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Sample records for factors affecting iron

  1. [Factors affecting biological removal of iron and manganese in groundwater].

    PubMed

    Xue, Gang; He, Sheng-Bing; Wang, Xin-Ze

    2006-01-01

    Factors affecting biological process for removing iron and manganese in groundwater were analyzed. When DO and pH in groundwater after aeration were 7.0 - 7.5 mg/L and 6.8 - 7.0 respectively, not only can the activation of Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria be maintained, but also the demand of iron and manganese removal can be satisfied. A novel inoculating approach of grafting mature filter material into filter bed, which is easier to handle than selective culture media, was employed in this research. However, this approach was only suitable to the filter material of high-quality manganese sand with strong Mn2+ adsorption capacity. For the filter material of quartz sand with weak adsorption capacity, only culturing and domesticating Mn2+ oxidizing bacteria by selective culture media can be adopted as inoculation in filter bed. The optimal backwashing rate of biological filter bed filled with manganese sand and quartz sand should be kept at a relatively low level of 6 - 9 L/(m2 x s) and 7 -11 L/( m2 x s), respectively. Then the stability of microbial phase in filter bed was not disturbed, and iron and manganese removal efficiency recovered in less than 5h. Moreover, by using filter material with uniform particle size of 1.0 - 1.2 mm in filter bed, the filtration cycle reached as long as 35 - 38h.

  2. Environmental Factors Affecting Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Huang, S.; Ruiz-Urigüen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. Through a 180-day anaerobic incubation experiment, and using PCR-DGGE, 454-pyosequecing and qPCR analysis, we have shown that an Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, might be either responsible or plays a key role in the Feammox process, We have enriched these Feammox bacteria (65.8% in terms of cell numbers) in a membrane reactor, and isolated the pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain in an autotrophic medium. In samples collected and then incubated from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments, Feammox activity was only detected in acidic soil environments that contain Fe oxides. Using primers we developed for this purpose, Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in all incubations where Feammox was observed. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. Feammox was still proceeding at pH as low as 2. In Feammox culture amended with different Fe(III) sources, Feammox reaction proceeded only when Fe oxides (ferrihydrite or goethite ) were supplied, whereas samples incubated with ferric chloride or ferric citrate showed no measurable NH4+ oxidation. Furthermore, we have also determined from incubation experiments conducted with a temperature gradient (10 ~ 35℃), that the Feammox process was active when the temperature is above 15℃, and the optimal temperature is 20℃. Incubations of enrichment culture with 79% Feammox bacteria appeared to remove circa 8% more NH4+ at 20ºC than at

  3. Multiple factors affect diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in iron mine soil.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yi; Si, Yan-Xiao; Hong, Chen; Li, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia oxidation by microorganisms is a critical process in the nitrogen cycle. In this study, four soil samples collected from a desert zone in an iron-exploration area and others from farmland and planted forest soil in an iron mine surrounding area. We analyzed the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in iron-mining area near the Miyun reservoir using ammonia monooxygenase. A subunit gene (amoA) as molecular biomarker. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was applied to explore the relationships between the abundance of AOA and AOB and soil physicochemical parameters. The results showed that AOA were more abundant than AOB and may play a more dominant role in the ammonia-oxidizing process in the whole region. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to analyze the structural changes of AOA and AOB. The results showed that AOB were much more diverse than AOA. Nitrosospira cluster three constitute the majority of AOB, and AOA were dominated by group 1.1b in the soil. Redundancy analysis was performed to explore the physicochemical parameters potentially important to AOA and AOB. Soil characteristics (i.e. water, ammonia, organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and soil type) were proposed to potentially contribute to the distributions of AOB, whereas Cd was also closely correlated to the distributions of AOB. The community of AOA correlated with ammonium and water contents. These results highlight the importance of multiple drivers in microbial niche formation as well as their affect on ammonia oxidizer composition, both which have significant consequences for ecosystem nitrogen functioning.

  4. Factors affecting the open-circuit voltage and electrode kinetics of some iron/titanium redox flow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Gahn, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Performance of the iron-titanium redox flow cell was studied as a function of acid concentration. Anion permeable membranes separated the compartments. Electrodes were graphite cloth. Current densities ranged up to 25 mA/square centimeter. Open-circuit and load voltages decreased as the acidity was increased on the iron side as predicted. On the titanium side, open-circuit voltages decreased as the acidity was increased in agreement with theory, but load voltages increased due to decreased polarization with increasing acidity. High acidity on the titanium side coupled with low acidity on the iron side gives the best load voltage, but such cells show voltage losses as they are repeatedly cycled. Analyses show that the bulk of the voltage losses are due to diffusion of acid through the membrane.

  5. Factors affecting the open-circuit voltage and electrode kinetics of some iron/titanium/redox flow cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, M. A.; Gahn, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of acid concentration on the performance of the iron-titanium redox flow cell was studied. When the acidity was increased, open-circuit voltages decreased on the titanium side but load voltages increased due to decreased polarization. The best load voltage occurs when there is high acidity on the titanium side coupled with low acidity on the iron side, but such cells show voltage losses with repeated cycling because of the diffusion of acid through the membrane. No membrane tested has been found capable of maintaining the differences in acidity. Chelating agents show some promise in reducing polarization at the Ti electrode and thus improving energy efficiency.

  6. Factors affecting sign retroreflectivity

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to better understand the factors that may affect road sign retroreflectivity, specifically age and physical orientation. A better understanding of these factors could provide guidance to ODOT in managing its inventory of roa...

  7. Global Identification of Genes Affecting Iron-Sulfur Cluster Biogenesis and Iron Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hidese, Ryota; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are ubiquitous cofactors that are crucial for many physiological processes in all organisms. In Escherichia coli, assembly of Fe-S clusters depends on the activity of the iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly and sulfur mobilization (SUF) apparatus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and the mechanisms that control Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis are still poorly defined. In this study, we performed a global screen to identify the factors affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis using the Keio collection, which is a library of 3,815 single-gene E. coli knockout mutants. The approach was based on radiolabeling of the cells with [2-14C]dihydrouracil, which entirely depends on the activity of an Fe-S enzyme, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase. We identified 49 genes affecting Fe-S cluster biogenesis and/or iron homeostasis, including 23 genes important only under microaerobic/anaerobic conditions. This study defines key proteins associated with Fe-S cluster biogenesis and iron homeostasis, which will aid further understanding of the cellular mechanisms that coordinate the processes. In addition, we applied the [2-14C]dihydrouracil-labeling method to analyze the role of amino acid residues of an Fe-S cluster assembly scaffold (IscU) as a model of the Fe-S cluster assembly apparatus. The analysis showed that Cys37, Cys63, His105, and Cys106 are essential for the function of IscU in vivo, demonstrating the potential of the method to investigate in vivo function of proteins involved in Fe-S cluster assembly. PMID:24415728

  8. Factors Affecting Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S.; DiPietro, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds. PMID:20139336

  9. Factors affecting wound healing.

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Dipietro, L A

    2010-03-01

    Wound healing, as a normal biological process in the human body, is achieved through four precisely and highly programmed phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. For a wound to heal successfully, all four phases must occur in the proper sequence and time frame. Many factors can interfere with one or more phases of this process, thus causing improper or impaired wound healing. This article reviews the recent literature on the most significant factors that affect cutaneous wound healing and the potential cellular and/or molecular mechanisms involved. The factors discussed include oxygenation, infection, age and sex hormones, stress, diabetes, obesity, medications, alcoholism, smoking, and nutrition. A better understanding of the influence of these factors on repair may lead to therapeutics that improve wound healing and resolve impaired wounds.

  10. Factors affecting alkali jarosite precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrizac, J. E.

    1983-12-01

    Several factors affecting the precipitation of the alkali jarosites (sodium jarosite, potassium jarosite, rubidium jarosite, and ammonium jarosite) have been studied systematically using sodium jarosite as the model. The pH of the reacting solution exercises a major influence on the amount of jarosite formed, but has little effect on the composition of the washed product. Higher temperatures significantly increase the yield and slightly raise the alkali content of the jarosites. The yield and alkali content both increase greatly with the alkali concentration to about twice the stoichiometric requirement but, thereafter, remain nearly constant. At 97 °C, the amount of product increases with longer retention times to about 15 hours, but more prolonged reaction times are without significant effect on the amount or composition of the jarosite. Factors such as the presence of seed or ionic strength have little effect on the yield or jarosite composition. The amount of precipitate augments directly as the iron concentration of the solution increases, but the product composition is nearly independent of this variable. A significant degree of agitation is necessary to suspend the product and to prevent the jarosite from coating the apparatus with correspondingly small yields. Once the product is adequately suspended, however, further agitation is without significant effect. The partitioning of alkali ions during jarosite precipitation was ascertained for K:Na, Na:NH4, K:NH4, and K:Rb. Potassium jarosite is the most stable of the alkali jarosites and the stability falls systematically for lighter or heavier congeners; ammonium jarosite is slightly more stable than the sodium analogue. Complete solid solubility among the various alkali jarosite-type compounds was established.

  11. HFE gene variants affect iron in the brain.

    PubMed

    Nandar, Wint; Connor, James R

    2011-04-01

    Iron accumulation in the brain and increased oxidative stress are consistent observations in many neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, we have begun examination into gene mutations or allelic variants that could be associated with loss of iron homeostasis. One of the mechanisms leading to iron overload is a mutation in the HFE gene, which is involved in iron metabolism. The 2 most common HFE gene variants are C282Y (1.9%) and H63D (8.9%). The C282Y HFE variant is more commonly associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, which is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by iron overload in a number of systemic organs. The H63D HFE variant appears less frequently associated with hemochromatosis, but its role in the neurodegenerative diseases has received more attention. At the cellular level, the HFE mutant protein resulting from the H63D HFE gene variant is associated with iron dyshomeostasis, increased oxidative stress, glutamate release, tau phosphorylation, and alteration in inflammatory response, each of which is under investigation as a contributing factor to neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the HFE gene variants are proposed to be genetic modifiers or a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases by establishing an enabling milieu for pathogenic agents. This review will discuss the current knowledge of the association of the HFE gene variants with neurodegenerative diseases: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and ischemic stroke. Importantly, the data herein also begin to dispel the long-held view that the brain is protected from iron accumulation associated with the HFE mutations.

  12. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Julia L; O'Brien, Kimberly O; Abrams, Steven A; Zavaleta, Nelly

    2013-12-01

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired iron-absorption (⁵⁸Fe) studies were conducted in 59 exclusively breastfed Peruvian infants at 2-3 mo of age (2M) and 5-6 mo of age (5M). Infants were born to women who received ≥ 5100 or ≤ 1320 mg supplemental prenatal Fe. Iron status was assessed in mothers and infants at 2M and 5M. Infant iron absorption from breast milk averaged 7.1% and 13.9% at 2M and 5M. Maternal iron status (at 2M) predicted infant iron deficiency (ID) at 5M. Although no infants were iron deficient at 2M, 28.6% of infants had depleted iron stores (ferritin concentration <12 μg/L) by 5M. Infant serum ferritin decreased (P < 0.0001), serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) increased (P < 0.0001), and serum iron decreased from 2M to 5M (P < 0.01). Higher infant sTfR (P < 0.01) and breast-milk copper (P < 0.01) predicted increased iron absorption at 5M. Prenatal iron supplementation had no effects on infant iron status or breast-milk nutrient concentrations at 2M or 5M. However, fetal iron exposure predicted increased infant length at 2M (P < 0.01) and 5M (P < 0.05). Fetal iron exposure affected early infant growth but did not significantly improve iron status or absorption. Young, exclusively breastfed infants upregulated iron absorption when iron stores were depleted at both 2M and 5M.

  13. Co-regulation of Iron Metabolism and Virulence Associated Functions by Iron and XibR, a Novel Iron Binding Transcription Factor, in the Plant Pathogen Xanthomonas

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sheo Shankar; Patnana, Pradeep Kumar; Lomada, Santosh Kumar; Tomar, Archana; Chatterjee, Subhadeep

    2016-01-01

    Abilities of bacterial pathogens to adapt to the iron limitation present in hosts is critical to their virulence. Bacterial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to coordinately regulate iron metabolism and virulence associated functions to maintain iron homeostasis in response to changing iron availability in the environment. In many bacteria the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) functions as transcription factor that utilize ferrous form of iron as cofactor to regulate transcription of iron metabolism and many cellular functions. However, mechanisms of fine-tuning and coordinated regulation of virulence associated function beyond iron and Fur-Fe2+ remain undefined. In this study, we show that a novel transcriptional regulator XibR (named X anthomonas iron binding regulator) of the NtrC family, is required for fine-tuning and co-coordinately regulating the expression of several iron regulated genes and virulence associated functions in phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc). Genome wide expression analysis of iron-starvation stimulon and XibR regulon, GUS assays, genetic and functional studies of xibR mutant revealed that XibR positively regulates functions involved in iron storage and uptake, chemotaxis, motility and negatively regulates siderophore production, in response to iron. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by quantitative real-time PCR indicated that iron promoted binding of the XibR to the upstream regulatory sequence of operon’s involved in chemotaxis and motility. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed that purified XibR bound ferric form of iron. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay revealed that iron positively affected the binding of XibR to the upstream regulatory sequences of the target virulence genes, an effect that was reversed by ferric iron chelator deferoxamine. Taken together, these data revealed that how XibR coordinately regulates virulence associated and iron metabolism functions in Xanthomonads in

  14. Factors Affecting Medical Service Quality.

    PubMed

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    A better understanding of factors influencing quality of medical service can pinpoint better strategies for quality assurance in medical services. This study aimed to identify factors affecting the quality of medical services provided by Iranian physicians. Exploratory in-depth individual interviews were conducted with sixty-four physicians working in various medical institutions in Iran. Individual, organizational and environmental factors enhance or inhibit the quality of medical services. Quality of medical services depends on the personal factors of the physician and patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare setting and the broader environment. Differences in internal and external factors such as availability of resources, patient cooperation and collaboration among providers affect the quality of medical services and patient outcomes. Supportive leadership, proper planning, education and training and effective management of resources and processes improve the quality of medical services. This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework for understanding factors that influence medical services quality.

  15. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  16. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON FOUNDRIES - CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report lists criteria and toxic pollutant emission factors or sources commonly found in gray and ductile iron foundries. Emission factors are identified for process source and process fugitive emissions. he emission factors, representing uncontrolled emissions, may be used to...

  17. Relationship of dietary factors with dialyzable iron and in vitro iron bioavailability in the meals of farm women.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anamika; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Hapreet

    2016-04-01

    Sixty rural women with age varying between 25 and 35 were selected randomly to determine the role of dietary factors on bioavailability of iron in their diets. Food samples of selected subjects were collected for three major meals i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner for three consecutive days. The samples were analyzed for meal constituents associated with iron absorption as well as for total and dialyzable iron. Based on dietary characteristics, the diets of the farm women were in the class of intermediate diets as per FAO/WHO classification with iron bioavailability of 8.11 %. The statistical analysis revealed that the meal constituents which were found to influence iron absorption positively were ascorbic acid and β-carotene in breakfast and only β-carotene in dinner. The meal constituents which affected iron absorption negatively were zinc and calcium in breakfast as well as lunch and phytates and NDF in dinner, however, polyphenols present in the meals of the subjects did not show any relationship with iron absorption.

  18. Factors affecting rotator cuff healing.

    PubMed

    Mall, Nathan A; Tanaka, Miho J; Choi, Luke S; Paletta, George A

    2014-05-07

    Several studies have noted that increasing age is a significant factor for diminished rotator cuff healing, while biomechanical studies have suggested the reason for this may be an inferior healing environment in older patients. Larger tears and fatty infiltration or atrophy negatively affect rotator cuff healing. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair, double-row repairs, performing a concomitant acromioplasty, and the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) do not demonstrate an improvement in structural healing over mini-open rotator cuff repairs, single-row repairs, not performing an acromioplasty, or not using PRP. There is conflicting evidence to support postoperative rehabilitation protocols using early motion over immobilization following rotator cuff repair.

  19. Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Link Iron Homeostasis and Erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Yatrik M.; Xie, Liwei

    2014-01-01

    Iron is required for efficient oxygen transport, and hypoxia signaling links erythropoiesis with iron homeostasis. Hypoxia induces a highly conserved signaling pathway in cells under conditions of low O2. One component of this pathway, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), is a transcription factor that is highly active in hypoxic cells. The first HIF target gene characterized was EPO, which encodes erythropoietin—a glycoprotein hormone that controls erythropoiesis. The past decade has led to fundamental advances in our understanding of how hypoxia regulates iron levels to support erythropoiesis and maintain systemic iron homeostasis. We review the cell-type specific effects of hypoxia and HIFs in adaptive response to changes in oxygen and iron availability, as well as potential uses of HIF modulators for patients with iron-related disorders. PMID:24389303

  20. A Role for Iron-Sulfur Clusters in the Regulation of Transcription Factor Yap5-dependent High Iron Transcriptional Responses in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liangtao; Miao, Ren; Bertram, Sophie; Jia, Xuan; Ward, Diane M.; Kaplan, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Yeast respond to increased cytosolic iron by activating the transcription factor Yap5 increasing transcription of CCC1, which encodes a vacuolar iron importer. Using a genetic screen to identify genes involved in Yap5 iron sensing, we discovered that a mutation in SSQ1, which encodes a mitochondrial chaperone involved in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis, prevented expression of Yap5 target genes. We demonstrated that mutation or reduced expression of other genes involved in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster synthesis (YFH1, ISU1) prevented induction of the Yap5 response. We took advantage of the iron-dependent catalytic activity of Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase expressed in yeast to measure changes in cytosolic iron. We determined that reductions in iron-sulfur cluster synthesis did not affect the activity of cytosolic gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase. We show that loss of activity of the cytosolic iron-sulfur cluster assembly complex proteins or deletion of cytosolic glutaredoxins did not reduce expression of Yap5 target genes. These results suggest that the high iron transcriptional response, as well as the low iron transcriptional response, senses iron-sulfur clusters. PMID:22915593

  1. Factors Affecting Radiologist's PACS Usage.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Daniel; Rosipko, Beverly; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if any of the factors radiologist, examination category, time of week, and week effect PACS usage, with PACS usage defined as the sequential order of computer commands issued by a radiologist in a PACS during interpretation and dictation. We initially hypothesized that only radiologist and examination category would have significant effects on PACS usage. Command logs covering 8 weeks of PACS usage were analyzed. For each command trace (describing performed activities of an attending radiologist interpreting a single examination), the PACS usage variables number of commands, number of command classes, bigram repetitiveness, and time to read were extracted. Generalized linear models were used to determine the significance of the factors on the PACS usage variables. The statistical results confirmed the initial hypothesis that radiologist and examination category affect PACS usage and that the factors week and time of week to a large extent have no significant effect. As such, this work provides direction for continued efforts to analyze system data to better understand PACS utilization, which in turn can provide input to enable optimal utilization and configuration of corresponding systems. These continued efforts were, in this work, exemplified by a more detailed analysis using PACS usage profiles, which revealed insights directly applicable to improve PACS utilization through modified system configuration.

  2. Factors affecting radiographers' organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, Duane; Jackowski, Melissa B; Legg, Jeffrey S

    2007-01-01

    A variety of factors influence employees' attitudes toward their workplace and commitment to the organization that employs them. However, these factors have not been well documented among radiologic technologists. To determine the predictive ability of selected organizational, leadership, work-role and demographic variables on organizational commitment for a national sample of radiographers. Three thousand radiographers registered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists working full time in clinical settings were surveyed by mail regarding their commitment to their employers, leadership within the organization that employs them, employer support and demographic information. Overall, radiographers were found to have only a moderate level of commitment to their employers. Among the factors that significantly affected commitment were the radiographer's educational level, perceived level of organizational support, role clarity and organizational leadership. The results of this study could provide managers and supervisors with insights on how to empower and challenge radiographers and offer opportunities that will enhance radiographers' commitment to the organization, thus reducing costly turnover and improving employee performance.

  3. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Iron Deficiency Anemia and Iron Depletion During Pregnancy: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gomes da Costa, Ana; Vargas, Sara; Clode, Nuno; M Graça, Luís

    2016-09-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency during pregnancy are a worldwide concern and are more frequent among women of reproductive age, pregnant women, and young children. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia and the risk factors for iron depletion during the first half of pregnancy, in a Portuguese population. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary hospital and included pregnant women, until the 20th week of gestation. Data was collected regarding demographic and pregnancy features and hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations were determined. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify potential risk factors for iron deficiency. Two hundred and one women were included, from which five (2.49%) presented anemia. Additionally, 77 (38.3%) exhibited iron deficiency and 22 (10.9%) revealed severe iron depletion. Maternal age was the only risk factor identified. The odds ratio (OR) was equal to 12.99 (95% CI 2.41 - 70.0) for women under twenty years of age and 2.09 (95% CI 1.05 - 4.14) for women older than thirty years of age. The prevalence of maternal anemia in the first half of pregnancy was lower than in other studies. However, more than one-third of the women exhibited iron deficiency. With the exception of maternal age, no other risk factors were identified.

  4. Obesity as an Emerging Risk Factor for Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Elmar; Feldman, Alexandra; Datz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the “dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)”. Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity. PMID:25215659

  5. Obesity as an emerging risk factor for iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Elmar; Feldman, Alexandra; Datz, Christian

    2014-09-11

    Iron homeostasis is affected by obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance in a many-facetted fashion. On one hand, iron deficiency and anemia are frequent findings in subjects with progressed stages of obesity. This phenomenon has been well studied in obese adolescents, women and subjects undergoing bariatric surgery. On the other hand, hyperferritinemia with normal or mildly elevated transferrin saturation is observed in approximately one-third of patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This constellation has been named the "dysmetabolic iron overload syndrome (DIOS)". Both elevated body iron stores and iron deficiency are detrimental to health and to the course of obesity-related conditions. Iron deficiency and anemia may impair mitochondrial and cellular energy homeostasis and further increase inactivity and fatigue of obese subjects. Obesity-associated inflammation is tightly linked to iron deficiency and involves impaired duodenal iron absorption associated with low expression of duodenal ferroportin (FPN) along with elevated hepcidin concentrations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the dysregulation of iron homeostasis in obesity.

