus B alpha 1 of Schizophyllum commune contains a pheromone receptor gene and putative pheromone genes.

    PubMed Central

    Wendland, J; Vaillancourt, L J; Hegner, J; Lengeler, K B; Laddison, K J; Specht, C A; Raper, C A; Kothe, E

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of the multispecific B alpha mating-type locus of Schizophyllum commune provided evidence that pheromones and pheromone receptors govern recognition of self versus non-self and sexual development in this homobasidiomycetous fungus. Four subclones of an 8.2 kb genomic fragment carrying B alpha 1 specificity induced B-regulated sexual morphogenesis when introduced into a strain with one of the eight compatible B alpha specificities that are known to exist in nature. One of these clones, which activated all other B alpha specificities, contains a gene termed bar1. The predicted protein product of bar1, as well as that of bar2, a homologous gene isolated from a B alpha 2 strain, has significant homology to known fungal pheromone receptor proteins in the rhodopsin-like superfamily of G protein-linked receptors. The other three active B alpha 1 clones were subcloned further to identify the minimal active element in each clone. Every active subclone contains a putative pheromone gene ending in a signal for possible isoprenylation. A message of approximately 600 bp was observed for one of these genes, bap1(1). This paper presents the first evidence for a system of multiple pheromones and pheromone receptors as a basis for multispecific mating types in a fungus. Images PMID:7489716

  5. Parental origin of Gs alpha gene mutations in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L C; Oude Luttikhuis, M E; Clayton, P T; Fraser, W D; Trembath, R C

    1994-01-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the Gs alpha gene leading to reduced Gs alpha activity have been identified in patients with Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). However, AHO may be associated with hormone resistance (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, PHPIa) or a normal response (pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, PPHP). As both disorders may occur within the same family, the relationship between Gs alpha genotype and phenotype remains unresolved. The AHO phenotype may be dependent upon the sex of the parent transmitting the Gs alpha mutation, perhaps through a gene imprinting mechanism. We have used an intragenic Gs alpha FokI polymorphism to determine the parental origin of Gs alpha gene mutations in sporadic and familial AHO. We now show that a de novo G-->A substitution at the exon 5 donor splice junction in a child with PPHP was paternally derived. Furthermore, in a female with PPHP, the Gs alpha abnormality was shown to be of paternal origin, while subsequent maternal processing and transmission resulted in PHPIa in two offspring. As transmission of PPHP has rarely been reported, determining parental origin of the disease allele in sporadic cases may provide insight into the mechanism of hormone resistance in AHO. Images PMID:7853365

  6. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-01-01

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally. PMID:11988093

  7. Karyopherin alpha2: a control step of glucose-sensitive gene expression in hepatic cells.

    PubMed

    Guillemain, Ghislaine; Muñoz-Alonso, Maria J; Cassany, Aurélia; Loizeau, Martine; Faussat, Anne-Marie; Burnol, Anne-Françoise; Leturque, Armelle

    2002-05-15

    Glucose is required for an efficient expression of the glucose transporter GLUT2 and other genes. We have shown previously that the intracytoplasmic loop of GLUT2 can divert a signal, resulting in the stimulation of glucose-sensitive gene transcription. In the present study, by interaction with the GLUT2 loop, we have cloned the rat karyopherin alpha2, a receptor involved in nuclear import. The specificity of the binding was restricted to GLUT2, and not GLUT1 or GLUT4, and to karyopherin alpha2, not alpha1. When rendered irreversible by a cross-linking agent, this transitory interaction was detected in vivo in hepatocytes. A role for karyopherin alpha2 in the transcription of two glucose-sensitive genes was investigated by transfection of native and inactive green fluorescent protein-karyopherin alpha2 in GLUT2-expressing hepatoma cells. The amount of inactive karyopherin alpha2 receptor reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA levels by competition with endogenous active receptor. In contrast, the overexpression of karyopherin alpha2 did not significantly stimulate GLUT2 and liver pyruvate kinase mRNA accumulation in green fluorescent protein-sorted cells. The present study suggests that, in concert with glucose metabolism, karyopherin alpha2 transmits a signal to the nucleus to regulate glucose-sensitive gene expression. The transitory tethering of karyopherin alpha2 to GLUT2 at the plasma membrane might indicate that the receptor can load the cargo to be imported locally.

  8. Analysis of the human [alpha]-globin gene cluster in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, J.A.; Vyas, P.; Higgs, D.R.; Wood, W.G. ); Wells, D.J. ); Whitelaw, E. )

    1993-11-15

    A 350-bp segment of DNA associated with an erythroid-specific DNase I-hypersensitive site (HS -40), upstream of the [alpha]-globin gene cluster, has been identified as the major tissue-specific regulator of the [alpha]-globin genes. However, this element does not direct copy number-dependent or developmentally stable expression of the human genes in transgenic mice. To determine whether additional upstream hypersensitive sites could provide more complete regulation of [alpha] gene expression, the authors have studied 17 lines of transgenic mice bearing various DNA fragments containing HSs -33, -10, -8, and -4, in addition to HS -40. Position-independent, high-level expression of the human [zeta]- and [alpha]-globin genes was consistently observed in embryonic erythroid cells. However, the additional HSs did not confer copy-number dependence, alter the level of expression, or prevent the variable down-regulation of expression in adults. These results suggest that the region upstream of the human [alpha]-globin genes is not equivalent to that upstream of the [beta] locus and that although the two clusters are coordinately expressed, there may be differences in their regulation.

  9. Recombinant AAV-PR39-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor 1α gene expression attenuates myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lijun; Hao, Yuewen; Nie, Xiaowei; Xu, Jian; Li, Zhenwu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xuexin

    2014-01-01

    PR39 is an angiogenic masterswitch protein, belonging to the second generation of angiogenic growth factors. However, the role of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) carrying the PR39 fusion gene (AAV-PR39) in acute myocardial infarction remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the role of AAV-PR39 in an experimental animal model of acute myocardial infarction. The PR39 gene was fused with the transmembrane peptide, TAT, 6xHis‑tag and NT4 signal sequences. AAV-PR39 was then obtained by calcium phosphate co-precipitation. A total of 18 healthy Chinese mini pigs were randomly divided into an experimental groups (the AAV-PR39-treated group) and a control group [phosphated-buffered saline (PBS)-treated group]. Following the induction of myocardial infarction, enhanced 3.0T MR imaging was performed to observe the changes in myocardial signal intensity at 0 h, 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor‑1α (HIF-1α) in the myocardial tissues was determined by SABC immunohistochemistry. In addition, in vitro experiments using CRL-1730 endothelial cells transfected with AAV vector containing NT4-TAT-His-PR39 revealed that the AAV-PR39-treated group had a significantly higher expression of HIF-1α compared with the control group. Moreover, PR39 regulated the HIF-1α-induced expression of angiogenic growth factors. Under hypoxic conditions, the anti-apoptotic effects in the AAV-PR39 group were more pronounced than those observed in the control (PBS-treated) group. In vivo, the enforced expression of recombinant PR39 elevated the level of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions and decreased the size of the infarcted areas by upregulating the expression of HIF-1α in the areas surrounding the infarct area. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the recombinant AAV-PR39-mediated HIF-1α expression attenuates myocardial infarction, indicating that AAV-PR39 may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  10. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the translation elongation factor 1α gene correlates with the ability to produce fumonisin in Japanese Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Suga, Haruhisa; Kitajima, Miha; Nagumo, Riku; Tsukiboshi, Takao; Uegaki, Ryuichi; Nakajima, Takashi; Kushiro, Masayo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Shimizu, Masafumi; Kageyama, Koji; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2014-04-01

    PCR-RFLP based on the translation elongation factor 1α (TEF) gene was developed to identify Fusarium fujikuroi in the Fusarium (Gibberella) fujikuroi species complex. Ninety-three strains, most of which were obtained from various sources in Japan, were identified as F. fujikuroi and their capability to produce fumonisin was investigated using an in vitro assay. Fumonisin production was detected in 50 strains isolated from maize, strawberry, wheat, and rice, whereas it was undetectable in 43 strains derived from rice seeds and rice seedlings carrying the bakanae disease, and from unknown sources. A single nucleotide polymorphism in the TEF gene (T618G) correlated with the ability to synthesize fumonisin. Copyright © 2014 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. RRR-alpha-tocopherol regulation of gene transcription in response to the cell oxidant status.

    PubMed

    Azzi, A; Boscoboinik, D; Fazzio, A; Marilley, D; Maroni, P; Ozer, N K; Spycher, S; Tasinato, A

    1998-01-01

    RRR-alpha-Tocopherol, but not RRR-beta-tocopherol, negative regulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells at physiological concentrations. At the same concentrations RRR-alpha-tocopherol inhibits protein kinase C activity, whereas RRR-beta-tocopherol is ineffective. Furthermore, RRR-beta-tocopherol prevents the inhibition of cell growth and of protein kinase C activity caused by RRR-alpha-tocopherol. The negative regulation by RRR-alpha-tocopherol of protein kinase C activity appears to be the cause of smooth muscle cell growth inhibition. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol does not act by binding to protein kinase C directly but presumably by preventing protein kinase C activation. A second RRR-alpha-tocopherol effect has been found at the level of AP 1, the latter becoming activated by RRR-alpha-tocopherol under condition of protein kinase C inhibition or down regulation. AP-1 inhibition by RRR-alpha-tocopherol is seen, however, under condition of protein kinase C stimulation. Compositional changes of AP-1 have been found to be at the basis of the RRR-alpha-tocopherol effects. RRR-beta-tocopherol, provided with similar antioxidant properties, not only it does not affect AP 1 but it prevents the effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Moreover, it has been observed that RRR-alpha-tocopherol is able to affect TRE regulated gene transcription. It is concluded that RRR-alpha-tocopherol acts specifically in vascular smooth muscle cells, by controlling a signal transduction pathway leading to cell proliferation by a non-antioxidant mechanism.

  12. Localization of the {alpha}7 integrin gene (ITGA7) on human chromosome 12q13: Clustering of integrin and Hox genes implies parallel evolution of these gene families

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Wu, W.; Kaufman, S.J.

    1995-04-10

    Expression of the {alpha}7 integrin gene (ITGA7) is developmentally regulated during the formation of skeletal muscle. Increased levels of expression and production of isoforms containing different cytoplasmic and extracellular domains accompany myogenesis. To determine whether a single or multiple {alpha}7 gene(s) underlie the structural diversity in this alpha chain that accompanies development, we have examined the rat and human genomes by Southern blotting and in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrate that there is only one {alpha}7 gene in both the rat and the human genomes. In the human, ITGA7 is present on chromosome 12q13. Phylogenetic analysis of the integrin alpha chain sequences suggests that the early integrin genes evolved in two pathways to form the I-integrins and the non-I-integrins. The I-integrin alpha chains contain an additional sequence of approximately 180 amino acids and arose as a result of an early insertion into the non-I-gene. The I-chain subfamily further evolved by duplications within the same chromosome. The non-I-integrin alpha chain genes are localized in clusters on chromosomes 2, 12, and 17, and this closely coincides with the localization of the human homeobox gene clusters. Non-I-integrin alpha chain genes appear to have evolved in parallel and in proximity to the Hox clusters. Thus, the Hox genes that underlie the design of body structure and the Integrin genes that underlie informed cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions appear to have evolved in parallel and coordinate fashions. 52 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Exercise promotes alpha7 integrin gene transcription and protection of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boppart, Marni D; Volker, Sonja E; Alexander, Nicole; Burkin, Dean J; Kaufman, Stephen J

    2008-11-01

    The alpha7beta1 integrin is increased in skeletal muscle in response to injury-producing exercise, and transgenic overexpression of this integrin in mice protects against exercise-induced muscle damage. The present study investigates whether the increase in the alpha7beta1 integrin observed in wild-type mice in response to exercise is due to transcriptional regulation and examines whether mobilization of the integrin at the myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a key determinant in its protection against damage. A single bout of downhill running exercise selectively increased transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene in 5-wk-old wild-type mice 3 h postexercise, and an increased alpha7 chain was detected in muscle sarcolemma adjacent to tendinous tissue immediately following exercise. The alpha7B, but not alpha7A isoform, was found concentrated and colocalized with tenascin-C in muscle fibers lining the MTJ. To further validate the importance of the integrin in the protection against muscle damage following exercise, muscle injury was quantified in alpha7(-/-) mice. Muscle damage was extensive in alpha7(-/-) mice in response to both a single and repeated bouts of exercise and was largely restricted to areas of high MTJ concentration and high mechanical force near the Achilles tendon. These results suggest that exercise-induced muscle injury selectively increases transcription of the alpha7 integrin gene and promotes a rapid change in the alpha7beta integrin at the MTJ. These combined molecular and cellular alterations are likely responsible for integrin-mediated attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  14. Light controls phospholipase A2alpha and beta gene expression in Citrus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hui-Ling; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2010-05-01

    The low-molecular weight secretory phospholipase A2alpha (CssPLA2alpha) and beta (CsPLA2beta) cloned in this study exhibited diurnal rhythmicity in leaf tissue of Citrus sinensis. Only CssPLA2alpha displayed distinct diurnal patterns in fruit tissues. CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta diurnal expression exhibited periods of approximately 24 h; CssPLA2alpha amplitude averaged 990-fold in the leaf blades from field-grown trees, whereas CsPLA2beta amplitude averaged 6.4-fold. Diurnal oscillation of CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta gene expression in the growth chamber experiments was markedly dampened 24 h after transfer to continuous light or dark conditions. CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta expressions were redundantly mediated by blue, green, red and red/far-red light, but blue light was a major factor affecting CssPLA2alpha and CsPLA2beta expression. Total and low molecular weight CsPLA2 enzyme activity closely followed diurnal changes in CssPLA2alpha transcript expression in leaf blades of seedlings treated with low intensity blue light (24 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Compared with CssPLA2alpha basal expression, CsPLA2beta expression was at least 10-fold higher. Diurnal fluctuation and light regulation of PLA2 gene expression and enzyme activity in citrus leaf and fruit tissues suggests that accompanying diurnal changes in lipophilic second messengers participate in the regulation of physiological processes associated with phospholipase A2 action.

  15. Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene influences the risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brune, S; Kölsch, H; Ptok, U; Majores, M; Schulz, A; Schlosser, R; Rao, M L; Maier, W; Heun, R

    2003-09-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a member of the steroid hormone super family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We screened for polymorphisms in the PPAR-alpha gene and detected two known polymorphisms located in exon 5 and intron 7. These polymorphisms were investigated for their possible association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for their effect in carriers of an insulin gene (INS) polymorphism. The PPAR-alpha C --> G polymorphism in exon 5 (L162V) was associated with AD, in that the V-allele was more frequent in AD patients than in healthy subjects. Further data analysis revealed that carriers of an PPAR-alpha L162V V-allele and an INS-1 allele presented with an increased risk for AD. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta levels were influenced by PPAR-alpha L162V genotype. These results suggest, that PPAR-alpha polymorphism may be a risk factor for AD.

  16. [Cloning and structure of gene encoded alpha-latrocrustoxin from the Black widow spider venom].

    PubMed

    Danilevich, V N; Luk'ianov, S A; Grishin, E V

    1999-07-01

    The primary structure of the crusta gene encoding alpha-latrocrustoxin (alpha-LCT), a high molecular mass neurotoxin specific to crustaceans, was determined in the black widow spider Latrodectus mactans tredicimguttatus genome. The total length of the sequenced DNA was 4693 bp. The structural part of the black widow spider chromosome gene encoding alpha-LCT does not contain introns. The sequenced DNA contains a single extended open reading frame (4185 bp) and encodes a protein precursor of alpha-LCT, comprising 1395 aa. We assume the Met residue at position -10 relative to the N-terminal residue of Glu1 of the mature toxin to be the first one in the protein precursor. The calculated molecular mass of the precursor (156147 Da) exceeds that of the mature toxin by approximately 30 kDa. These data are in agreement with the notion that over the course of maturation the protein precursor undergoes double processing--cleavage of a decapeptide from the N-terminal part and of a approximately 200-aa fragment from the C-terminal part. alpha-LCT displayed a number of imperfect ankyrin-like repeats and areas of structural homology with earlier studied latrotoxins; the highest homology degree (62%) was revealed with alpha-latroinsectotoxin (alpha-LIT).

  17. Identification of a gonad-expression differential gene insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) in the swamp eel (Monopterus albus).

    PubMed

    Mei, Jie; Yan, Wei; Fang, Jie; Yuan, Gailing; Chen, Nan; He, Yan

    2014-08-01

    In vertebrate species, the biopotential embryonic gonad differentiation is affected by many key genes and key steroidogenic enzymes. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (Igf1r) has been considered as an important sex-differentiation gene in mammals and could mediate the biological action of Igf1, an important regulator of key steroidogenic enzymes. However, Igf1r gene is still unknown in the swamp eel, an economically important fish. In our study, we identified Igf1r gene in the swamp eel, which was a 2,148-bp open-reading frame encoding a protein of 716 amino acids. The alignment and the phylogenetic tree showed that Igf1r of the swamp eel had a conservative sequence with other vertebrates, especial fishes. Western blotting of Igf1r showed that Igf1r expressed much more in ovotestis and testis than in ovary, indicating an important role of Igf1r during gonad differentiation. We analyzed ubiquitination of Igf1r by co-immunoprecipitation and found the amount of ubiquitinated Igf1r was increased from ovary, ovotestis to testis, which was reversely to the trend of Hsp10 expression during gonadal transformation. It was possible that Hsp10 could suppress Igf1r ubiquitination during gonadal development of the swamp eel.

  18. Cloning of the gene encoding a novel thermostable alpha-galactosidase from Thermus brockianus ITI360.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, O; Watzlawick, H; Gehweiler, A; Rohrhirsch, T; Mattes, R

    1999-09-01

    An alpha-galactosidase gene from Thermus brockianus ITI360 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified. The gene, designated agaT, codes for a 476-residue polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 53, 810 Da. The native structure of the recombinant enzyme (AgaT) was estimated to be a tetramer. AgaT displays amino acid sequence similarity to the alpha-galactosidases of Thermotoga neapolitana and Thermotoga maritima and a low-level sequence similarity to alpha-galactosidases of family 36 in the classification of glycosyl hydrolases. The enzyme is thermostable, with a temperature optimum of activity at 93 degrees C with para-nitrophenyl-alpha-galactopyranoside as a substrate. Half-lives of inactivation at 92 and 80 degrees C are 100 min and 17 h, respectively. The pH optimum is between 5.5 and 6.5. The enzyme displayed high affinity for oligomeric substrates. The K(m)s for melibiose and raffinose at 80 degrees C were determined as 4.1 and 11.0 mM, respectively. The alpha-galactosidase gene in T. brockianus ITI360 was inactivated by integrational mutagenesis. Consequently, no alpha-galactosidase activity was detectable in crude extracts of the mutant strain, and it was unable to use melibiose or raffinose as a single carbohydrate source.

  19. Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} is essential for the expression of antioxidant protection genes and mitochondrial function

    SciTech Connect

    Rangwala, Shamina M. . E-mail: shamina.rangwala@novartis.com; Li, Xiaoyan; Lindsley, Loren; Wang, Xiaomei; Shaughnessy, Stacey; Daniels, Thomas G.; Szustakowski, Joseph; Nirmala, N.R.; Wu, Zhidan; Stevenson, Susan C.

    2007-05-25

    Estrogen-related receptor {alpha} (ERR{alpha}) is an important mediator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function. To investigate the transcriptional network controlling these phenomena, we investigated mitochondrial gene expression in embryonic fibroblasts isolated from ERR{alpha} null mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) stimulated mitochondrial gene expression program in control cells, but not in the ERR{alpha} null cells. Interestingly, the induction of levels of mitochondrial oxidative stress protection genes in response to increased PGC-1{alpha} levels was dependent on ERR{alpha}. Furthermore, we found that the PGC-1{alpha}-mediated induction of estrogen-related receptor {gamma} and nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2), was dependent on the presence of ERR{alpha}. Basal levels of NRF-2 were decreased in the absence of ERR{alpha}. The absence of ERR{alpha} resulted in a decrease in citrate synthase enzyme activity in response to PGC-1{alpha} overexpression. Our results indicate an essential role for ERR{alpha} as a key regulator of oxidative metabolism.

  20. PCR amplification and typing of the HLA DQ alpha gene in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Comey, C T; Budowle, B; Adams, D E; Baumstark, A L; Lindsey, J A; Presley, L A

    1993-03-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to amplify the HLA DQ alpha gene using DNA recovered from evidentiary samples. Amplified HLA DQ alpha DNA was then typed using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes. Slight modifications of previously published DNA extraction methods improved typing success of bloodstains and semen-containing material. Evidentiary samples, consisting of 206 known bloodstains, 26 questioned bloodstains, and 123 questioned semen-containing evidentiary materials were analyzed from 96 cases previously analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing in the FBI Laboratory. Of the known bloodstains, 98.5% yielded DQ alpha typing results. Of the questioned samples, 102 of 149 (24/26 bloodstains and 78/123 semen-containing materials), or 68%, produced typing results. Of the 78 cases that were RFLP inclusions, 59 yielded interpretable DQ alpha results and these were all inclusions. The remaining 19 cases could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. Of the 18 RFLP exclusions, eleven were DQ alpha exclusions, four were DQ alpha inclusions, and three could not be interpreted for DQ alpha. It is expected that because of the difference in discrimination potential of the two methods, some RFLP exclusions would be DQ alpha inclusions. Some samples that failed to produce typing results may have had insufficient DNA for analysis. Employment of a human DNA quantification method in DQ alpha casework would allow the user to more consistently use sufficient quantities of DNA for amplification. It also could provide a guide for determining if an inhibitor of PCR is present, thus suggesting the use of a procedure to improve amplification. This study provides support that the HLA DQ alpha typing procedure is valid for typing forensic samples.

  1. Chicken alpha-globin switching depends on autonomous silencing of the embryonic pi globin gene by epigenetics mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rincón-Arano, Héctor; Guerrero, Georgina; Valdes-Quezada, Christian; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2009-10-15

    Switching in hemoglobin gene expression is an informative paradigm for studying transcriptional regulation. Here we determined the patterns of chicken alpha-globin gene expression during development and erythroid differentiation. Previously published data suggested that the promoter regions of alpha-globin genes contain the complete information for proper developmental regulation. However, our data show a preferential trans-activation of the embryonic alpha-globin gene independent of the developmental or differentiation stage. We also found that DNA methylation and histone deacetylation play key roles in silencing the expression of the embryonic pi gene in definitive erythrocytes. However, drug-mediated reactivation of the embryonic gene during definitive erythropoiesis dramatically impaired the expression of the adult genes, suggesting gene competition or interference for enhancer elements. Our results also support a model in which the lack of open chromatin marks and localized recruitment of chicken MeCP2 contribute to autonomous gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in a developmentally specific manner. We propose that epigenetic mechanisms are necessary for in vivo chicken alpha-globin gene switching through differential gene silencing of the embryonic alpha-globin gene in order to allow proper activation of adult alpha-globin genes.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of calorie restriction on gene expression, metabolism, and tumor progression are partially mediated by insulin-like growth factor-1.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Leticia M; Lavigne, Jackie A; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Lui, Huaitian; Barrett, J Carl; Hursting, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an established risk and progression factor for breast and many other cancer types, remains very high in the United States and throughout the world. Calorie restriction (CR), a reduced-calorie dietary regimen typically involving a 20-40% reduction in calorie consumption, prevents or reverses obesity, and inhibits mammary and other types of cancer in multiple tumor model systems. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying the tumor inhibitory effects of CR are poorly understood, and a better understanding of these mechanisms may lead to new intervention targets and strategies for preventing or controlling cancer. We have previously shown that the anticancer effects of CR are associated with decreased systemic levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), the primary source of which is liver. We have also reported that CR strongly suppresses tumor development and growth in multiple mammary cancer models. To identify CR-responsive genes and pathways, and to further characterize the role of IGF-1 as a mediator of the anticancer effects of CR, we assessed hepatic and mammary gland gene expression, hormone levels and growth of orthotopically transplanted mammary tumors in control and CR mice with and without exogenous IGF-1. C57BL/6 mice were fed either control AIN-76A diet ad libitum (AL), subjected to 20%, 30%, or 40% CR plus placebo timed-release pellets, or subjected to 30% or 40% CR plus timed-release pellets delivering murine IGF-1 (mIGF-1, 20 μg/day). Compared with AL-fed controls, body weights were decreased 14.3% in the 20% CR group, 18.5% in the 30% CR group, and 38% in the 40% CR group; IGF-1 infusion had no effect on body weight. Hepatic transcriptome analyses indicated that compared with 20% CR, 30% CR significantly modulated more than twice the number of genes and 40% CR more than seven times the number of genes. Many of the genes specific to the 40% CR regimen were hepatic stress-related and/or DNA damage-related genes. Exogenous

  3. Gene structure of murine Gna11 and Gna15: tandemly duplicated Gq class G protein alpha subunit genes.

    PubMed

    Davignon, I; Barnard, M; Gavrilova, O; Sweet, K; Wilkie, T M

    1996-02-01

    G protein alpha subunits are encoded by a multigene family of 16 genes that can be grouped into four classes, Gq, Gs, Gi, and G12. The Gq class is composed of four genes in mouse and human, and two of these genes, Gna11 and Gna15, cosegregate on mouse chromosome 10. We have characterized the gene structures of murine Gna11 and Gna15. The two genes are tandemly duplicated in a head-to-tail array. The upstream gene, Gna11, is ubiquitously expressed, whereas expression of the downstream gene, Gna15, is restricted to hematopoietic cells. The coding sequence of each gene is contained within seven exons, and the two genes together span 43 kb, separated by 6 kb of intergenic region. We have found no evidence for alternative splicing within the coding sequence of either gene. Sequence alignments show that the positions of the six intervening sequences are conserved in the two genes, consistent with Gna11 and Gna15 arising by tandem duplication from a common progenitor gene in vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees reveal unequal evolutionary rates among alpha subunits of the Gq class. The rate of change is approximately six fold higher in Gna15 than in Gna11.

