Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze
Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.
Hidese, Ryota; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Esaki, Nobuyoshi
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors that are crucial for many physiological processes in all organisms. In Escherichia coli, assembly of Fe-S clusters depends on the activity of the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly and sulfur mobilization (SUF) apparatus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the mechanisms that control Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis are still poorly defined. In this study, we performed a global screen to identify the factors affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis using the Keio collection, which is a library of 3,815 single-gene E. coli knockout mutants. The approach was based on radiolabeling of the cells with [2-14C]dihydrouracil, which entirely depends on the activity of an Fe-S enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. We identified 49 genes affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and/or iron homeostasis, including 23 genes important only under microaerobic/anaerobic conditions. This study defines key proteins associated with Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis, which will aid further understanding of the cellular mechanisms that coordinate the processes. In addition, we applied the [2-14C]dihydrouracil-labeling method to analyze the role of amino acid residues of an Fe-S cluster assembly scaffold (IscU) as a model of the Fe-S cluster assembly apparatus. The analysis showed that Cys37, Cys63, His105, and Cys106 are essential for the function of IscU in vivo, demonstrating the potential of the method to investigate in vivo function of proteins involved in Fe-S cluster assembly. PMID:24415728
Singh, Anamika; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Hapreet
Sixty rural women with age varying between 25 and 35 were selected randomly to determine the role of dietary factors on bioavailability of iron in their diets. Food samples of selected subjects were collected for three major meals i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner for three consecutive days. The samples were analyzed for meal constituents associated with iron absorption as well as for total and dialyzable iron. Based on dietary characteristics, the diets of the farm women were in the class of intermediate diets as per FAO/WHO classification with iron bioavailability of 8.11 %. The statistical analysis revealed that the meal constituents which were found to influence iron absorption positively were ascorbic acid and β-carotene in breakfast and only β-carotene in dinner. The meal constituents which affected iron absorption negatively were zinc and calcium in breakfast as well as lunch and phytates and NDF in dinner, however, polyphenols present in the meals of the subjects did not show any relationship with iron absorption.
Li, Liangtao; Miao, Ren; Bertram, Sophie; Jia, Xuan; Ward, Diane M.; Kaplan, Jerry
Yeast respond to increased cytosolic iron by activating the transcription factor Yap5 increasing transcription of CCC1, which encodes a vacuolar iron importer. Using a genetic screen to identify genes involved in Yap5 iron sensing, we discovered that a mutation in SSQ1, which encodes a mitochondrial chaperone involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, prevented expression of Yap5 target genes. We demonstrated that mutation or reduced expression of other genes involved in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis (YFH1, ISU1) prevented induction of the Yap5 response. We took advantage of the iron-dependent catalytic activity of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase expressed in yeast to measure changes in cytosolic iron. We determined that reductions in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis did not affect the activity of cytosolic gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. We show that loss of activity of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly complex proteins or deletion of cytosolic glutaredoxins did not reduce expression of Yap5 target genes. These results suggest that the high iron transcriptional response, as well as the low iron transcriptional response, senses iron-sulfur clusters. PMID:22915593
Nandar, Wint; Connor, James R
Iron accumulation in the brain and increased oxidative stress are consistent observations in many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we have begun examination into gene mutations or allelic variants that could be associated with loss of iron homeostasis. One of the mechanisms leading to iron overload is a mutation in the HFE gene, which is involved in iron metabolism. The 2 most common HFE gene variants are C282Y (1.9%) and H63D (8.9%). The C282Y HFE variant is more commonly associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, which is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by iron overload in a number of systemic organs. The H63D HFE variant appears less frequently associated with hemochromatosis, but its role in the neurodegenerative diseases has received more attention. At the cellular level, the HFE mutant protein resulting from the H63D HFE gene variant is associated with iron dyshomeostasis, increased oxidative stress, glutamate release, tau phosphorylation, and alteration in inflammatory response, each of which is under investigation as a contributing factor to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the HFE gene variants are proposed to be genetic modifiers or a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases by establishing an enabling milieu for pathogenic agents. This review will discuss the current knowledge of the association of the HFE gene variants with neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic stroke. Importantly, the data herein also begin to dispel the long-held view that the brain is protected from iron accumulation associated with the HFE mutations.
Shah, Yatrik M.; Xie, Liwei
Iron is required for efficient oxygen transport, and hypoxia signaling links erythropoiesis with iron homeostasis. Hypoxia induces a highly conserved signaling pathway in cells under conditions of low O2. One component of this pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is a transcription factor that is highly active in hypoxic cells. The first HIF target gene characterized was EPO, which encodes erythropoietin—a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis. The past decade has led to fundamental advances in our understanding of how hypoxia regulates iron levels to support erythropoiesis and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. We review the cell-type specific effects of hypoxia and HIFs in adaptive response to changes in oxygen and iron availability, as well as potential uses of HIF modulators for patients with iron-related disorders. PMID:24389303
Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang
Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.
Gsaller, Fabio; Hortschansky, Peter; Beattie, Sarah R; Klammer, Veronika; Tuppatsch, Katja; Lechner, Beatrix E; Rietzschel, Nicole; Werner, Ernst R; Vogan, Aaron A; Chung, Dawoon; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Kato, Masashi; Cramer, Robert A; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus
Balance of physiological levels of iron is essential for every organism. In Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungal pathogens, the transcription factor HapX mediates adaptation to iron limitation and consequently virulence by repressing iron consumption and activating iron uptake. Here, we demonstrate that HapX is also essential for iron resistance via activating vacuolar iron storage. We identified HapX protein domains that are essential for HapX functions during either iron starvation or high-iron conditions. The evolutionary conservation of these domains indicates their wide-spread role in iron sensing. We further demonstrate that a HapX homodimer and the CCAAT-binding complex (CBC) cooperatively bind an evolutionary conserved DNA motif in a target promoter. The latter reveals the mode of discrimination between general CBC and specific HapX/CBC target genes. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism mediating both iron resistance and adaptation to iron starvation by the same transcription factor complex with activating and repressing functions depending on ambient iron availability. PMID:25092765
Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc
Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M
Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct
Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep
Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in
Finkelstein, Julia L; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A; Zavaleta, Nelly
Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired iron-absorption (⁵⁸Fe) studies were conducted in 59 exclusively breastfed Peruvian infants at 2-3 mo of age (2M) and 5-6 mo of age (5M). Infants were born to women who received ≥ 5100 or ≤ 1320 mg supplemental prenatal Fe. Iron status was assessed in mothers and infants at 2M and 5M. Infant iron absorption from breast milk averaged 7.1% and 13.9% at 2M and 5M. Maternal iron status (at 2M) predicted infant iron deficiency (ID) at 5M. Although no infants were iron deficient at 2M, 28.6% of infants had depleted iron stores (ferritin concentration <12 μg/L) by 5M. Infant serum ferritin decreased (P < 0.0001), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) increased (P < 0.0001), and serum iron decreased from 2M to 5M (P < 0.01). Higher infant sTfR (P < 0.01) and breast-milk copper (P < 0.01) predicted increased iron absorption at 5M. Prenatal iron supplementation had no effects on infant iron status or breast-milk nutrient concentrations at 2M or 5M. However, fetal iron exposure predicted increased infant length at 2M (P < 0.01) and 5M (P < 0.05). Fetal iron exposure affected early infant growth but did not significantly improve iron status or absorption. Young, exclusively breastfed infants upregulated iron absorption when iron stores were depleted at both 2M and 5M.
Gomes da Costa, Ana; Vargas, Sara; Clode, Nuno; M Graça, Luís
Anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy are a worldwide concern and are more frequent among women of reproductive age, pregnant women, and young children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and the risk factors for iron depletion during the first half of pregnancy, in a Portuguese population. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital and included pregnant women, until the 20th week of gestation. Data was collected regarding demographic and pregnancy features and hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were determined. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors for iron deficiency. Two hundred and one women were included, from which five (2.49%) presented anemia. Additionally, 77 (38.3%) exhibited iron deficiency and 22 (10.9%) revealed severe iron depletion. Maternal age was the only risk factor identified. The odds ratio (OR) was equal to 12.99 (95% CI 2.41 - 70.0) for women under twenty years of age and 2.09 (95% CI 1.05 - 4.14) for women older than thirty years of age. The prevalence of maternal anemia in the first half of pregnancy was lower than in other studies. However, more than one-third of the women exhibited iron deficiency. With the exception of maternal age, no other risk factors were identified.
Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Perfecto, Antonio; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.
Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF) (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada) and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM) at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron) at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen. PMID:28895913
Iron Deficiency Anaemia (IDA) has been shown to be the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. It is accepted that people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) develop anaemia as their kidney function declines. To better understand IDA in CKD, it is necessary to appreciate the normal iron metabolism and utilisation of iron and how these processes can be disordered in patients with CKD. The problems related to infection / inflammation and oxidative stress are examined. Whilst National and international guidelines recommend specific tests for IDA, these and alternative tests are reviewed. Whilst iron supplementation is necessary for CKD patients with IDA, iron metabolism and utilisation can be affected by factors such as infection or inflammation. Iron is essential element for all life, it can be toxic to cells through the process of oxidative stress. The recommended tests for IDA may be affected by factors such as infection and inflammation. Alternative tests are available, which may be a more accurate indicator of IDA as they are not affected by external factors. © 2013 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Deloche, Claire; Bastien, Philippe; Chadoutaud, Stéphanie; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; de Lacharrière, Olivier
Iron deficiency has been suspected to represent one of the possible causes of excessive hair loss in women. The aim of our study was to assess this relationship in a very large population of 5110 women aged between 35 and 60 years. Hair loss was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire sent to all volunteers. The iron status was assessed by a serum ferritin assay carried out in each volunteer. Multivariate analysis allowed us to identify three categories: "absence of hair loss" (43%), "moderate hair loss" (48%) and "excessive hair loss" (9%). Among the women affected by excessive hair loss, a larger proportion of women (59%) had low iron stores (< 40 microg/L) compared to the remainder of the population (48%). Analysis of variance and logistic regression show that a low iron store represents a risk factor for hair loss in non-menopausal women.
development of worldwide economies, iron defICiency continues to be the most prevalent single micronutrient deficiency disease in the world, affecting...al. Obesity-related hypoferremia is not explained by differences in reported intake of heme and nonheme iron or intake of dietary factors that can
Aigner, Elmar; Feldman, Alexandra; Datz, Christian
Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity. PMID:25215659
Aigner, Elmar; Feldman, Alexandra; Datz, Christian
Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the "dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)". Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.
Lozoff, Betsy; Corapci, Feyza; Burden, Matthew J.; Kaciroti, Niko; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Maureen
This study compared social looking and response to novelty in preschool-aged children (47–68 mo) with or without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron status of the participants from a low-income community in New Delhi, India, was based on venous hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width. Children’s social looking toward adults, affect, and wary or hesitant behavior in response to novelty were assessed in a semistructured paradigm during an in-home play observation. Affect and behavior were compared as a function of iron status: IDA (n = 74) vs. nonanemic (n = 164). Compared with nonanemic preschoolers, preschoolers with IDA displayed less social looking toward their mothers, moved close to their mothers more quickly, and were slower to display positive affect and touch novel toys for the first time. These results indicate that IDA in the preschool period has affective and behavioral effects similar to those reported for IDA in infancy. PMID:17311960
Kato, Souichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya
Some bacteria utilize (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals as conduits for extracellular electron transfer (EET) to distant, insoluble electron acceptors. A previous study demonstrated that microbe/mineral conductive networks are constructed in soil ecosystems, in which Geobacter spp. share dominant populations. In order to examine how (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals affect EET paths of Geobacter spp., the present study grew five representative Geobacter strains on electrodes as the sole electron acceptors in the absence or presence of (semi)conductive iron oxides. It was found that iron-oxide minerals enhanced current generation by three Geobacter strains, while no effect was observed in another strain. Geobacter sulfurreducens was the only strain that generated substantial amounts of currents both in the presence and absence of the iron oxides. Microscopic, electrochemical and transcriptomic analyses of G. sulfurreducens disclosed that this strain constructed two distinct types of EET path; in the absence of iron-oxide minerals, bacterial biofilms rich in extracellular polymeric substances were constructed, while composite networks made of mineral particles and microbial cells (without polymeric substances) were developed in the presence of iron oxides. It was also found that uncharacterized c-type cytochromes were up-regulated in the presence of iron oxides that were different from those found in conductive biofilms. These results suggest the possibility that natural (semi)conductive minerals confer energetic and ecological advantages on Geobacter, facilitating their growth and survival in the natural environment.
The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...
Fleming, Michael F; Anton, Raymond F; Spies, Claudia D
Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is an alcohol biomarker recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This test is increasingly being used to detect and monitor alcohol use in a variety of health care, legal, and industrial settings. The goal of this study is to review the genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that may affect CDT levels. A review of the literature identified 95 research articles that met the authors' criteria and reported potential interactions of a variety of factors on percent and total CDT levels. The review established 12 categories of variables that may affect CDT levels. These categories include (1) alcohol use, (2) genetic factors, (3) race, (4) gender, (5) age, (6) liver disease, (7) iron levels, (8) tobacco use, (9) medication such as estrogen and anticonvulsants, (10) metabolic factors such as body mass index and total body water, (11) chronic medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, and (12) surgical patients. There is evidence that %CDT levels are affected by alcohol use, end-stage liver disease, and genetic variants. In addition to these three factors, total CDT levels (CDTect) are also affected by factors that raise transferrin levels such as iron deficiency, chronic illnesses, and menopausal status. Other potential factors such as tobacco and age appear to be confounded by alcohol use. The roles of female gender, low body mass index, chronic inflammatory diseases, and medication on CDT levels require further study. False negatives are associated with female gender, episodic lower level alcohol use, and acute trauma with blood loss. This review suggests that a number of factors are associated with false-positive CDTect and %CDT levels. CDT offers great promise to assist physicians in the care of patients to detect and monitor heavy alcohol use.
Sjöberg, A; Hulthén, L
Sifted flour was fortified with carbonyl iron for 50 years in Sweden. This study evaluates changes in food habits, intake of iron, factors affecting iron absorption and iron status after the discontinuation of the general iron fortification in adolescents with the highest requirements. A total of 2285 15- to 16-year-old students in 1994 (634 girls and 611 boys) and in 2000 (534 girls and 486 boys) in 13 schools in Gothenburg, Sweden, were included in two cross-sectional surveys assessing food habits with diet history interviews and iron deficiency defined with serum ferritin stores ⩽ 15 μg/l and no preceding infection. In girls, iron deficiency increased from 37 to 45%, while in boys, it was stable at 23%. Total iron intake decreased from 15.7 to 9.5 mg/day and 22.5 to 13.9 mg/day in girls and boys, respectively. Cereals were the main iron source. Among girls, the increase of fish and decrease of calcium intake may not counteract the effect of decreased intake of fortification iron. Among boys, more meat, less calcium and more vitamin C may have favoured the bioavailability of iron. The discontinuation of the general iron fortification resulted in a 39% decrease in total iron intake and iron deficiency increased substantially in girls. However, in boys no change in iron deficiency was observed. Whether this was a result of changed bioavailability of dietary iron or simultaneous changes of non-dietary factors remains to be explored.
Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Commercially available kits were used to measure: intact FGF-23, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In patients with CKD no differences in FGF-23 concentration according to iron status were observed. Lower iron concentration was associated with higher concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen. In univariate and multivariate analysis FGF-23 correlated with fibrinogen ( r = -0.23, p < 0.05) and eGFR ( r = -0.36, p < 0.05). FGF-23 is affected by kidney function and fibrinogen but not iron status parameters in the early stages of CKD. Our data are paving the way for further studies on the role of FGF-23 in iron metabolism, especially in early stages of CKD.
Effects of oral iron(III) hydroxide polymaltose complex supplementation on hemoglobin increase, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance of adolescents with varying iron status: a single centre prospective placebo controlled study.
Devaki, Pallaki Baby; Chandra, Ranjit K; Geisser, Peter
To assess the effects of iron supplementation on iron status, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance in adolescents with varying iron status. Adolescents of both sexes with varying iron status were allocated to four treatment groups by using inclusion criteria. Three of the four groups (iron deficient anemic, iron deficient and control supplement) received iron(III) hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer) containing 100 mg of elemental iron 6 days a week for 8 months, while the fourth group (control placebo) was given a placebo. Hematological parameters, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance were assessed at baseline, 4 months and 8 months of supplementation. Cognitive and scholastic performance test scores for the three supplemented groups increased from baseline to 4 months and from 4 months to 8 months (with concomitant increases in hematological parameters), whereas no increase was observed in the placebo group. No increase was seen in affective behavior scores for any of the groups during or after supplementation. IPC supplementation for eight months yielded significant improvements in cognitive function and scholastic performance in Indian adolescents with and without iron deficiency and anemia.
... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...
... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...
... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...
Buchanan, W. M.
This paper describes an attempt to measure in vitro iron uptake from serum by human thyroid slices and to relate the uptake to tissue iron stores, folic acid status, and tissue viability. It is an extension of work previously reported (Buchanan, 1969). Thyroids were obtained from patients undergoing partial thyroidectomy for colloid goitre and serum from clinically normal healthy adults. The haemoglobin, serum iron, and folic acid levels of both thyroid and serum donors were measured and thyroids examined histologically for the presence of stainable iron. Viable and non-viable tissue slices were incubated in sera treated with radioactive iron so as to produce high and normal levels of transferrin saturation. Iron was taken up both from sera with normal and high transferrin saturation but the amount was, in almost all cases, greater from the more highly saturated. The uptake by non-viable tissue was appreciable but did not vary to any great extent from one serum to the next, and was attributed to simple diffusion of ionic iron into the tissue. There was, however, marked variation in uptake from different sera by viable tissue. It was concluded therefore that viability is a factor affecting the uptake. As the variation in uptake by viable tissue incubated in a single serum was significantly less than tissue incubated in a number of different sera it was further concluded that there was also a factor in the serum itself affecting iron uptake. The nature of the factor was not elucidated but neither folic acid nor levels of iron stores appeared to influence uptake because no correlation was found between iron uptake and iron stores or folic acid. Images PMID:5556118
Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee
Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time, only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors, besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver, which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes. It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. PMID
Wolf, Myles; White, Kenneth E
High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) cause the rare disorders of hypophosphatemic rickets and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite major advances in understanding FGF23 biology, fundamental aspects of FGF23 regulation in health and in CKD remain mostly unknown. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage, but affected individuals experience a waxing and waning course of phosphate wasting. This led to the discovery that iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. Unlike osteocytes in ADHR, normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with commensurately increased FGF23 cleavage to ensure that normal phosphate homeostasis is maintained in the event of iron deficiency. Simultaneous measurement of FGF23 by intact and C-terminal assays supported these breakthroughs by providing minimally invasive insight into FGF23 production and cleavage in bone. These findings also suggest a novel mechanism of FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient and demonstrate increased FGF23 production and decreased FGF23 cleavage, consistent with an acquired state that mimics the molecular pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency stimulates FGF23 production, but normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with increased cleavage to maintain normal circulating levels of biologically active hormone. These findings uncover a second level of FGF23 regulation within osteocytes, failure of which culminates in elevated levels of biologically active FGF23 in ADHR and perhaps CKD.
Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W.; Long, Terri A.
Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response. PMID:25452667
Reid, M. A.; Gahn, R. F.
Performance of the iron-titanium redox flow cell was studied as a function of acid concentration. Anion permeable membranes separated the compartments. Electrodes were graphite cloth. Current densities ranged up to 25 mA/square centimeter. Open-circuit and load voltages decreased as the acidity was increased on the iron side as predicted. On the titanium side, open-circuit voltages decreased as the acidity was increased in agreement with theory, but load voltages increased due to decreased polarization with increasing acidity. High acidity on the titanium side coupled with low acidity on the iron side gives the best load voltage, but such cells show voltage losses as they are repeatedly cycled. Analyses show that the bulk of the voltage losses are due to diffusion of acid through the membrane.
Chakravarti, Ananya; Camp, Kyle; McNabb, David S.
Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered fungal pathogen in humans, capable of causing mucocutaneous and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans virulence is influenced by multiple factors. Importantly, iron acquisition and avoidance of the immune oxidative burst are two critical barriers for survival in the host. Prior studies using whole genome microarray expression data indicated that the CCAAT-binding factor is involved in the regulation of iron uptake/utilization and the oxidative stress response. This study examines directly the role of the CCAAT-binding factor in regulating the expression of oxidative stress genes in response to iron availability. The CCAAT-binding factor is a heterooligomeric transcription factor previously shown to regulate genes involved in respiration and iron uptake/utilization in C. albicans. Since these pathways directly influence the level of free radicals, it seemed plausible the CCAAT-binding factor regulates genes necessary for the oxidative stress response. In this study, we show the CCAAT-binding factor is involved in regulating some oxidative stress genes in response to iron availability, including CAT1, SOD4, GRX5, and TRX1. We also show that CAT1 expression and catalase activity correlate with the survival of C. albicans to oxidative stress, providing a connection between iron obtainability and the oxidative stress response. We further explore the role of the various CCAAT-binding factor subunits in the formation of distinct protein complexes that modulate the transcription of CAT1 in response to iron. We find that Hap31 and Hap32 can compensate for each other in the formation of an active transcriptional complex; however, they play distinct roles in the oxidative stress response during iron limitation. Moreover, Hap43 was found to be solely responsible for the repression observed under iron deprivation. PMID:28122000
Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.; Djapgne, Louise; Nguyen, Angela T.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Vasil, Michael L.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is refractory to a variety of current antimicrobial therapeutic regimens. Complicating treatment of such infections is the ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms, as well as several innate and acquired resistance mechanisms. Previous studies suggest iron plays a role in resistance to antimicrobial therapy, including the efficacy of an FDA-approved iron chelator, deferasirox (DSX), or Gallium, an iron analog, in potentiating antibiotic-dependent killing of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Here we show that iron-replete conditions enhance resistance of P. aeruginosa nonbiofilm growth against tobramycin and tigecycline. Interestingly, the mechanism of iron-enhanced resistance to each of these antibiotics is distinct. Whereas pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake is important for optimal resistance to tigecycline, it does not enhance tobramycin resistance. In contrast, heme supplementation results in increased tobramycin resistance, while having no significant effect on tigecycline resistance. Thus, non-siderophore bound iron plays an important role in resistance to tobramycin, while pyoverdine increases the ability of P. aeruginosa to resist tigecycline treatment. Lastly, we show that iron increases the minimal concentration of tobramycin, but not tigecycline, required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms. Moreover, iron depletion blocks the previous observed induction of biofilm formation by sub-inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, suggesting iron and tobramycin signal through overlapping regulatory pathways to affect biofilm formation. These data further support the role of iron in P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, providing yet another compelling case for targeting iron acquisition for future antimicrobial drug development. PMID:24436170
Collings, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Dainty, Jack R; Roe, Mark A
Preliminary data in the literature indicate that iron absorption from a meal may be increased when consumed with low-pH beverages such as cola, and it is also possible that sugar iron complexes may alter iron availability. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the bioavailability of nonheme iron from a vegetarian pizza meal when consumed with 3 different beverages (cola, diet cola, and mineral water). Sixteen women with serum ferritin concentrations of 11-54 µg/L were recruited and completed the study. The pizza meal contained native iron and added ferric chloride solution as a stable isotope extrinsic label; the total iron content of the meal was ~5.3 mg. Incorporation of iron from the meal into RBC was not affected by the type of drink (9.9% with cola, 9.4% with diet cola, and 9.6% with water). Serum ferritin and plasma hepcidin were correlated (r = 0.66; P<0.001) and both were significant predictors of iron bioavailability, but their combined effect explained only 30% of the inter-individual variation (P<0.001) and illustrates the current lack of understanding of mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iron absorption. Although there was no effect of low-pH drinks on iron bioavailability in healthy women, their effect on absorption of fortification iron that requires solubilization in dilute acid, such as reduced iron, and in individuals with low gastric acid production, such as older people and individuals with Helicobacter pylori infection, warrants further investigation.
Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M
The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P < .001). These results indicate that iron concentration in milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.
Porter, John B; de Witte, Theo; Cappellini, M Domenica; Gattermann, Norbert
Iron overload is a potentially life-threatening consequence of multiple red-blood-cell transfusions. Here, we review factors affecting excess iron distribution and its damage to specific tissues, as well as mechanisms of oncogenesis by iron. Although consequences of transfusional iron overload are best described in thalassemia major and related inherited anemias, they are increasingly recognized in acquired conditions, such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Iron overload in MDS not only impacts on certain tissues, but may affect the clonal evolution of MDS through generation of reactive oxygen species. Iron overload may also influence hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation outcomes. Novel MRI methods for assessing body iron have impacted significantly on outcome in inherited anemias by allowing monitoring of iron burden and iron chelation therapy. This approach is increasingly being used in MDS and stem-cell-transplant procedures. Knowledge gained from managing transfusional iron overload in inherited anemias may be translated to general oncology, with potential for improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Homoky, William B; John, Seth G; Conway, Tim M; Mills, Rachel A
Oceanic iron inputs must be traced and quantified to learn how they affect primary productivity and climate. Chemical reduction of iron in continental margin sediments provides a substantial dissolved flux to the oceans, which is isotopically lighter than the crust, and so may be distinguished in seawater from other sources, such as wind-blown dust. However, heavy iron isotopes measured in seawater have recently led to the proposition of another source of dissolved iron from 'non-reductive' dissolution of continental margins. Here we present the first pore water iron isotope data from a passive-tectonic and semi-arid ocean margin (South Africa), which reveals a smaller and isotopically heavier flux of dissolved iron to seawater than active-tectonic and dysoxic continental margins. These data provide in situ evidence of non-reductive iron dissolution from a continental margin, and further show that geological and hydro-climatic factors may affect the amount and isotopic composition of iron entering the ocean.
Homoky, William B.; John, Seth G.; Conway, Tim M.; Mills, Rachel A.
Oceanic iron inputs must be traced and quantified to learn how they affect primary productivity and climate. Chemical reduction of iron in continental margin sediments provides a substantial dissolved flux to the oceans, which is isotopically lighter than the crust, and so may be distinguished in seawater from other sources, such as wind-blown dust. However, heavy iron isotopes measured in seawater have recently led to the proposition of another source of dissolved iron from ‘non-reductive’ dissolution of continental margins. Here we present the first pore water iron isotope data from a passive-tectonic and semi-arid ocean margin (South Africa), which reveals a smaller and isotopically heavier flux of dissolved iron to seawater than active-tectonic and dysoxic continental margins. These data provide in situ evidence of non-reductive iron dissolution from a continental margin, and further show that geological and hydro-climatic factors may affect the amount and isotopic composition of iron entering the ocean. PMID:23868399
Tanaka, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru
TIG arc welding is chemically a joining technology with melting the metallic material and it can be high quality. However, this welding should not be used in high current to prevent cathode melting. Thus, the heat transfer is poor. Therefore, the deep penetration cannot be obtained and the weld defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed arc welding has been used for the improvement of this defect. The pulsed arc welding can control the heat flux to anode. The convention and driving force in the weld pool are caused by the arc. Therefore, it is important to grasp the distribution of arc temperature. The metal vapor generate from the anode in welding. In addition, the pulsed current increased or decreased periodically. Therefore, the arc is affected by such as a current value and current frequency, the current rate of increment and the metal vapor. In this paper, the transient response of arc temperature and the iron vapor concentration affected by the current frequency with iron vapor in pulsed arc was elucidated by the EMTF (ElectroMagnetic Thermal Fluid) simulation. As a result, the arc temperature and the iron vapor were transient response as the current frequency increase. Thus, the temperature and the electrical conductivity decreased. Therefore, the electrical field increased in order to maintain the current continuity. The current density and electromagnetic force increased at the axial center. In addition, the electronic flow component of the heat flux increased at the axial center because the current density increased. However, the heat conduction component of the heat flux decreased.
Weinborn, Valerie; Valenzuela, Carolina; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; Weill, Ricardo; Pizarro, Fernando
The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a prebiotic mix on heme and non-heme iron (Fe) bioavailability in humans. To this purpose, twenty-four healthy women were randomized into one of two study groups. One group ate one yogurt per day for 12 days with a prebiotic mix (prebiotic group) and the other group received the same yogurt but without the prebiotic mix (control group). Before and after the intake period, the subjects participated in Fe absorption studies. These studies used 55 Fe and 59 Fe radioactive isotopes as markers of heme Fe and non-heme Fe, respectively, and Fe absorption was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The results showed that there were no significant differences in heme and non-heme Fe bioavailability in the control group. Heme Fe bioavailability of the prebiotic group increased significantly by 56% post-prebiotic intake. There were no significant differences in non-heme Fe bioavailability in this group. We concluded that daily consumption of a prebiotic mix increases heme Fe bioavailability and does not affect non-heme iron bioavailability.
Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Asli; Erdogan, Ferit; Kut, Altug
This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting medication adherence in patients who use oral iron therapy due to iron deficiency anemia. A total of 96 female patients in fertile age with mean age of 30±10.1 years (range 18-53) who were admitted to Family Medicine Clinic between 01 January and 31 March 2015 and who had received iron therapy within the recent three years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form. Of the patients, 39 (40,6%) were detected not to use the medication regularly or during the recommended period. A statistically significant relationship was found between non-adherence to therapy and gastrointestinal side effects and weight gain (p<0.05). Medication adherence is deficient in patients with iron deficiency anemia. The most important reason for this seems gastrointestinal side effects, in addition to weight gain under treatment.
Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B
We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56-91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA.
Background We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. Methods In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56–91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. Results In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. Conclusion These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on
Mahler, Gretchen J.; Esch, Mandy B.; Tako, Elad; Southard, Teresa L.; Archer, Shivaun D.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Shuler, Michael L.
The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron transport in an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model. Intestinal cells that are exposed to high doses of nanoparticles showed increased iron transport due to nanoparticle disruption of the cell membrane. Chickens acutely exposed to carboxylated particles (50 nm in diameter) had a lower iron absorption than unexposed or chronically exposed birds. Chronic exposure caused remodelling of the intestinal villi, which increased the surface area available for iron absorption. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo results suggests that our in vitro intestinal epithelium model is potentially useful for toxicology studies.
Wilson, Candy; McClung, James P; Karl, J Philip; Brothers, Michael D
Iron is a micronutrient necessary for energy metabolism and for oxygen transport and delivery. Depletion of iron stores (iron deficiency [ID]) may lead to iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which affects mood, cognitive function, and physical performance. Previous studies indicated that iron status may decline during military training. This study assessed the iron status and prevalence of ID and IDA in military personnel deployed to Bagram Air Base, Afghanistan (1492 m). Within the pool of 294 participants (149 male and 145 female), 2 males (1%) and 8 females (6%) presented with ID. Although IDA was not observed in males, 3 females (2%) met the criteria for IDA. Female sex (p = 0.05) and self-reported history of anemia (p < 0.05) were associated with diminished iron status. Amenorrhea was associated with higher ferritin (p < 0.05) and hemoglobin (p < 0.05) levels. Although ID and IDA did not affect a large portion of the deployed population assessed in this study, findings suggest that risk factors including female sex, history of anemia, and regular menstruation should be considered in the assessment of iron status in military personnel.
Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...
Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Abrams, Steven A; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle
Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. α-Lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. Thirty-one infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulas (4 mg iron/L, 13.1 g protein/L) from 4-8 wk to 6 mo of age: commercially available whey-predominant standard infant formula (standard formula), α-lactalbumin-enriched infant formula (α-LAC), or α-lactalbumin-enriched/casein-glycomacropeptide-reduced infant formula (α-LAC/RGMP). Nine breast-fed infants served as a reference. At 5.5 mo of age, (58)Fe was administered to all infants in a meal. Blood samples were collected 14 d later for iron absorption and iron status indices. Iron deficiency was defined as depleted iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis, or iron deficiency anemia. Iron absorption (mean ± SD) was 10.3 ± 7.0% from standard formula, 8.6 ± 3.8% from α-LAC, 9.2 ± 6.5% from α-LAC/RGMP, and 12.9 ± 6.5% from breast milk, with no difference between the formula groups (P = 0.79) or all groups (P = 0.44). In the formula-fed infants only, iron absorption was negatively correlated with serum ferritin (r = -0.49; P = 0.005) and was higher (P = 0.023) in iron-deficient infants (16.4 ± 12.4%) compared with those with adequate iron status (8.6 ± 4.4%). Our findings indicate that α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from infant formula in infants. Low serum ferritin concentrations are correlated with increased iron absorption from infant formula.
Breymann, C.; Römer, T.; Dudenhausen, J. W.
Iron deficiency with and without anaemia is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in women. Iron deficiency is generally the result of an imbalance between iron loss and iron absorption. In women with symptoms suspicious for iron deficiency, it is important to confirm or exclude the suspicion using proper tests. The use of serum ferritin levels is considered the gold standard for diagnosis. Although the ideal ferritin levels are not unknown the current consent is that levels < 40 ng/ml indicate iron deficiency, which needs to be treated in symptomatic patients. However, symptoms can already occur at ferritin levels of < 100 ng/ml and treatment must be adapted to the individual patient. Iron supplementation is only indicated in symptomatic patients diagnosed with iron deficiency whose quality of life is affected. It is important to treat iron deficiency together with its causes or risk factors. For example, blood loss from hypermenorrhea should be reduced. Women also need to receive information about the benefits of an iron-rich diet. If oral treatment with iron supplements is ineffective, parenteral iron administration is recommended. PMID:26633902
Fonseca, Márlon de Freitas; De Souza Hacon, Sandra; Grandjean, Philippe; Choi, Anna Lai; Bastos, Wanderley Rodrigues
Intrauterine methylmercury exposure and prenatal iron deficiency negatively affect offspring's brain development. Since fish is a major source of both methylmercury and iron, occurrence of negative confounding may affect the interpretation of studies concerning cognition. We assessed relationships between methylmercury exposure and iron-status in childbearing females from a population naturally exposed to methylmercury through fish intake (Amazon). We concluded a census (refuse <20%) collecting samples from 274 healthy females (12-49 years) for hair-mercury determination and assessed iron-status through red cell tests and determination of serum ferritin and iron. Reactive C protein and thyroid hormones was used for excluding inflammation and severe thyroid dysfunctions that could affect results. We assessed the association between iron-status and hair-mercury by bivariate correlation analysis and also by different multivariate models: linear regression (to check trends); hierarchical agglomerative clustering method (groups of variables correlated with each other); and factor analysis (to examine redundancy or duplication from a set of correlated variables). Hair-mercury correlated weakly with mean corpuscular volume (r=.141; P=.020) and corpuscular hemoglobin (r=.132; .029), but not with the best biomarker of iron-status, ferritin (r=.037; P=.545). In the linear regression analysis, methylmercury exposure showed weak association with age-adjusted ferritin; age had a significant coefficient (Beta=.015; 95% CI: .003-.027; P=.016) but ferritin did not (Beta=.034; 95% CI: -.147 to .216; P=.711). In the hierarchical agglomerative clustering method, hair-mercury and iron-status showed the smallest similarities. Regarding factor analysis, iron-status and hair-mercury loaded different uncorrelated components. We concluded that iron-status and methylmercury exposure probably occur in an independent way. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van Velden, DP; van Rensburg, SJ; Erasmus, R
Iron uptake, utilisation, release and storage occur at the gene level. Individuals with variant forms of genes involved in iron metabolism may have different requirements for iron and are likely to respond differently to the same amount of iron in the diet, a concept termed nutrigenetics. Iron deficiency, iron overload and the anemia of inflammation are the commonest iron-related disorders. While at least four types of hereditary iron overload have been identified to date, our knowledge of the genetic basis and consequences of inherited iron deficiency remain limited. The importance of genetic risk factors in relation to iron overload was highlighted with the identification of the HFE gene in 1996. Deleterious mutations in this gene account for 80-90% of inherited iron overload and are associated with loss of iron homeostasis, alterations in inflammatory responses, oxidative stress and in its most severe form, the disorder hereditary haemochromatosis (HH). Elucidation of the genetic basis of HH has led to rapid clinical benefit through drastic reduction in liver biopsies performed as part of the diagnostic work-up of affected patients. Today, detection of a genetic predisposition in the presence of high serum ferritin and transferrin saturation levels is usually sufficient to diagnose HH, thereby addressing the potential danger of inherited iron overload which starts with the same symptoms as iron deficiency, namely chronic fatigue. This review provides the scientific back-up for application of pathology supported genetic testing, a new test concept that is well placed for optimizing clinical benefit to patients with regard to iron status. PMID:27683335
Fishbane, Steven; Bolton, W Kline; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Strauss, William; Li, Zhu; Pereira, Brian J G
Ferumoxytol is a unique intravenous (i.v.) iron therapy. This report examines factors affecting hemoglobin response to i.v. ferumoxytol, and the relationship between hematologic parameters, concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), and adverse events (AEs) in nondialysis CKD patients. A series of post-hoc efficacy and safety analyses were performed using pooled data from two identically designed Phase III studies in 608 nondialysis CKD patients randomized to receive two 510 mg i.v. injections of ferumoxytol within 5 ± 3 days versus oral iron. Ferumoxytol resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin in the presence and absence of ESA, and across a range of baseline hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content levels. Adverse event rates with ferumoxytol were similar across quartiles of change in hemoglobin; there were no trends suggesting an increased rate of cardiovascular AEs with higher maximum achieved hemoglobin or faster rate of hemoglobin rise. There was no meaningful difference in the rate of AEs, serious AEs, and cardiovascular AEs between patients receiving or not receiving ESA. These analyses add to the knowledge of predictors of response and safety outcomes associated with i.v. iron therapy in nondialysis CKD patients.
Gereklioglu, Cigdem; Asma, Suheyl; Korur, Asli; Erdogan, Ferit; Kut, Altug
Objective: This study aimed at investigating the factors affecting medication adherence in patients who use oral iron therapy due to iron deficiency anemia. Methods: A total of 96 female patients in fertile age with mean age of 30±10.1 years (range 18-53) who were admitted to Family Medicine Clinic between 01 January and 31 March 2015 and who had received iron therapy within the recent three years were enrolled in the study. Data were collected through a questionnaire form. Results: Of the patients, 39 (40,6%) were detected not to use the medication regularly or during the recommended period. A statistically significant relationship was found between non-adherence to therapy and gastrointestinal side effects and weight gain (p<0.05). Conclusion: Medication adherence is deficient in patients with iron deficiency anemia. The most important reason for this seems gastrointestinal side effects, in addition to weight gain under treatment. PMID:27375698
Miller, Jeffery L.
Iron deficiency anemia arises when the balance of iron intake, iron stores, and the body's loss of iron are insufficient to fully support production of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency anemia rarely causes death, but the impact on human health is significant. In the developed world, this disease is easily identified and treated, but frequently overlooked by physicians. In contrast, it is a health problem that affects major portions of the population in underdeveloped countries. Overall, the prevention and successful treatment for iron deficiency anemia remains woefully insufficient worldwide, especially among underprivileged women and children. Here, clinical and laboratory features of the disease are discussed, and then focus is placed on relevant economic, environmental, infectious, and genetic factors that converge among global populations. PMID:23613366
Wei, Yushuang; Zhao, Mengzhu; Yang, Fang; Mao, Yang; Xie, Hang; Zhou, Qibing
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions.
The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...
Skjørringe, Tina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Moos, Torben
Iron and copper are important co-factors for a number of enzymes in the brain, including enzymes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and myelin formation. Both shortage and an excess of iron or copper will affect the brain. The transport of iron and copper into the brain from the circulation is strictly regulated, and concordantly protective barriers, i.e., the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCB) have evolved to separate the brain environment from the circulation. The uptake mechanisms of the two metals interact. Both iron deficiency and overload lead to altered copper homeostasis in the brain. Similarly, changes in dietary copper affect the brain iron homeostasis. Moreover, the uptake routes of iron and copper overlap each other which affect the interplay between the concentrations of the two metals in the brain. The divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) is involved in the uptake of both iron and copper. Furthermore, copper is an essential co-factor in numerous proteins that are vital for iron homeostasis and affects the binding of iron-response proteins to iron-response elements in the mRNA of the transferrin receptor, DMT1, and ferroportin, all highly involved in iron transport. Iron and copper are mainly taken up at the BBB, but the BCB also plays a vital role in the homeostasis of the two metals, in terms of sequestering, uptake, and efflux of iron and copper from the brain. Inside the brain, iron and copper are taken up by neurons and glia cells that express various transporters. PMID:23055972
Reid, M. A.; Gahn, R. F.
The effect of acid concentration on the performance of the iron-titanium redox flow cell was studied. When the acidity was increased, open-circuit voltages decreased on the titanium side but load voltages increased due to decreased polarization. The best load voltage occurs when there is high acidity on the titanium side coupled with low acidity on the iron side, but such cells show voltage losses with repeated cycling because of the diffusion of acid through the membrane. No membrane tested has been found capable of maintaining the differences in acidity. Chelating agents show some promise in reducing polarization at the Ti electrode and thus improving energy efficiency.
Imel, Erik A.; Gray, Amie; Padgett, Leah; Econs, Michael J.
Background Excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes hypophosphatemia in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Iron status influences C-terminal FGF23 (incorporating fragments plus intact FGF23) in ADHR and healthy subjects, and intact FGF23 in ADHR. We hypothesized that in XLH serum iron would inversely correlate to C-terminal FGF23, but not to intact FGF23, mirroring the relationships in normal controls. Methods Subjects included 25 untreated outpatients with XLH at a tertiary medical center and 158 healthy adult controls. Serum iron and plasma intact FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 were measured in stored samples. Results Intact FGF23 was greater than the control mean in 100% of XLH patients, and >2SD above the control mean in 88%, compared to 71% and 21% respectively for C-terminal FGF23. In XLH, iron correlated negatively to log-C-terminal FGF23 (r= −0.523, p<0.01), with a steeper slope than in controls (p<0.001). Iron was not related to log-intact FGF23 in either group. The log-ratio of intact FGF23 to C-terminal FGF23 was higher in XLH (0.00 ± 0.44) than controls (−0.28 ± 0.21, p<0.01), and correlated positively to serum iron (controls r= 0.276, p<0.001; XLH r= 0.428, p<0.05), with a steeper slope in XLH (p<0.01). Conclusion Like controls, serum iron in XLH is inversely related to C-terminal FGF23 but not intact FGF23. XLH patients are more likely to have elevated intact FGF23 than C-terminal FGF23. The relationships of iron to FGF23 in XLH suggest altered regulation of FGF23 cleaving may contribute to maintaining hypophosphatemia around an abnormal set-point. PMID:24325979
Buet, Agustina; Simontacchi, Marcela
Like all living organisms, plants demand iron (Fe) for important biochemical and metabolic processes. Internal imbalances, as a consequence of insufficient or excess Fe in the environment, lead to growth restriction and affect crop yield. Knowledge of signals and factors affecting each step in Fe uptake from the soil and distribution (long-distance transport, remobilization from old to young leaves, and storage in seeds) is necessary to improve our understanding of plant mineral nutrition. In this context, the role of nitric oxide (NO) is discussed as a key player in maintaining Fe homeostasis through its cross talk with hormones, ferritin, and frataxin and the ability to form nitrosyl-iron complexes. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.
Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael
Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.
Zou, Dong-Mei; Sun, Wan-Ling
The aim of this study was to summarize the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron overload, and to understand the mechanisms of iron overload in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the role iron plays in HCV life cycle. This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 28, 2017, with the keywords "hepatitis C virus", "iron overload", "iron metabolism", "hepcidin", "translation", and "replication". Articles related to iron metabolism, iron overload in patients with CHC, or the effects of iron on HCV life cycle were selected for the review. Iron overload is common in patients with CHC. The mechanisms involve decreased hepcidin levels caused by HCV through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, or bone morphogenetic protein/SMAD signaling pathways, and the altered expression of other iron-metabolism-related genes. Some studies found that iron increases HCV replication, while other studies found the opposite result. Most of the studies suggest the positive role of iron on HCV translation, the mechanisms of which involve increased expression levels of factors associated with HCV internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation, such as eukaryotic initiation factor 3 and La protein. The growing literature demonstrates that CHC leads to iron overload, and iron affects the HCV life cycle in turn. Further research should be conducted to clarify the mechanism involved in the complicated interaction between iron and HCV.
Li, Lin; Gao, Wenwen; Peng, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Kong, Qihui; Ying, Yinghui; Shou, Huixia
Iron is an indispensable micronutrient for plant growth and development. Limited bioavailability of Fe in the soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis in plants and yield loss. In this study, two soybean basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300, were identified in response to Fe-deficiency. Both transcription factors are expressed in roots and nodules, and are induced by Fe deficiency; these patterns were confirmed in transgenic hairy roots expressing constructs of the endogenous promoters fused to a GUS reporter gene. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays indicated a physical interaction between GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300. Studies on transgenic soybeans overexpressing GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 revealed that overexpression of each transcription factor, alone, results in no change of the responses to Fe deficiency, whereas overexpression of both transcription factors upregulated the downstream Fe uptake genes and increased the Fe content in these transgenic plants. Compared to wild type, these double overexpression transgenic plants were more tolerant to Fe deficiency. Taken together, our findings establish that GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 are important transcription factors involved in Fe homeostasis in soybean. © 2018 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Dutrizac, J. E.