  6. Factors affecting dental service quality.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Ravangard, Ramin; Baldacchino, Donia

    2015-01-01

    Measuring dental clinic service quality is the first and most important factor in improving care. The quality provided plays an important role in patient satisfaction. The purpose of this paper is to identify factors affecting dental service quality from the patients' viewpoint. This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted in a dental clinic in Tehran between January and June 2014. A sample of 385 patients was selected from two work shifts using stratified sampling proportional to size and simple random sampling methods. The data were collected, a self-administered questionnaire designed for the purpose of the study, based on the Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model of service quality which consisted of two parts: the patients' demographic characteristics and a 30-item questionnaire to measure the five dimensions of the service quality. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 21.0 and Amos 18.0 through some descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, as well as analytical methods, including confirmatory factor. Results showed that the correlation coefficients for all dimensions were higher than 0.5. In this model, assurance (regression weight=0.99) and tangibility (regression weight=0.86) had, respectively, the highest and lowest effects on dental service quality. The Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model is suitable to measure quality in dental services. The variables related to dental services quality have been made according to the model. This is a pioneering study that uses Parasuraman and Zeithaml's model and CFA in a dental setting. This study provides useful insights and guidance for dental service quality assurance.

  7. Prebiotics increase heme iron bioavailability and do not affect non-heme iron bioavailability in humans.

    PubMed

    Weinborn, Valerie; Valenzuela, Carolina; Olivares, Manuel; Arredondo, Miguel; Weill, Ricardo; Pizarro, Fernando

    2017-05-24

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect of a prebiotic mix on heme and non-heme iron (Fe) bioavailability in humans. To this purpose, twenty-four healthy women were randomized into one of two study groups. One group ate one yogurt per day for 12 days with a prebiotic mix (prebiotic group) and the other group received the same yogurt but without the prebiotic mix (control group). Before and after the intake period, the subjects participated in Fe absorption studies. These studies used 55 Fe and 59 Fe radioactive isotopes as markers of heme Fe and non-heme Fe, respectively, and Fe absorption was measured by the incorporation of radioactive Fe into erythrocytes. The results showed that there were no significant differences in heme and non-heme Fe bioavailability in the control group. Heme Fe bioavailability of the prebiotic group increased significantly by 56% post-prebiotic intake. There were no significant differences in non-heme Fe bioavailability in this group. We concluded that daily consumption of a prebiotic mix increases heme Fe bioavailability and does not affect non-heme iron bioavailability.

  8. Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Beratis, S; Katrivanou, A; Gourzis, P

    2001-01-01

    There is an increased frequency of smoking among patients with schizophrenia. However, it is unknown whether the smoking behavior of the patients is similar in all schizophrenia subtypes, as well as which is the relationship between smoking initiation and disease onset. Four hundred six patients with DSM-IV schizophrenia were interviewed to determine the smoking status in relationship to gender and schizophrenic subtype, and to other factors that could affect or be affected by smoking. The frequency of smoking among patients (58%) was significantly greater than in subjects from the general population (42%) (P =.000005). Male patients smoked significantly more frequently (70%) than the corresponding control subjects (50%) (P =.000006), whereas the difference failed to reach significance between female patients (41%) and control subjects (32%). Among male patients, the number of smokers was significantly greater than in the controls in the paranoid (77%), undifferentiated (72%), and residual (78%) subtypes, whereas there was no significant difference in the disorganized (44%) and catatonic (22%) subtypes. The findings show that the frequency of smoking in schizophrenia patients increases with increasing positive symptoms and decreases with increasing negative symptoms. Male and female smoking patients consumed approximately 10 cigarettes per day more than the corresponding control subjects (P <.000001). In 86% of the patients, smoking initiation occurred before the disease onset. Among patients who smoked, smoking initiation and disease onset occurred at age 18.7 +/- 4.4 and 24.1 +/- 6.1 years, respectively (P <.000001). It appears that smoking in schizophrenia is influenced by gender and subtype. However, the nature of this association remains uncertain because in the vast majority of the patients smoking initiation occurs earlier than the disease onset. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company

  9. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxu; Lin, Jintai; Ni, Ruijing

    2016-04-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant a large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RF of aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissions per unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size. South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions, its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency. The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is lowered by a small per capita GDP. Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The

  10. Factors Affecting Aerosol Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Lin, J.; Ni, R.

    2016-12-01

    Rapid industrial and economic growth has meant large amount of aerosols in the atmosphere with strong radiative forcing (RF) upon the climate system. Over parts of the globe, the negative forcing of aerosols has overcompensated for the positive forcing of greenhouse gases. Aerosol RF is determined by emissions and various chemical-transport-radiative processes in the atmosphere, a multi-factor problem whose individual contributors have not been well quantified. In this study, we analyze the major factors affecting RF of secondary inorganic aerosols (SIOAs, including sulfate, nitrate and ammonium), primary organic aerosol (POA), and black carbon (BC). We analyze the RFof aerosols produced by 11 major regions across the globe, including but not limited to East Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, North America, and Western Europe. Factors analyzed include population size, per capita gross domestic production (GDP), emission intensity (i.e., emissionsper unit GDP), chemical efficiency (i.e., mass per unit emissions) and radiative efficiency (i.e., RF per unit mass). We find that among the 11 regions, East Asia produces the largest emissions and aerosol RF, due to relatively high emission intensity and a tremendous population size.South Asia produce the second largest RF of SIOA and BC and the highest RF of POA, in part due to its highest chemical efficiency among all regions. Although Southeast Asia also has large emissions,its aerosol RF is alleviated by its lowest chemical efficiency.The chemical efficiency and radiative efficiency of BC produced by the Middle East-North Africa are the highest across the regions, whereas its RF is loweredbyasmall per capita GDP.Both North America and Western Europe have low emission intensity, compensating for the effects on RF of large population sizes and per capita GDP. There has been a momentum to transfer industries to Southeast Asia and South Asia, and such transition is expected to continue in the coming years. The resulting

  11. Oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles affects iron absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Gretchen J.; Esch, Mandy B.; Tako, Elad; Southard, Teresa L.; Archer, Shivaun D.; Glahn, Raymond P.; Shuler, Michael L.

    2012-04-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles in food and pharmaceuticals is expected to increase, but the impact of chronic oral exposure to nanoparticles on human health remains unknown. Here, we show that chronic and acute oral exposure to polystyrene nanoparticles can influence iron uptake and iron transport in an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and an in vivo chicken intestinal loop model. Intestinal cells that are exposed to high doses of nanoparticles showed increased iron transport due to nanoparticle disruption of the cell membrane. Chickens acutely exposed to carboxylated particles (50 nm in diameter) had a lower iron absorption than unexposed or chronically exposed birds. Chronic exposure caused remodelling of the intestinal villi, which increased the surface area available for iron absorption. The agreement between the in vitro and in vivo results suggests that our in vitro intestinal epithelium model is potentially useful for toxicology studies.

  12. Human calprotectin affects the redox speciation of iron.

    PubMed

    Nakashige, Toshiki G; Nolan, Elizabeth M

    2017-08-16

    We report that the metal-sequestering human host-defense protein calprotectin (CP, S100A8/S100A9 oligomer) affects the redox speciation of iron (Fe) in bacterial growth media and buffered aqueous solution. Under aerobic conditions and in the absence of an exogenous reducing agent, CP-Ser (S100A8(C42S)/S100A9(C3S) oligomer) depletes Fe from three different bacterial growth media preparations over a 48 h timeframe (T = 30 °C). The presence of the reducing agent β-mercaptoethanol accelerates this process and allows CP-Ser to deplete Fe over a ≈1 h timeframe. Fe-depletion assays performed with metal-binding-site variants of CP-Ser show that the hexahistidine (His 6 ) site, which coordinates Fe(ii) with high affinity, is required for Fe depletion. An analysis of Fe redox speciation in buffer containing Fe(iii) citrate performed under aerobic conditions demonstrates that CP-Ser causes a time-dependent increase in the [Fe(ii)]/[Fe(iii)] ratio. Taken together, these results indicate that the hexahistidine site of CP stabilizes Fe(ii) and thereby shifts the redox equilibrium of Fe to the reduced ferrous state under aerobic conditions. We also report that the presence of bacterial metabolites affects the Fe-depleting activity of CP-Ser. Supplementation of bacterial growth media with an Fe(iii)-scavenging siderophore (enterobactin, staphyloferrin B, or desferrioxamine B) attenuates the Fe-depleting activity of CP-Ser. This result indicates that formation of Fe(iii)-siderophore complexes blocks CP-mediated reduction of Fe(iii) and hence the ability of CP to coordinate Fe(ii). In contrast, the presence of pyocyanin (PYO), a redox-cycling phenazine produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces Fe(iii) to Fe(ii), accelerates Fe depletion by CP-Ser under aerobic conditions. These findings indicate that the presence of microbial metabolites that contribute to metal homeostasis at the host/pathogen interface can affect the metal-sequestering function of CP.

  13. Maternal Iron Deficiency Anemia as a Risk Factor for the Development of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Alper I; Demiryürek, Seniz; Aksoy, Sefika Nur; Perk, Peren; Saygili, Oguzhan; Güngör, Kivanc

    2015-08-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity is a proliferative vascular disease affecting premature newborns and occurs during vessel development and maturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maternal iron deficiency anemia as possible risk factors associated with the development of retinopathy of prematurity among premature or very low birth weight infants. In this study, mothers of 254 infants with retinopathy of prematurity were analyzed retrospectively, and their laboratory results of medical records during pregnancy were reviewed for possible iron deficiency anemia. In a cohort of 254 mothers of premature infants with retinopathy of prematurity, 187 (73.6%) had iron deficiency, while the remaining 67 (26.4%) mothers had no deficiency. Babies born to mothers with iron deficiency anemia with markedly decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum iron, and ferritin levels were more likely to develop retinopathy of prematurity. Our results are the first to suggest that maternal iron deficiency is a risk factor for the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Our data suggest that maternal iron supplementation therapy during pregnancy might lower the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dietary Factors Modulate Iron Uptake in Caco-2 Cells from an Iron Ingot Used as a Home Fortificant to Prevent Iron Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Ramiro, Ildefonso; Perfecto, Antonio; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J.

    2017-01-01

    Iron deficiency is a major public health concern and nutritional approaches are required to reduce its prevalence. The aim of this study was to examine the iron bioavailability of a novel home fortificant, the “Lucky Iron Fish™” (LIF) (www.luckyironfish.com/shop, Guelph, Canada) and the impact of dietary factors and a food matrix on iron uptake from LIF in Caco-2 cells. LIF released a substantial quantity of iron (about 1.2 mM) at pH 2 but this iron was only slightly soluble at pH 7 and not taken up by cells. The addition of ascorbic acid (AA) maintained the solubility of iron released from LIF (LIF-iron) at pH 7 and facilitated iron uptake by the cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In vitro digestion of LIF-iron in the presence of peas increased iron uptake 10-fold. However, the addition of tannic acid to the digestion reduced the cellular iron uptake 7.5-fold. Additionally, LIF-iron induced an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), similar to ferrous sulfate, but this effect was counteracted by the addition of AA. Overall, our data illustrate the major influence of dietary factors on iron solubility and bioavailability from LIF, and demonstrate that the addition of AA enhances iron uptake and reduces ROS in the intestinal lumen. PMID:28895913

  15. Low iron stores: a risk factor for excessive hair loss in non-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Deloche, Claire; Bastien, Philippe; Chadoutaud, Stéphanie; Galan, Pilar; Bertrais, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; de Lacharrière, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Iron deficiency has been suspected to represent one of the possible causes of excessive hair loss in women. The aim of our study was to assess this relationship in a very large population of 5110 women aged between 35 and 60 years. Hair loss was evaluated using a standardized questionnaire sent to all volunteers. The iron status was assessed by a serum ferritin assay carried out in each volunteer. Multivariate analysis allowed us to identify three categories: "absence of hair loss" (43%), "moderate hair loss" (48%) and "excessive hair loss" (9%). Among the women affected by excessive hair loss, a larger proportion of women (59%) had low iron stores (< 40 microg/L) compared to the remainder of the population (48%). Analysis of variance and logistic regression show that a low iron store represents a risk factor for hair loss in non-menopausal women.

  16. Motivational factors affecting contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Kane, F J; Lachenbruch, P A; Lokey, L; Chafetz, N; Auman, R; Pocuis, L; Lipton, M A

    1971-08-15

    95% of married and unmarried women who were delivered at North Carolina Memorial Hospital during the summers of 1968-1969 were interviewed on Day 2 or 3 postpartum to determine: 1) knowledge of contraceptive methods, 2) consistency of contraceptive use related to this and other pregnancies, 3) reason for desired family size, 4) number of planned pregnancies, and 5) demographic data relating to age, sex, and education. From a Negro southern rural population in North Carolina, 126 Negro and 132 Caucasian married women were interviewed and completed the Neuroticism Scale Questionnaire (NSQ) which is derived from items on the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire discriminating neurotic from normal patients. The NSQ's 4 factors are: 1) submissiveness vs. dominance, 2) sensitivity vs. practicality and/or insensitivity, 3) depression vs. happy-go-lucky cheerfulness, and 4) anxiety. Both groups were similar in age but there were significant educational differences (education beyond high school: Negroes, 8%; Caucasians, 58%). While knowledge of contraception was similar, Negro women reported more unwanted pregnancies, more inconsistent use of contraception, and a higher response to the NSQ. There were significant differences on 4 of the 5 NSQ items; only anxiety showed no difference in the groups studied. Negro women 1) clustered themselves at the extremes of the sensitivity factor, 2) scored themselves as significantly more cheerful and extroverted, 3) scored themselves as more submissive, and 4) scored significantly higher on the total neuroticism score. Nearly 1/2 of the Negro women reported significant opposition from husbands regarding use of contraception, and evidence seemed to indicate that these women found an important source of self-esteem in childbearing. Measures to prevent conception in these women must provide alternate modes of gratification to replace that of motherhood.

  17. Factors That Affect Software Testability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1991-01-01

    Software faults that infrequently affect software's output are dangerous. When a software fault causes frequent software failures, testing is likely to reveal the fault before the software is releases; when the fault remains undetected during testing, it can cause disaster after the software is installed. A technique for predicting whether a particular piece of software is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is found in [Voas91b]. A piece of software that is likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have high testability. A piece of software that is not likely to reveal faults within itself during testing is said to have low testability. It is preferable to design software with higher testabilities from the outset, i.e., create software with as high of a degree of testability as possible to avoid the problems of having undetected faults that are associated with low testability. Information loss is a phenomenon that occurs during program execution that increases the likelihood that a fault will remain undetected. In this paper, I identify two brad classes of information loss, define them, and suggest ways of predicting the potential for information loss to occur. We do this in order to decrease the likelihood that faults will remain undetected during testing.

  18. Factors Affecting Sign Retroreflectivity : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to better understand the factors that may affect road sign retroreflectivity, specifically age and physical orientation. A better understanding of these factors could provide guidance to ODOT in managing its inventory of roa...

  19. Pharmaceutic factors affecting pediatric compliance.

    PubMed

    Mattar, M E; Markello, J; Yaffe, S J

    1975-01-01

    Evaluation of treatment given at home was studied in children with otitis media who were seen in an outpatient clinic. Full compliance was present in only 5% of the initial 100 patients (Study A). Practical factors limiting their compliance included inadequate dispensing of medication at drug stores, 15%; incorrect therapy schedule, 36%; early termination, 37%; spilled medicine, 7%; therapy shared, 5%. Because of these findings, a plan was implemented (Study B) in which hospital pharmacy personnel gave patient families verbal and written instructions for administering medications that were dispensed, together with a calibrated measuring device and a calendar to record doses taken. Full compliance was raised to 51% in this pilot group (of 33 patients) as compared with 8.5% in 20 concurrent controls who went to neighborhood drug stores. The importance of detailed therapy instructions is stressed. The potential role of the pharmacist in improving compliance is demonstrated.

  20. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  1. Factors affecting profitability for craniotomy.

    PubMed

    Popp, A John; Scrime, Todd; Cohen, Benjamin R; Feustel, Paul J; Petronis, Karen; Habiniak, Sharon; Waldman, John B; Vosburgh, Margaret M

    2002-04-15

    The authors studied factors influencing hospital profitability after craniotomy in patients who underwent craniotomy coded as diagnosis-related group (DRG) 1 (17 years of age with nontraumatic disease without complication) and who met their hospital's craniotomy pathway criteria and had a hospital length of stay 4 days or less during a 20-month period. Data in all patients meeting these criteria (76 cases) were collected and collated from various hospital databases. Twenty-one cases were profitable and 55 were not. Variables traditionally influencing cost of care, such as surgeon, procedure, length of operation, and pharmacy use had no significant effect on whether a patient was profitable. The most important influence on profitability was the individual payor. Cases in which care was reimbursed under the prospective payment system based on DRGs were nearly always profitable whereas those covered by per diem plans were nearly always nonprofitable. 1) Hospital information systems should be customized to deliver consolidated data for timely analysis of cost of care for individual patients. This information may be useful in negotiating profitable contracts. 2) A clinical pathway was successful in reducing the difference in cost of care between profitable and nonprofitable postcraniotomy cases. 3) In today's health care environment both cost containment and revenue assume importance in determining profitability.

  2. Factors affecting calculation of L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotola, Mark P.

    2001-08-01

    A detectable extraterrestrial civilization can be modeled as a series of successive regimes over time each of which is detectable for a certain proportion of its lifecycle. This methodology can be utilized to produce an estimate for L. Potential components of L include quantity of fossil fuel reserves, solar energy potential, quantity of regimes over time, lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and downtime between regimes. Relationships between these components provide a means of calculating the lifetime of communicative species in a detectable state, L. An example of how these factors interact is provided, utilizing values that are reasonable given known astronomical data for components such as solar energy potential while existing knowledge about the terrestrial case is used as a baseline for other components including fossil fuel reserves, quantity of regimes over time, and lifecycle patterns of regimes, proportion of lifecycle regime is actually detectable, and gaps of time between regimes due to recovery from catastrophic war or resource exhaustion. A range of values is calculated for L when parameters are established for each component so as to determine the lowest and highest values of L. roadmap for SETI research at the SETI Institute for the next few decades. Three different approaches were identified. 1) Continue the radio search: build an affordable array incorporating consumer market technologies, expand the search frequency, and increase the target list to 100,000 stars. This array will also serve as a technology demonstration and enable the international radio astronomy community to realize an array that is a hundred times larger and capable (among other things) of searching a million stars. 2) Begin searches for very fast optical pulses from a million stars. 3) As Moore's Law delivers increased computational capacity, build an omni-directional sky survey array capable of detecting strong, transient

  3. The Janus transcription factor HapX controls fungal adaptation to both iron starvation and iron excess

    PubMed Central

    Gsaller, Fabio; Hortschansky, Peter; Beattie, Sarah R; Klammer, Veronika; Tuppatsch, Katja; Lechner, Beatrix E; Rietzschel, Nicole; Werner, Ernst R; Vogan, Aaron A; Chung, Dawoon; Mühlenhoff, Ulrich; Kato, Masashi; Cramer, Robert A; Brakhage, Axel A; Haas, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Balance of physiological levels of iron is essential for every organism. In Aspergillus fumigatus and other fungal pathogens, the transcription factor HapX mediates adaptation to iron limitation and consequently virulence by repressing iron consumption and activating iron uptake. Here, we demonstrate that HapX is also essential for iron resistance via activating vacuolar iron storage. We identified HapX protein domains that are essential for HapX functions during either iron starvation or high-iron conditions. The evolutionary conservation of these domains indicates their wide-spread role in iron sensing. We further demonstrate that a HapX homodimer and the CCAAT-binding complex (CBC) cooperatively bind an evolutionary conserved DNA motif in a target promoter. The latter reveals the mode of discrimination between general CBC and specific HapX/CBC target genes. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel regulatory mechanism mediating both iron resistance and adaptation to iron starvation by the same transcription factor complex with activating and repressing functions depending on ambient iron availability. PMID:25092765

  4. Low-pH cola beverages do not affect women's iron absorption from a vegetarian meal.

    PubMed

    Collings, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Dainty, Jack R; Roe, Mark A

    2011-05-01

    Preliminary data in the literature indicate that iron absorption from a meal may be increased when consumed with low-pH beverages such as cola, and it is also possible that sugar iron complexes may alter iron availability. A randomized, crossover trial was conducted to compare the bioavailability of nonheme iron from a vegetarian pizza meal when consumed with 3 different beverages (cola, diet cola, and mineral water). Sixteen women with serum ferritin concentrations of 11-54 µg/L were recruited and completed the study. The pizza meal contained native iron and added ferric chloride solution as a stable isotope extrinsic label; the total iron content of the meal was ~5.3 mg. Incorporation of iron from the meal into RBC was not affected by the type of drink (9.9% with cola, 9.4% with diet cola, and 9.6% with water). Serum ferritin and plasma hepcidin were correlated (r = 0.66; P<0.001) and both were significant predictors of iron bioavailability, but their combined effect explained only 30% of the inter-individual variation (P<0.001) and illustrates the current lack of understanding of mechanisms responsible for the fine-tuning of iron absorption. Although there was no effect of low-pH drinks on iron bioavailability in healthy women, their effect on absorption of fortification iron that requires solubilization in dilute acid, such as reduced iron, and in individuals with low gastric acid production, such as older people and individuals with Helicobacter pylori infection, warrants further investigation.