  4. Gene structure of murine Gna11 and Gna15: Tandemly duplicated Gq class G protein {alpha} subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Davignon, I.; Barnard, M.; Sweet, K.

    1996-02-01

    G protein {alpha} subunits are encoded by a multigene family of 16 genes that can be grouped into four classes, Gq, Gs, Gi, and G12. The Gq class is composed of four genes in mouse and human, and two of these genes, Gna11 and Gna15, cosegregate on mouse chromosome 10. We have characterized the gene structures of murine Gna11 and Gna15. The two genes are tandemly duplicated in a head-to-tail array. The upstream gene, Gna11, is ubiquitously expressed, whereas expression of the downstream gene, Gna15, is restricted to hematopoietic cells. The coding sequence of each gene is contained within seven exons, and the two genes together span 43 kb, separated by 6 kb of intergenic region. We have found no evidence for alternative splicing within the coding sequence of either gene. Sequence alignments show that the positions of the six intervening sequences are conserved in the two genes, consistent with Gna11 and Gna15 arising by tandem duplication from a common progenitor gene in vertebrates. Phylogenetic trees reveal unequal evolutionary rates among {alpha} subunits of the Gq class. The rate of change is approximately six fold higher in Gna15 than in Gna11. 43 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Transcriptional regulation of rat alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene by phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Fournier, T; Mejdoubi, N; Lapoumeroulie, C; Hamelin, J; Elion, J; Durand, G; Porquet, D

    1994-11-04

    Phenobarbital induces gene transcription of both cytochrome P450IIB (the barbiturate-inducible cytochrome P450 in mammals) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, one of the major acute-phase proteins in rats and humans. Analysis of the 5'-regulatory sequences of cytochrome P450IIB and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein genes in rats revealed the presence of a consensus sequence of 10 base pairs, termed the phenobarbital-responsive element or Barbie box, located in a region extending from positions -136 to -127 from the transcription start site of the alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene. A 17-base pair oligonucleotide probe specific for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and including the consensus sequence showed, in mobility shift assays, slight binding to liver nuclear protein from untreated animals. This binding was strongly and specifically increased with protein extracts from phenobarbital-treated rats. Transfection of rat primary hepatocytes with the pAGPcat construct induced basal expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity, which was increased by phenobarbital and dexamethasone treatment of cells. Induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity by phenobarbital was abolished when hepatocytes were transfected by constructs with a mutation or deletion of the Barbie box sequence. These results strongly suggest that the Barbie box sequence is involved in alpha 1-acid glycoprotein gene regulation by phenobarbital.

  6. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes in sea urchins.

    PubMed Central

    Alexandraki, D; Ruderman, J V

    1981-01-01

    We analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the alpha and beta tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. alpha- and beta-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The alpha cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of alpha tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The beta cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100-C terminal amino acids of beta tubulin and 83 pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous alpha- and beta-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of alpha-tubulin genes with beta-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered. Images PMID:6287219

  7. Sequence heterogeneity, multiplicity, and genomic organization of. cap alpha. - and. beta. -tubulin genes in Sea Urchins

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandraki, D.; Ruderman, J.V.

    1981-12-01

    The authors analyzed the multiplicity, heterogeneity, and organization of the genes encoding the ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. tubulins in the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus by using cloned complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and genomic tubulin sequences. cDNA clones were constructed by using immature spermatogenic testis polyadenylic acid-containing ribonucleic acid as a template. ..cap alpha.. and ..beta..-tubulin clones were identified by hybrid selection and in vitro translation of the corresponding messenger ribonucleic acids, followed by immunoprecipitation and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the translation products. The ..cap alpha.. cDNA clone contains a sequence that encodes the 48 C-terminal amino acids of ..cap alpha.. tubulin and 104 base pairs of the 3' nontranslated portion of the messenger ribonucleic acid. The ..beta.. cDNA insertion contains the coding sequence for the 100 C-terminal amino acids of ..beta.. tubulin and 83 base pairs of the 3' noncoding sequence. Hybrid selections performed at different criteria demonstrated the presence of several heterogeneous, closely related tubulin messenger ribonucleic acids, suggesting the existence of heterogeneous ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-tubulin genes. Hybridization analyses indicated that there are at least 9 to 13 sequences for each of the two tubulin gene families per haploid genome. Hybridization of the cDNA probes to both total genomic DNA and cloned germline DNA fragments gave no evidence for close physical linkage of ..cap alpha..-tubulin genes with ..beta..-tubulin genes at the DNA level. In contrast, these experiments indicated that some genes within the same family are clustered.

  8. TNF-alpha gene polymorphisms in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Badenhoop, K; Schwarz, G; Trowsdale, J; Lewis, V; Usadel, K H; Gale, E A; Bottazzo, G F

    1989-07-01

    Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, like some other autoimmune diseases, is linked to certain alleles coded by genes in the HLA-D region. Sequence analysis of DQ beta chains indicates that aspartic acid at codon 57 confers resistance to the development of Type 1 diabetes. However, a full explanation for the HLA-association of Type 1 diabetes, particularly the increased susceptibility of DR3/4 heterozygotes is still awaited. The localisation of tumour necrosis factor genes on the short arm of chromosome 6 between HLA-B and the complement genes (Class III) prompted us to investigate a possible polymorphism of TNF-alpha at the genomic level in relation to Type 1 diabetes susceptibility. A dialleleic TNF-alpha restriction fragment length polymorphism was found with Ncol and its segregation with HLA-haplotypes analysed in diabetic families. We describe here a strong linkage of TNF-alpha alleles with certain DR haplotypes. For example, the common extended haplotype HLA A1-B8-DR3 was almost exclusively associated with the 5.5 kb TNF-alpha allele whereas Bw62-DR4 with the 10.5 kb allele. Thus both alleles segregate to diabetic patients. DR matched haplotypes of affected family members differed significantly from those of the non-affected at the TNF alpha locus. All affected sibling pairs in 11 multiplex affected families were identical for TNF-alpha alleles, even if they were only haploidentical for HLA-B-DR haplotypes. In addition, heterozygosity for the TNF-alpha alleles was significantly more frequent in the patients. This tight linkage of TNF-alpha alleles with some extended haplotypes could help to explain the HLA-association of Type 1 diabetes as well as some other autoimmune diseases.

  9. Heterologous expression of the cloned guinea pig alpha 2A, alpha 2B, and alpha 2C adrenoceptor subtypes. Radioligand binding and functional coupling to a CAMP-responsive reporter gene.

    PubMed

    Svensson, S P; Bailey, T J; Porter, A C; Richman, J G; Regan, J W

    1996-02-09

    Functional studies have shown that 6-chloro-9-[(3-methyl-2-butenyl)oxy]-3-methyl-1H-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3- benzazepine (SKF 104078) has very low affinity for prejunctional alpha 2-adrenoceptors (alpha 2-AR) in the guinea pig atrium. In this study, we have cloned guinea pig homologues of the human alpha 2-C10, alpha 2-C4 AR subtypes and have studied them in isolation by heterologous expression in cultured mammalian cells. Oligonucleotide primers, designed from conserved areas of the human alpha 2-ARs were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with template cDNA synthesized from guinea pig atrial mRNA. Three PCR products were obtained that shared identity with the three human alpha 2-AR subtypes. A guinea pig (gp) genomic library was screened with a cDNA clone encoding a portion of the gp-alpha 2A, and genes containing the complete coding sequences of the guinea pig alpha 2A, alpha 2B, and alpha 2C AR subtypes were obtained. These guinea pig genes were subcloned into a eukaryotic expression plasmid and were expressed transiently in COS-7 cells. The binding of the alpha 2-selective antagonist [3H]MK-912 to membranes prepared from these cells was specific and of high affinity with Kd values of 810 pM for gp-alpha 2A, 2700 pM for gp-alpha 2B and 110 pM for gp-alpha 2C. Competition for the binding of [3H]MK-912 by SKF 104078 indicated that it was of moderately high affinity (approximately 100 nM) but that it was not selective for any of the guinea pig alpha 2-AR subtypes. Co-expression of guinea pig alpha 2-AR subtypes with a cyclicAMP-responsive chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene resulted in agonist-dependent modulation of CAT activity. For the gp-alpha 2 A, a biphasic response was obtained with low concentrations of noradrenaline (NE) decreasing forskolin-stimulated CAT activity and high concentrations causing a reversal. For the gp-alpha 2B, NE produced mostly potentiation of forskolin-stimulated activity, and for the gp-alpha 2C, NE caused

  10. A binding site for the transcription factor Grainyhead/Nuclear transcription factor-1 contributes to regulation of the Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Y; Yamagishi, M; Nishimoto, Y; Taguchi, O; Matsukage, A; Yamaguchi, M

    1999-12-03

    The Drosophila proliferating cell nuclear antigen promoter contains multiple transcriptional regulatory elements, including upstream regulatory element (URE), DNA replication-related element, E2F recognition sites, and three common regulatory factor for DNA replication and DNA replication-related element-binding factor genes recognition sites. In nuclear extracts of Drosophila embryos, we detected a protein factor, the URE-binding factor (UREF), that recognizes the nucleotide sequence 5'-AAACCAGTTGGCA located within URE. Analyses in Drosophila Kc cells and transgenic flies revealed that the UREF-binding site plays an important role in promoter activity both in cultured cells and in living flies. A yeast one-hybrid screen using URE as a bait allowed isolation of a cDNA encoding a transcription factor, Grainyhead/nuclear transcription factor-1 (GRH/NTF-1). The nucleotide sequence required for binding to GRH was indistinguishable from that for UREF detected in embryo nuclear extracts. Furthermore, a specific antibody to GRH reacted with UREF in embryo nuclear extracts. From these results we conclude that GRH is identical to UREF. Although GRH has been thought to be involved in regulation of differentiation-related genes, this study demonstrates, for the first time, involvement of a GRH-binding site in regulation of the DNA replication-related proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene.

  11. Candidate genes associated with testicular development, sperm quality, and hormone levels of inhibin, luteinizing hormone, and insulin-like growth factor 1 in Brahman bulls.

    PubMed

    Fortes, Marina R S; Reverter, Antonio; Hawken, Rachel J; Bolormaa, Sunduimijid; Lehnert, Sigrid A

    2012-09-01

    Bull fertility is an important target for genetic improvement, and early prediction using genetic markers is therefore a goal for livestock breeding. We performed genome-wide association studies to identify genes associated with fertility traits measured in young bulls. Data from 1118 Brahman bulls were collected for six traits: blood hormone levels of inhibin (IN) at 4 mo, luteinizing hormone (LH) following a gonadotropin-releasing hormone challenge at 4 mo, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) at 6 mo, scrotal circumference (SC) at 12 mo, ability to produce sperm (Sperm) at 18 mo, and percentage of normal sperm (PNS) at 24 mo. All the bulls were genotyped with the BovineSNP50 chip. Sires and dams of the bull population (n = 304) were genotyped with the high-density chip (∼800 000 polymorphisms) to allow for imputation, thereby contributing detail on genome regions of interest. Polymorphism associations were discovered for all traits, except for Sperm. Chromosome 2 harbored polymorphisms associated with IN. For LH, associated polymorphisms were located in five different chromosomes. A region of chromosome 14 contained polymorphisms associated with IGF1 and SC. Regions of the X chromosome showed associations with SC and PNS. Associated polymorphisms yielded candidate genes in chromosomes 2, 14, and X. These findings will contribute to the development of genetic markers to help select cattle with improved fertility and will lead to better annotation of gene function in the context of reproductive biology.

  12. Replication of Early B-cell Factor 1 (EBF1) Gene-by-psychosocial Stress Interaction Effects on Central Adiposity in a Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Central obesity plays a major role in the development of many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Chronic stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of central obesity. Although several large-scale genome-wide association studies have reported susceptibility genes for central adiposity, the effects of interactions between genes and psychosocial stress on central adiposity have rarely been examined. A recent study focusing on Caucasians discovered the novel gene early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), which was associated with central obesity-related traits via interactions with stress levels. We aimed to evaluate EBF1 gene-by-stress interaction effects on central adiposity traits, including visceral adipose tissue (VAT), in Korean adults. Methods A total of 1467 Korean adults were included in this study. We selected 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EBF1 gene and analyzed their interactions with stress on central adiposity using additive, dominant, and recessive genetic modeling. Results The four SNPs that had strong linkage disequilibrium relationships (rs10061900, rs10070743, rs4704967, and rs10056564) demonstrated significant interactions with the waist-hip ratio in the dominant model (pint<0.007). In addition, two other SNPs (rs6556377 and rs13180086) were associated with VAT by interactions with stress levels, especially in the recessive genetic model (pint<0.007). As stress levels increased, the mean values of central adiposity traits according to SNP genotypes exhibited gradual but significant changes (p<0.05). Conclusions These results suggest that the common genetic variants for EBF1 are associated with central adiposity through interactions with stress levels, emphasizing the importance of managing stress in the prevention of central obesity. PMID:27744667

  13. Total alpha-globin gene cluster deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.A.; Haruyama, A.Z.; Chu, B.M.

    1994-09-01

    Most {alpha}-thalassemias [Thal] are due to large deletions. In Southeast Asians, the (--{sup SEA}) double {alpha}-globin gene deletion is common, 3 (--{sup Tot}) total {alpha}-globin cluster deletions are known: Filipino (--{sup Fil}), Thai (--{sup Thai}), and Chinese (--{sup Chin}). In a Hawaii Thal project, provisional diagnosis of {alpha}-Thal-1 heterozygotes was based on microcytosis, normal isoelectric focusing, and no iron deficiency. One in 10 unselected Filipinos was an {alpha}-Thal-1 heterozygote, 2/3 of these had a (--{sup Tot}) deletion: a {var_sigma}-cDNA probe consistently showed fainter intensity of the constant 5.5 kb {var_sigma}{sub 2} BamHI band, with no heterzygosity for {var_sigma}-globin region polymorphisms; {alpha}-cDNA or {var_sigma}-cDNA probes showed no BamHI or BglII bands diagnostic of the (--{sup SEA}) deletion; bands for the (-{alpha}) {alpha}-Thal-2 single {alpha}-globin deletions were only seen in Hb H cases. A reliable monoclonal anti-{var_sigma}-peptide antibody test for the (--{sup SEA}) deletion was always negative in (--{sup Tot}) samples. Southern digests with the Lo probe, a gift from D. Higgs of Oxford Univ., confirmed that 49 of 50 (--{sup Tot}) chromosomes in Filipinos were (--{sup Fil}). Of 20 {alpha}-Thal-1 hydrops born to Filipinos, 11 were (--{sup Fil}/--{sup SEA}) compound heterozygotes; 9 were (--{sup SEA}/--{sup SEA}) homozygotes, but none was a (--{sup Fil}/--{sup Fil}).

  14. The phylogenetic and evolutionary history of a novel alpha-globin-type gene in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Steiper, Michael E; Wolfe, Nathan D; Karesh, William B; Kilbourn, Annelisa M; Bosi, Edwin J; Ruvolo, Maryellen

    2006-07-01

    The alpha-globin genes are implicated in human resistance to malaria, a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites. This study is the first to analyze DNA sequences from a novel alpha-globin-type gene in orangutans, a species affected by Plasmodium. Phylogenetic methods show that the gene is a duplication of an alpha-globin gene and is located 5' of alpha-2 globin. The alpha-globin-type gene is notable for having four amino acid replacements relative to the orangutan's alpha-1 and alpha-2 globin genes, with no synonymous differences. Pairwise K(a)/K(s) methods and likelihood ratio tests (LRTs) revealed that the evolutionary history of the alpha-globin-type gene has been marked by either neutral or positive evolution, but not purifying selection. A comparative analysis of the amino acid replacements of the alpha-globin-type gene with human hemoglobinopathies and hemoglobin structure showed that two of the four replaced sites are members of the same molecular bond, one that is crucial to the proper functioning of the hemoglobin molecule. This suggested an adaptive evolutionary change. Functionally, this locus may result in a thalassemia-like phenotype in orangutans, possibly as an adaptation to combat Plasmodium.

  15. Imprinting of the G(s)alpha gene GNAS1 in the pathogenesis of acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Hayward, B E; Barlier, A; Korbonits, M; Grossman, A B; Jacquet, P; Enjalbert, A; Bonthron, D T

    2001-03-01

    Approximately 40% of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas have somatic mutations in the GNAS1 gene (the so-called gsp oncogene). These mutations at codon 201 or codon 227 constitutively activate the alpha subunit of the adenylate cyclase-stimulating G protein G(s). GNAS1 is subject to a complex pattern of genomic imprinting, its various promoters directing the production of maternally, paternally, and biallelically derived gene products. Transcripts encoding G(s)alpha are biallelically derived in most human tissues. Despite this, we show here that in 21 out of 22 gsp-positive somatotroph adenomas, the mutation had occurred on the maternal allele. To investigate the reason for this allelic bias, we also analyzed GNAS1 imprinting in the normal adult pituitary and found that G(s)alpha is monoallelically expressed from the maternal allele in this tissue. We further show that this monoallelic expression of G(s)alpha is frequently relaxed in somatotroph tumors, both in those that have gsp mutations and in those that do not. These findings imply a possible role for loss of G(s)alpha imprinting during pituitary somatotroph tumorigenesis and also suggest that G(s)alpha imprinting is regulated separately from that of the other GNAS1 products, NESP55 and XLalphas, imprinting of which is retained in these tumors.

  16. Cyclic AMP-responsive expression of the surfactant protein-A gene is mediated by increased DNA binding and transcriptional activity of thyroid transcription factor-1.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Gao, E; Mendelson, C R

    1998-02-20

    Surfactant protein (SP)-A gene transcription is stimulated by factors that increase cyclic AMP. In the present study, we observed that three thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) binding elements (TBEs) located within a 255 base pair region flanking the 5'-end of the baboon SP-A2 (bSP-A2) gene are required for maximal cyclic AMP induction of bSP-A2 promoter activity. We found that TTF-1 DNA binding activity was increased in nuclear extracts of pulmonary type II cells cultured in the presence of cyclic AMP. By contrast, the levels of immunoreactive TTF-1 protein were similar in nuclear extracts of control and cyclic AMP-treated type II cells. The incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into immunoprecipitated TTF-1 protein also was markedly increased by cyclic AMP treatment. Moreover, exposure of nuclear extracts from cyclic AMP-treated type II cells either to potato acid phosphatase or alkaline phosphatase abolished the cyclic AMP-induced increase in TTF-1 DNA-binding activity. Interestingly, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), known to activate protein kinase C, also enhanced incorporation of [32P]orthophosphate into TTF-1 protein; however, the DNA binding activity of TTF-1 was decreased in nuclear extracts of TPA-treated type II cells. Expression vectors encoding TTF-1 and the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKA-cat) were cotransfected into A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells together with an SPA:human growth hormone fusion gene (255 base pairs of 5'-flanking DNA from the baboon SP-A2 gene linked to human growth hormone, as reporter) containing TBEs, or with a reporter gene construct containing three tandem TBEs fused upstream of the bSP-A2 gene TATA box and the transcription initiation site. Coexpression of TTF-1 and PKA-cat increased fusion gene expression 3-4-fold as compared with expression of TTF-1 in the absence of PKA-cat. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of TTF-1 was suppressed by cotransfection of a dominant negative form

  17. Adaptive evolution after gene duplication in alpha-KT x 14 subfamily from Buthus martensii Karsch.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijian; Mao, Xin; Xu, Xiuling; Sheng, Jiqun; Dai, Chao; Wu, Yingliang; Luo, Feng; Sha, Yonggang; Jiang, Dahe; Li, Wenxin

    2005-07-01

    A series of isoforms of alpha-KT x 14 (short chain potassium channel scorpion toxins) were isolated from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch by RACE and screening cDNA library methods. These isoforms adding BmKK1--3 and BmSKTx1--2 together shared high homology (more than 97%) with each other. The result of genomic sequence analysis showed that a length 79 bp intron is inserted Ala codes between the first and the second base at the 17th amino acid of signal peptide. The introns of these isoforms also share high homology with those of BmKK2 and BmSKT x 1 reported previously. Sequence analysis of many clones of cDNA and genomic DNA showed that a species population or individual polymorphism of alpha-KT x 14 genes took place in scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch and accelerated evolution played an important role in the forming process of alpha-KT x 14 scorpion toxins subfamily. The result of southern hybridization indicated that alpha-KT x 14 toxin genes existed in scorpion chromosome with multicopies. All findings maybe provided an important evidence for an extensive evolutionary process of the scorpion "pharmacological factory": at the early course of evolution, the ancestor toxic gene duplicated into a series of multicopy genes integrated at the different chromosome; at the late course of evolution, subsequent functional divergence of duplicate genes was generated by mutations, deletions and insertion.

  18. Defining the anatomical localisation of subsets of the murine mononuclear phagocyte system using integrin alpha X (Itgax, CD11c) and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r, CD115) expression fails to discriminate dendritic cells from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Barry M; Sester, David P; Hume, David A; Mabbott, Neil A

    2011-11-01

    The murine mononuclear phagocyte (MNP) system comprises a diverse population of cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. Derived from the myeloid haematopoietic lineage, this group of cells express a variety of well characterized surface markers. Expression of the integrin alpha X (Itgax, CD11c) is commonly used to identify classical DC, and similarly expression of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (Csf1r, CD115) to identify macrophages. We have characterized the expression of these markers using a variety of transgenic mouse models. We confirmed previous observations of Itgax expression in anatomically defined subsets of MNPs in secondary lymphoid organs, including all MNPs identified within the germinal centres. The majority of MNPs in the intestinal lamina propria and lung express Itgax. All mucosal Itgax expressing cells also express Csf1r suggesting Csf1-dependent haematopoietic derivation. This double-positive population included germinal centre MNPs. These data reveal that Itgax expression alone does not specifically define classical DC. These results suggest more cautious interpretation of Itgax-dependent experimentation and direct equation with uniquely DC-mediated activities, particularly in the functioning of non-lymphoid MNPs within the intestinal lamina propria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Hormonal Regulation of alpha-Amylase Gene Transcription in Wild Oat (Avena fatua L.) Aleurone Protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zwar, J A; Hooley, R

    1986-02-01

    The time of appearance and relative amounts of alpha-amylase mRNA in wild oat (Avena fatua L.) aleurone protoplasts incubated with 1 micromolar gibberellin A(4) (GA(4)) were closely correlated with the amounts of alpha-amylase enzyme secreted by the protoplasts. In the absence of GA(4), or when protoplasts were incubated with 25 micromolar abscisic acid (ABA) together with 1 micromolar GA(4) no alpha-amylase mRNA was detected and only very low levels of alpha-amylase were secreted. Nuclei were isolated in high yields (65-71%) from aleurone protoplasts and in an in vitro transcription system displayed characteristics of a faithful DNA-dependent RNA synthesizing system. The time course of incorporation of [(3)H]-UTP suggested that the RNA synthesized was mainly ;run off' transcription and therefore that the transcripts produced in vitro were those being synthesized in the protoplasts at the times when the nuclei were isolated. By hybridizing in vitro synthesized [(32)P]RNA to barley alpha-amylase cDNA and control filters we have estimated that 90 +/- 10 ppm of the transcripts synthesized by nuclei isolated from GA(4) treated protoplasts can be attributed to alpha-amylase sequences and that statistically insignificant amounts of these transcripts are obtained from control and GA(4) plus ABA treatments. The results suggest that GA(4) and ABA influence the transcription of alpha-amylase genes in aleurone protoplasts of wild oat.