Several factors affecting the precipitation of the alkali jarosites (sodium jarosite, potassium jarosite, rubidium jarosite, and ammonium jarosite) have been studied systematically using sodium jarosite as the model. The pH of the reacting solution exercises a major influence on the amount of jarosite formed, but has little effect on the composition of the washed product. Higher temperatures significantly increase the yield and slightly raise the alkali content of the jarosites. The yield and alkali content both increase greatly with the alkali concentration to about twice the stoichiometric requirement but, thereafter, remain nearly constant. At 97 °C, the amount of product increases with longer retention times to about 15 hours, but more prolonged reaction times are without significant effect on the amount or composition of the jarosite. Factors such as the presence of seed or ionic strength have little effect on the yield or jarosite composition. The amount of precipitate augments directly as the iron concentration of the solution increases, but the product composition is nearly independent of this variable. A significant degree of agitation is necessary to suspend the product and to prevent the jarosite from coating the apparatus with correspondingly small yields. Once the product is adequately suspended, however, further agitation is without significant effect. The partitioning of alkali ions during jarosite precipitation was ascertained for K:Na, Na:NH4, K:NH4, and K:Rb. Potassium jarosite is the most stable of the alkali jarosites and the stability falls systematically for lighter or heavier congeners; ammonium jarosite is slightly more stable than the sodium analogue. Complete solid solubility among the various alkali jarosite-type compounds was established.
Turkmen, Ercan; Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Eldem, Gonca; Yilmaz, Engin; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Altindal, Mahmut; Altun, Bulent
HFE gene mutations are responsible from iron overload in general population. Studies in hemodialysis patients investigated the effect of presence of HFE gene mutations on serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) with conflicting results. However effect of HFE mutations on iron overload in hemodialysis patients was not previously extensively studied. 36 hemodialysis patients (age 51.3 ± 15.6, (18/18) male/female) and 44 healthy control subjects included in this cross sectional study. Hemoglobin, ferritin, TSAT in the preceding 2 years were recorded. Iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administered during this period were calculated. Iron accumulation in heart and liver was detected by MRI. Relationship between HFE gene mutation, hemoglobin, iron parameters and EPO doses, and tissue iron accumulation were determined. Iron overload was detected in nine (25%) patients. Hemoglobin, iron parameters, weekly EPO doses, and monthly iron doses of patients with and without iron overload were similar. There was no difference between control group and hemodialysis patients with respect to the prevalence of HFE gene mutations. Iron overload was detected in five of eight patients who had HFE gene mutations, but iron overload was present in 4 of 28 patients who had no mutations (P = 0.01). Hemoglobin, iron parameters, erythropoietin, and iron doses were similar in patients with and without gene mutations. HFE gene mutations remained the main determinant of iron overload after multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02; OR, 11.6). Serum iron parameters were not adequate to detect iron overload and HFE gene mutation was found to be an important risk factor for iron accumulation. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Roy, Emily M; Griffith, Kevin L
Iron is an essential micronutrient required for the viability of many organisms. Under oxidizing conditions, ferric iron is highly insoluble (∼10 -9 to 10 -18 M), yet bacteria typically require ∼10 -6 M for survival. To overcome this disparity, many bacteria have adopted the use of extracellular iron-chelating siderophores coupled with specific iron-siderophore uptake systems. In the case of Bacillus subtilis, undomesticated strains produce the siderophore bacillibactin. However, many laboratory strains, e.g., JH642, have lost the ability to produce bacillibactin during the process of domestication. In this work, we identified a novel iron acquisition activity from strain JH642 that accumulates in the growth medium and coordinates the iron response with population density. The molecule(s) responsible for this activity was named elemental Fe(II/III) (Efe) acquisition factor because efeUOB (ywbLMN) is required for its activity. Unlike most iron uptake molecules, including siderophores and iron reductases, Efe acquisition factor is present under iron-replete conditions and is regulated independently of Fur repressor. Restoring bacillibactin production in strain JH642 inhibits the activity of Efe acquisition factor, presumably by sequestering available iron. A similar iron acquisition activity is produced from a mutant of Escherichia coli unable to synthesize the siderophore enterobactin. Given the conservation of efeUOB and its regulation by catecholic siderophores in B. subtilis and E. coli, we speculate that Efe acquisition factor is utilized by many bacteria, serves as an alternative to Fur-mediated iron acquisition systems, and provides cells with biologically available iron that would normally be inaccessible during aerobic growth under iron-replete conditions. Iron is an essential micronutrient required for a variety of biological processes, yet ferric iron is highly insoluble during aerobic growth. In this work, we identified a novel iron acquisition
Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng
Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steere, Ashley N; Miller, Brendan F; Roberts, Samantha E; Byrne, Shaina L; Chasteen, N Dennis; Smith, Valerie C; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Mason, Anne B
Efficient delivery of iron is critically dependent on the binding of diferric human serum transferrin (hTF) to its specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of actively dividing cells. Internalization of the complex into an endosome precedes iron removal. The return of hTF to the blood to continue the iron delivery cycle relies on the maintenance of the interaction between apohTF and the TFR after exposure to endosomal pH (≤6.0). Identification of the specific residues accounting for the pH-sensitive nanomolar affinity with which hTF binds to TFR throughout the cycle is important to fully understand the iron delivery process. Alanine substitution of 11 charged hTF residues identified by available structures and modeling studies allowed evaluation of the role of each in (1) binding of hTF to the TFR and (2) TFR-mediated iron release. Six hTF mutants (R50A, R352A, D356A, E357A, E367A, and K511A) competed poorly with biotinylated diferric hTF for binding to TFR. In particular, we show that Asp356 in the C-lobe of hTF is essential to the formation of a stable hTF-TFR complex: mutation of Asp356 in the monoferric C-lobe hTF background prevented the formation of the stoichiometric 2:2 (hTF:TFR monomer) complex. Moreover, mutation of three residues (Asp356, Glu367, and Lys511), whether in the diferric or monoferric C-lobe hTF, significantly affected iron release when in complex with the TFR. Thus, mutagenesis of charged hTF residues has allowed identification of a number of residues that are critical to formation of and release of iron from the hTF-TFR complex.
Abioye, Ajibola I; Aboud, Said; Premji, Zulfiqar; Etheredge, Analee J; Gunaratna, Nilupa S; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Mongi, Robert; Meloney, Laura; Darling, Anne Marie; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie
Iron deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient abnormality and the most common cause of anemia globally, worsening the burden of adverse pregnancy and child outcomes. We sought to evaluate the response of hematologic biomarkers to iron supplementation and to examine the predictors of the response to iron supplementation among iron-deficient pregnant women. We identified 600 iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤12 μg/L) pregnant women, aged 18-45 y, presenting to 2 antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania using rapid ferritin screening tests, and prospectively followed them through delivery and postpartum. All women received 60 mg Fe and 0.25 mg folate daily from enrollment until delivery. Proportions meeting the thresholds representing deficient hematologic status including hemoglobin <110 g/L, ferritin ≤12 μg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4.4 mg/L, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) >70 mmol/L, or hepcidin ≤13.3 μg/L at baseline and delivery were assessed. The prospective change in biomarker concentration and the influence of baseline hematologic status on the change in biomarker concentrations were assessed. Regression models were estimated to assess the relation of change in biomarker concentrations and pregnancy outcomes. There was significant improvement in maternal biomarker concentrations between baseline and delivery, with increases in the concentrations of hemoglobin (mean difference: 15.2 g/L; 95% CI: 13.2, 17.2 g/L), serum ferritin (51.6 μg/L; 95% CI: 49.5, 58.8 μg/L), and serum hepcidin (14.0 μg/L; 95% CI: 12.4, 15.6 μg/L) and decreases in sTfR (-1.7 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.0, -1.3 mg/L) and ZPP (-17.8 mmol/L; 95% CI: -32.1, 3.5 mmol/L). The proportions of participants with low hemoglobin, ferritin, and hepcidin were 73%, 93%, and 99%, respectively, at baseline and 34%, 12%, and 46%, respectively, at delivery. The improvements in biomarker concentrations were significantly greater among participants with poor hematologic status at
Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent
Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E
Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.
Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.
In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571
Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Kuong, Khov; Burja, Kurt; Parker, Megan; Sisokhom, Sek; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T
Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine) of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443) from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616). Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05). In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067) or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064). Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05), and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05). Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and significantly associated with long-term (stunting) and current
Lim, Wai Feng; Yap, Boon Kar; Lai, Mei I.; Talik, Noorazrina; Nasser, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Haiqi, Ahmed Mubarak Ahmed; Sankar Krishnan, Prajindra
In our bloodstream, there are plenty of red blood cells (RBC), which function as an important oxygen carrier in our bodies. Each RBC consists of millions of haemoglobin (Hb), which is made up from globin and iron. If any deficiency/malfunction of any globin, it will lead to anaemia as indicated in low Hb level while iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is anaemic due to the lacking of iron as indicated in low Hb and ferritin levels. IDA affects almost two billion people globally while anaemia without iron deficiency, such as thalassaemia, affects almost 4.5% in Malaysian population. These anaemic conditions have similar clinical symptoms like fatigue, dizziness, in which disturb their cognitive development and productivity in workplace. In areas without proper medical access, many anaemic individuals were misdiagnosed and treated with iron tablets because they were thought to have iron deficiency anaemia due to low Hb content. But, excess iron is toxic to the body. Misdiagnosis can be avoided by iron status assessment. We hereby review the currently available iron status parameters in laboratory and field study with the conclusion of demonstrating the importance of a need for iron reader, in the effort to reduce the prevalence of IDA globally.
Moreno-Cermeño, Armando; Obis, Èlia; Bellí, Gemma; Cabiscol, Elisa; Ros, Joaquim; Tamarit, Jordi
The primary function of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in iron homeostasis, remains controversial. Using a yeast model of conditional expression of the frataxin homologue YFH1, we analyzed the primary effects of YFH1 depletion. The main conclusion unambiguously points to the up-regulation of iron transport systems as a primary effect of YFH1 down-regulation. We observed that inactivation of aconitase, an iron-sulfur enzyme, occurs long after the iron uptake system has been activated. Decreased aconitase activity should be considered part of a group of secondary events promoted by iron overloading, which includes decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased protein carbonyl formation. Impaired manganese uptake, which contributes to superoxide dismutase deficiency, has also been observed in YFH1-deficient cells. This low manganese content can be attributed to the down-regulation of the metal ion transporter Smf2. Low Smf2 levels were not observed in AFT1/YFH1 double mutants, indicating that high iron levels could be responsible for the Smf2 decline. In summary, the results presented here indicate that decreased iron-sulfur enzyme activities in YFH1-deficient cells are the consequence of the oxidative stress conditions suffered by these cells. PMID:20956517
This study was undertaken to better understand the factors that may affect road sign retroreflectivity, specifically age and physical orientation. A better understanding of these factors could provide guidance to ODOT in managing its inventory of roa...
Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik
Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Song, Ning; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia
Understandings of the disturbed iron metabolism in Parkinson's disease (PD) are largely from the perspectives of neurons. Neurodegenerative processes in PD trigger universal and conserved astroglial dysfunction and microglial activation. In this review, we start with astroglia and microglia in PD with an emphasis on their roles in spreading α-synuclein pathology, and then focus on their contributions in iron metabolism under normal conditions and the diseased state of PD. Elevated iron in the brain regions affects glial features, meanwhile, glial effects on neuronal iron metabolism are largely dependent on their releasing factors. These advances might be valuable for better understanding and modulating iron metabolism disturbance in PD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Steinbicker, Andrea U.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.
Iron is an essential element in our daily diet. Most iron is required for the de novo synthesis of red blood cells, where it plays a critical role in oxygen binding to hemoglobin. Thus, iron deficiency causes anemia, a major public health burden worldwide. On the other extreme, iron accumulation in critical organs such as liver, heart, and pancreas causes organ dysfunction due to the generation of oxidative stress. Therefore, systemic iron levels must be tightly balanced. Here we focus on the regulatory role of the hepcidin/ferroportin circuitry as the major regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. We discuss how regulatory cues (e.g., iron, inflammation, or hypoxia) affect the hepcidin response and how impairment of the hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system causes disorders of iron metabolism. PMID:23917168
Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.
Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at
Calcium stimulates hepatocyte iron uptake from transferrin, ferric-iron-pyrophosphate and ferrous-iron-ascorbate. Maximal stimulation of iron uptake is observed at 1-1.5 mM of extra-cellular calcium and the effect is reversible and immediate. Neither the receptor affinity for transferrin, nor the total amounts of transferrin associated with the cells or the rate of transferrin endocytosis are significantly affected by calcium. In the presence of calcium the rate of iron uptake of non-transferrin bound iron increases abruptly at approximate 17 degrees C and 27 degrees C and as assessed by Arrhenius plots, the activation energy is reduced in a calcium dependent manner at approx. 27 degrees C. At a similar temperature, i.e., between 25 degrees C and 28 degrees C, calcium increases the rates of cellular iron uptake from transferrin in a way that is not reflected in the rate of transferrin endocytosis. By the results of this study it is concluded that calcium increases iron transport across the plasma membrane by a mechanism dependent on membrane fluidity.
Arnaud-Barbe, Nadège; Poncet, David; Reverchon, Sylvie; Wawrzyniak, Julien; Nasser, William
ABSTRACT Iron availability functions as an environmental cue for enteropathogenic bacteria, signaling arrival within the human host. As enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of human diarrhea, the effect of iron on ETEC virulence factors was evaluated here. ETEC pathogenicity is directly linked to production of fimbrial colonization factors and secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Efficient colonization of the small intestine further requires at least the flagellin binding adhesin EtpA. Under iron starvation, production of the CFA/I fimbriae was increased in the ETEC H10407 prototype strain. In contrast, LT secretion was inhibited. Furthermore, under iron starvation, gene expression of the cfa (CFA/I) and etp (EtpBAC) operons was induced, whereas transcription of toxin genes was either unchanged or repressed. Transcriptional reporter fusion experiments focusing on the cfa operon further showed that iron starvation stimulated cfaA promoter activity in ETEC, indicating that the impact of iron on CFA/I production was mediated by transcriptional regulation. Evaluation of cfaA promoter activity in heterologous E. coli single mutant knockout strains identified IscR as the regulator responsible for inducing cfa fimbrial gene expression in response to iron starvation, and this was confirmed in an ETEC ΔiscR strain. The global iron response regulator, Fur, was not implicated. IscR binding sites were identified in silico within the cfaA promoter and fixation confirmed by DNase I footprinting, indicating that IscR directly binds the promoter region to induce CFA/I. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic enterobacteria modulate expression of virulence genes in response to iron availability. Although the Fur transcription factor represents the global regulator of iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli, we show that several ETEC virulence factors are modulated by iron, with expression of the major fimbriae under the control of the iron
Paul, Bibbin T.; Manz, David H.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.
Introduction Mitochondria are cellular organelles that perform numerous bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and regulatory functions and play a central role in iron metabolism. Extracellular iron is taken up by cells and transported to the mitochondria, where it is utilized for synthesis of cofactors essential to the function of enzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions, DNA synthesis and repair, and a variety of other cellular processes. Areas Covered This article reviews the trafficking of iron to the mitochondria and normal mitochondrial iron metabolism, including heme synthesis and iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis. Much of our understanding of mitochondrial iron metabolism has been revealed by pathologies that disrupt normal iron metabolism. These conditions affect not only iron metabolism but mitochondrial function and systemic health. Therefore, this article also discusses these pathologies, including conditions of systemic and mitochondrial iron dysregulation as well as cancer. Literature covering these areas was identified via PubMed searches using keywords: Iron, mitochondria, Heme Synthesis, Iron-sulfur Cluster, and Cancer. References cited by publications retrieved using this search strategy were also consulted. Expert Commentary While much has been learned about mitochondrial iron, key questions remain. Developing a better understanding of mitochondrial iron regulation will be paramount in developing therapies for syndromes that affect mitochondrial iron. PMID:27911100
Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Rossander, L; Suwanik, R
Previously reported levels of iron absorption from common Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices were too low to be consistent with the known prevalence of iron deficiency. In the present paper the cause of the low absorption was systematically sought. Variables investigated comprised methodological errors, factors in the diet such as certain foodstuffs, or contaminants inhibiting the absorption and characteristics of the subjects accompanied by malabsorption of dietary iron. The latter was excluded by comparing the absorption from both wheat rolls and a composit rice meal in Thai and Swedish women using the absorption of a small dose of ferrous ascorbate as a common basis of comparison. Two main factors were identified as causing the low absorption in the previous studies: the homogenization of the labeled meals before serving and the use of rice flour instead of rice. Iron absorption from nonhomogenized meals of identical composition as studied previously was many times higher (on an average 0.16 mg) and was consistent with the actual prevalence of iron deficiency in lower socioeconomic groups of Thais mainly consuming the simple meals studied. Recent modifications of the method to measure nonheme iron absorption from composite meals have thus not only made the determination simpler but also more accurate.
Popescu, B.F.Gh.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.
Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) results from cellular damage caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial matrix protein frataxin. To address the effect of frataxin deficiency on mitochondrial iron chemistry, the heavy mitochondrial fraction (HMF) was isolated from primary fibroblasts from FRDA affected and unaffected individuals. X-ray absorption spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical form of iron. Near K-edge spectra were fitted with a series of model iron compounds to determine the proportion of each iron species. Most of the iron in both affected and unaffected fibroblasts was ferrihydrite. The iron K-edge from unaffected HMFs were best fitted with poorly organizedmore » ferrihydrite modeled by frataxin whereas HMFs from affected cells were best fitted with highly organized ferrihydrite modeled by ferritin. Both had several minor iron species but these did not differ consistently with disease. Since the iron K-edge spectra of ferritin and frataxin are very similar, we present additional evidence for the presence of ferritin-bound iron in HMF. The predominant ferritin subunit in HMFs from affected cells resembled mitochondrial ferritin (MtFt) in size and antigenicity. Western blotting of native gels showed that HMF from affected cells had 3-fold more holoferritin containing stainable iron. We conclude that most of the iron in fibroblast HMF from both affected and unaffected cells is ferrihydrite but only FRDA affected cells mineralize significant iron in mitochondrial ferritin.« less
Percy, Laura; Mansour, Diana; Fraser, Ian
Iron deficiency (ID) is the most common micronutrient deficiency worldwide with >20% of women experiencing it during their reproductive lives. Hepcidin, a peptide hormone mostly produced by the liver, controls the absorption and regulation of iron. Understanding iron metabolism is pivotal in the successful management of ID and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) using oral preparations, parenteral iron or blood transfusion. Oral preparations vary in their iron content and can result in gastrointestinal side effects. Parenteral iron is indicated when there are compliance/tolerance issues with oral iron, comorbidities which may affect absorption or ongoing iron losses that exceed absorptive capacity. It may also be the preferred option when rapid iron repletion is required to prevent physiological decompensation or given preoperatively for non-deferrable surgery. As gynaecologists, we focus on managing women's heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) and assume that primary care clinicians are treating the associated ID/IDA. We now need to take the lead in diagnosing, managing and initiating treatment for ID/IDA and treating HMB simultaneously. This dual management will significantly improve their quality of life. In this chapter we will summarise the importance of iron in cellular functioning, describe how to diagnose ID/IDA and help clinicians choose between the available treatment options. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Van Campenhout, Ann; Van Campenhout, Christel; Lagrou, Albert R; Moorkens, Greta; De Block, Christophe; Manuel-y-Keenoy, Begoña
Increased lipid peroxidation contributes to diabetic complications and redox-active iron is known to play an important role in catalyzing peroxidation reactions. We aimed to investigate if diabetes affects the capacity of plasma to protect against iron-driven lipid peroxidation and to identify underlying factors. Glycemic control, serum iron, proteins involved in iron homeostasis, plasma iron-binding antioxidant capacity in a liposomal model, and non-transferrin-bound iron were measured in 40 type 1 and 67 type 2 diabetic patients compared to 100 nondiabetic healthy control subjects. Iron-binding antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the plasma of diabetic subjects (83 +/- 6 and 84 +/- 5% in type 1 and type 2 diabetes versus 88 +/- 6% in control subjects, p < 0.0005). The contribution of transferrin, ceruloplasmin, and albumin concentrations to the iron-binding antioxidant capacity was lost in diabetes (explaining only 4.2 and 6.3% of the variance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes versus 13.9% in control subjects). This observation could not be explained by differences in Tf glycation, lipid, or inflammatory status and was not associated with higher non-transferrin-bound iron levels. Iron-binding antioxidant capacity is decreased in diabetes mellitus.
Spinazzi, Marco; Sghirlanzoni, Angelo; Salviati, Leonardo; Angelini, Corrado
Severe copper deficiency leads in humans to a treatable multisystem disease characterized by anaemia and degeneration of spinal cord and nerves, but its mechanisms have not been investigated. We tested whether copper deficit leads to alterations in fundamental copper-dependent proteins and in iron metabolism in blood and muscles of patients affected by copper deficiency myeloneuropathy, and if these metabolic abnormalities are associated with compensatory mechanisms for copper maintenance. We evaluated the expression of critical copper enzymes, of iron-related proteins, and copper chaperones and transporters in blood and muscles from five copper-deficient patients presenting with subacute sensory ataxia, muscle paralysis, liver steatosis and variable anaemia. Severe copper deficiency was caused by chronic zinc intoxication in all of the patients, with an additional history of gastrectomy in two cases. The antioxidant enzyme SOD1 and subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase were significantly decreased in blood cells and in muscles of copper-deficient patients compared with controls. In muscle, the iron storage protein ferritin was dramatically reduced despite normal serum ferritin, and the expression of the haem-proteins cytochrome c and myoglobin was impaired. Muscle expression of the copper transporter CTR1 and of the copper chaperone CCS, was strikingly increased, while antioxidant protein 1 was diminished. copper-dependent enzymes with critical functions in antioxidant defences, in mitochondrial energy production, and in iron metabolism are affected in blood and muscles of patients with profound copper deficiency leading to myeloneuropathy. Homeostatic mechanisms are strongly activated to increase intracellular copper retention. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.
Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria
In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.
Imel, Erik A.; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K.; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R.; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J.
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n= 994), age 20–55 years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p< 0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=−0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=−0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50 mcg/dl than >50 mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=−0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=−0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important
Theil, Elizabeth C.
Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe2+ and O2 (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition. PMID:21346101
Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro
In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.
In the U.S., approximately 3% of young children develop iron deficiency anemia (IDA), with Hispanic/Latino children disproportionately affected. IDA is associated with inferior neurodevelopmental outcomes. Treatment with oral iron mitigates its consequences yet non-adherence often results in treatme...
Sikorska, Katarzyna; Bernat, Agnieszka; Wroblewska, Anna
The liver, as the main iron storage compartment and the place of hepcidin synthesis, is the central organ involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in the body. Excessive accumulation of iron is an important risk factor in liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review the literature on the molecular pathogenesis of iron overload and its clinical consequences in chronic liver diseases. PubMed was searched for English-language articles on molecular genesis of primary and secondary iron overload, as well as on their association with liver disease progression. We have also included literature on adjuvant therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate detrimental effects of excessive body iron load in liver cirrhosis. Excess of free, unbound iron induces oxidative stress, increases cell sensitivity to other detrimental factors, and can directly affect cellular signaling pathways, resulting in accelerated liver disease progression. Diagnosis of liver cirrhosis is, in turn, often associated with the identification of a pathological accumulation of iron, even in the absence of genetic background of hereditary hemochromatosis. Iron depletion and adjuvant therapy with antioxidants are shown to cause significant improvement of liver functions in patients with iron overload. Phlebotomy can have beneficial effects on liver histology in patients with excessive iron accumulation combined with compensated liver cirrhosis of different etiology. Excessive accumulation of body iron in liver cirrhosis is an important predictor of liver failure and available data suggest that it can be considered as target for adjuvant therapy in this condition.
Nairz, Manfred; Schroll, Andrea; Haschka, David; Dichtl, Stefanie; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Demetz, Egon; Moser, Patrizia; Haas, Hubertus; Fang, Ferric C.; Theurl, Igor; Weiss, Günter
Genetic and dietary forms of iron overload have distinctive clinical and pathophysiological features. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by overwhelming intestinal iron absorption, parenchymal iron deposition, and macrophage iron depletion. In contrast, excessive dietary iron intake results in iron deposition in macrophages. However, the functional consequences of genetic and dietary iron overload for the control of microbes are incompletely understood. Using Hfe+/+ and Hfe−/− mice in combination with oral iron overload in a model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, we found animals of either genotype to induce hepcidin antimicrobial peptide expression and hypoferremia following systemic infection in an Hfe-independent manner. As predicted, Hfe−/− mice, a model of hereditary hemochromatosis, displayed reduced spleen iron content, which translated into improved control of Salmonella replication. Salmonella adapted to the iron-poor microenvironment in the spleens of Hfe−/− mice by inducing the expression of its siderophore iron-uptake machinery. Dietary iron loading resulted in higher bacterial numbers in both WT and Hfe−/− mice, although Hfe deficiency still resulted in better pathogen control and improved survival. This suggests that Hfe deficiency may exert protective effects in addition to the control of iron availability for intracellular bacteria. Our data show that a dynamic adaptation of iron metabolism in both immune cells and microbes shapes the host-pathogen interaction in the setting of systemic Salmonella infection. Moreover, Hfe-associated iron overload and dietary iron excess result in different outcomes in infection, indicating that tissue and cellular iron distribution determines the susceptibility to infection with specific pathogens. PMID:28443246
Thanner, S; Gutzwiller, A
The effects of the recommended dose of 200 mg iron and of half that dose injected on the first day of life on health, iron status and performance during the 4 week suckling period were studied in 2'123 piglets. All piglets received creep feed and soil which was supplemented with 14 g iron per kg. Neither mortality nor the prevalence of arthritis, meningitis and foot abscess (each disease affecting about 1% of the piglets) differed between the two groups. The low dose of 100 mg iron decreased blood haemoglobin concentration at weaning (110 ± 19 vs.120 ± 15 g/l), but did not affect growth rate.
Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.
The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.
Levin, Carina; Harpaz, Shira; Muklashi, Isam; Lumelsky, Nadia; Komisarchik, Ina; Katzap, Ilia; Abu Hanna, Manhal; Koren, Ariel
In young children, iron deficiency (ID)-the most common cause of anemia-may adversely affect long-term neurodevelopment and behavior. We prospectively evaluated the prevalence of ID and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in 256 healthy 18- to 36-month-old children in Northern Israel. Complete blood count and ferritin evaluation were performed, and risk factors were assessed. Hemoglobin (Hgb) was compared with first-year routine screening. Complete data were obtained from 208 children: 56.2% were boys; the mean age was 26.1±5.27 months. A prevalence of 5.8% IDA, 16.3% ID without anemia, 9.6% anemia with normal ferritin, and 68.3% normal Hgb and ferritin was found. In nonanemic infants at 1 year of age (n=156), ID/IDA was found in 19.9%, and 12.8% became anemic at study evaluation. Despite iron supplementation in the first year, and normal Hgb at first-year screening, ID and IDA were still prevalent, and might develop during the second year of life. Recognition of this child subset and consideration of iron supplementation are mandatory.
MacQueen, B C; Christensen, R D; Ward, D M; Bennett, S T; O'Brien, E A; Sheffield, M J; Baer, V L; Snow, G L; Weaver Lewis, K A; Fleming, R E; Kaplan, J
Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay.
Wang, Jiaying; Tao, Tao; Yan, Hexiang
In order to describe iron stability in plastic pipes and to ensure the drinking water security, the influence factors and rules for iron adsorption and release were studied, dependent on the Unplasticized poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) drinking pipes employed in this research. In this paper, sulfate, chloride, and bicarbonate, as well as synthesized models, were chosen to investigate the iron stability on the inner wall of PVC-U drinking pipes. The existence of the three kinds of anions could significantly affect the process of iron adsorption, and a positive association was found between the level of anion concentration and the adsorption rate. However, the scaling formed on the inner surface of the pipes would be released into the water under certain conditions. The Larson Index (LI), used for a synthetic consideration of anion effects on iron stability, was selected to investigate the iron release under multi-factor conditions. Moreover, a well fitted linear model was established to gain a better understanding of iron release under multi-factor conditions. The simulation results demonstrated that the linear model was better fitted than the LI model for the prediction of iron release. PMID:28629192
Ward, Diane M; Chen, Opal S; Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Jerry; Bhuiyan, Shah Alam; Natarajan, Selvamuthu K; Bard, Martin; Cox, James E
Ergosterol synthesis is essential for cellular growth and viability of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis are therefore highly regulated in this species. Erg25 is an iron-containing C4-methyl sterol oxidase that contributes to the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol, a precursor of ergosterol. The ERG29 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and here we identified a role for Erg29 in the methyl sterol oxidase step of ergosterol synthesis. ERG29 deletion resulted in lethality in respiring cells, but respiration-incompetent (Rho- or Rho0) cells survived, suggesting that Erg29 loss leads to accumulation of oxidized sterol metabolites that affect cell viability. Down-regulation of ERG29 expression in Δerg29 cells indeed led to accumulation of methyl sterol metabolites, resulting in increased mitochondrial oxidants and a decreased ability of mitochondria to synthesize iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters due to reduced levels of Yfh1, the mammalian frataxin homolog, which is involved in mitochondrial Fe metabolism. Using a high-copy genomic library, we identified suppressor genes that permitted growth of Δerg29 cells on respiratory substrates, and these included genes encoding the mitochondrial proteins Yfh1, Mmt1, Mmt2, and Pet20, which reversed all phenotypes associated with loss of ERG29. Of note, loss of Erg25 also resulted in accumulation of methyl sterol metabolites and also increased mitochondrial oxidants and degradation of Yfh1. We propose that accumulation of toxic intermediates of the methyl sterol oxidase reaction increase mitochondrial oxidants, which affect Yfh1 protein stability. These results indicate an interaction between sterols generated by ER proteins and mitochondrial iron metabolism. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
MacQueen, BC; Christensen, RD; Ward, DM; Bennett, ST; O’Brien, EA; Sheffield, MJ; Baer, VL; Snow, GL; Lewis, KA Weaver; Fleming, RE; Kaplan, J
OBJECTIVE Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. RESULTS Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay. PMID:27977019
Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.
Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru
Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. Methods We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. Results The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT. PMID:25962140
Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad
A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.
Baech, Sussi B; Hansen, Marianne; Bukhave, Klaus; Kristensen, Lars; Jensen, Mikael; Sørensen, Sven S; Purslow, Peter P; Skibsted, Leif H; Sandström, Brittmarie
The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C. The meals were extrinsically labeled with (55)Fe or (59)Fe. Iron absorption was determined from measurements of whole-body (59)Fe retention and the activity of (55)Fe and (59)Fe in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P < 0.001) greater when meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C, respectively, was added to the basic meal. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat did not impair nonheme iron absorption compared with cooking at 70 degrees C. Because the cysteine content of meat decreased with increasing cooking temperature, this argues against a specific contribution of sulfhydryl groups from cysteine residues in the promotion of nonheme iron absorption by meat proteins.
Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor
Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and parasitic infection. Poor iron intake linked to inadequate diets, low iron intestinal absorption, chronic blood losses and increased requirements are common causes in high-income countries. © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. Tous droits réservés.
Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven
Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen.
O'Sullivan, D J; O'Gara, F
An iron-regulated promoter was cloned on a 2.1 kb Bg/II fragment from Pseudomonas sp. strain M114 and fused to the lacZ reporter gene. Iron-regulated lacZ expression from the resulting construct (pSP1) in strain M114 was mediated via the Fur-like repressor which also regulates siderophore production in this strain. A 390 bp StuI-PstI internal fragment contained the necessary information for iron-regulated promoter expression. This fragment was sequenced and the initiation point for transcription was determined by primer extension analysis. The region directly upstream of the transcription start point contained no significant homology to known promoter consensus sequences. However the -16 to -25 bp region contained homology to four other iron-regulated pseudomonad promoters. Deletion of bases downstream from the transcriptional start did not affect the iron-regulated expression of the promoter. The -37 and -43 bp regions exhibited some homology to the 19 bp Escherichia coli Fur-binding consensus sequence. When expressed in E. coli (via a cloned transacting factor from strain M114) lacZ expression from pSP1 was found to be regulated by iron. A region of greater than 77 bases but less than 131 upstream from the transcriptional start was found to be necessary for promoter activity, further suggesting that a transcriptional activator may be required for expression.
Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi
Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.
Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi
Background Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Results Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Conclusions Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers’ PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers. PMID:26575031
Kirschner, Wolf; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Henrich, Wolfgang
The conditions of iron deficiency are highly incident in pregnancy with elevated risks for preterm birth and low birth weight. In our recent study, we found 6% of participants having anemia, whereas between 39% and 47% showed iron deficiency without anemia. In many countries in prenatal care solely hemoglobin (Hb) measurement is applied. For the gynecologists till date there is no indication to determine other markers (e.g., serum-ferritin). As iron deficiency results from an imbalance between intake and loss of iron, our aim was to find out if the risk of iron deficiency conditions can be estimated by a diet history protocol as well as questionnaires to find about iron loss. We found that the risk of having iron deficiency in upper gestational week (>=21) increased by a factor of five. Thus, additional diagnostics should be done in this group by now. Using the questionnaire as a screening instrument, we further estimated the probability of disease in terms of a positive likelihood ratio (LR+). The positive LR for the group below 21th week of gestation is 1.9 thus, increasing the post-test probability to 52% from 36% as before. Further research based on higher sample sizes will show if the ratios can be increased further.
Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M Pilar
The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
Nakashige, Toshiki G; Nolan, Elizabeth M
We report that the metal-sequestering human host-defense protein calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer) affects the redox speciation of iron (Fe) in bacterial growth media and buffered aqueous solution. Under aerobic conditions and in the absence of an exogenous reducing agent, CP-Ser (S100A8(C42S)/S100A9(C3S) oligomer) depletes Fe from three different bacterial growth media preparations over a 48 h timeframe (T = 30 °C). The presence of the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol accelerates this process and allows CP-Ser to deplete Fe over a ≈1 h timeframe. Fe-depletion assays performed with metal-binding-site variants of CP-Ser show that the hexahistidine (His 6 ) site, which coordinates Fe(ii) with high affinity, is required for Fe depletion. An analysis of Fe redox speciation in buffer containing Fe(iii) citrate performed under aerobic conditions demonstrates that CP-Ser causes a time-dependent increase in the [Fe(ii)]/[Fe(iii)] ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that the hexahistidine site of CP stabilizes Fe(ii) and thereby shifts the redox equilibrium of Fe to the reduced ferrous state under aerobic conditions. We also report that the presence of bacterial metabolites affects the Fe-depleting activity of CP-Ser. Supplementation of bacterial growth media with an Fe(iii)-scavenging siderophore (enterobactin, staphyloferrin B, or desferrioxamine B) attenuates the Fe-depleting activity of CP-Ser. This result indicates that formation of Fe(iii)-siderophore complexes blocks CP-mediated reduction of Fe(iii) and hence the ability of CP to coordinate Fe(ii). In contrast, the presence of pyocyanin (PYO), a redox-cycling phenazine produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces Fe(iii) to Fe(ii), accelerates Fe depletion by CP-Ser under aerobic conditions. These findings indicate that the presence of microbial metabolites that contribute to metal homeostasis at the host/pathogen interface can affect the metal-sequestering function of CP.
Jaeggi, Tanja; Kortman, Guus A M; Moretti, Diego; Chassard, Christophe; Holding, Penny; Dostal, Alexandra; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Tjalsma, Harold; Njenga, Jane; Mwangi, Alice; Kvalsvig, Jane; Lacroix, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B
In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of high and low dose in-home iron fortification on the infant gut microbiome and intestinal inflammation. We performed two double-blind randomised controlled trials in 6-month-old Kenyan infants (n=115) consuming home-fortified maize porridge daily for 4 months. In the first, infants received a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA or the MNP without iron. In the second, they received a different MNP containing 12.5 mg iron as ferrous fumarate or the MNP without the iron. The primary outcome was gut microbiome composition analysed by 16S pyrosequencing and targeted real-time PCR (qPCR). Secondary outcomes included faecal calprotectin (marker of intestinal inflammation) and incidence of diarrhoea. We analysed the trials separately and combined. At baseline, 63% of the total microbial 16S rRNA could be assigned to Bifidobacteriaceae but there were high prevalences of pathogens, including Salmonella Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using pyrosequencing, +FeMNPs increased enterobacteria, particularly Escherichia/Shigella (p=0.048), the enterobacteria/bifidobacteria ratio (p=0.020), and Clostridium (p=0.030). Most of these effects were confirmed using qPCR; for example, +FeMNPs increased pathogenic E. coli strains (p=0.029). +FeMNPs also increased faecal calprotectin (p=0.002). During the trial, 27.3% of infants in +12.5 mgFeMNP required treatment for diarrhoea versus 8.3% in -12.5 mgFeMNP (p=0.092). There were no study-related serious adverse events in either group. In this setting, provision of iron-containing MNPs to weaning infants adversely affects the gut microbiome, increasing pathogen abundance and
Pedlar, Charles R; Brugnara, Carlo; Bruinvels, Georgie; Burden, Richard
Maintaining a positive iron balance is essential for female athletes to avoid the effects of iron deficiency and anaemia and to maintain or improve performance. A major function of iron is in the production of the oxygen and carbon dioxide carrying molecule, haemoglobin, via erythropoiesis. Iron balance is under the control of a number of factors including the peptide hormone hepcidin, dietary iron intake and absorption, environmental stressors (e.g. altitude), exercise, menstrual blood loss and genetics. Menstruating females, particularly those with heavy menstrual bleeding are at an elevated risk of iron deficiency. Haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and serum ferritin (sFer) are traditionally used to identify iron deficiency, however, in isolation these may have limited value in athletes due to: (1) the effects of fluctuations in plasma volume in response to training or the environment on [Hb], (2) the influence of inflammation on sFer and (3) the absence of sport, gender and individually specific normative data. A more detailed and longitudinal examination of haematology, menstrual cycle pattern, biochemistry, exercise physiology, environmental factors and training load can offer a superior characterisation of iron status and help to direct appropriate interventions that will avoid iron deficiency or iron overload. Supplementation is often required in iron deficiency; however, nutritional strategies to increase iron intake, rest and descent from altitude can also be effective and will help to prevent future iron deficient episodes. In severe cases or where there is a time-critical need, such as major championships, iron injections may be appropriate.
Achebe, Maureen M; Gafter-Gvili, Anat
Anemia of pregnancy, an important risk factor for fetal and maternal morbidity, is considered a global health problem, affecting almost 50% of pregnant women. In this article, diagnosis and management of iron, cobalamin, and folate deficiencies, the most frequent causes of anemia in pregnancy, are discussed. Three clinical cases are considered. Iron deficiency is the most common cause. Laboratory tests defining iron deficiency, the recognition of developmental delays and cognitive abnormalities in iron-deficient neonates, and literature addressing the efficacy and safety of IV iron in pregnancy are reviewed. An algorithm is proposed to help clinicians diagnose and treat iron deficiency, recommending oral iron in the first trimester and IV iron later. Association of folate deficiency with neural tube defects and impact of fortification programs are discussed. With increased obesity and bariatric surgery rates, prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in pregnancy is rising. Low maternal cobalamin may be associated with fetal growth retardation, fetal insulin resistance, and excess adiposity. The importance of treating cobalamin deficiency in pregnancy is considered. A case of malarial anemia emphasizes the complex relationship between iron deficiency, iron treatment, and malaria infection in endemic areas; the heightened impact of combined etiologies on anemia severity is highlighted. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.
Dissanayake, D S; Kumarasiri, P V R; Nugegoda, D B; Dissanayake, D M
The aim was to identify the association of iron status with educational performance and intelligence of adolescents. This was a cross sectional comparative study among adolescents aged 13-15 years. Each iron deficient student was matched with an iron sufficient student from the same school, class and sex. Iron status was based on haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels. The marks for mathematics, science, Sinhala language and social science were considered to assess educational performance. Intelligence was measured by Raven's Standard progressive matrices. All the possible confounders and effect modifiers were considered. Home visits to a sub-sample checked the quality of data. The final analysis included 188 students (94 matched pairs). Neither educational performance nor intelligence showed significant associations with the iron status. The severity of the iron deficiency did not relate to these cognitive variables either. Twenty-three and 8 co-variables showed statistically significant associations with educational performance and intelligence respectively. Following a multiple regression analysis intelligence, the enthusiasm of the student towards learning, occupational ambition, household possession, problems at home and private tuition for mathematics were key factors predicting educational performance. Stunting and educational level of the mother were important factors influencing intelligence. Iron status does not play a major role in educational performance and intelligence of school going adolescents. Several factors affect educational performance and intelligence. This study highlights the difficulty in extrapolating the findings of similar studies to different ecological settings.
Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven
Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24009505
Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng
In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.
Kohler, S.D.; Harrington, M.S.; Jackson, N.B.
A serious engineering problem that needs to be addressed in the scale-up of slurry-phase, Fischer-Tropsch reactors is attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst. Attrition, which can break down the catalyst into particles too small to filter, results from both mechanical and chemical forces. This study examines the chemical causes of attrition in iron catalysts. A bench-scale, slurry-phase CSTR is used to simulate operating conditions that lead to attrition of the catalyst. The average particle size and size distribution of the catalyst samples are used to determine the effect of slurry temperature, reducing gas, gas flow rate and time upon attritionmore » of the catalyst. Carbon deposition, a possible contributing factor to attrition, has been examined using gravimetric analysis and TEM. Conditions affecting the rate of carbon deposition have been compared to those leading to attrition of the precipitated iron catalyst.« less
Isom, Harriet C.
Hepatic iron overload has been associated classically with the genetic disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. More recently, it has become apparent that mild-to-moderate degrees of elevated hepatic iron stores observed in other liver diseases also have clinical relevance. The goal was to use a mouse model of dietary hepatic iron overload and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics to identify, at a global level, differentially expressed proteins in livers from mice fed a control or 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoyl-ferrocene (TMHF) supplemented diet for 4 weeks. The expression of 74 proteins was altered by ≥ ±1.5-fold, showing that the effects of iron on the liver proteome were extensive. The top canonical pathway altered by TMHF treatment was the NF-E2–related factor 2 (NRF2–)–mediated oxidative stress response. Because of the long-standing association of elevated hepatic iron with oxidative stress, the remainder of the study was focused on NRF2. TMHF treatment upregulated 25 phase I/II and antioxidant proteins previously categorized as NRF2 target gene products. Immunoblot analyses showed that TMHF treatment increased the levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTM4, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, GCL modifier subunit, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, heme oxygenase 1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Immunofluorescence, carried out to determine the cellular localization of NRF2, showed that NRF2 was detected in the nucleus of hepatocytes from TMHF-treated mice and not from control mice. We conclude that elevated hepatic iron in a mouse model activates NRF2, a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:22649188
Armstrong, Gavin R; Dewey, Cate E; Summerlee, Alastair Js
The principal objective was to explore in greater detail safety issues with regard to the use of the Lucky Iron Fish® (fish) as a treatment for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in women in rural Cambodia. Experiments were done to determine: (1) purity of the iron in the fish by mass spectroscopy; (2) release of iron and contaminants released during boiling in water using inductive-ly-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy; (3) the impact of cooking time, acidity and number of fish in acidified water and two types of Khmer soups; and (4) drinkability of the water after boiling with different num-bers of fish. The fish is composed primarily of ferrous iron with less than 12% non-ferrous iron. Contaminants were either not detectable or levels were below the acceptable standards set by the World Health Organization. The length of time boiling the fish and the acidity of the water increased iron release but even with 5 fish boiled for 60 minutes, iron levels only approached levels where side effects are observed. Boiling one fish in water did not affect the perception of colour, smell or taste of the water but boiling in water with two or more fish resulted in the water being unpalatable which further limits the potential for iron toxicity from using the fish. The results suggest that the Lucky Iron Fish™ may be a safe treatment for iron deficiency.