  5. The complex interplay of iron, biofilm formation, and mucoidy affecting antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Oglesby-Sherrouse, Amanda G.; Djapgne, Louise; Nguyen, Angela T.; Vasil, Adriana I.; Vasil, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative opportunistic bacterial pathogen that is refractory to a variety of current antimicrobial therapeutic regimens. Complicating treatment of such infections is the ability of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms, as well as several innate and acquired resistance mechanisms. Previous studies suggest iron plays a role in resistance to antimicrobial therapy, including the efficacy of an FDA-approved iron chelator, deferasirox (DSX), or Gallium, an iron analog, in potentiating antibiotic-dependent killing of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Here we show that iron-replete conditions enhance resistance of P. aeruginosa nonbiofilm growth against tobramycin and tigecycline. Interestingly, the mechanism of iron-enhanced resistance to each of these antibiotics is distinct. Whereas pyoverdine-mediated iron uptake is important for optimal resistance to tigecycline, it does not enhance tobramycin resistance. In contrast, heme supplementation results in increased tobramycin resistance, while having no significant effect on tigecycline resistance. Thus, non-siderophore bound iron plays an important role in resistance to tobramycin, while pyoverdine increases the ability of P. aeruginosa to resist tigecycline treatment. Lastly, we show that iron increases the minimal concentration of tobramycin, but not tigecycline, required to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms. Moreover, iron depletion blocks the previous observed induction of biofilm formation by sub-inhibitory concentrations of tobramycin, suggesting iron and tobramycin signal through overlapping regulatory pathways to affect biofilm formation. These data further support the role of iron in P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, providing yet another compelling case for targeting iron acquisition for future antimicrobial drug development. PMID:24436170

  6. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... too little iron, you may develop iron deficiency anemia. Causes of low iron levels include blood loss, poor diet, or an inability to absorb enough iron from foods. People at higher risk of having too little iron are young children and women who are pregnant or have periods. ...

  7. Iron Supplementation Affects Hematologic Biomarker Concentrations and Pregnancy Outcomes among Iron-Deficient Tanzanian Women.

    PubMed

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Aboud, Said; Premji, Zulfiqar; Etheredge, Analee J; Gunaratna, Nilupa S; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Mongi, Robert; Meloney, Laura; Darling, Anne Marie; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-06-01

    Iron deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient abnormality and the most common cause of anemia globally, worsening the burden of adverse pregnancy and child outcomes. We sought to evaluate the response of hematologic biomarkers to iron supplementation and to examine the predictors of the response to iron supplementation among iron-deficient pregnant women. We identified 600 iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤12 μg/L) pregnant women, aged 18-45 y, presenting to 2 antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania using rapid ferritin screening tests, and prospectively followed them through delivery and postpartum. All women received 60 mg Fe and 0.25 mg folate daily from enrollment until delivery. Proportions meeting the thresholds representing deficient hematologic status including hemoglobin <110 g/L, ferritin ≤12 μg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4.4 mg/L, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) >70 mmol/L, or hepcidin ≤13.3 μg/L at baseline and delivery were assessed. The prospective change in biomarker concentration and the influence of baseline hematologic status on the change in biomarker concentrations were assessed. Regression models were estimated to assess the relation of change in biomarker concentrations and pregnancy outcomes. There was significant improvement in maternal biomarker concentrations between baseline and delivery, with increases in the concentrations of hemoglobin (mean difference: 15.2 g/L; 95% CI: 13.2, 17.2 g/L), serum ferritin (51.6 μg/L; 95% CI: 49.5, 58.8 μg/L), and serum hepcidin (14.0 μg/L; 95% CI: 12.4, 15.6 μg/L) and decreases in sTfR (-1.7 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.0, -1.3 mg/L) and ZPP (-17.8 mmol/L; 95% CI: -32.1, 3.5 mmol/L). The proportions of participants with low hemoglobin, ferritin, and hepcidin were 73%, 93%, and 99%, respectively, at baseline and 34%, 12%, and 46%, respectively, at delivery. The improvements in biomarker concentrations were significantly greater among participants with poor hematologic status at

  8. Factors Affecting Tocopherol Concentrations in Soybean Seeds.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Constanza S; Seguin, Philippe

    2016-12-21

    Soybean seeds contain several health-beneficial compounds, including tocopherols, which are used by the nutraceutical and functional food industries. Soybean tocopherol concentrations are, however, highly variable. Large differences observed in tocopherol concentrations among soybean genotypes together with the relatively simple biosynthetic pathway involving few genes support the feasibility of selecting for high-tocopherol soybean. Tocopherol concentrations are also highly influenced by environmental factors and field management. Temperature during seed filling and soil moisture appear to be the main factors affecting tocopherol concentrations; other factors such as soil fertility and solar radiation also affect concentrations and composition. Field management decisions including seeding date, row spacing, irrigation, and fertilization also affect tocopherols. Knowledge of factors affecting soybean tocopherols is essential to develop management strategies that will lead to the production of seeds with consistent target concentrations that will meet the needs of the nutraceutical and functional food industries.

  9. Iron-oxide minerals affect extracellular electron-transfer paths of Geobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Kato, Souichiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhito; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    Some bacteria utilize (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals as conduits for extracellular electron transfer (EET) to distant, insoluble electron acceptors. A previous study demonstrated that microbe/mineral conductive networks are constructed in soil ecosystems, in which Geobacter spp. share dominant populations. In order to examine how (semi)conductive iron-oxide minerals affect EET paths of Geobacter spp., the present study grew five representative Geobacter strains on electrodes as the sole electron acceptors in the absence or presence of (semi)conductive iron oxides. It was found that iron-oxide minerals enhanced current generation by three Geobacter strains, while no effect was observed in another strain. Geobacter sulfurreducens was the only strain that generated substantial amounts of currents both in the presence and absence of the iron oxides. Microscopic, electrochemical and transcriptomic analyses of G. sulfurreducens disclosed that this strain constructed two distinct types of EET path; in the absence of iron-oxide minerals, bacterial biofilms rich in extracellular polymeric substances were constructed, while composite networks made of mineral particles and microbial cells (without polymeric substances) were developed in the presence of iron oxides. It was also found that uncharacterized c-type cytochromes were up-regulated in the presence of iron oxides that were different from those found in conductive biofilms. These results suggest the possibility that natural (semi)conductive minerals confer energetic and ecological advantages on Geobacter, facilitating their growth and survival in the natural environment.

  10. Infant iron status affects iron absorption in Peruvian breastfed infants at 2 and 5 mo of age

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of prenatal iron supplementation on maternal postpartum iron status and early infant iron homeostasis remain largely unknown. We examined iron absorption and growth in exclusively breastfed infants in relation to fetal iron exposure and iron status during early infancy. Longitudinal, paired ...

  11. Preschool-Aged Children with Iron Deficiency Anemia Show Altered Affect and Behavior1,2

    PubMed Central

    Lozoff, Betsy; Corapci, Feyza; Burden, Matthew J.; Kaciroti, Niko; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa; Sazawal, Sunil; Black, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study compared social looking and response to novelty in preschool-aged children (47–68 mo) with or without iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Iron status of the participants from a low-income community in New Delhi, India, was based on venous hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, and red cell distribution width. Children’s social looking toward adults, affect, and wary or hesitant behavior in response to novelty were assessed in a semistructured paradigm during an in-home play observation. Affect and behavior were compared as a function of iron status: IDA (n = 74) vs. nonanemic (n = 164). Compared with nonanemic preschoolers, preschoolers with IDA displayed less social looking toward their mothers, moved close to their mothers more quickly, and were slower to display positive affect and touch novel toys for the first time. These results indicate that IDA in the preschool period has affective and behavioral effects similar to those reported for IDA in infancy. PMID:17311960

  12. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  13. Environmental Factors Affecting Preschoolers' Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venetsanou, Fotini; Kambas, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    The process of development occurs according to the pattern established by the genetic potential and also by the influence of environmental factors. The aim of the present study was to focus on the main environmental factors affecting motor development. The review of the literature revealed that family features, such as socioeconomic status,…

  14. Age Learning Factors Affecting Pilot Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, Brison

    This document, intended for pilot education and flight safety specialists, consists chiefly of a review of the literature on physiological factors that affect pilot education and an examination of environmental factors that should be scrutinized in order to improve the effectiveness of aviation learning facilities. The physiological factors…

  15. Economic and Cultural Factors Affecting University Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabnoun, Naceur

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The ranking of top universities in the world has generated increased interest in the factors that enhance university performance. The purpose of this paper is to identify economic and cultural factors that affect the number of top ranking universities in each country. Design/methodology/approach: This paper first identifies the number of…

  16. Factors Affecting Faculty Web Portal Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.

    2011-01-01

    The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…

  17. Identification of Factors That Affect Software Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Javaid

    A survey of computer scientists was conducted to identify factors that affect software complexity. A total of 160 items were selected from the literature to include in a questionnaire sent to 425 individuals who were employees of computer-related businesses in Lawrence and Kansas City. The items were grouped into nine categories called system…

  18. INTERNATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN FACTORS AFFECTING LABOUR MOBILITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SELLIER, F.; ZARKA, C.

    THE GEOGRAPHICAL, OCCUPATIONAL, AND INTERFIRM MOBILITY, AND THE FACTORS AFFECTING THESE MOVEMENTS FOR WORKERS IN FRANCE, ITALY, GERMANY, AND SWEDEN IN THE PERIOD SINCE THE SECOND WORLD WAR ARE STUDIED. DATA OBTAINED FROM INDUSTRIAL SURVEYS AND GENERAL CENSUSES WERE USED TO COMPARE THE FOUR COUNTRIES WITH EACH OTHER AND WITH THE UNITED STATES.…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING BREAST CANCER SUSCEPTIBILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Factors Affecting Breast Cancer Susceptibility
    Suzanne. E. Fenton
    US EPA, ORD, MD-67 NHEERL, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    Breast cancer is still the most common malignancy afflicting women in the Western world. Alt...

  20. Factors Affecting Smoking Tendency and Smoking Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Nissim Ben; Zion, Uri Ben

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure the relative effect of relevant explanatory variable on smoking tendency and smoking intensity. Design/methodology/approach: Using survey data collected by the Israeli Bureau of Statistics in 2003-2004, a probit procedure is estimated for analyzing factors that affect the probability of being a…

  1. Iron

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate . Where can I find out more about ... on food sources of iron: U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) National Nutrient Database Nutrient List for Iron ( ...

  2. Transient Response of Arc Temperature and Iron Vapor Concentration Affected by Current Frequency with Iron Vapor in Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru

    2016-10-01

    TIG arc welding is chemically a joining technology with melting the metallic material and it can be high quality. However, this welding should not be used in high current to prevent cathode melting. Thus, the heat transfer is poor. Therefore, the deep penetration cannot be obtained and the weld defect sometimes occurs. The pulsed arc welding has been used for the improvement of this defect. The pulsed arc welding can control the heat flux to anode. The convention and driving force in the weld pool are caused by the arc. Therefore, it is important to grasp the distribution of arc temperature. The metal vapor generate from the anode in welding. In addition, the pulsed current increased or decreased periodically. Therefore, the arc is affected by such as a current value and current frequency, the current rate of increment and the metal vapor. In this paper, the transient response of arc temperature and the iron vapor concentration affected by the current frequency with iron vapor in pulsed arc was elucidated by the EMTF (ElectroMagnetic Thermal Fluid) simulation. As a result, the arc temperature and the iron vapor were transient response as the current frequency increase. Thus, the temperature and the electrical conductivity decreased. Therefore, the electrical field increased in order to maintain the current continuity. The current density and electromagnetic force increased at the axial center. In addition, the electronic flow component of the heat flux increased at the axial center because the current density increased. However, the heat conduction component of the heat flux decreased.

  3. Factors Affecting Radon Concentration in Houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sharif, Abdel-Latif; Abdelrahman, Y. S.

    2001-03-01

    The dangers to the human health upon exposure to radon and its daughter products is the main motivation behind the vast number of studies performed to find the concentration of radon in our living environment, including our houses. The presence of radon and its daughter products in houses are due to various sources including building materials and the soil under the houses. Many factors affect radon concentration in our houses, the elevation above ground level,ventilation, building materials and room usage being among these factors. In our paper, we discuss the effect of elevation above ground level, room usage and ventilation on the Radon concentration in houses. The faculty residences of the Mu'tah University (Jordan) were chosen in our study. Our results showed that the concentration of radon decreases with elevation. Ventilation rate was also found to affect radon concentration, where low concentrations observed for areas with good ventilation.

  4. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  5. Ionic residues of human serum transferrin affect binding to the transferrin receptor and iron release.

    PubMed

    Steere, Ashley N; Miller, Brendan F; Roberts, Samantha E; Byrne, Shaina L; Chasteen, N Dennis; Smith, Valerie C; MacGillivray, Ross T A; Mason, Anne B

    2012-01-17

    Efficient delivery of iron is critically dependent on the binding of diferric human serum transferrin (hTF) to its specific receptor (TFR) on the surface of actively dividing cells. Internalization of the complex into an endosome precedes iron removal. The return of hTF to the blood to continue the iron delivery cycle relies on the maintenance of the interaction between apohTF and the TFR after exposure to endosomal pH (≤6.0). Identification of the specific residues accounting for the pH-sensitive nanomolar affinity with which hTF binds to TFR throughout the cycle is important to fully understand the iron delivery process. Alanine substitution of 11 charged hTF residues identified by available structures and modeling studies allowed evaluation of the role of each in (1) binding of hTF to the TFR and (2) TFR-mediated iron release. Six hTF mutants (R50A, R352A, D356A, E357A, E367A, and K511A) competed poorly with biotinylated diferric hTF for binding to TFR. In particular, we show that Asp356 in the C-lobe of hTF is essential to the formation of a stable hTF-TFR complex: mutation of Asp356 in the monoferric C-lobe hTF background prevented the formation of the stoichiometric 2:2 (hTF:TFR monomer) complex. Moreover, mutation of three residues (Asp356, Glu367, and Lys511), whether in the diferric or monoferric C-lobe hTF, significantly affected iron release when in complex with the TFR. Thus, mutagenesis of charged hTF residues has allowed identification of a number of residues that are critical to formation of and release of iron from the hTF-TFR complex.

  6. HFE gene mutation is a risk factor for tissue iron accumulation in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Turkmen, Ercan; Yildirim, Tolga; Yilmaz, Rahmi; Hazirolan, Tuncay; Eldem, Gonca; Yilmaz, Engin; Aybal Kutlugun, Aysun; Altindal, Mahmut; Altun, Bulent

    2017-07-01

    HFE gene mutations are responsible from iron overload in general population. Studies in hemodialysis patients investigated the effect of presence of HFE gene mutations on serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TSAT) with conflicting results. However effect of HFE mutations on iron overload in hemodialysis patients was not previously extensively studied. 36 hemodialysis patients (age 51.3 ± 15.6, (18/18) male/female) and 44 healthy control subjects included in this cross sectional study. Hemoglobin, ferritin, TSAT in the preceding 2 years were recorded. Iron and erythropoietin (EPO) administered during this period were calculated. Iron accumulation in heart and liver was detected by MRI. Relationship between HFE gene mutation, hemoglobin, iron parameters and EPO doses, and tissue iron accumulation were determined. Iron overload was detected in nine (25%) patients. Hemoglobin, iron parameters, weekly EPO doses, and monthly iron doses of patients with and without iron overload were similar. There was no difference between control group and hemodialysis patients with respect to the prevalence of HFE gene mutations. Iron overload was detected in five of eight patients who had HFE gene mutations, but iron overload was present in 4 of 28 patients who had no mutations (P = 0.01). Hemoglobin, iron parameters, erythropoietin, and iron doses were similar in patients with and without gene mutations. HFE gene mutations remained the main determinant of iron overload after multivariate logistic regression analysis (P = 0.02; OR, 11.6). Serum iron parameters were not adequate to detect iron overload and HFE gene mutation was found to be an important risk factor for iron accumulation. © 2017 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  7. Microbiologic factors affecting Clostridium difficile recurrence.

    PubMed

    Chilton, C H; Pickering, D S; Freeman, J

    2018-05-01

    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) places a huge economic and practical burden on healthcare facilities. Furthermore, rCDI may affect quality of life, leaving patients in an rCDI cycle and dependant on antibiotic therapy. To discuss the importance of microbiologic factors in the development of rCDI. Literature was drawn from a search of PubMed from 2000 onwards with the search term 'recurrent Clostridium difficile infection' and further references cited within these articles. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews have shown that CDI and rCDI risk factors are similar. Development of rCDI is attendant on many factors, including immune status or function, comorbidities and concomitant treatments. Studies suggest that poor bacterial diversity is correlated with clinical rCDI. Narrow-spectrum gut microflora-sparing antimicrobials (e.g. surotomycin, cadazolid, ridinilazole) are in development for CDI treatment, while microbiota therapeutics (faecal microbiota transplantation, nontoxigenic C. difficile, stool substitutes) are increasingly being explored. rCDI can only occur when viable C. difficile spores are present, either within the gut lumen after infection or when reacquired from the environment. C. difficile spore germination can be influenced by gut environmental factors resulting from dysbiosis, and spore outgrowth may be affected stage by some antimicrobials (e.g. fidaxomicin, ramoplanin, oritavancin). rCDI is a significant challenge for healthcare professionals, requiring a multifaceted approach; optimized infection control to minimize reinfection; C. difficile-targeted antibiotics to minimize dysbiosis; and gut microflora restoration to promote colonization resistance. These elements should be informed by our understanding of the microbiologic factors involved in both C. difficile itself and the gut microbiome. Copyright © 2017 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic review of factors affecting pharmaceutical expenditures.

    PubMed

    Mousnad, Mohamed Awad; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham

    2014-06-01

    To systematically identify the main factors contributing to the increase in pharmaceutical expenditures. A systematic search of published studies was conducted utilising major widely used electronic databases using the search terms 'factors,' 'financing,' 'pharmaceutical,' and 'expenditures.' To be included, the studies needed to: (1) measure at least one of the following outcomes: total growth in pharmaceutical expenditures, price growth or quantity growth; (2) mention a clear method for analysing the impact of factors affecting the increases in drug expenditures; (3) be written in English. Nonprimary articles that were published only as an abstract, a review, a commentary or a letter were excluded. From a total of 2039 studies, only 25 were included in the full review. The main determinant categories that were identified in the review were factors related to price, utilisation, therapeutic choice, demand and health care system. The major cost drivers were found to be changes in drug quantities and therapies as well as new drugs. It is important for policymakers to understand pharmaceutical spending trends and the factors that influence them in order to formulate effective cost containment strategies and design optimum drug policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors affecting the overcrowding in outpatient healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The expansion of outpatient services and the desire to provide more outpatient care than inpatient care create some problems such as the overcrowding in the outpatient clinics. Given the importance of overcrowding in the outpatient clinics, this qualitative study aimed to determine the factors influencing the overcrowding in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study conducted in the specialty and subspecialty clinic of a hospital using content analysis method in the period of January to March 2014. The study population was all managers and heads of the outpatient wards. The studied sample consisted of 22 managers of the clinic wards who were selected using the purposive sampling method. The required data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The collected data was analyzed using conventional content analysis and the MAXQDA 10.0 software. Results: Three themes were identified as the main factors affecting the overcrowding including the internal positive factors, internal negative factors, and external factors. Conclusions: Despite the efforts made to eliminate overcrowding, and reduce waiting times and increase access to the services for patients, the problem of overcrowding still has remained unresolved. In addition, the use of some strategies such as clarifying the working processes of the clinic for staff and patients and the relationships between the clinic and other wards especially emergency department, as well as using a simple triage system on the patients’ arrival at the clinic are recommended. PMID:28546986

  10. Fibroblast growth factor 23, iron and inflammation - are they related in early stages of chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Commercially available kits were used to measure: intact FGF-23, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In patients with CKD no differences in FGF-23 concentration according to iron status were observed. Lower iron concentration was associated with higher concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen. In univariate and multivariate analysis FGF-23 correlated with fibrinogen ( r = -0.23, p < 0.05) and eGFR ( r = -0.36, p < 0.05). FGF-23 is affected by kidney function and fibrinogen but not iron status parameters in the early stages of CKD. Our data are paving the way for further studies on the role of FGF-23 in iron metabolism, especially in early stages of CKD.

  11. Factors affecting academic leadership in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Martires, Kathryn J; Aquino, Lisa L; Wu, Jashin J

    2015-02-01

    Although prior studies have examined methods by which to recruit and retain academic dermatologists, few have examined factors that are important for developing academic leaders in dermatology. This study sought to examine characteristics of dermatology residency programs that affect the odds of producing department or division chairs/chiefs and program directors (PDs). Data regarding program size, faculty, grants, alumni residency program attended, lectures, and publications for all accredited US dermatology residency programs were collected. Of the 103 programs examined, 46% had graduated at least 1 chair/chief, and 53% had graduated at least 1 PD. Results emphasize that faculty guidance and research may represent modifiable factors by which a dermatology residency program can increase its graduation of academic leaders.

  12. Reappraising factors affecting mourning dove perch coos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sayre, M.W.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Haas, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Results confirmed pairing as the primary factor influencing perch-cooing rates of wild mourning doves (Zenaida macroura). Marked unmated males cooed at substantially higher rates (6.2x) than mated males, had greater probability of cooing (2.3x) during 3-minute periods, and continued cooing longer each morning than mated males. Population density was not a major factor affecting cooing. Unmated males cooed more frequently in the presence of other cooing doves (P < 0.05) than when alone, but the number of additional doves above 1 was unimportant. Cooing rates of both mated and unmated males on areas with dissimilar dove densities were not significantly different. Within limits of standard call-count procedure, weather exerted no detectable influence on cooing.

  13. Prevalence, pathophysiological mechanisms and factors affecting urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aslam

    2018-05-01

    The formation of urinary stone, urolithiasis, is one the oldest known disease affecting human throughout different civilizations and times. The exact pathophysiological mechanism of urolithiasis is not yet clear, as these calculi are of various types and too complex for simple understanding. A single theory cannot explain its formation; therefore, different theories are presented in various times for its explanation like free particle, fixed particle, Randall's plaque theory. In addition, various factors and components are identified that play an important role in the formation of these urinary calculi. In this review, composition of kidney stones, its prevalence/incidence, explanation of pathophysiological mechanisms and role of various factors; urinary pH, uric acid, parathyroid hormone, citrate, oxalate, calcium and macromolecules; osteopontin, matrix Gla protein, kidney injury molecules, urinary prothrombin fragment-1, Tamm-Horsfall protein, inter-α-inhibitors, have been discussed in detail.