  20. Polymorphism of IL-1alpha(-889) Gene and Its Association with Aggressive Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Zahra; Tavakkol-Afshari, Jalil; Hojjat, Hamed; Arab, Hamid Reza; Radvar, Mehrdad; Sadeghizadeh, Mehrdad; Ebadian, Ahmad Reza

    2009-06-01

    Adult periodontitis is a complex multifactorial disease whose etiology is not well defined. The pro-inflammatory and bone resorption properties of Interleukine-1alpha (IL-1alpha) strongly suggest a role for this cytokine in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Eighty Iranian adult patients with periodontitis and 80 Iranian controls were investigated in this study.In this study we report that the frequency of IL-1alpha genotypes including allele 2 of the IL-1alpha(-889) restriction fragment length bi-allele polymorphism were significantly increased in patients with advanced aggressive adult periodontitis compared to those with early and moderate disease. Furthermore, allele 2 was associated with increased production of IL-1alpha by activated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells of patients with advanced disease, although this increase failed to reach statistical significance. Finally, the data obtained revealed significant linkage disequilibrium between allele 2 of the IL-1alpha (-889) polymorphism and allele 2 of the bi-allelic IL-1beta (+3953) polymorphism in both patients and orally normal controls. These findings provide new insight into the possible rate of IL-1alpha and beta genes polymorphism in the susceptibility to adult periodontitis.

  1. Complete structure and expression of the rat alpha B-crystallin gene.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, A N; Bhat, S P

    1994-06-01

    alpha B-Crystallin, a member of the small heat shock family of proteins, is synthesized as a component of various developmental programs, in response to stress and in a number of pathological states. We have determined the complete structure of the alpha B-crystallin gene (6,806 bp encompassing 2,299 bp upstream from ATG and 859 bp at the 3' end, past the first polyadenylation signal). Comparison of the rat and the human alpha B-crystallin genes reveals significant conservation of the nucleotide sequences in almost all regions except in intron 2. The 1-kb region immediately upstream of ATG shows about 75% overall homology. A 78-bp sequence in the intron 1 and sequences in the 3' untranslated region show about 95% and 85% sequence identity, respectively. Characterization of the expression of this gene in different tissues in the rat by extensive analyses, utilizing primer extension. RNase protection, and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) revealed a predominant transcription initiation site 44 bp upstream of ATG. Northern analyses with "coding-only" and upstream "noncoding" probes did not support the thesis that heterogeneity in the alpha B-crystallin mRNAs arises from variations in the sequences immediately upstream of the predominant transcription initiation site. Importantly, the known relative levels of alpha B-crystallin protein in different tissues correlate best with the presence of transcripts starting from this initiation site.

  2. MHC evolution in three salmonid species: a comparison between class II alpha and beta genes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Daniela; Conejeros, Pablo; Marshall, Sergio H; Consuegra, Sofia

    2010-08-01

    The genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are amongst the most variable in vertebrates and represent some of the best candidates to study processes of adaptive evolution. However, despite the number of studies available, most of the information on the structure and function of these genes come from studies in mammals and birds in which the MHC class I and II genes are tightly linked and class II alpha exhibits low variability in many cases. Teleost fishes are among the most primitive vertebrates with MHC and represent good organisms for the study of MHC evolution because their class I and class II loci are not physically linked, allowing for independent evolution of both classes of genes. We have compared the diversity and molecular mechanisms of evolution of classical MH class II alpha and class II beta loci in farm populations of three salmonid species: Oncorhynchus kisutch, Oncorhynchus mykiss and Salmo salar. We found single classical class II loci and high polymorphism at both class II alpha and beta genes in the three species. Mechanisms of evolution were common for both class II genes, with recombination and point mutation involved in generating diversity and positive selection acting on the peptide-binding residues. These results suggest that the maintenance of variability at the class IIalpha gene could be a mechanism to increase diversity in the MHC class II in salmonids in order to compensate for the expression of one single classical locus and to respond to a wider array of parasites.

  3. alpha-globin gene deletion and point mutation analysis among in Iranian patients with microcytic hypochromic anemia.

    PubMed

    Garshasbi, Masoud; Oberkanins, Christian; Law, Hai Yang; Neishabury, Maryam; Kariminejad, Roxana; Najmabadi, Hossein

    2003-10-01

    We tested 67 Iranian individuals, presenting with low mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels, normal hemoglobin electrophoresis and iron status, for the presence of twelve common alpha-thalassemia gene deletions and point mutations. Five different mutations (-alpha(3.7), -alpha(4.2), --MED, -(alpha)20.5, Hb Constant Spring) were identified in a total of 43 cases

  4. Chromosomal localization of the human genes for {alpha}{sub 1A}, {alpha}{sub 1B}, and {alpha}{sub 1E} voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channel subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Diriong, S.; Lory, P.; Taviaux, S.

    1995-12-10

    The {alpha}{sub 1} subunit genes encoding voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels are members of a gene family. We have used human brain cDNA probes to localize the neuronal isoform genes CACNL1A4 ({alpha}{sub 1A}), CACNL1A5 ({alpha}{sub 1B}), and CACNL1A6 ({alpha}{sub 1E}) to 19p13, 9q34, and 1q25-q31, respectively, using fluorescene in situ hybridization on human chromosomes. These genes are particularly interesting gene candidates in the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. Although genetic disorders have been linked to loci 9q34 and 19p13, no genetic disease related to Ca{sup 2+} signaling defects has yet been linked to these loci. 22 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Cholesteryl ester hydroperoxides increase macrophage CD36 gene expression via PPAR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Jedidi, Iness; Couturier, Martine; Therond, Patrice; Gardes-Albert, Monique; Legrand, Alain; Barouki, Robert; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Aggerbeck, Martine . E-mail: Martine.Aggerbeck@univ-paris5.fr

    2006-12-22

    The uptake of oxidized LDL by macrophages is a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. The scavenger receptor CD36 is one major receptor that internalizes oxidized LDL. In differentiated human macrophages, we compared the regulation of CD36 expression by copper-oxidized LDL or their products. Only oxidized derivatives of cholesteryl ester (CEOOH) increased the amount of CD36 mRNA (2.5-fold). Both oxidized LDL and CEOOH treatment increased two to fourfold the transcription of promoters containing peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor responsive elements (PPRE) in the presence of PPAR{alpha} or {gamma}. Electrophoretic-mobility-shift-assays with nuclear extracts prepared from macrophages treated by either oxidized LDL or CEOOH showed increased binding of PPAR{alpha} to the CD36 gene promoter PPRE. In conclusion, CEOOH present in oxidized LDL increase CD36 gene expression in a pathway involving PPAR{alpha}.

  6. Differentiation of neuroblastoma cells by phorbol esters and insulin-like growth factor 1 is associated with induction of retinoic acid receptor beta gene expression.

    PubMed

    Perez-Juste, G; Aranda, A

    1999-09-23

    The retinoic acid (RA) receptor beta isoform (RARbeta) plays an important role in RA-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma. In this study we show that insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) induce RARbeta gene expression in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. IGF-1 and TPA caused a marked induction of RARbeta2 promoter activity and had a synergistic effect with RA that also upregulates transcription. The effect of RA is mediated by two RA responsive elements (RAREs), whereas the IGF-1 and TPA actions are independent of the RAREs and map to sequences that overlap the TATA box. These results suggest that the signaling pathways stimulated by TPA and IGF-1 could modify the components assembled at the core RARbeta2 promoter and activate transcription. Expression of RasVal12 mimics the effect of IGF-1 and TPA on the promoter, and a dominant negative Ras mutant abrogates activation. A dominant negative Raf also blocks activation showing that the Ras-Raf pathway mediates stimulation of the RARbeta2 promoter. Our results show that neuronal differentiation induced by non-retinoid agents that activate Ras is accompanied by increased transcription of the RARbeta gene.

  7. Host cell factor-1 recruitment to E2F-bound and cell-cycle-control genes is mediated by THAP11 and ZNF143.

    PubMed

    Parker, J Brandon; Yin, Hanwei; Vinckevicius, Aurimas; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2014-11-06

    Host cell factor-1 (HCF-1) is a metazoan transcriptional coregulator essential for cell-cycle progression and cell proliferation. Current models suggest a mechanism whereby HCF-1 functions as a direct coregulator of E2F proteins, facilitating the expression of genes necessary for cell proliferation. In this report, we show that HCF-1 recruitment to numerous E2F-bound promoters is mediated by the concerted action of zinc finger transcription factors THAP11 and ZNF143, rather than E2F proteins directly. THAP11, ZNF143, and HCF-1 form a mutually dependent complex on chromatin, which is independent of E2F occupancy. Disruption of the THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex results in altered expression of cell-cycle control genes and leads to reduced cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, and cell viability. These data establish a model in which a THAP11/ZNF143/HCF-1 complex is a critical component of the transcriptional regulatory network governing cell proliferation.

  8. The PPAR alpha gene is associated with triglyceride, low-density cholesterol and inflammation marker response to fenofibrate intervention: the GOLDN study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR Alpha) agonist, fenofibrate favorably modulates dyslipidemia and inflammation markers, which are associated with cardiovascular risk. To determine whether variation in the PPAR Alpha receptor gene was associated with lipid and inflammatory ...

  9. Estrogen-related receptor alpha modulates the expression of adipogenesis-related genes during adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ijichi, Nobuhiro; Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Horie-Inoue, Kuniko; Yagi, Ken; Okazaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Satoshi

    2007-07-06

    Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates cellular energy metabolism by modulating gene expression involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue. However, the physiological role of ERRalpha in adipogenesis and white adipose tissue development has not been well studied. Here, we show that ERRalpha and ERRalpha-related transcriptional coactivators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and PGC-1beta, can be up-regulated in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at mRNA levels under the adipogenic differentiation condition including the inducer of cAMP, glucocorticoid, and insulin. Gene knockdown by ERRalpha-specific siRNA results in mRNA down-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 4, PPARgamma, and PGC-1alpha in 3T3-L1 cells in the adipogenesis medium. ERRalpha and PGC-1beta mRNA expression can be also up-regulated in another preadipocyte lineage DFAT-D1 cells and a pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 under the differentiation condition. Furthermore, stable expression of ERRalpha in 3T3-L1 cells up-regulates adipogenic marker genes and promotes triglyceride accumulation during 3T3-L1 differentiation. These results suggest that ERRalpha may play a critical role in adipocyte differentiation by modulating the expression of various adipogenesis-related genes.

  10. Increase in gene dosage is a mechanism of HIF-1alpha constitutive expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Secades, Pablo; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; Hermsen, Mario; Alvarez, Cesar; Suarez, Carlos; Chiara, María-Dolores

    2009-05-01

    The HIF-1alpha protein plays a key role in the cellular response to hypoxia via transcriptional regulation of genes involved in erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, and metabolism. Overexpression of HIF-1alpha is commonly found in solid tumors in significant association with increased patient mortality and resistance to therapy. The predominant mode of HIF-1alpha regulation by hypoxia occurs at the level of protein stability. In addition to hypoxia, HIF-1alpha protein stability and synthesis is regulated by nonhypoxic signals such as inactivation of tumor suppressors and activation of oncogenes. Here, we show that an increase in gene dosage may contribute to HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein overexpression in a nonhypoxic environment in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Increased HIF-1alpha gene dosage was found in one out of five HNSCC-derived cell lines and three out of 27 HNSCC primary tumors. Significantly, increased gene dosage in those samples was associated with high HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein levels. Normoxic overexpression of HIF-1alpha protein in HNSCC-derived cell lines was also paralleled by higher expression levels of HIF-1alpha target genes. Array CGH analysis confirmed the copy number increase of HIF-1alpha gene and revealed that the gene is contained within a region of amplification at 14q23-q24.2 both in the cell line and primary tumors. In addition, FISH analysis revealed the presence of 11-13 copies on a tetraploid background in SCC2 cells. These data suggest that increased HIF-1alpha gene dosage is a mechanism of HIF-1alpha protein overexpression in HNSCC that possibly prepares the cells for a higher activity in an intratumoral hypoxic environment.

  11. 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: three dimensional structure and gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Penning, T M

    1996-09-01

    Mammalian 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3 alpha-HSDs) regulate steroid hormone levels. cDNA cloning indicates that the rat and human liver isoforms display high sequence identity and that they belong to the aldo-keto reductase (AKR) superfamily. Of these the most extensively characterized is rat liver 3 alpha-HSD. The recently solved X-ray crystal structure shows that this enzyme adopts an (alpha/beta)8-barrel scaffold (Hoog et al. 1994). NAD(P)H binds in an extended anti-conformation and lies along the inner surface of the barrel. The nicotinamide ring is stabilized by interaction with Y216. The 4-pro(R)-hydrogen transferred in the reaction is in close proximity to Y55. K84, D50 and H117 which are implicated in catalysis. These residues are located at the base of a hydrophobic pocket which is presumed to be involved in binding steroid hormone. This catalytic tetrad is conserved in members of the AKR superfamily. Mutant enzymes support roles for Y55 in steroid binding and for K84 as the general acid involved in catalysis. The gene for rat 3 alpha-HSD has been cloned and is 47 kb in length and contains 9 exon-intron boundaries which are highly conserved in the human gene(s). The 5'-flanking regions of the rat and human genes contain consensus sequences for AP-1, Oct-1 and multiple copies of perfect and imperfect steroid hormone response elements (REs) (estrogen, glucocorticoid (GRE), and progesterone) which may comprise a steroid response unit (SRU) (Lin & Penning 1995). Constitutive and regulated expression of the rat 3 alpha-HSD gene has been studied by transiently transfecting reporter gene (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, CAT) constructs into human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. With respect to the transcription start-site (+1), a proximal (-498 to -199bp) and distal (-20 to -4.0kb) enhancer, as well as a powerful silencer (-755 to -498 bp) were located in the promoter. Band-shift and supershift assays provide evidence that Oct-1 binds to the silencer

  12. Evolution, organization, and expression of alpha-tubulin genes in the antarctic fish Notothenia coriiceps. Adaptive expansion of a gene family by recent gene duplication, inversion, and divergence.

    PubMed

    Parker, S K; Detrich, H W

    1998-12-18

    To assess the organization and expression of tubulin genes in ectothermic vertebrates, we have chosen the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, Notothenia coriiceps, as a model system. The genome of N. coriiceps contains approximately 15 distinct DNA fragments complementary to alpha-tubulin cDNA probes, which suggests that the alpha-tubulins of this cold-adapted fish are encoded by a substantial multigene family. From an N. coriiceps testicular DNA library, we isolated a 13.8-kilobase pair genomic clone that contains a tightly linked cluster of three alpha-tubulin genes, designated NcGTbalphaa, NcGTbalphab, and NcGTbalphac. Two of these genes, NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphab, are linked in head-to-head (5' to 5') orientation with approximately 500 bp separating their start codons, whereas NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphac are linked tail-to-tail (3' to 3') with approximately 2.5 kilobase pairs between their stop codons. The exons, introns, and untranslated regions of the three alpha-tubulin genes are strikingly similar in sequence, and the intergenic region between the alphaa and alphab genes is significantly palindromic. Thus, this cluster probably evolved by duplication, inversion, and divergence of a common ancestral alpha-tubulin gene. Expression of the NcGTbalphac gene is cosmopolitan, with its mRNA most abundant in hematopoietic, neural, and testicular tissues, whereas NcGTbalphaa and NcGTbalphab transcripts accumulate primarily in brain. The differential expression of the three genes is consistent with distinct suites of putative promoter and enhancer elements. We propose that cold adaptation of the microtubule system of Antarctic fishes is based in part on expansion of the alpha- and beta-tubulin gene families to ensure efficient synthesis of tubulin polypeptides.

  13. Heterology Expression of the Arabidopsis C-Repeat/Dehydration Response Element Binding Factor 1 Gene Confers Elevated Tolerance to Chilling and Oxidative Stresses in Transgenic Tomato1

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsai-Hung; Lee, Jent-Turn; Yang, Pei-Tzu; Chiu, Li-Hui; Charng, Yee-yung; Wang, Yu-Chie; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2002-01-01

    In an attempt to improve stress tolerance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants, an expression vector containing an Arabidopsis C-repeat/dehydration responsive element binding factor 1 (CBF1) cDNA driven by a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was transferred into tomato plants. Transgenic expression of CBF1 was proved by northern- and western-blot analyses. The degree of chilling tolerance of transgenic T1 and T2 plants was found to be significantly greater than that of wild-type tomato plants as measured by survival rate, chlorophyll fluorescence value, and radical elongation. The transgenic tomato plants exhibited patterns of growth retardation; however, they resumed normal growth after GA3 (gibberellic acid) treatment. More importantly, GA3-treated transgenic plants still exhibited a greater degree of chilling tolerance compared with wild-type plants. Subtractive hybridization was performed to isolate the responsive genes of heterologous Arabidopsis CBF1 in transgenic tomato plants. CATALASE1 (CAT1) was obtained and showed activation in transgenic tomato plants. The CAT1 gene and catalase activity were also highly induced in the transgenic tomato plants. The level of H2O2 in the transgenic plants was lower than that in the wild-type plants under either normal or cold conditions. The transgenic plants also exhibited considerable tolerance against oxidative damage induced by methyl viologen. Results from the current study suggest that heterologous CBF1 expression in transgenic tomato plants may induce several oxidative-stress responsive genes to protect from chilling stress. PMID:12114563

  14. Association Study Between Metabolic Syndrome and rs8066560 Polymorphism in the Promoter Region of Sterol Regulatory Element-binding Transcription Factor 1 Gene in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miranzadeh-Mahabadi, Hajar; Emadi-Baygi, Modjtaba; Nikpour, Parvaneh; Kelishadi, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent disorder in pediatric age groups, described by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF-1) induces the expression of a family of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis. Moreover, dysregulation of miR-33b, which is located within the intron 17 of the SREBF-1 gene, disrupts fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling, thus leading to MetS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between SREBF-1 rs8066560 polymorphism and MetS in Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This study includes 100 MetS and 100 normal individuals aged 9–19 years. Anthropological and biochemical indexes were measured. The -1099G > A polymorphism was genotyped by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Significant differences were observed in anthropometric measurements and lipid profiles between MetS and normal children. There were no differences in the genotype frequencies or allele distribution for -1099G > A polymorphism between MetS and control groups. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly higher in the MetS GG group than in the A allele carrier group. The genotype AA controls had significantly increased cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than AG genotypes. By logistic regression using different genetic models, no significant association was observed between SREBF-1 rs8066560 polymorphism and the risk of MetS. Conclusions: We conclude that the -1099G > A variant on SREBF-1 gene associated with serum lipid profiles, however, it may not be a major risk factor for the MetS in Iranian children and adolescents. PMID:27076879

  15. Thyroglobulin repression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) gene expression is mediated by decreased DNA binding of nuclear factor I proteins which control constitutive TTF-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, M; Chung, H K; Ulianich, L; Grassadonia, A; Suzuki, K; Kohn, L D

    2000-11-01

    Follicular thyroglobulin (TG) selectively suppresses the expression of thyroid-restricted transcription factors, thereby altering the expression of thyroid-specific proteins. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which TG suppresses the prototypic thyroid-restricted transcription factor, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), in rat FRTL-5 thyrocytes. We show that the region between bp -264 and -153 on the TTF-1 promoter contains two nuclear factor I (NFI) elements whose function is involved in TG-mediated suppression. Thus, NFI binding to these elements is critical for constitutive expression of TTF-1; TG decreases NFI binding to the NFI elements in association with TG repression. NFI is a family of transcription factors that is ubiquitously expressed and contributes to constitutive and cell-specific gene expression. In contrast to the contribution of NFI proteins to constitutive gene expression in other systems, we demonstrate that follicular TG transcriptionally represses all NFI RNAs (NFI-A, -B, -C, and -X) in association with decreased NFI binding and that the RNA levels decrease as early as 4 h after TG treatment. Although TG treatment for 48 h results in a decrease in NFI protein-DNA complexes measured in DNA mobility shift assays, NFI proteins are still detectable by Western analysis. We show, however, that the binding of all NFI proteins is redox regulated. Thus, diamide treatment of nuclear extracts strongly reduces the binding of NFI proteins, and the addition of higher concentrations of dithiothreitol to nuclear extracts from TG-treated cells restores NFI-DNA binding to levels in extracts from untreated cells. We conclude that NFI binding to two NFI elements, at bp -264 to -153, positively regulates TTF-1 expression and controls constitutive TTF-1 levels. TG mediates the repression of TTF-1 gene expression by decreasing NFI RNA and protein levels, as well as by altering the binding activity of NFI, which is redox controlled.

  16. C7L family of poxvirus host range genes inhibits antiviral activities induced by type I interferons and interferon regulatory factor 1.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Schoggins, John; Rose, Lloyd; Cao, Jingxin; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M; Xiang, Yan

    2012-04-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs). While K1L is limited to orthopoxviruses, genes that are homologous to C7L are found in diverse mammalian poxviruses. In this study, we showed that the C7L homologues from sheeppox virus and swinepox virus could rescue the replication defect of a VACV mutant deleted of both K1L and C7L (vK1L(-)C7L(-)). Interestingly, the sheeppox virus C7L homologue could rescue the replication of vK1L(-)C7L(-) in human HeLa cells but not in murine 3T3 and LA-4 cells, in contrast to all other C7L homologues. Replacing amino acids 134 and 135 of the sheeppox virus C7L homologue, however, made it functional in the two murine cell lines, suggesting that these two residues are critical for antagonizing a putative host restriction factor which has some subtle sequence variation in human and murine cells. Furthermore, the C7L family of host range genes from diverse mammalian poxviruses were all capable of antagonizing type I IFN-induced antiviral activities against VACV. Screening of a library of more than 350 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) identified interferon-regulated factor 1 (IRF1) as an inhibitor of vK1L(-)C7L(-) but not wild-type VACV. Expression of either K1L or C7L, however, rendered vK1L(-)C7L(-) resistant to IRF1-induced antiviral activities. Altogether, our data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells.