Simcox, Judith A; Mitchell, Thomas Creighton; Gao, Yan; Just, Steven F; Cooksey, Robert; Cox, James; Ajioka, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Lee, Soh-Hyun; King, Daniel; Huang, Jingyu; McClain, Donald A
The circadian rhythm of the liver maintains glucose homeostasis, and disruption of this rhythm is associated with type 2 diabetes. Feeding is one factor that sets the circadian clock in peripheral tissues, but relatively little is known about the role of specific dietary components in that regard. We assessed the effects of dietary iron on circadian gluconeogenesis. Dietary iron affects circadian glucose metabolism through heme-mediated regulation of the interaction of nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group d member 1 (Rev-Erbα) with its cosuppressor nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCOR). Loss of regulated heme synthesis was achieved by aminolevulinic acid (ALA) treatment of mice or cultured cells to bypass the rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic heme synthesis, ALA synthase 1 (ALAS1). ALA treatment abolishes differences in hepatic glucose production and in the expression of gluconeogenic enzymes seen with variation of dietary iron. The differences among diets are also lost with inhibition of heme synthesis with isonicotinylhydrazine. Dietary iron modulates levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a transcriptional activator of ALAS1, to affect hepatic heme. Treatment of mice with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine diminishes PGC-1α variation observed among the iron diets, suggesting that iron is acting through reactive oxygen species signaling. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe
Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.
Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad
The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.
Li, Xin; Xing, Pengfei; Du, Xinghong; Gao, Shuaibo; Chen, Chen
In this paper, the ultrasound-assisted leaching of iron from boron carbide waste-scrap was investigated and the optimization of different influencing factors had also been performed. The factors investigated were acid concentration, liquid-solid ratio, leaching temperature, ultrasonic power and frequency. The leaching of iron with conventional method at various temperatures was also performed. The results show the maximum iron leaching ratios are 87.4%, 94.5% for 80min-leaching with conventional method and 50min-leaching with ultrasound assistance, respectively. The leaching of waste-scrap with conventional method fits the chemical reaction-controlled model. The leaching with ultrasound assistance fits chemical reaction-controlled model, diffusion-controlled model for the first stage and second stage, respectively. The assistance of ultrasound can greatly improve the iron leaching ratio, accelerate the leaching rate, shorten leaching time and lower the residual iron, comparing with conventional method. The advantages of ultrasound-assisted leaching were also confirmed by the SEM-EDS analysis and elemental analysis of the raw material and leached solid samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hu, Ying; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Heller, Larry I; Krasnoff, Stuart B; Glahn, Raymond P; Welch, Ross M
Four different colored beans (white, red, pinto, and black beans) were investigated for factors affecting iron bioavailability using an in vitro digestion/human Caco-2 cell model. Iron bioavailability from whole beans, dehulled beans, and their hulls was determined. The results show that white beans contained higher levels of bioavailable iron compared to red, pinto, and black beans. These differences in bioavailable iron were not due to bean-iron and bean-phytate concentrations. Flavonoids in the colored bean hulls were found to be contributing to the low bioavailability of iron in the non-white colored beans. White bean hulls contained no detectable flavonoids but did contain an unknown factor that may promote iron bioavailability. The flavonoids, kaempferol and astragalin (kaempferol-3-O-glucoside), were identified in red and pinto bean hulls via HPLC and MS. Some unidentified anthocyanins were also detected in the black bean hulls but not in the other colored bean hulls. Kaempferol, but not astragalin, was shown to inhibit iron bioavailability. Treating in vitro bean digests with 40, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 1000 microM kaempferol significantly inhibited iron bioavailability (e.g., 15.5% at 40 microM and 62.8% at 1000 microM) in a concentration-dependent fashion. Thus, seed coat kaempferol was identified as a potent inhibitory factor affecting iron bioavailability in the red and pinto beans studied. Results comparing the inhibitory effects of kaempferol, quercitrin, and astragalin on iron bioavailability suggest that the 3',4'-dihydroxy group on the B-ring in flavonoids contributes to the lower iron bioavailability.
Wu, Ting-Ying; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Bhullar, Navreet K
Iron deficiency affects one third of the world population. Most iron biofortification strategies have focused on genes involved in iron uptake and storage but facilitating internal long-distance iron translocation has been understudied for increasing grain iron concentrations. Citrate is a primary iron chelator, and the transporter FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3 (FRD3) loads citrate into the xylem. We have expressed AtFRD3 in combination with AtNAS1 (NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE 1) and PvFER (FERRITIN) or with PvFER alone to facilitate long-distance iron transport together with efficient iron uptake and storage in the rice endosperm. The citrate and iron concentrations in the xylem sap of transgenic plants increased two-fold compared to control plants. Iron and zinc levels increased significantly in polished and unpolished rice grains to more than 70% of the recommended estimated average requirement (EAR) for iron and 140% of the recommended EAR for zinc in polished rice grains. Furthermore, the transformed lines showed normal phenotypic growth, were tolerant to iron deficiency and aluminum toxicity, and had grain cadmium levels similar to control plants. Together, our results demonstrate that deploying FRD for iron biofortification has no obvious anti-nutritive effects and should be considered as an effective strategy for reducing human iron deficiency anemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.
As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques
Kaiser, Lana; Davis, John; Patterson, Jon; Boyd, Ryan F; Olivier, N Bari; Bohart, George; Schwartz, Kenneth A
Cardiac events, including heart failure and arrhythmias, are the leading cause of death in patients with beta thalassemia. Although cardiac arrhythmias in humans are believed to result from iron overload, excluding confounding factors in the human population is difficult. The goal of the current study was to determine whether cardiac arrhythmias occurred in the guinea pig model of secondary iron overload. Electrocardiograms were recorded by using surgically implanted telemetry devices in guinea pigs loaded intraperitoneally with iron dextran (test animals) or dextran alone (controls). Loading occurred over approximately 6 wk. Electrocardiograms were recorded for 1 wk prior to loading, throughout loading, and for approximately 4 wk after loading was complete. Cardiac and liver iron concentrations were significantly increased in the iron-loaded animals compared with controls and were in the range of those reported for humans with thalassemia. Arrhythmias were rare in both iron-loaded and control guinea pigs. No life-threatening arrhythmias were detected in either group. These data suggest that iron alone may be insufficient to cause cardiac arrhythmias in the iron-loaded guinea pig model and that arrhythmias detected in human patients with iron overload may be the result of a complex interplay of factors.
Morales González, E; Contreras, I; Estrada, J A
Many studies have demonstrated that iron deficiency modifies the normal function of the central nervous system and alters cognitive abilities. When cellular damage occurs in the central nervous system, neuroprotective mechanisms, such as the production of neurotrophic factors, are essential in order for nervous tissue to function correctly. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF- II) is a neurotrophic factor that was recently shown to be involved in the normal functioning of cognitive processes in animal models. However, the impact of iron deficiency on the expression and function of this molecule has not yet been clarified. Mixed primary cell cultures from the central nervous system were collected to simulate iron deficiency using deferoxamine. The expression of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and IGF-IIR was determined with the western blot test. We observed increased expression of IGF-II, along with a corresponding decrease in the expression of IGF-IIR, in iron-deficient mixed primary cell cultures. We did not observe alterations in the expression of these proteins in isolated microglia or neuronal cultures under the same conditions. We did not detect differences in the expression of IGF-I and IGF-IR in iron-deficient cultures. In vitro iron deficiency increases the expression of IGF-II in mixed glial cell cultures, which may have a beneficial effect on brain tissue homeostasis in a situation in which iron availability is decreased. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Zhu, Le; Glahn, Raymond P; Nelson, Deanna; Miller, Dennis D
Iron bioavailability from supplements and fortificants varies depending upon the form of the iron and the presence or absence of iron absorption enhancers and inhibitors. Our objectives were to compare the effects of pH and selected enhancers and inhibitors and food matrices on the bioavailability of iron in soluble ferric pyrophosphate (SFP) to other iron fortificants using a Caco-2 cell culture model with or without the combination of in vitro digestion. Ferritin formation was the highest in cells treated with SFP compared to those treated with other iron compounds or chelates. Exposure to pH 2 followed by adjustment to pH 7 markedly decreased FeSO(4) bioavailability but had a smaller effect on bioavailabilities from SFP and sodium iron(III) ethylenediaminetetraacetate (NaFeEDTA), suggesting that chelating agents minimize the effects of pH on iron bioavailability. Adding ascorbic acid (AA) and cysteine to SFP in a 20:1 molar ratio increased ferritin formation by 3- and 2-fold, respectively, whereas adding citrate had no significant effect on the bioavailability of SFP. Adding phytic acid (10:1) and tannic acid (1:1) to iron decreased iron bioavailability from SFP by 91 and 99%, respectively. The addition of zinc had a marked inhibitory effect on iron bioavailability. Calcium and magnesium also inhibited iron bioavailability but to a lesser extent. Incorporating SFP in rice greatly reduced iron bioavailability from SFP, but this effect can be partially reversed with the addition of AA. SFP and FeSO(4) were taken up similarly when added to nonfat dry milk. Our results suggest that dietary factors known to enhance and inhibit iron bioavailability from various iron sources affect iron bioavailability from SFP in similar directions. However, the magnitude of the effects of iron absorption inhibitors on SFP iron appears to be smaller than on iron salts, such as FeSO(4) and FeCl(3). This supports the hypothesis that SFP is a promising iron source for food fortification
Iron is an important trace metal element in human body. Iron deficiency affects human health, especially pregnant women and children. Soybean protein is a popular food in Asia and can contain a high amount of iron (145.70±0.74 ug/g); however, it is usually reported as an inhibitor of iron absorption...
Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336
Guo, S; Dipietro, L A
Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.
Anderson, Erik R; Shah, Yatrik M
Iron is an essential nutrient that is tightly regulated. A principal function of the liver is the regulation of iron homeostasis. The liver senses changes in systemic iron requirements and can regulate iron concentrations in a robust and rapid manner. The last 10 years have led to the discovery of several regulatory mechanisms in the liver which control the production of iron regulatory genes, storage capacity, and iron mobilization. Dysregulation of these functions leads to an imbalance of iron, which is the primary causes of iron-related disorders. Anemia and iron overload are two of the most prevalent disorders worldwide and affect over a billion people. Several mutations in liver-derived genes have been identified, demonstrating the central role of the liver in iron homeostasis. During conditions of excess iron, the liver increases iron storage and protects other tissues, namely the heart and pancreas from iron-induced cellular damage. However, a chronic increase in liver iron stores results in excess reactive oxygen species production and liver injury. Excess liver iron is one of the major mechanisms leading to increased steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23720289
... Reproduction Foods That Can Affect Fertility Print Email Foods That Can Affect Fertility By Caroline Kaufman, MS, ... to a registered dietitian nutritionist. Choose Iron-Rich Foods An diet rich in iron that comes from ...
Sulovska, Lucie; Holub, Dusan; Zidova, Zuzana; Divoka, Martina; Hajduch, Marian; Mihal, Vladimir; Vrbkova, Jana; Horvathova, Monika; Pospisilova, Dagmar
Erythropoiesis is closely related to iron metabolism in a balanced homeostasis. Analyses of diverse erythroid and iron metabolism disorders have shown that disrupted erythropoiesis negatively affects iron homeostasis and vice versa. The aim of this study was to characterize the relationship between erythropoietic activity and iron homeostasis in pediatric patients with erythrocyte membrane defects and thalassemia traits. Selected markers of erythropoietic activity (erythropoietin, soluble transferrin receptor - sTfR and growth differentiation factor 15) and iron status parameters (serum iron, ferritin and hepcidin) were evaluated in pediatric patients with erythrocyte membrane defects and thalassemia traits. The patients with erythrocyte membrane defects and thalassemia traits had altered iron homeostasis due to disturbed erythropoiesis. In comparison with healthy controls, they had a normal to low hepcidin/ferritin ratio and concomitantly elevated sTfR. The findings suggest that pediatric patients with erythrocyte membrane defects and thalassemia traits are more susceptible to iron overload than the general population and that the (hepcidin/ferritin)/sTfR ratio can be used to monitor any worsening of the disease.
Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 220.127.116.11) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 18.104.22.168) and glutamate synthase (EC 22.214.171.124) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves. PMID:23057967
Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.
A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these
Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K
An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Campos, Caroline Quenupe; Souza, Iara da Costa; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo Dias; Machado, Silvia Rodrigues
Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle were experimentally exposed to increasing levels of iron (0, 10, 20 and 100 mg L(-1) added Fe(II) in Hoagland's nutritive medium). The uptake and translocation of iron from roots to stems and leaves, Fe-secretion through salt glands (Avicennia schaueriana and Laguncularia racemosa) as well as anatomical and histochemical changes in plant tissues were evaluated. The main goal of this work was to assess the diverse capacity of these plants to detect mangroves at risk in an area affected by iron pollution (Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Brazil). Results show that plants have differential patterns with respect to bioaccumulation, translocation and secretion of iron through salt glands. L. racemosa showed the best environmental sensing capacity since the bioaccumulation of iron in both Fe-plaque and roots was higher and increased as the amount of added-iron rose. Fewer changes in translocation factors throughout increasing added-iron were observed in this species. Furthermore, the amount of iron secreted through salt glands of L. racemosa was strongly inhibited when exposed to added-iron. Among three studied species, A. schaueriana showed the highest levels of iron in stems and leaves. On the other hand, Rhizophora mangle presented low values of iron in these compartments. Even so, there was a significant drop in the translocation factor between aerial parts with respect to roots, since the bioaccumulation in plaque and roots of R. mangle increased as iron concentration rose. Moreover, rhizophores of R. mangle did not show changes in bioaccumulation throughout the studied concentrations. So far, we propose L. racemosa as the best species for monitoring iron pollution in affected mangroves areas. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed report on the response of these plants to increasing iron concentration under controlled conditions, complementing existing data on the behavior of the same plants
Scheers, Nathalie; Rossander-Hulthen, Lena; Torsdottir, Inga; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie
Lactic fermentation of foods increases the availability of iron as shown in a number of studies throughout the years. Several explanations have been provided such as decreased content of inhibitory phytate, increased solubility of iron, and increased content of lactic acid in the fermented product. However, to our knowledge, there are no data to support that the bioavailability of iron is affected by lactic fermentation. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the bioavailability of iron from a vegetable mix was affected by lactic fermentation and to propose a mechanism for such an event, by conducting human and cell (Caco-2, HepG2) studies and iron speciation measurements (voltammetry). We also investigated whether the absorption of zinc was affected by the lactic fermentation. In human subjects, we observed that lactic-fermented vegetables served with both a high-phytate and low-phytate meal increased the absorption of iron, but not zinc. In vitro digested fermented vegetables were able to provoke a greater hepcidin response per ng Fe than fresh vegetables, indicating that Fe in the fermented mixes was more bioavailable, independent on the soluble Fe content. We measured that hydrated Fe(3+) species were increased after the lactic fermentation, while there was no significant change in hydrated Fe(2+). Furthermore, lactate addition to Caco-2 cells did not affect ferritin formation in response to Fe nor did lactate affect the hepcidin response in the Caco-2/HepG2 cell system. The mechanism for the increased bioavailability of iron from lactic-fermented vegetables is likely an effect of the increase in ferric iron (Fe(3+)) species caused by the lactic fermentation. No effect on zinc bioavailability was observed.
This study was undertaken to better understand the factors that may affect road sign retroreflectivity, specifically age and physical orientation. A better understanding of these factors could provide guidance to ODOT in managing its inventory of roa...
Álvarez, Florencio; Fernández-Ruiz, Mario; Aguado, José María
Iron is an essential factor for both the growth and virulence of most of microorganisms. As a part of the innate (or nutritional) immune system, mammals have developed different mechanisms to store and transport this element in order to limit free iron bioavailability. To survive in this hostile environment, pathogenic fungi have specific uptake systems for host iron sources, one of the most important of which is based on the synthesis of siderophores-soluble, low-molecular-mass, high-affinity iron chelators. The increase in free iron that results from iron-overload conditions is a well-established risk factor for invasive fungal infection (IFI) such as mucormycosis or aspergillosis. Therefore, iron chelation may be an appealing therapeutic option for these infections. Nevertheless, deferoxamine -the first approved iron chelator- paradoxically increases the incidence of IFI, as it serves as a xeno-siderophore to Mucorales. On the contrary, the new oral iron chelators (deferiprone and deferasirox) have shown to exert a deleterious effect on fungal growth both in vitro and in animal models. The present review focuses on the role of iron metabolism in the pathogenesis of IFI and summarises the preclinical data, as well as the limited clinical experience so far, in the use of new iron chelators as treatment for mucormycosis and invasive aspergillosis. Copyright © 2012 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee
No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.
Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee
Abstract No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children. PMID:26825887
Tripp, Katherine; Mackeith, Nancy; Woodruff, Bradley A; Talley, Leisel; Mselle, Laurent; Mirghani, Zahra; Abdalla, Fathia; Bhatia, Rita; Seal, Andrew J
To evaluate the acceptability of iron and iron-alloy cooking pots prior to an intervention trial and to investigate factors affecting retention and use. Pre-trial research was conducted on five types of iron and iron-alloy pots using focus group discussions and a laboratory evaluation of Fe transfer during cooking was undertaken. Usage and retention during the subsequent intervention trial were investigated using focus group discussions and market monitoring. Three refugee camps in western Tanzania. Refugee health workers were selected for pre-trial research. Mothers of children aged 6-59 months participated in the investigation of retention and use. Pre-trial research indicated that the stainless steel pot would be the only acceptable type for use in this population due to excessive rusting and/or the high weight of other types. Cooking three typical refugee dishes in stainless steel pots led to an increase in Fe content of 3.2 to 17.1 mg/100 g food (P < 0.001). During the trial, the acceptability of the stainless steel pots was lower than expected owing to difficulties with using, cleaning and their utility for other purposes. Households also continued to use their pre-existing pots, and stainless steel pots were sold to increase household income. Pre-trial research led to the selection of a stainless steel pot that met basic acceptability criteria. The relatively low usage reported during the trial highlights the limitations of using high-value iron-alloy cooking pots as an intervention in populations where poverty and the availability of other pots may lead to selling.
Koduru, Pramoda; Abraham, Bincy P
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is the most common form of nutritional anemia worldwide. Iron plays a pivotal role in vital functioning of almost every organ system. IDA affects both physical and psychological functioning of humans. Oral iron is considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of IDA due to low cost, good safety profile and ease of administration. However, the absorption of oral iron is affected by several factors and incidence of gastrointestinal side effects can lead to lack of adherence to therapy as well as poor efficacy. This has led to the emergence of intravenous iron therapy which is clearly superior to oral iron with higher increment of hemoglobin levels and rapid replenishment of iron stores. Ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) is a novel non-dextran intravenous iron form which has been approved for use in patients with iron deficiency who have had inadequate response to oral iron therapy, intolerance to oral iron, or nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease. The safety and efficacy of using FCM for the treatment of IDA has been demonstrated in several clinical trials. One dose can provide a large amount of iron and has a very short infusion time. It should be considered as first-line therapy in patients with active inflammation like inflammatory bowel disease when gastrointestinal absorption of oral iron may be compromised. It should also be given to patients who have inadequate response to oral iron therapy. It has been shown to be noninferior to other intravenous iron formulations with a good safety profile and produced fewer anaphylactic reactions.
Auerbach, Michael; James, Stephanie E; Nicoletti, Melissa; Lenowitz, Steven; London, Nicola; Bahrain, Huzefa F; Derman, Richard; Smith, Samuel
Anemia affects up to 42% of gravidas. Neonatal iron deficiency is associated with low birth weight, delayed growth and development, and increased cognitive and behavioral abnormalities. While oral iron is convenient, up to 70% report significant gastrointestinal toxicity. Intravenous iron formulations allowing replacement in one visit with favorable side-effect profiles decrease rates of anemia with improved hemoglobin responses and maternal fetal outcomes. Seventy-four oral iron-intolerant, second- and third-trimester iron-deficient gravidas were questioned for oral iron intolerance and treated with intravenous iron. All received 1000 mg of low-molecular-weight iron dextran in 250 mL normal saline. Fifteen minutes after a test dose, the remainder was infused over the balance of 1 hour. Subjects were called at 1, 2, and 7 days to assess delayed reactions. Four weeks postinfusion or postpartum, hemoglobin levels and iron parameters were measured. Paired t test was used for hemoglobin and iron; 58/73 women were questioned about interval growth and development of their babies. Seventy-three of 74 enrolled subjects completed treatment. Sixty had paired pre- and posttreatment data. The mean pre- and posthemoglobin concentrations were 9.7 and 10.8 g/dL (P < .00001), transferrin saturations 11.7% and 22.6% (P = .0003), and ferritins 14.5 and 126.3 ng/mL, respectively (P < .000001). Six experienced minor infusion reactions. All resolved. Data for 58 infants were available; one was low on its growth charts for 11 months. The remaining 57 were normal. None were diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Intravenous iron has less toxicity and is more effective, supporting moving it closer to frontline therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beiranvand, Elham; Abediankenari, Saeid; Rostamian, Mosayeb; Beiranvand, Behnoush; Naazeri, Saeed
The role of HFE gene mutations or its expression in regulation of iron metabolism of hereditary haemochromatosis (HH) patients is remained controversial. Therefore here the correlation between two common HFE genotype (p.C282Y, p.H63D) and HFE gene expression with iron status in HH, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and healthy Iranian participants was studied. For this purpose genotype determination was done by polymerase chain reaction--restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Real-Time PCR was applied for evaluation of HFE gene expression. Biochemical parameters and iron consumption were also assessed. Homozygote p.H63D mutation was seen in all HH patients and p.C282Y was not observed in any member of the population. A significant correlation was observed between serum ferritin (SF) level and gender or age of HH patients. p.H63D homozygote was seen to be able to significantly increase SF and transferrin saturation (TS) level without affecting on liver function. Our results also showed that iron consumption affects on TS level increasing. HFE gene expression level of IDA patients was significantly higher than other groups. Also the HFE gene expression was negatively correlated with TS. Finally, the main result of our study showed that loss of HFE function in HH is not derived from its gene expression inhibition and much higher HFE gene expression might lead to IDA. However we propose repeating of the study for more approval of our finding.
Bánhidy, Ferenc; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet H; Czeizel, Andrew E
To estimate the efficacy of iron supplementation in anemic pregnant women on the basis of occurrence of pregnancy complications and birth outcomes. Comparison of the occurrence of medically recorded pregnancy complications and birth outcomes in pregnant women affected with medically recorded iron deficiency anemia and iron supplementation who had malformed fetuses/newborns (cases) and who delivered healthy babies (controls) in the population-based Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance System of Congenital Abnormalities. Of 22,843 cases with congenital abnormalities, 3242 (14.2%), while of 38,151 controls, 6358 (16.7%) had mothers with anemia. There was no higher rate of preterm births and low birth weight in the newborns of anemic pregnant women supplemented by iron. However, anemic pregnant women without iron treatment had a significantly shorter gestational age at delivery with a somewhat higher rate of preterm births but these adverse birth outcomes were prevented with iron supplementation. The rate of total and some congenital abnormalities was lower than expected and explained mainly by the healthier lifestyle and folic acid supplements. The secondary findings of the study showed a higher risk of constipation-related hemorrhoids and hypotension in anemic pregnant women with iron supplementation. A higher rate of preterm birth was found in anemic pregnant women without iron treatment but this adverse birth outcome was prevented with iron supplementation. There was no higher rate of congenital abnormalities in the offspring of anemic pregnant women supplemented with iron and/or folic acid supplements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huebner, Shane M; Helfrich, Kaylee K; Saini, Nipun; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Cheng, Adrienne A; Kling, Pamela J; Smith, Susan M
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes neurodevelopmental disability. Clinical and animal studies show gestational iron deficiency (ID) exacerbates PAE's behavioral and growth deficits. In rat, PAE manifests an inability to establish iron homeostasis, increasing hepcidin (maternal and fetal), and fetal liver iron while decreasing brain iron and promoting anemia. Here, we hypothesize dietary iron fortification during pregnancy may mitigate alcohol's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis. Pregnant Long-Evans rats, fed iron-sufficient (100 ppm iron) or iron-fortified (IF; 500 ppm iron) diets, received either 5 g/kg alcohol (PAE) or isocaloric maltodextrin daily on gestational days (GD) 13.5 through 19.5. Maternal and fetal outcomes were evaluated on GD20.5. PAE reduced mean fetal weight (p < 0.001) regardless of maternal iron status, suggesting iron fortification did not improve fetal growth. Both PAE (p < 0.01) and IF (p = 0.035) increased fetal liver iron. In fetal brain, PAE (p = 0.015) affected total (p < 0.001) and nonheme iron (p < 0.001) such that iron fortification normalized (p = 0.99) the alcohol-mediated reductions in brain iron and nonheme iron. Iron fortification also improved fetal hematologic indices in PAE including hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean cell volume (ps<0.001). Iron fortification also normalized hepcidin expression in alcohol-exposed maternal and fetal liver. Neither diet nor PAE affected transferrin (Tf) and ferritin (FTN) content in fetal liver, nor Tf or transferrin receptor in fetal brain. However, IF-PAE fetal brains trended to less FTN content (p = 0.074), suggesting greater availability of nonstorage iron. In PAE, hepcidin levels were linearly related to increased liver iron stores and decreased red blood cell count and brain iron. Maternal oral iron fortification mitigated PAE's disruption of fetal iron homeostasis and improved brain iron content, hematologic indices, and hepcidin production in this rat PAE model
Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M
The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stores iron in the vacuole, which is a major resistance mechanism against iron toxicity. One key protein involved in vacuolar iron storage is the iron importer Ccc1, which facilitates iron entry into the vacuole. Transcription of the CCC1 gene is largely regulated by the binding of iron-sulfur clusters to the activator domain of the transcriptional activator Yap5. Additional evidence, however, suggests that Yap5-independent transcriptional activation of CCC1 also contributes to iron resistance. Here, we demonstrate that components of the signaling pathway involving the low-glucose sensor Snf1 regulate CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. We found that SNF1 deletion acts synergistically with YAP5 deletion to regulate CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. A kinase-dead mutation of Snf1 lowered iron resistance as did deletion of SNF4 , which encodes a partner protein of Snf1. Deletion of all three alternative partners of Snf1 encoded by SIT1 , SIT2 , and GAL83 decreased both CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. The Snf1 complex is known to activate the general stress transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. We show that Msn2 and Msn4 contribute to Snf1-mediated CCC1 transcription. Of note, SNF1 deletion in combination with MSN2 and MSN4 deletion resulted in additive effects on CCC1 transcription, suggesting that other activators contribute to the regulation of CCC1 transcription. In conclusion, we show that yeast have developed multiple transcriptional mechanisms to regulate Ccc1 expression and to protect against high cytosolic iron toxicity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Kontoghiorghe, Christina N; Kontoghiorghes, George J
Iron is essential for all organisms including microbial, cancer and human cells. More than a quarter of the human population is affected by abnormalities of iron metabolism, mainly from iron deficiency and iron overload. Iron also plays an important role in free radical pathology and oxidative damage which is observed in almost all major diseases, cancer and ageing. New developments include the complete treatment of iron overload and reduction of morbidity and mortality in thalassaemia using deferiprone and selected deferiprone/deferoxamine combinations and also the use of the maltol iron complex in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia. There is also a prospect of using deferiprone as a universal antioxidant in non iron overloaded diseases such as neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, renal, infectious diseases and cancer. New regulatory molecules of iron metabolism such as endogenous and dietary chelating molecules, hepcidin, mitochondrial ferritin and their role in health and disease is under evaluation. Similarly, new mechanisms of iron deposition, removal, distribution and toxicity have been identified using new techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging increasing our understanding of iron metabolic processes and the targeted treatment of related diseases. The uniform distribution of iron in iron overload between organs and within each organ is no longer valid. Several other controversies such as the toxicity impact of non transferrin bound iron vs injected iron, the excess levels of iron in tissues causing toxicity and the role of chelation on iron absorption need further investigation. Commercial interests of pharmaceutical companies and connections to leading journals are playing a crucial role in shaping worldwide medical opinion on drug sales and use but also patients’ therapeutic outcome and safety. Major controversies include the selection criteria and risk/benefit assessment in the use of deferasirox in thalassaemia and more so in idiopathic
Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.
In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.
Kuki, Kacilda N; Oliva, Marco A; Pereira, Eduardo G
In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO(2) originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.
Liu, D M; Li, J M; Qu, P F; Dang, S N; Wu, X Y; Zhang, R; Yan, H; Yan, H
Objective: To understand the prevalence of prenatal supplementations of iron, iron-containing multi-micronutrients (IMMN) and antianemic Chinese patent medicines (ACPM) and associated factors in women in Shaanxi province. Methods: A sample of 28 367 childbearing-age women who gave birth during 2010-2013 and had specific information of the prenatal nutrients supplementation were recruited using stratified multistage cluster random sampling in Shaanxi province. The information about their basic characteristics and prenatal supplementation of nutrients were collected by a questionnaire survey. Descriptive analysis method was used to analyze the intake rate of iron, IMMN and ACPM during each period of pregnancy, and logistic regression model was used to identify associated factors. Results: The overall prevalence of prenatal iron, IMMN and ACPM supplementation was low (28.99%), and the intake rate of iron was the lowest (5.33%). The prevalence of prenatal supplementation of iron, IMMN and ACPM were lower before pregnancy and in the first trimester than in the second and third trimester. The intake rates for consecutive 2 periods were very low (all were lower than 2.00%). The intake rates of iron, IMMN and ACPM significantly increased year by year. Women living in central Shaanxi had relatively high intake rates of iron (7.22%) and IMMN (16.55%), and women in southern Shaanxi had relatively high intake rate of ACPM (18.50%). The results of logistic regression analysis showed that higher educational level ( OR =1.920, 95 %CI : 1.617-2.279), antenatal care times≥6 ( OR =1.832, 95 %CI : 1.604-2.091), etc . were the positive factors for iron intake, and these positive factors were similar to those for IMMN intake. Additionally, rural residence was the negative factor for IMMN intake (compared with urban residence, OR =0.872, 95 %CI : 0.788-0.966). Conversely, higher educational level ( OR =0.855, 95 %CI : 0.746-0.979), higher household income ( OR =0.864, 95 %CI : 0
Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Martins, Mariana Campos; do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant’Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro
OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of timing of clamping and obstetric, biological and socioeconomic factors on the iron stores of full-term newborns. METHODS Cross-sectional study between October 2011 and July 2012 in which hematological parameters were evaluated for newborns in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. It involved collecting 7 mL of umbilical cord blood from 144 full-term not underweight newborns. The parameters investigated were complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin and C-reactive protein. The time of umbilical cord clamping was measured using a digital timer without interfering in the procedures of childbirth. The birth data were collected from Live Birth Certificates and other information was obtained from the mother through a questionnaire applied in the first month postpartum. Analysis of multiple linear regression was then used to estimate the influence of biological, obstetrics and socioeconomic factors on the ferritin levels at birth. RESULTS The median ferritin was 130.3 µg/L (n = 129, minimum = 16.4; maximum = 420.5 µg/L), the mean serum iron was 137.9 μg/dL (n = 144, SD = 39.29) and mean hemoglobin was 14.7 g/dL (n = 144, SD = 1.47). The median time of cord clamping was 36 seconds, ranging between 7 and 100. The bivariate analysis detected an association between ferritin levels and color of the child, timing clamping of 60 seconds, type of delivery, the presence of gestational diabetes and per capita family income. In multivariate analysis, the variables per capita income, number of antenatal visits and length at birth accounted for 22.0% of variation in ferritin levels. CONCLUSIONS Iron stores at birth were influenced by biological, obstetric and social characteristics. Tackling anemia should involve creating policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, improving the quality of antenatal care, as well as implementing a criterion of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord within the guidelines of labor. PMID:24789632
Background Every cell of the mammalian organism needs iron as trace element in numerous oxido-reductive processes as well as for transport and storage of oxygen. The very versatility of ionic iron makes it a toxic entity which can catalyze the production of radicals that damage vital membranous and macromolecular assemblies in the cell. The mammalian organism maintains therefore a complex regulatory network of iron uptake, excretion and intra-body distribution. Intracellular regulation in different cell types is intertwined with a global hormonal signalling structure. Iron deficiency as well as excess of iron are frequent and serious human disorders. They can affect every cell, but also the organism as a whole. Results Here, we present a kinematic model of the dynamic system of iron pools and fluxes. It is based on ferrokinetic data and chemical measurements in C57BL6 wild-type mice maintained on iron-deficient, iron-adequate, or iron-loaded diet. The tracer iron levels in major tissues and organs (16 compartment) were followed for 28 days. The evaluation resulted in a whole-body model of fractional clearance rates. The analysis permits calculation of absolute flux rates in the steady-state, of iron distribution into different organs, of tracer-accessible pool sizes and of residence times of iron in the different compartments in response to three states of iron-repletion induced by the dietary regime. Conclusions This mathematical model presents a comprehensive physiological picture of mice under three different diets with varying iron contents. The quantitative results reflect systemic properties of iron metabolism: dynamic closedness, hierarchy of time scales, switch-over response and dynamics of iron storage in parenchymal organs. Therefore, we could assess which parameters will change under dietary perturbations and study in quantitative terms when those changes take place. PMID:20704761
Background Knowledge of the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with thalassemia is essential in developing more suitable clinical, counseling, and social support programs to improve treatment outcomes of these patients. In light of the limited research in this area, this study aims to examine factors associated with HRQOL among children and adolescents with thalassemia in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three selected hospitals in Thailand during June to November 2006. PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale (Thai version) was used to assess HRQOL in 315 thalassemia patients between 5 and 18 years of age. Other related clinical characteristics of the patients were collected via medical record review. Results The mean (SD) of the total summary score was 76.67 (11.40), while the means (SD) for the Physical Health Summary score and Psychosocial Health Summary score were 78.24 (14.77) and 75.54 (12.76), respectively. The school functioning subscale scored the lowest, with a mean of 67.89 (SD = 15.92). The following factors significantly affected the HRQOL of the patients: age; age at onset of anemia and age at first transfusion; pre-transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level; receiving a blood transfusion during the previous three months; and disease severity. In addition, iron chelation therapy had a significant negative effect on HRQOL in the school functioning subscale. In contrast, serum ferritin level, frequency of blood transfusions per year, and gender were not significantly related to HRQOL among these patients. The results from multivariate analysis also confirmed these findings. Conclusions To improve HRQOL of thalassemia patients, suitable programs aimed at providing psychosocial support and a link between the patient, school officials, the family and the physician are important, especially in terms of improving the school functioning score. The findings also confirmed the importance of maintaining a pre
This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…
Nairz, Manfred; Schleicher, Ulrike; Schroll, Andrea; Sonnweber, Thomas; Theurl, Igor; Ludwiczek, Susanne; Talasz, Heribert; Brandacher, Gerald; Moser, Patrizia L.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Fang, Ferric C.; Bogdan, Christian
Nitric oxide (NO) generated by inducible NO synthase 2 (NOS2) affects cellular iron homeostasis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and implications for NOS2-dependent pathogen control are incompletely understood. In this study, we found that NO up-regulated the expression of ferroportin-1 (Fpn1), the major cellular iron exporter, in mouse and human cells. Nos2−/− macrophages displayed increased iron content due to reduced Fpn1 expression and allowed for an enhanced iron acquisition by the intracellular bacterium Salmonella typhimurium. Nos2 gene disruption or inhibition of NOS2 activity led to an accumulation of iron in the spleen and splenic macrophages. Lack of NO formation resulted in impaired nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) expression, resulting in reduced Fpn1 transcription and diminished cellular iron egress. After infection of Nos2−/− macrophages or mice with S. typhimurium, the increased iron accumulation was paralleled by a reduced cytokine (TNF, IL-12, and IFN-γ) expression and impaired pathogen control, all of which were restored upon administration of the iron chelator deferasirox or hyperexpression of Fpn1 or Nrf2. Thus, the accumulation of iron in Nos2−/− macrophages counteracts a proinflammatory host immune response, and the protective effect of NO appears to partially result from its ability to prevent iron overload in macrophages PMID:23630227
Background Identifying people at higher risk of developing tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may improve clinical management of co-infections. Iron influences tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, but understanding the exact mechanisms of how and timing of when iron is involved remains challenging since biological samples are rarely available from the disease susceptibility period due to the difficulty in predicting in who and when, if ever, TB will develop. The objective of this research was to determine how host iron status measured at HIV diagnosis and genotypes related to host iron metabolism were associated with incident TB. Methods Archived clinical data, plasma and DNA were analyzed from 1139 adult participants in a large HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual seroprevalent cohort based at the Medical Research Council Laboratories in The Gambia. Incident pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary TB diagnoses a minimum of 28 days after HIV diagnosis were independently re-confirmed using available evidence (n=152). Multiple host iron status biomarkers, Haptoglobin and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (SLC11A1) genotypes were modeled to characterize how indicators of host iron metabolism were associated with TB susceptibility. Results Hemoglobin (incidence rate ratio, IRR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79-0.98), plasma transferrin (IRR=0.53, 0.33-0.84) and ferritin (IRR=1.26, 1.05-1.51) were significantly associated with TB after adjusting for TB susceptibility factors. While genotype associations were not statistically significant, SLC11A1 associations replicated similar directions as reported in HIV-seronegative meta-analyses. Conclusions Evidence of host iron redistribution at HIV diagnosis was associated with incident TB, and genetic influences on iron homeostasis may be involved. Low hemoglobin was associated with subsequent diagnosis of TB, but when considered in combination with additional iron status biomarkers, the collective findings point to a mechanism whereby anemia
Wang, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-Jian; Chen, Yu-Qiao; Lu, Pin-Pin; Chen, Chao
This study investigated the growth characteristics of iron bacteria on cast iron and relationship between suspended and attached iron bacteria. The steady-state growth of iron bacteria would need 12 d and iron bacteria level in effluents increased 1 lg. Hydraulics influence on iron bacteria level and detachment rate of steady-state attached iron bacteria was not significant. But it could affect the time of attached iron bacteria on cast-iron coupons reaching to steady state. When the chlorine residual was 0.3 mg/L, the iron bacteria growth could be controlled effectively and suspended and attached iron bacteria levels both decreased 1 lg. When the chlorine residual was more than 1.0 mg/L, it could not inactivate the iron bacteria of internal corrosion scale yet. There was little effect on inhibiting the iron bacteria growth that the chlorine residual was 0.05 mg/L in drinking water quality standard of China. The iron bacteria on coupons reached to steady state without disinfectant and then increased the chlorine residual to 1.25 mg/L, the attached iron bacteria level could decrease 2 lg to 3 lg. Under steady-state, the suspended iron bacteria levels were linearly dependent on the attached iron bacteria. The control of iron bacteria in drinking water distribution systems was advanced: maintaining the chlorine residual (0.3 mg/L), flushing the pipeline with high dosage disinfectant, adopting corrosion-resistant pipe materials and renovating the old pipe loop.
Walker, Alexander R. P.
At present there is considerable controversy over many aspects of iron nutrition, including: (1) iron needs and intake levels; (2) the bearing of iron intake on haematological levels; (3) iron deficiency anaemia and deficiency stigmata; and (4) iron therapy, prophylaxis, and the haematological and clinical benefits accruing. Differences of opinion prevail because of inadequacies of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin (or other parameter of iron status) below which unequivocal signs and symptoms of ill-health become manifest in the major proportion of those affected. Difficulties arise equally from lack of knowledge of the level of haemoglobin above which no clinical benefit, short-term or long-term, can be detected from iron supplementation. Clarification of the situation can be obtained only by carrying out the same meticulous and time-consuming procedures that have been used in respect of requirements and deficiency stigmata of other nutrients. Comprehensive iron depletion studies, real and simulated, and repletion studies, including the use of placebos, will be required. Epidemiological investigations bearing on haematological status and morbidity will also need to be undertaken, and include groups of subjects in both Western, and developing countries. PMID:4905446
Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%-6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups.
Graf, Lukas; Herklotz, Roberto; Huber, Andreas R; Korte, Wolfgang
Iron is an element which is essential to life but also potentially toxic. Therefore, clever mechanisms exist in the human body for uptake, transport and storage of iron. Hepcidin, which seems to be the master protein for regulation of intestinal iron absorption, is known for a short time. The expression of hepcidin is not only influenced by iron levels but also by mediators of inflammation and growth factors of erythropoiesis. Hence hepcidin plays also a crucial role in the development of anemia of chronic disease and iron overload due to ineffective erythropoiesis. Serum ferritin is a reliable parameter to estimate the storage iron. It is an acute phase protein which is elevated during infections and inflammations, though. In these situations, measurement of soluble transferrin receptors is a useful tool to differentiate between iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Newer parameters as erythrocyte zink protoporphyrin or percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes (%HYPO) are suited to detect a functional iron deficiency. Early diagnosis of iron overload is essential to prevent organ damage. Serum ferritin and transferrin are useful parameters to screen for iron overload. If no clear reason for a secondary iron overload can be found, the search for a hereditary haemochromatosis is recommended. Most of these hereditary haemochromatoses are a result of mutations in the HFE gene (homozygous state for Cys282Tyr or compound heterozygosity for Cys282Tyr/ His63Asp) which can be detected by PCR technique. Liver biopsy is still the gold standard for quantification of storage iron. However, a method of increasing importance for quantification of iron overload is magnetic resonance imaging with new approaches as for example T2*.
Beeman, John; Juhnke, Steven; Stutzer, Greg; Wright, Katrina
temperature, river discharge, and fish weight as factors affecting apparent survival in the Klamath River upstream of the confluence with the Shasta River, but few of the variables examined were supported as factors affecting survival farther downstream. The effect of water temperature on apparent survival upstream of the Shasta River was greater than Iron Gate Dam discharge, which was greater than fish weight. The estimated effect on apparent survival between release and the Shasta River with each 1degree Celsius increase in water temperature was 1.4 times the effect of a 100 cubic feet per second increase in Iron Gate Dam discharge and 2.5 times the effect of a 1 gram increase in fish weight, and the effects of discharge and weight diminished at higher water temperatures up to the 17.91 degrees Celsius maximum present in the data examined. The rate of passage at the detection site near the confluence with the Shasta River was primarily affected by date of release, and water temperature was the only factor supported at the site near the confluence with the Scott River. Passage rates at sites downstream of the Scott River were affected by several of the variables examined, but the estimated effects were small and often imprecise. Results from this study indicate that discharge at Iron Gate Dam has a positive effect on apparent survival of yearling coho salmon in the Klamath River upstream of the Shasta River, but the effects are smaller than those of water temperature and are mediated by it. The results also support the use of hatchery fish as surrogates for wild fish in studies of apparent survival, but the available evidence suggests that study fish should be released well upstream of the area of interest, due to short-term differences in survival and migration behavior of hatchery and wild fish after release.
Nasri, Hamid Reza; Shahouzehi, Beydolah; Masoumi-Ardakani, Yaser; Iranpour, Maryam
Plasma iron excess can lead to iron accumulation in heart, kidney and liver. Heart failure is a clinical widespread syndrome. In thalassemia, iron overload cardiomyopathy is caused by iron accumulation in the heart that leads to cardiac damage and heart failure. Digoxin increases the intracellular sodium concentration by inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase that affects Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX), which raises intracellular calcium and thus attenuates heart failure. The mechanism of iron uptake into cardiomyocytes is not exactly understood. We assessed the effect of different concentrations of digoxin on cardiac iron content in rat model of iron overload. Digoxin had been administrated intraperitoneally (IP) for one week before main study began to assure increased digoxin levels. Group 1 received four IP injections of iron-dextran (12.5mg/100g body weight) every 5 days evenly distributed over 20 days. Groups 2-4 received 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day IP digoxin, respectively. Last three groups 5-7 received iron-dextran as group 1 and digoxin concentrations 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Cardiac iron contents were significantly higher in iron overload groups that received different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg/day) of digoxin than their counterparts in control groups and this pattern was also observed in pathology assessment. It seems that digoxin plays an important role in iron transport into heart in iron overload state but exact mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear. L-type Ca2+ channels are good candidates that probably could be involved in iron accumulation in cardiomyocytes. Thus it would be better to reconsider digoxin administration in thalassemia and iron overload conditions.
Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald
Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating
Kapsokefalou, Maria; Alexandropoulou, Isidora; Komaitis, Michail; Politis, Ioannis
The objectives of the present study were: to compare the solubility and dialyzability of various iron fortificants (iron pyrophosphate, ferrous bis-glycinate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous lactate, ferrous sulfate) added, in the presence of ascorbic acid, to pasteurized milk samples produced under laboratory conditions; and to compare the solubility and dialyzability of iron in commercial pasteurized, UHT and condensed milk products available in the Greek market fortified with various vitamins and minerals including iron and targeted towards infants (6-12 months old) and toddlers. Iron solubility and dialyzability were determined using a simulated gastrointestinal digestive system. Ferrous dialyzable iron (molecular weight lower than 8000) was used as an index for prediction of iron bioavailability. Ferrous dialyzable iron in pasteurized milk samples fortified with iron pyrophosphate, ferrous lactate and ferrous bis-glycinate was higher (P < 0.05) than that in milk samples fortified with ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate. In commercial liquid pasteurized or UHT milk products, formation of ferrous dialyzable iron in products fortified with ferrous lactate was not different (P > 0.05) from those fortified with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous dialyzable iron in four condensed commercial milk products was higher (P < 0.05) than the corresponding values of the liquid UHT milk samples fortified with the same fortificant (ferrous sulfate). Ferrous dialyzable iron was higher (P < 0.05) in products targeted for infants compared with those targeted for toddlers. In conclusion, the type of iron source, milk processing and the overall product composition affect formation of ferrous dialyzable iron and may determine the success and effectiveness of iron fortification of milk.
Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis
The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…
Hettiarachchi, Eshani; Hurab, Omar; Rubasinghege, Gayan
Over the last several decades, iron has been identified as a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans. Its most significant source is identified as deposited iron-containing mineral dust that has been processed during atmospheric transportation. The current work focuses on chemical and photochemical processing of iron-containing mineral dust particles in the presence of nitric acid, and an organic pollutant dimethyl sulfide under atmospherically relevant conditions. More importantly, ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) is evaluated as a proxy for the iron-containing mineral dust. The presence of titanium in its lattice structure provides higher complexity to mimic mineral dust, yet it is simple enough to study reaction pathways and mechanisms. Here, spectroscopic methods are combined with dissolution measurements to investigate atmospheric processing of iron in mineral dust, with specific focus on particle mineralogy, particle size, and their environmental conditions (i.e., pH and solar flux). Our results indicate that the presence of titanium elemental composition enhances iron dissolution from mineral dust, at least by 2-fold comparison with its nontitanium-containing counterparts. The extent of iron dissolution and speciation is further influenced by the above factors. Thus, our work highlights these important, yet unconsidered, factors in the atmospheric processing of iron-containing mineral dust aerosol.
Hankins, Jane S; Smeltzer, Matthew P; McCarville, M Beth; Aygun, Banu; Hillenbrand, Claudia M; Ware, Russell E; Onciu, Mihaela
The rate and pattern of iron deposition and accumulation are important determinants of liver damage in chronically transfused patients. To investigate iron distribution patterns at various tissue iron concentrations, effects of chelation on hepatic iron compartmentalization, and differences between patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia major (TM), we prospectively investigated hepatic histologic and biochemical findings in 44 patients with iron overload (35 SCD and 9 TM). The median hepatic iron content (HIC) in patients with TM and SCD was similar at 12.9 and 10.3 mg Fe/g dry weight, respectively (P = 0.73), but patients with SCD had significantly less hepatic fibrosis and inflammation (P < 0.05), less hepatic injury, and significantly less blood exposure. Patients with SCD had predominantly sinusoidal iron deposition, but hepatocyte iron deposition was observed even at low HIC. Chelated patients had more hepatocyte and portal tract iron than non-chelated ones, but similar sinusoidal iron deposition. These data suggest that iron deposition in patients with SCD generally follows the traditional pattern of transfusional iron overload; however, parenchymal hepatocyte deposition also occurs early and chelation removes iron preferentially from the reticuloendothelium. Pathophysiological and genetic differences affecting iron deposition and accumulation in SCD and TM warrants further investigation.
Beedkar, Amey; Parikh, Rohan; Deshmukh, Pradeep
Iron deficiency anemia is a significant problem worldwide and more so in developing countries, like India. The prevention and treatment of iron deficiency is a major public health goal in India It is now well recognized that iron deficiency has detrimental effects in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and pulmonary hypertension, and possibly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Around one-third of all patients with HF, and around one-half of patients with pulmonary hypertension, are affected by iron deficiency.1. © Journal of the Association of Physicians of India 2011.
Iron is essential in multiple cellular processes and is especially critical for cellular respiration and division. A new study identified a mutation affecting the iron import receptor TfR1 as the cause of a human primary immunodeficiency, illuminating the importance of iron in immune cell function.
Chemtob, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Moynier, F.; Pringle, E. A.
Iron formations (IFs), Fe- and Si-rich chemical sediments common in Precambrian successions, preserve key information about the compositional, biological, and oxidative evolution of the Precambrian ocean. Stable Si isotopes (δ30Si) of IF have been used to infer paleo-oceanic composition, and secular variations in δ30Si may reflect ancient biogeochemical cycles. The δ30Si of primary Fe-Si precipitates that formed IF depends not only on the δ30Si of aqueous silica but also on the precipitation mechanism. Multiple formation mechanisms for these primary precipitates are plausible. Aqueous Si may have adsorbed on newly precipitated iron oxyhydroxide surfaces; alternatively, Fe and Si may have coprecipitated as a single phase. Here we explore variations in the Si isotope fractionation factor (ɛ) with Fe-Si aqueous interaction mechanism (adsorption vs. coprecipitation). In adsorption experiments, sodium silicate solutions (pH 8.1, 125-2000 µM Si) were reacted with iron oxide particles (hematite, ferrihydrite, goethite, and magnetite) for 24 to 72 hours. Resultant solutions had δ30Si between 0 and +6‰. Calculated ɛ varied significantly with oxide mineralogy and morphology. For ferrihydrite, ɛ = -1.7‰; for hematite, ɛ = -2 to -5‰, depending on particle morphology. Apparent ɛ decreased upon surface site saturation, implying a smaller isotope effect for polymeric Si adsorption than monomeric adsorption. In coprecipitation experiments, solutions of Na-silicate and Fe(II) chloride (0.4-10 mM) were prepared anaerobically, then air-oxidized for 3 days to induce precipitation. At low Si concentrations, magnetite formed; near silica saturation, lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite formed. The Si isotope fractionation factor for coprecipitation was within the range of ɛ observed for adsorption (ɛ = -2.3 ± 1.0‰). These results indicate that the mechanism of Fe-Si interaction affects ɛ, presumably due to varying silicate coordination environments. These isotopic
Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem, which often affects women and children of developing countries and is based on diets that are low in iron. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their root...
Mehta, Kosha J; Coombes, Jason D; Briones-Orta, Marco; Manka, Paul P; Williams, Roger; Patel, Vinood B; Syn, Wing-Kin
Although excess iron induces oxidative stress in the liver, it is unclear whether it directly activates the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). We evaluated the effects of excess iron on fibrogenesis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in murine HSC. Cells were treated with holotransferrin (0.005-5g/L) for 24 hours, with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine (10µM). Gene expressions (α-SMA, Col1-α1, Serpine-1, TGF-β, Hif1-α, Tfrc and Slc40a1) were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, whereas TfR1, ferroportin, ferritin, vimentin, collagen, TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 proteins were evaluated by immunofluorescence, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HSC expressed the iron-uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the iron-export protein ferroportin. Holotransferrin upregulated TfR1 expression by 1.8-fold (P < 0.03) and ferritin accumulation (iron storage) by 2-fold (P < 0.01), and activated HSC with 2-fold elevations (P < 0.03) in α-SMA messenger RNA and collagen secretion, and a 1.6-fold increase (P < 0.01) in vimentin protein. Moreover, holotransferrin activated the TGF-β pathway with TGF-β messenger RNA elevated 1.6-fold (P = 0.05), and protein levels of TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 increased by 1.8-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.6-fold (P < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, iron chelation decreased ferritin levels by 30% (P < 0.03), inhibited collagen secretion by 60% (P < 0.01), repressed fibrogenic genes α-SMA (0.2-fold; P < 0.05) and TGF-β (0.4-fold; P < 0.01) and reduced levels of TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 proteins. HSC express iron-transport proteins. Holotransferrin (iron) activates HSC fibrogenesis and the TGF-β pathway, whereas iron depletion by chelation reverses this, suggesting that this could be a useful adjunct therapy for patients with fibrosis. Further studies in primary human HSC and animal models are necessary to confirm this. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Fang, Kai; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifeng; Chen, Yaojin; Wang, Yuzhou
A method of size exclusion chromatography coupled with ultraviolet spectrophotometry and off-line graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to assess the complexation properties of iron (Fe) and humic acid (HA) in a water environment. The factors affecting the complexation of Fe and HA, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature and UV radiation, were investigated. The Fe-HA complex residence time was also studied. Experimental results showed that pH could influence the deprotonation of HA and hydrolysis of Fe, and thus affected the complexation of Fe and HA. The complexation was greatly disrupted by the presence of NaCl. Temperature had some influence on the complexation. The yield of Fe-HA complexes showed a small decrease at high levels of UV radiation, but the effect of UV radiation on Fe-HA complex formation at natural levels could be neglected. It took about 10 hr for the complexation to reach equilibrium, and the Fe-HA complex residence time was about 20 hr. Complexation of Fe and HA reached a maximum level under the conditions of pH 6, very low ionic strength, in the dark and at a water temperature of about 25°C, for 10 hr. It was suggested that the Fe-HA complex could form mainly in freshwater bodies and reach high levels in the warm season with mild sunlight radiation. With changing environmental parameters, such as at lower temperature in winter or higher pH and ionic strength in an estuary, the concentration of the Fe-HA complex would decrease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara
Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T
The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing.
Youdim, Moussa B H; Stephenson, Galia; Ben Shachar, Dorit
In Parkinson's disease (PD) and its neurotoxin-induced models, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), significant accumulation of iron occurs in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The iron is thought to be in a labile pool, unbound to ferritin, and is thought to have a pivotal role to induce oxidative stress-dependent neurodegeneration of dopamine neurons via Fenton chemistry. The consequence of this is its interaction with H(2)O(2) to generate the most reactive radical oxygen species, the hydroxyl radical. This scenario is supported by studies in both human and neurotoxin-induced parkinsonism showing that disposition of H(2)O(2) is compromised via depletion of glutathione (GSH), the rate-limiting cofactor of glutathione peroxide, the major enzyme source to dispose H(2)O(2) as water in the brain. Further, radical scavengers have been shown to prevent the neurotoxic action of the above neurotoxins and depletion of GSH. However, our group was the first to demonstrate that the prototype iron chelator, desferal, is a potent neuroprotective agent in the 6-OHDA model. We have extended these studies and examined the neuroprotective effect of intracerebraventricular (ICV) pretreatment with the prototype iron chelator, desferal (1.3, 13, 134 mg), on ICV induced 6-OHDA (250 micro g) lesion of striatal dopamine neurons. Desferal alone at the doses studied did not affect striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity or dopamine (DA) metabolism. All three pretreatment (30 min) doses of desferal prevented the fall in striatal and frontal cortex DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovalinic acid, as well as the left and right striatum TH activity and DA turnover resulting from 6-OHDA lesion of dopaminergic neurons. A concentration bell-shaped neuroprotective effect of desferal was observed in the striatum, with 13 micro g being the most effective. Neither desferal nor 6-OHDA affected striatal serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid, or
Bechoff, Aurélie; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie
Dietary and human factors have been found to be the major factors influencing the bioavailability of micronutrients, such as provitamin A carotenoid (pVAC), iron, and zinc, in biofortified crops. Dietary factors are related to food matrix structure and composition. Processing can improve pVAC bioavailability by disrupting the food matrix but can also result in carotenoid losses. By degrading antinutrients, such as phytate, processing can also enhance mineral bioavailability. In in vivo interventions, biofortified crops have been shown to be overall efficacious in reducing micronutrient deficiency, with bioconversion factors varying between 2.3:1 and 10.4:1 for trans-β-carotene and amounts of iron and zinc absorbed varying between 0.7 and 1.1 mg/day and 1.1 and 2.1 mg/day, respectively. Micronutrient bioavailability was dependent on the crop type and the presence of fat for pVACs and on antinutrients for minerals. In addition to dietary factors, human factors, such as inflammation and disease, can affect micronutrient status. Understanding the interactions between micronutrients is also essential, for example, the synergic effect of iron and pVACs or the competitive effect of iron and zinc. Future efficacy trials should consider human status and genetic polymorphisms linked to interindividual variations. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas
MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L
Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W.; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L.
Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. PMID:25802332
Kim, In Hwang; Wen, Yancheng; Son, Jee-Soo; Lee, Kyu-Ho
The gene vvpE, encoding the virulence factor elastase, is a member of the quorum-sensing regulon in Vibrio vulnificus and displays enhanced expression at high cell density. We observed that this gene was repressed under iron-rich conditions and that the repression was due to a Fur (ferric uptake regulator)-dependent repression of smcR, a gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator with similarity to luxR in Vibrio harveyi. A gel mobility shift assay and a footprinting experiment demonstrated that the Fur-iron complex binds directly to two regions upstream of smcR (−82 to −36 and −2 to +27, with respect to the transcription start site) with differing affinities. However, binding of the Fur-iron complex is reversible enough to allow expression of smcR to be induced by quorum sensing at high cell density under iron-rich conditions. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur fails to bind either region and the expression of smcR is regulated solely by quorum sensing. These results suggest that two biologically important environmental signals, iron and quorum sensing, converge to direct the expression of smcR, which then coordinates the expression of virulence factors. PMID:23716618
Wu, Haohao; Yin, Jun-Jie; Wamer, Wayne G; Zeng, Mingyong; Lo, Y Martin
Nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides are among the most widely used engineered and naturally occurring nanostructures, and the increasing incidence of biological exposure to these nanostructures has raised concerns about their biotoxicity. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress is one of the most accepted toxic mechanisms and, in the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to investigate the ROS-related activities of iron nanostructures. In this review, we summarize activities of nano-iron metal and nano-iron oxides in ROS-related redox processes, addressing in detail the known homogeneous and heterogeneous redox mechanisms involved in these processes, intrinsic ROS-related properties of iron nanostructures (chemical composition, particle size, and crystalline phase), and ROS-related bio-microenvironmental factors, including physiological pH and buffers, biogenic reducing agents, and other organic substances. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Tran, Phu V; Kennedy, Bruce C; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A; Georgieff, Michael K
Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Kennedy, Bruce C.; Lien, Yu-Chin; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Georgieff, Michael K.
Fetal and subsequent early postnatal iron deficiency causes persistent impairments in cognitive and affective behaviors despite prompt postnatal iron repletion. The long-term cognitive impacts are accompanied by persistent downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a factor critical for hippocampal plasticity across the life span. This study determined whether early-life iron deficiency epigenetically modifies the Bdnf locus and whether dietary choline supplementation during late gestation reverses these modifications. DNA methylation and histone modifications were assessed at the Bdnf-IV promoter in the hippocampus of rats [at postnatal day (PND) 65] that were iron-deficient (ID) during the fetal-neonatal period. Iron deficiency was induced in rat pups by providing pregnant and nursing dams an ID diet (4 mg/kg Fe) from gestational day (G) 2 through PND7, after which iron deficiency was treated with an iron-sufficient (IS) diet (200 mg/kg Fe). This paradigm resulted in about 60% hippocampal iron loss on PND15 with complete recovery by PND65. For choline supplementation, pregnant rat dams were given dietary choline (5 g/kg) from G11 through G18. DNA methylation was determined by quantitative sequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA, revealing a small alteration at the Bdnf-IV promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed increased HDAC1 binding accompanied by reduced binding of RNA polymerase II and USF1 at the Bdnf-IV promoter in formerly ID rats. These changes were correlated with altered histone methylations. Prenatal choline supplementation reverses these epigenetic modifications. Collectively, the findings identify epigenetic modifications as a potential mechanism to explicate the long-term repression of Bdnf following fetal and early postnatal iron deficiency. PMID:25519736
Kobayashi, Masahiro; Kato, Hiroki; Hada, Hiroshi; Itoh-Nakadai, Ari; Fujiwara, Tohru; Muto, Akihiko; Inoguchi, Yukihiro; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Hojo, Wataru; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Harigae, Hideo; Igarashi, Kazuhiko
Iron plays the central role in oxygen transport by erythrocytes as a constituent of heme and hemoglobin. The importance of iron and heme is also to be found in their regulatory roles during erythroblast maturation. The transcription factor Bach1 may be involved in their regulatory roles since it is deactivated by direct binding of heme. To address whether Bach1 is involved in the responses of erythroblasts to iron status, low iron conditions that induced severe iron deficiency in mice were established. Under iron deficiency, extensive gene expression changes and mitophagy disorder were induced during maturation of erythroblasts. Bach1 -/- mice showed more severe iron deficiency anemia in the developmental phase of mice and a retarded recovery once iron was replenished when compared with wild-type mice. In the absence of Bach1, the expression of globin genes and Hmox1 (encoding heme oxygenase-1) was de-repressed in erythroblasts under iron deficiency, suggesting that Bach1 represses these genes in erythroblasts under iron deficiency to balance the levels of heme and globin. Moreover, an increase in genome-wide DNA methylation was observed in erythroblasts of Bach1 -/- mice under iron deficiency. These findings reveal the principle role of iron as a regulator of gene expression in erythroblast maturation and suggest that the iron-heme-Bach1 axis is important for a proper adaptation of erythroblast to iron deficiency to avoid toxic aggregates of non-heme globin. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Kokubo, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yuri; Kisara, Kumiko; Ohira, Yoshiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari
This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and associations between dietary factors and incidence of ID in female rhythmic gymnasts during preseason periods. Participants were 60 elite collegiate rhythmic gymnasts (18.1 ± 0.3 years [M ± SD]) who were recruited every August over the course of 8 years. Participants were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of ID. Presence of ID was defined either by ferritin less than 12 μg/L or percentage of transferrin saturation less than 16%. Anthropometric and hematologic data, as well as dietary intake, which was estimated via a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, were compared. ID was noted in 48.3% of participants. No significant group-dependent differences were observed in physical characteristics, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, haptoglobin, or erythropoietin concentrations. The ID group had a significantly lower total iron-binding capacity; serum-free iron; percentage of transferrin saturation; ferritin; and intake of protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, beans, and eggs but not iron or vitamin C. The recommended dietary allowance for intake of protein, iron, zinc, and various vitamins was not met by 30%, 90%, 70%, and 22%-87% of all participants, respectively. Multiple logistic analysis showed that protein intake was significantly associated with the incidence of ID (odds ratio = 0.814, 95% confidence interval [0.669, 0.990], p = .039). Participants in the preseason's weight-loss periods showed a tendency toward insufficient nutrient intake and were at a high risk for ID, particularly because of lower protein intake.
Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie
Anemia affects one-fourth of the world’s population, and iron deficiency is the predominant cause. Anemia is associated with chronic fatigue, impaired cognitive function, and diminished well-being. Patients with iron deficiency anemia of unknown etiology are frequently referred to a gastroenterologist because in the majority of cases the condition has a gastrointestinal origin. Proper management improves quality of life, alleviates the symptoms of iron deficiency, and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Treatment options include oral and intravenous iron therapy; however, the efficacy of oral iron is limited in certain gastrointestinal conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and autoimmune gastritis. This article provides a critical summary of the diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, it includes a management algorithm that can help the clinician determine which patients are in need of further gastrointestinal evaluation. This facilitates the identification and treatment of the underlying condition and avoids the unnecessary use of invasive methods and their associated risks. PMID:27099596
Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella
The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597
Filik, Ruth; Hunter, Christian Mark; Leuthold, Hartmut
Although there is increasing evidence to suggest that language is grounded in perception and action, the relationship between language and emotion is less well understood. We investigate the grounding of language in emotion using a novel approach that examines the relationship between the comprehension of a written discourse and the performance of affect-related motor actions (hand movements towards and away from the body). Results indicate that positively and negatively valenced words presented in context influence motor responses (Experiment 1), whilst valenced words presented in isolation do not (Experiment 3). Furthermore, whether discourse context indicates that an utterance should be interpreted literally or ironically can influence motor responding, suggesting that the grounding of language in emotional states can be influenced by discourse-level factors (Experiment 2). In addition, the finding of affect-related motor responses to certain forms of ironic language, but not to non-ironic control sentences, suggests that phrasing a message ironically may influence the emotional response that is elicited. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Huang, Suna; Du, Fang; Li, Lan; Liu, Yong; Liu, Yuhong; Zhang, Chao; Qian, Zhong Ming
The existence of all components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the iron metabolism system, and the recent findings on the functions of angiotensin II (ANGII) in peripheral iron metabolism imply that ANGII might play a role in iron homeostasis by regulating expression of iron transport proteins in the brain. Here, we investigated effects of ANGII on uptake and release of iron as well as expression of cell iron transport proteins in cultured astrocytes. We demonstrated that ANGII could significantly inhibit transferrin-bound iron (Tf-Fe) uptake and iron release as well as the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the iron exporter ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) in cultured astrocytes. This indicated that the inhibitory role of ANGII on Tf-Fe uptake and iron release is mediated by its negative effect on the expression of TfR1 and Fpn1. We also provided evidence that ANGII had no effect on divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) expression as well as non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) uptake in the cells. Our findings showed that ANGII has a role to affect expression of iron transport proteins in astrocytes in vitro and also suggested that ANGII might have a physiological function in brain iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Slotznick, S. P.; Webb, S.; Eiler, J. M.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Fischer, W. W.
Iron chemistry and mineralogy in the sedimentary rocks provide a valuable tool for studying paleoenvironmental conditions due to the fact that iron atoms can take on either the +II or +III valence state under geological redox conditions. One method utilizing this redox chemistry is `iron speciation', a bulk chemical sequential extraction technique that maps proportions of iron species to redox conditions empirically calibrated from modern sediments. However, all Precambrian and many Phanerozoic rocks have experienced post-depositional processes; it is vital to explore their effects on iron mineralogy and speciation. We combined light and electron microscopy, magnetic microscopy, (synchrotron-based) microprobe x-ray spectroscopy, and rock magnetic measurements in order to deconvolve secondary overprints from primary phases and provide quantitative measurement of iron minerals. These techniques were applied to excellently-preserved shale and siltstone samples of the 1.4 Ga lower Belt Supergroup, Montana and Idaho, USA, spanning a metamorphic gradient from sub-biotite to garnet zone. Previously measured Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates in Maine and Vermont, USA spanning from the chlorite to kyanite zone provided additional well-constrained, quantitative data for comparison and to extend our analysis. In all of the studied samples, pyrrhotite formation occurred at the sub-biotite or sub-chlorite zone. Pyrrhotite was interpreted to form from pyrite and/or other iron phases based on lithology; these reactions can affect the paleoredox proxy. Iron carbonates can also severely influence iron speciation results since they often form in anoxic pore fluids during diagenesis; textural analyses of the Belt Supergroup samples highlighted that iron-bearing carbonates were early diagenetic cements or later diagenetic overprints. The inclusion of iron from diagenetic minerals during iron speciation analyses will skew results by providing a view of pore
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia are common conditions worldwide affecting especially children and young women. In developing countries, iron deficiency is caused by poor iron intake and/or parasitic infection, whereas vegetarian dietary choices, poor iron absorption, and chronic blood loss are common causes in high-income countries. Erythropoiesis stimulating agents can result in functional iron deficiency for erythropoiesis even when stores are iron-replete. Diagnosis of iron deficiency is straightforward, except when it occurs in the context of inflammatory disorders. Oral iron salts correct absolute iron deficiency in most patients, because low hepcidin levels facilitate iron absorption. Unfortunately frequent side effects limit oral iron efficacy. Intravenous iron is increasingly utilized, because currently available preparations allow rapid normalization of total body iron even with a single infusion and are effective also in functional iron deficiency and in iron deficiency associated with inflammatory disorders. The evidence is accumulating that these preparations are safe and effective. However, long-term safety issues of high doses of iron need to be further explored. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.
García-Casal, M N; Layrisse, M
The effect of a pH change from 2 to 6 was tested on the solubility of ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, iron bis-glycine chelate (Ferrochel) and sodium-iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). It was found that at pH 2 ferrous sulfate, Ferrochel and NaFeEDTA were completely soluble and only 75% of iron from ferrous fumarate was soluble. When pH was raised to 6, iron from amino acid chelate and NaFeEDTA remained completely soluble while solubility from ferrous sulfate and ferrous fumarate decreased 64 and 74%, respectively compared to the amount of iron initially soluble at pH 2. These results suggest that iron solubility from iron bis-glycine chelate and NaFeEDTA is not affected by pH changes within the ranges tested, probably because iron remained associated to the respective compounds.
Kondo, Yoshiko; Takeda, Shigenobu; Nishioka, Jun; Obata, Hajime; Furuya, Ken; Johnson, William Keith; Wong, C. S.
Complexation of iron (III) with natural organic ligands was investigated during a mesoscale iron enrichment experiment in the western subarctic North Pacific (SEEDS II). After the iron infusions, ligand concentrations increased rapidly with subsequent decreases. While the increases of ligands might have been partly influenced by amorphous iron colloids formation (12-29%), most in-situ increases were attributable to the <200 kDa fraction. Dilution of the fertilized patch may have contributed to the rapid decreases of the ligands. During the bloom decline, ligand concentration increased again, and the high concentrations persisted for 10 days. The conditional stability constant was not different between inside and outside of the fertilized patch. These results suggest that the chemical speciation of the released iron was strongly affected by formation of the ligands; the production of ligands observed during the bloom decline will strongly impact the iron cycle and bioavailability in the surface water.
Jeremiah, Zaccheaus Awortu; Koate, Baribefe Banavule
There is paucity of information on the effect of blood donation on iron stores in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The present study was, therefore, designed to assess, using a combination of haemoglobin and iron status parameters, the development of anaemia and prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in this area of Nigeria. Three hundred and forty-eight unselected consecutive whole blood donors, comprising 96 regular donors, 156 relatives of patients and 96 voluntary donors, constituted the study population. Three haematological parameters (haemoglobin, packed cell volume, and mean cell haemoglobin concentration) and four biochemical iron parameters (serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin saturation) were assessed using standard colorimetric and ELISA techniques. The prevalence of anaemia alone (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL) was 13.7%. The prevalence of isolated iron deficiency (serum ferritin <12 ng/mL) was 20.6% while that of iron-deficiency anaemia (haemoglobin <11.0 g/dL + serum ferritin <12.0 ng/mL) was 12.0%. Among the three categories of the donors, the regular donors were found to be most adversely affected as shown by the reduction in mean values of both haematological and biochemical iron parameters. Interestingly, anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia were present almost exclusively among regular blood donors, all of whom were over 35 years old. Anaemia, iron deficiency and iron-deficiency anaemia are highly prevalent among blood donors in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. It will be necessary to review the screening tests for the selection of blood donors and also include serum ferritin measurement for the routine assessment of blood donors, especially among regular blood donors.
Pittori, C; Buser, A; Gasser, U E; Sigle, J; Job, S; Rüesch, M; Tichelli, A; Infanti, L
Blood donation can contribute to iron deficiency. The possibly resulting anaemia importantly affects donor return rate. The determination of serum ferritin levels revealed iron deficiency in many non-anaemic premenopausal female blood donors at our Institution. We started an iron substitution programme targeting this donor group to prevent anaemia and enhance donor retain. Women aged≤50 with haemoglobin levels adequate for donation and serum ferritin≤10 ng/ml were offered iron supplementation. Substitution lasted 16 weeks and the donation interval was extended. History collection including iron deficiency-related symptoms, whole blood count and serum ferritin determination was performed at baseline and after 2 and 6 months. Data were recorded prospectively and compared with those of 108 female controls with iron deficiency not receiving iron substitution (retrospective data). Of the 116 participating subjects, 60% completed the programme. Significant results were serum ferritin increase (from a mean value of 7.12 to 25.2 ng/ml), resolution of prostration, fatigue, sleep disturbances, tension in the neck, hair loss and nail breakage. No case of anaemia occurred. Sixty per cent of the women completed the programme and donated blood again. Targeted iron substitution prevents the development of anaemia and enhances donation return in premenopausal female blood donors with iron deficiency. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Le, Huong Thi; Brouwer, Inge D; de Wolf, Corine A; van der Heijden, Lidwien; Nguyen, Khan Cong; Kok, Frans J
Anemia is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in Vietnam. Food fortification is considered one of the most sustainable long-term strategies to control iron-deficiency anemia in Vietnam. The success of a food-fortification program depends on the choice of the food vehicle. The aim of the present study was to identify an appropriate vehicle for iron fortification to be used in a school-feeding program aimed at improving the iron and anemia status of schoolchildren in rural Vietnam. Children 6 to 8 years of age in two primary schools in Tam Nong District, Phu Tho Province, and their parents were included in this study. The study consisted of three substudies: a food-consumption study with 24-hour recalls of two nonconsecutive days; a food-beliefs study, with focus group discussions, a pile-sorting test, and a food attributes and differences exercise; and a food-acceptance study using noodles and biscuits fortified with sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA). The average number of meals consumed daily was 3.2 +/- 0.4, and the average intakes of energy and iron were 1,218 +/- 406 kcal and 7.5 +/- 4.0 mg, respectively. Compared with biscuits and instant rice soup, instant noodles were consumed more frequently and in larger portion sizes and are more acceptable as children's food in the culture of the local people. The iron level of the fortified product did not affect the mean consumption of noodles, but a higher level of iron was associated with a lower mean consumption of biscuits (p < .05). The production process did not affect the NaFeEDTA level in noodles; however, during preparation at least 70% of the iron is leaked into the soup. Instant noodles are a suitable vehicle for iron fortification for use in school-based intervention to improve iron-deficiency anemia among primary schoolchildren in rural Vietnam.
Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad
Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.
Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETRRCII, mol e- mol RCII-1 s-1) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal – oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETRRCII: CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements. PMID:26171963
Schuback, Nina; Schallenberg, Christina; Duckham, Carolyn; Maldonado, Maria T; Tortell, Philippe D
Iron availability directly affects photosynthesis and limits phytoplankton growth over vast oceanic regions. For this reason, the availability of iron is a crucial variable to consider in the development of active chlorophyll a fluorescence based estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity. These bio-optical approaches require a conversion factor to derive ecologically-relevant rates of CO2-assimilation from estimates of electron transport in photosystem II. The required conversion factor varies significantly across phytoplankton taxa and environmental conditions, but little information is available on its response to iron limitation. In this study, we examine the role of iron limitation, and the interacting effects of iron and light availability, on the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and CO2-assimilation in marine phytoplankton. Our results show that excess irradiance causes increased decoupling of carbon fixation and electron transport, particularly under iron limiting conditions. We observed that reaction center II specific rates of electron transport (ETR(RCII), mol e- mol RCII(-1) s(-1)) increased under iron limitation, and we propose a simple conceptual model for this observation. We also observed a strong correlation between the derived conversion factor and the expression of non-photochemical quenching. Utilizing a dataset from in situ phytoplankton assemblages across a coastal--oceanic transect in the Northeast subarctic Pacific, this relationship was used to predict ETR(RCII): CO2-assimilation conversion factors and carbon-based primary productivity from FRRF data, without the need for any additional measurements.
Background Soybeans grown in the upper Midwestern United States often suffer from iron deficiency chlorosis, which results in yield loss at the end of the season. To better understand the effect of iron availability on soybean yield, we identified genes in two near isogenic lines with changes in expression patterns when plants were grown in iron sufficient and iron deficient conditions. Results Transcriptional profiles of soybean (Glycine max, L. Merr) near isogenic lines Clark (PI548553, iron efficient) and IsoClark (PI547430, iron inefficient) grown under Fe-sufficient and Fe-limited conditions were analyzed and compared using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Soybean Genome Array. There were 835 candidate genes in the Clark (PI548553) genotype and 200 candidate genes in the IsoClark (PI547430) genotype putatively involved in soybean's iron stress response. Of these candidate genes, fifty-eight genes in the Clark genotype were identified with a genetic location within known iron efficiency QTL and 21 in the IsoClark genotype. The arrays also identified 170 single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) specific to either Clark or IsoClark. A sliding window analysis of the microarray data and the 7X genome assembly coupled with an iterative model of the data showed the candidate genes are clustered in the genome. An analysis of 5' untranslated regions in the promoter of candidate genes identified 11 conserved motifs in 248 differentially expressed genes, all from the Clark genotype, representing 129 clusters identified earlier, confirming the cluster analysis results. Conclusion These analyses have identified the first genes with expression patterns that are affected by iron stress and are located within QTL specific to iron deficiency stress. The genetic location and promoter motif analysis results support the hypothesis that the differentially expressed genes are co-regulated. The combined results of all analyses lead us to postulate iron inefficiency in soybean is a result of a
Healthy, term, breastfed infants usually have adequate iron stores that, together with the small amount of iron that is contributed by breast milk, make them iron sufficient until ≥6 mo of age. The appropriate concentration of iron in infant formula to achieve iron sufficiency is more controversial. Infants who are fed formula with varying concentrations of iron generally achieve sufficiency with iron concentrations of 2 mg/L (i.e., with iron status that is similar to that of breastfed infants at 6 mo of age). Regardless of the feeding choice, infants' capacity to regulate iron homeostasis is important but less well understood than the regulation of iron absorption in adults, which is inverse to iron status and strongly upregulated or downregulated. Infants who were given daily iron drops compared with a placebo from 4 to 6 mo of age had similar increases in hemoglobin concentrations. In addition, isotope studies have shown no difference in iron absorption between infants with high or low hemoglobin concentrations at 6 mo of age. Together, these findings suggest a lack of homeostatic regulation of iron homeostasis in young infants. However, at 9 mo of age, homeostatic regulatory capacity has developed although, to our knowledge, its extent is not known. Studies in suckling rat pups showed similar results with no capacity to regulate iron homeostasis at 10 d of age when fully nursing, but such capacity occurred at 20 d of age when pups were partially weaned. The major iron transporters in the small intestine divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT1) and ferroportin were not affected by pup iron status at 10 d of age but were strongly affected by iron status at 20 d of age. Thus, mechanisms that regulate iron homeostasis are developed at the time of weaning. Overall, studies in human infants and experimental animals suggest that iron homeostasis is absent or limited early in infancy largely because of a lack of regulation of the iron transporters DMT1 and ferroportin
Gianesin, B; Zefiro, D; Musso, M; Rosa, A; Bruzzone, C; Balocco, M; Carrara, P; Bacigalupo, L; Banderali, S; Rollandi, G A; Gambaro, M; Marinelli, M; Forni, G L
An accurate assessment of body iron accumulation is essential for the diagnosis and therapy of iron overload in diseases such as thalassemia or hemochromatosis. Magnetic iron detector susceptometry and MRI are noninvasive techniques capable of detecting iron overload in the liver. Although the transverse relaxation rate measured by MRI can be correlated with the presence of iron, a calibration step is needed to obtain the liver iron concentration. Magnetic iron detector provides an evaluation of the iron overload in the whole liver. In this article, we describe a retrospective observational study comparing magnetic iron detector and MRI examinations performed on the same group of 97 patients with transfusional or congenital iron overload. A biopsy-free linear calibration to convert the average transverse relaxation rate in iron overload (R(2) = 0.72), or in liver iron concentration evaluated in wet tissue (R(2) = 0.68), is presented. This article also compares liver iron concentrations calculated in dry tissue using MRI and the existing biopsy calibration with liver iron concentrations evaluated in wet tissue by magnetic iron detector to obtain an estimate of the wet-to-dry conversion factor of 6.7 ± 0.8 (95% confidence level). Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Shotton, Andrea D; Droke, Elizabeth A
Diets with a higher proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., linoleic acid) have decreased iron absorption and utilization compared with diets containing a higher proportion of the saturated fatty acid stearic acid (e.g., beef tallow). However, less is known regarding the influence of other polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fatty acids, along with higher dietary iron, on iron absorption and utilization. The present study was conducted to compare the effects of dietary fat sources known to vary in (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on iron utilization and liver mineral concentrations. Male weanling rats were fed a diet containing 10, 35, or 100 microg/g iron in combination with safflower oil, flaxseed oil, olive oil, or beef tallow for 8 wk. Indicators of iron status, iron utilization, and liver iron concentrations were unaffected by an interaction between the fat source and iron concentration. Plasma copper was the only variable affected by an interaction between the fat source and dietary iron. Findings of this study demonstrate that flaxseed oil and olive oil may alter tissue minerals and affect iron utilization. Further studies should be conducted to establish the effect of varying (n-3), (n-6), and (n-9) fatty acids on trace mineral status and iron utilization.
Pompano, Laura M; Haas, Jere D
Background: Despite its known detrimental effects, iron deficiency remains the most common micronutrient deficiency in the world. Many interventions that aim to improve iron status involve physically active populations. Intense aerobic exercise training negatively affects iron status; however, the impact of regular moderate aerobic exercise on the effectiveness of iron supplementation remains unclear. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training modifies the assessment of the effectiveness of iron supplementation in improving conventional iron status measures. Design: Seventy-two iron-depleted, nonanemic Chinese women [serum ferritin (sFer) <25 μg/L and hemoglobin >110 g/L] were included in an 8-wk, partially blinded, randomized controlled trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design including iron supplements (42 mg elemental Fe/d) or placebo and aerobic training (five 25-min sessions/wk at 75-85% of maximum heart rate) or no training. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relation between supplement type, training, and changes in iron status over time, measured by sFer, hemoglobin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and estimated total body iron. Results: After treatment, both the iron-supplemented trained and untrained groups showed significantly improved sFer, sTfR, and body iron values compared with either of the placebo groups. Similarly, trained participants had significantly higher aerobic fitness measures than untrained participants. Training modified the sFer response to supplementation (training by supplement interaction, P = 0.07), with the iron-supplemented trained group having significantly lower sFer than the iron-supplemented untrained group at week 8 (mean ± SD: 31.8 ± 13.5 and 47.6 ± 15.7 μg/L, respectively; P = 0.042), whereas there was no significant difference between the placebo trained and untrained groups (21.3 ± 12.2 and 20.3 ± 7.0 μg/L, respectively; P = 1.00). Conclusions: Regular aerobic training reduces
Dalgleish, Tim; Yiend, Jenny; Schweizer, Susanne; Dunn, Barnaby D
Theories of ironic mental control posit that under conditions in which effortful control is compromised, for example, in laboratory manipulations of mental load or in those suffering from clinical levels of negative affect, attempts to suppress negative emotions can lead to a paradoxical increase in such feelings, relative to conditions in which no suppression is attempted. In line with this, we showed that high negative affect participants, when asked to suppress (downregulate) their negative feelings while writing about a distressing personal memory, exhibited an ironically greater increase in negative emotions compared with a no-instruction condition, in contrast to low negative affect controls who were able to suppress their emotions. Comparable ironic effects were not associated with instructions to experience emotions. This first demonstration of ironic effects of emotion suppression in response to personal material in those with emotional problems sheds light into how certain emotion regulation strategies may maintain and exacerbate such conditions.
Cook,J.; Bencze, K.; Jankovic, A.
Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50 000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly)more » share requirements for iron, suggesting that monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. To provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal-site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron-loaded monomer, and the protein can bind two ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal-binding sites is consistent with a six-coordinate iron-(oxygen/nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. On the basis of our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron.« less
Cook, J.; Bencze, K; Jankovic, A
Friedreich's ataxia, an autosomal cardio- and neurodegenerative disorder that affects 1 in 50000 humans, is caused by decreased levels of the protein frataxin. Although frataxin is nuclear-encoded, it is targeted to the mitochondrial matrix and necessary for proper regulation of cellular iron homeostasis. Frataxin is required for the cellular production of both heme and iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. Monomeric frataxin binds with high affinity to ferrochelatase, the enzyme involved in iron insertion into porphyrin during heme production. Monomeric frataxin also binds to Isu, the scaffold protein required for assembly of Fe-S cluster intermediates. These processes (heme and Fe-S cluster assembly) sharemore » requirements for iron, suggesting that monomeric frataxin might function as the common iron donor. To provide a molecular basis to better understand frataxin's function, we have characterized the binding properties and metal-site structure of ferrous iron bound to monomeric yeast frataxin. Yeast frataxin is stable as an iron-loaded monomer, and the protein can bind two ferrous iron atoms with micromolar binding affinity. Frataxin amino acids affected by the presence of iron are localized within conserved acidic patches located on the surfaces of both helix-1 and strand-1. Under anaerobic conditions, bound metal is stable in the high-spin ferrous state. The metal-ligand coordination geometry of both metal-binding sites is consistent with a six-coordinate iron-(oxygen/nitrogen) based ligand geometry, surely constructed in part from carboxylate and possibly imidazole side chains coming from residues within these conserved acidic patches on the protein. On the basis of our results, we have developed a model for how we believe yeast frataxin interacts with iron.« less
Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Fei; You, Chun-Xiang
Iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for plant growth and development. A network of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors positively regulates Fe uptake during iron deficiency. However, their up-regulation or overexpression leads to Fe overload and reactive oxygen species generation, thereby damaging the plants. Here, we found that two BTB/TAZ proteins, MdBT1 and MdBT2, interact with the MbHLH104 protein in apple. In addition, the function of MdBT2 was characterized as a regulator of MdbHLH104 degradation via ubiquitination and the 26S proteasome pathway, thereby controlling the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases and the acquisition of iron. Furthermore, MdBT2 interacted with MdCUL3 proteins, which were required for the MdBT2-mediated ubiquitination modification of MdbHLH104 and its degradation. In sum, our findings demonstrate that MdBT proteins interact with MdCUL3 to bridge the formation of the MdBTsMdCUL3 complex, which negatively modulates the degradation of the MdbHLH104 protein in response to changes in Fe status to maintain iron homeostasis in plants. PMID:27660166
Miles, Anna L; Burr, Stephen P; Grice, Guinevere L; Nathan, James A
Hypoxia Inducible transcription Factors (HIFs) are principally regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate and Iron(II) prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) enzymes, which hydroxylate the HIFα subunit, facilitating its proteasome-mediated degradation. Observations that HIFα hydroxylation can be impaired even when oxygen is sufficient emphasise the importance of understanding the complex nature of PHD regulation. Here, we use an unbiased genome-wide genetic screen in near-haploid human cells to uncover cellular processes that regulate HIF1α. We identify that genetic disruption of the Vacuolar H+ ATPase (V-ATPase), the key proton pump for endo-lysosomal acidification, and two previously uncharacterised V-ATPase assembly factors, TMEM199 and CCDC115, stabilise HIF1α in aerobic conditions. Rather than preventing the lysosomal degradation of HIF1α, disrupting the V-ATPase results in intracellular iron depletion, thereby impairing PHD activity and leading to HIF activation. Iron supplementation directly restores PHD catalytic activity following V-ATPase inhibition, revealing important links between the V-ATPase, iron metabolism and HIFs.
Deng, Jianjun; Chen, Fei; Fan, Daidi; Zhu, Chenhui; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Xue, Wenjiao
Iron incorporated into food can induce precipitation and unwanted interaction with other components in food. Iron-binding proteins represent a possibility to avoid these problems and other side effects, as the iron is protected. However, there are several technical problems associated with protein-iron complex formation. In this paper, the iron-binding phosphorylated human-like collagen (Fe-G6P-HLC) was prepared under physiological conditions through phosphorylated modification. One molecule of Fe-G6P-HLC possesses about 24 atoms of Fe. Spectroscopy analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and equilibrium dialysis techniques were employed to investigate the characteristics of the Fe-G6P-HLC. The binding sites (nb) and apparent association constant (Kapp) between iron and phosphorylated HLC were measured at nb=23.7 and log Kapp=4.57, respectively. The amount of iron (Fe(2+) sulfate) binding to phosphorylated HLC was found to be a function of pH and phosphate content. In addition, the solubility and thermal stability of HLC were not significantly affected. The results should facilitate the utilization of HLC as a bioactive iron supplement in the food and medical industry and provide an important theoretical evidence for the application of HLC chelates. © 2013.
Yin, Lili; Wang, Yi; Yan, Mudan; Zhang, Xinzhong; Pan, Haifa; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai
Transcription factors play important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stresses. In this study, a novel basic helix-loop-helix iron-related transcription factor, IRO2, containing a 762-bp open reading frame and encoding 253 amino acids, was cloned from the iron-efficient genotype of Malus xiaojinensis. Localization analyses in onion showed that the MxIRO2 protein was targeted to the nucleus and activation studies in yeast indicated MxIRO2-BD had weak transcriptional activation activity. Prokaryotic expression of MxIRO2 in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells resulted in high expression levels of the protein when induced with isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactoside. The fusion protein was purified using Ni-NTA His-bind resin, and the purified MxIRO2-His fusion protein was used as the antigen to immunize a New Zealand rabbit. The resulting antiserum was purified by precipitation with 50% saturated ammonium sulfate and DEAE Sephadex A-50 chromatography to obtain the immunoglobulin G fraction. The expression of MxIRO2 in roots and leaves of M. xiaojinensis seedlings under iron deficiency was determined. The results indicated that MxIRO2 was induced in both roots and leaves under iron deficiency. In these experimental conditions, the transcription and translation levels first increased and then decreased under iron deficiency. This work offers an important basis for further investigating the mechanisms of fruit tree adaptation to iron deficiency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…
Macher, Susanne; Drexler, Camilla; Lindenau, Ines; Sareban, Nazanin; Schlenke, Peter; Amrein, Karin
About 2-3 % of the population participates in blood donation programmes. Each whole blood donation or ten apheresis donations cause a loss of 200-250 mg of iron. As a result, one of the most common risks of regular blood donors is iron deficiency. Although this has been known for decades, in most countries, iron status is currently not assessed or treated in this population. Premenopausal women are particularly affected, as they have lower iron reserves and higher daily requirements. Besides anaemia, iron deficiency may lead to fatigue and impaired cognitive and physical performance. Current iron preparations for intravenous administration are well tolerated and allow for application of large doses up to 1 g in one visit. Our hypothesis is that in blood donors with iron deficiency, intravenously administered iron is more efficient and as safe as oral iron supplementation. Since anaemia is one of the most frequent reasons for permanent or intermittent donor deferral, maintaining an iron-replete donor pool may help to prevent shortages in blood supply and to avoid iron deficiency-related comorbidities. In this randomised clinical trial we include male and female blood donors aged ≥18 and ≤65 years with a ferritin value of ≤30 ng/ml. Stratified by gender, participants are randomized with a web-based randomisation tool in a 1:1 ratio to either 1 g of intravenously administered ferric carboxymaltose or 10 g of iron fumarate supplements at one to two daily doses of 100 mg each. Eight to 12 weeks after the first visit, iron status, blood count and symptoms are assessed in both groups. The primary endpoint is the difference in transferrin saturation (%) following the intervention between both groups. Secondary endpoints include other parameters of iron metabolism and red blood cell count, the number of patients with drug-related adverse events, and subjective symptoms including those of the restless legs syndrome, quality of life, and fatigue. Iron
Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
Suzanne. E. Fenton
US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.
Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...
A review by invitation about advantages and disadvantages of an iron-rich diet by analyzing physiological iron requirements, dietary factors influencing iron absorption and the regulatory systems available to control iron absorption according to needs. The control to prevent iron deficiency is good but not perfect, as observed in previously described studies on relationships between individual iron requirements and the probability of iron deficiency developing in relation to diet. The control to prevent iron overload seems to be perfect except in the few subjects being homozygotes for hereditary hemochromatosis. A diet rich in easily available iron is important for covering basal iron losses, menstrual iron losses and the high iron requirements for growth from infancy to adolescence and for pregnancy.
Al-Sharif, Abdel-Latif; Abdelrahman, Y. S.
The dangers to the human health upon exposure to radon and its daughter products is the main motivation behind the vast number of studies performed to find the concentration of radon in our living environment, including our houses. The presence of radon and its daughter products in houses are due to various sources including building materials and the soil under the houses. Many factors affect radon concentration in our houses, the elevation above ground level,ventilation, building materials and room usage being among these factors. In our paper, we discuss the effect of elevation above ground level, room usage and ventilation on the Radon concentration in houses. The faculty residences of the Mu'tah University (Jordan) were chosen in our study. Our results showed that the concentration of radon decreases with elevation. Ventilation rate was also found to affect radon concentration, where low concentrations observed for areas with good ventilation.
Ingall, E. D.; Longo, A.; Feng, Y.; Lai, B.; Landing, W. M.; Shelley, R.; Nenes, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Violaki, K.
Iron is a key micronutrient that is vital for all organisms. The supply of bioavailable, soluble iron controls primary productivity in approximately 30% of the world's oceans. The significant contribution of atmospheric aerosols to the bioavailable iron budget in vast ocean regions, underscores the need to understand the controls and transformations of aerosol iron solubility during atmospheric transport. The Sahara Desert contains the largest and most active sources of aerosol dust globally and can be a key source of nutrients to the Mediterranean Sea, much of the North Atlantic Ocean, and even as far as the Gulf of Mexico. Aerosol iron was examined in Saharan dust plumes using a combination of iron near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy and wet chemical techniques. Aerosol samples were collected at three sites located in the Mediterranean, the Atlantic, and Bermuda to characterize iron at different atmospheric transport lengths and time scales. Iron(III) oxides were a component of aerosols at all sampling sites and dominated aerosol iron in Mediterranean samples. In Atlantic samples, iron(II & III) sulfate, iron(III) phosphate, and iron(II) silicates were also contributors to aerosol composition. With increased atmospheric transport time, iron(II) sulfates are found to become more abundant, aerosol iron oxidation state became more reduced, and aerosol acidity increased. Atmospheric processing, including acidic reactions and photo-reduction, likely influence the form of iron minerals and the oxidation state in Saharan dust aerosols and contribute to increases in aerosol iron solubility. Overall, these findings suggest that a combination of factors affects aerosol iron solubility during long-distance atmospheric transport and emphasize the need to consider reductive mechanisms as well as proton-induced solubilization of aerosol iron in modeling studies.
Yin, Lina; Unger, Erica L.; Jellen, Leslie C.; Earley, Christopher J.; Allen, Richard P.; Tomaszewicz, Ann; Fleet, James C.
The aim of this study was to identify genes that influence iron regulation under varying dietary iron availability. Male and female mice from 20+ BXD recombinant inbred strains were fed iron-poor or iron-adequate diets from weaning until 4 mo of age. At death, the spleen, liver, and blood were harvested for the measurement of hemoglobin, hematocrit, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, and liver, spleen and plasma iron concentration. For each measure and diet, we found large, strain-related variability. A principal-components analysis (PCA) was performed on the strain means for the seven parameters under each dietary condition for each sex, followed by quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis on the factors. Compared with the iron-adequate diet, iron deficiency altered the factor structure of the principal components. QTL analysis, combined with PosMed (a candidate gene searching system) published gene expression data and literature citations, identified seven candidate genes, Ptprd, Mdm1, Picalm, lip1, Tcerg1, Skp2, and Frzb based on PCA factor, diet, and sex. Expression of each of these is cis-regulated, significantly correlated with the corresponding PCA factor, and previously reported to regulate iron, directly or indirectly. We propose that polymorphisms in multiple genes underlie individual differences in iron regulation, especially in response to dietary iron challenge. This research shows that iron management is a highly complex trait, influenced by multiple genes. Systems genetics analysis of iron homeostasis holds promise for developing new methods for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia and related diseases. PMID:22461179
Abd-El Wahed, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Maha H; Ibrahim, Samia S; El-Naggar, Wafaa A
Poor iron status affects billions of people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity continues to rise in both the developed and developing nations. An association between iron status and obesity has been described in children and adults. The aim of the study was to assess the iron profile and dietary pattern in primary school-aged obese Egyptian children. A case-control study was conducted on 120 children, both obese (n=60) and control group (n=60), recruited from three primary governmental schools located in Dokki Sector, El-Giza Governorate, Egypt. Their ages ranged from 6 to 12 years. All children were subjected to full medical and dietetic history, anthropometric measurements, thorough clinical examination, and determination of complete blood count, serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation (TS), and ferritin. Despite similar dietary iron intake in the two groups, obese children showed highly significantly decreased hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, serum iron, and TS, and increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and total iron-binding capacity when compared with the nonobese group. The obese group showed a highly significant increased rate of iron deficiency (ID) (TS<15% or mean corpuscular volume<76 fl) when compared with the nonobese group. Obesity was a significant risk factor for the development of ID (odds ratio: 7.09, 95% confidence interval: 3.16-15.92). The association between ID and obesity may have important public health and clinical implications. For primary school children with elevated BMIs, screening for ID should be considered. Increasing awareness of the importance of physical activity and carrying out nutritional education programs are required.
Messecar, D C
This study explored factors that family caregivers described as affecting their ability to use environmental modifications. Intensive interviews and participant observation were used to collect detailed data from 24 primary family caregivers. Several factors that affect the caregivers' ability to implement modification strategies were identified in the analysis. These factors included attributes of the elderly individual, attributes of the modification, quality of the caregiver-elderly relationship, caregivers' skills, personal resources of the caregiver, and the informal and formal supports available. Of these factors, the most important were the salient skills that caregivers need to implement environmental modifications. These findings point to the importance of caregivers receiving skills training in this important dimension of caregiving. Intervention should be based on a collaborative approach that ensures the caregiver and care receiver's needs and preferences are respected.
Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M
Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P < 0.001). Asian American ethnicity (OR ≤0.9; P ≤ 0.049) and HFE C282Y (OR ≤0.84; P ≤ 0.060) were independently associated with a decreased risk of ID in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Hispanic ethnicity (OR: 1.8; P < 0.001) and African American ethnicity (OR: 1.6; P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of ID in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Elevated iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P < 0.001), but African American ethnicity was also associated with increased iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P < 0.001). Asian American ethnicity (OR: 1.8; P = 0.001) and HFE C282Y heterozygosity (OR: 1.9; P = 0.003) were
Firdous, R.; Devlin, J. F.
Commercial granular iron (GI) is light steel that is used in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRBs). Investigations into the reactivity of GI have focused on its chemical nature and relatively little direct work has been done to account for the effects of grain shape and packing. Both of these factors are expected to influence available grain surface area, which is known to correlate to reactivity. Commercial granular iron grains are platy and therefore pack in preferential orientations that could affect solution access to the surface. Three packing variations were investigated using Connelly Iron and trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental kinetic data showed reaction rates 2-4 times higher when grains were packed with long axes preferentially parallel to flow (VP) compared to packings with long axes preferentially perpendicular to flow (HP) or randomly arranged (RP). The variations were found to be explainable by variations in reactive sorption capacities, i.e., sorption to sites where chemical transformations took place. The possibility that the different reactive sorption capacities were related to physical pore-scale differences was assessed by conducting an image analysis of the pore structure of sectioned columns. The analyses suggested that pore-scale factors - in particular the grain surface availability, reflected in the sorption capacity terms of the kinetic model used - could only account for a fraction of the observed reactivity differences between packing types. It is concluded that packing does affect observable reaction rates but that micro-scale features on the grain surfaces, rather than the pore scale characteristics, account for most of the apparent reactivity differences. This result suggests that treatability tests should consider the packing of columns carefully if they are to mimic field performance of PRBs to the greatest extent possible.
Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Joo Sun; Lee, Hye Ja; Kim, Won-Ho; Park, Sang Ick; Song, Jihyun
Excessive tissue iron levels are a risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, which are associated with alterations in iron metabolism. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are not well understood. This study used human liver SK-HEP-1 cells to examine how excess iron induces mitochondrial dysfunction and how hepcidin controls gluconeogenesis. Excess levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and accumulated iron due to iron overload induced mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate content and cytochrome c oxidase III expression, with an associated increase in gluconeogenesis. Disturbances in mitochondrial function caused excess iron deposition and unbalanced expression of iron metabolism-related proteins such as hepcidin, ferritin H and ferroportin during the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), which are responsible for increased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression. Desferoxamine and n-acetylcysteine ameliorated these deteriorations by inhibiting p38 MAPK and C/EBPα activity through iron chelation and ROS scavenging activity. Based on experiments using hepcidin shRNA and hepcidin overexpression, the activation of hepcidin affects ROS generation and iron deposition, which disturbs mitochondrial function and causes an imbalance in iron metabolism and increased gluconeogenesis. Repression of hepcidin activity can reverse these changes. Our results demonstrate that iron overload is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and that together they can cause abnormal hepatic gluconeogenesis. Hepcidin expression may modulate this disorder by regulating ROS generation and iron deposition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
iron status should consider race and ethnicity, military specialty, duty requirements affecting physical activity, and dietary intake. If altitude...in the deployed setting; many military personnel face potentially limited dietary options and increased physical activity while deployed. Because ID...JP, Cable SJ, et al: Randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of iron supplementation in female soldiers during military training: effects
Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew; Derbyshire, Emma
Adequate nutrient intake is critically important for achieving optimal sports performance. Like all athletes, female runners require a nutritionally balanced diet to maintain daily activities and a successful training regime. This study investigates the effects of cereal product based dietary iron intervention on iron status of recreational female runners (n = 11; 32 ± 7yr; 239 ± 153 minutes exercise/week, of which 161 ± 150 minutes running activity/week; VO2max 38 ± 4 ml/kg/min). Participants completed a 6-week dietary intervention study. They were asked to replace their usual bread with iron-rich Teff bread as part of their daily diet. During this period, their dietary habits were assessed by multiple pass 24-hr recalls; iron status was determined by venous blood analysis for serum transferrin, serum transferrin receptor, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin receptor/ferritin log index. Pre-intervention a cohort of 11 female runners reported inadequate daily dietary iron intake of 10.7 ± 2.7 mg/day, which was associated with overall compromised iron status. Over a third of all participants showed depleted bodily iron stores (serum ferritin <12 μg/L). Pre-intervention macronutrient assessment revealed adequate energy, protein and fibre intakes, whilst total fat and saturated fat intake was above the recommendations at the expense of carbohydrate intake. A 6-week dietary intervention resulted in significantly higher total iron intakes (18.5 mg/day, P < 0.05) and improved iron tissue supply but not enlarged iron stores. Improvements in heamatological indices were associated with compromised baseline iron status, prolonged intervention period and increase in dietary iron intake. Dietary iron interventions using a staple cereal product offer an alternative way of improving dietary iron intake and favourable affecting overall iron status in physically active females.
Anderson, Erik R.; Taylor, Matthew; Xue, Xiang; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K.; Martin, Angelical; Xie, Liwei; Bredell, Bryce X.; Gardenghi, Sara; Rivella, Stefano; Shah, Yatrik M.
Several distinct congenital disorders can lead to tissue-iron overload with anemia. Repeated blood transfusions are one of the major causes of iron overload in several of these disorders, including β-thalassemia major, which is characterized by a defective β-globin gene. In this state, hyperabsorption of iron is also observed and can significantly contribute to iron overload. In β-thalassemia intermedia, which does not require blood transfusion for survival, hyperabsorption of iron is the leading cause of iron overload. The mechanism of increased iron absorption in β-thalassemia is unclear. We definitively demonstrate, using genetic mouse models, that intestinal hypoxia-inducible factor-2α (HIF2α) and divalent metal transporter-1 (DMT1) are activated early in the pathogenesis of β-thalassemia and are essential for excess iron accumulation in mouse models of β-thalassemia. Moreover, thalassemic mice with established iron overload had significant improvement in tissue-iron levels and anemia following disruption of intestinal HIF2α. In addition to repeated blood transfusions and increased iron absorption, chronic hemolysis is the major cause of tissue-iron accumulation in anemic iron-overload disorders caused by hemolytic anemia. Mechanistic studies in a hemolytic anemia mouse model demonstrated that loss of intestinal HIF2α/DMT1 signaling led to decreased tissue-iron accumulation in the liver without worsening the anemia. These data demonstrate that dysregulation of intestinal hypoxia and HIF2α signaling is critical for progressive iron overload in β-thalassemia and may be a novel therapeutic target in several anemic iron-overload disorders. PMID:24282296
Rosconi, Federico; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Platero, Raúl A; González, Cecilia; González, Marcela; Batista, Silvia; Gill, Paul R; Fabiano, Elena R
Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere and the interior of several plants. As iron is a key element for nitrogen fixation, we examined the response of this microorganism to iron deficiency under nitrogen fixing conditions. We identified a H. seropedicae exbD gene that was induced in response to iron limitation and is involved in iron homeostasis. We found that an exbD mutant grown in iron-chelated medium is unable to fix nitrogen. Moreover, we provide evidence that expression of the nifH and nifA genes is iron dependent in a H. seropedicae genetic background.
Céspedes, Oscar; Ueno, Shoogo
Ferritin, the iron cage protein, contains a superparamagnetic ferrihydrite nanoparticle formed from the oxidation and absorption of Fe(2+) ions. This nanoparticle increases its internal energy when exposed to alternating magnetic fields due to magnetization lag. The energy is then dissipated to the surrounding proteic cage, affecting its functioning. In this article we show that the rates of iron chelation with ferrozine, an optical marker, are reduced by up to a factor of 3 in proteins previously exposed to radio frequency magnetic fields of 1 MHz and 30 microT for several hours. The effect is non-thermal and depends on the frequency-amplitude product of the magnetic field. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Wenger, Michael J; Scott, Samuel P; Rhoten, Stephanie E; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Haas, Jere D
Background: Evidence shows that iron deficiency in adulthood may affect cognitive performance, possibly by disrupting neurotransmitter regulation or brain energy metabolism. Women of reproductive age (WRA) are among those who are most vulnerable to iron deficiency; however, they have been largely ignored in the literature relating iron status to cognition. Objective: Our aim was to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans in improving cognition in WRA compared with control beans. Methods: A double-blind, randomized intervention study was conducted in 150 women aged 18-27 y with low iron status (ferritin <20 μg/L). Women were randomly assigned to consume iron-biofortified beans (86.1 ppm iron) or control beans (50.1 ppm iron) daily for 18 wk. Iron status was assessed based on hemoglobin, ferritin, transferrin receptor, and body iron values and on cognitive performance on 5 computerized tasks at baseline and endline. Results: Groups did not differ on any variables at baseline. Per protocol analyses revealed that consumption of the biofortified beans resulted in a 17% larger improvement in the speed of spatial selective attention; a nearly 7-fold larger improvement in the speed, a 68% greater improvement in the efficiency, and a >2-fold greater improvement in the specificity of memory retrieval; and a >2-fold larger improvement in the speed and a >3-fold larger improvement in the efficiency of memory search-all of which are relative to consumption of the control beans ( P < 0.01 for all comparisons). Conclusions: Cognitive performance is sensitive to iron status, and consumption of iron-biofortified beans for 18 wk improved cognitive performance, especially the efficiency of search and the speed of retrieval on memory tasks, in young adult women. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01594359.
Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Carvalho, André F; Maes, Michael; Walker, Adam J; Puri, Basant K
Ferroptosis is a unique form of programmed death, characterised by cytosolic accumulation of iron, lipid hydroperoxides and their metabolites, and effected by the fatal peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. It is a major driver of cell death in neurodegenerative neurological diseases. Moreover, cascades underpinning ferroptosis could be active drivers of neuropathology in major psychiatric disorders. Oxidative and nitrosative stress can adversely affect mechanisms and proteins governing cellular iron homeostasis, such as the iron regulatory protein/iron response element system, and can ultimately be a source of abnormally high levels of iron and a source of lethal levels of lipid membrane peroxidation. Furthermore, neuroinflammation leads to the upregulation of divalent metal transporter1 on the surface of astrocytes, microglia and neurones, making them highly sensitive to iron overload in the presence of high levels of non-transferrin-bound iron, thereby affording such levels a dominant role in respect of the induction of iron-mediated neuropathology. Mechanisms governing systemic and cellular iron homeostasis, and the related roles of ferritin and mitochondria are detailed, as are mechanisms explaining the negative regulation of ferroptosis by glutathione, glutathione peroxidase 4, the cysteine/glutamate antiporter system, heat shock protein 27 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2. The potential role of DJ-1 inactivation in the precipitation of ferroptosis and the assessment of lipid peroxidation are described. Finally, a rational approach to therapy is considered, with a discussion on the roles of coenzyme Q 10 , iron chelation therapy, in the form of deferiprone, deferoxamine (desferrioxamine) and deferasirox, and N-acetylcysteine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Russell, S M; Harrison, P M
Horse ferritins from different organs show heterogeneity on electrofocusing in Ampholine gradients. Both ferritin and apoferritin from liver and spleen could be fractionated with respect to surface charge by serial precipitation with (NH4)2SO4. In the ferritin fractions, increasing iron content parallels increasing isoelectric point. After removal of their iron, those fractions which originally contained most iron accumulated added iron at the fastest rates. When unfractionated ferritins from different organs were compared the average isoelectric point increased in order spleen less than liver less than kidney less than heart. The order of initial rates of iron uptake by the apoferritins was spleen greater than kidney greater than heart and initial average iron contents also followed this order. The relatively low rates of iron accumulation by iron-poor molecules may have been due to structural alteration, to degradation, to activation of the iron-rich molecules or to other factors. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:736908
Vaugier, Céline; Amano, Mariane T; Chemouny, Jonathan M; Dussiot, Michael; Berrou, Claire; Matignon, Marie; Ben Mkaddem, Sanae; Wang, Pamella H M; Fricot, Aurélie; Maciel, Thiago T; Grapton, Damien; Mathieu, Jacques R R; Beaumont, Carole; Peraldi, Marie-Noëlle; Peyssonnaux, Carole; Mesnard, Laurent; Daugas, Eric; Vrtovsnik, François; Monteiro, Renato C; Hermine, Olivier; Ginzburg, Yelena Z; Benhamou, Marc; Camara, Niels O S; Flamant, Martin; Moura, Ivan C
Renal transplants remain a medical challenge, because the parameters governing allograft outcome are incompletely identified. Here, we investigated the role of serum iron in the sterile inflammation that follows kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. In a retrospective cohort study of renal allograft recipients ( n =169), increased baseline levels of serum ferritin reliably predicted a positive outcome for allografts, particularly in elderly patients. In mice, systemic iron overload protected against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury-associated sterile inflammation. Furthermore, chronic iron injection in mice prevented macrophage recruitment after inflammatory stimuli. Macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions had reduced responses to Toll-like receptor-2, -3, and -4 agonists, which associated with decreased reactive oxygen species production, increased nuclear localization of the NRF2 transcription factor, increased expression of the NRF2-related antioxidant response genes, and limited NF- κ B and proinflammatory signaling. In macrophage-depleted animals, the infusion of macrophages cultured in high-iron conditions did not reconstitute AKI after ischemia-reperfusion, whereas macrophages cultured in physiologic iron conditions did. These findings identify serum iron as a critical protective factor in renal allograft outcome. Increasing serum iron levels in patients may thus improve prognosis of renal transplants. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.
Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh
The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. "Project" was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.
Background Astrocytes respond to local insults within the brain and the spinal cord with important changes in their phenotype. This process, overall known as “activation”, is observed upon proinflammatory stimulation and leads astrocytes to acquire either a detrimental phenotype, thereby contributing to the neurodegenerative process, or a protective phenotype, thus supporting neuronal survival. Within the mechanisms responsible for inflammatory neurodegeneration, oxidative stress plays a major role and has recently been recognized to be heavily influenced by changes in cytosolic iron levels. In this work, we investigated how activation affects the competence of astrocytes to handle iron overload and the ensuing oxidative stress. Methods Cultures of pure cortical astrocytes were preincubated with proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor α) or conditioned medium from lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia to promote activation and then exposed to a protocol of iron overload. Results We demonstrate that activated astrocytes display an efficient protection against iron-mediated oxidative stress and cell death. Based on this evidence, we performed a comprehensive biochemical and molecular analysis, including a transcriptomic approach, to identify the molecular basis of this resistance. Conclusions We propose the protective phenotype acquired after activation not to involve the most common astrocytic antioxidant pathway, based on the Nrf2 transcription factor, but to result from a complex change in the expression and activity of several genes involved in the control of cellular redox state. PMID:24160637
Iannotti, Lora L; Tielsch, James M; Black, Maureen M; Black, Robert E
The prevalence of iron deficiency among infants and young children living in developing countries is high. Because of its chemical properties—namely, its oxidative potential—iron functions in several biological systems that are crucial to human health. Iron, which is not easily eliminated from the body, can also cause harm through oxidative stress, interference with the absorption or metabolism of other nutrients, and suppression of critical enzymatic activities. We reviewed 26 randomized controlled trials of preventive, oral iron supplementation in young children (aged 0–59 mo) living in developing countries to ascertain the associated health benefits and risks. The outcomes investigated were anemia, development, growth, morbidity, and mortality. Initial hemoglobin concentrations and iron status were considered as effect modifiers, although few studies included such subgroup analyses. Among iron-deficient or anemic children, hemoglobin concentrations were improved with iron supplementation. Reductions in cognitive and motor development deficits were observed in iron-deficient or anemic children, particularly with longer-duration, lower-dose regimens. With iron supplementation, weight gains were adversely affected in iron-replete children; the effects on height were inconclusive. Most studies found no effect on morbidity, although few had sample sizes or study designs that were adequate for drawing conclusions. In a malaria-endemic population of Zanzibar, significant increases in serious adverse events were associated with iron supplementation, whereas, in Nepal, no effects on mortality in young children were found. More research is needed in populations affected by HIV and tuberculosis. Iron supplementation in preventive programs may need to be targeted through identification of iron-deficient children. PMID:17158406
Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye
Introduction Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Methods Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to‘ SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. Results A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (P < .05). Belief that too many tablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Conclusion Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation. PMID:26090001
Taye, Bekele; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonen, Alemetsehaye
Iron and folate supplementation can effectively control and prevent anaemia in pregnancy. In Ethiopia, all pregnant women are prescribed iron folate during their ANC visit. However, limited adherence is thought to be a major reason for the low effectiveness of iron supplementation programs. Therefore this study was done to investigate factors associated with compliance of prenatal iron folate supplementation among women who gave birth in the last 12 months before the survey in Mecha district. Community based cross sectional study design was employed in Mecha district from June 25 - July 15/2013. A sample of 634 women who gave birth 12 months before the survey was included in the study. Study participants were selected by systematic random sampling technique after allocating the total sample to each kebele proportionally. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured Amharic questionnaire. Collected data were edited, coded and entered to Epi info version 3.1 and exported to' SPSS version 16. Bivariate and multivariable analysis was computed. A total of 628 women who gave birth twelve months before the survey were enrolled. In this study only 20.4% of participants were compliant with iron foliate supplementation. In multivariable analysis, age of the mother, educational status of the mother, knowledge of anaemia and iron folate tablets, and history of anaemia during pregnancy were significantly associated with compliance to iron folate supplementation (P<.05). Belief that too many tablets would harm the baby and fear of side effects were the major reasons given for noncompliance. Compliance to iron folate supplementation is very low in the study area. Increasing female education and increasing knowledge of women about anaemia and iron folate tablets are recommended to increase compliance to iron folate supplementation.
Bashir, Khurram; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Akhtar, Shamim; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K
The mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake in plants has been extensively characterized, but little is known about how Fe transport to different subcellular compartments affects Fe localization in rice seed. Here, we discuss the characterization of a rice vacuolar Fe transporter 2 (OsVIT2) T-DNA insertion line (osvit2) and report that the knockdown of OsVIT2 and mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT) expression affects seed Fe localization. osvit2 plants accumulated less Fe in their shoots when grown under normal or excess Fe conditions, while the accumulation of Fe was comparable to that in wild-type (WT) plants under Fe-deficient conditions. The accumulation of zinc, copper, and manganese also changed significantly in the shoots of osvit2 plants. The growth of osvit2 plants was also slow compared to that of WT plants. The concentration of Fe increased in osvit2 polished seeds. Previously, we reported that the expression of OsVIT2 was higher in MIT knockdown (mit-2) plants, and in this study, the accumulation of Fe in mit-2 seeds decreased significantly. These results suggest that vacuolar Fe trafficking is important for plant Fe homeostasis and distribution, especially in plants grown in the presence of excess Fe. Moreover, changes in the expression of OsVIT2 and MIT affect the concentration and localization of metals in brown rice as well as in polished rice seeds.
Grettenberger, Christen L; Pearce, Alexandra R; Bibby, Kyle J; Jones, Daniel S; Burgos, William D; Macalady, Jennifer L
Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a major environmental problem affecting tens of thousands of kilometers of waterways worldwide. Passive bioremediation of AMD relies on microbial communities to oxidize and remove iron from the system; however, iron oxidation rates in AMD environments are highly variable among sites. At Scalp Level Run (Cambria County, PA), first-order iron oxidation rates are 10 times greater than at other coal-associated iron mounds in the Appalachians. We examined the bacterial community at Scalp Level Run to determine whether a unique community is responsible for the rapid iron oxidation rate. Despite strong geochemical gradients, including a >10-fold change in the concentration of ferrous iron from 57.3 mg/liter at the emergence to 2.5 mg/liter at the base of the coal tailings pile, the bacterial community composition was nearly constant with distance from the spring outflow. Scalp Level Run contains many of the same taxa present in other AMD sites, but the community is dominated by two strains of Ferrovum myxofaciens , a species that is associated with high rates of Fe(II) oxidation in laboratory studies. IMPORTANCE Acid mine drainage pollutes more than 19,300 km of rivers and streams and 72,000 ha of lakes worldwide. Remediation is frequently ineffective and costly, upwards of $100 billion globally and nearly $5 billion in Pennsylvania alone. Microbial Fe(II) oxidation is more efficient than abiotic Fe(II) oxidation at low pH (P. C. Singer and W. Stumm, Science 167:1121-1123, 1970, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.167.3921.1121). Therefore, AMD bioremediation could harness microbial Fe(II) oxidation to fuel more-cost-effective treatments. Advances will require a deeper understanding of the ecology of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial communities and the factors that control their distribution and rates of Fe(II) oxidation. We investigated bacterial communities that inhabit an AMD site with rapid Fe(II) oxidation and found that they were dominated by two
Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...
As an essential mineral, iron plays an important role in fundamental biological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation and assimilation, and DNA synthesis. Iron is also a co-factor of many enzymes involved in the synthesis of plant hormones. The latter are involved in many pathways controling plant development or adaptative responses to environmental conditions. Iron reactivity with oxygen leads to its insolubility (responsible for deficiency) and potential toxicity, and complicates iron use by aerobic organisms. If plants lacked an active root system with which to acquire iron from the soil, most would experience iron deficiency and show physiological changes. In contrast, an excess of soluble iron, which can occur in flooded acidic soils, can lead to ferrous iron toxicity due to iron reactivity with reduced forms of oxygen and subsequent free radical production. An optimal iron concentration is thus required for a plant to grow and develop normally. This concentration depends on multiple regulatory mechanisms controlling iron uptake from soil by the roots, as well as iron transport and distribution to the various plant organs. Optimized seed iron content is a major biotechnological challenge identified by the World Health Organization, and it is therefore crucial to understand the underlying mechanisms. Iron delivery to seeds is tightly controlled, and depends on the nature of iron speciation in specific chelates, and their transport.
de Sousa, M
A number of studies done in the last 10 years demonstrate the importance of iron in regulating the expression of T lymphoid cell surface markers, in influencing the expansion of different T cell subsets and in affecting different immune cell functions in vitro. It has been argued that some of the results obtained could be explained by the formation of iron polymers in the experimental conditions used in vitro (Soyano Fernandez & Romano, 1985). In this review the results of studies of immunological function in clinical situations of iron overload are analysed. From this analysis, it is concluded that the majority of the observations made in vitro have a counterpart in vivo, thus providing additional compelling evidence for the importance of iron as an immunoregulator. PMID:2649280
In this review the properties of iron in various human brain structures (e.g. Substantia nigra, globus pallidus, hippocampus) were analyzed to assess the possibility of initiation of oxidative stress leading to such diseases as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Our own studies with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay (ELISA) were confronted with other methods used in other laboratories. Our results suggest that hippocampus is the most fragile for oxidative stress structure in human brain (the death of nervous cells in hippocampus leads to Alzheimer’s disease). Changes in iron metabolism were also found in substantia nigra (the death of nervous cells of this structure produces Parkinson’s disease) and in globus pallidus (neurodegeneration of this structure causes progressive supranuclear palsy).
Kobayashi, Takanori; Itai, Reiko Nakanishi; Senoura, Takeshi; Oikawa, Takaya; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Ueda, Minoru; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K
Under low iron availability, plants induce the expression of various genes involved in iron uptake and translocation at the transcriptional level. This iron deficiency response is affected by various plant hormones, but the roles of jasmonates in this response are not well-known. We investigated the involvement of jasmonates in rice iron deficiency responses. High rates of jasmonate-inducible genes were induced during the very early stages of iron deficiency treatment in rice roots. Many jasmonate-inducible genes were also negatively regulated by the ubiquitin ligases OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and positively regulated by the transcription factor IDEF1. Ten out of 35 genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were rapidly induced at 3 h of iron deficiency treatment, and this induction preceded that of known iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation. Twelve genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis and signaling were also upregulated in HRZ-knockdown roots. Endogenous concentrations of jasmonic acid and jasmonoyl isoleucine tended to be rapidly increased in roots in response to iron deficiency treatment, whereas these concentrations were higher in HRZ-knockdown roots under iron-sufficient conditions. Analysis of the jasmonate-deficient cpm2 mutant revealed that jasmonates repress the expression of many iron deficiency-inducible genes involved in iron uptake and translocation under iron sufficiency, but this repression is partly canceled under an early stage of iron deficiency. These results indicate that jasmonate signaling is activated during the very early stages of iron deficiency, which is partly regulated by IDEF1 and OsHRZs.
Braithwaite, V.S.; Prentice, A.; Darboe, M.K.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2 years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn = 25,) and low (LIn = 25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104 weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P ≤ 0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52 wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P = 0.04] and from 24 wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P = 0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [− 21% (4%) RU/mL, P ≤ 0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [− 0.5% (0.5%), P = 0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets
Nutritional anemia is believed to be the most widespread nutritional disorder in the world. While it generally affects developing countries, developed countries are also affected to an extent sufficient to justify the implementation of preventive measures at a national level. This report focuses on iron and folate deficiencies, which are by far…
Aigner, Elmar; Weiss, Günter; Datz, Christian
Elevated iron stores as indicated by hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation and mostly mild hepatic iron deposition are a characteristic finding in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Excess iron is observed in approximately one third of NAFLD patients and is commonly referred to as the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome”. Clinical evidence suggests that elevated body iron stores aggravate the clinical course of NAFLD with regard to liver-related and extrahepatic disease complications which relates to the fact that excess iron catalyses the formation of toxic hydroxyl-radicals subsequently resulting in cellular damage. Iron removal improves insulin sensitivity, delays the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus, improves pathologic liver function tests and likewise ameliorates NAFLD histology. Several mechanisms contribute to pathologic iron accumulation in NAFLD. These include impaired iron export from hepatocytes and mesenchymal Kupffer cells as a consequence of imbalances in the concentrations of iron regulatory factors, such as hepcidin, cytokines, copper or other dietary factors. This review summarizes the knowledge about iron homeostasis in NAFLD and the rationale for its therapeutic implications. PMID:25729473
Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...
Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah
Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29593525
Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B; Legg, Jeffrey S
A variety of factors influence employees' attitudes toward their workplace and commitment to the organization that employs them. However, these factors have not been well documented among radiologic technologists. To determine the predictive ability of selected organizational, leadership, work-role and demographic variables on organizational commitment for a national sample of radiographers. Three thousand radiographers registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists working full time in clinical settings were surveyed by mail regarding their commitment to their employers, leadership within the organization that employs them, employer support and demographic information. Overall, radiographers were found to have only a moderate level of commitment to their employers. Among the factors that significantly affected commitment were the radiographer's educational level, perceived level of organizational support, role clarity and organizational leadership. The results of this study could provide managers and supervisors with insights on how to empower and challenge radiographers and offer opportunities that will enhance radiographers' commitment to the organization, thus reducing costly turnover and improving employee performance.
Maunsell, Bláithín; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal
In the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens M114, extracellular proteolytic activity and fluorescent siderophore (pseudobactin M114) production were previously shown to be co-ordinately negatively regulated in response to environmental iron levels. An iron-starvation extracytoplasmic function sigma factor, PbrA, required for the transcription of siderophore biosynthetic genes, was also implicated in M114 protease regulation. The current study centred on the characterization and genetic regulation of the gene(s) responsible for protease production in M114. A serralysin-type metalloprotease gene, aprA, was identified and found to encode the major, if not only, extracellular protease produced by this strain. The expression of aprA and its protein product were found to be subject to complex regulation. Transcription analysis confirmed that PbrA was required for full aprA transcription under low iron conditions, while the ferric uptake regulator, Fur, was implicated in aprA repression under high iron conditions. Interestingly, the iron regulation of AprA was dependent on culture conditions, with PbrA-independent AprA-mediated proteolytic activity observed on skim milk agar supplemented with yeast extract, when supplied with iron or purified pseudobactin M114. These effects were not observed on skim milk agar without yeast extract. PbrA-independent aprA expression was also observed from a truncated transcriptional fusion when grown in sucrose asparagine tryptone broth supplied with iron or purified pseudobactin M114. Thus, experimental evidence suggested that iron mediated its effects via transcriptional activation by PbrA under low iron conditions, while an as-yet-unidentified sigma factor(s) may be required for the PbrA-independent aprA expression and AprA proteolytic activity induced by siderophore and iron.
Geokas, M. C.; McKenna, R. D.
Although the mechanism for its development is not well understood, iron-deficiency anemia is a well-recognized consequence of partial gastrectomy. The reported incidence varies considerably, depending upon the criteria used to define anemia, and other factors. Rapid emptying of the gastric remnant, intestinal “hurry”, and borderline dietary-iron intake, with or without concomitant blood loss, produce malabsorption of some forms of iron that appears to be responsible for development of the deficiency. The diagnosis rests on hematological findings in the peripheral blood, the evaluation of iron stores, epithelial changes, and the response to adequate treatment. Oral iron therapy can be both effective and inexpensive and should form the mainstay of treatment. PMID:6019057
Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy are risk factors for preterm delivery, prematurity, and small for gestational age birth weight. Iron deficiency has a negative effect on intelligence and behavioral development in the infant. It is essential to prevent iron deficiency in the fetus by preventing iron deficiency in the pregnant woman. The requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from ∼1.0 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester. More than 90% of Scandinavian women of reproductive age have a dietary iron intake below the recommended 15 mg/day. Among nonpregnant women of reproductive age, ∼40% have plasma ferritin ≤30 μg/l, i.e. an unfavorable iron status with respect to pregnancy. An adequate iron status during pregnancy implies body iron reserves ≥500 mg at conception, but only 15-20% of women have iron reserves of such a magnitude. Iron supplements during pregnancy reduce the prevalence of IDA. In Europe, IDA can be prevented by a general low-dose iron prophylaxis of 30-40 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from early pregnancy to delivery. In affluent societies, individual iron prophylaxis tailored by the ferritin concentration should be preferred to general prophylaxis. Suggested guidelines are: ferritin >70 μg/l, no iron supplements; ferritin 31-70 μg/l, 30-40 mg ferrous iron per day, and ferritin ≤30 μg/l, 60-80 mg ferrous iron per day. In women with ferritin <15 μg/l, i.e. depleted iron reserves and possible IDA, therapeutic doses of 100 mg ferrous iron per day should be advised. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Torti, Suzy V.; Torti, Frank M.
Iron is an essential nutrient that facilitates cell proliferation and growth. However, iron also has the capacity to engage in redox cycling and free radical formation. Therefore, iron can contribute to both tumour initiation and tumour growth; recent work has also shown that iron has a role in the tumour microenvironment and in metastasis. Pathways of iron acquisition, efflux, storage and regulation are all perturbed in cancer, suggesting that reprogramming of iron metabolism is a central aspect of tumour cell survival. Signalling through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and WNT pathways may contribute to altered iron metabolism in cancer. Targeting iron metabolic pathways may provide new tools for cancer prognosis and therapy. PMID:23594855
Imam, Mustapha Umar; Zhang, Shenshen; Ma, Jifei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fudi
Oxidative stress is a common denominator in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Therefore, antioxidants are often used to protect cells and tissues and reverse oxidative damage. It is well known that iron metabolism underlies the dynamic interplay between oxidative stress and antioxidants in many pathophysiological processes. Both iron deficiency and iron overload can affect redox state, and these conditions can be restored to physiological conditions using iron supplementation and iron chelation, respectively. Similarly, the addition of antioxidants to these treatment regimens has been suggested as a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating tissue damage induced by oxidative stress. Notably, many bioactive plant-derived compounds have been shown to regulate both iron metabolism and redox state, possibly through interactive mechanisms. This review summarizes our current understanding of these mechanisms and discusses compelling preclinical evidence that bioactive plant-derived compounds can be both safe and effective for managing both iron deficiency and iron overload conditions.
Zhang, Shenshen; Ma, Jifei; Wang, Hao; Wang, Fudi
Oxidative stress is a common denominator in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases. Therefore, antioxidants are often used to protect cells and tissues and reverse oxidative damage. It is well known that iron metabolism underlies the dynamic interplay between oxidative stress and antioxidants in many pathophysiological processes. Both iron deficiency and iron overload can affect redox state, and these conditions can be restored to physiological conditions using iron supplementation and iron chelation, respectively. Similarly, the addition of antioxidants to these treatment regimens has been suggested as a viable therapeutic approach for attenuating tissue damage induced by oxidative stress. Notably, many bioactive plant-derived compounds have been shown to regulate both iron metabolism and redox state, possibly through interactive mechanisms. This review summarizes our current understanding of these mechanisms and discusses compelling preclinical evidence that bioactive plant-derived compounds can be both safe and effective for managing both iron deficiency and iron overload conditions. PMID:28657578
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.
The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…
... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...
Background Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency during pregnancy, information on the coverage and factors associated with utilization of iron supplements is lacking. The study is intended to assess the coverage, compliance and factors associated with the use of prenatal iron supplements in eight rural districts of Ethiopia. Methods The study comprised two independent surveys conducted among pregnant women (n = 414) and women who gave birth in the preceding year of the survey (n = 1573). In both cases, respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique and data were collected via structured questionnaire. Predictors of iron supplement utilization (ranked categories of number of prenatal supplements taken) were identified using ordinal logistic regression. The outputs of the analysis are given using adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% Confidence Interval (CI). Results Among women who gave birth in the preceding year, 35.4% (95% CI: 31.3-39.5) were given/prescribed prenatal iron supplement during the index pregnancy and only 3.5% were supplemented for the recommended 91 or more days. Compared to women who had 4 or more ANC visits, those with 0, 1, 2 and 3 visits had 0.04, 0.33, 0.50 and 0.60 times less odds of iron supplement utilization, respectively. Women lacking comprehensive knowledge of anemia (OR = 0. 75 (95% CI: 0.57-0.97)) and those who weren’t informed about the importance of iron supplementation during the pregnancy (OR = 0. 05 (95% CI: 0.04-0.07)) had significantly lower utilization. On the other hand, in pregnant women the prevalence of anemia was 33.2%. Among pregnant women who were given/prescribed supplements, the average level of compliance was 74.9% and about 25.1% had less than 70% adherence. The leading reported reasons for non-adherence were side-effects (63.3%) and forgetfulness (16.7%). Conclusion Promoting early and frequent ANC, enhancing the quality of ANC counseling and promoting the knowledge of women on
Rotzoll, Kim B.
The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise,…
Makubi, Abel; Roberts, David J
Frank iron deficiency has been associated with a wide range of cardiac and pulmonary abnormalities including non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Iron deficiency anaemia and isolated iron deficiency are well-defined adverse prognostic factors in non-ischaemic cardiac failure. Furthermore, iron-deficient patients in chronic heart failure with a serum ferritin of <100 μg/l or <300 μg/l with reduced transferrin saturation of <20%, who were given intravenous iron showed improved clinical outcomes. Iron deficiency with or without anaemia affects over a quarter of the world's population, but the impact of iron deficiency in heart failure and the effective management of iron deficiency in heart failure in Lower and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is not well described. Heart failure in African cohorts occurs at a younger age than in North America and Europe and is more likely to be due to hypertension. Recent studies suggest that iron deficiency anaemia, which is very common in heart failure patients in Africa, and iron deficiency are independently associated with a poor prognosis in heart failure. Preliminary data suggest that iron deficiency in patients with heart failure can be treated with oral iron, with significant beneficial effects on haematological and physiological variables. Cost may prohibit the use of intravenous iron on a large scale in LMICs and optimal regimes to treat iron deficiency in heart failure patients with oral iron therapy remain to be defined. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Moya-Alvarez, Violeta; Bodeau-Livinec, Florence; Cot, Michel
Malaria increases the burden of anemia in low-income countries, where, according to 2012 data from the World Health Organization, 40% of children are anemic. Moreover, iron is a cofactor for Plasmodium falciparum development, raising fears that iron supplementation might be harmful in patients with P. falciparum infection. The primary objective of this narrative review is to describe current knowledge on the iron-malaria association, including recent findings and substantive qualitative results. Between 2012 and 2016 the MEDLINE database was searched for literature published about malaria and iron levels. Observational studies reported some protection of iron supplementation against malaria among iron-deficient children, while older clinical trials reported increased susceptibility to malaria among iron-supplemented children. However, iron supplements were not significantly associated with increased malaria risk in recent clinical trials or in a 2016 Cochrane review. Evidence of an iron-malaria association is limited by the following factors: the protective effect of control interventions, the limited follow-up of children, and the lack of homogenous iron indicators. The effects of previous health status and possible thresholds in iron levels should be investigated using a gold-standard combination of iron markers. Moreover, the benefits of iron supplementation require further evaluation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R
Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was <5% in most studies in Northern and Western Europe but was considerably higher in Eastern Europe (9-50%). According to current iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Pereira, Dora I.A.; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F.A.; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K.; Tagmount, Mani A.; Aslam, Mohamad F.; Frazer, David M.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Anderson, Gregory J.; Powell, Jonathan J.