  14. Factors affecting outcome in ocular myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Marco; Ariatti, Alessandra; Valzania, Franco; Kaleci, Shaniko; Tondelli, Manuela; Nichelli, Paolo F; Galassi, Giuliana

    2018-01-01

    50%-60% of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG) progress to generalized myasthenia gravis (GMG) within two years. The aim of our study was to explore factors affecting prognosis of OMG and to test the predictive role of several independent clinical variables. We reviewed a cohort of 168 Caucasian patients followed from September 2000 to January 2016. Several independent variables were considered as prognostic factors: gender, age of onset, results on electrophysiological tests, presence and level of antibodies against acetylcholine receptors (AChR Abs), treatments, thymic abnormalities. The primary outcome was the progression to GMG and/or the presence of bulbar symptoms. Secondary outcomes were either achievement of sustained minimal manifestation status or worsening in ocular quantitative MG subscore (O-QMGS) or worsening in total QMG score (T-QMGS), assessed by Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America (MGFA) quantitative scores. Changes in mental and physical subscores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed with SF-36 questionnaire. Variance analysis was used to interpret the differences between AChR Ab titers at different times of follow up among the generalized and non-generalized patients. Conversion to GMG occurred in 18.4% of patients; it was significantly associated with sex, later onset of disease and anti-AChR Ab positivity. Antibody titer above the mean value of 25.8 pmol/mL showed no significant effect on generalization. Sex and late onset of disease significantly affected T-QMGS worsening. None of the other independent variables significantly affected O-QMGS and HRQoL. Sex, later onset and anti-AChR Ab positivity were significantly associated with clinical worsening.

  15. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2014-06-13

    We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56-91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA.

  16. Providing male rats deficient in iron and n-3 fatty acids with iron and alpha-linolenic acid alone affects brain serotonin and cognition differently from combined provision

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We recently showed that a combined deficiency of iron (ID) and n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAD) in rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than ID or n-3 FAD alone. Providing these double-deficient rats with either iron (Fe) or preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) alone affected brain monoamine pathways differently from combined repletion and even exacerbated cognitive deficits associated with double-deficiency. Iron is a co-factor of the enzymes responsible for the conversion of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) to EPA and DHA, thus, the provision of ALA with Fe might be more effective in restoring brain EPA and DHA and improving cognition in double-deficient rats than ALA alone. Methods In this study we examined whether providing double-deficient rats with ALA and Fe, alone or in combination, can correct deficits in monoamine metabolism and cognition associated with double-deficiency. Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats with concurrent ID and n-3 FAD were fed an Fe + ALA, Fe + n-3 FAD, ID + ALA, or ID + n-3 FAD diet for 5 weeks (postnatal day 56–91). Biochemical measures, and spatial working and reference memory (using the Morris water maze) were compared to age-matched controls. Results In the hippocampus, we found a significant Fe × ALA interaction on DHA: Compared to the group receiving ALA alone, DHA was significantly higher in the Fe + ALA group. In the brain, we found significant antagonistic Fe × ALA interactions on serotonin concentrations. Provision of ALA alone impaired working memory compared with age-matched controls, while in the reference memory task ALA provided with Fe significantly improved performance. Conclusion These results indicate that providing either iron or ALA alone to double-deficient rats affects serotonin pathways and cognitive performance differently from combined provision. This may be partly explained by the enhancing effect of Fe on

  17. α-Lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Lönnerdal, Bo; Abrams, Steven A; Kvistgaard, Anne S; Domellöf, Magnus; Hernell, Olle

    2012-07-01

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. α-Lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. Thirty-one infants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 formulas (4 mg iron/L, 13.1 g protein/L) from 4-8 wk to 6 mo of age: commercially available whey-predominant standard infant formula (standard formula), α-lactalbumin-enriched infant formula (α-LAC), or α-lactalbumin-enriched/casein-glycomacropeptide-reduced infant formula (α-LAC/RGMP). Nine breast-fed infants served as a reference. At 5.5 mo of age, (58)Fe was administered to all infants in a meal. Blood samples were collected 14 d later for iron absorption and iron status indices. Iron deficiency was defined as depleted iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis, or iron deficiency anemia. Iron absorption (mean ± SD) was 10.3 ± 7.0% from standard formula, 8.6 ± 3.8% from α-LAC, 9.2 ± 6.5% from α-LAC/RGMP, and 12.9 ± 6.5% from breast milk, with no difference between the formula groups (P = 0.79) or all groups (P = 0.44). In the formula-fed infants only, iron absorption was negatively correlated with serum ferritin (r = -0.49; P = 0.005) and was higher (P = 0.023) in iron-deficient infants (16.4 ± 12.4%) compared with those with adequate iron status (8.6 ± 4.4%). Our findings indicate that α-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from infant formula in infants. Low serum ferritin concentrations are correlated with increased iron absorption from infant formula.

  18. Factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, Saraswati; Rao, Chandrika; Hegde, Radhakrishna

    2009-05-01

    The present study aims at recognizing the social influence, study habits and health factors affecting scholastic performances of adolescents and to compare these factors among the adolescents between two categories of school. A total of 1230 adolescents (13-18 yrs) were screened. Data was collected by personal interview, using the teenage screening questionnaire, Trivandrum, between May 2004 and November 2005. A total 615 students from corporation and private schools were studied. 39.76% (489) were high achievers, 13.5% (166) were low achievers with p < 0.001. In the low achievers, 12.03% were from the corporation schools and 1.46% from private schools. The incidence of poor study habits and social factors were increased in low achievers of corporation schools. On multivariate analysis, the predictor variables for poor scholastic performance were adolescent having refractory error, not having help for study at home, not doing home work regularly, not solving question bank papers and reading only before examinations. It is feasible and worthwhile to identify the determinants of scholastic performance and plan intervention strategies at each school. The results of this study highlight the importance of implementing newer strategies, focusing on strict study patterns and creating the conducive school and home environment for study, so as to achieve better scholastic performances.

  19. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  20. Coupling fibroblast growth factor 23 production and cleavage: iron deficiency, rickets, and kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Myles; White, Kenneth E

    2014-07-01

    High levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) cause the rare disorders of hypophosphatemic rickets and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Despite major advances in understanding FGF23 biology, fundamental aspects of FGF23 regulation in health and in CKD remain mostly unknown. Autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) is caused by gain-of-function mutations in FGF23 that prevent its proteolytic cleavage, but affected individuals experience a waxing and waning course of phosphate wasting. This led to the discovery that iron deficiency is an environmental trigger that stimulates FGF23 expression and hypophosphatemia in ADHR. Unlike osteocytes in ADHR, normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with commensurately increased FGF23 cleavage to ensure that normal phosphate homeostasis is maintained in the event of iron deficiency. Simultaneous measurement of FGF23 by intact and C-terminal assays supported these breakthroughs by providing minimally invasive insight into FGF23 production and cleavage in bone. These findings also suggest a novel mechanism of FGF23 elevation in patients with CKD, who are often iron deficient and demonstrate increased FGF23 production and decreased FGF23 cleavage, consistent with an acquired state that mimics the molecular pathophysiology of ADHR. Iron deficiency stimulates FGF23 production, but normal osteocytes couple increased FGF23 production with increased cleavage to maintain normal circulating levels of biologically active hormone. These findings uncover a second level of FGF23 regulation within osteocytes, failure of which culminates in elevated levels of biologically active FGF23 in ADHR and perhaps CKD.

  1. Factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Sanaa Abd El Azim

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting assertiveness among student nurses. The study was carried out at Faculty of Nursing, Port-Said University, on 207 student nurses from four different grades. Rathus Assertiveness Schedule, consisted of 30 items, was used to measure the students' assertiveness level and a 12-item scale developed by Spreitzer was used to measure students' psychological empowerment. The study results showed that 60.4% of the students were assertive, while about half of the students were empowered. A positive relation between student assertiveness and psychological empowerment was detected. Moreover, positive relations regarding family income and students' assertiveness and psychological empowerment were determined. The study recommended introduction of specific courses aiming at enhancing the acquisition of assertiveness skills, in addition, nurse educators must motivate their students to express their opinion and personal rights and also they must pay attention for students' empowerment and enhance students' autonomy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting medication-order processing time.

    PubMed

    Beaman, M A; Kotzan, J A

    1982-11-01

    The factors affecting medication-order processing time at one hospital were studied. The order processing time was determined by directly observing the time to process randomly selected new drug orders on all three work shifts during two one-week periods. An order could list more than one drug for an individual patient. The observer recorded the nature, location, and cost of the drugs ordered, as well as the time to process the order. The time and type of interruptions also were noted. The time to process a drug order was classified as six dependent variables: (1) total time, (2) work time, (3) check time, (4) waiting time I--time from arrival on the dumbwaiter until work was initiated, (5) waiting time II--time between completion of the work and initiation of checking, and (6) waiting time III--time after the check was completed until the order left on the dumbwaiter. The significant predictors of each of the six dependent variables were determined using stepwise multiple regression. The total time to process a prescription order was 58.33 +/- 48.72 minutes; the urgency status of the order was the only significant determinant of total time. Urgency status also significantly predicted the three waiting-time variables. Interruptions and the number of drugs on the order were significant determinants of work time and check time. Each telephone interruption increased the work time by 1.72 minutes. While the results of this study cannot be generalized to other institutions, pharmacy managers can use the method of determining factors that affect medication-order processing time to identify problem areas in their institutions.

  3. Iron overload by Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles is a High Risk Factor in Cirrhosis by a Systems Toxicology Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yushuang; Zhao, Mengzhu; Yang, Fang; Mao, Yang; Xie, Hang; Zhou, Qibing

    2016-06-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent have been widely used in magnetic resonance imaging for tumor diagnosis and theranostics. However, there has been safety concern of SPIONs with cirrhosis related to excess iron-induced oxidative stress. In this study, the impact of iron overload by SPIONs was assessed on a mouse cirrhosis model. A single dose of SPION injection at 0.5 or 5 mg Fe/kg in the cirrhosis group induced a septic shock response at 24 h with elevated serum levels of liver and kidney function markers and extended impacts over 14 days including high levels of serum cholesterols and persistent low serum iron level. In contrast, full restoration of liver functions was found in the normal group with the same dosages over time. Analysis with PCR array of the toxicity pathways revealed the high dose of SPIONs induced significant expression changes of a distinct subset of genes in the cirrhosis liver. All these results suggested that excess iron of the high dose of SPIONs might be a risk factor for cirrhosis because of the marked impacts of elevated lipid metabolism, disruption of iron homeostasis and possibly, aggravated loss of liver functions.

  4. [Factors affecting infant mortality (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Chackiel, J

    1982-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the differentials and detect factors affecting infant mortality on the basis of data obtained from the fertility surveys from those countries participating in the World Fertility Survey. In particular, this includes the surveys carried out in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, Panama, and the Dominican Republic. 3 types of explanatory variables may be considered from the information available: 1) context variables related to the mother's environment; 2) socioeconomic variables based on the educational and economic characteristics of the mother and her last husband; and 3) biological factors (from each woman's pregnancy history) such as mother's age at birth of the child, order of birth, interbirth interval, etc. The countries, whether high or low mortality, present great differences in child mortality in most of the variables considered. In Panama and Costa Rica there are population sectors with infant mortality rates of around 100/1000 live births, whereas in Peru these are over 150/1000 (children from mothers without education, low agricultural strata, etc.). Besides presenting the differentials, a methodological test is made through the application to Costa Rica and Peru of the Proportional Hazards Model which permits analysis of the effects of variables when acting simultaneously upon mortality in early childhood. The variables which show the highest disparity in mortality level are: natural region among the context variables, education of mother among the socioeconomic variables, and interbirth interval and maternal age at birth of their children among the biological ones.

  5. Some factors affecting skin and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Winter, G D

    2006-05-01

    The domestic pig is the preferred animal for studying the effects of environmental factors on skin and wound because its integument is more like that of man than any other. The three factors that most drastically affect the pattern, speed and quality of healing are dehydration of exposed tissues, the status of the blood supply bringing oxygen and nutrients to the area and sepsis. Wounds exposed to the air lose water vapour, the upper dermis dries and healing takes place beneath a dry scab. Covering a wound with an occlusive dressing prevents scab formation and radically alters the pattern of epidermal wound healing. Blowing on wounds creates a scab within three hours instead of the normal 24 hours but more tissue is sacrificed in the process. This may only be justified if it can be shown that rapid artificial scab formation significantly cuts down the incidence of severe infections, i.e. in large burns. Less serious wounds heal faster when covered with a suitable occlusive dressing. Indolent wounds are characterised by a rim of infected, necrotic tissue in which leucocytes and macrophages are unable to function effectively through lack of oxygen. A suitable dressing changed frequently can bring about mild debridement and re-establish the conditions for healing.

  6. Iron deficiency affects nitrogen metabolism in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrogen is a principal limiting nutrient in plant growth and development. Among factors that may limit NO3- assimilation, Fe potentially plays a crucial role being a metal cofactor of enzymes of the reductive assimilatory pathway. Very few information is available about the changes of nitrogen metabolism occurring under Fe deficiency in Strategy I plants. The aim of this work was to study how cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants modify their nitrogen metabolism when grown under iron deficiency. Results The activity of enzymes involved in the reductive assimilation of nitrate and the reactions that produce the substrates for the ammonium assimilation both at root and at leaf levels in Fe-deficient cucumber plants were investigated. Under Fe deficiency, only nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.1.1) activity decreased both at the root and leaf level, whilst for glutamine synthetase (EC 6.3.1.2) and glutamate synthase (EC 1.4.1.14) an increase was found. Accordingly, the transcript analysis for these enzymes showed the same behaviour except for root nitrate reductase which increased. Furthermore, it was found that amino acid concentration greatly decreased in Fe-deficient roots, whilst it increased in the corresponding leaves. Moreover, amino acids increased in the xylem sap of Fe-deficient plants. Conclusions The data obtained in this work provided new insights on the responses of plants to Fe deficiency, suggesting that this nutritional disorder differentially affected N metabolism in root and in leaf. Indeed under Fe deficiency, roots respond more efficiently, sustaining the whole plant by furnishing metabolites (i.e. aa, organic acids) to the leaves. PMID:23057967

  7. Ethylene response factor AtERF72 negatively regulates Arabidopsis thaliana response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Li, Qiwei; Wang, Yi; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Han, Zhenhai; Xu, Xuefeng

    2017-09-23

    Ethylene regulates the plant's response to stress caused by iron (Fe) deficiency. However, specific roles of ERF proteins in response to Fe deficiency remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of ERF72 in response to iron deficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the levels of the ethylene response factor AtERF72 increased in leaves and roots induced under the iron deficient conditions. erf72 mutant plants showed increased growth compared to wild type (WT) when grown in iron deficient medium for 5 d. erf72 mutants had increased root H + velocity and the ferric reductase activity, and increase in the expression of the iron deficiency response genes iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) and H + -ATPase (HA2) levels in iron deficient conditions. Compared to WT plants, erf72 mutants retained healthy chloroplast structure with significantly higher Fe and Mg content, and decreased chlorophyll degradation gene pheophorbide a oxygenase (PAO) and chlorophyllase (CLH1) expression when grown in iron deficient media. Yeast one-hybrid analysis showed that ERF72 could directly bind to the promoter regions of iron deficiency responses genes IRT1, HA2 and CLH1. Based on our results, we suggest that ethylene released from plants under iron deficiency stress can activate the expression of ERF72, which responds to iron deficiency in the negative regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    PubMed

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P < .001). These results indicate that iron concentration in milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  9. Factors affecting coastal wetland loss and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahoon, D.R.; Phillips, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    Opening paragraph: Tidal and nontidal wetlands in the Chesapeake Bay watershed provide vital hydrologic, water-quality, and ecological functions. Situated at the interface of land and water, these valuable habitats are vulnerable to alteration and loss by human activities including direct conversion to non-wetland habitat by dredge-and-fill activities from land development, and to the effects of excessive nutrients, altered hydrology and runoff, contaminants, prescribed fire management, and invasive species. Processes such as sea-level rise and climate change also impact wetlands. Although local, State, and Federal regulations provide for protection of wetland resources, the conversion and loss of wetland habitats continue in the Bay watershed. Given the critical values of wetlands, the Chesapeake 2000 Agreement has a goal to achieve a net gain in wetlands by restoring 25,000 acres of tidal and nontidal wetlands by 2010. The USGS has synthesized findings on three topics: (1) sea-level rise and wetland loss, (2) wetland restoration, and (3) factors affecting wetland diversity.

  10. Frataxin Depletion in Yeast Triggers Up-regulation of Iron Transport Systems before Affecting Iron-Sulfur Enzyme Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Cermeño, Armando; Obis, Èlia; Bellí, Gemma; Cabiscol, Elisa; Ros, Joaquim; Tamarit, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    The primary function of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein involved in iron homeostasis, remains controversial. Using a yeast model of conditional expression of the frataxin homologue YFH1, we analyzed the primary effects of YFH1 depletion. The main conclusion unambiguously points to the up-regulation of iron transport systems as a primary effect of YFH1 down-regulation. We observed that inactivation of aconitase, an iron-sulfur enzyme, occurs long after the iron uptake system has been activated. Decreased aconitase activity should be considered part of a group of secondary events promoted by iron overloading, which includes decreased superoxide dismutase activity and increased protein carbonyl formation. Impaired manganese uptake, which contributes to superoxide dismutase deficiency, has also been observed in YFH1-deficient cells. This low manganese content can be attributed to the down-regulation of the metal ion transporter Smf2. Low Smf2 levels were not observed in AFT1/YFH1 double mutants, indicating that high iron levels could be responsible for the Smf2 decline. In summary, the results presented here indicate that decreased iron-sulfur enzyme activities in YFH1-deficient cells are the consequence of the oxidative stress conditions suffered by these cells. PMID:20956517

  11. Factors affecting medication adherence in elderly people

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hyekyung; Kim, Yeonhee; Rhie, Sandy Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the functional health literacy (FHL) associated with medication adherence in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to examine the FHL among older adults and identify influencing factors that can predict medication adherence. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey. Participants (n=160) aged 65 years and older were selected from outpatient clinics of 3 tertiary care hospitals, 6 community pharmacies, and 2 senior centers between November 1 and 30, 2014. The participants’ FHL was measured using the Korean Functional Health Literacy Test, which consists of 15 items including 8 numeracy and 7 reading comprehension items. Medication adherence was measured by the Adherence to Refills and Medication Scale. Descriptive statistics, chi-square or Fisher’s exact test, and multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The mean score of the total FHL was 7.72±3.51 (range 0–15). The percentage of the total number of correct answers for the reading comprehension subtest and numeracy subtest were 48.1% and 54.4%, respectively. Among 160 participants, 52.5% showed low adherence to medication. The factors affecting medication adherence included the patient’s degree of satisfaction with the service (β=−0.215, P=0.022), sufficient explanation of medication counseling (β=−0.335, P=0.000), education level (β=−0.153, P=0.045), health-related problems (β=−0.239, P=0.004), and dosing frequency (β=0.189, P=0.018). Conclusion In this study, we found medication adherence of elderly patients was associated with education level, health-related problems, dosing frequency, satisfaction with patient counseling, and explanation of medication, but no association was found with FHL. Pharmacists should consider elderly patients’ individual characteristics such as educational background and specific patient-related health problems, provide sufficient information and explanation of medication, and ensure patient

  12. Gallbladder polyps: Factors affecting surgical decision

    PubMed Central

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). METHODS: Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ2 tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. RESULTS: The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. CONCLUSION: The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm. PMID:23901228

  13. Gallbladder polyps: factors affecting surgical decision.

    PubMed

    Sarkut, Pinar; Kilicturgay, Sadik; Ozer, Ali; Ozturk, Ersin; Yilmazlar, Tuncay

    2013-07-28

    To determine the factors affecting the decision to perform surgery, and the efficiency of ultrasonography (USG) in detecting gallbladder polyps (GP). Data for 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy between 1996 and 2012 in our clinic with a diagnosis of GP were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, ultrasonographic and histopathological findings were evaluated. Patients were evaluated in individual groups according to the age of the patients (older or younger than 50 years old) and polyp size (bigger or smaller than 10 mm) and characteristics of the polyps (pseudopolyp or real polyps). χ(2) tests were used for the statistical evaluation of the data. The median age was 50 (26-85) years and 91 of patients were female. Of 138 patients who underwent cholecystectomy with GP diagnosis, only 99 had a histopathologically defined polyp; 77 of them had pseudopolyps and 22 had true polyps. Twenty-one patients had adenocarcinoma. Of these 21 patients, 11 were male, their median age was 61 (40-85) years and all malignant polyps had diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001). Of 138 patients in whom surgery were performed, 112 had ultrasonographic polyps with diameters < 10 mm. Of the other 26 patients who also had polyps with diameters > 10 mm, 22 had true polyps. The sensitivity of USG was 84.6% for polyps with diameters > 10 mm (P < 0.0001); however it was only 66% in polyps with diameters < 10 mm. The risk of malignancy was high in the patients over 50 years old who had single polyps with diameters > 10 mm.

  14. Factors affecting the process performance of biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Kopchynski, D.M.; Farmer, R.W.; Maier, W.J.

    1996-11-01

    Biofiltration is an emerging biological treatment technology for the removal of airborne VOCs from industrial process waste streams. Removal of air-phase VOCs by biofiltration is accomplished by contacting a process airstream with an active microbial biofilm attached to a solid phase packing. VOCs that partition into the biofilm are aerobically oxidized to the endproducts of water, carbon dioxide and salts. A multiple reactor biofiltration pilot plant test program has been in progress at the University of Minnesota Environmental Engineering Laboratories since 1992. The primary goal of the program is to study factors that affect biofiltration process performance. Initial results ofmore » this test program were reported in a previous conference paper and master`s thesis. This paper presents the results of more recent studies that focus on the effects of: (1) biofilm accumulation (which in turn causes a decrease in biofilter bed porosity and packing bed surface area), (2) rates of nutrient addition, and (3) chemical properties of the target contaminant, on biofiltration removal performance. Removal performance was evaluated by determining biofilter removal capacities and efficiencies for various substrate feeds. The performance parameters were measured under constant contaminant inlet concentrations and under constant temperature. Three VOCs were selected for study and they are: MEK, (methyl ethyl ketone), xylene, and hexane. MEK, xylene, and hexane were chosen because they are representative of widely used industrial solvents and they have significantly different Henry`s law constants relative to each other (the MEK value < Xylene value < Hexane value). Henry`s law constants quantify the partitioning of a chemical between the air and water-biofilm phase and therefore can be used to correlate the effect of chemical properties on biofilter removal capacities. This paper also introduces a new model for the biofiltration process.« less

  15. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...