  17. Kidney development and gene expression in the HIF2alpha knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Freeburg, Paul B; Isom, Kathryn; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Hudson, Billy G; St John, Patricia L; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 (HIF2), a heterodimer composed of HIF2alpha and HIF1beta subunits, drives expression of genes essential for vascularization, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, Flk-1). Here, we used a HIF2alpha/LacZ transgenic mouse to define patterns of HIF2alpha transcription during kidney development and maturation. Our results from embryonic heterozygotes showed HIF2alpha/LacZ expression by apparently all renal endothelial cells. At 4 weeks of age, glomerular mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells were also positive together with endothelial cells. These expression patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy using Bluo-gal as a beta-galactosidase substrate. Small numbers of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells were also positive at all stages examined. Light and electron microscopic examination of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos showed no defects in renal vascular development or nephrogenesis. Similarly, the same amounts of Flk-1 protein were seen on Western blots of kidney extracts from homozygous and heterozygous HIF2alpha mutants. To examine responsiveness of HIF2alpha null kidneys to hypoxia, embryonic day 13.5 metanephroi were cultured in room air or in mild (5% O(2)) hypoxia. For both heterozygous and null samples, VEGF mRNA levels doubled when metanephroi were cultured in mild hypoxia. Anterior chamber grafts of embryonic HIF2alpha knockouts were morphologically indistinguishable from heterozygous grafts. Endothelial markers, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and BsLB4, as well as glomerular epithelial markers, GLEPP1 and WT-1, were all expressed appropriately. Finally, we undertook quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos and wild-type siblings and found no compensatory up-regulation of HIF1alpha or -3alpha. Our results show that, although HIF2alpha was widely transcribed by kidney endothelium and vascular

  18. Increased levels of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 hybrid receptors and decreased glycosylation of the insulin receptor alpha- and beta-subunits in scrapie-infected neuroblastoma N2a cells.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Daniel; Gyllberg, Hanna; Ostlund, Pernilla; Bergman, Tomas; Bedecs, Katarina

    2004-06-01

    We have previously shown that ScN2a cells (scrapie-infected neuroblastoma N2a cells) express 2-fold- and 4-fold-increased levels of IR (insulin receptor) and IGF-1R (insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor) respectively. In addition, the IR alpha- and beta-subunits are aberrantly processed, with apparent molecular masses of 128 and 85 kDa respectively, as compared with 136 and 95 kDa in uninfected N2a cells. Despite the 2-fold increase in IR protein, the number of (125)I-insulin-binding sites was slightly decreased in ScN2a cells [Ostlund, Lindegren, Pettersson and Bedecs (2001) Brain Res. 97, 161-170]. In order to determine the cellular localization of IR in ScN2a cells, surface biotinylation was performed, showing a correct IR trafficking and localization to the cell surface. The present study shows for the first time that neuroblastoma N2a cells express significant levels of IR-IGF-1R hybrid receptors, and in ScN2a cells the number of hybrid receptors was 2-fold higher than that found in N2a cells, potentially explaining the apparent loss of insulin-binding sites due to a lower affinity for insulin compared with the homotypic IR. Furthermore, the decreased molecular mass of IR subunits in ScN2a cells is not caused by altered phosphorylation or proteolytic processing, but rather by altered glycosylation. Enzymic deglycosylation of immunoprecipitated IR from N2a and ScN2a cells with endoglycosidase H, peptide N-glycosidase F and neuraminidase all resulted in subunits with increased electrophoretic mobility; however, the 8-10 kDa shift remained. Combined enzymic or chemical deglycosylation using anhydrous trifluoromethane sulphonic acid treatment ultimately showed that the IR alpha- and beta-subunits from ScN2a cells are aberrantly glycosylated. The increased formation of IR-IGF-1R hybrids in ScN2a cells may be part of a neuroprotective response to prion infection. The degree and functional significance of aberrantly glycosylated proteins in ScN2a cells remain to be

  19. Nucleotide sequence and expression of the Enterobacter aerogenes alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene in brewer's yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Sone, H; Fujii, T; Kondo, K; Shimizu, F; Tanaka, J; Inoue, T

    1988-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of a 1.4-kilobase DNA fragment containing the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase gene of Enterobacter aerogenes was determined. The sequence contains an entire protein-coding region of 780 nucleotides which encodes an alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase of 260 amino acids. The DNA sequence coding for alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase was placed under the control of the alcohol dehydrogenase I promoter of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a plasmid capable of autonomous replication in both S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Brewer's yeast cells transformed by this plasmid showed alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity and were used in laboratory-scale fermentation experiments. These experiments revealed that the diacetyl concentration in wort fermented by the plasmid-containing yeast strain was significantly lower than that in wort fermented by the parental strain. These results indicated that the alpha-acetolactate decarboxylase activity produced by brewer's yeast cells degraded alpha-acetolactate and that this degradation caused a decrease in diacetyl production. PMID:3278689

  20. Gallus gallus orthologous to human alpha-dystroglycanopathies candidate genes: Gene expression and characterization during chicken embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; de Luis, Oscar; Gómez-Esquer, Francisco; Cruces, Jesús; Coloma, Antonio

    2016-09-23

    Alpha-dystroglycanopathies are a heterogenic group of human rare diseases that have in common defects of α-dystroglycan O-glycosylation. These congenital disorders share common features as muscular dystrophy, malformations on central nervous system and more rarely altered ocular development, as well as mutations on a set of candidate genes involved on those syndromes. Severity of the syndromes is variable, appearing Walker-Warburg as the most severe where mutations at protein O-mannosyl transferases POMT1 and POMT2 genes are frequently described. When studying the lack of MmPomt1 in mouse embryonic development, as a murine model of Walker-Warburg syndrome, MmPomt1 null phenotype was lethal because Reitchert's membrane fails during embryonic development. Here, we report gene expression from Gallus gallus orthologous genes to human candidates on alpha-dystroglycanopathies POMT1, POMT2, POMGnT1, FKTN, FKRP and LARGE, making special emphasis in expression and localization of GgPomt1. Results obtained by quantitative RT-PCR, western-blot and immunochemistry revealed close gene expression patterns among human and chicken at key tissues affected during development when suffering an alpha-dystroglycanopathy, leading us to stand chicken as a useful animal model for molecular characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in the O-glycosylation of α-Dystroglycan and its role in embryonic development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of interferon-alpha2 on HLA genes in patients with polycythemia vera and related neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads; Kjær, Lasse; Stauffer Larsen, Thomas; Bjerrum, Ole Weis; Kruse, Torben A; Hasselbalch, Hans Carl

    2017-08-01

    Gene expression profiling in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) have unraveled significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes of potential importance for clonal evolution. Other mechanisms might be downregulation of major histocompatibility class I and II genes used by tumor cells to escape antitumor T-cell-mediated immune responses. Several genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules have been shown to be significantly downregulated. Upregulation of HLA genes is considered one of the mechanisms of action of interferon (IFN)-alpha2, but regulation of these genes during IFN-alpha2 treatment in MPNs has never been studied. Our findings show a significant upregulation of several HLA genes of importance for tumor immune surveillance by IFN-alpha2 treatment in MPNs. This mechanism might enhance the cytotoxic potential of immune cells against MPNs and explain the induction of minimal residual disease by IFN-alpha2 treatment in these patients.

  2. Twenty novel mutations in the alpha-galactosidase A gene causing Fabry disease.

    PubMed Central

    Topaloglu, A. K.; Ashley, G. A.; Tong, B.; Shabbeer, J.; Astrin, K. H.; Eng, C. M.; Desnick, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fabry disease, an X-linked inborn error of glycosphingolipid catabolism, results from the deficient activity of the lysosomal exoglycohydrolase alpha-galactosidase A (EC 3.2.1.22; alpha-Gal A). The nature of the molecular lesions in the alpha-Gal A gene in 30 unrelated families was determined to provide precise heterozygote detection, prenatal diagnosis, and define genotype-phenotype correlations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genomic DNA was isolated from affected males and/or carrier females from 30 unrelated families with Fabry disease. The entire alpha-Gal A coding region and flanking intronic sequences were analyzed by PCR amplification and automated sequencing. RESULTS: Twenty new mutations were identified, each in a single family: C142R, G183D, S235C, W236L, D244H, P259L, M267I, I289F, Q321E, C378Y, C52X, W277X, IVS4(+4), IVS6(+2), IVS6(-1), 35del13, 256del1, 892ins1, 1176del4, and 1188del1. In the remaining 10 unrelated Fabry families, 9 previously reported mutations were detected: M42V, R112C, S148R, D165V, N215S (in 2 families), Q99X, C142X, R227X, and 1072del3. Haplotype analysis using markers closely flanking the alpha-Gal A gene indicated that the two patients with the N215S lesion were unrelated. The IVS4(+4) mutation was a rare intronic splice site mutation that causes Fabry disease. CONCLUSIONS: These studies further define the heterogeneity of mutations in the alpha-Gal A gene causing Fabry disease, permit precise heterozygote detection and prenatal diagnosis, and help delineate phenotype-genotype correlations in this disease.

  3. Lymphocyte differentiation in sea bass thymus: CD4 and CD8-alpha gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Picchietti, Simona; Guerra, Laura; Buonocore, Francesco; Randelli, Elisa; Fausto, Anna Maria; Abelli, Luigi

    2009-07-01

    Different developmental stages (from eggs to 1-year-old juveniles) of the teleost fish Dicentrarchus labrax (L.) were assayed for CD4 gene expression. RT-PCR revealed the appearance of CD4 transcripts in post-larvae from 51 days post-hatching (dph). This finding overlaps the first detection of CD8-alpha mRNA. Real-time PCR with specific primers quantified CD4, CD8-alpha and TCR-beta transcripts in larvae and post-larvae (25, 51, 75 and 92 dph) and 1-year-old thymus. At 92 dph, TcR-beta and CD8-alpha transcripts were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than in previous stages, as CD4 transcripts compared with 51 dph (P < 0.01). High levels of TCR-beta and CD8-alpha transcripts were found in the thymus, while CD4 transcripts were lower (P < 0.05 vs. TCR-beta). In situ hybridization identified CD4 mRNAs at 51 dph, localized in thymocytes of the outer and lateral zones of the thymic glands. From 75 dph on the signal was mainly detected in the outer region, drawing a cortex-medulla demarcation. Developmental expression of CD4 and CD8-alpha almost coincided. In each adult thymic lobe CD4(+) and CD8-alpha(+) thymocytes filled the cortex. The expression patterns of CD4 and CD8-alpha largely overlap, except in the medulla, where CD4(+) thymocytes were isolated, while CD8-alpha(+) ones mainly arranged in cords. These results provide new information about the thymic compartmentalization and lymphocyte differentiation pathways in a teleost, almost demonstrating that double negative thymocytes fill the cortex giving rise to further selection in the medulla.

  4. Developmental study of the distribution of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha and microtubule-associated protein 2 in children's brainstem: comparison between controls and cases with signs of perinatal hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Coveñas, R; González-Fuentes, J; Rivas-Infante, E; Lagartos-Donate, M J; Cebada-Sánchez, S; Arroyo-Jiménez, M M; Insausti, R; Marcos, P

    2014-06-20

    Perinatal asphyxia and hypoxia are common causes of morbidity in neonates. Prenatal birth associated with hypoxemia often results in several disorders because of the lack of oxygen in the brain. Survival rates from perinatal hypoxia have improved, but appropriate treatments for recovery are still limited, with great impact on patients, their families, society in general and health systems. The aim of this work is to contribute to a better understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the brainstem responses to hypoxia. For this purpose, distributions of two proteins, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2) were analyzed in brainstems of 11 children, four of them showing neuropathological evidence of brain hypoxia. They were included in control or hypoxic groups, and then in several subgroups according to their age. Immunohistochemical labeling for these proteins revealed only cell bodies containing HIF-1α, and both cell bodies and fibers positive for MAP-2 in the children's brainstems. The distribution of HIF-1α was more restricted than that of MAP-2, and it can be suggested that the expression of HIF-1α increased with age. The distribution pattern of MAP-2 in the medulla oblongata could be more due to age-related changes than to a response to hypoxic damage, whereas in the pons several regions, such as the nucleus ambiguus or the solitary nucleus, showed different immunolabeling patterns in controls and hypoxic cases. The distribution patterns of these two proteins suggest that some brainstem regions, such as the reticular formation or the central gray, could be less affected by conditions of hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation-induced mitotic cell death and glioblastoma radioresistance: a new regulating pathway controlled by integrin-linked kinase, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and survivin in U87 cells.

    PubMed

    Lanvin, Olivia; Monferran, Sylvie; Delmas, Caroline; Couderc, Bettina; Toulas, Christine; Cohen-Jonathan-Moyal, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    We have previously shown that integrin-linked kinase (ILK) regulates U87 glioblastoma cell radioresistance by modulating the main radiation-induced cell death mechanism in solid tumours, the mitotic cell death. To decipher the biological pathways involved in these mechanisms, we constructed a U87 glioblastoma cell model expressing an inducible shRNA directed against ILK (U87shILK). We then demonstrated that silencing ILK enhanced radiation-induced centrosome overduplication, leading to radiation-induced mitotic cell death. In this model, ionising radiations induce hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) stabilisation which is inhibited by silencing ILK. Moreover, silencing HIF-1α in U87 cells reduced the surviving fraction after 2 Gy irradiation by increasing cell sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic cell death and centrosome amplification. Because it is known that HIF-1α controls survivin expression, we then looked at the ILK silencing effect on survivin expression. We show that survivin expression is decreased in U87shILK cells. Furthermore, treating U87 cells with the specific survivin suppressor YM155 significantly increased the percentage of giant multinucleated cells, centrosomal overduplication and thus U87 cell radiosensitivity. In consequence, we decipher here a new pathway of glioma radioresistance via the regulation of radiation-induced centrosome duplication and therefore mitotic cell death by ILK, HIF-1α and survivin. This work identifies new targets in glioblastoma with the intention of radiosensitising these highly radioresistant tumours. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of oxidants in NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha gene transcription induced by hypoxia and endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Chandel, N S; Trzyna, W C; McClintock, D S; Schumacker, P T

    2000-07-15

    The transcription factor NF-kappa B stimulates the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines including TNF-alpha. LPS (endotoxin) and hypoxia both induce NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha gene transcription. Furthermore, hypoxia augments LPS induction of TNF-alpha mRNA. Previous reports have indicated that antioxidants abolish NF-kappa B activation in response to LPS or hypoxia, which suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in NF-kappa B activation. This study tested whether mitochondrial ROS are required for both NF-kappaB activation and the increase in TNF-alpha mRNA levels during hypoxia and LPS. Our results indicate that hypoxia (1.5% O2) stimulates NF-kappa B and TNF-alpha gene transcription and increases ROS generation as measured by the oxidant sensitive dye 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate in murine macrophage J774.1 cells. The antioxidants N-acetylcysteine and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid abolished the hypoxic activation of NF-kappa B, TNF-alpha gene transcription, and increases in ROS levels. Rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, abolished the increase in ROS signal, the activation of NF-kappa B, and TNF-alpha gene transcription during hypoxia. LPS stimulated NF-kappa B and TNF-alpha gene transcription but not ROS generation in J774.1 cells. Rotenone, pyrrolidinedithiocarbamic acid, and N-acetylcysteine had no effect on the LPS stimulation of NF-kappa B and TNF-alpha gene transcription, indicating that LPS activates NF-kappa B and TNF-alpha gene transcription through a ROS-independent mechanism. These results indicate that mitochondrial ROS are required for the hypoxic activation of NF-kappa B and TNF-alpha gene transcription, but not for the LPS activation of NF-kappa B.

  7. Characterization of the lys2 gene of Penicillium chrysogenum encoding alpha-aminoadipic acid reductase.

    PubMed

    Casqueiro, J; Gutiérrez, S; Bañuelos, O; Fierro, F; Velasco, J; Martín, J F

    1998-09-01

    A DNA fragment containing a gene homologous to LYS2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was cloned from a genomic DNA library of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78. It encodes a protein of 1409 amino acids (Mr 154859) with strong similarity to the S. cerevisiae (49.9% identity) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (51.3% identity) and Candida albicans (48.12% identity) alpha-aminoadipate reductases and a lesser degree of identity to the amino acid-activating domains of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, including the alpha-aminoadipate-activating domain of the alpha-aminoadipyl-cysteinyl-valine synthetase of P. chrysogenum (12.4% identical amino acids). The lys2 gene contained one intron in the 5'-region and other in the 3'-region, as shown by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the cDNA and genomic DNA, and was transcribed as a 4.7-kb monocistronic mRNA. The lys2 gene was localized on chromosome III (7.5 Mb) in P. chrysogenum AS-P-78 and on chromosome IV (5.6 Mb) in strain P2, whereas the penicillin gene cluster is known to be located in chromosome I in both strains. The lys2-encoded protein is a member of the aminoacyladenylate-forming enzyme family with a reductase domain in its C-terminal region.

  8. The bean. alpha. -amylase inhibitor is encoded by a lectin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.; Altabella, T.; Chrispeels, M.J. )

    1989-04-01

    The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, contains an inhibitor of insect and mammalian {alpha}-amylases that does not inhibit plant {alpha}-amylase. This inhibitor functions as an anti-feedant or seed-defense protein. We purified this inhibitor by affinity chromatography and found that it consists of a series of glycoforms of two polypeptides (Mr 14,000-19,000). Partial amino acid sequencing was carried out, and the sequences obtained are identical with portions of the derived amino acid sequence of a lectin-like gene. This lectin gene encodes a polypeptide of MW 28,000, and the primary in vitro translation product identified by antibodies to the {alpha}-amylase inhibitor has the same size. Co- and posttranslational processing of this polypeptide results in glycosylated polypeptides of 14-19 kDa. Our interpretation of these results is that the bean lectins constitute a gene family that encodes diverse plant defense proteins, including phytohemagglutinin, arcelin and {alpha}-amylase inhibitor.

  9. A functional polymorphism of the TNF-{alpha} gene that is associated with type 2 DM

    SciTech Connect

    Susa, Shinji; Daimon, Makoto Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hidenori; Oizumi, Toshihide; Karasawa, Shigeru; Wada, Kiriko; Jimbu, Yumi; Kameda, Wataru; Emi, Mitsuru; Muramatsu, Masaaki; Kato, Takeo

    2008-05-09

    To examine the association of the tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) gene region with type 2 diabetes (DM), 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the region were analyzed. The initial study using a sample set (148 cases vs. 227 controls) showed a significant association of the SNP IVS1G + 123A of the TNF-{alpha} gene with DM (p = 0.0056). Multiple logistic regression analysis using an enlarged sample set (225 vs. 716) revealed the significant association of the SNP with DM independently of any clinical traits examined (OR: 1.49, p = 0.014). The functional relevance of the SNP were examined by the electrophoretic mobility shift assays using nuclear extracts from the U937 and NIH3T3 cells and luciferase assays in these cells with Simian virus 40 promoter- and TNF-{alpha} promoter-reporter gene constructs. The functional analyses showed that YY1 transcription factor bound allele-specifically to the SNP region and, the IVS1 + 123A allele had an increase in luciferase expression compared with the G allele.

  10. Molecular characteristics of the alpha- and beta-tubulin genes of Nosema philosamiae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Shen, Zhongyuan; Xu, Li; Guo, Xijie

    2013-11-01

    Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of insects and other higher eukaryotes. The microsporidian Nosema philosamiae Talukdar, 1961 was isolated from the eri silkworm, Philosamia cynthia ricini Grote. In the present study, alpha- and beta-tubulin genes from N. philosamiae were characterized. The identity analysis of nucleotide and amino acid sequences indicated high similarity with species of Nosema Nägeli, 1857 sensu lato (nucleotide sequences, > or = 96.0%; amino acid sequences, > or = 99.0%). However, the tubulin genes of N. philosamiae share low sequence similarity with that of N. ceranae Fries, Feng, da Silva, Slemenda et Pieniazek, 1996 (strain BRL01) and a Nosema/Vairimorpha species. Phylogenies based on alpha-, beta- and combined alpha- plus beta-tubulin gene sequences showed that N. philosamiae, along with the true Nosema species, forms a separate clade with a high bootstrap value, with N. ceranae BRL01 forming a clade of its own. The results indicated that the alpha- and beta-tubulin sequences may be useful as a diagnostic tool to discriminate the true Nosema group from the Nosema/Vairimorpha group.

  11. Genomic organization of the human T-cell receptor variable {alpha} (TCRAV) gene cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Ibberson, M.R.; Copier, J.P.; So, A.K.

    1995-07-20

    A long-range physical map of the human T-cell receptor variable {alpha} (TCRAV) locus was produced using 23 V{alpha} subgroup-specific probes. Linkage disequilibrium across the locus was also studied using polymorphic TCRAV markers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to map V{alpha} gene segments onto one SfiI fragment of 500 kb and two of 200 kb using DNA from peripheral blood neutrophils. PCR and conventional Southern techniques on Jurkat, CEM, and H9 T-cell lines were used to establish the 5{prime} to 3{prime} order of the gene segments and the relative positions of V{alpha} gene segments on the SfiI fragments. The linkage disequilibrium study used single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis to genotype 100 normal caucasoid subjects for TCRAV5S1, V6S1, V8S1, V17S1, and V21S1 polymorphisms. Strong linkage disequilibrium was detected between V5S1 and V8S1, in concordance with the physical map. This new information will be useful for future studies of genetic variation at the TCRAV locus, its role in the shaping of the TCR repertoire, and its possible contribution to autoimmune diseases. 46 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Optimization of alpha-acylaminoketone ecdysone agonists for control of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tice, Colin M; Hormann, Robert E; Thompson, Christine S; Friz, Jennifer L; Cavanaugh, Caitlin K; Saggers, Jessica A

    2003-06-02

    Fifteen new alpha-acylaminoketones were prepared by four different routes in an initial effort to optimize the potency of these compounds as ecdysone agonists. The compounds were assayed in mammalian cells expressing the ecdysone receptors from Bombyx mori (BmEcR) and Choristoneura fumiferana (CfEcR) for their ability to cause expression of a reporter gene downstream of an ecdysone response element. A new alpha-acylaminoketone was identified which had activity equal to that of the standard dibenzoylhydrazine ecdysone agonist GS()-E in the assay based on CfEcR.

  13. Alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene from Phaseolus vulgaris expressed in Coffea arabica plants inhibits alpha-amylases from the coffee berry borer pest.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Aulus E A D; Albuquerque, Erika V S; Silva, Maria C M; Souza, Djair S L; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Valencia, Arnubio; Rocha, Thales L; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2010-06-17

    Coffee is an important crop and is crucial to the economy of many developing countries, generating around US$70 billion per year. There are 115 species in the Coffea genus, but only two, C. arabica and C. canephora, are commercially cultivated. Coffee plants are attacked by many pathogens and insect-pests, which affect not only the production of coffee but also its grain quality, reducing the commercial value of the product. The main insect-pest, the coffee berry borer (Hypotheneumus hampei), is responsible for worldwide annual losses of around US$500 million. The coffee berry borer exclusively damages the coffee berries, and it is mainly controlled by organochlorine insecticides that are both toxic and carcinogenic. Unfortunately, natural resistance in the genus Coffea to H. hampei has not been documented. To overcome these problems, biotechnological strategies can be used to introduce an alpha-amylase inhibitor gene (alpha-AI1), which confers resistance against the coffee berry borer insect-pest, into C. arabica plants. We transformed C. arabica with the alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 gene (alpha-AI1) from the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, under control of the seed-specific phytohemagglutinin promoter (PHA-L). The presence of the alpha-AI1 gene in six regenerated transgenic T1 coffee plants was identified by PCR and Southern blotting. Immunoblotting and ELISA experiments using antibodies against alpha-AI1 inhibitor showed a maximum alpha-AI1 concentration of 0.29% in crude seed extracts. Inhibitory in vitro assays of the alpha-AI1 protein against H. hampei alpha-amylases in transgenic seed extracts showed up to 88% inhibition of enzyme activity. This is the first report showing the production of transgenic coffee plants with the biotechnological potential to control the coffee berry borer, the most important insect-pest of crop coffee.

  14. Growth-related gene product {alpha}: A chemotactic cytokine for neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.E.; Pope, R.M. |; Shah, M.R.; Hosaka, S.

    1995-10-01

    Leukocyte recruitment is critical in the inflammation seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To determine whether the chemokine growth-related gene product {alpha} (gro{alpha}) plays a role in this process, we examined synovial tissue (ST), synovial fluid (SF), and plasma samples from 102 patients with arthritis. RA SF contained more antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 5.3 {+-} 1.9 ng/ml) than did SFs from either osteoarthritis (OA) or other forms of arthritis (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA plasma contained more gro{alpha} (mean 4.3 {+-} 1.8 ng/ml) than normal plasma (mean 0.1 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). RA ST fibroblasts (1.2 x 10{sup 5}/cells/ml RPMI 1640/24 h) produced antigenic gro{alpha} (mean 0.2 {+-} 0.1 ng/ml), and this production was increased significantly upon incubation with TNF-{alpha} (mean 1.3 {+-} 0.3 ng/ml) or IL-1{beta} (mean 2.3 {+-} 0.6 ng/ml) (p < 0.05). Cells from RA SF also produced gro{alpha}: neutrophils (PMNs) (10{sup 7} cells/ml/24 h) produced 3.7 {+-} 0.7 ng/ml. RA SF mononuclear cells produced gro{alpha}, particularly upon incubation with LPS or PHA. Immunoreactive ST gro{alpha} was found in greater numbers of RA compared with either OA or normal lining cells, as well as in RA compared with OA subsynovial macrophages (p < 0.05). IL-8 accounted for a mean of 36% of the RA SF chemotactic activity for PMNs, while epithelial neutrophil-activating peptide-78 accounted for 34%, and gro{alpha} for 28%, of this activity. Combined neutralization of all three chemokines in RA SFs resulted in a mean decrease of 50% of the chemotactic activity for PMNs present in the RA SFs. These results indicate that gro{alpha} plays an important role in the ingress of PMNs into the RA joint. 54 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Multiplex pcr assay for detection of human interferon alpha2b gene in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Gerasymenko, I M; Sakhno, L O; Mazur, M G; Sheludko, Y V

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade interferons are regarded as potent candidates for generation of plant-based edible vaccines because of broad spectrum of antiviral activities and adjuvant properties. Establishment and certification of numerous interferon producing plant systems requests development of fast and efficient multiplex PCR protocol for the transgene detection in GM plants. Here we represent a protocol for simultaneous amplification in one assay of fragments of hIFN alpha 2b gene and two control genes, namely virD1 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens and conservative region of plant actin gene.