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide with substantial impact on health and economy. Current treatments predominantly rely on soluble iron which adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. We have developed organic acid-modified Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide nanomaterials, here termed nano Fe(III), as alternative safe iron delivery agents. Nano Fe(III) absorption in humans correlated with serum iron increase (P < 0.0001) and direct in vitro cellular uptake (P = 0.001), but not with gastric solubility. The most promising preparation (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate: IHAT) showed ~80% relative bioavailability to Fe(II) sulfate in humans and, in a rodent model, IHAT was equivalent to Fe(II) sulfate at repleting haemoglobin. Furthermore, IHAT did not accumulate in the intestinal mucosa and, unlike Fe(II) sulfate, promoted a beneficial microbiota. In cellular models, IHAT was 14-fold less toxic than Fe(II) sulfate/ascorbate. Nano Fe(III) manifests minimal acute intestinal toxicity in cellular and murine models and shows efficacy at treating iron deficiency anaemia. From the Clinical Editor This paper reports the development of novel nano-Fe(III) formulations, with the goal of achieving a magnitude less intestinal toxicity and excellent bioavailability in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Out of the tested preparations, iron hydroxide adipate tartrate met the above criteria, and may become an important tool in addressing this common condition. PMID:24983890
Del Greco M, Fabiola; Foco, Luisa; Pichler, Irene; Eller, Philipp; Eller, Kathrin; Benyamin, Beben; Whitfield, John B; Pramstaller, Peter P; Thompson, John R; Pattaro, Cristian; Minelli, Cosetta
Iron depletion is a known consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but there is contradicting epidemiological evidence on whether iron itself affects kidney function and whether its effect is protective or detrimental in the general population. While epidemiological studies tend to be affected by confounding and reverse causation, Mendelian randomization (MR) can provide unconfounded estimates of causal effects by using genes as instruments. We performed an MR study of the effect of serum iron levels on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), using genetic variants known to be associated with iron. MR estimates of the effect of iron on eGFR were derived based on the association of each variant with iron and eGFR from two large genome-wide meta-analyses on 48 978 and 74 354 individuals. We performed a similar MR analysis for ferritin, which measures iron stored in the body, using variants associated with ferritin. A combined MR estimate across all variants showed a 1.3% increase in eGFR per standard deviation increase in iron (95% confidence interval 0.4–2.1%; P = 0.004). The results for ferritin were consistent with those for iron. Secondary MR analyses of the effects of iron and ferritin on CKD did not show significant associations but had very low statistical power. Our study suggests a protective effect of iron on kidney function in the general population. Further research is required to confirm this causal association, investigate it in study populations at higher risk of CKD and explore its underlying mechanism of action.
Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Moteki, Nobuhiro; ...
Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30–90 °S) by 52%, withmore » a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m –2 globally and 0.22 W m –2 over East Asia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.« less
Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M; Moteki, Nobuhiro; Hamilton, Douglas S; Ohata, Sho; Yoshida, Atsushi; Koike, Makoto; Scanza, Rachel A; Flanner, Mark G
Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30-90 °S) by 52%, with a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m -2 globally and 0.22 W m -2 over East Asia. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.
Matsui, Hitoshi; Mahowald, Natalie M.; Moteki, Nobuhiro
Atmospheric iron affects the global carbon cycle by modulating ocean biogeochemistry through the deposition of soluble iron to the ocean. Iron emitted by anthropogenic (fossil fuel) combustion is a source of soluble iron that is currently considered less important than other soluble iron sources, such as mineral dust and biomass burning. Here we show that the atmospheric burden of anthropogenic combustion iron is 8 times greater than previous estimates by incorporating recent measurements of anthropogenic magnetite into a global aerosol model. This new estimation increases the total deposition flux of soluble iron to southern oceans (30–90 °S) by 52%, withmore » a larger contribution of anthropogenic combustion iron than dust and biomass burning sources. The direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic magnetite is estimated to be 0.021 W m –2 globally and 0.22 W m –2 over East Asia. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that anthropogenic combustion iron is a larger and more complex climate forcer than previously thought, and therefore plays a key role in the Earth system.« less
Aaron, Jesse S.; Oh, Junghwan; Larson, Timothy A.; Kumar, Sonia; Milner, Thomas E.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.
We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.
Kathpalia, Sujata Surinder; Heah, Carmel
Much of the work in academic writing has focused on the cognitive rather than the affective and social aspects involved in project-based writing. Emphasis in past research has been on skills and processes of writing rather than on affective factors such as motivation, attitudes, feelings or social factors involving intrapersonal and interpersonal…
Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu
Enzymatic saccharification of cellulose is a key step in conversion of plant biomass to advanced biofuel and chemicals. Many substrate-related factors affect saccharification. Rather than examining the role of each individual factor on overall saccharification efficiency, this study examined how each factor affects the three basic processes of a heterogeneous...
Binnenkade, Lucas; Teichmann, Laura; Thormann, Kai M
Prophages are ubiquitous elements within bacterial chromosomes and affect host physiology and ecology in multiple ways. We have previously demonstrated that phage-induced lysis is required for extracellular DNA (eDNA) release and normal biofilm formation in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Here, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms of prophage λSo spatiotemporal induction in biofilms. To this end, we used a functional fluorescence fusion to monitor λSo activation in various mutant backgrounds and in response to different physiological conditions. λSo induction occurred mainly in a subpopulation of filamentous cells in a strictly RecA-dependent manner, implicating oxidative stress-induced DNA damage as the major trigger. Accordingly, mutants affected in the oxidative stress response (ΔoxyR) or iron homeostasis (Δfur) displayed drastically increased levels of phage induction and abnormal biofilm formation, while planktonic cells were not or only marginally affected. To further investigate the role of oxidative stress, we performed a mutant screen and identified two independent amino acid substitutions in OxyR (T104N and L197P) that suppress induction of λSo by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). However, λSo induction was not suppressed in biofilms formed by both mutants, suggesting a minor role of intracellular H2O2 in this process. In contrast, addition of iron to biofilms strongly enhanced λSo induction and eDNA release, while both processes were significantly suppressed at low iron levels, strongly indicating that iron is the limiting factor. We conclude that uptake of iron during biofilm formation triggers λSo-mediated lysis of a subpopulation of cells, likely by an increase in iron-mediated DNA damage sensed by RecA. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F
The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance and abnormal glucose tolerance. Iron overload may lead also to insulin resistance and diabetes. Serum ferritin levels are increased in PCOS, especially when glucose tolerance is abnormal, suggesting mild iron overload. Factors contributing to potential iron overload in PCOS include the iron sparing effect of chronic menstrual dysfunction, insulin resistance, and a decrease in hepcidin leading to increased iron absorption. Enhancement of erythropoiesis by androgen excess is unlikely, because soluble transferrin receptor levels are not increased in PCOS. Future venues of research should address the long-term effects of PCOS treatment on iron overload and, conversely, the possible effects of iron lowering strategies on the glucose tolerance of patients with PCOS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leshuk, Tim; de Oliveira Livera, Diogo; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Vijayaraghavan, Sucharita; Wong, Timothy; Gu, Frank
Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated as a byproduct of bitumen extraction in Canada's oil sands. Due to the water's toxicity, associated with dissolved acid extractable organics (AEO), especially naphthenic acids (NAs), along with base-neutral organics, OSPW may require treatment to enable safe discharge to the environment. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is a promising advanced oxidation process (AOP) for OSPW remediation, however, predicting treatment efficacy can be challenging due to the unique water chemistry of OSPW from different tailings ponds. The objective of this work was to study various factors affecting the kinetics of photocatalytic AEO degradation in OSPW. The rate of photocatalytic treatment varied significantly in two different OSPW sources, which could not be accounted for by differences in AEO composition, as studied by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The effects of inorganic water constituents were investigated using factorial and response surface experiments, which revealed that hydroxyl (HO) radical scavenging by iron (Fe 3+ ) and bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) inhibited the NA degradation rate. The effects of NA concentration and temperature on the treatment kinetics were also evaluated in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood and Arrhenius models; pH and temperature were identified as weak factors, while dissolved oxygen (DO) was critical to the photo-oxidation reaction. Accounting for all of these variables, a general empirical kinetic expression is proposed, enabling prediction of photocatalytic treatment performance in diverse sources of OSPW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Georg, Jens; Kostova, Gergana; Vuorijoki, Linda; Schön, Verena; Kadowaki, Taro; Huokko, Tuomas; Baumgartner, Desirée; Müller, Maximilian; Klähn, Stephan; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut; Hihara, Yukako; Futschik, Matthias E; Aro, Eva-Mari; Hess, Wolfgang R
Oxygenic photosynthesis crucially depends on proteins that possess Fe 2+ or Fe/S complexes as co-factors or prosthetic groups. Here, we show that the small regulatory RNA (sRNA) IsaR1 (Iron-Stress-Activated RNA 1) plays a pivotal role in acclimation to low-iron conditions. The IsaR1 regulon consists of more than 15 direct targets, including Fe 2+ -containing proteins involved in photosynthetic electron transfer, detoxification of anion radicals, citrate cycle, and tetrapyrrole biogenesis. IsaR1 is essential for maintaining physiological levels of Fe/S cluster biogenesis proteins during iron deprivation. Consequently, IsaR1 affects the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to iron starvation at three levels: (1) directly, via posttranscriptional repression of gene expression; (2) indirectly, via suppression of pigment; and (3) Fe/S cluster biosynthesis. Homologs of IsaR1 are widely conserved throughout the cyanobacterial phylum. We conclude that IsaR1 is a critically important riboregulator. These findings provide a new perspective for understanding the regulation of iron homeostasis in photosynthetic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chilton, C H; Pickering, D S; Freeman, J
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may affect quality of life, leaving patients in an rCDI cycle and dependant on antibiotic therapy. To discuss the importance of microbiologic factors in the development of rCDI. Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection' and further references cited within these articles. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that CDI and rCDI risk factors are similar. Development of rCDI is attendant on many factors, including immune status or function, comorbidities and concomitant treatments. Studies suggest that poor bacterial diversity is correlated with clinical rCDI. Narrow-spectrum gut microflora-sparing antimicrobials (e.g. surotomycin, cadazolid, ridinilazole) are in development for CDI treatment, while microbiota therapeutics (faecal microbiota transplantation, nontoxigenic C. difficile, stool substitutes) are increasingly being explored. rCDI can only occur when viable C. difficile spores are present, either within the gut lumen after infection or when reacquired from the environment. C. difficile spore germination can be influenced by gut environmental factors resulting from dysbiosis, and spore outgrowth may be affected stage by some antimicrobials (e.g. fidaxomicin, ramoplanin, oritavancin). rCDI is a significant challenge for healthcare professionals, requiring a multifaceted approach; optimized infection control to minimize reinfection; C. difficile-targeted antibiotics to minimize dysbiosis; and gut microflora restoration to promote colonization resistance. These elements should be informed by our understanding of the microbiologic factors involved in both C. difficile itself and the gut microbiome. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael
Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892
Williams, Rachel; Buchheit, Cassandra L.; Berman, Nancy E. J.; LeVine, Steven M.
Iron, an essential element used for a multitude of biochemical reactions, abnormally accumulates in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The mechanisms of abnormal iron deposition in MS are not fully understood, nor do we know whether these deposits have adverse consequences, i.e., contribute to pathogenesis. With some exceptions, excess levels of iron are represented concomitantly in multiple deep gray matter structures often with bilateral representation, while in white matter pathological iron deposits are usually located at sites of inflammation that are associated with veins. These distinct spatial patterns suggest disparate mechanisms of iron accumulation between these regions. Iron has been postulated to promote disease activity in MS by various means: 1) iron can amplify the activated state of microglia resulting in the increased production of proinflammatory mediators; 2) excess intracellular iron deposits could promote mitochondria dysfunction; and 3) improperly managed iron could catalyze the production of damaging reactive oxygen species. The pathological consequences of abnormal iron deposits may be dependent on the affected brain region and/or accumulation process. Here we review putative mechanisms of enhanced iron uptake in MS and address the likely roles of iron in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:22004421
Tajima, Soichiro; Ikeda, Yasumasa; Enomoto, Hideaki; Imao, Mizuki; Horinouchi, Yuya; Izawa-Ishizawa, Yuki; Kihira, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Licht; Ishizawa, Keisuke; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Tamaki, Toshiaki
Angiotensin II (ANG II) has been shown to affect iron metabolism through alteration of iron transporters, leading to increased cellular and tissue iron contents. Serum ferritin, a marker of body iron storage, is elevated in various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. However, the associated changes in iron absorption and the mechanism underlying increased iron content in a hypertensive state remain unclear. The C57BL6/J mice were treated with ANG II to generate a model of hypertension. Mice were divided into three groups: (1) control, (2) ANG II-treated, and (3) ANG II-treated and ANG II receptor blocker (ARB)-administered (ANG II-ARB) groups. Mice treated with ANG II showed increased serum ferritin levels compared to vehicle-treated control mice. In ANG II-treated mice, duodenal divalent metal transporter-1 and ferroportin (FPN) expression levels were increased and hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression and serum hepcidin concentration were reduced. The mRNA expression of bone morphogenetic protein 6 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha, which are regulators of hepcidin, was also down-regulated in the livers of ANG II-treated mice. In terms of tissue iron content, macrophage iron content and renal iron content were increased by ANG II treatment, and these increases were associated with reduced expression of transferrin receptor 1 and FPN and increased expression of ferritin. These changes induced by ANG II treatment were ameliorated by the administration of an ARB. Angiotensin II (ANG II) altered the expression of duodenal iron transporters and reduced hepcidin levels, contributing to the alteration of body iron distribution.
Harahuc, Lesia; Lizama, Hector M.; Suzuki, Isamu
The oxidation of either ferrous iron or sulfur by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was selectively inhibited or controlled by various anions, inhibitors, and osmotic pressure. Iron oxidation was more sensitive than sulfur oxidation to inhibition by chloride, phosphate, and nitrate at low concentrations (below 0.1 M) and also to inhibition by azide and cyanide. Sulfur oxidation was more sensitive than iron oxidation to the inhibitory effect of high osmotic pressure. These differences were evident not only between iron oxidation by iron-grown cells and sulfur oxidation by sulfur-grown cells but also between the iron and sulfur oxidation activities of the same iron-grown cells. Growth experiments with ferrous iron or sulfur as an oxidizable substrate confirmed the higher sensitivity of iron oxidation to inhibition by phosphate, chloride, azide, and cyanide. Sulfur oxidation was actually stimulated by 50 mM phosphate or chloride. Leaching of Fe and Zn from pyrite (FeS2) and sphalerite (ZnS) by T. ferrooxidans was differentially affected by phosphate and chloride, which inhibited the solubilization of Fe without significantly affecting the solubilization of Zn. PMID:10698768
Meloni, Antonella; Puliyel, Mammen; Pepe, Alessia; Berdoukas, Vasili; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C
Chronically transfused sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have lower risk of myocardial iron overload (MIO) than comparably transfused thalassemia major (TM) patients. However, cardioprotection is incomplete. We present the clinical characteristics of six patients who have prospectively developed MIO, to identify potential risk factors for cardiac iron accumulation. From 2002 to 2011, cardiac, hepatic, and pancreatic iron overload were assessed by R2 and R2 * magnetic resonance imaging techniques in 201 chronic transfused SCD patients as part of their clinical care. At the time, they developed MIO, five of six patients had been on chronic transfusion for more than 11 years; only one was on exchange transfusion. The time to MIO was correlated with reticulocyte and hemoglobin S percentages. All patients had qualitatively poor chelation compliance (<50%). All patients had serum ferritin levels >4600 ng/ml and liver iron concentration >22 mg/g. Pancreatic R2 * was >100 Hz in every patient studied (5/6). Cardiac iron rose proportionally to pancreas R2 *, with all patients having pancreas R2 *>100 Hz when cardiac iron was present. MIO had a threshold relationship with liver iron that was higher than observed in TM patients. In conclusion, MIO occurs in a small percentage of chronically transfused SCD patients and is only associated with exceptionally poor control of total body iron stores. Duration of chronic transfusion is clearly important but other factors, such as levels of effective erythropoiesis, appear to contribute to cardiac risk. Pancreas R2 * can serve as a valuable screening tool for cardiac iron in SCD patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vinchi, Francesca; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Da Silva, Milene C.; Balla, György; Balla, József; Jeney, Viktória
Iron accumulates in human atherosclerotic lesions but whether it is a cause or simply a downstream consequence of the atheroma formation has been an open question for decades. According to the so called “iron hypothesis,” iron is believed to be detrimental for the cardiovascular system, thus promoting atherosclerosis development and progression. Iron, in its catalytically active form, can participate in the generation of reactive oxygen species and induce lipid-peroxidation, triggering endothelial activation, smooth muscle cell proliferation and macrophage activation; all of these processes are considered to be proatherogenic. On the other hand, the observation that hemochromatotic patients, affected by life-long iron overload, do not show any increased incidence of atherosclerosis is perceived as the most convincing evidence against the “iron hypothesis.” Epidemiological studies and data from animal models provided conflicting evidences about the role of iron in atherogenesis. Therefore, more careful studies are needed in which issues like the source and the compartmentalization of iron will be addressed. This review article summarizes what we have learnt about iron and atherosclerosis from epidemiological studies, animal models and cellular systems and highlights the rather contributory than innocent role of iron in atherogenesis. PMID:24847266
Brittenham, G M
Phlebotomy of a unit of blood produces a loss of 200 to 250 mg of iron in haemoglobin. Because of physiological differences in iron balance between women of childbearing age and men, the loss of similar amounts of iron at donation has divergent consequences for committed donors. Women of childbearing age have an increased risk of iron deficiency if they donate more than one unit per year while men are usually able to maintain iron balance while donating four or more units of blood per year. Lack of iron is the most important medical reason for deferral from repeat donation and primarily affects women of childbearing age. Deferral of these women discourages them from further donation and may lead to their loss as donors. Provisions for blood donation should protect those who give blood from adverse consequences of their altruism. Safe and effective approaches to iron replacement after donation have been developed that can prevent iron deficiency in women who give blood repeatedly. Blood centres should consider incorporating programmes of iron replacement for women of childbearing age who give blood repeatedly to protect these donors against iron deficiency and to enhance their retention and commitment as dedicated donors.
Liu, Heng; Chen, Xiao; Xue, Wei; Chu, Chengchao; Liu, Yu; Tong, Haipeng; Du, Xuesong; Xie, Tian; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Weiguo
The highly infiltrative and invasive nature of glioma cells often leads to blurred tumor margins, resulting in incomplete tumor resection and tumor recurrence. Accurate detection and precise delineation of glioma help in preoperative delineation, surgical planning and survival prediction. In this study, recombinant epidermal growth factor-like domain-1, derived from human coagulation factor VII, was conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for targeted glioma magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The synthesized EGF1-EGFP-IONPs exhibited excellent targeting ability toward tissue factor (TF)-positive U87MG cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, and demonstrated persistent and efficient MR contrast enhancement up to 12 h for preclinical glioma models with high targeting specificity in vivo. They hold great potential for clinical translation and developing targeted theranostics against brain glioma.
Beghoura, Houda; Gorgues, Thomas; Aumont, Olivier; Planquette, Hélène
Iron is known to regulate the marine primary production and to impact the structure of ecosystems. Indeed, iron is the limiting nutrient for the phytoplankton growth over about 30% of the global ocean. However, the nature of the external sources of iron to the ocean and their quantification remain uncertain. Among these external sources, the sediment sources have been recently shown to be underestimated. Besides, since the operationally defined dissolved iron (which is the sum of truly dissolved and colloidal iron) was traditionally assumed to be the only form available to phytoplankton and bacteria, most studies have focused on the supply of dissolved iron to the ocean, the role of the particulate fraction of iron being largely ignored. This traditional view has been recently challenged, noticeably, by observational evidences. Indeed, in situ observations have shown that large amounts of particulate iron are being resuspended from continental margins to the open ocean thanks to fine grained particles' transport over long distances. A fraction of this particulate iron may dissolve and thereby fuel the phytoplankton growth. The magnitude of the sedimentary sources of particulate iron and the releasing processes affecting this iron phase are not yet well constrained or quantified. As a consequence, the role of sedimentary particulate iron in the biogeochemical cycles is still unclear despite its potentially major widespread importance. Here, we propose a modeling exercise to assess the first order impacts of this newly considered particulate sedimentary iron on global ocean biogeochemistry. We designed global experiments with a coupled dynamical-biogeochemical model (NEMO-PISCES). First, a control simulation that includes only a sediment source of iron in the dissolved phase has been run. Then, this control simulation is being compared with simulations, in which we include a sediment source of iron in both phases (dissolved as well as particulate). Those latter
Melníková, L; Petrenko, V I; Avdeev, M V; Garamus, V M; Almásy, L; Ivankov, O I; Bulavin, L A; Mitróová, Z; Kopčanský, P
Synthetic biological macromolecule of magnetoferritin containing an iron oxide core inside a protein shell (apoferritin) is prepared with different content of iron. Its structure in aqueous solution is analysed by small-angle synchrotron X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering. The loading factor (LF) defined as the average number of iron atoms per protein is varied up to LF=800. With an increase of the LF, the scattering curves exhibit a relative increase in the total scattered intensity, a partial smearing and a shift of the match point in the SANS contrast variation data. The analysis shows an increase in the polydispersity of the proteins and a corresponding effective increase in the relative content of magnetic material against the protein moiety of the shell with the LF growth. At LFs above ∼150, the apoferritin shell undergoes structural changes, which is strongly indicative of the fact that the shell stability is affected by iron oxide presence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nie, Nicole X.; Dauphas, Nicolas; Greenwood, Richard C.
Banded iron formations (BIFs) contain appreciable amounts of ferric iron (Fe3+). The mechanism by which ferrous iron (Fe2+) was oxidized into Fe3+ in an atmosphere that was globally anoxic is highly debated. Of the three scenarios that have been proposed to explain BIF formation, photo-oxidation by UV photons is the only one that does not involve life (the other two are oxidation by O2 produced by photosynthesis, and anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby Fe2+ is directly used as electron donor in place of water). We experimentally investigated iron and oxygen isotope fractionation imparted by iron photo-oxidation at a pH of 7.3. The iron isotope fractionation between precipitated Fe3+-bearing lepidocrocite and dissolved Fe2+ follows a Rayleigh distillation with an instantaneous 56Fe/54Fe fractionation factor of + 1.2 ‰. Such enrichment in the heavy isotopes of iron is consistent with the values measured in BIFs. We also investigated the nature of the mass-fractionation law that governs iron isotope fractionation in the photo-oxidation experiments (i.e., the slope of the δ56Fe-δ57Fe relationship). The experimental run products follow a mass-dependent law corresponding to the high-T equilibrium limit. The fact that a ∼3.8 Gyr old BIF sample (IF-G) from Isua (Greenland) falls on the same fractionation line confirms that iron photo-oxidation in the surface layers of the oceans was a viable pathway to BIF formation in the Archean, when the atmosphere was largely transparent to UV photons. Our experiments allow us to estimate the quantum yield of the photo-oxidation process (∼0.07 iron atom oxidized per photon absorbed). This yield is used to model iron oxidation on early Mars. As the photo-oxidation proceeds, the aqueous medium becomes more acidic, which slows down the reaction by changing the speciation of iron to species that are less efficient at absorbing UV-photons. Iron photo-oxidation in centimeter to meter-deep water ponds would take months to years to
Poulin, Brett A; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R
Iron is a source of interference in the spectroscopic analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM); however, its effects on commonly employed ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) light adsorption and fluorescence measurements are poorly defined. Here, we describe the effects of iron(II) and iron(III) on the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence of solutions containing two DOM fractions and two surface water samples. In each case, regardless of DOM composition, UV-vis absorption increased linearly with increasing iron(III). Correction factors were derived using iron(III) absorption coefficients determined at wavelengths commonly used to characterize DOM. Iron(III) addition increased specific UV absorbances (SUVA) and decreased the absorption ratios (E2:E3) and spectral slope ratios (SR) of DOM samples. Both iron(II) and iron(III) quenched DOM fluorescence at pH 6.7. The degree and region of fluorescence quenching varied with the iron:DOC concentration ratio, DOM composition, and pH. Regions of the fluorescence spectra associated with greater DOM conjugation were more susceptible to iron quenching, and DOM fluorescence indices were sensitive to the presence of both forms of iron. Analyses of the excitation-emission matrices using a 7- and 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model showed low PARAFAC sensitivity to iron addition.
Poulin, Brett; Ryan, Joseph N.; Aiken, George R.
Iron is a source of interference in the spectroscopic analysis of dissolved organic matter (DOM); however, its effects on commonly employed ultraviolet and visible (UV–vis) light adsorption and fluorescence measurements are poorly defined. Here, we describe the effects of iron(II) and iron(III) on the UV–vis absorption and fluorescence of solutions containing two DOM fractions and two surface water samples. In each case, regardless of DOM composition, UV–vis absorption increased linearly with increasing iron(III). Correction factors were derived using iron(III) absorption coefficients determined at wavelengths commonly used to characterize DOM. Iron(III) addition increased specific UV absorbances (SUVA) and decreased the absorption ratios (E2:E3) and spectral slope ratios (SR) of DOM samples. Both iron(II) and iron(III) quenched DOM fluorescence at pH 6.7. The degree and region of fluorescence quenching varied with the iron:DOC concentration ratio, DOM composition, and pH. Regions of the fluorescence spectra associated with greater DOM conjugation were more susceptible to iron quenching, and DOM fluorescence indices were sensitive to the presence of both forms of iron. Analyses of the excitation–emission matrices using a 7- and 13-component parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model showed low PARAFAC sensitivity to iron addition.
Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba
Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.
Pardo Andreu, G L; Inada, N M; Vercesi, A E; Curti, C
One hypothesis for the etiology of cell damage arising from iron overload is that its excess selectively affects mitochondria. Here we tested the effects of acute iron overload on liver mitochondria isolated from rats subjected to a single dose of i.p. 500 mg/kg iron-dextran. The treatment increased the levels of iron in mitochondria (from 21 +/- 4 to 130 +/- 7 nmol/mg protein) and caused both lipid peroxidation and glutathione oxidation. The mitochondria of iron-treated rats showed lower respiratory control ratio in association with higher resting respiration. The mitochondrial uncoupling elicited by iron-treatment did not affect the phosphorylation efficiency or the ATP levels, suggesting that uncoupling is a mitochondrial protective mechanism against acute iron overload. Therefore, the reactive oxygen species (ROS)/H+ leak couple, functioning as a mitochondrial redox homeostatic mechanism could play a protective role in the acutely iron-loaded mitochondria.
Lenartowicz, Małgorzata; Starzyński, Rafał R.; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Grzmil, Paweł; Bednarz, Aleksandra; Ogórek, Mateusz; Pierzchała, Olga; Staroń, Robert; Gajowiak, Anna; Lipiński, Paweł
The biological interaction between copper and iron is best exemplified by the decreased activity of multicopper ferroxidases under conditions of copper deficiency that limits the availability of iron for erythropoiesis. However, little is known about how copper deficiency affects iron homeostasis through alteration of the activity of other copper-containing proteins, not directly connected with iron metabolism, such as superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). This antioxidant enzyme scavenges the superoxide anion, a reactive oxygen species contributing to the toxicity of iron via the Fenton reaction. Here, we analyzed changes in the systemic iron metabolism using an animal model of Menkes disease: copper-deficient mosaic mutant mice with dysfunction of the ATP7A copper transporter. We found that the erythrocytes of these mutants are copper-deficient, display decreased SOD1 activity/expression and have cell membrane abnormalities. In consequence, the mosaic mice show evidence of haemolysis accompanied by haptoglobin-dependent elimination of haemoglobin (Hb) from the circulation, as well as the induction of haem oxygenase 1 (HO1) in the liver and kidney. Moreover, the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis is strongly affected in mosaic mice. These findings indicate that haemolysis is an additional pathogenic factor in a mouse model of Menkes diseases and provides evidence of a new indirect connection between copper deficiency and iron metabolism. PMID:25247420
Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.
Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846
Basora, M; Deulofeu, R; Salazar, F; Quinto, L; Gomar, C
A poor preoperative haemoglobin (Hb) status is frequently encountered among adult patients scheduled for corrective surgery of the locomotive system, representing the main risk factor for blood transfusion. The soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) has become a highly specific parameter for the detection of iron deficits as it can differentiate between iron deficiency anaemia and anaemia of chronic disease, because of the lack of effect by associated inflammation, unlike ferritin. The objectives of this study were to evaluate patients with the prevalence of risk for transfusion, the effect of inflammation on ferritin (F) values and functional iron deficiency in elderly patients with advanced degenerative arthropathy scheduled for hip or knee replacement. This observational, prospective study included patients over 50 years, operated for hip or knee replacements between April and June 2004. Of 218 patients studied, 87 (39%) presented with Hb levels between 10 and 13 g/dl. The prevalence of functional iron deficit was 27% (sTfR > 1.76 mg/l), while only 8.6% of patients displayed F levels below normal. As expected, C-reactive protein levels were elevated in 24.8% of patients and erythrocyte sedimentation rate was elevated in 50%. These inflammatory markers did not correlate with levels of either F or sTfR. Multiple factors can affect F levels, such as the inflammatory status of osteoarthritis in the elderly, obesity, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs therapy and low physical performance. As sTfR is not affected by inflammation, it has emerged as a primary parameter for the evaluation of iron status during preoperative assessment among patients scheduled for arthroplasty surgery. Our data strongly suggest that sTfR measurement contributes to improve patient management.
Hale, Laura P.; Kant, Erin Potts; Greer, Paula K.; Foster, W. Michael
The incidence and severity of allergic asthma have increased over the last century, particularly in the United States and other developed countries. This time frame was characterized by marked environmental changes, including enhanced hygiene, decreased pathogen exposure, increased exposure to inhaled pollutants, and changes in diet. Although iron is well-known to participate in critical biologic processes such as oxygen transport, energy generation, and host defense, iron deficiency remains common in the United States and world-wide. The purpose of these studies was to determine how dietary iron supplementation affected the severity of allergic inflammation in the lungs, using a classic model of IgE-mediated allergy in mice. Results showed that mice fed an iron-supplemented diet had markedly decreased allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophil infiltration, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, compared with control mice on an unsupplemented diet that generated mild iron deficiency but not anemia. In vitro, iron supplementation decreased mast cell granule content, IgE-triggered degranulation, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines post-degranulation. Taken together, these studies show that iron supplementation can decrease the severity of allergic inflammation in the lung, potentially via multiple mechanisms that affect mast cell activity. Further studies are indicated to determine the potential of iron supplementation to modulate the clinical severity of allergic diseases in humans. PMID:23029172
Jonefjäll, Börje; Simrén, Magnus; Lasson, Anders; Öhman, Lena; Strid, Hans
Background Patients with ulcerative colitis often report fatigue. Objectives To investigate prevalence of and risk factors for fatigue in patients with ulcerative colitis with active disease and during deep remission. Methods In this cross-sectional study, disease activity was evaluated with endoscopy and calprotectin, and patients were classified as having active disease (n = 133) or being in deep remission (n = 155). Blood samples were analysed to assess anaemia, iron deficiency and systemic immune activity. Patients completed questionnaires to assess fatigue, psychological distress, gastrointestinal symptoms and quality of life. Results The prevalence of high fatigue (general fatigue ≥ 13, Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory) was 40% in the full study population. Among patients with high fatigue, female gender and iron deficiency were more prevalent, and these patients had more severe disease activity and reported higher levels of anxiety, depression and decreased quality of life compared with patients with no/mild fatigue. A logistic regression analysis identified probable psychiatric disorder (odds ratio (OR) (confidence interval) 6.1 (3.1–12.2)), iron deficiency (OR 2.5 (1.2–5.1)), active disease (OR 2.2 (1.2–3.9)) and female gender (OR 2.1 (1.1–3.7)) as independent risk factors for high fatigue. Similar results were found concerning psychological distress, gender and quality of life, but immune markers did not differ in patients in deep remission with high vs. no/mild fatigue. Conclusions Probable psychiatric disorder, iron deficiency, active disease and female gender are independent risk factors for high fatigue in patients with ulcerative colitis. Low-grade immune activity does not seem to be the cause of fatigue among patients in deep remission. PMID:29435325
Jin, Jian; Zhao, Wei-Rong; Xu, Xin-Hua; Hao, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Yong; He, Ping; Zhou, Mi
Steel manufacturing byproducts and commercial iron powders were tested in the treatment of Ni(2+)-contaminated water. Ni2+ is a priority pollutant of some soils and groundwater. The use of zero-valent iron, which can reduce Ni2+ to its neural form appears to be an alternative approach for the remediation of Ni(2+)-contaminated sites. Our experimental data show that the removal efficiencies of Ni2+ were 95.15% and 94.68% at a metal to solution ratio of 20 g/L for commercial iron powders and the steel manufacturing byproducts in 60 min at room temperature, respectively. The removal efficiency reached 98.20% when the metal to solution ratio was 40 g/L for commercial iron powders. Furthermore, we found that the removal efficiency was also largely affected by other factors such as the pHs of the treated water, the length of time for the metal to be in contact with the Ni(2+)-contaminated water, initial concentrations of metal solutions, particle sizes and the amount of iron powders. Surprisingly, the reaction temperature appeared to have little effect on the removal efficiency. Our study opens the way to further optimize the reaction conditions of in situ remediation of Ni2+ or other heavy metals on contaminated sites.
Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard
Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gaensly, Fernanda; Picheth, Geraldo; Brand, Debora; Bonfim, Tania M.B.
Yeasts can be enriched with microelements, including iron; however, special physicochemical conditions are required to formulate a culture media that promotes both yeast growth and iron uptake. Different iron sources do not affect biomass formation; however, considering efficacy, cost, stability, and compatibility with Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolism, ferrous sulphate is recommended. PMID:25242932
Chin, Dawn; Huebbe, Patricia; Frank, Jan; Rimbach, Gerald; Pallauf, Kathrin
Curcumin has been shown to have many potentially health beneficial properties in vitro and in animal models with clinical studies on the toxicity of curcumin reporting no major side effects. However, curcumin may chelate dietary trace elements and could thus potentially exert adverse effects. Here, we investigated the effects of a 6 month dietary supplementation with 0.2% curcumin on iron, zinc, and copper status in C57BL/6J mice. Compared to non-supplemented control mice, we observed a significant reduction in iron, but not zinc and copper stores, in the liver and the spleen, as well as strongly suppressed liver hepcidin and ferritin expression in the curcumin-supplemented mice. The expression of the iron-importing transport proteins divalent metal transporter 1 and transferrin receptor 1 was induced, while hepatic and splenic inflammatory markers were not affected in the curcumin-fed mice. The mRNA expression of other putative target genes of curcumin, including the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 and haem oxygenase 1 did not differ between the groups. Most of the published animal trials with curcumin-feeding have not reported adverse effects on iron status or the spleen. However, it is possible that long-term curcumin supplementation and a Western-type diet may aggravate iron deficiency. Therefore, our findings show that further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of curcumin supplementation on iron status. PMID:24634837
Salovaara, Susan; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie; Andlid, Thomas
It has previously been suggested that organic acids enhance iron absorption. We have studied the effect of nine organic acids on the absorption of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in the human epithelial cell line Caco-2. The effect obtained was dose-dependent, and the greatest increase (43-fold) was observed for tartaric acid (4 mmol/L) on Fe(III) (10 micromol/L). Tartaric, malic, succinic, and fumaric acids enhanced Fe(II) and Fe(III) uptake. Citric and oxalic acid, on the other hand, inhibited Fe(II) uptake but enhanced Fe(III) uptake. Propionic and acetic acid increased the Fe(II) uptake, but had no effect on Fe(III) uptake. Our results show a correlation between absorption pattern and chemical structure; e.g. hydroxyl groups, in addition to carboxyls, were connected with a positive influence. The results may be important for elucidating factors affecting iron bioavailability in the small intestine and for the development of foods with improved iron bioavailability.
Evstatiev, Rayko; Bukaty, Adam; Jimenez, Kristine; Kulnigg-Dabsch, Stefanie; Surman, Lidia; Schmid, Werner; Eferl, Robert; Lippert, Kathrin; Scheiber-Mojdehkar, Barbara; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Khare, Vineeta; Gasche, Christoph
Iron deficiency is a common cause of reactive thrombocytosis, however, the exact pathways have not been revealed. Here we aimed to study the mechanisms behind iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis. Within few weeks, iron-depleted diet caused iron deficiency in young Sprague-Dawley rats, as reflected by a drop in hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, hepatic iron content and hepcidin mRNA in the liver. Thrombocytosis established in parallel. Moreover, platelets produced in iron deficient animals displayed a higher mean platelet volume and increased aggregation. Bone marrow studies revealed subtle alterations that are suggestive of expansion of megakaryocyte progenitors, an increase in megakaryocyte ploidy and accelerated megakaryocyte differentiation. Iron deficiency did not alter the production of hematopoietic growth factors such as thrombopoietin, interleukin 6 or interleukin 11. Megakaryocytic cell lines grown in iron-depleted conditions exhibited reduced proliferation but increased ploidy and cell size. Our data suggest that iron deficiency increases megakaryopoietic differentiation and alters platelet phenotype without changes in megakaryocyte growth factors, specifically TPO. Iron deficiency-induced thrombocytosis may have evolved to maintain or increase the coagulation capacity in conditions with chronic bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Huang, Chuanshu; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Qi; Huang, Xi
Activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) are two important transcription factors responsible for the regulation of cytokines, which are involved in cell proliferation and inflammation. Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is an occupational lung disease that may be related to chronic inflammation caused by coal dust exposure. In the present study, we demonstrate that coal from the Pennsylvania (PA) coalmine region, which has a high prevalence of CWP, can activate both AP-1 and NFAT in JB6 mouse epidermal cells. In contrast, coal from the Utah (UT) coalmine region, which has a low prevalence of CWP, has no such effects. The PA coal stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinases, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. The increase in AP-1 by the PA coal was completely eliminated by the pretreatment of cells with PD98059, a specific MAPK kinase inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor, further confirming that the PA coal-induced AP-1 activation is mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways. Deferoxamine (DFO), an iron chelator, synergistically enhanced the PA coal-induced AP-1 activity, but inhibited NFAT activity. For comparison, cells were treated with ferrous sulfate and/or DFO. We have found that iron transactivated both AP-1 and NFAT, and DFO further enhanced iron-induced AP-1 activation but inhibited NFAT. These results indicate that activation of AP-1 and NFAT by the PA coal is through bioavailable iron present in the coal. These data are in agreement with our previous findings that the prevalence of CWP correlates well with levels of bioavailable iron in coals from various mining regions. PMID:12397016
García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M
Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO 3 - ) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L 16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L 16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N 2 O), methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO 3 - addition were the main factors affecting N 2 O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO 3 - and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.
García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M
Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207
Pereira, Dora I A; Bruggraber, Sylvaine F A; Faria, Nuno; Poots, Lynsey K; Tagmount, Mani A; Aslam, Mohamad F; Frazer, David M; Vulpe, Chris D; Anderson, Gregory J; Powell, Jonathan J
Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide with substantial impact on health and economy. Current treatments predominantly rely on soluble iron which adversely affects the gastrointestinal tract. We have developed organic acid-modified Fe(III) oxo-hydroxide nanomaterials, here termed nano Fe(III), as alternative safe iron delivery agents. Nano Fe(III) absorption in humans correlated with serum iron increase (P < 0.0001) and direct in vitro cellular uptake (P = 0.001), but not with gastric solubility. The most promising preparation (iron hydroxide adipate tartrate: IHAT) showed ~80% relative bioavailability to Fe(II) sulfate in humans and, in a rodent model, IHAT was equivalent to Fe(II) sulfate at repleting haemoglobin. Furthermore, IHAT did not accumulate in the intestinal mucosa and, unlike Fe(II) sulfate, promoted a beneficial microbiota. In cellular models, IHAT was 14-fold less toxic than Fe(II) sulfate/ascorbate. Nano Fe(III) manifests minimal acute intestinal toxicity in cellular and murine models and shows efficacy at treating iron deficiency anaemia. This paper reports the development of novel nano-Fe(III) formulations, with the goal of achieving a magnitude less intestinal toxicity and excellent bioavailability in the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Out of the tested preparations, iron hydroxide adipate tartrate met the above criteria, and may become an important tool in addressing this common condition. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun
In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.
Dong, Y.; Sanford, R. A.; Boyanov, M.; Kemner, K. M.; Flynn, T. M.; O'Loughlin, E. J.; George, S.; Fouke, K.; Fouke, B. W.
Iron reduction by dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria (DIRB), coupled with the oxidation of organic compounds or H2, causes formation of post-depositional (diagenetic) Fe(II)-containing minerals. Previous studies on the composition, distribution and precipitation rates of secondary minerals during microbial iron reduction have primarily focused on ferrihydrite reduction by Shewanella spp. However, comparatively little is known about these processes by a variety of other DIRB and the effect of specific environmental factors on Fe(II)-bearing mineral diagenesis. Here we examine how environmental conditions influence the reduction of ferric iron minerals by Orenia metallireducens strain Z6, a DIRB from the phylum Firmicutes. This includes the effects of: (1) pH at 6.5-8.5; (2) temperature at 22-50 °C; (3) salinity at 2-20% NaCl; (4) solution chemistry of phosphate and sulfate; (5) electron shuttles (e.g., anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS)); and (6) iron oxides, including ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite, and magnetite. For a total of 19 culturing conditions, we measured ferrous iron produced over time using the ferrozine assay and formation of secondary minerals using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (Fe-edge XANES and EXAFS). Results show that both the rate and extent of DIRB reduction of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite vastly exceeded those of the more crystalline minerals. The microscopic and spectroscopic analyses indicate diversity in the composition and relative abundance of Fe(II)-containing minerals such as green rust, siderite, magnetite and/or vivianite under the different experimental conditions. However, the secondary mineralization products cannot be attributed to either the extent or kinetics of Fe(II) generation. Instead, the composition of these digenetic minerals resulted from the intricate interplay of
Matak, Pavle; Matak, Andrija; Moustafa, Sarah; Aryal, Dipendra K.; Benner, Eric J.; Wetsel, William; Andrews, Nancy C.
Disrupted brain iron homeostasis is a common feature of neurodegenerative disease. To begin to understand how neuronal iron handling might be involved, we focused on dopaminergic neurons and asked how inactivation of transport proteins affected iron homeostasis in vivo in mice. Loss of the cellular iron exporter, ferroportin, had no apparent consequences. However, loss of transferrin receptor 1, involved in iron uptake, caused neuronal iron deficiency, age-progressive degeneration of a subset of dopaminergic neurons, and motor deficits. There was gradual depletion of dopaminergic projections in the striatum followed by death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Damaged mitochondria accumulated, and gene expression signatures indicated attempted axonal regeneration, a metabolic switch to glycolysis, oxidative stress, and the unfolded protein response. We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. PMID:26929359
Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas
As shown in previous studies vegetarians and especially vegans are at risk for iron deficiency. Our study evaluated the iron status of German female vegans. In this cross-sectional study, the dietary intakes of 75 vegan women were assessed by two 9-day food frequency questionnaires. The iron status was analyzed on the basis of blood parameters. Mean daily iron intake was higher than recommended by the German Nutrition Society. Still 42% of the female vegans < 50 years (young women, YW) had a daily iron intake of < 18 mg/day, which is the recommended allowance by the US Food and Nutrition Board. The main dietary sources of iron were vegetables, fruits, cereals and cereal products. Median serum ferritin concentrations were 14 ng/ml for YW and 28 ng/ml for women > or = 50 years (old women, OW). In all, 40% (tri-index model (TIM) 20%) of the YW and 12% (TIM 12%) of the OW were considered iron-deficient based on either serum ferritin levels of < 12 ng/ml or a TIM. Only 3 women had blood parameters which are defined as iron deficiency anemia. Correlations between serum ferritin levels and dietary factors were not found. Although the mean iron intake was above the recommended level, 40% (TIM 20%) of the YW were considered iron-deficient. It is suggested that especially YM on a vegan diet should have their iron status monitored and should consider taking iron supplements in case of a marginal status. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Rawson, Joey; Prommer, Henning; Siade, Adam; Carr, Jackson; Berg, Michael; Davis, James A; Fendorf, Scott
Millions of individuals worldwide are chronically exposed to hazardous concentrations of arsenic from contaminated drinking water. Despite massive efforts toward understanding the extent and underlying geochemical processes of the problem, numerical modeling and reliable predictions of future arsenic behavior remain a significant challenge. One of the key knowledge gaps concerns a refined understanding of the mechanisms that underlie arsenic mobilization, particularly under the onset of anaerobic conditions, and the quantification of the factors that affect this process. In this study, we focus on the development and testing of appropriate conceptual and numerical model approaches to represent and quantify the reductive dissolution of iron oxides, the concomitant release of sorbed arsenic, and the role of iron-mineral transformations. The initial model development in this study was guided by data and hypothesized processes from a previously reported,1 well-controlled column experiment in which arsenic desorption from ferrihydrite coated sands by variable loads of organic carbon was investigated. Using the measured data as constraints, we provide a quantitative interpretation of the processes controlling arsenic mobility during the microbial reductive transformation of iron oxides. Our analysis suggests that the observed arsenic behavior is primarily controlled by a combination of reductive dissolution of ferrihydrite, arsenic incorporation into or co-precipitation with freshly transformed iron minerals, and partial arsenic redox transformations.