  17. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...

  18. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...

  20. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Zzzzz of... - Compliance Certifications for New and Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries 4 Table 4 to Subpart ZZZZZ of Part... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Iron and Steel Foundries Area Sources Pt. 63, Subpt... Affected Sources Classified as Large Iron and Steel Foundries As required by § 63.10900(b), your...

  1. Altered sterol metabolism in budding yeast affects mitochondrial iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ward, Diane M; Chen, Opal S; Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Jerry; Bhuiyan, Shah Alam; Natarajan, Selvamuthu K; Bard, Martin; Cox, James E

    2018-05-17

    Ergosterol synthesis is essential for cellular growth and viability of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis are therefore highly regulated in this species. Erg25 is an iron-containing C4-methyl sterol oxidase that contributes to the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol, a precursor of ergosterol. The ERG29 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and here we identified a role for Erg29 in the methyl sterol oxidase step of ergosterol synthesis. ERG29 deletion resulted in lethality in respiring cells, but respiration-incompetent (Rho- or Rho0) cells survived, suggesting that Erg29 loss leads to accumulation of oxidized sterol metabolites that affect cell viability. Down-regulation of ERG29 expression in Δerg29 cells indeed led to accumulation of methyl sterol metabolites, resulting in increased mitochondrial oxidants and a decreased ability of mitochondria to synthesize iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters due to reduced levels of Yfh1, the mammalian frataxin homolog, which is involved in mitochondrial Fe metabolism. Using a high-copy genomic library, we identified suppressor genes that permitted growth of Δerg29 cells on respiratory substrates, and these included genes encoding the mitochondrial proteins Yfh1, Mmt1, Mmt2, and Pet20, which reversed all phenotypes associated with loss of ERG29. Of note, loss of Erg25 also resulted in accumulation of methyl sterol metabolites and also increased mitochondrial oxidants and degradation of Yfh1. We propose that accumulation of toxic intermediates of the methyl sterol oxidase reaction increase mitochondrial oxidants, which affect Yfh1 protein stability. These results indicate an interaction between sterols generated by ER proteins and mitochondrial iron metabolism. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Fungal Morphology, Iron Homeostasis, and Lipid Metabolism Regulated by a GATA Transcription Factor in Blastomyces dermatitidis

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Amber J.; Broman, Aimee T.; Zarnowski, Robert; Dwyer, Teigan G.; Bond, Laura M.; Lounes-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Fontaine, Joël; Ntambi, James M.; Keleş, Sündüz; Kendziorski, Christina; Gauthier, Gregory M.

    2015-01-01

    In response to temperature, Blastomyces dermatitidis converts between yeast and mold forms. Knowledge of the mechanism(s) underlying this response to temperature remains limited. In B. dermatitidis, we identified a GATA transcription factor, SREB, important for the transition to mold. Null mutants (SREBΔ) fail to fully complete the conversion to mold and cannot properly regulate siderophore biosynthesis. To capture the transcriptional response regulated by SREB early in the phase transition (0–48 hours), gene expression microarrays were used to compare SREB∆ to an isogenic wild type isolate. Analysis of the time course microarray data demonstrated SREB functioned as a transcriptional regulator at 37°C and 22°C. Bioinformatic and biochemical analyses indicated SREB was involved in diverse biological processes including iron homeostasis, biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and ergosterol, and lipid droplet formation. Integration of microarray data, bioinformatics, and chromatin immunoprecipitation identified a subset of genes directly bound and regulated by SREB in vivo in yeast (37°C) and during the phase transition to mold (22°C). This included genes involved with siderophore biosynthesis and uptake, iron homeostasis, and genes unrelated to iron assimilation. Functional analysis suggested that lipid droplets were actively metabolized during the phase transition and lipid metabolism may contribute to filamentous growth at 22°C. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and overexpression analyses suggested that SREB was in a negative regulatory circuit with the bZIP transcription factor encoded by HAPX. Both SREB and HAPX affected morphogenesis at 22°C; however, large changes in transcript abundance by gene deletion for SREB or strong overexpression for HAPX were required to alter the phase transition. PMID:26114571

  3. Is the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin a risk factor for alcoholic liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee

    2009-01-01

    Despite heavy consumption over a long period of time, only a small number of alcoholics develop alcoholic liver disease. This alludes to the possibility that other factors, besides alcohol, may be involved in the progression of the disease. Over the years, many such factors have indeed been identified, including iron. Despite being crucial for various important biological processes, iron can also be harmful due to its ability to catalyze Fenton chemistry. Alcohol and iron have been shown to interact synergistically to cause liver injury. Iron-mediated cell signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of experimental alcoholic liver disease. Hepcidin is an iron-regulatory hormone synthesized by the liver, which plays a pivotal role in iron homeostasis. Both acute and chronic alcohol exposure suppress hepcidin expression in the liver. The sera of patients with alcoholic liver disease, particularly those exhibiting higher serum iron indices, have also been reported to display reduced prohepcidin levels. Alcohol-mediated oxidative stress is involved in the inhibition of hepcidin promoter activity and transcription in the liver. This in turn leads to an increase in intestinal iron transport and liver iron storage. Hepcidin is expressed primarily in hepatocytes. It is noteworthy that both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells are involved in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. However, the activation of Kupffer cells and TNF-α signaling has been reported not to be involved in the down-regulation of hepcidin expression by alcohol in the liver. Alcohol acts within the parenchymal cells of the liver to suppress the synthesis of hepcidin. Due to its crucial role in the regulation of body iron stores, hepcidin may act as a secondary risk factor in the progression of alcoholic liver disease. The clarification of the mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts iron homeostasis will allow for further understanding of the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. PMID

  4. The Factors Affecting Bone Density in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Hajiabbasi, Asghar; Shafaghi, Afshin; Fayazi, Haniyeh Sadat; Shenavar Masooleh, Irandokht; Hedayati Emami, Mohammad Hassan; Ghavidel Parsa, Pooneh; Amir Maafi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone loss is common in cirrhosis. However, the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis has been heterogeneous in different reports. Reduction in bone formation with or without increase in bone resorption appears to be responsible for bone loss in these patients. Objectives: We aimed to investigate bone loss in patients with cirrhosis at different anatomical sites and key factors that might affect it. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 97 patients with cirrhosis who were referred to Razi Hospital, Rasht, Iran, from 2008 to 2010, were studied. Cirrhosis was diagnosed using biopsy and/or clinical and paraclinical findings. Bone mineral densitometry was done in L2 through L4 lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (QDR 1000, Hologic DEXA Inc, Waltham, Massachusetts, the United States). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 18. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 97 patients with cirrhosis (55.7% male) and the mean age of 51 ± 13 years and median body mass index (BMI) of 22.7 kg/m2 were recruited over a two-year period. Etiologies of cirrhosis were hepatitis C (40.2%), hepatitis B (26.8%), cryptogenic (21.6%), and other causes (11.4%). Child A, B, and C, were seen in 16.5%, 47.4%, and 36.1% of patients, respectively. The DEXA results were abnormal in 78.4% of our participants (osteopenia, 45.4%; osteoporosis, 33%). BMI and calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFRc) had moderate positive and Child score had moderate negative significant correlation with T score in both anatomical sites. There was no significant association between abnormal DEXA and the causes of cirrhosis. The univariate analysis showed that the risk of abnormal results in DEXA was significantly higher in those with low BMI, current smoking, higher Child score, and low GFRc; however, in multivariate analysis, the abnormal results were more frequent in those with lower

  5. Factors affecting the cement-post interface.

    PubMed

    Zicari, F; De Munck, J; Scotti, R; Naert, I; Van Meerbeek, B

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of different factors on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts luted in simulated (standard) root canals using different composite cements. Three types of glass-fiber root-canal posts with a different matrix, namely an epoxy resin (RelyX post, 3M ESPE), a proprietary composite resin (FRC-Plus post, Ivoclar-Vivadent), and a methacrylate resin (GC post, GC), and three types of composite cements, namely an etch-and-rinse Bis-GMA-based (Variolink II, Ivoclar-Vivadent), a self-etch 10-MDP-based (Clearfil Esthetic Cement, Kuraray) and a self-adhesive (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) cement, were tested. Posts were either left untreated (control), were treated with silane, or coated with silicated alumina particles (Cojet system, 3M ESPE). Posts were inserted up to 9-mm depth into composite CAD-CAM blocks (Paradigm, 3M ESPE) in order to solely test the strength of the cement-post interface, while excluding interference of the cement-dentin interface. After 1-week storage at 37 °C, three sections (coronal, middle, apical) of 2-mm thickness were subjected to a push-out bond-strength test. All three variables, namely the type of post, the composite cement and the post-surface pre-treatment, were found to significantly affect the push-out bond strength (p<0.001). Regarding the type of post, a significantly lower push-out bond strength was recorded for the FRC-Plus post (Ivoclar-Vivadent); regarding the composite cement, a significantly higher push-out bond strength was recorded for the self-adhesive cement Unicem (3M ESPE); and regarding the post-surface treatment, a significantly higher push-out bond strength was recorded when the post-surface was beforehand subjected to a Cojet (3M ESPE) combined sandblasting/silicatization surface pre-treatment. Many interactions between these three variables were found to be significant as well (p<0.001). Finally, the push-out bond strength was found to significantly reduce with depth from coronal to apical

  6. Hospital Views of Factors Affecting Telemedicine Use.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Kimberly A S; Ward, Marcia M; Mueller, Keith J

    2015-04-01

    Telemedicine (also known as telehealth) is a means to increase access to care, one of the foundations of the Triple Aim. However, the expansion of telemedicine services in the United States has been relatively slow. We previously examined the extent of uptake of hospital based telemedicine using the 2013 HIMSS (Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society) Analytics national database of 4,727 non-specialty hospitals. Our analysis indicated that the largest percentage of operational telemedicine implementations (15.7 percent) was in radiology departments, with a substantial number in emergency/trauma care (7.5 percent) and cardiology/stroke/heart attack programs (6.8 percent). However, existing databases are limited because they do not identify whether a respondent hospital is a "hub" (providing telemedicine services) or a "spoke" (receiving telemedicine services). Therefore, we used data from interviews with hospital representatives to deepen the research and understanding of telemedicine use and the factors affecting that use. Interviews were conducted with key informants at 18 hub hospitals and 18 spoke hospitals to explore their perceptions of barriers and motivators to telemedicine adoption and expansion. Key Findings. (1) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported that telemedicine helps them meet their mission, enhances access, keeps lower-acuity patients closer to home, and helps head off competition. (2) Respondents from both hub and spoke hospitals reported licensing and credentialing to be significant barriers to telemedicine expansion. Thus, half of hubs provide services only within their state. (3) A variety of one-time funding sources have been used to initiate and grow telemedicine services among hubs and spokes. However, reimbursement issues have impeded the development of workable business models for sustainability. Hub hospitals shoulder the responsibility for identifying sustainable business models. (4) Although respondents

  7. Regulation of Sulphur Assimilation Is Essential for Virulence and Affects Iron Homeostasis of the Human-Pathogenic Mould Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen. PMID:24009505

  8. Regulation of sulphur assimilation is essential for virulence and affects iron homeostasis of the human-pathogenic mould Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Amich, Jorge; Schafferer, Lukas; Haas, Hubertus; Krappmann, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Sulphur is an essential element that all pathogens have to absorb from their surroundings in order to grow inside their infected host. Despite its importance, the relevance of sulphur assimilation in fungal virulence is largely unexplored. Here we report a role of the bZIP transcription factor MetR in sulphur assimilation and virulence of the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The MetR regulator is essential for growth on a variety of sulphur sources; remarkably, it is fundamental for assimilation of inorganic S-sources but dispensable for utilization of methionine. Accordingly, it strongly supports expression of genes directly related to inorganic sulphur assimilation but not of genes connected to methionine metabolism. On a broader scale, MetR orchestrates the comprehensive transcriptional adaptation to sulphur-starving conditions as demonstrated by digital gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, A. fumigatus is able to utilize volatile sulphur compounds produced by its methionine catabolism, a process that has not been described before and that is MetR-dependent. The A. fumigatus MetR transcriptional activator is important for virulence in both leukopenic mice and an alternative mini-host model of aspergillosis, as it was essential for the development of pulmonary aspergillosis and supported the systemic dissemination of the fungus. MetR action under sulphur-starving conditions is further required for proper iron regulation, which links regulation of sulphur metabolism to iron homeostasis and demonstrates an unprecedented regulatory crosstalk. Taken together, this study provides evidence that regulation of sulphur assimilation is not only crucial for A. fumigatus virulence but also affects the balance of iron in this prime opportunistic pathogen.

  9. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23, serum iron and bone mineral density in premenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Erik A.; Liu, Ziyue; McQueen, Amie K.; Acton, Dena; Acton, Anthony; Padgett, Leah R.; Peacock, Munro; Econs, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) circulates as active protein and inactive fragments. Low iron status increases FGF23 gene expression, and iron deficiency is common. We hypothesized that in healthy premenopausal women, serum iron influences C-terminal and intact FGF23 concentrations, and that iron and FGF23 associate with bone mineral density (BMD). Serum iron, iron binding capacity, percent iron saturation, phosphorus, and other biochemistries were measured in stored fasting samples from healthy premenopausal white (n=1898) and black women (n= 994), age 20–55 years. Serum C-terminal and intact FGF23 were measured in a subset (1631 white and 296 black women). BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur neck. Serum phosphorus, calcium, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine were lower in white women than black women (p<0.001). Serum iron (p<0.0001) and intact FGF23 (p< 0.01) were higher in white women. C-terminal FGF23 did not differ between races. Phosphorus correlated with intact FGF23 (white women, r=0.120, p<0.0001; black women r=0.163, p<0.01). However, phosphorus correlated with C-terminal FGF23 only in black women (r=0.157, p<0.01). Intact FGF23 did not correlate with iron. C-terminal FGF23 correlated inversely with iron (white women r=−0.134, p<0.0001; black women r=−0.188, p<0.01), having a steeper slope at iron <50 mcg/dl than >50 mcg/dl. Longitudinal changes in iron predicted changes in C-terminal FGF23. Spine BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=−0.076, p<0.01) in white women; femur neck BMD correlated with iron negatively (r=−0.119, p<0.0001) in black women. Both relationships were eliminated in weight-adjusted models. BMD did not correlate with FGF23. Serum iron did not relate to intact FGF23, but was inversely related to C-terminal FGF23. Intact FGF23 correlated with serum phosphorus. In weight-adjusted models, BMD was not related to intact FGF23, C-terminal FGF23 or iron. The influence of iron on FGF23 gene expression is not important

  10. The Hog1p kinase regulates Aft1p transcription factor to control iron accumulation.

    PubMed

    Martins, Telma S; Pereira, Clara; Canadell, David; Vilaça, Rita; Teixeira, Vítor; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc; Costa, Vítor

    2018-01-01

    Iron acquisition systems have to be tightly regulated to assure a continuous supply of iron, since it is essential for survival, but simultaneously to prevent iron overload that is toxic to the cells. In budding yeast, the low‑iron sensing transcription factor Aft1p is a master regulator of the iron regulon. Our previous work revealed that bioactive sphingolipids modulate iron homeostasis as yeast cells lacking the sphingomyelinase Isc1p exhibit an upregulation of the iron regulon. In this study, we show that Isc1p impacts on iron accumulation and localization. Notably, Aft1p is activated in isc1Δ cells due to a decrease in its phosphorylation and an increase in its nuclear levels. Consistently, the expression of a phosphomimetic version of Aft1p-S210/S224 that favours its nuclear export abolished iron accumulation in isc1Δ cells. Notably, the Hog1p kinase, homologue of mammalian p38, interacts with and directly phosphorylates Aft1p at residues S210 and S224. However, Hog1p-Aft1p interaction decreases in isc1Δ cells, which likely contributes to Aft1p dephosphorylation and consequently to Aft1p activation and iron overload in isc1Δ cells. These results suggest that alterations in sphingolipid composition in isc1Δ cells may impact on iron homeostasis by disturbing the regulation of Aft1p by Hog1p. To our knowledge, Hog1p is the first kinase reported to directly regulate Aft1p, impacting on iron homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors Affecting Retention in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berling, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand what is known regarding the factors that relate to successful completion of online, undergraduate college courses. It addressed 13 student factors available through archival data at Northern Kentucky University based on 1,493 students enrolled in fully online courses in fall 2008. It included programmatic…

  12. Factors Affecting Success of Training Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogala, Piotr; Batko, Roman; Wawak, Slawomir

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the key factors which influence the functioning quality and success of training companies. Based on an analysis of the requirements included in the quality management system standards for providers of education and training services, a set of twenty factors has been developed. This was followed by a survey for…

  13. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  14. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  15. External risk factors affecting construction costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Husin, Saiful; Oktaviati, Mutia

    2017-11-01

    Some risk factors can have impacts on the cost, time, and performance. Results of previous studies indicated that the external conditions are among the factors which give effect to the contractor in the completion of the project. The analysis in the study carried out by considering the conditions of the project in the last 15 years in Aceh province, divided into military conflict phase (2000-2004), post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2005-2009), and post-rehabilitation and reconstruction phase (2010-present). This study intended to analyze the impact of external risk factors, primarily related to the impact on project costs and to investigate the influence of the risk factors and construction phases impacted the project cost. Data was collected by using a questionnaire distributed in 15 large companies qualification contractors in Aceh province. Factors analyzed consisted of socio-political, government policies, natural disasters, and monetary conditions. Data were analyzed using statistical application of severity index to measure the level of risk impact. The analysis results presented the tendency of impact on cost can generally be classified as low. There is only one variable classified as high-impact, variable `fuel price increases', which appear on the military conflict and post tsunami disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction periods. The risk impact on costs from the factors and variables classified with high intensity needs a serious attention, especially when the high level impact is followed by the high frequency of occurrences.

  16. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    PubMed

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  17. Genetic and Dietary Iron Overload Differentially Affect the Course of Salmonella Typhimurium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nairz, Manfred; Schroll, Andrea; Haschka, David; Dichtl, Stefanie; Tymoszuk, Piotr; Demetz, Egon; Moser, Patrizia; Haas, Hubertus; Fang, Ferric C.; Theurl, Igor; Weiss, Günter

    2017-01-01

    Genetic and dietary forms of iron overload have distinctive clinical and pathophysiological features. HFE-associated hereditary hemochromatosis is characterized by overwhelming intestinal iron absorption, parenchymal iron deposition, and macrophage iron depletion. In contrast, excessive dietary iron intake results in iron deposition in macrophages. However, the functional consequences of genetic and dietary iron overload for the control of microbes are incompletely understood. Using Hfe+/+ and Hfe−/− mice in combination with oral iron overload in a model of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, we found animals of either genotype to induce hepcidin antimicrobial peptide expression and hypoferremia following systemic infection in an Hfe-independent manner. As predicted, Hfe−/− mice, a model of hereditary hemochromatosis, displayed reduced spleen iron content, which translated into improved control of Salmonella replication. Salmonella adapted to the iron-poor microenvironment in the spleens of Hfe−/− mice by inducing the expression of its siderophore iron-uptake machinery. Dietary iron loading resulted in higher bacterial numbers in both WT and Hfe−/− mice, although Hfe deficiency still resulted in better pathogen control and improved survival. This suggests that Hfe deficiency may exert protective effects in addition to the control of iron availability for intracellular bacteria. Our data show that a dynamic adaptation of iron metabolism in both immune cells and microbes shapes the host-pathogen interaction in the setting of systemic Salmonella infection. Moreover, Hfe-associated iron overload and dietary iron excess result in different outcomes in infection, indicating that tissue and cellular iron distribution determines the susceptibility to infection with specific pathogens. PMID:28443246

  18. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women.

    PubMed

    Baech, Sussi B; Hansen, Marianne; Bukhave, Klaus; Kristensen, Lars; Jensen, Mikael; Sørensen, Sven S; Purslow, Peter P; Skibsted, Leif H; Sandström, Brittmarie

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C. The meals were extrinsically labeled with (55)Fe or (59)Fe. Iron absorption was determined from measurements of whole-body (59)Fe retention and the activity of (55)Fe and (59)Fe in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P < 0.001) greater when meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120 degrees C, respectively, was added to the basic meal. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat did not impair nonheme iron absorption compared with cooking at 70 degrees C. Because the cysteine content of meat decreased with increasing cooking temperature, this argues against a specific contribution of sulfhydryl groups from cysteine residues in the promotion of nonheme iron absorption by meat proteins.

  19. Factors That Affect Principals' Use of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillos, Rita M.; Bailey, William J.

    The results of a survey of 400 randomly selected principals from New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland appear to validate a newly developed instrument for measuring three factors: the depth of principals' interests in information developed through educational research, the extent to which these principals exhibit rational approaches to…

  20. Factors Affecting Performance of Soil Termiticides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Applying liquid insecticide to soil under and around structures is one of the most widely used methods of subterranean termite prevention and control. Failure of soil termiticide treatments is often related to factors other than the active ingredient. Efficacy and longevity of soil treatments vary g...

  1. Intrinsic Factors Affecting Overseas Student Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; MacKay, Brenda B.; Firmin, Ruth L.

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative research study involving 13 undergraduate students who completed their student-teaching in overseas contexts. Participants completed two waves of interviews immediately after returning to campus from their multicultural experiences. Three intrinsic factors were found to have the greatest impact on students' overseas…

  2. Factors Affecting Survival of Longleaf Pine Seedlings

    Treesearch

    John S. Kush; Ralph S. Meldahl; William D. Boyer

    2004-01-01

    Longleaf pine may be managed most efficiently in large even-aged stands. Past research has shown that the effect of trees surrounding the openings (gaps) or the use of fire is a complicating factor, especially with small openings. Longleaf seedlings are considered more susceptible to fire under and nearer to standing trees, and seedling size, kind of fire, soil type,...