  16. Do HLA genes play a prominent role in determining T cell receptor V{alpha} segment usage in humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Gulwani-Akolkar, B.; Shi, B.; Akolkar, P.N.

    1995-04-15

    Previous studies in humans have demonstrated that HLA genes can profoundly influence the TCR V{beta} repertoire. To similarly assess the influence of HLA genes on the TCR V{alpha} segment repertoire, the V{alpha} repertoires of 12 individuals from three unrelated families were determined by quantitative PCR. Each family contained at least one pair of HLA-identical and -nonidentical siblings. Repertoire analysis was performed on purified CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells by using V{alpha}-specific primers. We were unable to demonstrate more similar V{alpha} repertoires between HLA-identical siblings than between HLA-nonidentical siblings. In contrast, when a similar analysis was performed on the same individuals for the V{beta} repertoire, HLA-identical siblings were found to have significantly more similar repertoires than HLA-nonidentical siblings. Furthermore, both the V{alpha} and V{beta} repertoires of monozygotic twins showed striking similarity. Despite our inability to shown an influence of HLA genes on the V{alpha} repertoire, we did observe a very strong skewing in terms of preferential expression on CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} cells of several V{alpha} segments, notably TCRAV1, -2, -5, -6, -7, -11, -12, and -13. These studies suggest that HLA genes play less of a role in determining V{alpha} segment usage than V{beta}. Nevertheless, the pronounced skewing of V{alpha} segment expression in the CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} populations suggests some role for HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the striking similarity of V{alpha} repertoires of identical twins suggests a major role for non-HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} repertoire. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Variation in the level of fetal hemoglobin in (delta beta) (0)-thalassemia heterozygotes with different numbers of alpha-globin genes.

    PubMed

    Oner, C; Gurgey, A; Altay, C; Kutlar, F; Huisman, T H

    1990-07-01

    The Sicilian type of (delta beta) (0)-thalassemia characterized by a approximately 13 kb deletion, was present in a Turkish boy who is a homozygote and in his heterozygous parents who are first cousins. The father with approximately 21% Hb F had five alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha) and the mother with approximately 10% Hb F had an alpha-thal-2 heterozygosity (alpha alpha/-alpha). The difference in Hb F level is explained by a decreased formation of alpha 2 gamma 2 tetramers in the mother with an alpha-chain deficiency while the extra alpha-globin gene in the father will promote Hb F production.

  18. Molecular cloning, pathologically-correlated expression and functional characterization of the colonystimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) gene from a teleost, Plecoglossus altivelis

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Qiang; LU, Xin-Jiang; LI, Ming-Yun; CHEN, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) is an important regulator of monocytes/macrophages (MO/MΦ). Although several CSF-1R genes have been identified in teleosts, the precise role of CSF- 1R in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) remains unclear. In this study, we characterized the CSF-1R homologue from P. altivelis, and named it PaCSF-1R. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PaCSF-1R was most closely related to that of Japanese ricefish (Oryzias latipes). Tissue distribution and expression analysis showed that the PaCSF-1R transcript was mainly expressed in the head kidney-derived MO/MΦ, spleen, and head kidney, and its expression was significantly altered in various tissues upon Vibrio anguillarum infection. After PaCSF-1R neutralization for 48 h, the phagocytic activity of MO/MΦ was significantly decreased, suggesting that PaCSF-1R plays a role in regulating the phagocytic function of ayu MO/MΦ. PMID:27029867

  19. In vivo topoisomerase I inhibition attenuates the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α target genes and decreases tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-02-10

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I-directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies.

  20. In Vivo Topoisomerase I Inhibition Attenuates the Expression of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1α Target Genes and Decreases Tumor Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Guérin, Eric; Raffelsberger, Wolfgang; Pencreach, Erwan; Maier, Armin; Neuville, Agnès; Schneider, Anne; Bachellier, Philippe; Rohr, Serge; Petitprez, Amélie; Poch, Olivier; Moras, Dino; Oudet, Pierre; Larsen, Annette K; Gaub, Marie-Pierre; Guenot, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is a privileged target for widely used anticancer agents such as irinotecan. Although these drugs are classically considered to be DNA-damaging agents, increasing evidence suggests that they might also influence the tumor environment. This study evaluates in vivo cellular and molecular modifications induced by irinotecan, a topoisomerase I–directed agent, in patient-derived colon tumors subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. Irinotecan was given intraperitoneally at 40 mg/kg five times every 5 d, and expression profiles were evaluated at d 25 in tumors from treated and untreated animals. Unexpectedly, the in vivo antitumor activity of irinotecan was closely linked to a downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1A) target genes along with an inhibition of HIF1A protein accumulation. The consequence was a decrease in tumor angiogenesis leading to tumor size stabilization. These results highlight the molecular basis for the antitumor activity of a widely used anticancer agent, and the method used opens the way for mechanistic studies of the in vivo activity of other anticancer therapies. PMID:22033674

  1. Association between Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Gene rs12423791 or rs6214 Polymorphisms and High Myopia: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lan; Du, Xueying; Lu, Ciyong; Zhang, Wei-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of insulin-like growth factor 1 gene rs12423791 and rs6214 polymorphisms with high myopia. Methods An electronic search was conducted on PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library and the Chinese Biological Abstract Database for articles published prior to May 6, 2014. A meta-analysis was performed using Revman 5.1 and Stata 12.0, and the odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in fixed or random effects models based on the results of the Q test. The subgroup analysis was conducted on the basis of the various regions, the sensitivity analysis was also performed to evaluate the stability of the results, and the publication bias was evaluated by a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression analysis. Results This comprehensive meta-analysis included 2808 high myopia patients and 2778 controls from five unrelated studies. The results demonstrated that the significant association was not present in any genetic models between IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 and high myopia. However, subgroup analysis indicated that rs12423791 polymorphism was associated with high myopia in the Chinese populations in the allelic contrast model (C vs. G: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.04-1.48 in the fixed-effects model), the dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.16-1.69 in the fixed-effects model), and the codominant model (CG vs. GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI= 1.12-1.68 in the fixed-effects model). Additionally, none of the individual studies significantly affected the association between IGF-1 rs12423791 and high myopia, according to sensitivity analysis. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that IGF-1 rs12423791 or rs6214 gene polymorphism is not associated with high myopia. PMID:26076017

  2. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 regulates the expression of the organic cation transporter 1 via binding to an evolutionary conserved region in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Valerie P; Bokelmann, Kristin; Ramírez, Jacqueline; Jobst, Karoline; Ratain, Mark J; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2013-10-01

    The organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), also known as solute carrier family 22 member 1, is strongly and specifically expressed in the human liver. Here we show that the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) regulates OCT1 transcription and contributes to the strong, liver-specific expression of OCT1. Bioinformatic analyses revealed strong conservation of HNF1 binding motifs in an evolutionary conserved region (ECR) in intron 1 of the OCT1 gene. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the specific binding of HNF1 to the intron 1 ECR. In reporter gene assays performed in HepG2 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 22-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 13-fold. The increase was reversed when the HNF1 binding sites in the intron 1 ECR were mutated or the endogenous HNF1α expression was downregulated with small interfering RNA. Following HNF1α overexpression in Huh7 cells, the intron 1 ECR increased SV40 promoter activity by 11-fold and OCT1 promoter activity by 6-fold. Without HNF1α overexpression, the increases were only 3- and 2-fold, respectively. Finally, in human liver samples, high HNF1 expression was significantly correlated with high OCT1 expression (r = 0.48, P = 0.002, n = 40). In conclusion, HNF1 is a strong regulator of OCT1 expression. It remains to be determined whether genetic variants, disease conditions, or drugs that affect HNF1 activity may affect the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of OCT1-transported drugs such as morphine, tropisetron, ondansetron, tramadol, and metformin. Beyond OCT1, this study demonstrates the validity and usefulness of interspecies comparisons in the discovery of functionally relevant genomic sequences.

  3. A polymorphism in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene is associated with postpartum resumption of ovarian cyclicity in Holstein-Friesian cows under grazing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) gene is considered as a promising candidate for the identification of polymorphisms affecting cattle performance. The objectives of the current study were to determine the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) IGF-1/SnaBI with fertility, milk production and body condition traits in Holstein-Friesian dairy cows under grazing conditions. Methods Seventy multiparous cows from a commercial herd were genotyped for the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Fertility measures evaluated were: interval to commencement of luteal activity (CLA), calving to first service (CFS) and calving to conception (CC) intervals. Milk production and body condition score were also evaluated. The study period extended from 3 wk before calving to the fourth month of lactation. Results and discussion Frequencies of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI alleles A and B were 0.59 and 0.41, respectively. Genotype frequencies were 0.31, 0.54 and 0.14 for AA, AB and BB, respectively. Cows with the AA genotype presented an early CLA and were more likely to resume ovarian cyclicity in the early postpartum than AB and BB ones. No effect of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI genotype was evidenced on body condition change over the experimental period, suggesting that energy balance is not responsible for the outcome of postpartum ovarian resumption in this study. Traditional fertility measures were not affected by the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first report describing an association of the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI with an endocrine fertility measure like CLA in cattle. Results herein remark the important role of the IGF-1gene in the fertility of dairy cows on early lactation and make the SNP IGF-1/SnaBI an interesting candidate marker for genetic improvement of fertility in dairy cattle. PMID:23409757

  4. Differentiation phenotypes of pancreatic islet beta- and alpha-cells are closely related with homeotic genes and a group of differentially expressed genes.

    PubMed

    Mizusawa, Noriko; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Ohigashi, Izumi; Tanaka-Kosugi, Chisato; Harada, Nagakatsu; Itakura, Mitsuo; Yoshimoto, Katsuhiko

    2004-04-28

    To identify the genes that determine differentiation phenotypes, we compared gene expression of pancreatic islet beta- and alpha-cells, which are derived from the common precursor and secrete insulin and glucagon, respectively. The expression levels of homeotic genes including Hox genes known to determine region specificity in the antero-posterior (AP) body axis, tissue-specific homeobox genes, and other 8,734 genes were compared in a beta- and alpha-cell line of MIN6 and alpha TC1.6. The expression of homeotic genes were surveyed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers corresponding to invariant amino acid sequences within the homeodomain and subsequently with specific primers. Expression of Hoxc6, Hoxc9, Hoxc10, Pdx1, Cdx2, Gbx2, Pax4, and Hlxb9 genes in MIN6 was higher than those in alpha TC1.6, while expression of Hoxa2, Hoxa3, Hoxa5, Hoxa6, Hoxa7, Hoxa9, Hoxa10, Hoxa13, Hoxb3, Hoxb5, Hoxb6, Hoxb13, Hoxb8, and Brain4 genes in alpha TC1.6 was higher than those in MIN6. Out of 8,734 mouse genes screened with high-density mouse cDNA microarrays for MIN6- and alpha TC1.6-derived cDNA, 58 and 25 genes were differentially over- and under-expressed in MIN6, respectively. GLUTag, which is derived from a large bowel tumor and expresses the proglucagon gene, showed a comparatively similar expression profile to that of alpha TC1.6 in both homeotic and other genes analyzed in cDNA microarray. Our results are consistent with the interpretation that not only the tissue-specific homeotic genes, but also Hox genes are related to differentiation phenotypes of pancreatic beta- and alpha-cells rather than their regional specification of the body in vertebrates.

  5. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and semaphorin4D genes involved with tumor-associated macrophage-induced metastatic behavior and clinical significance in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Mu, Linjun; Wang, Jinshen; Chen, Yuezhi; Li, Leping; Guo, Xiaobo; Zheng, Sheng; Jing, Changqing

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a pivotal role in this process. Recently identified pro-angiogenic factor, semaphorin4D (Sema4D) also promotes angiogenesis and enhances invasive proliferation in some tumors. Furthermore, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) can increase the expression of HIF-1α and Sema4D in cancer cells and thus influence tumor growth and progression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of TAMs on the expression of Sema4D and HIF-1α and the impact of biologic behavior in colon cancer cells. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyze HIF-1α and Sema4D expression in 86 curatively resected colon cancer samples and 52 normal colon tissues samples. The relationship between their expression and clinicopathological factors was analyzed. Furthermore, macrophage-tumor cell interactions, such as metastasis, angiogenesis, were also studied using in vitro co-culture systems. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0 software (SPSS Inc., USA). Differences between two groups were analyzed with Student's t test. HIF-1α (58%) and Sema4D (60%) were expressed at a significantly higher level in tumors than in normal tissues (P < 0.01, for both). Furthermore, HIF-1α and Sema4D expression was significantly correlated with lymphatic metastasis, specific histological types and TNM stages (P < 0.05), but not with age and tumor size (P > 0.05). Sema4D expression was correlated with that of HIF-1α (r = 0.567, P < 0.01). TAMs markedly induced HIF-1α and Sema4D expression in colon cancer cells and subsequently increased their migration and invasion. HIF-1α and Sema4D expression are closely related to lymphatic metastasis, specific histological types and TNM stages in colon cancer. Furthermore, TAMs promote migration and invasion of colon cancer cells and endothelial tube formation, possibly through up-regulation of HIF-1α and Sema4D.

  6. Comamonas testosteroni 3-ketosteroid-delta 4(5 alpha)-dehydrogenase: gene and protein characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Florin, C; Köhler, T; Grandguillot, M; Plesiat, P

    1996-01-01

    Comamonas testosteroni delta 4(5 alpha)- and delta1-dehydrogenases [delta4(5alpha)- and delta1DH] are key enzymes in the degradation of steroids having an A:B ring fusion in a trans configuration. We previously reported the isolation of the delta1dh gene (P. Plesiat, M. Grandguillot, S. Harayama, S. Vragar, and Y. Michel Briand, J. Bacteriol. 173:7219-7227, 1991). In this study, the gene encoding delta 4(5 alpha)DH was cloned in Escherichia coli on a 16-kbp BamHI fragment by screening a genomic bank of C. testosteroni ATCC 17410 with a probe derived from delta1dh. Subcloning experiments in plasmid pUC19 mapped delta 4(5 alpha)dh immediately downstream of delta1dh. The enzyme was overexpressed 18-fold in cells of E. coli JM109 carrying a 2.5-kbp cloned fragment (plasmid pXE25). However, much higher levels of enzymatic activity (264-fold) were obtained in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, using pMMB208 as an expression vector. Studies with crude lysates of KT2440 showed that delta4(5alpha)DH exhibits higher specificity and higher activity toward delta l-androstene-3,17-dione than toward the saturated derivative 5 alpha-androstane-3,17-dione. The reaction was found to be irreversible and to use efficiently typical flavoprotein electron acceptors; optimal conditions for the enzyme activity were pH 8 and 40 degrees C. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the insert of pXE25 revealed an open reading frame of 1,593 bp preceded by a putative ribosome-binding site and followed by a potential transcription terminator. The amino acid sequence of the deduced peptide showed a typical flavin adenine dinucleotide-binding site in its N-terminal region, confirming the flavoproteinic structure of delta 4(5 alpha)DH. The predicted molecular mass was consistent with that of the enzyme expressed in a T7 polymerase system (60 kDa). Alignment between delta 4(5 alpha)dh and delta1dh indicated that both genes, though coding for functionally related enzymes, do not derive from a common ancestor

  7. Characterization of the rat transforming growth factor alpha gene and identification of promoter sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Blasband, A J; Rogers, K T; Chen, X R; Azizkhan, J C; Lee, D C

    1990-01-01

    We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of rat transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) mRNA and characterized the six exons that encode this transcript. These six exons span approximately 85 kilobases of genomic DNA, with exons 1 to 3 separated by particularly large introns. What had previously been thought to represent a species-specific difference in the size of the TGF alpha precursor (proTGF alpha) is now shown to be due to microheterogeneity in the splicing of exons 2 and 3. This results from a tandem duplication of the acceptor CAG and gives rise to two alternate forms (159 and 160 amino acids) of the integral membrane precursor. Exon 6, which encodes the 3' untranslated region of TGF alpha mRNA, also encodes, on the opposite strand, a small (approximately 200-nucleotide) transcript whose sequence predicts an open reading frame of 51 amino acids. Expression of this latter transcript does not appear to be coregulated with that of TGF alpha mRNA. Primer extension and S1 nuclease analyses of authentic TGF alpha transcripts revealed two major and multiple minor 5' ends which span more than 200 base pairs of DNA in a G + C-rich region that lacks canonical CCAAT or TATA sequences. The 5' ends of six independently derived cDNAs localized to five different sites in this same region. Restriction fragments that overlap these transcription start sites and extend approximately 300 base pairs in the 5' direction faithfully promote transcription in vitro with HeLa cell nuclear extracts. In addition, they direct the expression of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene in transient-transfection assays. Images PMID:2325647

  8. Transcriptional regulation of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene: binding of USF to the -7/+5 region.

    PubMed

    Sax, C M; Cvekl, A; Piatigorsky, J

    1997-02-07

    Lens preferred-expression of the mouse alpha A-crystallin gene (alpha A-cry) is regulated at the transcriptional level by multiple elements located in the 5' flanking region of the gene. Here we present the first analysis of the functional role of the mouse alpha A-cry +1 region and the protein(s) which bind to it. The -7/+5 region of this promoter exhibits sequence similarity with the consensus upstream stimulating factor (USF) transcription factor binding site. A wild type oligodeoxyribonucleotide (oligo) spanning the mouse alpha A-cry -15/+15 region specifically inhibited the activity of a mouse alpha A-cry promoter-cat gene fusion (p alpha A 111aCAT) in competitive co-transfection studies in the mouse alpha TN4-1 lens cell line, as did an oligo containing the adenovirus 2 major late promoter strong USF binding site. In contrast, an alpha A-cry oligo mutated (-3/+3) within the USF-like binding site did not inhibit p alpha A111aCAT activity. Western blot analysis indicated that alpha TN4-1 cells express USF1. Co-transfection of p alpha A111aCAT and a USF1 cDNA expression vector into alpha TN4-1 cells resulted in a repression of mouse alpha A-cry promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift analyses (EMSA) demonstrated that proteins in an alpha TN4-1 nuclear extract form a single major complex on synthetic oligos spanning the mouse alpha A-cry -15/+15 region. The formation of this complex was inhibited by the presence of unlabeled -15/+15 oligos or an anti-USF1 antibody. In addition, purified USF1 bound to this region, producing a complex similar in size to that observed with alpha TN4-1 nuclear extracts. Taken together, our findings show that USF can bind to the mouse alpha A-cry +1 site, and support the possibility that USF plays a role in promoter activity of this gene. Sequence similarities surrounding the +1 region of the alpha A-cry gene of the mouse, mole rat, hamster, and human, as well as the previously observed utilization of USF by different cry

  9. Immunity to the alpha(1,3)galactosyl epitope provides protection in mice challenged with colon cancer cells expressing alpha(1,3)galactosyl-transferase: a novel suicide gene for cancer gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Unfer, Robert C; Hellrung, Daniel; Link, Charles J

    2003-03-01

    Human immunity to alpha(1,3)Galactosyl epitopes (alpha Gal) may provide the means for a successful cancer gene therapy that uses the immune system to identify and to destroy tumor cells expressing the suicide gene alpha(1,3)Galactosyltransferase (alpha GT). Innate antibody specific for cell surface alpha Gal constitutes a high percentage of circulating IgG and IgM immunoglobulins in humans and is the basis for complement-mediated hyperacute xenograft rejection and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. In humans, the gene for alpha GT is mutated, and cells do not express the alpha Gal moiety. We hypothesized that human tumor cells induced to express the alpha Gal epitope would be killed by the hosts' innate immunity. Previous in vitro work by our group has demonstrated complement-mediated lysis of alpha Gal-transduced human tumor cells in culture by human serum. To induce antibodies to alpha Gal in this in vivo study, alpha GT knockout mice were used to determine whether immunization with alpha Gal could provide protection from challenge with alpha Gal-expressing murine MC38 colon cancer cells. Knockout mice were immunized either a single time, or twice, with rabbit RBC. Antibody titers to alpha Gal measured by indirect ELISA were significantly higher in mice immunized twice and approached the titers observed in human serum. Anti-alpha Gal antibodies were predominantly of the IgG1 and IgG3 subtype. Immunized knockout mice were challenged i.p. with varying doses of alpha Gal(+) MC38 colon carcinoma cells. Nonimmunized control groups consisting of alpha GT knockout mice, and wild-type C57BL/6 mice were challenged as well with MC38 cells. Immunized mice survived and exhibited slower tumor development in comparison to nonimmunized knockout and control mice. This study demonstrates, in vivo, the protective benefit of an immune response to the alpha Gal epitope. Our results provide a basis to pursue additional development of this cancer gene therapy strategy.

  10. Functional effect of point mutations in the alpha-folate receptor gene of CABA I ovarian carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, F; Miotti, S; Galmozzi, E; Mazzi, M; Sforzini, S; Canevari, S; Tomassetti, A

    2001-01-01

    The alpha-folate receptor (alpha FR) is overexpressed in 90% of nonmucinous ovarian carcinomas. In addition to the known role of alpha FR binding and mediating the internalization of folates, functional interaction of alpha FR with signaling molecules was recently shown. To identify a model to study the role of alpha FR in ovarian carcinoma, we characterized the alpha FR gene in the ovarian carcinoma cell line CABA I in comparison to a reference line, IGROV1. In CABA I cells, Northern blot analysis revealed an alpha FR transcript of the expected length and FACS analysis indicated receptor expression on the cell membrane; however, RNase protection assay revealed no specific signals. Southern blot and genomic PCR analysis suggested the presence of a rearrangement(s) involving the 5' region of the gene in CABA I cells as compared to IGROV1 cells. Cloning and sequencing of CABA I alpha FR cDNA revealed several point mutations. The partitioning of alpha FR in membrane microdomains from CABA I cells and its association with regulatory molecules was comparable to that of IGROV1 cells. By contrast, the alpha FR expressed on the CABA I cell membrane bound folic acid with lower affinity, and ectopic expression of the corresponding cDNA in CHO cells confirmed impaired folic acid binding. Thus, CABA I cells may provide a tool to delineate functional domains of the alpha FR.

  11. Intron 1 and exon 1 alpha estrogen receptor gene polymorphisms in women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hélio; Nogueira-de-Souza, Naiara C; D'Amora, Paulo; Silva, Ismael D C G; Girão, Manoel J B C; Schor, Eduardo

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the association of intron 1 and exon 1 polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor alpha gene (ER-alpha) with endometriosis in women. Association study. Endometriosis Unit, Federal University of São Paulo. The control group consisted of volunteers older than 45 years who had no evidence of endometriosis antecedents. Two groups with the disease were evaluated: the first group had stage I or II endometriosis and the second group stage III or IV. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by digestion with HaeIII and MspI endonucleases (RFLP) were applied to detect intron 1 and exon 1 polymorphisms, respectively, in a total of 125 controls and 105 affected women. Frequency and distribution of HaeIII and MspI polymorphisms in ER-alpha. No significant differences in the frequency of polymorphisms either in intron 1 or exon 1 of ER-alpha were found when endometriosis patients were compared with control subjects. Furthermore, the frequency of ER-alpha polymorphisms within the two different groups of patients with disease was statistically similar. The odds ratio between presence of intron 1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and endometriosis was 0.904, and the odds ratio between exon 1 SNP and endometriosis was 0.976. The evaluated polymorphisms were not associated with endometriosis.