Langmann, B.; Zaksek, K.; Hort, M. K.; Duggen, S.
Marine primary productivity (MPP) can be limited by the availability of macro-nutrients like nitrate and phosphate. In so-called ‘High-Nutrient-Low-Chlorophyll’ (HNLC) areas, macro-nutrient concentrations are high, but iron is the key biologically limiting micro-nutrient for primary production. Three major sources for iron supply into the ocean have been considered so far: upwelling of deep ocean water, advection from the continental margins and atmospheric deposition with aeolian dust deposition commonly assumed to dominate external iron supply to the open ocean. Iron supply to HNLC regions can affect climate relevant ocean-atmosphere exchanges of chemical trace species, e.g. organic carbon aerosols, DMS and CO2. Marine aerosols can act as efficient cloud condensation nuclei and significantly influence cloud properties and thus the Earth’s radiative budget via the indirect aerosol effects whereas a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 due to ocean fertilisation can have important implications for the global CO2 budget. Recent laboratory experiments suggest that material from volcanic eruptions such as ash may also affect the MPP through rapid iron-release on contact with seawater. Direct evidence, however, that volcanic activity can cause natural iron-fertilisation and MPP increase has been lacking so far. Here first evidence for a large-scale phytoplankton bloom in the NE Pacific resulting from volcanic ash fall after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano in August 2008 is presented. Atmospheric and oceanic conditions were favourable to generate this phytoplankton bloom. We present satellite observations to show the connection between volcanic ash fall and oceanic MPP. In addition, three-dimensional atmosphere/chemistry-aerosol model results are presented showing the atmospheric distribution of volcanic ash and its fall-out after the eruption of Kasatochi volcano. The amount of ash and that of iron attached to it is sufficient to explain measured seawater CO2 decrease
Matak, Pavle; Zumerle, Sara; Mastrogiannaki, Maria; El Balkhi, Souleiman; Delga, Stephanie; Mathieu, Jacques R. R.; Canonne-Hergaux, François; Poupon, Joel; Sharp, Paul A.; Vaulont, Sophie; Peyssonnaux, Carole
Iron and copper are essential trace metals, actively absorbed from the proximal gut in a regulated fashion. Depletion of either metal can lead to anemia. In the gut, copper deficiency can affect iron absorption through modulating the activity of hephaestin - a multi-copper oxidase required for optimal iron export from enterocytes. How systemic copper status regulates iron absorption is unknown. Mice were subjected to a nutritional copper deficiency-induced anemia regime from birth and injected with copper sulphate intraperitoneally to correct the anemia. Copper deficiency resulted in anemia, increased duodenal hypoxia and Hypoxia inducible factor 2α (HIF-2α) levels, a regulator of iron absorption. HIF-2α upregulation in copper deficiency appeared to be independent of duodenal iron or copper levels and correlated with the expression of iron transporters (Ferroportin - Fpn, Divalent Metal transporter – Dmt1) and ferric reductase – Dcytb. Alleviation of copper-dependent anemia with intraperitoneal copper injection resulted in down regulation of HIF-2α-regulated iron absorption genes in the gut. Our work identifies HIF-2α as an important regulator of iron transport machinery in copper deficiency. PMID:23555700
Kim, Sangshik; Jeong, Daeho; Sung, Hyokyung
A variety of factors affect the fatigue behavior of high-Mn steels, which include both extrinsic (i.e., loading type, R ratio, specimen type, surface condition, temperature, and environment) and intrinsic (i.e., chemical composition, grain size, microstructure, stacking fault energy) factors. Very often, the influence of extrinsic factors on the fatigue behavior is even greater than that of intrinsic factors, misleading the interpretation of fatigue data. The metallurgical factors influence the initiation and propagation behaviors of fatigue by altering the characteristics of slip that is prerequisite for fatigue damage accumulation. It is however not easy to separate the effect of each factor since they affect the fatigue behavior of high-Mn steels in complex and synergistic way. In this review, the fatigue data of high-Mn steels are summarized and the factors complicating the interpretation are discussed.
Larsen, M L V; Bertelsen, M; Pedersen, L J
This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs' resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate and pigs' earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area.
Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.
Iron and oxygen share a delicate partnership since both are indispensable for survival, but if the partnership becomes inadequate, this may rapidly terminate life. Virtually all cell components are directly or indirectly affected by cellular iron metabolism, which represents a complex, redox-based machinery that is controlled by, and essential to, metabolic requirements. Under conditions of increased oxidative stress—i.e., enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—however, this machinery may turn into a potential threat, the continued requirement for iron promoting adverse reactions such as the iron/H2O2-based formation of hydroxyl radicals, which exacerbate the initial pro-oxidant condition. This review will discuss the multifaceted homeodynamics of cellular iron management under normal conditions as well as in the context of oxidative stress. PMID:25970586
Fu, Hongbo; Lin, Jun; Shang, Guangfeng; Dong, Wenbo; Grassian, Vichi H; Carmichael, Gregory R; Li, Yan; Chen, Jianmin
In this study, iron solubility from six combustion source particles was investigated in acidic media. For comparison, a Chinese loess (CL) dust was also included. The solubility experiments confirmed that iron solubility was highly variable and dependent on particle sources. Under dark and light conditions, the combustion source particles dissolved faster and to a greater extent relative to CL. Oil fly ash (FA) yielded the highest soluble iron as compared to the other samples. Total iron solubility fractions measured in the dark after 12 h ranged between 2.9 and 74.1% of the initial iron content for the combustion-derived particles (Oil FA > biomass burning particles (BP) > coal FA). Ferrous iron represented the dominant soluble form of Fe in the suspensions of straw BP and corn BP, while total dissolved Fe presented mainly as ferric iron in the cases of oil FA, coal FA, and CL. Mössbauer measurements and TEM analysis revealed that Fe in oil FA was commonly presented as nanosized Fe(3)O(4) aggregates and Fe/S-rich particles. Highly labile source of Fe in corn BP could be originated from amorphous Fe form mixed internally with K-rich particles. However, Fe in coal FA was dominated by the more insoluble forms of both Fe-bearing aluminosilicate glass and Fe oxides. The data presented herein showed that iron speciation varies by source and is an important factor controlling iron solubility from these anthropogenic emissions in acidic solutions, suggesting that the variability of iron solubility from combustion-derived particles is related to the inherent character and origin of the aerosols themselves. Such information can be useful in improving our understanding on iron solubility from combustion aerosols when they undergo acidic processing during atmospheric transport.
Nguyen, Leonard T; Buse, Joshua D; Baskin, Leland; Sadrzadeh, S M Hossein; Naugler, Christopher
Serum iron is an important clinical test to help identify cases of iron deficiency or overload. Fluctuations caused by diurnal variation and diet are thought to influence test results, which may affect clinical patient management. We examined the impact of these preanalytical factors on iron concentrations in a large community-based cohort. Serum iron concentration, blood collection time, fasting duration, patient age and sex were obtained for community-based clinical testing from the Laboratory Information Service at Calgary Laboratory Services for the period of January 2011 to December 2015. A total of 276,307 individual test results were obtained. Iron levels were relatively high over a long period from 8:00 to 15:00. Mean concentrations were highest at blood collection times of 11:00 for adult men and 12:00 for adult women and children, however iron levels peaked as late as 15:00 in teenagers. With regard to fasting, iron levels required approximately 5h post-prandial time to return to a baseline, except for children and teenage females where no significant variation was seen until after 11h fasting. After 10h fasting, iron concentrations in all patient groups gradually increased to higher levels compared to earlier fasting times. Serum iron concentrations remain reasonably stable during most daytime hours for testing purposes. In adults, blood collection after 5 to 9h fasting provides a representative estimate of a patient's iron levels. For patients who have fasted overnight, i.e. ≥12h fasting, clinicians should be aware that iron concentrations may be elevated beyond otherwise usual levels. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Hudson, Benjamin H.; Hale, Andrew T.; Irving, Ryan P.; Li, Shenglan; York, John D.
Sulfur assimilation is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays an essential role in cellular and metabolic processes, including sulfation, amino acid biosynthesis, and organismal development. We report that loss of a key enzymatic component of the pathway, bisphosphate 3′-nucleotidase (Bpnt1), in mice, both whole animal and intestine-specific, leads to iron-deficiency anemia. Analysis of mutant enterocytes demonstrates that modulation of their substrate 3′-phosphoadenosine 5′-phosphate (PAP) influences levels of key iron homeostasis factors involved in dietary iron reduction, import and transport, that in part mimic those reported for the loss of hypoxic-induced transcription factor, HIF-2α. Our studies define a genetic basis for iron-deficiency anemia, a molecular approach for rescuing loss of nucleotidase function, and an unanticipated link between nucleotide hydrolysis in the sulfur assimilation pathway and iron homeostasis. PMID:29507250
Iron overload (IOL) starts to develop in MDS patients before they become transfusion-dependent because ineffective erythropoiesis suppresses hepcidin production in the liver and thus leads to unrestrained intestinal iron uptake. However, the most important cause of iron overload in MDS is chronic transfusion therapy. While transfusion dependency by itself is a negative prognostic factor reflecting poor bone marrow function, the ensuing transfusional iron overload has an additional dose-dependent negative impact on the survival of patients with lower risk MDS. Cardiac dysfunction appears to be important in this context, as a consequence of chronic anemia, age-related cardiac comorbidity, and iron overload. Another potential problem is iron-related endothelial dysfunction. There is some evidence that with increasing age, high circulating iron levels worsen the atherosclerotic phenotype. Transfusional IOL also appears to aggravate bone marrow failure in MDS, through unfavorable effects on mesenchymal stromal cells as well a hematopoietic cells, particularly erythroid precursors. Patient series and clinical trials have shown that the iron chelators deferoxamine and deferasirox can improve hematopoiesis in a minority of transfusion-dependent patients. Analyses of registry data suggest that iron chelation provides a survival benefit for patients with MDS, but data from a prospective randomized clinical trial are still lacking.
Brennan, M.; Zurkowski, C. C.; Chidester, B.; Campbell, A.
Elemental partitioning between iron-rich metals and silicate minerals influences the properties of Earth's deep interior, and is ultimately responsible for the nature of the core-mantle boundary. These interactions between molten iron and solid silicates were influential during planetary accretion, and persist today between the mantle and liquid outer core. Here we report the results of diamond anvil cell experiments at lower mantle conditions (40 GPa, >2500 K) aimed at examining systems containing a mixture of metals (iron or Fe-16Si alloy) and silicates (peridotite). The experiments were conducted at pressure-temperature conditions above the metallic liquidus but below the silicate solidus, and the recovered samples were analyzed by FIB/SEM with EDS to record the compositions of the coexisting phases. Each sample formed a three-phase equilibrium between bridgmanite, Fe-rich metallic melt, and an oxide. In one experiment, using pure Fe, the quenched metal contained 6 weight percent O, and the coexisting oxide was ferropericlase. The second experiment, using Fe-Si alloy, was highly reducing; its metal contained 10 wt% Si, and the coexisting mineral was stishovite. The distinct mineralogies of the two experiments derived from their different starting metals. These results imply that metallic composition is an important factor in determining the products of mixed phase iron-silicate reactions. The properties of deep-Earth interfaces such as the core-mantle boundary could be strongly affected by their metallic components.
Kalasuramath, Suneeta; Kurpad, Anura V; Thankachan, Prashanth
Iron deficiency (ID) affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe) status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR). The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of ⁵⁷Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.
Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.
The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.
Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.
The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.
Haile, Demewoz; Tabar, Lianna; Lakew, Yihunie
Iron supplementation during pregnancy prevents against low birth weight, incidence of prematurity and postpartum hemorrhage. However, the coverage of iron supplementation is still low in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the spatial variations and associated factors of iron supplementation during pregnancy using the 2011 national demographic and health survey data. This study used secondary data from the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey. The survey was cross sectional and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. A logistic regression statistical model using adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to identify the associated factors. Getis-Ord G-statistic was used to identify high and low hotspot areas of iron tablet supplementation during pregnancy. The coverage of iron tablet supplementation was 17.1% [95%CI: (16.3-17.9)] with the highest coverage of 38.9% [95%CI: (32.4--46.1)] in Addis Ababa followed by Tigray regional state with 33.8% [95%CI: (29.9-38.00)]. The lowest coverage was found in Oromiya regional state at 11.9% [95%CI: (10.7-13.0)]. Multivariable analysis showed that mothers who were aware of the Community Conversation Program had 20% [AOR = 1.2; 95% CI: (1.04-1.4)] higher odds of taking iron tablets. The odds of taking iron tablets was 2.9 times [AOR = 2.9; 95% CI: (2.3-3.7)] higher among those who took deworming tablets. Those mothers who attended the minimum four antenatal visits recommended by WHO were 3.9 times [AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: (3.3-4.6)] more likely and those mothers in the age group 31-49 years were 2.9 times [AOR = 2.9; 95% CI: (1.1-7.4)] more likely to use iron tablets as compared to those mothers who did not attend antenatal care and mothers in the age group less than 20 years. Mothers having a family size of 10 and above had 32% [AOR = 0.68; 95% CI: (0.49-0.97)] lower odds of taking iron tablets during pregnancy. The spatial analysis found that only northern
Yong, L; Chengye, J; Jiong, Q
To explore the level of, and factors affecting the quality of life (QOL) in childhood epilepsy in China. At the Peking University First Hospital, we consecutively identified 418 parents whose children were with known epilepsy to complete a questionnaire, which included children's demographic characteristics, clinical message of epilepsy, QOL, familial message, parental symptoms of anxiety/depression. Significant (p<0.05) affecting factors of children's quality of life included current educational degree, mental development, age at diagnosis, age at onset, seizure frequency, duration, AED number; parental significant (p<0.05) affecting factors included anxiety, depression and health. On regression analysis, parental anxiety was the most important factor in explaining lower QOL in childhood epilepsy. AEDs, familial economic state, paternal career, seizure frequency were also significant factors. Parental anxiety outweighed the physical factors in determining QOL in childhood epilepsy. Recognition of this will be helpful for professionals to treat disease and improve the QOL of childhood epilepsy.
Kymionis, George D; Naoumidi, Tatiana L; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Pallikaris, Ioannis G
To report formation of corneal iron ring deposits after conductive keratoplasty. Observational case report. Case report. A 54-year-old woman underwent conductive keratoplasty for hyperopia. One year after conductive keratoplasty, iron ring pattern pigmentation was detected at the corneal epithelium of both eyes. This is the first report of the appearance of corneal iron ring deposits following conductive keratoplasty treatment in a patient. It is suggested that alterations in tear film stability, resulting from conductive keratoplasty-induced changes in corneal curvature, constitute the contributory factor for these deposits.
Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J
Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.
To honor the late John Beard’s many contributions regarding iron and dopamine biology, this review focuses on recent human studies that test specific hypotheses about effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine system functioning. Short- and long-term alterations associated with iron deficiency in infancy can be related to major dopamine pathways (mesocortical, mesolimbic, nigrostriatal, tuberohypophyseal). Children and young adults who had iron deficiency anemia in infancy show poorer inhibitory control and executive functioning as assessed by neurocognitive tasks where pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies implicate frontal-striatal circuits and the mesocortical dopamine pathway. Alterations in the mesolimbic pathway, where dopamine plays a major role in behavioral activation and inhibition, positive affect, and inherent reward, may help explain altered social-emotional behavior in iron-deficient infants, specifically wariness and hesitance, lack of positive affect, diminished social engagement, etc. Poorer motor sequencing and bimanual coordination and lower spontaneous eye blink rate in iron-deficient anemic infants are consistent with impaired function in the nigrostriatal pathway. Short- and long-term changes in serum prolactin point to dopamine dysfunction in the tuberohypophyseal pathway. These hypothesis-driven findings support the adverse effects of early iron deficiency on dopamine biology. Iron deficiency also has other effects, specifically on other neurotransmitters, myelination, dendritogenesis, neurometabolism in hippocampus and striatum, gene and protein profiles, and associated behaviors. The persistence of poorer cognitive, motor, affective, and sensory system functioning highlights the need to prevent iron deficiency in infancy and to find interventions that lessen the long-term effects of this widespread nutrient disorder. PMID:21346104
Burns, Monika; Amaya, Aldo; Bodi, Caroline; Ge, Zhongming; Bakthavatchalu, Vasudevan; Ennis, Kathleen; Wang, Timothy C.; Georgieff, Michael
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori), a bacterial pathogen, is a causative agent of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease and is a strong risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Environmental conditions, such as poor dietary iron resulting in iron deficiency anemia (IDA), enhance H.pylori virulence and increases risk for gastric cancer. IDA affects billions of people worldwide, and there is considerable overlap between regions of high IDA and high H.pylori prevalence. The primary aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of H.pylori infection on behavior, iron metabolism, red blood cell indices, and behavioral outcomes following comorbid H. pylori infection and dietary iron deficiency in a mouse model. C57BL/6 female mice (n = 40) were used; half were placed on a moderately iron deficient (ID) diet immediately post-weaning, and the other half were maintained on an iron replete (IR) diet. Half were dosed with H.pylori SS1 at 5 weeks of age, and the remaining mice were sham-dosed. There were 4 study groups: a control group (-Hp, IR diet) as well as 3 experimental groups (-Hp, ID diet; +Hp, IR diet; +Hp,ID diet). All mice were tested in an open field apparatus at 8 weeks postinfection. Independent of dietary iron status, H.pylori -infected mice performed fewer exploratory behaviors in the open field chamber than uninfected mice (p<0.001). Hippocampal gene expression of myelination markers and dopamine receptor 1 was significantly downregulated in mice on an ID diet (both p<0.05), independent of infection status. At 12 months postinfection, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration were significantly lower in +Hp, ID diet mice compared to all other study groups. H.pylori infection caused IDA in mice maintained on a marginal iron diet. The mouse model developed in this study is a useful model to study the neurologic, behavioral, and hematologic impact of the common human co-morbidity of H. pylori infection and IDA. PMID:28355210
... too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. ...
Portier, Emilie; Zheng, Huaixin; Sahr, Tobias; Burnside, Denise M; Mallama, Celeste; Buchrieser, Carmen; Cianciotto, Nicholas P; Héchard, Yann
Legionella pneumophila is a pathogenic bacterium commonly found in water. Eventually, it could be transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Iron is known as a key requirement for the growth of L. pneumophila in the environment and within its hosts. Many studies were performed to understand iron utilization by L. pneumophila but no global approaches were conducted. In this study, transcriptomic analyses were performed, comparing gene expression in L. pneumophila in standard versus iron restricted conditions. Among the regulated genes, a newly described one, lpp_2867, was highly induced in iron-restricted conditions. Mutants lacking this gene in L. pneumophila were not affected in siderophore synthesis or utilization. On the contrary, they were defective for growth on iron-depleted solid media and for ferrous iron uptake. A sequence analysis predicts that Lpp_2867 is a membrane protein, suggesting that it is involved in ferrous iron transport. We thus named it IroT, for iron transporter. Infection assays showed that the mutants are highly impaired in intracellular growth within their environmental host Acanthamoeba castellanii and human macrophages. Taken together, our results show that IroT is involved, directly or indirectly, in ferrous iron transport and is a key virulence factor for L. pneumophila. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
De la Cruz-Góngora, Vanessa; Villalpando, Salvador; Shamah-Levy, Teresa
To describe the prevalence of anemia and con-sumption of iron rich groups among Mexican children and adolescents who participated in the Halfway National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2016. Our study sample included children and adolescents who provided full capillary hemoglobin data. Anemia was defined accord-ing to WHO criteria. Logistic regression models were used to explore the association among consumption of iron-rich food groups, sociodemographic characteristics and anemia. In 2016, the prevalence of anemia was 26.9% in children aged 1 to 4 years old, 12.5% in those aged 5 to 11, and 9.6% in adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. Rates were the highest among females who lived in the southern and central parts of Mexico, belonged to an indigenous ethnic group and fell within the first tercile of the Household Wealth Index. Consumption of beef by preschoolers and viscera by ado-lescents was associated with lower risk for anemia; higher risk was associated with consumption of Liconsa milk and non-heme iron by preschoolers. Anemia is highly prevalent in Mexican children and adolescents, affect-ing mainly the poorest and youngest populations. Sources of heme iron are the principal dietary factor associated with low risk for anemia.
All lunar soil contains iron in the metallic form, mostly as an iron-nickel alloy in concentrations of a few tenths of 1 percent. Some of this free iron can be easily separated by magnetic means. It is estimated that the magnetic separation of 100,000 tons of lunar soil would yield 150-200 tons of iron. Agglutinates contain metallic iron which could be extracted by melting and made into powder metallurgy products. The characteristics and potential uses of the pure-iron and iron-alloy lunar products are discussed. Processes for working iron that might be used in a nonterrestrial facility are also addressed.
Williams, A.-M. M.; Siegele, R.
Iron surface concentrations and profile maps were measured on the enamel of archaeological and modern teeth to determine how iron is deposited in tooth enamel and if it was affected by the post-mortem environment. Teeth from Australian children who died in the second half of the 19th century were compared with contemporary teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes. Surface analysis of the teeth was performed using the 3 MV Van Der Graff Accelerator at The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Sydney, Australia. A small sample of teeth were then cut in the mid sagittal plane and analysed using ANSTO High Energy Heavy Ion Microprobe. Maps and linear profiles were produced showing the distribution of iron across the enamel. Results show that both the levels and distribution of iron in archaeological teeth is quite different to contemporary teeth, raising the suggestion that iron has been significantly altered by the post-mortem environment.
Substantial experiential research into x-factor, and to a lesser extent crunch-factor has been undertaken with the aim of increasing clubhead speed. However, a direct comparison of the golf swing kinematics associated with each 'factor' has not, and possible differences when using a driver compared to an iron. Fifteen low handicap male golfers who displayed a modern swing had their golf swing kinematic data measured when hitting their own driver and five-iron, using a 10-camera motion analysis system operating at 250Hz. Clubhead speed was collected using a validated launch monitor. No between-club differences in x-factor and crunch-factor existed. Correlation analyses revealed within-club segment (trunk and lower trunk) interaction was different for the driver, compared to the five-iron, and that a greater number of kinematic variables associated with x-factor, compared to crunch-factor were shown to be correlated with faster clubhead speeds. This was further explained in the five-iron regression model, where a significant amount of variance in clubhead speed was associated with increased lower trunk x-factor stretch, and reduced trunk lateral bending. Given that greens in regulation was shown to be the strongest correlated variable with PGA Tour earnings (1990-2004), the findings suggests a link to player performance for approach shots. These findings support other empiric research into the importance of x-factor as well as anecdotal evidence on how crunch-factor can negatively affect clubhead speed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...
... (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...
Altamura, Sandro; Kopf, Stefan; Schmidt, Julia; Müdder, Katja; da Silva, Ana Rita; Nawroth, Peter; Muckenthaler, Martina U
Diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with iron overload conditions, such as primary and secondary hemochromatosis. Conversely, patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) show elevated ferritin levels, a biomarker for increased body iron stores. Despite these documented associations between dysregulated iron metabolism and T2DM, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that T2DM patients have reduced serum levels of hepcidin, the iron-regulated hormone that maintains systemic iron homeostasis. Consistent with this finding, we also observed an increase in circulating iron and ferritin levels. Our analysis of db/db mice demonstrates that this model recapitulates the systemic alterations observed in patients. Interestingly, db/db mice show an overall hepatic iron deficiency despite unaltered expression of ferritin and the iron importer TfR1. In addition, the liver correctly senses increased circulating iron levels by activating the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway even though hepcidin expression is decreased. We show that increased AKT phosphorylation may override active BMP/SMAD signaling and decrease hepcidin expression in 10-week old db/db mice. We conclude that the metabolic alterations occurring in T2DM impact on the regulation of iron homeostasis on multiple levels. As a result, metabolic perturbations induce an "iron resistance" phenotype, whereby signals that translate increased circulating iron levels into hepcidin production, are dysregulated. T2DM patients show increased circulating iron levels. T2DM is associated with inappropriately low hepcidin levels. Metabolic alterations in T2DM induce an "iron resistance" phenotype.
Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)
The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.
Rukh, Lala; Choudhary, Muhammad Abbas; Abbasi, Saddam Akber
Employee job satisfaction has been a research focal point throughout the world. It is a key factor when measuring the performance of an organization and individuals. A leading engineering goods manufacturing enterprise in Pakistan, has been used in this case study. In Pakistan, very limited research has been done with respect to factors affecting job satisfaction. Some research has been done in medical institutions, banks, universities and the information technology sector but large public sector organizations in Pakistan have not been studied. A theoretical foundation for researching factors affecting job satisfaction in large organizations is outlined. The objective of this research is to analyze various demographic, financial and non-financial factors affecting the satisfaction level of employees and to study the effects across different employee groups. This study is based on quantitative data analysis. The employees of the organization under study have been divided into 10 homogeneous groups based on their departments. Information on job related factors (affecting the satisfaction level) have been collected from subsamples of each group using a self-administered questionnaire. An overall sample of 250 (out of total 1100) employees has been selected. Before conducting the survey, reliability of the questionnaire was measured using Cronbach's alpha. The normality of data was also examined using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test. Hypotheses devised to address the research questions were tested by using non-parametric Spearman correlation and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The response rate was 73.2%. Research findings indicated the significant factors that affect the satisfaction level of employees. Median group differences existed between responses based on age, work experience, salary and designation (i.e. job position/rank) of employees. Job satisfaction was also positively and significantly associated with job related factors such as pay, promotion, relation with employees
Pishchany, Gleb; Whitwell, Corbin W; Torres, Victor J; Skaar, Eric P
Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis is significantly influenced by the iron status of the host. However, the regulatory impact of host iron sources on S. aureus gene expression remains unknown. In this study, we combine multivariable difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry with multivariate statistical analyses to systematically cluster cellular protein response across distinct iron-exposure conditions. Quadruplicate samples were simultaneously analyzed for alterations in protein abundance and/or post-translational modification state in response to environmental (iron chelation, hemin treatment) or genetic (Δfur) alterations in bacterial iron exposure. We identified 120 proteins representing several coordinated biochemical pathways that are affected by changes in iron-exposure status. Highlighted in these experiments is the identification of the heme-regulated transport system (HrtAB), a novel transport system which plays a critical role in staphylococcal heme metabolism. Further, we show that regulated overproduction of acidic end-products brought on by iron starvation decreases local pH resulting in the release of iron from the host iron-sequestering protein transferrin. These findings reveal novel strategies used by S. aureus to acquire scarce nutrients in the hostile host environment and begin to define the iron and heme-dependent regulons of S. aureus. PMID:16933993
Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil
Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.
Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.
A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-lateral Electrode Position, Insertion Depth, and Cognition were among the factors that affected performance. Knowledge of how factors affect performance can influence counseling, device fitting, and rehabilitation for patients and may contribute to improved device design. PMID:23348845
Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh
Introduction Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). Method This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Results Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. Conclusion The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students. PMID:26549046
Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh
Introduction Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). Method This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Results Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. Conclusion The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.
Jouhari, Zahra; Haghani, Fariba; Changiz, Tahereh
Clinical courses are required of all medical students and means that they must develop the key skill of self-regulation during learning. The ability to self-regulate learning strategies is affected by different factors. This study determined the views of medical students on the factors affecting self-regulated learning (SRL). This study uses a qualitative approach and the content analysis method. Nineteen medical students in their fourth, fifth, and sixth years of study at Isfahan University of Medical Science participated in semi-structured, in-depth interviews. The students were selected using purposive sampling based on their overall grade point average (GPA). Five main themes were found to affect SRL. These themes included family with the two subthemes of family supervisory and supportive roles; peers with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting roles; instructors with the two subthemes of personal and educational instructor's characteristics; educational environment with the two subthemes of facilitator and inhibitor roles; and student with the two subthemes of facilitating and inhibiting personal factors. The outcomes of student understanding of the factors affecting self-regulation indicate that facilitating factors should be used on an individual basis to reduce the effect of inhibiting factors to improve self-regulation in students.
Berggren, Kiersten L.; Chen, Jianfang; Fox, Julia; Miller, Jonathan; Dodds, Lindsay; Dugas, Bryan; Vargas, Liset; Lothian, Amber; McAllum, Erin; Volitakis, Irene; Roberts, Blaine; Bush, Ashley I.; Fox, Jonathan H.
Huntington’s disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion that encodes a polyglutamine tract in huntingtin (htt) protein. Dysregulation of brain iron homeostasis, oxidative stress and neurodegeneration are consistent features of the HD phenotype. Therefore, environmental factors that exacerbate oxidative stress and iron dysregulation may potentiate HD. Iron supplementation in the human population is common during infant and adult-life stages. In this study, iron supplementation in neonatal HD mice resulted in deterioration of spontaneous motor running activity, elevated levels of brain lactate and oxidized glutathione consistent with increased energetic dysfunction and oxidative stress, and increased striatal and motor cortical neuronal atrophy, collectively demonstrating potentiation of the disease phenotype. Oxidative stress, energetic, and anatomic markers of degeneration were not affected in wild-type littermate iron-supplemented mice. Further, there was no effect of elevated iron intake on disease outcomes in adult HD mice. We have demonstrated an interaction between the mutant huntingtin gene and iron supplementation in neonatal HD mice. Findings indicate that elevated neonatal iron intake potentiates mouse HD and promotes oxidative stress and energetic dysfunction in brain. Neonatal-infant dietary iron intake level may be an environmental modifier of human HD. PMID:25703232
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Factors Affecting Standard Charges B Appendix B to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. B Appendix B to Part 1215—Factors Affecting Standard...
Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...
Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana
In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345
Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana
Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657
Brissot, Pierre; Ropert, Martine; Le Lan, Caroline; Loréal, Olivier
Besides transferrin iron, which represents the normal form of circulating iron, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) has been identified in the plasma of patients with various pathological conditions in which transferrin saturation is significantly elevated. To show that: i) NTBI is present not only during chronic iron overload disorders (hemochromatosis, transfusional iron overload) but also in miscellaneous diseases which are not primarily iron overloaded conditions; ii) this iron species represents a potentially toxic iron form due to its high propensity to induce reactive oxygen species and is responsible for cellular damage not only at the plasma membrane level but also towards different intracellular organelles; iii) the NTBI concept may be expanded to include intracytosolic iron forms which are not linked to ferritin, the major storage protein which exerts, at the cellular level, the same type of protective effect towards the intracellular environment as transferrin in the plasma. Plasma NTBI and especially labile plasma iron determinations represent a new important biological tool since elimination of this toxic iron species is a major therapeutic goal. The NTBI approach represents an important mechanistic concept for explaining cellular iron excess and toxicity and provides new important biochemical diagnostic tools. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Transferrins: Molecular mechanisms of iron transport and disorders. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mascitelli, Luca; Goldstein, Mark R
Mounting evidence suggests that a state of sustained iron depletion may exert a primary protective action against coronary heart disease. A persistent criticism of the iron hypothesis has been that atherosclerosis may not be a prominent feature of hereditary hemochromatosis. The essence of this criticism is that iron cannot be a significant factor in atherogenesis in those unaffected by inherited iron overload unless an increase in atherosclerosis is observed in hereditary hemochromatosis. However, the emerging details of the physiology of hepcidin, the key hormone in iron recycling, suggest a resolution of the apparent paradox of an important role for iron in atherogenesis in the possible absence of increased plaque burden in most types of hereditary hemochromatosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lakhal, Samira; Schödel, Johannes; Townsend, Alain R M; Pugh, Christopher W; Ratcliffe, Peter J; Mole, David R
Hepcidin is a liver-derived hormone with a key role in iron homeostasis. In addition to iron, it is regulated by inflammation and hypoxia, although mechanisms of hypoxic regulation remain unclear. In hepatocytes, hepcidin is induced by bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) through a receptor complex requiring hemojuvelin (HJV) as a co-receptor. Type II transmembrane serine proteinase (TMPRSS6) antagonizes hepcidin induction by BMPs by cleaving HJV from the cell membrane. Inactivating mutations in TMPRSS6 lead to elevated hepcidin levels and consequent iron deficiency anemia. Here we demonstrate that TMPRSS6 is up-regulated in hepatic cell lines by hypoxia and by other activators of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We show that TMPRSS6 expression is regulated by both HIF-1α and HIF-2α. This HIF-dependent up-regulation of TMPRSS6 increases membrane HJV shedding and decreases hepcidin promoter responsiveness to BMP signaling in hepatocytes. Our results reveal a potential role for TMPRSS6 in hepcidin regulation by hypoxia and provide a new molecular link between oxygen sensing and iron homeostasis.
Delaire, Caroline; Amrose, Susan; Zhang, Minghui; Hake, James; Gadgil, Ashok
Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) has been shown to effectively remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater at low cost and has the potential to improve access to safe drinking water for millions of people. Understanding how operating conditions, such as the Fe dosage rate and the O 2 recharge rate, affect arsenic removal at different pH values is crucial to maximize the performance of Fe-EC under economic constraints. In this work, we improved upon an existing computational model to investigate the combined effects of pH, Fe dosage rate, and O 2 recharge rate on arsenic removal in Fe-EC. We showed that the impact of the Fe dosage rate strongly depends on pH and on the O 2 recharge rate, which has important practical implications. We identified the process limiting arsenic removal (As(III) oxidation versus As(V) adsorption) at different pH values, which allowed us to interpret the effect of operating conditions on Fe-EC performance. Finally, we assessed the robustness of the trends predicted by the model, which assumes a constant pH, against lab experiments reproducing more realistic conditions where pH is allowed to drift during treatment as a result of equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . Our results provide a nuanced understanding of how operating conditions impact arsenic removal by Fe-EC and can inform decisions regarding the operation of this technology in a range of groundwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Hong-Ming; Lee, Yu; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Liu, Hsing-Wei; Chu, Chien-Hsin; Chou, Ya-Wen; Chen, Yet-Ran; Chen, Shu-Hui; Tai, Jung-Hsiang
Iron was previously shown to induce rapid nuclear translocation of a Myb3 transcription factor in the protozoan parasite, Trichomonas vaginalis. In the present study, iron was found to induce a transient increase in cellular cAMP, followed by the nuclear influx of Myb3, whereas the latter was also induced by 8-bromo-cyclic AMP. Iron-inducible cAMP production and nuclear influx of Myb3 were inhibited by suramin and SQ22536, respective inhibitors of the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins and adenylyl cyclases. In contrast, the nuclear influx of Myb3 induced by iron or 8-bromo-cAMP was delayed or inhibited, respectively, by H89, the inhibitor of protein kinase A. Using liquid chromatography-coupled tandem mass spectrometry, Thr156 and Lys143 in Myb3 were found to be phosphorylated and ubiquitinated, respectively. These modifications were induced by iron and inhibited by H89, as shown by immunoprecipitation-coupled Western blotting. Iron-inducible ubiquitination and nuclear influx were aborted in T156A and K143R, but T156D was constitutively ubiquitinated and persistently localized to the nucleus. Myb3 was phosphorylated in vitro by the catalytic subunit of a T. vaginalis protein kinase A, TvPKAc. A transient interaction between TvPKAc and Myb3 and the phosphorylation of both proteins were induced in the parasite shortly after iron or 8-bromo-cAMP treatment. Together, these observations suggest that iron may induce production of cAMP and activation of TvPKAc, which then induces the phosphorylation of Myb3 and subsequent ubiquitination for accelerated nuclear influx. It is conceivable that iron probably exerts a much broader impact on the physiology of the parasite than previously thought to encounter environmental changes. PMID:25183012
David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…
Gulec, Sukru; Anderson, Gregory J.
Iron is an essential trace mineral that plays a number of important physiological roles in humans, including oxygen transport, energy metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis. Iron absorption by the proximal small bowel is a critical checkpoint in the maintenance of whole-body iron levels since, unlike most other essential nutrients, no regulated excretory systems exist for iron in humans. Maintaining proper iron levels is critical to avoid the adverse physiological consequences of either low or high tissue iron concentrations, as commonly occurs in iron-deficiency anemia and hereditary hemochromatosis, respectively. Exquisite regulatory mechanisms have thus evolved to modulate how much iron is acquired from the diet. Systemic sensing of iron levels is accomplished by a network of molecules that regulate transcription of the HAMP gene in hepatocytes, thus modulating levels of the serum-borne, iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. Hepcidin decreases intestinal iron absorption by binding to the iron exporter ferroportin 1 on the basolateral surface of duodenal enterocytes, causing its internalization and degradation. Mucosal regulation of iron transport also occurs during low-iron states, via transcriptional (by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α) and posttranscriptional (by the iron-sensing iron-regulatory protein/iron-responsive element system) mechanisms. Recent studies demonstrated that these regulatory loops function in tandem to control expression or activity of key modulators of iron homeostasis. In health, body iron levels are maintained at appropriate levels; however, in several inherited disorders and in other pathophysiological states, iron sensing is perturbed and intestinal iron absorption is dysregulated. The iron-related phenotypes of these diseases exemplify the necessity of precisely regulating iron absorption to meet body demands. PMID:24994858
Lapenna, Domenico; Ciofani, Giuliano; Obletter, Gabriele
Iron-induced human LDL oxidation, which is relevant to atherosclerosis, has not yet been properly investigated. We addressed such issue using iron(II) and (III) basically in the presence of phosphates, which are present in vivo and influence iron oxidative properties, at pH 4.5 and 7.4, representative, respectively, of the lysosomal and plasma environment. In 10mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS), iron(II) induces substantial LDL oxidation at pH 4.5 at low micromolar concentrations, while at pH 7.4 has low oxidative effects; iron(III) promotes small LDL oxidation only at pH 4.5. In 10mM sodium acetate/NaCl buffer, pH 4.5, iron-induced LDL oxidation is far higher than in PBS, highlighting the relevance of phosphates in the inhibitory modulation of iron-induced LDL oxidation. LDL oxidation is related to iron binding to the protein and lipid moiety of LDL, and requires the presence of iron(II) bound to LDL together with iron(III). Chemical modification of LDL carboxyl groups, which could bind iron especially at pH 4.5, decreases significantly iron binding to LDL and iron-induced LDL oxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavengers are ineffective on iron-induced LDL oxidation, which is inhibited by metal chelation, scavengers of alkoxyl/peroxyl radicals, or removal of LDL lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH). Overall, substantial human LDL oxidation is induced LOOH-dependently by iron(II) at pH 4.5 even in the presence of phosphates, suggesting the occurrence of iron(II)-induced LDL oxidation in vivo within lysosomes, where pH is about 4.5, iron(II) and phosphates coexist, plasma with its antioxidants is absent, and glutathione peroxidase is poorly expressed resulting in LOOH accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Cao, Shenglong; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F; Chaudhary, Neeraj; Xi, Guohua
Brain iron overload is a key factor causing brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This study quantified brain iron levels after ICH with magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping. The effect of minocycline on iron overload and ICH-induced brain injury in aged rats was also determined. Aged (18 months old) male Fischer 344 rats had an intracerebral injection of autologous blood or saline, and brain iron levels were measured by magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping. Some ICH rats were treated with minocycline or vehicle. The rats were euthanized at days 7 and 28 after ICH, and brains were used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Magnetic resonance imaging (T2-weighted, T2* gradient-echo, and R2* mapping) sequences were performed at different time points. ICH-induced brain iron overload in the perihematomal area could be quantified by R2* mapping. Minocycline treatment reduced brain iron accumulation, T2* lesion volume, iron-handling protein upregulation, neuronal cell death, and neurological deficits ( P <0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging R2* mapping is a reliable and noninvasive method, which can quantitatively measure brain iron levels after ICH. Minocycline reduced ICH-related perihematomal iron accumulation and brain injury in aged rats. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.
Yamada, Yasuhiro; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yoshio
Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 - 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.
Wei, Chunlan; Zhou, Jian; Huang, Xueqiang; Li, Min
There are about one billion patients with iron deficiency anaemia all over the world. Recently, researchers have reported successively that stress can cause decrease of serum iron, in consistent with our studies showing that heat exposure and acceleration stress led to significant decrease of serum iron in rats. However, so far whether pure psychological stress can cause decrease of serum iron and consequently affect erythropoiesis has not been reported. To study the characteristic effects of psychological stress on serum iron and erythropoiesis, and to establish an useful experimental basis for further study involving how sufficient intake of dietary iron causes decrease of serum iron and the consequent effects on physiological function of the human body. Psychological stress was administered to 20 rats with Communication Box system. On the 7th and 14th day after administration, 10 rats were executed, respectively, and the rat blood and femoral bone marrow were collected for analysis of serum iron (SI), serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR), haemoglobin (Hb), red blood cell count (RBC), RBC distribution width (RDW), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum erythropoietin (EPO) and bone marrow iron. Experimental data were statistically analysed with SPSS 11.0. For rats analysed on the 7th and 14th day in psychological stress group, (1) femoral bone marrow iron was significantly decreased; (2) serum iron was decreased by 28.6% (P < 0.01) and 27.5% (P < 0.01); (3) Hb was decreased by 10.0% (P < 0.01) and 12.8% (P < 0.01), RBC count was decreased by 5.1% (P < 0.05) and 9.8% (P < 0.01), MCV was decreased by 1.7% (P < 0.05) and 7.3% (P < 0.01), RDW was increased by 10.7 and 22.5%; (4) serum ferritin, transferrin receptor and EPO showed no significant changes in comparison with controls after 7-day administration, but serum ferritin and EPO were decreased by 23.8 and 12.3% while transferrin receptor increased by 31.5% after 14-day administration. For rats
Ma, Xinyan; Liao, Xiudong; Lu, Lin; Li, Sufen; Zhang, Liyang; Luo, Xugang
The current dietary iron requirement (80 mg/kg) of broilers is mainly based on growth, hemoglobin concentration, or hematocrit data obtained in a few early studies; however, expressions of iron-containing enzymes might be more sensitive novel criteria to evaluate dietary iron requirements. The objective of this study was to determine dietary iron requirements of broilers for the full expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), catalase, and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in various tissues. A total of 336 1-d-old Arbor Acres male chicks were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments with 6 replicates and fed a basal corn and soybean-meal diet (control, containing 67 mg Fe/kg) and the basal diet supplemented with 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, or 120 mg Fe/kg from FeSO 4 ⋅ 7H 2 O for 21 d. Regression analysis was performed to estimate the optimal dietary iron concentration with the use of broken-line or quadratic models. SDH activity in the liver and heart, COX and catalase activity in the liver, Sdh mRNA levels in the liver, and Cox mRNA levels in the liver and heart of broilers were affected (P < 0.027) by supplemental iron concentration, and increased quadratically (P < 0.004) as dietary iron concentration increased. Dietary iron requirements estimated on the basis of fitted broken-line or quadratic-curve models (P < 0.005) of the above indexes were 97-136 mg/kg. SDH activity in the liver and heart, COX and catalase activity in the liver, Sdh mRNA levels in the liver, and Cox mRNA levels in the liver and heart are, to our knowledge, new and sensitive criteria to evaluate the dietary iron requirements of broilers, and the dietary iron requirements would be 97-136 mg/kg to support the full expression of the above iron-containing enzymes in various tissues of broiler chicks from 1 to 21 d of age, which are higher than the current NRC iron requirement. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.
A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…
SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.
THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…
VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF MONTE CARLO N- PARTICLE CODE 6 (MCNP6) WITH NEUTRON PROTECTION FACTOR... PARTICLE CODE 6 (MCNP6) WITH NEUTRON PROTECTION FACTOR MEASUREMENTS OF AN IRON BOX THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Engineering...STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iv AFIT-ENP-14-M-05 VERIFICATION AND VALIDATION OF MONTE CARLO N- PARTICLE CODE 6
East, Patricia; Lozoff, Betsy; Blanco, Estela; Delker, Erin; Delva, Jorge; Encina, Pamela; Gahagan, Sheila
Children who are iron deficient (ID) or iron-deficient anemic (IDA) have been shown to seek and receive less stimulation from their caregivers, contributing to "functional isolation". Over time, the reduced interactions between child and caregiver are thought to interfere with the acquisition of normative social competencies and…
SCHULMAN-GREEN, Dena; JASER, Sarah S.; PARK, Chorong; WHITTEMORE, Robin
Aim To identify factors that may serve as facilitators and barriers to self-management described by adults living with chronic illness by conducting a qualitative metasynthesis. Background Self-management is an individuals’ active management of a chronic illness in collaboration with their family members and clinicians. Design Qualitative metasynthesis. Data Sources We analyzed studies (N=53) published between January 2000–May 2013 that described factors affecting self-management in chronic illness as reported by adults aged over 18 years with chronic illness. Review Methods Sandelowsi and Barroso approach to qualitative metasynthesis: literature search; quality appraisal; analysis; and synthesis of findings. Results Collectively, article authors reported on sixteen chronic illnesses, most commonly diabetes (N=28) and cardiovascular disease (N=20). Participants included men and women (mean age=57, range 18–94) from twenty countries representing diverse races and ethnicities. We identified five categories of factors affecting self-management: Personal/Lifestyle Characteristics; Health Status; Resources; Environmental Characteristics; and Health Care System. Factors may interact to affect self-management and may exist on a continuum of positive (facilitator) to negative (barrier). Conclusion Understanding factors that influence self-management may improve assessment of self-management among adults with chronic illness and may inform interventions tailored to meet individuals’ needs and improve health outcomes. PMID:26781649
Lozoff, Betsy; Castillo, Marcela; Clark, Katy M; Smith, Julia B; Sturza, Julie
Most studies of behavioral/developmental effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) or iron supplementation in infancy have found social-emotional differences. Differences could relate to behavioral inhibition or lack of positive affect and altered response to reward. To determine long-term behavioral effects, the study was a follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of behavioral/developmental effects of preventing IDA in infancy. Healthy Chilean infants free of IDA at age 6 mo were randomly assigned to iron supplementation or no added iron (formula with iron/powdered cow milk, vitamins with/without iron) from ages 6 to 12 mo. At age 10 y, 59% (666 of 1123) and 68% (366 of 534) of iron-supplemented and no-added-iron groups were assessed. Social-emotional outcomes included maternal-reported behavior problems, self-reported behavior, examiner ratings, and video coding of a social stress task and gamelike paradigms. Examiners rated the iron-supplemented group as more cooperative, confident, persistent after failure, coordinated, and direct and reality-oriented in speech and working harder after praise compared with the no-added-iron group. In a task designed to elicit positive affect, supplemented children spent more time laughing and smiling together with their mothers and started smiling more quickly. In the social stress task they smiled and laughed more and needed less prompting to complete the task. All P values were <0.05; effect sizes were 0.14-0.36. There were no differences in behaviors related to behavioral inhibition, such as anxiety/depression or social problems. In sum, iron supplementation in infancy was associated with more adaptive behavior at age 10 y, especially in affect and response to reward, which may improve performance at school and work, mental health, and personal relationships. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.
Moriya, Kimihiko; Nakamura, Michiko; Nishimura, Yoko; Kitta, Takeya; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Kon, Masafumi; Shinohara, Nobuo
To evaluate actual post-pubertal penile size and factors affecting it in hypospadias patients, we retrospectively reviewed medical charts. Hypospadias patients whose external genitalia were categorized into Tanner stage 5, and whose stretched penile length was evaluated at 15 years old or older from April 2008 to April 2015, were enrolled in the present study. Stretched penile length was measured by a single examiner. Actual post-pubertal stretched penile length and factors affecting the post-pubertal stretched penile length were estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney U test and univariate and multivariate linear regression models for the determination of independent factors. Thirty patients met the inclusion criteria. Median age at evaluation was 17.2 years. Thirteen and 17 had mild and severe hypospadias, respectively. Endocrinological abnormality was identified in 5. Multivariate analysis showed that the severity of hypospadias and endocrinological abnormality were significant factors affecting stretched penile length. Stretched penile length in 25 patients without endocrinological abnormality was significantly longer than that in those with endocrinological abnormality (p = 0.036). Among patients without endocrinological abnormality, stretched penile length in 13 with severe hypospadias was significantly shorter than that in 12 with mild hypospadias (p = 0.004). While the severity of hypospadias and endocrinological abnormality at post-pubertal evaluation were factors affecting post-pubertal penile size, stretched penile length in patients with severe hypospadias was shorter even in cases without endocrinological abnormality. These results suggest that severe hypospadias is not only a disorder of urethral development, but also a disorder of penile development.
Lo, Miranda; Murray, Gerald L; Khoo, Chen Ai; Haake, David A; Zuerner, Richard L; Adler, Ben
Leptospirosis is a globally significant zoonosis caused by Leptospira spp. Iron is essential for growth of most bacterial species. Since iron availability is low in the host, pathogens have evolved complex iron acquisition mechanisms to survive and establish infection. In many bacteria, expression of iron uptake and storage proteins is regulated by Fur. L. interrogans encodes four predicted Fur homologs; we have constructed a mutation in one of these, la1857. We conducted microarray analysis to identify iron-responsive genes and to study the effects of la1857 mutation on gene expression. Under iron-limiting conditions, 43 genes were upregulated and 49 genes were downregulated in the wild type. Genes encoding proteins with predicted involvement in inorganic ion transport and metabolism (including TonB-dependent proteins and outer membrane transport proteins) were overrepresented in the upregulated list, while 54% of differentially expressed genes had no known function. There were 16 upregulated genes of unknown function which are absent from the saprophyte L. biflexa and which therefore may encode virulence-associated factors. Expression of iron-responsive genes was not significantly affected by mutagenesis of la1857, indicating that LA1857 is not a global regulator of iron homeostasis. Upregulation of heme biosynthetic genes and a putative catalase in the mutant suggested that LA1857 is more similar to PerR, a regulator of the oxidative stress response. Indeed, the la1857 mutant was more resistant to peroxide stress than the wild type. Our results provide insights into the role of iron in leptospiral metabolism and regulation of the oxidative stress response, including genes likely to be important for virulence.
Productivity and sustainability of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in tropical soils are affected by deficiency of micronutrients. Iron deficiency is one of the main yield limiting constraints, especially in highly weathered, coarse textured and leached soils. To correct iron deficiency, different form...
Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A
Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair.
Armitage, K B
1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations.
Gomez, Mauricio; Pérez-Gallardo, Rocío V; Sánchez, Luis A; Díaz-Pérez, Alma L; Cortés-Rojo, Christian; Meza Carmen, Victor; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Lara-Romero, Javier; Jiménez-Sandoval, Sergio; Rodríguez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S; Campos-García, Jesús
Biogenesis and recycling of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters play important roles in the iron homeostasis mechanisms involved in mitochondrial function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Fe-S clusters are assembled into apoproteins by the iron-sulfur cluster machinery (ISC). The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of ISC gene deletion and consequent iron release under oxidative stress conditions on mitochondrial functionality in S. cerevisiae. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, caused by H2O2, menadione, or ethanol, was associated with a loss of iron homeostasis and exacerbated by ISC system dysfunction. ISC mutants showed increased free Fe2+ content, exacerbated by ROS-inducers, causing an increase in ROS, which was decreased by the addition of an iron chelator. Our study suggests that the increment in free Fe2+ associated with ROS generation may have originated from mitochondria, probably Fe-S cluster proteins, under both normal and oxidative stress conditions, suggesting that Fe-S cluster anabolism is affected. Raman spectroscopy analysis and immunoblotting indicated that in mitochondria from SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants, the content of [Fe-S] centers was decreased, as was formation of Rieske protein-dependent supercomplex III2IV2, but this was not observed in the iron-deficient ATX1 and MRS4 mutants. In addition, the activity of complexes II and IV from the electron transport chain (ETC) was impaired or totally abolished in SSQ1 and ISA1 mutants. These results confirm that the ISC system plays important roles in iron homeostasis, ROS stress, and in assembly of supercomplexes III2IV2 and III2IV1, thus affecting the functionality of the respiratory chain.
This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.
Javadi, Pardis; Buchman, Timothy G; Stromberg, Paul E; Turnbull, Isaiah R; Vyas, Dinesh; Hotchkiss, Richard S; Karl, Irene E; Coopersmith, Craig M
Sepsis, iron loading, and aging cause independent increases in gut epithelial and splenic apoptosis. It is unknown how their combination will affect apoptosis and systemic cytokine levels. Hfe-/- mice (a murine homologue of hemochromatosis) abnormally accumulate iron in their tissues. Aged (24-26 months) or mature (16-18 months) Hfe-/- mice and wild type (WT) littermates were subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) or sham laparotomy. Intestine, spleen, and blood were harvested 24 h later and assessed for apoptosis and cytokine levels. Gut epithelial and splenic apoptosis were low in both aged septic and sham Hfe-/- mice, regardless of the amount of iron in their diet. Mature septic WT mice had increased apoptosis compared to age-matched sham WT mice. Mature septic Hfe-/- mice had similar levels of intestinal cell death to age-matched septic WT mice but higher levels of splenic apoptosis. Apoptosis was significantly lower in septic aged Hfe-/- mice than septic mature Hfe-/- animals. Interleukin-6 was elevated in septic aged Hfe-/- mice compared to sham mice. Although sepsis, chronic iron dysregulation, and aging each increase gut and splenic apoptosis, their combination yields cell death levels similar to sham animals despite the fact that aged Hfe-/- mice are able to mount an inflammatory response following CLP and mature Hfe-/- mice have elevated sepsis-induced apoptosis. Combining sepsis with two risk factors that ordinarily increase cell death and increase mortality in CLP yields an apoptotic response that could not have been predicted based upon each element in isolation.
Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet
This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…
Shafir, Tal; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Jing, Yuezhou; Lu Angelilli, Mary; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Lozoff, Betsy
Background Iron deficiency (ID) during early development impairs myelination and basal ganglia function in animal models. Aims To examine the effects of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and iron deficiency (ID) without anemia on infant motor skills that are likely related to myelination and basal ganglia function. Study design Observational study. Subjects Full-term inner-city African-American 9- to 10-month-old infants who were free of acute or chronic health problems with iron status indicators ranging from IDA to iron sufficiency (n = 106). Criteria for final iron status classification were met by 77 of these infants: 28 IDA, 28 non-anemic iron-deficient (NA ID), and 21 iron-sufficient (IS). Outcome measures Gross motor developmental milestones, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, Infant Neurological International Battery (INFANIB), motor quality factor of the Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale, and a sequential/bi-manual coordination toy retrieval task. General linear model analyses tested for linear effects of iron status group and thresholds for effects. Results There were linear effects of iron status on developmental milestones, Peabody gross motor (suggestive trend), INFANIB standing item, motor quality, and toy retrieval. The threshold for effects was ID with or without anemia for developmental milestones, INFANIB standing item, and motor quality and IDA for toy retrieval. Conclusions Using a comprehensive and sensitive assessment of motor development, this study found poorer motor function in ID infants with and without anemia. Poorer motor function among non-anemic ID infants is particularly concerning, since ID without anemia is not detected by common screening procedures and is more widespread than IDA. PMID:18272298
Weyers, R; Coetzee, M J; Nel, M
Physiological changes during pregnancy affect routine tests for iron deficiency. The reticulocyte haemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) and serum-soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) assay are newer diagnostic parameters for the detection of iron deficiency, combined in the Thomas diagnostic plot. We used this plot to determine the iron status of pregnant women presenting for their first visit to an antenatal clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa. Routine laboratory tests (serum ferritin, full blood count and C-reactive protein) and RET-He and sTfR were performed. The iron status was determined using the Thomas plot. For this study, 103 pregnant women were recruited. According to the Thomas plot, 72.8% of the participants had normal iron stores and erythropoiesis. Iron-deficient erythropoiesis was detected in 12.6%. A third of participants were anaemic. Serum ferritin showed excellent sensitivity but poor specificity for detecting depleted iron stores. HIV status had no influence on the iron status of the participants. Our findings reiterate that causes other than iron deficiency should be considered in anaemic individuals. When compared with the Thomas plot, a low serum ferritin is a sensitive but nonspecific indicator of iron deficiency. The Thomas plot may provide useful information to identify pregnant individuals in whom haematologic parameters indicate limited iron availability for erythropoiesis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ingrassia, Rosaria; Memo, Maurizio; Garavaglia, Barbara
Mutations in WDR45 gene, coding for a beta-propeller protein, have been found in patients affected by Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, NBIA5 (also known as BPAN). BPAN is a movement disorder with Non Transferrin Bound Iron (NTBI) accumulation in the basal ganglia as common hallmark between NBIA classes (Hayflick et al., 2013). WDR45 has been predicted to have a role in autophagy, while the impairment of iron metabolism in the different NBIA subclasses has not currently been clarified. We found the up-regulation of the ferrous iron transporter (-)IRE/Divalent Metal Transporter1 and down-regulation of Transferrin receptor in the fibroblasts of two BPAN affected patients with splicing mutations 235+1G>A (BPAN1) and 517_519ΔVal 173 (BPAN2). The BPAN patients showed a concomitant increase of intracellular ferrous iron after starvation. An altered pattern of iron transporters with iron overload is highlighted in BPAN human fibroblasts, supporting for a role of DMT1 in NBIA. We here present a novel element, about iron accumulation, to the existing knowledge in field of NBIA. Attention is focused to a starvation-dependent iron overload, possibly accounting for iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Further investigation could clarify iron regulation in BPAN.
Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P < .001), lack of standardized referral forms (P < .001), inconvenience (P = .04), program quality (P = .004), and lack of discharge communication from CR (P = .001) as factors negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P < .001). Where differences emerged, primary care physicians were more likely to perceive factors that would impede CR referral, some of which are modifiable. Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.
Polanams, Jup; Ray, Alisha D; Watt, Richard K
Nanoparticles of iron phosphate, iron arsenate, iron molybdate, and iron vanadate were synthesized within the 8 nm interior of ferritin. The synthesis involved reacting Fe(II) with ferritin in a buffered solution at pH 7.4 in the presence of phosphate, arsenate, vanadate, or molybdate. O2 was used as the oxidant to deposit the Fe(III) mineral inside ferritin. The rate of iron incorporation into ferritin was stimulated when oxo-anions were present. The simultaneous deposition of both iron and the oxo-anion was confirmed by elemental analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The ferritin samples containing iron and one of the oxo-anions possessed different UV/vis spectra depending on the anion used during mineral formation. TEM analysis showed mineral cores with approximately 8 nm mineral particles consistent with the formation of mineral phases inside ferritin.
Cox, J. S. G.; Moss, G. F.; Bremner, I.; Reason, Janet
A method is described for measuring the plasma unsaturated iron-binding capacity in the presence of very high concentrations of iron as iron-dextran. The procedure utilizes 59Fe to label the apotransferrin with subsequent separation of ionic iron from transferrin-bound iron on an ion exchange or Sephadex G.25 column. The unsaturated iron-binding capacity has been measured in rabbits and dogs after intravenous injection of iron-dextran and in human subjects after total dose infusion of iron-dextran. No evidence of saturation of the unsaturated iron-binding capacity was found even when the plasma iron values were greater than 40,000 μg Fe/100 ml. PMID:5697365
Jumarie, Catherine; Aras, Philippe; Boily, Monique
The increasing loss of bee colonies in many countries has prompted a surge of studies on the factors affecting bee health. In North America, main crops such as maize and soybean are cultivated with extensive use of pesticides that may affect non-target organisms such as bees. Also, biosolids, used as a soil amendment, represent additional sources of metals in agroecosystems; however, there is no information about how these metals could affect the bees. In previous studies we investigated the effects of environmentally relevant doses of herbicides and metals, each individually, on caged honey bees. The present study aimed at investigating the effects of mixtures of herbicides (glyphosate and atrazine) and metals (cadmium and iron), as these mixtures represent more realistic exposure conditions. Levels of metal, vitamin E, carotenoids, retinaldehyde, at-retinol, retinoic acid isomers (9-cis RA, 13-cis RA, at-RA) and the metabolites 13-cis-4-oxo-RA and at-4-oxo-RA were measured in bees fed for 10 days with contaminated syrup. Mixtures of herbicides and cadmium that did not affect bee viability, lowered bee α- and β-carotenoid contents and increased 9-cis-RA as well as 13-cis-4-oxo-RA without modifying the levels of at-retinol. Bee treatment with either glyphosate, a combination of atrazine and cadmium, or mixtures of herbicides promoted lipid peroxidation. Iron was bioconcentrated in bees and led to high levels of lipid peroxidation. Metals also decreased zeaxanthin bee contents. These results show that mixtures of atrazine, glyphosate, cadmium and iron may affect different reactions occurring in the metabolic pathway of vitamin A in the honey bee. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simpson, Robert J; McKie, Andrew T
Iron and oxygen metabolism are intimately linked with one another. A change in the level of either metabolite results in activation of common pathways. At the heart of these responses lies a group of iron and oxygen dependent enzymes called prolyl hydroxylases. Prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) require both iron and oxygen for optimal activity and their biological activity is to carry out the critical post-translational modification of the addition of a hydroxyl group to specific proline residues within Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIFs)-well known transcription factors originally thought to regulate responses to hypoxia but which are now known to regulate key iron metabolism proteins too. The addition of the hydroxyl group ultimately leads to the unbiquitylation and destruction of HIFs, thus PHDs control appropriate HIF transcriptional responses depending on cellular oxygen or iron levels. There are two major HIFs; HIF1α and HIF2α. In terms of responses to iron HIF2α is of major importance in key tissues such as the intestine where several iron transporters (Ferroportin, Dcytb) contain HREs within their promoters which bind HIF2α. Furthermore the recent discovery that HIF2α contains a 5' iron responsive element (IRE) has underlined the importance of HIF2α as a major player in iron metabolism. This review brings together recent findings with regard to the HIF2α/IRP network as well as other aspects of iron sensing in cells and tissues.
Ervasti, Mari; Sankilampi, Ulla; Heinonen, Seppo; Punnonen, Kari
To investigate the associations between maternal iron status, pregnancy outcome and newborn iron status using sensitive and specific red blood cell indices reflecting iron-deficient erythropoiesis. Cross-sectional study in Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. One hundred and ninety-two pregnant women and their full-term newborns (cord blood). Quartile analysis and Spearman correlations were used to investigate the associations of the iron status of pregnant women with that of their newborns, and with pregnancy outcome. Maternal and cord blood analysis including indices reflecting the hemoglobin (Hb) content of red blood cells as well as serum iron, transferrin saturation, transferrin receptor and ferritin. Gestational age, birthweight and placental weight. The highest quartile of the maternal percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPOm) indicating the lowest iron status was associated with a high birthweight and a long duration of pregnancy. The newborns in this group did not show any signs of iron deficiency even though the maternal %HYPOm was elevated. In a well-nourished maternal population, lower maternal iron status did not affect the iron accumulation on the fetal side. However, longer duration of pregnancy and growth of the fetus appeared to be associated with a lower amount of iron for Hb synthesis in maternal red blood cells, as reflected by the increased maternal %HYPOm, birthweight and length of gestation.
Fernandes, Sandra Maria Rodrigues; de Morais, Mauro Batista; Amancio, Olga Maria Silverio
To verify the occurrence of occult intestinal blood loss and iron deficiency in infants aged 9 to 12 months. A consecutive sample of 98 infants of the Pediatric Public Health Primary Care Unit in the town of Arapongas, Parana State, Brazil was involved in this cross-sectional study. Dietary history, hemoglobin, serum iron, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and an occult fecal blood loss investigation, by the immune chromatographic method specific for human hemoglobin were performed. Presence of occult intestinal blood occurred in 8/23 of the breast-fed (plus complementary feed) infants and in 30/64 of the infants who were fed with cow's milk (plus complementary feed) (P=0.449). The comparison of body iron indicators in accordance to positive or negative occult fecal blood, did not show any significant difference in the 23 breast-fed infants. Serum ferritin (median=4.2 ng/mL) was significantly lower (P=0.004) in infants who received whole cow's milk and had positive occult fecal blood, than in those infants who received whole cow's milk but were without occult fecal blood (median=12.1 ng/mL). In breast-fed infants with negative occult fecal blood, iron deficiency severity is not greater than in those with positive results. In infants fed whole cow's milk, occult fecal blood loss is an aggravating factor of iron deficiency.
The provision of iron via supplementation or the fortification of foods has been shown to be effective in preventing and treating iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children. However, iron is a pro-oxidative element and can have negative effects on biological systems even at moderate amounts. An increasing number of studies have reported adverse effects of iron that was given to infants and young-children populations who initially were iron replete. These effects include decreased growth (both linear growth and weight), increased illness (usually diarrhea), interactions with other trace elements such as copper and zinc, altered gut microbiota to more pathogenic bacteria, increased inflammatory markers, and impaired cognitive and motor development. If these results can be confirmed by larger and well-controlled studies, it may have considerable programmatic implications (e.g., the necessity to screen for iron status before interventions to exclude iron-replete individuals). A lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes limits our ability to modify present supplementation and fortification strategies. This review summarizes studies on the adverse effects of iron on various outcomes; suggests possible mechanisms that may explain these observations, which are usually made in clinical studies and intervention trials; and gives examples from animal models and in vitro studies. With a better understanding of these mechanisms, it may be possible to find novel ways of providing iron in a form that causes fewer or no adverse effects even when subjects are iron replete. However, it is apparent that our understanding is limited, and research in this area is urgently needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Hubler, Merla J.; Peterson, Kristin R.; Hasty, Alyssa H.
Elevated serum ferritin and increased cellular iron concentrations are risk factors for diabetes; however, the etiology of this association is unclear. Metabolic tissues such as pancreas, liver, and adipose tissue (AT), as well as the immune cells resident in these tissues, may be involved. Recent studies demonstrate that the polarization status of macrophages has important relevance to their iron handling capabilities. Furthermore, a subset of macrophages in AT have elevated iron concentrations and a gene expression profile indicative of iron handling, a capacity diminished in obesity. Because iron overload in adipocytes increases systemic insulin resistance, iron handling by AT macrophages may have relevance not only to adipocyte iron stores but also to local and systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:25600948
Zoller, Heinz; Schaefer, Benedikt; Glodny, Bernhard
Iron-induced hypophosphatemia is a well documented side-effect but associated complications are largely neglected, because the results from single dosing studies suggest that transient decreases in plasma phosphate concentrations are asymptomatic and fully reversible. However, an increasing number of case reports and case series suggest that some patients develop severe and symptomatic hypophosphatemia. Long-term complications from hypophosphatemia include osteomalacia and bone fractures, which can result from repeated intravenous administration of certain high-dose iron preparations. Results from clinical trials suggest that the highest risk for the development of hypophosphatemia is associated with ferric carboxymaltose, iron polymaltose, and saccharated iron oxide. Clinical studies show that renal phosphate wasting mediated by increased fibroblast growth factor 23 causes hypophosphatemia after iron therapy. Impaired renal function therefore protects from hypophosphatemia, whereas the highest incidences and most severe manifestations have been reported in patients in whom the underlying cause of iron deficiency cannot be corrected. Diagnosis of iron-induced hypophosphatemia requires clinical suspicion. Treatment is guided by the severity of hypophosphatemia, and most patients will require oral or intravenous phosphate substitution. Future treatment options could involve therapeutic anti-FGF23 antibody (KRN23). Prevention and correction of vitamin D deficiency represents a supportive treatment option.
Inoue, H.; Soeda, K.; Akahori, H.; Nonomura, Y.; Yoshioka, N.
Two kinds of iron chlorophylls, i.e. (methyl pyropheophorbide a)iron(III) chloride and its bis-pyridine adduct, were prepared and characterized by57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. (Methyl pyropheophorbide a)iron(III) chloride gave an asymmetric quadrupole-split doublet typical of high-spin iron(III) chlorophylls, while its bis-pyridine adduct showed a symmetric quadrupole-split doublet characteristic of low-spin iron(II) chlorophylls. The isomer shift and quadrupole splitting obtained for (methyl pyropheophorbide a)iron(III) chloride and its bis-pyridine adduct have led to the following conclusions. The substitution of the bulky phytyl group for the methyl group hardly affects the electronic state of the iron(II,III) ion, but the elimination of the methoxycarbonyl group increases the planarity of the macrocyclic chlorin ligand.
Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...
Linkage of iron elution and dissolved oxygen consumption with removal of organic pollutants by nanoscale zero-valent iron: Effects of pH on iron dissolution and formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer.
Fujioka, Nanae; Suzuki, Moe; Kurosu, Shunji; Kawase, Yoshinori
The iron elution and dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption in organic pollutant removal by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was examined in the range of solution pH from 3.0 to 9.0. Their behaviors were linked with the removal of organic pollutant through the dissolution of iron and the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer affected strongly by solution pH and DO. As an example of organic pollutants, azo-dye Orange II was chosen in this study. The chemical composition analyses before and after reaction confirmed the corrosion of nZVI into ions, the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer on nZVI surface and the adsorption of the pollutant and its intermediates. The complete decolorization of Orange II with nZVI was accomplished very quickly. On the other hand, the total organic carbon (TOC) removal was considerably slow and the maximum TOC removal was around 40% obtained at pH 9.0. The reductive cleavage of azo-bond by emitted electrons more readily took place as compared with the cleavage of aromatic rings of Orange II leading to the degradation to smaller molecules and subsequently the mineralization. A reaction kinetic model based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood/Eley-Rideal approach was developed to elucidate mechanisms for organic pollutant removal controlled by the formation of iron oxide/hydroxide layer, the progress of which could be characterized by considering the dynamic concentration changes in Fe(2+) and DO. The dynamic profiles of Orange II removal linked with Fe(2+) and DO could be reasonably simulated in the range of pH from 3.0 to 9.0. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsuge, Y.; Nishio, T.; Iyo, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Eisaki, H.
We report a new sample synthesis technique for polycrystalline (Ca1-xNax)Fe2As2 (0
Sameshima, Daigo; Nakamura, Takashi; Horikawa, Noritaka; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Endo, Takeshi
Reducing the weight of a machine structure is an increasingly important consideration both for the conservation of resources during production and for the energy saving during operation. With these objectives in mind, thin-walled ductile cast iron has recently been developed. Because rapid cooling could result in brittle microstructure of cementite (chill) in this cast iron, it is necessary to investigate the effect of cementite on the fatigue properties. Therefore, fatigue tests were carried out on a ductile cast iron of block castings which contained a relatively small amount of cementite. Fracture surface observation indicated that the fracture origins were located at graphite clusters and cast shrinkage porosity, not at cementite. It appears that when the size of the cementite is smaller than that of the graphite, the cementite does not affect the fatigue properties of ductile cast iron. Not surprisingly, the fatigue lives were found to increase with decrease in the size of the fatigue fracture origin. The threshold initial stress intensity factor range ΔKini,th for fatigue failure was found to be about 3-4MPa√m, independent of microstructure.
Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M.; Sedlak, David L.
To gain insight into factors that control H2O2 persistence and ˙OH yield in H2O2-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H2O2 and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H2O2 decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2 to 10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H2O2 decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H2O2 on manganese oxides does not produce ˙OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO2 slowed the rate of H2O2 decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency. PMID:23047055
Pham, Anh Le-Tuan; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L
To gain insight into factors that control H(2)O(2) persistence and ·OH yield in H(2)O(2)-based in situ chemical oxidation systems, the decomposition of H(2)O(2) and transformation of phenol were investigated in the presence of iron-containing minerals and aquifer materials. Under conditions expected during remediation of soil and groundwater, the stoichiometric efficiency, defined as the amount of phenol transformed per mole of H(2)O(2) decomposed, varied from 0.005 to 0.28%. Among the iron-containing minerals, iron oxides were 2-10 times less efficient in transforming phenol than iron-containing clays and synthetic iron-containing catalysts. In both iron-containing mineral and aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was inversely correlated with the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition. In aquifer materials systems, the stoichiometric efficiency was also inversely correlated with the Mn content, consistent with the fact that the decomposition of H(2)O(2) on manganese oxides does not produce ·OH. Removal of iron and manganese oxide coatings from the surface of aquifer materials by extraction with citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials and increased the stoichiometric efficiency. In addition, the presence of 2 mM of dissolved SiO(2) slowed the rate of H(2)O(2) decomposition on aquifer materials by over 80% without affecting the stoichiometric efficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lei, Hechang; Wang, Kefeng; Hu, Rongwei; Ryu, Hyejin; Abeykoon, Milinda; Bozin, Emil S; Petrovic, Cedomir
Iron chalcogenide superconductors have become one of the most investigated superconducting materials in recent years due to high upper critical fields, competing interactions and complex electronic and magnetic phase diagrams. The structural complexity, defects and atomic site occupancies significantly affect the normal and superconducting states in these compounds. In this work we review the vortex behavior, critical current density and high magnetic field pair-breaking mechanism in iron chalcogenide superconductors. We also point to relevant structural features and normal-state properties. PMID:27877518
Lei, Cheng; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lin, Daohui
The increasing application of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), especially high concentrations of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), has raised concerns regarding their environmental behavior and potential ecological effects. In the environment, iron-based NPs undergo physical, chemical, and/or biological transformations as influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ions, dissolved oxygen, natural organic matter (NOM), and biotas. This review presents recent research advances on environmental transformations of iron-based NPs, and articulates their relationships with the observed toxicities. The type and extent of physical, chemical, and biological transformations, including aggregation, oxidation, and bio-reduction, depend on the properties of NPs and the receiving environment. Toxicities of iron-based NPs to bacteria, algae, fish, and plants are increasingly observed, which are evaluated with a particular focus on the underlying mechanisms. The toxicity of iron-based NPs is a function of their properties, tolerance of test organisms, and environmental conditions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is considered as the primary toxic mechanism of iron-based NPs. Factors influencing the toxicity of iron-based NPs are addressed and environmental transformations play a significant role, for example, surface oxidation or coating by NOM generally lowers the toxicity of nZVI. Research gaps and future directions are suggested with an aim to boost concerted research efforts on environmental transformations and toxicity of iron-based NPs, e.g., toxicity studies of transformed NPs in field, expansion of toxicity endpoints, and roles of laden contaminants and surface coating. This review will enhance our understanding of potential risks of iron-based NPs and proper uses of environmentally benign NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mehta, A; Deshpande, A; Bettedi, L; Missirlis, F
Ferritins are highly stable, multi-subunit protein complexes with iron-binding capacities that reach 4500 iron atoms per ferritin molecule. The strict dependence of cellular physiology on an adequate supply of iron cofactors has likely been a key driving force in the evolution of ferritins as iron storage molecules. The insect intestine has long been known to contain cells that are responsive to dietary iron levels and a specialized group of "iron cells" that always accumulate iron-loaded ferritin, even when no supplementary iron is added to the diet. Here, we further characterize ferritin localization in Drosophila melanogaster larvae raised under iron-enriched and iron-depleted conditions. High dietary iron intake results in ferritin accumulation in the anterior midgut, but also in garland (wreath) cells and in pericardial cells, which together filter the circulating hemolymph. Ferritin is also abundant in the brain, where levels remain unaltered following dietary iron chelation, a treatment that depletes ferritin from the aforementioned tissues. We attribute the stability of ferritin levels in the brain to the function of the blood-brain barrier that may shield this organ from systemic iron fluctuations. Most intriguingly, our dietary manipulations demonstrably iron-depleted the iron cells without a concomitant reduction in their production of ferritin. Therefore, insect iron cells may constitute an exception from the evolutionary norm with respect to iron-dependent ferritin regulation. It will be of interest to decipher both the physiological purpose served and the mechanism employed to untie ferritin regulation from cellular iron levels in this cell type.
What effects might arise from early life exposures to high iron? This review considers the specific effects of high iron on the brain, stem cells, and the process of erythropoiesis and identifies gaps in our knowledge of what molecular damage may be incurred by oxidative stress that is imparted by high iron status in early life. Specific areas to enhance research on this topic include the following: longitudinal behavioral studies of children to test associations between iron exposures and mood, emotion, cognition, and memory; animal studies to determine epigenetic changes that reprogram brain development and metabolic changes in early life that could be followed through the life course; and the establishment of human epigenetic markers of iron exposures and oxidative stress that could be monitored for early origins of adult chronic diseases. In addition, efforts to understand how iron exposure influences stem cell biology could be enhanced by establishing platforms to collect biological specimens, including umbilical cord blood and amniotic fluid, to be made available to the research community. At the molecular level, there is a need to better understand stress erythropoiesis and changes in iron metabolism during pregnancy and development, especially with respect to regulatory control under high iron conditions that might promote ineffective erythropoiesis and iron-loading anemia. These investigations should focus not only on factors such as hepcidin and erythroferrone but should also include newly identified interactions between transferrin receptor-2 and the erythropoietin receptor. Finally, despite our understanding that several key micronutrients (e.g., vitamin A, copper, manganese, and zinc) support iron's function in erythropoiesis, how these nutrients interact remains, to our knowledge, unknown. It is necessary to consider many factors when formulating recommendations on iron supplementation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Pirpamer, Lukas; Hofer, Edith; Gesierich, Benno; De Guio, François; Freudenberger, Paul; Seiler, Stephan; Duering, Marco; Jouvent, Eric; Duchesnay, Edouard; Dichgans, Martin; Ropele, Stefan; Schmidt, Reinhold
In a recent postmortem study, R2* relaxometry in gray matter (GM) of the brain has been validated as a noninvasive measure for iron content in brain tissue. Iron accumulation in the normal aging brain is a common finding and relates to brain maturation and degeneration. The goal of this study was to assess the determinants of iron accumulation during brain aging. The study cohort consisted of 314 healthy community-dwelling participants of the Austrian Stroke Prevention Study. Their age ranged from 38-82 years. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 3T and included R2* mapping, based on a 3D multi-echo gradient echo sequence. The median of R2* values was measured in all GM regions, which were segmented automatically using FreeSurfer. We investigated 25 possible determinants for cerebral iron deposition. These included demographics, brain volume, lifestyle factors, cerebrovascular risk factors, serum levels of iron, and single nucleotide polymorphisms related to iron regulating genes (rs1800562, rs3811647, rs1799945, and rs1049296). The body mass index (BMI) was significantly related to R2* in 15/32 analyzed brain regions with the strongest correlations found in the amygdala (p = 0.0091), medial temporal lobe (p = 0.0002), and hippocampus (p ≤ 0.0001). Further associations to R2* values were found in deep GM for age and smoking. No significant associations were found for gender, GM volume, serum levels of iron, or iron-associated genetic polymorphisms. In conclusion, besides age, the BMI and smoking are the only significant determinants of brain iron accumulation in normally aging subjects. Smoking relates to iron deposition in the basal ganglia, whereas higher BMI is associated with iron content in the neocortex following an Alzheimer-like distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Salgado, Wilson; Modotti, Caue; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; Ceneviva, Reginaldo
Iron deficiency and anemia are changes often associated with obesity. Bariatric surgery is responsible for increasing the iron loss and reducing its absorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency before and after bariatric surgery and to relate them to possible predisposing factors. A retrospective study was conducted on obese patients submitted to open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, in which clinical and laboratory data were obtained up to 48 months postoperatively. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of anemia and to the presence or absence of iron deficiency (even without anemia), and all data were compared between these groups. Preoperatively, 21.5% of patients had anemia and 20% had iron deficiency. The number of patients with anemia did not vary through the 4 years of the study, but ferritin levels significantly decreased with time (P<.01). Younger patients and patients with greater weight loss had a higher incidence of anemia. Female gender was a variable associated with a greater incidence of iron deficiency. Anemia and iron deficiency are frequent in obese patients and must be treated before surgery. Medical and nutritional surveillance is important in the postoperative period of bariatric surgery. Management of each condition must be directed at correcting the 2 major sources of iron deficiency and anemia: food intolerance (mostly meat intolerance) and losses (frequently due to menstruation). These are the factors more related to iron deficient anemia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L
The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.
Stephens, J. R.; Witzke, W. R.
A program was undertaken to develop an iron-base alloy having a fracture toughness of 220 MPa. m superscript 1/2 with a corresponding yield stress of 1.4 GPa (200 ksi) at-196 C. An Fe-12Ni alloy was selected as the base alloy. Factors considered included reactive metal additions, effects of interstitial impurities, strengthening mechanisms, and weldability. The goals were met in an Fe-12Ni-0.5Al alloy strengthened by thermomechanical processing or by precipitate strengthening with 2 percent Cu. The alloy is weldable with the weld metal and heat affected zone in the postweld annealed condition having toughness equivalent to the base alloy.
Wasson, John T.; Hoppe, Peter
We report a pilot study of a new technique to use the distribution of Co between kamacite and taenite to infer relative cooling rates of iron meteorites; data of Widge and Goldstein (1977) showed that the distribution is temperature dependent. A plot of the logarithm of the double ratio [(Co/Ni)kamacite/(Co/Ni)taenite] (abbreviated Rαγ) against inverse temperature yields a linear equation showing that the ratio ranges from ˜2.5 at 1080 K to ˜30 at 710 K. Thus, a measurement of Rαγ in the kamacite and taenite near the interface offers information about relative cooling rates; the higher Rαγ, the lower the cooling rate. A major advantage of this technique is that it is mainly affected by the final (low-temperature) cooling rate, just before the sample cooled to the blocking temperature where diffusion became insignificant. To test this method we used the NanoSIMS ion probe to measure Rαγ in two IVA and two IIIAB irons; members of each pair differ by large factors in elemental composition and in published metallographic cooling rates (Yang and Goldstein, 2006; Yang et al., 2008). Despite differing by a factor of 25 in estimated metallographic cooling rate, the two IVA irons showed similar Rαγ values of ˜22. If experimental uncertainties are considered this implies that, at low temperatures, their cooling rates differ by less than a factor of 5 with 95% confidence, i.e., significantly less than the range in metallographic cooling rates. In contrast, the IIIAB irons have different ratios; Rαγ in Haig is 29 whereas that in Cumpas, with a reported cooling rate 4.5 times lower, is 22, the opposite of that expected from the published cooling rates. A reevaluation of the Yang-Goldstein IIIAB data set shows that Haig has anomalous metallographic properties. We suggest that both the high Rαγ in Haig and the systematically low taenite central Ni contents are the result of impact-produced fractures in the taenite that allowed equilibration with kamacite down to
Kautz, Léon; Gabayan, Victoria; Wang, Xuping; Wu, Judy; Onwuzurike, James; Jung, Grace; Qiao, Bo; Lusis, Aldons J.; Ganz, Tomas; Nemeth, Elizabeta
SUMMARY Hepcidin, the iron-regulatory hormone and acute phase reactant, is proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by promoting iron accumulation in plaque macrophages, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation in the plaque (the “iron hypothesis”). Hepcidin and iron may thus represent modifiable risk factors in atherosclerosis. We measured hepcidin expression in Apoe−/− mice with varying diets and ages. To assess the role of macrophage iron in atherosclerosis, we generated Apoe−/− mice with macrophage-specific iron accumulation by introducing the ferroportin ffe mutation. Macrophage iron loading was also enhanced by intravenous iron injection. Contrary to the iron hypothesis, we found that hepatic hepcidin expression was not increased at any stage of the atherosclerosis progression in Apoe−/− or Apoe/ffe mice and the atherosclerotic plaque size was not increased in mice with elevated macrophage iron. Our results strongly argue against any significant role of macrophage iron in atherosclerosis progression in mice. PMID:24316081
Anand, Gurpreet; Schmid, Christoph
Iron deficiency is common and can be effectively treated with parenteral iron infusion. We report a case of an iron-deficient and vitamin D-deficient woman who developed severe symptomatic hypophosphataemia following intravenous ferric carboxymaltose administration. We stress the need of increased awareness of this potential complication among physicians. Patients should be informed of this complication and instructed to report for follow-up if they experience new musculoskeletal symptoms or worsening of tiredness. As severe hypophosphataemia is usually symptomatic, we recommend screening symptomatic patients for this complication. Recognising and treating the possible exacerbating factors, especially vitamin D deficiency, might be a simple measure to mitigate this complication. PMID:28289000
Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria
Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.
Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel
The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...
Kurucz, Vivien; Krüger, Thomas; Antal, Károly; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Haas, Hubertus; Pócsi, István; Kniemeyer, Olaf; Emri, Tamás
Aspergillus fumigatus has to cope with a combination of several stress types while colonizing the human body. A functional interplay between these different stress responses can increase the chances of survival for this opportunistic human pathogen during the invasion of its host. In this study, we shed light on how the H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative stress response depends on the iron available to this filamentous fungus, using transcriptomic analysis, proteomic profiles, and growth assays. The applied H 2 O 2 treatment, which induced only a negligible stress response in iron-replete cultures, deleteriously affected the fungus under iron deprivation. The majority of stress-induced changes in gene and protein expression was not predictable from data coming from individual stress exposure and was only characteristic for the combination of oxidative stress plus iron deprivation. Our experimental data suggest that the physiological effects of combined stresses and the survival of the fungus highly depend on fragile balances between economization of iron and production of essential iron-containing proteins. One observed strategy was the overproduction of iron-independent antioxidant proteins to combat oxidative stress during iron deprivation, e.g. the upregulation of superoxide dismutase Sod1, the thioredoxin reductase Trr1, and the thioredoxin orthologue Afu5g11320. On the other hand, oxidative stress induction overruled iron deprivation-mediated repression of several genes. In agreement with the gene expression data, growth studies underlined that in A. fumigatus iron deprivation aggravates oxidative stress susceptibility. Our data demonstrate that studying stress responses under separate single stress conditions is not sufficient to understand how A. fumigatus adapts in a complex and hostile habitat like the human body. The combinatorial stress of iron depletion and hydrogen peroxide caused clear non-additive effects upon the stress response of A. fumigatus. Our data
The World Health Organization states that the lack of micronutrients such as zinc and iron represents a major threat to the health and development of populations around the world. Iron deficiency affects over 2 billion people, in particular children and pregnant women in developing countries. A comm...
Ware, Hannah M; Kwiatkowski, Janet L
Red blood cell transfusions are increasingly used in the management of various anemias, including thalassemia and sickle cell disease. Because the body lacks physiologic mechanisms for removing excess iron, transfusional iron overload is a common complication in children receiving regular transfusions. Iron chelation is necessary to remove the excess iron that causes injury to the heart, liver, and endocrine organs. Three chelators, deferoxamine, deferasirox, and deferiprone, are currently available in the United States. When choosing a chelator regimen, patients, parents, and providers may consider a variety of factors, including the severity of iron overload, administration schedule, and adverse effect profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bradman, A; Eskenazi, B; Sutton, P; Athanasoulis, M; Goldman, L R
The evidence that iron deficiency increases lead child exposure is based primarily on animal data and limited human studies, and some of this evidence is contradictory. No studies of iron status and blood lead levels in children have accounted for environmental lead contamination and, therefore, the source of their exposure. Thus, no studies have directly determined whether iron deficiency modifies the relationship of environmental lead and blood lead. In this study, we compared blood lead levels of iron-deficient and iron-replete children living in low, medium, or highly contaminated environments. Measurements of lead in paint, soil, dust, and blood, age of housing, and iron status were collected from 319 children ages 1-5. We developed two lead exposure factors to summarize the correlated exposure variables: Factor 1 summarized all environmental measures, and Factor 2 was weighted for lead loading of house dust. The geometric mean blood lead level was 4.9 microg/dL; 14% exceeded 10 microg/dL. Many of the children were iron deficient (24% with ferritin < 12 ng/dL). Seventeen percent of soil leads exceeded 500 microg/g, and 23% and 63% of interior and exterior paint samples exceeded 5,000 microg/g. The unadjusted geometric mean blood lead level for iron-deficient children was higher by 1 microg/dL; this difference was greater (1.8 microg/dL) after excluding Asians. Blood lead levels were higher for iron-deficient children for each tertile of exposure as estimated by Factors 1 and 2 for non-Asian children. Elevated blood lead among iron-deficient children persisted after adjusting for potential confounders by multivariate regression; the largest difference in blood lead levels between iron-deficient and -replete children, approximately 3 microg/dL, was among those living in the most contaminated environments. Asian children had a paradoxical association of sufficient iron status and higher blood lead level, which warrants further investigation. Improving iron status
Berglund, Staffan K; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus
Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants (<2500 g) have an increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) during their first 6 months of life. The optimal dose and duration of iron supplementation to LBW infants are, however, unknown. The objective of the present study was to investigate the long-term effect on iron status and growth in marginally LBW (2000-2500 g) infants, of iron supplements given until 6 months of life. In a randomized controlled trial, 285 healthy marginally LBW infants received 0, 1, or 2 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) of iron supplements from 6 weeks to 6 months of age. At 12 months and 3.5 years of life we measured length, weight, head circumference, and indicators of iron status (hemoglobin, ferritin, mean corpuscular volume, and transferrin saturation) and assessed the prevalence of iron depletion, functional ID, and ID anemia. At 12 months of age, there was a significant difference in ferritin between the groups (P = 0.006). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in the prevalence of iron depletion (23.7%, 10.6%, and 6.8%, respectively, in the placebo, 1-mg, and 2-mg groups, P = 0.009) and similar nonsignificant trends for functional ID and ID anemia. At 3.5 years of life there were no significant differences in iron status and the mean prevalence of iron depletion was 3.2%. Anthropometric data were not affected by the intervention. Iron supplements with 2 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1) until 6 months of life effectively reduces the risk of ID during the first 12 months of life and is an effective intervention for preventing early ID in marginally LBW infants.
Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.
Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ≥ 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307. PMID:22701388
Many factors contribute to student achievement. This study focuses on three areas: how students learn, how student personality type affects performance, and how course format affects performance outcomes. The analysis sought to improve understandin