  3. Paediatric cochlear implantation factors that affect outcomes.

    PubMed

    Driver, Sandra; Jiang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear implantation is an established surgical intervention for individuals with bilateral severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. The aim of the interevention is to provide the individual with a sensation of sound which they can learn to interpret with meaning. Outcomes vary considerably and the factors that impact on outcomes will be discussed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors Affecting Students' Medicine-Taking Habits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.; Zantow, Kenneth; Peterson, Tim O.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines college students' beliefs about health, prescriptions, doctors, and the influence those beliefs have on adherence to prescribed medication regimens. After a brief review of attitudinal factors that influence adherence to prescription medicine directions, the authors discuss measurement issues and explain the reasons for their…

  5. FACTORS AFFECTING THINKING AND COMPREHENSION SKILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ABRAMS, JULES C.

    INTELLECTUAL, EDUCATIONAL, NEUROLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL FACTORS IN VARIOUS PATTERNS OF INTERRELATIONSHIPS INFLUENCE THE THINKING PROCESS. INDIVIDUALS DIFFER IN THE CONCEPTS THEY HOLD AND IN THEIR USE OF THESE CONCEPTS BECAUSE OF VARIATIONS IN INTELLIGENCE AND BACKGROUND OF EXPERIENCE. THE RANGE AND LEVEL OF CONCEPTS…

  6. Factors Affecting Student Choices of Instructional Methodologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Ben K.

    To identify factors that caused the majority of students at Los Angeles City College to prefer the traditional lecture-discussion approach to the media approach, questionnaires were administered to students in three courses--three media and two traditional. Over 200 usable questionnaires were returned. Because of scheduling variations and other…

  7. Factors Affecting School Quality in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barry; Arbogast, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the factors that are theorized to be determinants of school quality in the 67 counties of Florida from 2000 to 2011. The model constructed for this purpose is comprised of a mix of independent variables that include county educational attainment (number of high school graduates and State University System enrollees) and…

  8. Factors Affecting Information Literacy Perception and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehner, Drusilla Charlene Beecher

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy, defined as, "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information" (American Library Association, 2003, paragraph 1), is necessary for success in life. The present study will examine whether the factors of gender, race, and/or socioeconomic status impact information literacy performance and…

  9. Political and institutional factors affecting systems engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yardley, John F.

    1993-01-01

    External groups have a significant impact on NASA's programs. Ten groups affecting NASA are identified, and examples are given for some of the them. Methods of dealing with these external inputs are discussed, the most important being good and open two way communications and an objective attitude on the part of the NASA participants. The importance of planning ahead, of developing rapport with these groups, and of effective use of NASA contractors is covered. The need for an overall strategic plan for the U.S. space program is stressed.

  10. Iron as a risk factor in neurological diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazka-Friedman, Jolanta

    2008-02-01

    In this review the properties of iron in various human brain structures (e.g. Substantia nigra, globus pallidus, hippocampus) were analyzed to assess the possibility of initiation of oxidative stress leading to such diseases as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Our own studies with the use of Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy and enzyme-linked immuno-absorbent assay (ELISA) were confronted with other methods used in other laboratories. Our results suggest that hippocampus is the most fragile for oxidative stress structure in human brain (the death of nervous cells in hippocampus leads to Alzheimer’s disease). Changes in iron metabolism were also found in substantia nigra (the death of nervous cells of this structure produces Parkinson’s disease) and in globus pallidus (neurodegeneration of this structure causes progressive supranuclear palsy).

  11. Factors affecting reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D A; Thayne, W V; Dailey, R A

    1985-07-01

    We conducted two studies to determine how herd management practices and traits of individual cows affect performance of the herd and of the cow within a herd. Management practices, reproductive performance of the herd, and relationships between management and reproductive performance were characterized on 83 dairy farms with 7596 cows. Data included 21 management variables (e.g., facilities, herd health program, estrous detection program) and 8 performance variables obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement or unofficial records (e.g., size of herd, production, days open). Although varying among herds, annual average herd incidences of reproductive disorders and reproductive performance were similar to those reported. Managerial practices influenced incidences of retained placenta and uterine infection, days open of cows not bred and of all cows, services per conception, and percentages of herd open more than 100 days and culled for low production. Veterinarian was the most consistent variable influencing herd reproductive performance. Data also were collected from production and lifetime records of 2532 cows in 19 herds. Reproductive performance was affected by season of calving, production, maturity, and reproductive disorders. Several cows with extremely poor reproductive records were maintained.

  12. Milk peptides increase iron dialyzability in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Argyri, Konstantina; Tako, Elad; Miller, Dennis D; Glahn, Raymond P; Komaitis, Michael; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2009-02-25

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether these fractions (a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells and (b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Two milk peptide fractions that solubilize iron were isolated by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration of a milk digest. These peptide fractions did not affect relative gene expression of DMT-1 when incubated with Caco-2 cells for 2 or 48 h. Dialyzability was measured after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. Both peptide fractions enhanced the dialyzability of iron from ferric chloride added to PIPES buffer, but had no effect on dialyzability from milk or a vegetable or fruit meal after in vitro simulated gastric and pancreatic digestion. However, dialyzability from milk was enhanced by the addition of a more concentrated lyophilized peptide fraction.

  13. The knockdown of OsVIT2 and MIT affects iron localization in rice seed.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Khurram; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Akhtar, Shamim; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Nakanishi, Hiromi; Nishizawa, Naoko K

    2013-11-20

    The mechanism of iron (Fe) uptake in plants has been extensively characterized, but little is known about how Fe transport to different subcellular compartments affects Fe localization in rice seed. Here, we discuss the characterization of a rice vacuolar Fe transporter 2 (OsVIT2) T-DNA insertion line (osvit2) and report that the knockdown of OsVIT2 and mitochondrial Fe transporter (MIT) expression affects seed Fe localization. osvit2 plants accumulated less Fe in their shoots when grown under normal or excess Fe conditions, while the accumulation of Fe was comparable to that in wild-type (WT) plants under Fe-deficient conditions. The accumulation of zinc, copper, and manganese also changed significantly in the shoots of osvit2 plants. The growth of osvit2 plants was also slow compared to that of WT plants. The concentration of Fe increased in osvit2 polished seeds. Previously, we reported that the expression of OsVIT2 was higher in MIT knockdown (mit-2) plants, and in this study, the accumulation of Fe in mit-2 seeds decreased significantly. These results suggest that vacuolar Fe trafficking is important for plant Fe homeostasis and distribution, especially in plants grown in the presence of excess Fe. Moreover, changes in the expression of OsVIT2 and MIT affect the concentration and localization of metals in brown rice as well as in polished rice seeds.

  14. Factors affecting the stability of viral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Peetermans, J

    1996-01-01

    The stability of viral vaccines is determined by the rate of loss of "integrity" of the viral antigen during storage. For live vaccines, such as measles, mumps, rubella, canine distemper, stability is equivalent to the preservation of the infectious titres. For inactivated and subunit vaccines, the preservation of the antigenic structure and the correct steric presentation of the relevant epitopes are the parameters which determine their stability. In general, the following factors may have a negative effect on stability: temperature, pH outside the physiological limits, organic solvents, repeated freezing and thawing, some antiseptics and inactivating agents, and light. However their negative effect is in most cases specific for the individual viruses. Approaches to stabilisation of most vaccines are based on the elimination or neutralisation of the negative factors. Practical examples for the most relevant existing vaccines are described.

  15. Factors Affecting Employment at Initiation of Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Muehrer, Rebecca J.; Schatell, Dori; Witten, Beth; Gangnon, Ronald; Becker, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Half the individuals who reach ESRD are working age (<65 years old) and many are at risk for job loss. Factors that contribute to job retention among working-age patients with chronic kidney disease before ESRD are unknown. The purpose of the study is to understand factors associated with maintaining employment among working-age patients with advanced kidney failure. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this retrospective study we reviewed the United States Renal Data System database (1992 through 2003) and selected all patients (n = 102,104) who were working age and employed 6 months before dialysis initiation. Factors that were examined for an association with maintaining employment status included demographics, comorbid conditions, ESRD cause, insurance, predialysis erythropoietin use, and dialysis modality. Results Maintaining employment at the same level during the final 6 months before dialysis was more likely among (1) white men ages 30 to 49 years; (2) patients with either glomerulonephritis, cystic, or urologic causes of renal failure; (3) patients choosing peritoneal dialysis for their first treatment; (4) those with employer group or other health plans; and (5) erythropoietin usage before ESRD. Maintaining employment status was less likely among patients with congestive heart failure, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic illnesses. Conclusions The rate of unemployment in working-age patients with chronic kidney disease and ESRD is high compared with that of the general population. Treating anemia with erythropoietin before kidney failure and educating patients about work-friendly home dialysis options might improve job retention. PMID:21393489

  16. Factors affecting performance in an ultraendurance triathlon.

    PubMed

    Laursen, P B; Rhodes, E C

    2001-01-01

    In the recent past, researchers have found many key physiological variables that correlate highly with endurance performance. These include maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), economy of motion and the fractional utilisation of oxygen uptake (VO2). However, beyond typical endurance events such as the marathon, termed 'ultraendurance' (i.e. >4 hours), performance becomes harder to predict. The ultraendurance triathlon (UET) is a 3-sport event consisting of a 3.8 km swim and a 180 km cycle, followed by a 42.2 km marathon run. It has been hypothesised that these triathletes ride at approximately their ventilatory threshold (Tvent) during the UET cycling phase. However, laboratory assessments of cycling time to exhaustion at a subject's AT peak at 255 minutes. This suggests that the AT is too great an intensity to be maintained during a UET, and that other factors cause detriments in prolonged performance. Potential defeating factors include the provision of fuels and fluids due to finite gastric emptying rates causing changes in substrate utilisation, as well as fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Thus, an optimum ultraendurance intensity that may be relative to the AT intensity is needed to establish ultraendurance intensity guidelines. This optimal UET intensity could be referred to as the ultraendurance threshold.

  17. Factors affecting membership in specialty nursing organizations.

    PubMed

    White, Mary Joe; Olson, Rhonda S

    2004-01-01

    A discouraging trend in many specialty nursing organizations is the stagnant or declining membership. The research committee of the Southeast Texas Chapter of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses (ARN) collected data and studied this trend to determine what changes would be necessary to increase membership. Using Herzberg's motivational theory as a framework, a review of the literature was initiated. There were few current studies on this issue, but relevant information was found about nursing's emerging workforce, as well as implications of the growth of magnet hospitals, which affect whether nurses join specialty nursing organizations. A multifaceted data-collection approach using convenience samples was designed. First, relevant literature was reviewed. Second, a survey was sent by e-mail to other ARN chapters. Third, a telephone survey on other specialty organizations in the geographic region was completed. Finally, members of the local ARN chapter and four other specialty organizations, as well staff nurses in the geographic area, were given questionnaires to complete. Descriptive statistics and cross tabulations were used to determine why nurses do and do not join specialty organizations (N = 81). The most frequent reasons for joining an organization were to increase knowledge, benefit professionally, network, and earn continuing education units. Reasons for choosing not to participate were family responsibilities, lack of information about these organizations, and lack of time. Ways to reverse the decline in membership are discussed.

  18. Environmental factors affecting corrosion of munitions

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, K.; Bricka, M.; Morales, A.

    1995-12-31

    Spent small arms munitions have accumulated for years at outdoor firing ranges operated by the DoD and other groups. Used bullets are often subjected to moisture sources. There is increasing concern that accumulations of lead-based munitions represent potential sources of water and soil pollution. To understand both the severity of and solutions to this problem, it is necessary to measure how rapidly bullets corrode and to determine the soil variables affecting the process. In this study M16 bullets were buried in samples of soil taken from Louisiana army firing ranges. Four environmental conditions were simulated; rain water, acid rain, seamore » water, and 50% sea water/50% acid rain. The three electrode technique was used to measure the bullet corrosion. Graphite rods served as counter electrodes. A saturated calomel reference electrode was used along with a specially constructed salt bridge. Electrochemical measurements were conducted using a computer-controlled potentiostat to determine corrosion potential, soil resistance, and corrosion current. The rate of corrosion was found to markedly increase with decreasing soil pH and increasing chloride and moisture contents, with the chloride content being the most influential variable. High soil resistance and noble corrosion potential were found to be associated with low corrosion rates. This is important since both parameters can be readily measured in the field.« less

  19. Factors affecting the acceptance of expert advice.

    PubMed

    Van Swol, Lyn M; Sniezek, Janet A

    2005-09-01

    This paper expands research on the judge advisor system (JAS) by examining advice utilization and trust. Experiment 1 examined five factors that could increase utilization of expert advice: judge's trust in the advisor, advisor confidence, advisor accuracy, judge's prior relationship with the advisor, and judge's power to set payment to the advisor. While judge's trust and advisor confidence correlated with the judge matching the advisor's advice, a stepwise regression found that of the five variables, advisor confidence was the only significant predictor of the judge matching the advisor. Experiment 2 examined trust without the role assignment to judge or advisor. While trust expressed in partner was not higher for the judge than the advisor in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 trust in partner expressed by the low-expertise dyad member was higher than trust expressed by the high-expertise dyad member. Results from the two experiments are discussed in the context of Sniezek and Van Swol (2001).

  20. Psychological assessment of factors affecting pain

    PubMed Central

    Pos, Robert

    1974-01-01

    Use of traditional stimulus-response models of pain leads to differentiation between organic and psychogenic pain, which is often not helpful, if not dangerous, in treating chronic pain. Pain does not simply reflect bodily damage but also complex psychological malfunctioning. Viewing chronic pain as an obsessional state may often help in treating the entire patient and prevent the physician from being obsessed with the patient's obsession. Psychological assessment of pain should focus on the role of psychological processes in the multifactorial causation of the illness causing the pain, notably their role in illness-proneness in general. Also, iatrogenic psychological distress, associatively precipitated psychological conflict and illness-perpetuating psychological processes should be looked for. A serious obstacle to progress with pain problems is not lack of hard data but conceptual confusion. Before medicine can meaningfully assess psychological factors in pain problems it must first learn to perceive psychological disturbances in medical and surgical patients. PMID:4434290

  1. Experimental Study of Factors Affecting Soil Erodibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larionov, G. A.; Bushueva, O. G.; Gorobets, A. V.; Dobrovolskaya, N. G.; Kiryukhina, Z. P.; Krasnov, S. F.; Litvin, L. F.; Maksimova, I. A.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of different factors and preparation conditions of monofraction samples from the arable horizon of leached chernozem on soil erodibility and its relationship with soil tensile strength (STS) has been studied. The exposure of samples at 38°C reduces their erodibility by two orders of magnitude. The drying of samples, on the contrary, increases their erodibility. It has been shown that erodibility decreases during the experiment. It has been found that the inoculation of soil with yeast cultures ( Naganishia albida, Lipomyces tetrasporus) reliably increases the STS value in 1.5-1.9 times. The sterile soil is eroded more intensively than the unsterile soil: at 4.9 and 0.3 g/(m2 s), respectively. The drying of soil followed by wetting to the initial water content (30%) has no significant effect on the STS value in almost all experimental treatments.

  2. Factors affecting low back pain in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Repantis, Thomas; Baikousis, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    Prospective multifactorial study on low back pain (LBP) in adolescents. Most studies on LBP have focused on adults although many investigations have shown that the roots of LBP lie in adolescence. Several mechanical, physical, and behavioral factors have been associated with nonspecific LBP in adolescents. To investigate the effect of all previously reported parameters together with psychological and psychosocial factors using advanced statistics, on LBP in adolescents aged 15 to 19 years. Six hundred and eighty-eight students aged 16±1 years from 5 randomly selected high schools participated in this study and completed a questionnaire containing questions on daily activity, backpack carrying, psychological and psychosocial behavior. Anthropometric data as well as biplane spinal curvatures together with questionnaire results were included in the analysis using advanced statistics. LBP reported 41% of the participants. Generally, statistically significant correlations were found between LBP (0.002), physical activity (P<0.001), physician consultation (P=0.024), and depression (P<0.001). Sex-related differences were shown regarding LBP intensity (P=0.005) and frequency (P=0.013), stress (P<0.03), depression (P=0.005), and nervous mood (P=0.036) in favor of male students. Male adolescents had continuous energy (P=0.0258) and were calm (P=0.029) in contrast with female counterparts. LBP was sex-related and was less common in adolescents with frequent activity. Adolescent girls with stress, depressive mood, and low energy have more LBP than boys, which makes physician consultation for LBP more common in female adolescents. Systematic physical activity and control of psychological profile should decrease LBP frequency and intensity.

  3. A review of genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that affect carbohydrate-deficient transferrin levels.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Michael F; Anton, Raymond F; Spies, Claudia D

    2004-09-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is an alcohol biomarker recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. This test is increasingly being used to detect and monitor alcohol use in a variety of health care, legal, and industrial settings. The goal of this study is to review the genetic, biological, pharmacological, and clinical factors that may affect CDT levels. A review of the literature identified 95 research articles that met the authors' criteria and reported potential interactions of a variety of factors on percent and total CDT levels. The review established 12 categories of variables that may affect CDT levels. These categories include (1) alcohol use, (2) genetic factors, (3) race, (4) gender, (5) age, (6) liver disease, (7) iron levels, (8) tobacco use, (9) medication such as estrogen and anticonvulsants, (10) metabolic factors such as body mass index and total body water, (11) chronic medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, and (12) surgical patients. There is evidence that %CDT levels are affected by alcohol use, end-stage liver disease, and genetic variants. In addition to these three factors, total CDT levels (CDTect) are also affected by factors that raise transferrin levels such as iron deficiency, chronic illnesses, and menopausal status. Other potential factors such as tobacco and age appear to be confounded by alcohol use. The roles of female gender, low body mass index, chronic inflammatory diseases, and medication on CDT levels require further study. False negatives are associated with female gender, episodic lower level alcohol use, and acute trauma with blood loss. This review suggests that a number of factors are associated with false-positive CDTect and %CDT levels. CDT offers great promise to assist physicians in the care of patients to detect and monitor heavy alcohol use.

  4. Geological factors affecting CO2 plume distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frailey, S.M.; Leetaru, H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the lateral extent of a CO2 plume has important implications with regards to buying/leasing pore volume rights, defining the area of review for an injection permit, determining the extent of an MMV plan, and managing basin-scale sequestration from multiple injection sites. The vertical and lateral distribution of CO2 has implications with regards to estimating CO2 storage volume at a specific site and the pore pressure below the caprock. Geologic and flow characteristics such as effective permeability and porosity, capillary pressure, lateral and vertical permeability anisotropy, geologic structure, and thickness all influence and affect the plume distribution to varying degrees. Depending on the variations in these parameters one may dominate the shape and size of the plume. Additionally, these parameters do not necessarily act independently. A comparison of viscous and gravity forces will determine the degree of vertical and lateral flow. However, this is dependent on formation thickness. For example in a thick zone with injection near the base, the CO2 moves radially from the well but will slow at greater radii and vertical movement will dominate. Generally the CO2 plume will not appreciably move laterally until the caprock or a relatively low permeability interval is contacted by the CO2. Conversely, in a relatively thin zone with the injection interval over nearly the entire zone, near the wellbore the CO2 will be distributed over the entire vertical component and will move laterally much further with minimal vertical movement. Assuming no geologic structure, injecting into a thin zone or into a thick zone immediately under a caprock will result in a larger plume size. With a geologic structure such as an anticline, CO2 plume size may be restricted and injection immediately below the caprock may have less lateral plume growth because the structure will induce downward vertical movement of the CO2 until the outer edge of the plume reaches a spill

  5. [The psychological factors affecting athletic performance].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária

    2010-05-16

    The physical and mental health complex is claimed as achievement of the XXI. century, whereby also among the sportsmen and sportswomen, beside the somatic medicine, growing attention is devoted to the psyche as well. The sports psychiatry was dragged in and put into service to enhance performance after all biological weapons run out of ammunition, and the long-awaited results still failed to come about. Moreover, despite the energy increasingly invested it was going from bad to worse. Among athletes many psychiatric disorders call attention, either by the high prevalence or by the development of a specific syndrome. Symptoms of depression (depression after the competition, depression following the failure at the competition), chronic stress, anxiety, fatigue syndrome of overtraining, enervation, sleep disturbances, eating problems, burnout, eating disorders (anorexia athletics, athlete triad), personality factors and the chemical addiction are all extremely important. The present study is the first to summarize the most crucial psychiatric disorders that may have great significance in the athlete population, in varying degrees according to the individual sports.

  6. Factors Affecting Hypertension among the Malaysian Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Shahar, Suzana; Ng, Chee Kyun; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a common chronic disease in the elderly. This study aimed to determine the effects of age, ethnicity, gender, education, marital status, nutritional parameters, and blood elements on the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. This research was conducted on a group of 2322 non-institutionalized Malaysian elderly. The hierarchy binary logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of hypertension in respondents. Approximately, 45.61% of subjects had hypertension. The findings indicated that the female gender (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.54), an increase in body weight (OR = 1.61), and an increase in the blood levels of albumin (OR = 1.51), glucose (OR = 1.92), and triglycerides (OR = 1.27) significantly increased the risk of hypertension in subjects (p < 0.05). Conversely, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates (OR = 0.74), and blood cholesterol level (OR = 0.42) significantly reduced the risk of hypertension in samples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that ethnicity was a non-relevant factor to increase the risk of hypertension in subjects. It was concluded that female gender, an increase in body weight, and an increase in the blood levels of glucose, triglycerides, and albumin enhanced the risk of high blood pressure in the Malaysian elderly. In addition, an increase in both dietary carbohydrates and blood cholesterol level decreased hypertension in subjects. PMID:29367559

  7. [Factors affecting how long exclusive breastfeeding lasts].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Jesús; Acosta-Ramírez, Naydú

    2008-01-01

    Identifying factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding by poor urban women in Colombia . A random sample of women living in poor neighborhoods from four Colombian cities ( Cali , Cartagena , Medellín and Ibague ) was made (survey method), using a cross-sectional design; survival analysis techniques were applied. Bivariate analysis identified hospital bottle use, the women's marital status, and relationship with the head of household as having had a significant effect on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Multivariate analysis identified the non-use of bottles in hospital as favoring a longer breast feeding period. Reducing hospital bottle use is readily achievable by health system action; increasing the time mothers spend with their infants is more difficult. A relevant finding was that more mothers were unaware of breastfeeding's maternal benefits than those who were unaware of its benefits for the baby. If mothers were made more aware of the maternal benefits, an increasing number might insist on being the main caregiver and take care of their children for longer periods of time.