  12. Activating mutations of the G[sub s] [alpha]-gene in nonfucntioning pituitary tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tordjman, K.; Stern, N.; Friedman, E.; Ouaknine, G.; Razon, N.; Yossiphov, Y. ); Nordenskjoeld, M.; Friedman, E. )

    1993-09-01

    The majority of pituitary tumors are of monoclonal origin; however, the molecular basis for their formation is poorly understood. Somatic mutations in the [alpha]-subunit of the GTP-binding protein, G[sub s][alpha] (gsp oncogene) have been found in about one third of GH-secreting tumors. Mutations in another [alpha]-subunit of a GTP-binding protein, G[sub i2][alpha] (gip mutations) have been described in other endocrine tumors. In this study, the authors examined 21 nonfunctioning pituitary tumors and 4 macro-prolactinomas for gsp mutations and 27 nonfunctioning tumors and 4 macroprolactinomas for gip mutations. Using the polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 2 nonfunctioning pituitary tumors displayed migration abnormalities when the G[sub s] [alpha]-gene was analyzed. Sequence analysis of these abnormally migrating polymerase chain reaction products revealed two previously known gsp mutations: arginine at codon 201 altered to cysteine, and glutamine at codon 227 changed to leucine. No gip mutations could be demonstrated. These findings emphasize the monoclonal origin of nonfunctioning pituitary tumors and suggest that cAMP may play a role in tumorigenesis of nonfunctioning pituitary tumors. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Erythroid cell-specific alpha-globin gene regulation by the CP2 transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ho Chul; Chae, Ji Hyung; Lee, Yeon Ho; Park, Mi-Ae; Shin, June Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Cho, Yoon Shin; Fiering, Steven; Kim, Chul Geun

    2005-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that ubiquitously expressed CP2c exerts potent erythroid-specific transactivation of alpha-globin through an unknown mechanism. This mechanism is reported here to involve specific CP2 splice variants and protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1). We identify a novel murine splice isoform of CP2, CP2b, which is identical to CP2a except that it has an additional 36 amino acids encoded by an extra exon. CP2b has an erythroid cell-specific transcriptional activation domain, which requires the extra exon and can form heteromeric complexes with other CP2 isoforms, but lacks the DNA binding activity found in CP2a and CP2c. Transcriptional activation of alpha-globin occurred following dimerization between CP2b and CP2c in erythroid K562 and MEL cells, but this dimerization did not activate the alpha-globin promoter in nonerythroid 293T cells, indicating that an additional erythroid factor is missing in 293T cells. PIAS1 was confirmed as a CP2 binding protein by the yeast two-hybrid screen, and expression of CP2b, CP2c, and PIAS1 in 293T cell induced alpha-globin promoter activation. These results show that ubiquitously expressed CP2b exerts potent erythroid cell-specific alpha-globin gene expression by complexing with CP2c and PIAS1.

  14. Development of an amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain expressing the Lactobacillus amylovorus alpha-amylase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, A; Hols, P; Jore, J; Leer, R J; O'Connell, M; Delcour, J

    1994-01-01

    An amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum silage strain with the starch-degrading ability displayed by Lactobacillus amylovorus was developed. An active fragment of the gene coding for alpha-amylase production in L. amylovorus was cloned and integrated into the chromosome of the competitive inoculant strain L. plantarum Lp80 at the cbh locus. The alpha-amylase gene fragment was also introduced into L. plantarum Lp80 on an autoreplicative plasmid. Both constructions were also performed in the laboratory strain L. plantarum NCIB8826. All four recombinant strains secreted levels of amylase ranging from 23 to 69 U/liter, compared with 47 U/liter for L. amylovorus. Secretion levels were higher in L. plantarum NCIB8826 than in L. plantarum Lp80 derivatives and were higher in recombinant strains containing autoreplicative plasmids than in the corresponding integrants. The L. plantarum Lp80 derivative containing the L. amylovorus alpha-amylase gene fragment integrated into the host chromosome secreted alpha-amylase to a level comparable to that of L. amylovorus and was stable over 50 generations of growth under nonselective conditions. It grew to a higher cell density than either the parent strain or L. amylovorus in MRS medium containing a mixture of starch and glucose as the fermentable carbohydrate source. This recombinant alpha-amylolytic L. plantarum strain would therefore seem to have considerable potential as a silage inoculant for crops such as alfalfa, in which water-soluble carbohydrate levels are frequently low but starch is present as an alternative carbohydrate source. Images PMID:7986030

  15. HNF-1alpha participates in glucose regulation of sucrase-isomaltase gene expression in epithelial intestinal cells.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ning; Adachi, Tetsuya; Matsunaga, Tetsuro; Tsujimoto, Gozoh; Ishihara, Akihiko; Yasuda, Koichiro; Tsuda, Kinsuke

    2007-02-16

    Sucrase-isomaltase (SI) gene expression is negatively regulated by glucose, but its molecular mechanism is not completely clear. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether HNF-1alpha and HNF-1beta contribute to glucose regulation of SI gene expression. To explore this question, we examined the association of gene expressions between SI and HNF-1alpha and HNF-1beta in Caco-2 cells cultured in medium containing 2.0 and 16.7 mM glucose. We found that gene expression of HNF-1alpha but not HNF-1beta exhibits a positive correlation with that of SI regulated by glucose. Moreover, to elucidate whether glucose regulation of SI gene expression is changed when HNF-1alpha and HNF-1beta are inhibited, we produced three stable cell lines, in which dominant-negative mutant HNF-1alphaT539fsdelC, mutant HNF-1betaR177X, and empty vector (as a control), respectively, were stably expressed. We found that the glucose regulation of SI gene expression was significantly attenuated in HNF-1alphaT539fsdelC cells, but it was well maintained in empty vector and HNF-1betaR177X cells. These results suggest that HNF-1alpha participates in glucose regulation of SI gene expression.

  16. C7L Family of Poxvirus Host Range Genes Inhibits Antiviral Activities Induced by Type I Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangzhi; Schoggins, John; Rose, Lloyd; Cao, Jingxin; Ploss, Alexander; Rice, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) K1L and C7L function equivalently in many mammalian cells to support VACV replication and antagonize antiviral activities induced by type I interferons (IFNs). While K1L is limited to orthopoxviruses, genes that are homologous to C7L are found in diverse mammalian poxviruses. In this study, we showed that the C7L homologues from sheeppox virus and swinepox virus could rescue the replication defect of a VACV mutant deleted of both K1L and C7L (vK1L−C7L−). Interestingly, the sheeppox virus C7L homologue could rescue the replication of vK1L−C7L− in human HeLa cells but not in murine 3T3 and LA-4 cells, in contrast to all other C7L homologues. Replacing amino acids 134 and 135 of the sheeppox virus C7L homologue, however, made it functional in the two murine cell lines, suggesting that these two residues are critical for antagonizing a putative host restriction factor which has some subtle sequence variation in human and murine cells. Furthermore, the C7L family of host range genes from diverse mammalian poxviruses were all capable of antagonizing type I IFN-induced antiviral activities against VACV. Screening of a library of more than 350 IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) identified interferon-regulated factor 1 (IRF1) as an inhibitor of vK1L−C7L− but not wild-type VACV. Expression of either K1L or C7L, however, rendered vK1L−C7L− resistant to IRF1-induced antiviral activities. Altogether, our data show that K1L and C7L antagonize IRF1-induced antiviral activities and that the host modulation function of C7L is evolutionally conserved in all poxviruses that can readily replicate in tissue-cultured mammalian cells. PMID:22345458

  17. alpha. -Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: Nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison to other. alpha. -amylases

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, H.; Burchhardt, G.; Spreinat, A.; Haeckel, K.; Wienecke, A.; Antranikian, G.; Schmidt, B. )

    1991-05-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the {alpha}-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes Em1 suggested that the {alpha}-amylase is translated form mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature {alpha}-amylase contained 679 residues, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass of 75,112 Da. In E. coli the enzyme was transported to the periplasmic space and the signal peptide was cleaved at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 {alpha}-amylase with those from other bacterial and eukaryotic {alpha}-amylases showed several homologous regions, probably in the enzymatically functioning regions. The tentative Ca{sup 2+}-binding site (consensus region I) of this Ca{sub 2+}-independent enzyme showed only limited homology. The deduced amino acid sequence of a second obviously truncated open reading frame showed significant homology to the malG gene product of E. coli. Comparison of the {alpha}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 (DSM3896) with the {beta}-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes (ATCC 33743) indicated that both genes have been exchanged with each other at identical sites in the chromosomes of these strains.

  18. alpha-Amylase of Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1: nucleotide sequence of the gene, processing of the enzyme, and comparison of other alpha-amylases.

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, H; Burchhardt, G; Spreinat, A; Haeckel, K; Wienecke, A; Schmidt, B; Antranikian, G

    1991-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the alpha-amylase gene (amyA) from Clostridium thermosulfurogenes EM1 cloned in Escherichia coli was determined. The reading frame of the gene consisted of 2,121 bp. Comparison of the DNA sequence data with the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of the purified secreted protein of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 suggested that the alpha-amylase is translated from mRNA as a secretory precursor with a signal peptide of 27 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence of the mature alpha-amylase contained 679 residues, resulting in a protein with a molecular mass of 75,112 Da. In E. coli the enzyme was transported to the periplasmic space and the signal peptide was cleaved at exactly the same site between two alanine residues. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of the C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 alpha-amylase with those from other bacterial and eucaryotic alpha-amylases showed several homologous regions, probably in the enzymatically functioning regions. The tentative Ca(2+)-binding site (consensus region I) of this Ca(2+)-independent enzyme showed only limited homology. The deduced amino acid sequence of a second obviously truncated open reading frame showed significant homology to the malG gene product of E. coli. Comparison of the alpha-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes EM1 (DSM3896) with the beta-amylase gene region of C. thermosulfurogenes (ATCC 33743) indicated that both genes have been exchanged with each other at identical sites in the chromosomes of these strains. PMID:1854207

  19. Tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase: one gene encodes both an enzyme and a lens structural protein

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    tau-Crystallin has been a major component of the cellular lenses of species throughout vertebrate evolution, from lamprey to birds. Immunofluorescence analysis of the embryonic turtle lens, using antiserum to lamprey tau-crystallin showed that the protein is expressed throughout embryogenesis and is present at high concentrations in all parts of the lens. Partial peptide sequence for the isolated turtle protein and deduced sequences for several lamprey peptides all revealed a close similarity to the glycolytic enzyme enolase (E.C. 4.2.1.11). A full-sized cDNA for putative duck tau- crystallin was obtained and sequenced, confirming the close relationship with alpha-enolase. Southern blot analysis showed that the duck genome contains a single alpha-enolase gene, while Northern blot analysis showed that the message for tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase is present in embryonic duck lens at 25 times the abundance found in liver. tau-Crystallin possesses enolase activity, but the activity is greatly reduced, probably because of age-related posttranslational modification. It thus appears that a highly conserved, important glycolytic enzyme has been used as a structural component of lens since the start of vertebrate evolution. Apparently the enzyme has not been recruited for its catalytic activity but for some distinct structural property. tau-Crystallin/alpha-enolase is an example of a multifunctional protein playing two very different roles in evolution but encoded by a single gene. PMID:2462567

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulation of the Id gene family in astrocytes and microglia during CNS inflammatory injury.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, S F; Kahn, M; Liva, S; De Vellis, J

    1999-04-01

    The inhibitors of DNA binding (Id) gene family is highly expressed during embryogenesis and throughout adulthood in the rat central nervous system (CNS). In vitro studies suggest that the Id gene family is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Recently, Id gene expression was shown to be expressed in immature and mature astrocytes during development and upregulated in reactive astrocytes after spinal cord injury. These results suggest that the Id gene family may play an important role in regulating astrocyte development and reactivity; however, the factors regulating Id expression in astrocytes remain undefined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, is thought to play a crucial role in astrocyte/microglia activation after injury to the CNS. To determine if TNF alpha plays a role in Id gene expression, we exogenously administered TNF alpha into developing postnatal rats. We report that TNF alpha injections resulted in a rapid and transient increase in both cell number and mRNA expression for Id2 and Id3 when compared to levels observed in noninjected or control-injected animals. Id1 mRNA levels were also upregulated after TNF alpha treatment, but to a lesser degree. Significant increases in TNF alpha-induced Id2 and Id3 mRNA were observed in the ventricular/subventricular zone, cingulum and corpus callosum. TNF alpha also increased Id2 mRNA expression in the caudate putamen and hippocampus at the injection site. Id2 and Id3 mRNA+ cells were identified as GFAP+ and S100 alpha + astrocytes as well as ED1+ microglia. This is the first report to show TNF-alpha-induced modulation of the Id gene family and suggests that Id may be involved in the formation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia in the rodent brain. These results suggest a putative role for the Id family in the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular responsiveness to TNF alpha and CNS inflammation.

  1. Six mouse alpha-tubulin mRNAs encode five distinct isotypes: testis-specific expression of two sister genes.

    PubMed Central

    Villasante, A; Wang, D; Dobner, P; Dolph, P; Lewis, S A; Cowan, N J

    1986-01-01

    Five mouse alpha-tubulin isotypes are described, each distinguished by the presence of unique amino acid substitutions within the coding region. Most, though not all of these isotype-specific amino acids, are clustered at the carboxy terminus. One of the alpha-tubulin isotypes described is expressed exclusively in testis and is encoded by two closely related genes (M alpha 3 and M alpha 7) which have homologous 3' untranslated regions but which differ at multiple third codon positions and in their 5' untranslated regions. We show that a subfamily of alpha-tubulin genes encoding the same testis-specific isotype also exists in humans. Thus, we conclude that the duplication event leading to a pair of genes encoding a testis-specific alpha-tubulin isotype predated the mammalian radiation, and both members of the duplicated sequence have been maintained since species divergence. A second alpha-tubulin gene, M alpha 6, is expressed ubiquitously at a low level, whereas a third gene, M alpha 4, is unique in that it does not encode a carboxy-terminal tyrosine residue. This gene yields two transcripts: a 1.8-kilobase (kb) mRNA that is abundant in muscle and a 2.4-kb mRNA that is abundant in testis. Whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isotype, the 2.4-kb mRNA is defective in that the methionine residue required for translational initiation is missing. Patterns of developmental expression of the various alpha-tubulin isotypes are presented. Our data support the view that individual tubulin isotypes are capable of conferring functional specificity on different kinds of microtubules. Images PMID:3785200

  2. Comparative gene expression profiles induced by PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rogue, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie Pierre; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, Andre; Spire, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    Species-differential toxic effects have been described with PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists between rodent and human liver. PPAR{alpha} agonists (fibrates) are potent hypocholesterolemic agents in humans while they induce peroxisome proliferation and tumors in rodent liver. By contrast, PPAR{gamma} agonists (glitazones) and even dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists (glitazars) have caused idiosyncratic hepatic and nonhepatic toxicities in human without evidence of any damage in rodent during preclinical studies. The mechanisms involved in such differences remain largely unknown. Several studies have identified the major target genes of PPAR{alpha} agonists in rodent liver while no comprehensive analysis has been performed on gene expression changes induced by PPAR{gamma} and dual PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists. Here, we investigated transcriptomes of rat hepatocytes after 24 h treatment with two PPAR{gamma} (troglitazone and rosiglitazone) and two PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} (muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) agonists. Although, hierarchical clustering revealed a gene expression profile characteristic of each PPAR agonist class, only a limited number of genes was specifically deregulated by glitazars. Functional analyses showed that many genes known as PPAR{alpha} targets were also modulated by both PPAR{gamma} and PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} agonists and quantitative differences in gene expression profiles were observed between these two classes. Moreover, most major genes modulated in rat hepatocytes were also found to be deregulated in rat liver after tesaglitazar treatment. Taken altogether, these results support the conclusion that differential toxic effects of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} agonists in rodent liver do not result from transcriptional deregulation of major PPAR target genes but rather from qualitative and/or quantitative differential responses of a small subset of genes.

  3. Increase in expression level of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes in Arabidopsis seedlings under hypergravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hoson, T.

    Hypergravity, a gravitational force of more than 1 g, suppresses elongation growth of shoots of various plants. The analysis of the changes in gene expression by hypergravity treatment in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by the differential display method showed that a gene encoding alpha-tubulin, which is a component of microtubules, was up-regulated by hypergravity [Yoshioka et al. (2003) Adv. Space Res. 31: 2187-2193]. However, the detailed relation between hypergravity treatment and the changes in alpha-tubulin gene levels has not been determined yet. Microtubules are formed by the spontaneous polymerization of dimers consisting of one alpha- and one beta-tubulin protein molecule. Thus, the expression levels of beta-tubulin genes may also be affected by hypergravity. In the present study, we examined the dose-response and the time course relations of change in the expression of both alpha- and beta-tubulin genes in Arabidopsis hypocotyls grown under hypergravity conditions. Elongation growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls was suppressed by increasing gravity. The expression levels of both alpha- and beta-tubulin genes were increased depending on the magnitude of gravity. At 300 g, expression levels of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes were about 400% and 350% of the 1 g control, respectively. The increases in expression of both tubulin genes were detected within a few hours, when the seedlings grown at 1 g were transferred to hypergravity conditions. The increase in alpha- and beta-tubulin genes preceded or occurred at the same time as growth suppression. These results suggest that Arabidopsis hypocotyls regulate the expression level of alpha- and beta-tubulin genes promptly in response to gravity stimuli. The increase in the amount of microtubules due to the activation of tubulin gene expression may be involved in the regulation by gravity signal of shoot growth.

  4. Genome-Wide Screening of Alpha-Tocopherol Sensitive Genes in Heart Tissue from Alpha-Tocopherol Transfer Protein Null Mice (ATTP−/−)

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Vihas T.; Hobson, Brad; Gohil, Kishorchandra; Cross, Carroll E.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha tocopherol transfer protein (ATTP) null mice (ATTP−/−) have a systemic deficiency of alpha-tocopherol (AT). The heart AT levels of ATTP−/− are <10% of those in ATTP+/+ mice. The genomic responses of heart to AT deficiency were determined in 3 months old male ATTP−/− mice and compared with their ATTP+/+ littermate controls using Affymetrix 430A 2.0 high density oligonucleotide arrays. Differential analysis of ~13,000 genes identified repression of genes related to immune system and activation of genes related to lipid metabolism and inflammation with no significant change in the expression of classical antioxidant genes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in ATTP−/− as compared to ATTP+/+ mice. The present data identifies novel classes of AT sensitive genes in heart tissue. PMID:17382327

  5. Growth hormone inhibits rat liver alpha-1-acid glycoprotein gene expression in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mejdoubi, N; Henriques, C; Bui, E; Durand, G; Lardeux, B; Porquet, D

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), one of the major acute-phase proteins, is positively controlled at the transcriptional level by cytokines (interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha) and glucocorticoids. Here, we show that growth hormone (GH) treatment of isolated rat hepatocytes in vitro reduces AGP messenger RNA (mRNA) expression. AGP gene expression remained inducible by IL-1, IL-6, and phenobarbital (PB) in GH-treated hepatocytes. Interestingly, the repressive effect of GH on AGP gene expression was also observed in vivo: liver AGP mRNA content was strongly increased in hypophysectomized rats, and GH treatment of these animals led to a decrease in mRNA to levels lower than those in untreated control animals. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of GH mainly occurs at the transcriptional level and can be observed as little as 0.5 hours after GH adding in vitro to isolated hepatocytes. These results show negative regulation of AGP gene expression and strongly suggest that GH is a major endogenous regulator of constitutive AGP gene expression. Moreover, transfection assays showed that the region of the AGP promoter located at position -147 to -123 is involved in AGP gene regulation by GH. Furthermore, GH deeply modifies the pattern of nuclear protein binding to this region. GH treatment of hypophysectomized rats led to the release of proteins of 42 to 45 and 80 kd and to the binding of proteins of 48 to 50 and 90 kd.

  6. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, B.; Kumar, N. Vinod; Sreenivasulu, D.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3%) samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases. PMID:27051186

  7. TCR gene segments from at least one third of V alpha subfamilies rearrange at the delta locus.

    PubMed

    Genevée, C; Chung, V; Diu, A; Hercend, T; Triebel, F

    1994-02-01

    Using PCR and an experimentally validated V alpha subfamily-specific oligonucleotide panel (V alpha 1-w29), we have investigated whether the TCR delta chain may increase its combinatorial diversity by using V genes considered as alpha chain-specific. We show that at least 10 distinct human V alpha segments rearrange at the J delta locus, leading to scrambling of the two V gene repertoires. Fifty-five per cent of the V alpha/J delta transcripts characterized here were in frame. The 17 V alpha/C delta chains analysed included an extended CDR3 region with up to 18 aa encoded by the junctional region. In addition, a new J delta segment (J delta 4) has been characterized. Together, these findings demonstrate that combinatorial diversity in the human delta locus is larger than previously thought.

  8. PPAR{alpha} gene expression is up-regulated by LXR and PXR activators in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Jun; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Kita, Mariko; Nakahara, Mayuko; Hachimura, Satoshi; Miyata, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-07-11

    LXR, PXR, and PPAR{alpha} are members of a nuclear receptor family which regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we show the administration of T0901317 stimulates PPAR{alpha} gene expression in the small intestine but not in the liver of both normal and FXR-null mice. The administration of LXR specific ligand GW3965, or PXR specific ligand PCN has the same effect, indicating that ligand-dependent activation of LXR and PXR, but not FXR, is responsible for the increased gene expression of PPAR{alpha} in the mouse small intestine.

  9. Regional assignment of the structural gene for human alpha-L-iduronidase.

    PubMed Central

    Schuchman, E H; Astrin, K H; Aula, P; Desnick, R J

    1984-01-01

    The structural gene encoding human alpha-L-iduronidase has been assigned to chromosome 22 by using immunologic, electrophoretic, and somatic cell hybridization techniques. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against purified human low-uptake alpha-L-iduronidase were used to discriminate the human and murine isozymes by a sensitive immuno-precipitation assay. The human chromosome constitution of each clone was determined by cytogenetic and enzyme marker electrophoretic techniques. In 65 human (fibroblast)-mouse (RAG) somatic cell hybrids (from four independent fusions), the expression of human alpha-L-iduronidase was 100% concordant with the presence of human chromosome 22; the assignment was confirmed by the demonstration of the human enzyme in tertiary somatic cell hybrids containing only chromosome 22. Further verification of the gene assignment was made by detection of the human enzyme in tertiary chromosome 22 positive hybrids by Ouchterlony immunodiffusion and rocket immunoelectrophoretic experiments with polyclonal anti-human alpha-L-iduronidase antibodies that were monospecific for the human enzyme. Expression of human enzymatic activity in chromosome 22 positive hybrid lines was markedly reduced; for example, a tertiary hybrid (R-G21-J-15), which contained an average of 1.7 chromosome 22s per cell, only had about 15% of the activity detected in normal diploid fibroblasts. Immunologic studies suggested that the reduced expression was due to abnormal post-translational processing or aggregation (or both) of the human and murine isozymes in these hybrids. Regional assignment of the human structural gene to 22pter----q11 was accomplished by gene dosage studies using diploid human fibroblast lines that were partially monosomic or trisomic for chromosome 22. Images PMID:6422468

  10. The -308 polymorphism in the promoter region of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene and ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha expression in patients with aggressive periodontitis and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Claudio; González, Fermín E; Pavez, Violeta; Araya, Aida V; Aguirre, Adam; Cruzat, Andrea; Contreras-Levicoy, Juan; Dotte, Andrés; Aravena, Octavio; Salazar, Lorena; Catalán, Diego; Cuenca, Jimena; Ferreira, Arturo; Schiattino, Irene; Aguillón, Juan C

    2004-01-01

    Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in the TNF-alpha gene promoter. The transition G-->A at position -308 generates the TNF-alpha1 (G/G) and TNF-alpha2 (G/A or A/A) alleles, where the polymorphic TNF-alpha2 allele is associated with a high, in vitro TNF-alpha expression and an increased susceptibility to diverse illnesses. Here we study the association of the -308 TNF-alpha SNP with the susceptibility for developing aggressive periodontitis (AP), AP combined with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and DM. We also explore the TNF-alpha capability expression and the presence of the -308 polymorphism. For this purpose we recruited 27 individuals with AP (AP+ group), 27 individuals with AP combined with DM (AP+/DM+ group), and 27 individuals with DM without signs of periodontitis upon clinical examination (DM+ group). The control group was comprised of 30 subjects. Genotyping for TNF-alpha promoter was performed by PCR-RFLP analysis. For TNF-alpha expression we used a blood culture system.