  8. Factors affecting vasectomy acceptability in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Bunce, Arwen; Guest, Greg; Searing, Hannah; Frajzyngier, Veronica; Riwa, Peter; Kanama, Joseph; Achwal, Isaac

    2007-03-01

    Calls for increased inclusion of men in matters of reproductive health emphasize the need for research into vasectomy acceptability and decision making. Vasectomy is a safe, simple and effective method of contraception, but is underused worldwide. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with potential and actual sterilization clients and their partners in the Kigoma Region of Tanzania. Content analysis was used to search for emergent themes related to vasectomy decision making. Six themes emerged as overarching factors contributing to the vasectomy decision-making process: economics, spousal influence, religion, provider reputation and availability, uncertainty about the future, and poor vasectomy knowledge and understanding. There was substantial communication between partners regarding the vasectomy decision, and wives had a strong influence on the outcome; however, men and women agreed that husbands would resist vasectomy if wives initially raised the topic. Vasectomy acceptance is limited by the scarcity of skilled vasectomy providers and by the fact that men and women hold many of the same misunderstandings about vasectomy, including a fear of decreased sexual performance as a result of the procedure. Spousal discussions are important in the decision to get a vasectomy, but these discussions should be initiated by the male partner. Programs need to educate men about contraceptive options, including vasectomies. Detailed, culturally relevant knowledge of the barriers and facilitators individuals experience during their decision- making process will enable vasectomy promotion programs to more successfully target appropriate populations.

  9. Factors affecting breastfeeding adherence among Chinese mothers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pan; Ren, Jianhua; Liu, Yi; Luo, Biru; Zhao, Xiufang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding is beneficial for both infant and mother, but discontinuation of breastfeeding is very common. To investigate maternal breastfeeding intention and the rate of breastfeeding based on the theory of reasoned action, and analyze the predominant factors associated with breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems. This observational study was conducted in 3 hospitals. Three researchers recruited women at 3 time points in the hospitals: initial documentation of pregnancy at the outpatient department, prenatal admission, and postpartum discharge. SPSS version 21 was used for statistical analyses. Significance was set at P < .05. In the multivariate analysis, binary logistic regression was used and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We recruited 1260 women, with 420 pregnant women at each time point. 55.1% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, 40.6% were mixed fed, and 4.3% were formula fed when discharged from hospital. A total of 53.8% of the mothers declared having breastfeeding problems. The multivariate analysis showed that nonsuccessful breastfeeding was associated with neonatal birth length, food intake before breastfeeding, infrequent sucking, the intention of breastfeeding, understanding level of the benefits of breastfeeding and that breastfeeding problems were related with the understanding level of the benefits of breastfeeding, neonatal birth length, normal vaginal delivery, breast size, the experience of breastfeeding, use of pacifier and the needs of family member's support in breastfeeding. Most mothers who intended to practice exclusive breastfeeding initially chose to add formula and had breastfeeding problems when discharged from hospital. Successful breastfeeding depends on antenatal and postnatal breastfeeding education and on support provided by healthcare professionals. PMID:28930818

  10. Are there anamnestic risk factors for iron deficiency in pregnancy? Results from a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Wolf; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Henrich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The conditions of iron deficiency are highly incident in pregnancy with elevated risks for preterm birth and low birth weight. In our recent study, we found 6% of participants having anemia, whereas between 39% and 47% showed iron deficiency without anemia. In many countries in prenatal care solely hemoglobin (Hb) measurement is applied. For the gynecologists till date there is no indication to determine other markers (e.g., serum-ferritin). As iron deficiency results from an imbalance between intake and loss of iron, our aim was to find out if the risk of iron deficiency conditions can be estimated by a diet history protocol as well as questionnaires to find about iron loss. We found that the risk of having iron deficiency in upper gestational week (>=21) increased by a factor of five. Thus, additional diagnostics should be done in this group by now. Using the questionnaire as a screening instrument, we further estimated the probability of disease in terms of a positive likelihood ratio (LR+). The positive LR for the group below 21th week of gestation is 1.9 thus, increasing the post-test probability to 52% from 36% as before. Further research based on higher sample sizes will show if the ratios can be increased further.

  11. Temporary dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of deep vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT.

  12. Temporary Dietary Iron Restriction Affects the Process of Thrombus Resolution in a Rat Model of Deep Vein Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Oboshi, Makiko; Naito, Yoshiro; Sawada, Hisashi; Hirotani, Shinichi; Iwasaku, Toshihiro; Okuhara, Yoshitaka; Morisawa, Daisuke; Eguchi, Akiyo; Nishimura, Koichi; Fujii, Kenichi; Mano, Toshiaki; Ishihara, Masaharu; Masuyama, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a major cause of pulmonary thromboembolism and sudden death. Thus, it is important to consider the pathophysiology of DVT. Recently, iron has been reported to be associated with thrombotic diseases. Hence, in this study, we investigate the effects of dietary iron restriction on the process of thrombus resolution in a rat model of DVT. Methods We induced DVT in 8-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats by performing ligations of their inferior venae cavae. The rats were then given either a normal diet (DVT group) or an iron-restricted diet (DVT+IR group). Thrombosed inferior venae cavae were harvested at 5 days after ligation. Results The iron-restricted diet reduced venous thrombus size compared to the normal diet. Intrathrombotic collagen content was diminished in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. In addition, intrathrombotic gene expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were increased in the DVT+IR group compared to the DVT group. Furthermore, the DVT+IR group had greater intrathrombotic neovascularization as well as higher gene expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and tissue-type plasminogen activator than the DVT group. The iron-restricted diet decreased intrathrombotic superoxide production compared to the normal diet. Conclusions These results suggest that dietary iron restriction affects the process of thrombus resolution in DVT. PMID:25962140

  13. The iron status at birth of neonates with risk factors for developing iron deficiency: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    MacQueen, BC; Christensen, RD; Ward, DM; Bennett, ST; O’Brien, EA; Sheffield, MJ; Baer, VL; Snow, GL; Lewis, KA Weaver; Fleming, RE; Kaplan, J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. STUDY DESIGN We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. RESULTS Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. CONCLUSIONS Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay. PMID:27977019

  14. The iron status at birth of neonates with risk factors for developing iron deficiency: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, B C; Christensen, R D; Ward, D M; Bennett, S T; O'Brien, E A; Sheffield, M J; Baer, V L; Snow, G L; Weaver Lewis, K A; Fleming, R E; Kaplan, J

    2017-04-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) neonates, infants of diabetic mothers (IDM) and very-low-birth weight premature neonates (VLBW) are reported to have increased risk for developing iron deficiency and possibly associated neurocognitive delays. We conducted a pilot study to assess iron status at birth in at-risk neonates by measuring iron parameters in umbilical cord blood from SGA, IDM, VLBW and comparison neonates. Six of the 50 infants studied had biochemical evidence of iron deficiency at birth. Laboratory findings consistent with iron deficiency were found in one SGA, one IDM, three VLBW, and one comparison infant. None of the infants had evidence of iron deficiency anemia. Evidence of biochemical iron deficiency at birth was found in 17% of screened neonates. Studies are needed to determine whether these infants are at risk for developing iron-limited erythropoiesis, iron deficiency anemia or iron-deficient neurocognitive delay.

  15. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15–78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in

  16. Factors Affecting Morbidity in Solid Organ Injuries.

    PubMed

    Baygeldi, Serdar; Karakose, Oktay; Özcelik, Kazım Caglar; Pülat, Hüseyin; Damar, Sedat; Eken, Hüseyin; Zihni, İsmail; Çalta, Alpaslan Fedai; Baç, Bilsel

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic characteristics, biochemical parameters, amount of blood transfusion, and trauma scores on morbidity in patients with solid organ injury following trauma. Material and Method. One hundred nine patients with solid organ injury due to abdominal trauma during January 2005 and October 2015 were examined retrospectively in the General Surgery Department of Dicle University Medical Faculty. Patients' age, gender, trauma interval time, vital status (heart rate, arterial tension, and respiratory rate), hematocrit (HCT) value, serum area aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values, presence of free abdominal fluid in USG, trauma mechanism, extra-abdominal system injuries, injured solid organs and their number, degree of injury in abdominal CT, number of blood transfusions, duration of hospital stay, time of operation (for those undergoing operation), trauma scores (ISS, RTS, Glasgow coma scale, and TRISS), and causes of morbidity and mortality were examined. In posttraumatic follow-up period, intra-abdominal hematoma infection, emboli, catheter infection, and deep vein thrombosis were monitored as factors of morbidity. Results. One hundred nine patients were followed up and treated due to isolated solid organ injury following abdominal trauma. There were 81 males (74.3%) and 28 females (25.7%), and the mean age was 37.6 ± 18.28 (15-78) years. When examining the mechanism of abdominal trauma in patients, the following results were obtained: 58 (53.3%) traffic accidents (22 out-vehicle and 36 in-vehicle), 27 (24.7%) falling from a height, 14 (12.9%) assaults, 5 (4.5%) sharp object injuries, and 5 (4.5%) gunshot injuries. When evaluating 69 liver injuries scaled by CT the following was detected: 14 (20.3%) of grade I, 32 (46.4%) of grade II, 22 (31.8%) of grade III, and 1 (1.5%) of grade IV. In 63 spleen injuries scaled by CT the following was present: grade I in 21

  17. Transferrin Receptor 2 Dependent Alterations of Brain Iron Metabolism Affect Anxiety Circuits in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrino, Rosa Maria; Boda, Enrica; Montarolo, Francesca; Boero, Martina; Mezzanotte, Mariarosa; Saglio, Giuseppe; Buffo, Annalisa; Roetto, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    The Transferrin Receptor 2 (Tfr2) modulates systemic iron metabolism through the regulation of iron regulator Hepcidin (Hepc) and Tfr2 inactivation causes systemic iron overload. Based on data demonstrating Tfr2 expression in brain, we analysed Tfr2-KO mice in order to examine the molecular, histological and behavioural consequences of Tfr2 silencing in this tissue. Tfr2 abrogation caused an accumulation of iron in specific districts in the nervous tissue that was not accompanied by a brain Hepc response. Moreover, Tfr2-KO mice presented a selective overactivation of neurons in the limbic circuit and the emergence of an anxious-like behaviour. Furthermore, microglial cells showed a particular sensitivity to iron perturbation. We conclude that Tfr2 is a key regulator of brain iron homeostasis and propose a role for Tfr2 alpha in the regulation of anxiety circuits. PMID:27477597

  18. EMISSION FACTORS FOR IRON AND STEEL SOURCES: CRITERIA AND TOXIC POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a comprehensive set of emission factors for sources of both criteria and toxic air pollutants in integrated iron and steel plants and specialty electric arc shops (minimills). Emission factors are identified for process sources, and process and open source fug...

  19. Iron absorption from Southeast Asian diets. II. Role of various factors that might explain low absorption.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Rossander, L; Suwanik, R

    1977-04-01

    Previously reported levels of iron absorption from common Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices were too low to be consistent with the known prevalence of iron deficiency. In the present paper the cause of the low absorption was systematically sought. Variables investigated comprised methodological errors, factors in the diet such as certain foodstuffs, or contaminants inhibiting the absorption and characteristics of the subjects accompanied by malabsorption of dietary iron. The latter was excluded by comparing the absorption from both wheat rolls and a composit rice meal in Thai and Swedish women using the absorption of a small dose of ferrous ascorbate as a common basis of comparison. Two main factors were identified as causing the low absorption in the previous studies: the homogenization of the labeled meals before serving and the use of rice flour instead of rice. Iron absorption from nonhomogenized meals of identical composition as studied previously was many times higher (on an average 0.16 mg) and was consistent with the actual prevalence of iron deficiency in lower socioeconomic groups of Thais mainly consuming the simple meals studied. Recent modifications of the method to measure nonheme iron absorption from composite meals have thus not only made the determination simpler but also more accurate.

  20. Iron-Binding E3 Ligase Mediates Iron Response in Plants by Targeting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W.; Long, Terri A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response. PMID:25452667

  1. Factors Affecting Gastrointestinal Absorption of Levothyroxine: A Review.

    PubMed

    Skelin, Marko; Lucijanić, Tomo; Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Rešić, Arnes; Bakula, Miro; Liberati-Čizmek, Ana-Marija; Gharib, Hossein; Rahelić, Dario

    2017-02-01

    Levothyroxine (LT4) is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, applied in small amounts (micrograms), which makes interactions in the absorption phase clinically significant. The main aim of this article was to review and present the latest information on factors that affect the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Relevant data were collected by using the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with the key words levothyroxine and absorption. Searches were not limited to specific publication types, study designs, dates, or languages. The reports were highly variable in the amount of information provided regarding study design and methods. Because of the heterogeneity of studies, no statistical analysis was performed. Many gastrointestinal disorders, such as celiac disease, atrophic gastritis, lactose intolerance, and Helicobacter pylori infection, may impede the absorption of levothyroxine. During treatment of these disorders, it is necessary to monitor serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free T4 values to reduce the risk of developing iatrogenic hyperthyroidism. Soybeans and coffee have the greatest impact on the reduction of absorption, whereas vitamin C has the ability to increase it. Conversely, the effect of dietary fiber on the absorption of LT4 is not yet fully understood; further research is needed on this topic. A decrease in the absorption of LT4 is established and clinically significant when administered concomitantly with cholestyramine, colesevelam, lanthanum, calcium carbonate, calcium citrate, calcium acetate, iron sulfate, ciprofloxacin, aluminum hydroxide, sevelamer, or proton pump inhibitors. This effect should be taken into consideration when prescribing these drugs concomitantly with LT4. The effects of Giardia lamblia infection and the influence of orlistat, polystyrene sulfonate, raloxifene, and simethicone on absorption of LT4 have been poorly documented. For bariatric surgery, sucralfate and H 2

  2. How do operating conditions affect As(III) removal by iron electrocoagulation?

    PubMed

    Delaire, Caroline; Amrose, Susan; Zhang, Minghui; Hake, James; Gadgil, Ashok

    2017-04-01

    Iron electrocoagulation (Fe-EC) has been shown to effectively remove arsenic from contaminated groundwater at low cost and has the potential to improve access to safe drinking water for millions of people. Understanding how operating conditions, such as the Fe dosage rate and the O 2 recharge rate, affect arsenic removal at different pH values is crucial to maximize the performance of Fe-EC under economic constraints. In this work, we improved upon an existing computational model to investigate the combined effects of pH, Fe dosage rate, and O 2 recharge rate on arsenic removal in Fe-EC. We showed that the impact of the Fe dosage rate strongly depends on pH and on the O 2 recharge rate, which has important practical implications. We identified the process limiting arsenic removal (As(III) oxidation versus As(V) adsorption) at different pH values, which allowed us to interpret the effect of operating conditions on Fe-EC performance. Finally, we assessed the robustness of the trends predicted by the model, which assumes a constant pH, against lab experiments reproducing more realistic conditions where pH is allowed to drift during treatment as a result of equilibration with atmospheric CO 2 . Our results provide a nuanced understanding of how operating conditions impact arsenic removal by Fe-EC and can inform decisions regarding the operation of this technology in a range of groundwaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Iron concentration, bioavailability, and nutritional quality of polished rice affected by different forms of foliar iron fertilizer.

    PubMed

    He, Wanling; Shohag, M J I; Wei, Yanyan; Feng, Ying; Yang, Xiaoe

    2013-12-15

    The present study compared the effects of four different forms of foliar iron (Fe) fertilizers on Fe concentration, bioavailability and nutritional quality of polished rice. The results showed that foliar fertilisation at the anthesis stage was an effective way to promote Fe concentration and bioavailability of polished rice, especially in case of DTPA-Fe. Compared to the control, foliar application of DTPA-Fe increased sulphur concentration and the nutrition promoter cysteine content, whereas decreased phosphorus concentration and the antinutrient phytic acid content of polished rice, as a result increased 67.2% ferrtin formation in Caco-2 cell. Moreover, foliar DTPA-Fe application could maintain amylase, protein and minerals quality of polished rice. According to the current study, DTPA-Fe is recommended as an excellent foliar Fe form for Fe biofortification program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Jr. Nevel; Robert L. Jr. Nevel

    1973-01-01

    The continued use of hardwood flooring in urban rehabilitation is being threatened. A study of the influences that determine the choice of flooring indicates that economic, physical, or technological factors dominate. Most factors affecting the use of hardwood flooring are related to cost, availability, and compatibility. Of these factors, time and cost of installation...

  5. Iron status of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus affected by channel catfish anemia and response to parenteral iron

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Originally reported in 1983, channel catfish anemia (CCA), also ‘white lip’ or ‘no blood,’ is a major idiopathic disease affecting commercial production in the Mississippi Delta region of the USA. Affected individuals are characterized by lethargy, anorexia, extreme pallor, and packed cell volumes o...

  6. Iron and fibroblast growth factor 23 in X-linked hypophosphatemia

    PubMed Central

    Imel, Erik A.; Gray, Amie; Padgett, Leah; Econs, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Excess fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) causes hypophosphatemia in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets (ADHR) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH). Iron status influences C-terminal FGF23 (incorporating fragments plus intact FGF23) in ADHR and healthy subjects, and intact FGF23 in ADHR. We hypothesized that in XLH serum iron would inversely correlate to C-terminal FGF23, but not to intact FGF23, mirroring the relationships in normal controls. Methods Subjects included 25 untreated outpatients with XLH at a tertiary medical center and 158 healthy adult controls. Serum iron and plasma intact FGF23 and C-terminal FGF23 were measured in stored samples. Results Intact FGF23 was greater than the control mean in 100% of XLH patients, and >2SD above the control mean in 88%, compared to 71% and 21% respectively for C-terminal FGF23. In XLH, iron correlated negatively to log-C-terminal FGF23 (r= −0.523, p<0.01), with a steeper slope than in controls (p<0.001). Iron was not related to log-intact FGF23 in either group. The log-ratio of intact FGF23 to C-terminal FGF23 was higher in XLH (0.00 ± 0.44) than controls (−0.28 ± 0.21, p<0.01), and correlated positively to serum iron (controls r= 0.276, p<0.001; XLH r= 0.428, p<0.05), with a steeper slope in XLH (p<0.01). Conclusion Like controls, serum iron in XLH is inversely related to C-terminal FGF23 but not intact FGF23. XLH patients are more likely to have elevated intact FGF23 than C-terminal FGF23. The relationships of iron to FGF23 in XLH suggest altered regulation of FGF23 cleaving may contribute to maintaining hypophosphatemia around an abnormal set-point. PMID:24325979

  7. Effects of oral iron(III) hydroxide polymaltose complex supplementation on hemoglobin increase, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance of adolescents with varying iron status: a single centre prospective placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Devaki, Pallaki Baby; Chandra, Ranjit K; Geisser, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effects of iron supplementation on iron status, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance in adolescents with varying iron status. Adolescents of both sexes with varying iron status were allocated to four treatment groups by using inclusion criteria. Three of the four groups (iron deficient anemic, iron deficient and control supplement) received iron(III) hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC, Maltofer) containing 100 mg of elemental iron 6 days a week for 8 months, while the fourth group (control placebo) was given a placebo. Hematological parameters, cognitive function, affective behavior and scholastic performance were assessed at baseline, 4 months and 8 months of supplementation. Cognitive and scholastic performance test scores for the three supplemented groups increased from baseline to 4 months and from 4 months to 8 months (with concomitant increases in hematological parameters), whereas no increase was observed in the placebo group. No increase was seen in affective behavior scores for any of the groups during or after supplementation. IPC supplementation for eight months yielded significant improvements in cognitive function and scholastic performance in Indian adolescents with and without iron deficiency and anemia.

  8. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  9. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Handbook for Women Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease Birth Control Pills Studies show that women who ... t had any more complications because of my heart disease." — Diane Pay attention to diabetes. Levels of glucose, ...

  10. What Factors Affect Response to Ads? A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotzoll, Kim B.

    The concept of "frame of reference" offers a perspective from which to examine the many factors which affect advertising response. The advertiser is interested in affecting two types of overt behavior. First, the individual is induced to select a particular stimulus (the advertisement) from competing stimuli (such as other people, noise,…

  11. Biologics formulation factors affecting metal leachables from stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuxia; Schöneich, Christian; Singh, Satish K

    2011-03-01

    An area of increasing concern and scientific scrutiny is the potential contamination of drug products by leachables entering the product during manufacturing and storage. These contaminants may either have a direct safety impact on the patients or act indirectly through the alteration of the physicochemical properties of the product. In the case of biotherapeutics, trace amounts of metal contaminants can arise from various sources, but mainly from contact with stainless steel (ss). The effect of the various factors, buffer species, solution fill volume per unit contact surface area, metal chelators, and pH, on metal leachables from contact with ss over time were investigated individually. Three major metal leachables, iron, chromium, and nickel, were monitored by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry because they are the major components of 316L ss. Iron was primarily used to evaluate the effect of each factor since it is the most abundant. It was observed that each studied factor exhibited its own effect on metal leachables from contact with ss. The effect of buffer species and pH exhibited temperature dependence over the studied temperature range. The metal leachables decreased with the increased fill volume (mL) per unit contact ss surface area (cm(2)) but a plateau was achieved at approximately 3 mL/cm(2). Metal chelators produced the strongest effect in facilitating metal leaching. In order to minimize the metal leachables and optimize biological product stability, each formulation factor must be evaluated for its impact, to balance its risk and benefit in achieving the target drug product shelf life. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  12. Iron fortification adversely affects the gut microbiome, increases pathogen abundance and induces intestinal inflammation in Kenyan infants.