  11. Associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Choi, Y J; Park, H N; Davis, M E

    2015-04-10

    In this study, we investigated the associations between genetic variants in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) gene and blood serum IGF1 concentration in Hanwoo cattle. Polymerase chain reaction primers were based on GenBank accession No. AF404761 and amplified approximately 533-bp segments. Newly identified sequences were submitted to GenBank (accession No. DQ267493). Sequence analysis revealed that genetic variants were located at a nucleotide position 323 for the nucleotide substitution C/A that was first reported in this study and positions 326-349 for a repeat motif (CA10-11). The allele frequencies of g.323C>A were 0.264 (C) and 0.736 (A) without significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Frequencies of the repeat motif CA(10) and CA(11) were 0.604 and 0.396, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that the genetic variation g.323C>A was significantly associated with blood serum IGF1 concentrations with significant additive genetic effects, whereas no associations were found for the repeat motif. IGF1 concentrations were positively (r = 0.453) and negatively (r = -0.445) correlated with weights in the growing stages (16-21 months) and late fattening stages (22-30 months), respectively. The results of the present study and future genotypic data for Hanwoo beef cattle based on the robust genetic variation of IGF1 will provide critical information for genetic improvement and will have a large impact on commercial markets.

  12. Cloning and gene expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) provide new insights into injury and bacteria response of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka, 1867).

    PubMed

    Ji, Nanjing; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Chong; Pang, Zhengguo; He, Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an interferon (IFN)-γ-inducible Ca(2+)-binding cytokine that associates with the immune defense and inflammatory response. In this study, we reported AIF-1 gene in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjAIF-1). The full-length cDNA of AjAIF-1 is 1541 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 477 bp encoding 158 amino acids. Two EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding motifs were found in the deduced AjAIF-1. AjAIF-1 was widely expressed in all tested tissues (body wall, intestine, respiratory tree, tube feet, coelomocytes and longitudinal muscle), with the highest expression in respiratory tree. After Vibrio splendidus challenge and physical injury, AjAIF-1 transcripts were significantly upregulated in coelomocytes. The mRNA expression level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes reached to the highest value at 4 h (3.38-folds vs. the PBS control, P < 0.05) post injection. After papilla injury, the mRNA level of AjAIF-1 in coelomocytes was upregulated, and its peak value was found at 4 h (3.88-folds vs. the control, P < 0.05). These results indicated that 1) AjAIF-1 sensitively responds to pathogen infection; 2) AjAIF-1 is involved in acute inflammatory response. Our findings gain general information about the role of AjAIF-1 in the innate immunity of A. japonicus.

  13. New approach for the treatment of neuropathic pain: Fibroblast growth factor 1 gene-transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Forouzanfar, F; Amin, B; Ghorbani, A; Ghazavi, H; Ghasemi, F; Sadri, K; Mehri, S; Sadeghnia, H R; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2017-09-26

    Neuropathic pain triggered by peripheral nerve lesion is extremely difficult to manage with current approaches, hence the importance of exploring therapeutic alternatives. We have analysed adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) and fibroblast growth factor 1 gene-transfected adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) ) on chronic constriction injury (CCI). The mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity were assessed using the von Frey filament, radiant heat and acetone drop tests. Histopathological and apoptotic changes and the level of FGF1, GFAP and TNFα proteins were assessed in the lumbar portion (L4-L6). Moreover, AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) were labelled with (99m) Tc -HMPAO and isolated organ counting were performed upon AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) administration. Administration of AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) attenuated the CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Spinal structural alterations and apoptosis were decreased in the AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) group. The injection of either phosphate-buffered saline or normal NIH3T3 fibroblasts could not attenuate the behavioural symptoms of neuropathic pain. Increased genetically engineered cells were counted in the injured sciatic nerve and the elevated levels of FGF1 were detected in the spinal tissue. Stem cell therapy lead to decrement the level of the CCI-induced TNF-α and GFAP expression. The intravenous administration of AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) could be considered as a potential remedy for the management of neuropathic pain. AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) attenuated the CCI-induced mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity. Spinal structural alterations and apoptosis were significantly decreased in the AD-MSCs (FGF)(1) group. Elevated levels of FGF1 were detected in the spinal tissue. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  14. Muscle-targeted hydrodynamic gene introduction of insulin-like growth factor-1 using polyplex nanomicelle to treat peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Kazuya; Itaka, Keiji; Baba, Miyuki; Uchida, Satoshi; Ishii, Takehiko; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2014-06-10

    The recovery of neurologic function after peripheral nerve injury often remains incomplete because of the prolonged reinnervation process, which leads to skeletal muscle atrophy and articular contracture from disuse over time. To rescue the skeletal muscle and promote functional recovery, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a potent myogenic factor, was introduced into the muscle by hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA using a biocompatible nonviral gene carrier, a polyplex nanomicelle. In a mouse model of sciatic nerve injury, the introduction of IGF-1 into the skeletal muscle of the paralyzed limb effectively alleviated a decrease in muscle weight compared with that in untreated control mice. Histologic analysis of the muscle revealed the IGF-1-expressing plasmid DNA (pDNA) to have a myogenic effect, inducing muscle hypertrophy with the upregulation of the myogenic regulatory factors, myogenin and MyoD. The evaluation of motor function by walking track analysis revealed that the group that received the hydrodynamic injection of IGF-1-expressing pDNA using the polyplex nanomicelle had significantly early recovery of motor function compared with groups receiving negative control pDNA and untreated controls. Early recovery of sensation in the distal area of sciatic nerve injury was also induced by the introduction of IGF-1-expressing pDNA, presumably because of the effect of secreted IGF-1 protein in the vicinity of the injured sciatic nerve exerting a synergistic effect with muscle hypertrophy, inducing a more favorable prognosis. This approach of introducing IGF-1 into skeletal muscle is promising for the treatment of peripheral nerve injury by promoting early motor function recovery.

  15. Pituitary tumor transforming gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor expression and immunohistochemical measurement of Ki-67 as potential prognostic markers of pituitary tumors aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Tejada, Laura; Sánchez-Ortiga, Ruth; Moreno-Pérez, Oscar; Montañana, Carmen Fajardo; Niveiro, Maria; Tritos, Nicholas A; Alfonso, Antonio M Picó

    2013-01-01

    The ability to predict recurrence of pituitary adenoma (PA) after surgery may be helpful to determine follow-up frequency and the need for adjuvant treatment. The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic capacity of pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), and Ki-67. In this retrospective study, the normalized copy number (NCN) of PTIG and IGF1R mRNA was measured using RT-PCR, and the Ki-67 index was measured by immunohistochemistry in 46 PA samples. Clinical data, histological subtype, and radiographic characteristics were collected to assess associations between variables and tumor behavior. Progression of tumor remnants and its association to markers was also studied in 14 patients with no adjuvant treatment after surgery followed up for 46±36 months. Extrasellar tumors had a lower PTTG expression as compared to sellar tumors (0.065 [1st-3rd quartile: 0.000-0.089] NCN vs. 0.135 [0.105-0.159] NCN, p=0.04). IGF1R expression changed depending on histological subtype (p=0.014), and was greater in tumor with remnant growth greater than 20% during follow-up (10.69±3.84 NCN vs. 5.44±3.55 NCN, p=0.014). Our results suggest that the IGF1R is a more helpful molecular marker than PTTG in PA management. Ki-67 showed no association to tumor behavior. However, the potential of these markers should be established in future studies with standardized methods and on larger samples. Copyright © 2012 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Expression of interferon alpha family gene of Chinese marmot in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yin-ping; Wang, Bao-ju; Huang, Hong-ping; Tian, Yong-jun; Yang, Yan; Dong, Ji-hua; Lu, Meng-ji; Yang, Dong-liang

    2006-02-01

    To investigate the function of interferon alpha (IFNalpha) in a Chinese marmot model of hepatitis B, we expressed the Chinese marmot (Marmota himalayana) IFNalpha family gene (IFNA) in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression plasmids harboring Chinese marmot interferon alpha gene with different genotypes were generated using molecular cloning technology. We detected the biological activity of all expression products by viral protection assay, and analyzed their differences and species restriction of the biological activity. The Chinese marmot functional genotype IFNalpha was expressed in the baby hamster kidney (BHK) cell line, and these products protected WH12/6 cells challenged by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). The Chinese marmot IFN-alpha5 also expressed in E. Coli induced by IPTG, and purified fusion protein had antiviral biological activity. The biologic activity displayed differences among different subtype IFNalpha, and it had strict species restriction. The IFNalpha family gene of the Chinese marmot can be expressed in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and the expression products show antiviral activity in a protection assay. This study provides, for the first time, evidence that IFNalpha from the Chinese marmot has an antiviral function in vitro and can be used to improve the efficacy of current therapies for HBV infection in our Chinese marmot model.

  17. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    SciTech Connect

    Orlov, Sergey V.; Mogilenko, Denis A.; Shavva, Vladimir S.; Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A.; Perevozchikov, Andrej P.

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  18. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing

    PubMed Central

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins. PMID:16184762

  19. Differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas because of tumor-specific alphaB-crystallin gene (CRYAB) silencing.

    PubMed

    Mineva, Ivelina; Gartner, Wolfgang; Hauser, Peter; Kainz, Alexander; Löffler, Michael; Wolf, Gerhard; Oberbauer, Rainer; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the small heat shock protein alphaB-crystallin in differentiated thyroid tumors has been described recently. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms that affect the expression of alphaB-crystallin in benign goiters (n = 7) and highly malignant anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) (n = 3). AlphaB-crystallin expression was compared with that of Hsp27-1. Immunoblot and quantitative real-time (RT) polymerase chain reaction revealed marked downregulation of alphaB-crystallin in all the tested ATCs and the ATC-derived cell line C-643 . In contrast, considerable expression of Hsp27-1 in benign and malignant thyroid tissue was demonstrated. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed no relevant topological differences between benign and malignant thyrocytes in the cytoplasmic staining of both proteins. Consistent and marked downregulation of TFCP2L1 was identified as one of the main mechanisms contributing to CRYAB gene silencing in ATCs. In addition, CRYAB gene promoter methylation seems to occur in distinct ATCs. In silico analysis revealed that the differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 results from differences between the alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 promoter fragments (712 bp upstream from the transcriptional start site). Biological activity of the analyzed promoter element is confirmed by its heat shock inducibility. In conclusion, we demonstrate downregulation of alphaB-crystallin expression in highly dedifferentiated ATCs because of a tumor-specific transcription factor pattern. The differential expression of alphaB-crystallin and Hsp27-1 indicates functional differences between both proteins.

  20. Molecular nature of alpha-globin genes in the Saudi population

    PubMed Central

    Borgio, J. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia (α-thal) is a disorder caused by the deletion of single or double α-globin genes, and/or point mutations in the α-globin genes. There are 2 common types of α-globin genes; HBA2 and HBA1. Recently, it has been discovered that the HBA2 gene is replaced by a unique HBA12 gene convert in 5.7% of the Saudi population. The α-globin genes have been emerging as a molecular target for the treatment of β-thalassemia (β-thal). Hence, it is essential to understand the molecular nature of α-globin genes to treat the most prevalent hemoglobin disorders, such as sickle cell disease, α-thal, and β-thal prevalent in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two different α-globin genotypes have been observed in the Saudi population. This review outlines the classification of the α-globin genes on the basis of their molecular nature and complex combinations of α-globin genes, and their variants predominant in Saudis. PMID:26593158

  1. Do products of the myc proto-oncogene play a role in transcriptional regulation of the prothymosin alpha gene?

    PubMed Central

    Mol, P C; Wang, R H; Batey, D W; Lee, L A; Dang, C V; Berger, S L

    1995-01-01

    The Myc protein has been reported to activate transcription of the rat prothymosin alpha gene by binding to an enhancer element or E box (CACGTG) located in the first intron (S. Gaubatz et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:3853-3862, 1994). The human prothymosin alpha gene contains two such motifs: in the promoter region at kb -1.2 and in intron 1, approximately 2 kb downstream of the transcriptional start site in a region which otherwise bears little homology to the rat gene. Using chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs driven either by the 5-kb human prothymosin alpha promoter or by a series of truncated promoters, we showed that removal of the E-box sequence had no effect on transient expression of CAT activity in mouse L cells. When intron 1 of the prothymosin alpha gene was inserted into the most extensive promoter construct downstream of the CAT coding region, a diminution in transcription, which remained virtually unchanged upon disruption of the E boxes, was observed. CAT constructs driven by the native prothymosin alpha promoter or the native promoter and intron were indifferent to Myc; equivalent CAT activity was observed in the presence of ectopic normal or mutant Myc genes. Similarly, expression of a transiently transfected wild-type prothymosin alpha gene as the reporter was not affected by a repertoire of myc-derived genes, including myc itself and dominant or recessive negative myc mutants. In COS-1 cells, equivalent amounts of the protein were produced from transfected prothymosin alpha genes regardless of whether genomic E boxes were disrupted, intron 1 was removed, or a repertoire of myc-derived genes was included in the transfection cocktail. More importantly, cotransfection of a dominant negative Max gene failed to reduce transcription of the endogenous prothymosin alpha gene in COS cells or the wild-type transfected gene in COS or L cells. Taken together, the data do not support the idea that Myc activates transcription of the

  2. Increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene expression in parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus-induced bronchiolar fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, E. W.; Moldawer, L. L.; Busse, W. W.; Jack, T. J.; Castleman, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Increased airway resistance and airway hyperresponsiveness induced in rats by infection with parainfluenza type I (Sendai) virus is associated with bronchiolar fibrosis. To determine whether increased tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha gene expression is an important regulatory event in virus-induced bronchiolar fibrosis, pulmonary TNF-alpha mRNA and protein expression was assessed in rat strains that are susceptible (Brown Norway; BN) and resistant (Fischer 344; F344) to virus-induced bronchiolar fibrosis. Virus-inoculated BN rats had increased TNF-alpha pulmonary mRNA levels (P < 0.05) and increased numbers of bronchiolar macrophages and fibroblasts expressing TNF-alpha protein compared with virus-inoculated F344 rats (P < 0.05). Virus inoculation also induced elevated TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.05) in cultured rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383 cells). A 55-kd soluble TNF receptor-immunoglobulin G fusion protein (sTNFR-IgG) was used to inhibit TNF-alpha bioactivity in virus-inoculated BN rats. Treated rats had fewer proliferating bronchiolar fibroblasts, as detected by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, compared with virus-inoculated control rats (P < 0.05). There was also increased mortality in p55sTNFR-IgG-treated virus-inoculated rats associated with increased viral replication and decreased numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that 1) Sendai virus can directly up-regulate TNF-alpha mRNA and protein expression in macrophages, 2) TNF-alpha is an important mediator of virus-induced bronchiolar fibrosis, and 3) TNF-alpha has a critical role in the termination of Sendai viral replication in the lung. Images Figure 2 PMID:9466578

  3. High tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant mice and increased TNF-alpha gene transcription in their offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, M T; Marques de Araujo, S; Lucas, R; Deman, J; Truyens, C; Defresne, M P; de Baetselier, P; Carlier, Y

    1995-01-01

    Since tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to be involved in the feto-maternal relationship, this cytokine was studied in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected pregnant BALB/c mice and their fetuses and offspring. Pregnant chronically infected mice displayed significantly higher levels of circulating TNF-alpha than animals either only infected or only pregnant. TNF-alpha was undetectable in sera of uninfected and nonpregnant mice as well as in breast milk obtained from infected and uninfected animals. Fetuses from infected mice exhibited significantly more cells containing TNF-alpha mRNA in their thymus than fetuses from uninfected mothers. When infected 2 months after birth, offspring born to infected and uninfected mothers displayed similar amounts of circulating TNF-alpha during chronic infection, whereas this cytokine was only weakly detectable during the acute phase of the disease. An intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide during acute infection strongly increased the production of TNF-alpha in offspring born to infected mothers to levels higher than those in progeny from uninfected mice. These results suggest that TNF-alpha is an important cytokine in the feto-maternal relationship during T. cruzi infection and that fetuses and offspring of infected mothers are primed to produce elevated levels of TNF-alpha. PMID:7822027

  4. Dexamethasone impairs hypoxia-inducible factor-1 function

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, A.E.; Huck, G.; Stiehl, D.P.; Jelkmann, W.; Hellwig-Buergel, T.

    2008-07-25

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimeric transcription-factor composed of {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits. HIF-1 is not only necessary for the cellular adaptation to hypoxia, but it is also involved in inflammatory processes and wound healing. Glucocorticoids (GC) are therapeutically used to suppress inflammatory responses. Herein, we investigated whether GC modulate HIF-1 function using GC receptor (GR) possessing (HepG2) and GR deficient (Hep3B) human hepatoma cell cultures as model systems. Dexamethasone (DEX) treatment increased HIF-1{alpha} levels in the cytosol of HepG2 cells, while nuclear HIF-1{alpha} levels and HIF-1 DNA-binding was reduced. In addition, DEX dose-dependently lowered the hypoxia-induced luciferase activity in a reporter gene system. DEX suppressed the hypoxic stimulation of the expression of the HIF-1 target gene VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) in HepG2 cultures. DEX did not reduce hypoxically induced luciferase activity in HRB5 cells, a Hep3B derivative lacking GR. Transient expression of the GR in HRB5 cells restored the susceptibility to DEX. Our study discloses the inhibitory action of GC on HIF-1 dependent gene expression, which may be important with respect to the impaired wound healing in DEX-treated patients.

  5. In vitro and in vivo gene delivery mediated by Lactosylated dendrimer/alpha-cyclodextrin conjugates (G2) into hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Arima, Hidetoshi; Yamashita, Shogo; Mori, Yoshimasa; Hayashi, Yuya; Motoyama, Keiichi; Hattori, Kenjiro; Takeuchi, Tomoko; Jono, Hirofumi; Ando, Yukio; Hirayama, Fumitoshi; Uekama, Kaneto

    2010-08-17

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate in vitro and in vivo gene delivery efficiency of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) starburst dendrimer (generation 2, G2) conjugates with alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CDE (G2)) bearing lactose (Lac-alpha-CDE) with various degrees of substitution of the lactose moiety (DSL) as a novel hepatocyte-selective carrier in hepatocytes. Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 2.6) was found to have much higher gene transfer activity than dendrimer, alpha-CDE, Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 1.2, 4.6, 6.2 and 10.2) and lactosylated dendrimer (Lac-dendrimer, DSL 2.4) in HepG2 cells, which are dependent on the expression of cell-surface asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R), reflecting the cellular association of the plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes. The physicochemical properties of pDNA complex with Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 2.6) were almost comparable to that with alpha-CDE. Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 2.6) provided negligible cytotoxicity up to a charge ratio of 150 in HepG2 cells. Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 2.6) provided gene transfer activity higher than jetPEI-Hepatocyte to hepatocytes with much less changes of blood chemistry values 12h after intravenous administration in mice. These results suggest the potential use of Lac-alpha-CDE (DSL 2.6) as a non-viral vector for gene delivery toward hepatocytes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-11-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1{beta}, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPAR{alpha} and {gamma} isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1{beta}-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1{beta}-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPAR{alpha}{sup -/-} mice and treated with the PPAR{alpha} agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by {approx} 50% in IL-1{beta}-stimulated PPAR{alpha}-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1{beta} effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPAR{alpha} and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies

  7. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  8. DNA restriction-site polymorphisms associated with the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D W; Billingsley, G D; Mansfield, T

    1987-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in and around the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been studied using two genomic probes. With use of restriction enzymes SstI, MspI, and AvaII, three polymorphic sites have been described with a 4.6-kb probe in the 5' portion of the gene. With use of a 6.5-kb probe, polymorphisms in the coding and 3' regions of the gene have been detected with AvaII, MaeIII, and TaqI. All of these polymorphisms are of sufficiently high frequency to be useful in genetic mapping studies. The polymorphisms with AvaII and MaeIII (6.5-kb probe) are particularly useful for prenatal diagnosis. PI types and M subtypes tend to be associated with specific DNA haplotypes; there are two different types of DNA haplotypes associated with PI M1. The extent of linkage disequilibrium differs throughout the region of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2890296

  9. Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes.

    PubMed

    Auffray, C; Lillie, J W; Arnot, D; Grossberger, D; Kappes, D; Strominger, J L

    DNA sequences of four human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha chain DNA sequences (derived from cDNA and genomic clones representing DC1 alpha, DC4 alpha, DX alpha and SB alpha) are presented and compared to DR alpha and to mouse I-A alpha and I-E alpha sequences. These data suggest possible mechanisms for the generation of polymorphism and the evolution of the DR, DC and SB families.

  10. Gene discovery at the human T-cell receptor alpha/delta locus.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Marsha R; Wu, Gillian E

    2007-02-01

    The human T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha/delta variable loci are interspersed on the chromosome 14q11 and consist of 57 intergenic spaces ranging from 4 to 100 kb in length. To elucidate the evolutionary history of this locus, we searched the intergenic spaces of all TCR alpha/delta variable (TRAV/DV) genes for pseudogenes and potential protein-coding genes. We applied direct open reading frame (ORF) searches, an exon-finding algorithm and comparative genomics. Two TRAV/DV pseudogenes were discovered bearing 80 and 65% sequence similarity to TRAV14DV4 and TRAV9-1/9-2 genes, respectively. A gene bearing 85% sequence identity to B lymphocyte activation-related protein, BC-1514, upstream of TRAV26-2 was also discovered. This ORF (BC-1514tcra) is a member of a gene family whose evolutionary history and function are not known. In total, 36 analogs of this gene exist in the human, the chimpanzee, the Rhesus monkey, the frog and the zebrafish. Phylogenetic analyses show convergent evolution of these genes. Assays for the expression of BC-1514tcra revealed transcripts in the bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and small intestine. These assays also showed the expression of another analog to BC-1514, found on chromosome 5 in the bone marrow and thymus RNA. The existence of at least 17 analogs at various locations in the human genome and in nonsyntenic chromosomes of the chimpanzee suggest that BC-1514tcra, along with its analogs may be transposable elements with evolved function(s). The identification of conserved putative serine phosphorylation sites provide evidence of their possible role(s) in signal transduction events involved in B cell development and differentiation.

  11. Sequence analysis of the EF-1 alpha gene family of Mucor racemosus.

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrom, P; Lira, L M; Choi, D; Linz, J E; Sypherd, P S

    1987-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Mucor racemosus possesses three genes (TEF-1, -2 and -3) for EF-1 alpha, and that all three genes are transcribed. However, the level of transcription varies markedly between the three genes, with TEF-1 mRNA levels being approximately two fold higher than TEF-3 and 6 fold higher than TEF-2. We have now completed the DNA sequence of both strands of all three genes and have found that these genes are highly homologous. TEF-2 and TEF-3 are more similar to each other than they are to TEF-1. The TEF-2 and the TEF-3 coding regions differ from TEF-1 at 30 and 37 positions respectively out of 1374 nucleotides. Twenty-six of these nucleotide substitutions were common to both TEF-2 and TEF-3, and the majority of the substitutions were clustered in the 5' region of the coding sequences. While the majority of these changes were silent, TEF-2 and TEF-3 differed from TEF-1 by having a lysine instead of a glutamate at amino acid position 41. In addition, TEF-2 and -3, but not TEF-1, each have an intron located near the 5' end of the coding region, although its size and sequence is not conserved between the two genes. All three genes have a conserved intron near the 3' end of the coding region. The sequence data have been analyzed with respect to the structure and function of EF-1 alpha in protein biosynthesis. PMID:3697088

  12. Gene variants in the FTO gene are associated with adiponectin and TNF-alpha levels in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Saucedo, Renata; Valencia, Jorge; Gutierrez, Claudia; Basurto, Lourdes; Hernandez, Marcelino; Puello, Edgardo; Rico, Guadalupe; Vega, Gloria; Zarate, Arturo

    2017-01-01

    Obesity may have a role in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) of the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated) gene have been associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate SNPs rs8050136, rs9939609, and rs1421085 of the FTO gene in women with GDM and their associations with maternal pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index, gestational weight gain and mediators of insulin resistance in GDM like leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared with healthy pregnant controls. 80 women with GDM and 80 women with normal pregnancy were considered for the present study. Genotyping of selected SNPs in all study subjects was done using the Taq-Man assay and the adipokines and ghrelin were measured by immunoassays. Chi square test, odds ratios (OR) and their respective 95% confidence intervals were used to measure the strength of association between FTO SNPs and GDM. There was no association among FTO SNPs and GDM. Interestingly, in GDM group, women carrying the risk alleles of the three SNPs had increased TNF-alpha, and decreased adiponectin levels; these associations remained significant after adjusting for pre-gestational body weight and age. Moreover, the risk allele of rs1421085 was also associated with increased weight gain during pregnancy. The FTP SNPs rs8050136, rs9939609, and rs1421085 are not a major genetic regulator in the etiology of GDM in the studied ethnic group. However, these SNPs were associated with adiponectin and TNF-alpha concentrations in GDM subjects.

  13. The interferon-alpha gene family of Marmota himalayana, a Chinese marmot species with susceptibility to woodchuck hepatitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yinping; Wang, Baoju; Huang, Hongping; Tian, Yongjun; Bao, Junjie; Dong, Jihua; Roggendorf, Michael; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2008-01-01

    The interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) gene family is an important part of the immune system. Recombinant interferon-alpha is widely used to treat viral hepatitis and malignant diseases. Marmota himalayana has been found to be susceptible to woodchuck hepatitis virus, a virus genetically related to hepatitis B virus (HBV), and is suitable as an animal model for studies on HBV infection. Here, the IFN-alpha gene family of M. himalayana (cwIFN-alpha) was characterized. Sequence data indicate that the cwIFN-alpha family consists of at least 8 functional sequences and 6 pseudogenes with high homology within the family and to IFN-alpha of Marmota monax, a related species and well-established animal model. The recombinant cwIFN-alpha subtypes were expressed and tested to be active in viral protection assay and to induce expression of MxA in a species-specific manner. This work provides essential information for future work on testing new therapeutic approaches of HBV infection based on IFN-alpha in M. himalayana.

  14. Oxidative stress inhibits IFN-alpha-induced antiviral gene expression by blocking the JAK-STAT pathway.

    PubMed

    Di Bona, Danilo; Cippitelli, Marco; Fionda, Cinzia; Cammà, Calogero; Licata, Anna; Santoni, Angela; Craxì, Antonio

    2006-08-01

    Unresponsiveness to IFN-alpha is common in chronic hepatitis C. Since conditions associated with an increased oxidative stress (advanced age, steatosis, fibrosis, iron overload, and alcohol consumption) reduce the likelihood of response, we hypothesized that oxidative stress may affect the antiviral actions of IFN-alpha. We examined in a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (Huh-7) the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a generator of oxidative stress, on the IFN-alpha signaling pathway. Pretreatment of Huh-7 cells with 0.5-1 mM H2O2 resulted in the suppression of the IFN-alpha-induced antiviral protein MxA and of IRF-9 mRNA expression. The reduced expression of these genes was associated to H2O2 -mediated suppression of the IFN-alpha-induced assembly of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) factors to specific promoter motifs on IFN-alpha-inducible genes. This was accomplished by preventing the IFN-alpha-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT-1 and STAT-2 through the inactivation of the upstream receptor associated tyrosine kinases, JAK-1 and Tyk-2. The suppression was fast, occurring within 5mins of pretreatment with H2O2, and did not require protein synthesis. In conclusion, oxidative stress impairs IFN-alpha signaling and might cause resistance to the antiviral action of IFN-alpha in chronically HCV infected patients with high level of oxidative stress in the liver.

  15. Binding of tissue-specific forms of alpha A-CRYBP1 to their regulatory sequence in the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene: double-label immunoblotting of UV-crosslinked complexes.

    PubMed

    Kantorow, M; Becker, K; Sax, C M; Ozato, K; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-09-15

    The alpha A-CRYBP1 regulatory sequence (alpha A-CRYBP1RS), at nucleotides -66 to -57 of the mouse alpha A-crystallin-encoding gene (alpha A-CRY) promoter, is an important control element involved in the regulation of mouse alpha A-CRY expression. The gene encoding a protein (alpha A-CRYBP1) that specifically binds to the alpha A-CRYBP1RS sequence has been cloned from a cultured mouse lens cell line. In the present study, we have used an antibody (specific to the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and made against a synthetic peptide) to directly identify UV-crosslinked protein-DNA complexes via a double-label immunoblotting technique. Multiple alpha A-CRYB1 antigenically related proteins interacted with alpha A-CRYBP1RS in nuclear extracts from both a cloned mouse lens cell line (alpha TN4-1) that expresses alpha A-CRY and a mouse fibroblast line (L929) that does not express the gene. Two sizes (50 kDa and 90 kDa) of proteins reacting with the alpha A-CRYBP1-specific Ab were detected in both cell lines and, in addition, a > 200-kDa protein reacting with the Ab was unique to the fibroblast line. Thus, alpha A-CRYBP1 antigenically related proteins interact with alpha A-CRYBP1RS regardless of alpha A-CRY expression. Moreover, differential processing of the alpha A-CRYBP1 protein and/or alternative splicing of the alpha A-CRY transcript may affect expression of alpha A-CRY.

  16. The Hd0053 gene of Haemophilus ducreyi encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Sun, Mingchi; Huang, Shengshu; Yu, Hai; Chokhawala, Harshal A; Thon, Vireak; Chen, Xi

    2007-09-21

    Haemophilus ducreyi is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes chancroid, a sexually transmitted genital ulcer disease. Different lipooligosaccharide (LOS) structures have been identified from H. ducreyi strain 35000, including those sialylated glycoforms. Surface LOS of H. ducreyi is considered an important virulence factor that is involved in ulcer formation, cell adhesion, and invasion of host tissue. Gene Hd0686 of H. ducreyi, designated lst (for lipooligosaccharide sialyltransferase), was identified to encode an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase that is important for the formation of sialylated LOS. Here, we show that Hd0053 of H. ducreyi genomic strain 35000HP, the third member of the glycosyltransferase family 80 (GT80), also encodes an alpha2,3-sialyltransferase that may be important for LOS sialylation.

  17. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) regulation by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF1A) starts and peaks during endometrial breakdown, not repair, in a mouse menstrual-like model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xihua; Liu, Jianbing; He, Bin; Li, Yunfeng; Liu, Shuyan; Wu, Bin; Wang, Shufang; Zhang, Shucheng; Xu, Xiangbo; Wang, Jiedong

    2015-09-01

    How is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression regulated by hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A) during menstruation? After progesterone (P4) withdrawal, HIF1A was activated and it directly up-regulated VEGF mRNA expression and this regulation was the highest during endometrium breakdown in the mouse menstrual-like model. VEGF, an important angiogenic factor, is known to be essential for endometrial repair, particularly in angiogenesis and re-epithelialization. However, its upstream regulation has not been fully clarified. HIF1 is the first transcription factor response to hypoxia and is closely associated with angiogenesis; it is also an upstream regulator of VEGF mRNA. We investigated the changes in the expression of HIF1A and VEGF after P4 withdrawal and after HIF1A inhibition. The total number of mice used was 62. The treatment duration in the mouse menstrual-like model was 8 days. The mouse menstrual-like model and mouse and human decidual endometrial stromal cells were established to mimic menstruation. Protein and mRNA expressions of HIF1A and VEGF were investigated by immunohistochemistry, Western blot and quantitative PCR. The direct interaction between HIF1A and the Vegf promoter was also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. HIF1A inhibition in vivo and in vitro was achieved by administration of an HIF1A inhibitor and by siRNA knockdown, respectively. HIF1A was translocated to the nucleus from 8 to 16 h after P4 withdrawal, while VEGF mRNA expression was the highest at 12 h. HIF1A directly bound to Vegf promoter during endometrial breakdown, which peaked at 12 h. HIF1A inhibition suppressed VEGF mRNA and protein expression in the mouse menstrual-like model and decidualized stromal cells. Inhibition of HIF1A also suppressed endometrial breakdown. Although HIF1A regulation of VEGF mRNA was confirmed in the mouse menstrual-like model and decidual endometrium stromal cells, the functional regulation of VEGF protein was not further

  18. Mechanism of rifampicin and pregnane X receptor inhibition of human cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiangang; Chiang, John Y L

    2005-01-01

    Bile acids, steroids, and drugs activate steroid and xenobiotic receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2), which induces human cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4) in drug metabolism and cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in bile acid synthesis in the liver. Rifampicin, a human PXR agonist, inhibits bile acid synthesis and has been used to treat cholestatic diseases. The objective of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which PXR inhibits CYP7A1 gene transcription. The mRNA expression levels of CYP7A1 and several nuclear receptors known to regulate the CYP7A1 gene were assayed in human primary hepatocytes by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR). Rifampicin reduced CYP7A1 and small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR02B) mRNA expression suggesting that SHP was not involved in PXR inhibition of CYP7A1. Rifampicin inhibited CYP7A1 reporter activity and a PXR binding site was localized to the bile acid response element-I. Mammalian two-hybrid assays revealed that PXR interacted with hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF4 alpha, NR2A1) and rifampicin was required. Coimmunoprecipitation assay confirmed PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha. PXR also interacted with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1 alpha), which interacted with HNF4 alpha and induced CYP7A1 gene transcription. Rifampicin enhanced PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha and reduced PGC-1 alpha interaction with HNF4 alpha. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that PXR, HNF4 alpha, and PGC-1 alpha bound to CYP7A1 chromatin, and rifampicin dissociated PGC-1 alpha from chromatin. These results suggest that activation of PXR by rifampicin promotes PXR interaction with HNF4 alpha and blocks PGC-1 alpha activation with HNF4 alpha and results in inhibition of CYP7A1 gene transcription. Rifampicin inhibition of bile acid synthesis may be a protective mechanism against drug and bile acid-induced cholestasis.

  19. The mouse (Mus musculus) T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) variable genes.

    PubMed

    Bosc, Nathalie; Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2003-01-01

    'The Mouse (Mus musculus) T cell receptor alpha (TRA) and delta (TRD) variable genes' 'IMGT Locus in Focus' report provides the first complete list of the mouse TRAV and TRDV genes which span 1550 kb on chromosome 14 at 19.7 cM. The total number of TRAV genes per haploid genome is 98 belonging to 23 subgroups. This includes 10 TRAV/DV genes which belong to seven subgroups. The functional TRAV genomic repertoire comprises 72-82 TRAV (including 9-10 TRAV/DV) belonging to 19 subgroups. The total number of TRDV genes per haploid genome is 16 (including the 10 TRAV/DV) belonging to 12 subgroups. The functional TRDV genomic repertoire comprises 14-15 genes (5 TRDV and 9-10 TRAV/DV) belonging to 11-12 subgroups. The eight tables and three figures of this report are available at the IMGT Marie-Paule page of IMGT. The international ImMunoGeneTics information system (http://imgt.cines.fr) created by Marie-Paule Lefranc, Université Montpellier II, CNRS, France.

  20. Predicting gene expression levels from codon biases in alpha-proteobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Samuel; Barnett, Melanie J; Campbell, Allan M; Fisher, Robert F; Mrazek, Jan

    2003-06-10

    Predicted highly expressed (PHX) genes in five currently available high G+C complete alpha-proteobacterial genomes are analyzed. These include: the nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts Sinorhizobium meliloti (SINME) and Mesorhizobium loti (MESLO), the nonpathogenic aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus (CAUCR), the plant pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AGRTU), and the mammalian pathogen Brucella melitensis (BRUME). Three of these genomes, SINME, AGRTU, and BRUME, contain multiple chromosomes or megaplasmids (>1 Mb length). PHX genes in these genomes are concentrated mainly in the major (largest) chromosome with few PHX genes found in the secondary chromosomes and megaplasmids. Tricarboxylic acid cycle and aerobic respiration genes are strongly PHX in all five genomes, whereas anaerobic pathways of glycolysis and fermentation are mostly not PHX. Only in MESLO (but not SINME) and BRUME are most glycolysis genes PHX. Many flagellar genes are PHX in MESLO and CAUCR, but mostly are not PHX in SINME and AGRTU. The nonmotile BRUME also carries many flagellar genes but these are generally not PHX and all but one are located in the second chromosome. CAUCR stands out among available prokaryotic genomes with 25 PHX TonB-dependent receptors. These are putatively involved in uptake of iron ions and other nonsoluble compounds.

  1. The Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha3 locus encodes an essential gene required for the development of both larval and adult tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, D Adam; Máthé, Endre; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear transport of classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins is mediated by the cNLS receptor importin alpha. The conventional importin alpha gene family in metazoan animals is composed of three clades that are conserved between flies and mammals and are referred to here as alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. In contrast, plants and fungi contain only alpha1 genes. In this study we report that Drosophila importin alpha3 is required for the development of both larval and adult tissues. Importin alpha3 mutant flies die around the transition from first to second instar larvae, and homozygous importin alpha3 mutant eyes are defective. The transition to second instar larvae was rescued with importin alpha1, alpha2, or alpha3 transgenes, indicating that Importin alpha3 is normally required at this stage for an activity shared by all three importin alpha's. In contrast, an alpha3-specific biochemical activity(s) of Importin alpha3 is probably required for development to adults and photoreceptor cell development, since only an importin alpha3 transgene rescued these processes. These results are consistent with the view that the importin alpha's have both overlapping and distinct functions and that their role in animal development involves the spatial and temporal control of their expression. PMID:14704178

  2. Gene encoding the human beta-hexosaminidase beta chain: extensive homology of intron placement in the alpha- and beta-chain genes.

    PubMed Central

    Proia, R L

    1988-01-01

    Lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.52) is composed of two structurally similar chains, alpha and beta, that are the products of different genes. Mutations in either gene causing beta-hexosaminidase deficiency result in the lysosomal storage disease GM2-gangliosidosis. To enable the investigation of the molecular lesions in this disorder and to study the evolutionary relationship between the alpha and beta chains, the beta-chain gene was isolated, and its organization was characterized. The beta-chain coding region is divided into 14 exons distributed over approximately 40 kilobases of DNA. Comparison with the alpha-chain gene revealed that 12 of the 13 introns interrupt the coding regions at homologous positions. This extensive sharing of intron placement demonstrates that the alpha and beta chains evolved by way of the duplication of a common ancestor. PMID:2964638

  3. Estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression in the cortex: sex differences during development and in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Melinda E; Westberry, Jenne M; Trout, Amanda L

    2011-03-01

    17β-estradiol is a hormone with far-reaching organizational, activational and protective actions in both male and female brains. The organizational effects of early estrogen exposure are essential for long-lasting behavioral and cognitive functions. Estradiol mediates many of its effects through the intracellular receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor-beta (ERβ). In the rodent cerebral cortex, estrogen receptor expression is high early in postnatal life and declines dramatically as the animal approaches puberty. This decline is accompanied by decreased expression of ERα mRNA. This change in expression is the same in both males and females in the developing isocortex and hippocampus. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) gene expression is critical for understanding the developmental, as well as changes in postpubertal expression of the estrogen receptor. One mechanism of suppressing gene expression is by the epigenetic modification of the promoter regions by DNA methylation that results in gene silencing. The decrease in ERα mRNA expression during development is accompanied by an increase in promoter methylation. Another example of regulation of ERα gene expression in the adult cortex is the changes that occur following neuronal injury. Many animal studies have demonstrated that the endogenous estrogen, 17β-estradiol, is neuroprotective. Specifically, low levels of estradiol protect the cortex from neuronal death following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). In females, this protection is mediated through an ERα-dependent mechanism. ERα expression is rapidly increased following MCAO in females, but not in males. This increase is accompanied by a decrease in methylation of the promoter suggesting a return to the developmental program of gene expression within neurons. Taken together, during development and in adulthood, regulation of ERα gene expression in the

  4. Conservation of position and sequence of a novel, widely expressed gene containing the major human {alpha}-globin regulatory element

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, P.; Vickers, M.A.; Picketts, D.J.; Higgs, D.R.

    1995-10-10

    We have determined the cDNA and genomic structure of a gene (-14 gene) that lies adjacent to the human {alpha}-globin cluster. Although it is expressed in a wide range of cell lines and tissues, a previously described erythroid-specific regulatory element that controls expression of the {alpha}-globin genes lies within intron 5 of this gene. Analysis of the -14 gene promoter shows that it is GC rich and associated with a constitutively expressed DNase 1 hypersensitive site; unlike the {alpha}-globin promoter, it does not contain a TATA or CCAAT box. These and other differences in promoter structure may explain why the erythroid regulatory element interacts specifically with the {alpha}-globin promoters and not the -14 gene promoter, which lies between the {alpha} promoters and their regulatory element. Interspecies comparisons demonstrate that the sequence and location of the -14 gene adjacent to the a cluster have been maintained since the bird/mammal divergence, 270 million years ago. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Selenium regulates gene expression for estrogen sulfotransferase and alpha 2U-globulin in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Christensen, M J

    1998-03-01

    Dietary intake of the essential trace element selenium (Se) regulates expression of genes for selenoproteins and certain non-Se-containing proteins. However, these proteins do not account for all of Se's biological effects. The objective of this work was to identify additional genes whose expression is regulated by Se. Identification of these genes may reveal new functions for Se or define mechanisms for its biological effects. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a Torula yeast-based Se-deficient basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 0.5 mg Se/kg diet as sodium selenite for 13 weeks. Total RNA was used as template for RNA fingerprinting. Two differentially expressed cDNA fragments were identified and cloned. The first had 99% nucleotide identity with rat liver estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) isoform-6. The second had 99% nucleotide sequence identity with rat liver alpha 2u-globulin. The mRNA levels for both were markedly reduced in Se deficiency. Laser densitometry showed that EST mRNA in Se deficiency was 7.3% of that in Se-adequate rat liver. The level of alpha 2u-globulin mRNA in Se-deficient rat liver was only 12.6% of that in Se-adequate rat liver. These results indicate that dietary Se may play a role in steroid hormone metabolism in rat liver.

  6. The extent to which immunity, apoptosis and detoxification gene expression interact with 17 alpha-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    Abo-Al-Ela, Haitham G; El-Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky; Ibrahim, Essam M

    2017-01-01

    Innate immunity is the first line of defence against invasion by foreign pathogens. One widely used synthetic androgen for the production of all-male fish, particularly commercially valuable Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT). The present study investigates the effect of MT on innate immunity, cellular apoptosis and detoxification and the mortality rate, during and after the feeding of fry with 0-, 40-and 60-mg MT/kg. Expression analysis was completed on interleukin 1 beta (il1β), interleukin 8 (il8), tumour necrosis factor alpha (tnfα), CXC2- and CC-chemokines, interferon (ifn), myxovirus resistance (mx), toll-like receptor 7 (tlr7), immunoglobulin M heavy chain (IgM heavy chain), vitellogenin (vtg), cellular apoptosis susceptibility (cas) and glutathione S-transferase α1 (gstα1). Expression analysis revealed that MT had a significant impact on these genes, and this impact varied from induction to repression during and after the treatment. Linear regression analysis showed a significant association between the majority of the tested gene transcript levels and mortality rates on the 7(th) and 21(st) days of hormonal treatment and 2 weeks following hormonal cessation. The results are thoroughly discussed in this article. This is the first report concerning the hazardous effect of MT on a series of genes involved in immunity, apoptosis and detoxification in the Nile tilapia fry.

  7. Afibrinogenemia resulting from homozygous nonsense mutation in A alpha chain gene associated with multiple thrombotic episodes.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Ismail; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Horellou, Marie-Hèléne; Erdem, Hakan; Pay, Salih; Dinc, Ayhan; Samama, Meyer Michel

    2008-04-01

    Congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare disorder characterized by the absence in circulating fibrinogen, a hexamer composed of two sets of three polypeptides (Aalpha, Bbeta and gamma). Although predisposition to thrombosis is a well known feature of dysfibrinogenemia, the relatively frequent thrombotic manifestations seen in congenital afibrinogenemia are puzzling. We herein report a mutational analysis of a young afibrinogenemic man from Turkey with multiple thrombo-embolic events involving both arteries and veins. Purified DNAs of the propositus was used for amplification by polymerase chain reaction of all the exons of the A subunit gene with primers allowing the analysis of the intron-exon boundaries. Analysis of the genes coding for the three fibrinogen chains of the propositus found a homozygous G to A transition in the exon 5 of the A alpha chain gene (g.g4277a; access number gi458553). The TGG to TGA codon change predicts a homozygous W315X in the A alpha chain (p.W334X when referring to the translation initiation codon). Both parents and his brother were found to carry this heterozygous mutation. This is the first report of a patient homozygous for this rare mutation associated with afibrinogenemia. Our patient was free of known risk factors as well as diseases associated with thrombosis including atherosclerosis, vasculitis, Buerger's disease, and it seems therefore probable that afibrinogenemia itself might have contributed to both arterial and venous thrombosis.

  8. Effect of progesterone, testosterone and their 5 alpha-reduced metabolites on GFAP gene expression in type 1 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, R C; Riva, M A; Fumagalli, F; Magnaghi, V; Racagni, G; Martini, L

    1996-03-04

    Astrocytes possess steroid receptors as well as several enzymes typical of steroid target cells, such as 5 alpha-reductase, which converts testosterone (T) and progesterone (P) into their respective 5 alpha-reduced metabolites, and the 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 alpha-HSD). Because of this, it was deemed of interest to analyze whether the original hormones P and T, and their 5 alpha-reduced metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5 alpha-androstan-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol (3 alpha-diol), dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and 5 alpha-pregnan-3 alpha-ol-20-one (THP), might exert some effects on the expression of the most typical astrocytic marker, i.e. the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Cultures of rat type 1 astrocytes were exposed to the various steroids for 2, 6, and 24 h, and the variations of GFAP mRNA were measured by Northern blot analysis. A significant elevation of GFAP mRNA levels was observed after exposure to either P or DHP; the effect of DHP appeared more promptly (at 2 h) than that of P (at 6 h). This result suggests that the effect of P might be linked to its conversion into DHP; this hypothesis has been confirmed by showing that the addition of finasteride (a specific blocker of the 5 alpha-reductase) is able to completely abolish the effect of P. After exposure to DHP or THP, a decrease of GFAP gene expression was observed at later intervals (24 h). In the case of androgens, T and 3 alpha-diol did not change GFAP expression at any time of exposure, while DHT produced a significant decrease of GFAP mRNA only after 24 h of exposure. Taken together, the data indicate that the 5 alpha-reduced metabolites of P and T may modulate the expression of GFAP in type 1 rat astrocytes.

  9. Regulation of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis hypoxic response gene encoding alpha -crystallin.

    PubMed

    Sherman, D R; Voskuil, M; Schnappinger, D; Liao, R; Harrell, M I; Schoolnik, G K

    2001-06-19

    Unlike many pathogens that are overtly toxic to their hosts, the primary virulence determinant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis appears to be its ability to persist for years or decades within humans in a clinically latent state. Since early in the 20th century latency has been linked to hypoxic conditions within the host, but the response of M. tuberculosis to a hypoxic signal remains poorly characterized. The M. tuberculosis alpha-crystallin (acr) gene is powerfully and rapidly induced at reduced oxygen tensions, providing us with a means to identify regulators of the hypoxic response. Using a whole genome microarray, we identified >100 genes whose expression is rapidly altered by defined hypoxic conditions. Numerous genes involved in biosynthesis and aerobic metabolism are repressed, whereas a high proportion of the induced genes have no known function. Among the induced genes is an apparent operon that includes the putative two-component response regulator pair Rv3133c/Rv3132c. When we interrupted expression of this operon by targeted disruption of the upstream gene Rv3134c, the hypoxic regulation of acr was eliminated. These results suggest a possible role for Rv3132c/3133c/3134c in mycobacterial latency.

  10. Molecular evolution and diversity of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor gene in Kengyilia species (Triticeae: Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jian; Fan, Xing; Sha, Li-Na; Kang, Hou-Yang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Hai-Qin; Zhou, Yong-Hong

    2013-10-25

    Kengyilia Yen et J. L. Yang is a group of allohexaploid species with StYP genomic constitutions in the wheat tribe. To investigate the evolution and diversity of dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitor genes in the Kengyilia, forty-five homoeologous DAAI gene sequences were isolated from sampled Kengyilia species and analyzed together with those of its close relatives. These results suggested that (1) Kengyilia species from Central Asia and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau had different origins from those of the geographically differentiated P genome; (2) the St and P genomes of Kengyilia were donated by Pseudoroegneria and Agropyron, respectively, and the Y genome had an independent origin and showed an affinity with the St genome; (3) purifying selection dominated the DAAI gene members and the St-DAAI gene was evolving at faster rate than the P- and Y-DAAI genes in Kengyilia; and (4) natural selection was the main factor on the codon usage pattern of the DAAI gene in Kengyilia.

  11. The structure of the alpha-galactosidase gene loci in Thermus brockianus ITI360 and Thermus thermophilus TH125.

    PubMed

    Fridjonsson, O; Watzlawick,