    PubMed

    Jaeggi, Tanja; Kortman, Guus A M; Moretti, Diego; Chassard, Christophe; Holding, Penny; Dostal, Alexandra; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Tjalsma, Harold; Njenga, Jane; Mwangi, Alice; Kvalsvig, Jane; Lacroix, Christophe; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2015-05-01

    In-home iron fortification for infants in developing countries is recommended for control of anaemia, but low absorption typically results in >80% of the iron passing into the colon. Iron is essential for growth and virulence of many pathogenic enterobacteria. We determined the effect of high and low dose in-home iron fortification on the infant gut microbiome and intestinal inflammation. We performed two double-blind randomised controlled trials in 6-month-old Kenyan infants (n=115) consuming home-fortified maize porridge daily for 4 months. In the first, infants received a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA or the MNP without iron. In the second, they received a different MNP containing 12.5 mg iron as ferrous fumarate or the MNP without the iron. The primary outcome was gut microbiome composition analysed by 16S pyrosequencing and targeted real-time PCR (qPCR). Secondary outcomes included faecal calprotectin (marker of intestinal inflammation) and incidence of diarrhoea. We analysed the trials separately and combined. At baseline, 63% of the total microbial 16S rRNA could be assigned to Bifidobacteriaceae but there were high prevalences of pathogens, including Salmonella Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, and pathogenic Escherichia coli. Using pyrosequencing, +FeMNPs increased enterobacteria, particularly Escherichia/Shigella (p=0.048), the enterobacteria/bifidobacteria ratio (p=0.020), and Clostridium (p=0.030). Most of these effects were confirmed using qPCR; for example, +FeMNPs increased pathogenic E. coli strains (p=0.029). +FeMNPs also increased faecal calprotectin (p=0.002). During the trial, 27.3% of infants in +12.5 mgFeMNP required treatment for diarrhoea versus 8.3% in -12.5 mgFeMNP (p=0.092). There were no study-related serious adverse events in either group. In this setting, provision of iron-containing MNPs to weaning infants adversely affects the gut microbiome, increasing pathogen abundance and

  13. Factors affecting dignity of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Simin; Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    MS is one of the most common chronic diseases of the nervous system. Apart from disease progression, other complications such as unemployment, separation and divorce could potentially threat patients' dignity. Most of the previous studies have been done of maintaining patients' dignity in interaction with healthcare team, but studies on affecting factors of dignity in chronic patients in the society and in interaction with usual people are scarce. We aimed to investigate factors affecting dignity of Iranian patients with MS in daily living and in interaction of them with the society. In this qualitative study, 13 patients with multiple sclerosis were chosen by purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews were conducted until data saturation. The study was done in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. Factors affecting dignity were classified as 'personal factors' and 'social factors'. Personal factors consist of the following subcategories: patients' communication with self, patients' knowledge, patients' values and beliefs and patients' resources. Social factors include others' communication with patients, social knowledge, social values and beliefs and social resources. Multiple personal and social factors interfere in perceived patient dignity. In fact, interaction between personal and social factors can be influential in final perceived dignity. By focusing on whole aspects of the patients' lives, we can identify dignity-promoting or dignity-threatening factors and help patients maintain their dignity by taking appropriate measures for moderating threatening factors and improving dignity enhancing ones. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  14. Physiological characteristics of Plantago major under SO2 exposure as affected by foliar iron spray.

    PubMed

    Mohasseli, Vahid; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir Hossein; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is considered as a main air pollutant in industrialized areas that can damage vegetation. In the present study, we investigated how exposure to SO 2 and foliar application of iron (Fe) would affect certain physiological characteristics of Plantago major. The plant seedlings exposed or unexposed to SO 2 (3900 μg m -3 ) were non-supplemented or supplemented with Fe (3 g L -1 ) as foliar spray. Plants were exposed to SO 2 for 6 weeks in 100 × 70 × 70 cm chambers. Fumigation of plants with SO 2 was performed for 3 h daily for 3 days per week (alternate day). Lower leaf Fe concentration in the plants exposed to SO 2 at no added Fe treatment was accompanied with incidence of chlorosis symptoms and reduced chlorophyll concentration. No visible chlorotic symptoms were observed on the SO 2 -exposed plants supplied with Fe that accumulated higher Fe in their leaves. Both at with and without added Fe treatments, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity was higher in the plants fumigated with SO 2 in comparison with those non-fumigated with SO 2 . Foliar application of Fe was also effective in increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and POD. Exposure to SO 2 led to reduced cellulose but enhanced lignin content of plant leaf cell wall. The results obtained showed that foliar application of Fe was effective in reducing the effects of exposure to SO 2 on cell wall composition. In contrast to SO 2 , application of Fe increased cellulose while decreased lignin content of the leaf cell wall. This might be due to reduced oxidative stress induced by SO 2 in plants supplied with Fe compared with those unsupplied with Fe.

  15. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  16. Heat-treated hull flour does not affect iron bioavailability in rats.

    PubMed

    Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Carvalho, Ariela Werneck de; Silva, Cassiano Oliveira da; Dantas, Maria Inês de Souza; Natal, Dorina Isabel Gomes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Costa, Neuza Maria Brunoro

    2011-06-01

    In this study the chemical composition and iron bioavailability of hull and hull-less soybean flour from the new cultivar UFVTN 105AP was evaluated. The hemoglobin depletion-repletion method was used in Wistar rats. Soybean hull flour presented 37% more total dietary fiber and higher content of iron than hull-less soybean flour. The phytate:iron molar ratio, however, was 2-fold lower in the soybean hull flour in compared to the hull-less soybean flour. Animals fed soybean hull flour presented hemoglobin gains similar to those of the control diet group (p > 0.05). The Relative Biological Values of hull and hull-less soybean flour were 68.5% and 67.1%, respectively, compared to the control group. Heat-treated soybean hull flour (150 degrees C/30 minutes) showed high content of iron and low phytate, which favors the iron bioavailability. Thus, the soybean hull flour is a better source of dietary fiber and iron than hull-less soybean flour at comparable bioavailabilities.

  17. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake

    PubMed Central

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children. PMID:26825887

  18. Exploring Factors that Affect Purchase Intention of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Trail, Galen T.; Lee, Cindy; Schoenstedt, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a structural model to determine which psychosocial constructs affected the purchase intention of athletic team merchandise (ATM). Results from the analyses indicated that the twelve-factor ATM model fit the data from collegiate athletic events well, explaining the various impact factors that lead to purchase…

  19. Preslaughter factors affecting poultry meat quality chapter 2.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poultry meat quality is affected by numerous antemortem factors, in particular those occurring during the last 24 hours that the bird is alive. These short term factors influence carcass yield (live shrink), carcass defects (bruising, broken/dislocated bones), carcass microbiological contamination, ...

  20. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  1. Factors affecting response and tolerability to ferumoxytol in nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Fishbane, Steven; Bolton, W Kline; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C; Strauss, William; Li, Zhu; Pereira, Brian J G

    2012-09-01

    Ferumoxytol is a unique intravenous (i.v.) iron therapy. This report examines factors affecting hemoglobin response to i.v. ferumoxytol, and the relationship between hematologic parameters, concomitant erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA), and adverse events (AEs) in nondialysis CKD patients. A series of post-hoc efficacy and safety analyses were performed using pooled data from two identically designed Phase III studies in 608 nondialysis CKD patients randomized to receive two 510 mg i.v. injections of ferumoxytol within 5 ± 3 days versus oral iron. Ferumoxytol resulted in a significant increase in hemoglobin in the presence and absence of ESA, and across a range of baseline hemoglobin, transferrin saturation, ferritin, and reticulocyte hemoglobin content levels. Adverse event rates with ferumoxytol were similar across quartiles of change in hemoglobin; there were no trends suggesting an increased rate of cardiovascular AEs with higher maximum achieved hemoglobin or faster rate of hemoglobin rise. There was no meaningful difference in the rate of AEs, serious AEs, and cardiovascular AEs between patients receiving or not receiving ESA. These analyses add to the knowledge of predictors of response and safety outcomes associated with i.v. iron therapy in nondialysis CKD patients.

  2. Methods of Combinatorial Optimization to Reveal Factors Affecting Gene Length

    PubMed Central

    Bolshoy, Alexander; Tatarinova, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for genome ranking according to gene lengths. The main outcomes described in this paper are the following: the formulation of the genome ranking problem, presentation of relevant approaches to solve it, and the demonstration of preliminary results from prokaryotic genomes ordering. Using a subset of prokaryotic genomes, we attempted to uncover factors affecting gene length. We have demonstrated that hyperthermophilic species have shorter genes as compared with mesophilic organisms, which probably means that environmental factors affect gene length. Moreover, these preliminary results show that environmental factors group together in ranking evolutionary distant species. PMID:23300345

  3. Web-based Factors Affecting Online Purchasing Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, Mohd Shoki Md; Sze Yan, Ng; Zakuan, Norhayati; Zaidi Bahari, Ahamad; Jusoh, Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The growing use of internet and online purchasing among young consumers in Malaysia provides a huge prospect in e-commerce market, specifically for B2C segment. In this market, if E-marketers know the web-based factors affecting online buyers' behaviour, and the effect of these factors on behaviour of online consumers, then they can develop their marketing strategies to convert potential customers into active one, while retaining existing online customers. Review of previous studies related to the online purchasing behaviour in B2C market has point out that the conceptualization and empirical validation of the online purchasing behaviour of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literate users, or ICT professional, in Malaysia has not been clearly addressed. This paper focuses on (i) web-based factors which online buyers (ICT professional) keep in mind while shopping online; and (ii) the effect of web-based factors on online purchasing behaviour. Based on the extensive literature review, a conceptual framework of 24 items of five factors was constructed to determine web-based factors affecting online purchasing behaviour of ICT professional. Analysis of data was performed based on the 310 questionnaires, which were collected using a stratified random sampling method, from ICT undergraduate students in a public university in Malaysia. The Exploratory factor analysis performed showed that five factors affecting online purchase behaviour are Information Quality, Fulfilment/Reliability/Customer Service, Website Design, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security. The result of Multiple Regression Analysis indicated that Information Quality, Quick and Details, and Privacy/Security affect positively online purchase behaviour. The results provide a usable model for measuring web-based factors affecting buyers' online purchase behaviour in B2C market, as well as for online shopping companies to focus on the factors that will increase customers' online purchase.

  4. Sources of iron and phosphate affect the distribution of diazotrophs in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratten, Jenni-Marie; LaRoche, Julie; Desai, Dhwani K.; Shelley, Rachel U.; Landing, William M.; Boyle, Ed; Cutter, Gregory A.; Langlois, Rebecca J.

    2015-06-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) supplies nutrient-depleted oceanic surface waters with new biologically available fixed nitrogen. Diazotrophs are the only organisms that can fix dinitrogen, but the factors controlling their distribution patterns in the ocean are not well understood. In this study, the relative abundances of eight diazotrophic phylotypes in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean were determined by quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the nifH gene using TaqMan probes. A total of 152 samples were collected at 27 stations during two GEOTRACES cruises; Lisbon, Portugal to Mindelo, Cape Verde Islands (USGT10) and Woods Hole, MA, USA via the Bermuda Time Series (BATS) to Praia, Cape Verde Islands (USGT11). Seven of the eight diazotrophic phylotypes tested were detected. These included free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria (unicellular groups (UCYN) A, B and C, Trichodesmium, the diatom-associated cyanobacteria Rhizoselinia-Richelia and Hemiaulus-Richelia) and a γ-proteobacterium (Gamma A, AY896371). The nifH gene abundances were analyzed in the context of a large set of hydrographic parameters, macronutrient and trace metal concentrations measured in parallel with DNA samples using the PRIMER-E software. The environmental variables that most influenced the abundances and distribution of the diazotrophic phylotypes were determined. We observed a geographic segregation of diazotrophic phylotypes between east and west, with UCYN A, UCYN B and UCYN C and the Rhizosolenia-Richelia symbiont associated with the eastern North Atlantic (east of 40°W), and Trichodesmium and Gamma A detected across the basin. Hemiaulus-Richelia symbionts were primarily found in temperate waters near the North American coast. The highest diazotrophic phylotype abundance and diversity were associated with temperatures greater than 22 °C in the surface mixed layer, a high supply of iron from North African aeolian mineral dust deposition and from remineralized nutrients upwelled at the

  5. Effect of environmental factors on the complexation of iron and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kai; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifeng; Chen, Yaojin; Wang, Yuzhou

    2015-01-01

    A method of size exclusion chromatography coupled with ultraviolet spectrophotometry and off-line graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed to assess the complexation properties of iron (Fe) and humic acid (HA) in a water environment. The factors affecting the complexation of Fe and HA, such as ionic strength, pH, temperature and UV radiation, were investigated. The Fe-HA complex residence time was also studied. Experimental results showed that pH could influence the deprotonation of HA and hydrolysis of Fe, and thus affected the complexation of Fe and HA. The complexation was greatly disrupted by the presence of NaCl. Temperature had some influence on the complexation. The yield of Fe-HA complexes showed a small decrease at high levels of UV radiation, but the effect of UV radiation on Fe-HA complex formation at natural levels could be neglected. It took about 10 hr for the complexation to reach equilibrium, and the Fe-HA complex residence time was about 20 hr. Complexation of Fe and HA reached a maximum level under the conditions of pH 6, very low ionic strength, in the dark and at a water temperature of about 25°C, for 10 hr. It was suggested that the Fe-HA complex could form mainly in freshwater bodies and reach high levels in the warm season with mild sunlight radiation. With changing environmental parameters, such as at lower temperature in winter or higher pH and ionic strength in an estuary, the concentration of the Fe-HA complex would decrease. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Poulose, Shibu M; Miller, Marshall G; Scott, Tammy; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2017-11-01

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains. Although many of the underlying mechanisms by which nutrients and dietary factors affect adult neurogenesis have yet to be determined, nutritional approaches provide promising prospects to stimulate adult neurogenesis and combat neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive decline. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of nutritional factors in modifying adult neurogenesis and their potential to preserve cognitive function during aging. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Factors affecting strategic plan implementation using interpretive structural modeling (ISM).

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tajik, Hamidreza; Ravangard, Ramin; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-06-11

    Purpose Strategic planning is the best tool for managers seeking an informed presence and participation in the market without surrendering to changes. Strategic planning enables managers to achieve their organizational goals and objectives. Hospital goals, such as improving service quality and increasing patient satisfaction cannot be achieved if agreed strategies are not implemented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors affecting strategic plan implementation in one teaching hospital using interpretive structural modeling (ISM). Design/methodology/approach The authors used a descriptive study involving experts and senior managers; 16 were selected as the study sample using a purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a questionnaire designed and prepared based on previous studies. Data were analyzed using ISM. Findings Five main factors affected strategic plan implementation. Although all five variables and factors are top level, "senior manager awareness and participation in the strategic planning process" and "creating and maintaining team participation in the strategic planning process" had maximum drive power. "Organizational structure effects on the strategic planning process" and "Organizational culture effects on the strategic planning process" had maximum dependence power. Practical implications Identifying factors affecting strategic plan implementation is a basis for healthcare quality improvement by analyzing the relationship among factors and overcoming the barriers. Originality/value The authors used ISM to analyze the relationship between factors affecting strategic plan implementation.

  8. Review: Factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, M L V; Bertelsen, M; Pedersen, L J

    2018-02-01

    This review assesses factors affecting fouling in conventional pens for slaughter pigs. Fouling of the pen happens when pigs change their excretory behaviour from occurring in the designated dunging area to the lying area. This can result in a lower hygiene, bad air quality, extra work for the farmer, disturbance of the pigs' resting behaviour and an increase in agonistic interactions. A systematic search was conducted and results narrowed down to 21 articles. Four factors were found to affect fouling directly: insufficient space allowance, the flooring design of the pen, the thermal climate and pigs' earlier experience. Further, these primary factors are affected by secondary factors such as the shape of the pen, the weight of the pigs and especially the heat balance of the pigs, which is affected by several tertiary factors including, for example, temperature, humidity and draught. Results indicate that the most important factor to control when trying to prevent fouling of a pen is the pen climate. An appropriate climate may be accomplished through floor cooling in the designated lying area, sprinklers above the designated dunging area and by ensuring a more optimal ambient temperature curve that also fits the weight of the pigs in different stages of the production. All in all, fouling of the pen in conventional slaughter pigs is a multifactorial problem, but it is important to focus on increasing the comfortability, and especially the climate, of the designated lying area.

  9. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils

    PubMed Central

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO3−) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO3− addition were the main factors affecting N2O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO3− and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO2 and CH4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time. PMID:25177207

  10. Ranking factors affecting emissions of GHG from incubated agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    García-Marco, S; Ravella, S R; Chadwick, D; Vallejo, A; Gregory, A S; Cárdenas, L M

    2014-07-01

    Agriculture significantly contributes to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and there is a need to develop effective mitigation strategies. The efficacy of methods to reduce GHG fluxes from agricultural soils can be affected by a range of interacting management and environmental factors. Uniquely, we used the Taguchi experimental design methodology to rank the relative importance of six factors known to affect the emission of GHG from soil: nitrate (NO 3 - ) addition, carbon quality (labile and non-labile C), soil temperature, water-filled pore space (WFPS) and extent of soil compaction. Grassland soil was incubated in jars where selected factors, considered at two or three amounts within the experimental range, were combined in an orthogonal array to determine the importance and interactions between factors with a L 16 design, comprising 16 experimental units. Within this L 16 design, 216 combinations of the full factorial experimental design were represented. Headspace nitrous oxide (N 2 O), methane (CH 4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations were measured and used to calculate fluxes. Results found for the relative influence of factors (WFPS and NO 3 - addition were the main factors affecting N 2 O fluxes, whilst glucose, NO 3 - and soil temperature were the main factors affecting CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes) were consistent with those already well documented. Interactions between factors were also studied and results showed that factors with little individual influence became more influential in combination. The proposed methodology offers new possibilities for GHG researchers to study interactions between influential factors and address the optimized sets of conditions to reduce GHG emissions in agro-ecosystems, while reducing the number of experimental units required compared with conventional experimental procedures that adjust one variable at a time.

  11. Which factors affect software projects maintenance cost more?

    PubMed

    Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Hajrahimi, Nafiseh

    2013-03-01

    The software industry has had significant progress in recent years. The entire life of software includes two phases: production and maintenance. Software maintenance cost is increasingly growing and estimates showed that about 90% of software life cost is related to its maintenance phase. Extraction and considering the factors affecting the software maintenance cost help to estimate the cost and reduce it by controlling the factors. In this study, the factors affecting software maintenance cost were determined then were ranked based on their priority and after that effective ways to reduce the maintenance costs were presented. This paper is a research study. 15 software related to health care centers information systems in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and hospitals function were studied in the years 2010 to 2011. Among Medical software maintenance team members, 40 were selected as sample. After interviews with experts in this field, factors affecting maintenance cost were determined. In order to prioritize the factors derived by AHP, at first, measurement criteria (factors found) were appointed by members of the maintenance team and eventually were prioritized with the help of EC software. Based on the results of this study, 32 factors were obtained which were classified in six groups. "Project" was ranked the most effective feature in maintenance cost with the highest priority. By taking into account some major elements like careful feasibility of IT projects, full documentation and accompany the designers in the maintenance phase good results can be achieved to reduce maintenance costs and increase longevity of the software.

  12. Morpho-physiological parameters affecting iron deficiency chlorosis response in soybean (Glycine max L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC) leads to severe leaf chlorosis, low photosynthetic rates, and yield reductions of several million metric tons each year. In order to devise breeding and genetic transformation programs that aim at generating high-yielding and IDC-tolerant soybean lines, it is necessar...

  13. GEOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL REACTIONS AFFECTING THE LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF IN SITU 'IRON BARRIERS'

    EPA Science Inventory

    The in situ application of granular iron (Fe0) has become popular for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds for the immobilization of specific metals in groundwater. However, a knowledge gap exists concerning the long-term performance of the Fe0-barriers. The corrosi...

  14. Factors affecting caregivers' ability to make environmental modifications.

    PubMed

    Messecar, D C

    2000-12-01

    This study explored factors that family caregivers described as affecting their ability to use environmental modifications. Intensive interviews and participant observation were used to collect detailed data from 24 primary family caregivers. Several factors that affect the caregivers' ability to implement modification strategies were identified in the analysis. These factors included attributes of the elderly individual, attributes of the modification, quality of the caregiver-elderly relationship, caregivers' skills, personal resources of the caregiver, and the informal and formal supports available. Of these factors, the most important were the salient skills that caregivers need to implement environmental modifications. These findings point to the importance of caregivers receiving skills training in this important dimension of caregiving. Intervention should be based on a collaborative approach that ensures the caregiver and care receiver's needs and preferences are respected.

  15. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in transcriptional activation of ceruloplasmin by iron deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    2000-01-01

    A role of the copper protein ceruloplasmin (Cp) in iron metabolism is suggested by its ferroxidase activity and by the tissue iron overload in hereditary Cp deficiency patients. In addition, plasma Cp increases markedly in several conditions of anemia, e.g. iron deficiency, hemorrhage, renal failure, sickle cell disease, pregnancy, and inflammation. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved. We have reported that iron chelators increase Cp mRNA expression and protein synthesis in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we have shown that the increase in Cp mRNA is due to increased rate of transcription. We here report the results of new studies designed to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying transcriptional activation of Cp by iron deficiency. The 5'-flanking region of the Cp gene was cloned from a human genomic library. A 4774-base pair segment of the Cp promoter/enhancer driving a luciferase reporter was transfected into HepG2 or Hep3B cells. Iron deficiency or hypoxia increased luciferase activity by 5-10-fold compared with untreated cells. Examination of the sequence showed three pairs of consensus hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs). Deletion and mutation analysis showed that a single HRE was necessary and sufficient for gene activation. The involvement of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was shown by gel-shift and supershift experiments that showed HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta binding to a radiolabeled oligonucleotide containing the Cp promoter HRE. Furthermore, iron deficiency (and hypoxia) did not activate Cp gene expression in Hepa c4 hepatoma cells deficient in HIF-1beta, as shown functionally by the inactivity of a transfected Cp promoter-luciferase construct and by the failure of HIF-1 to bind the Cp HRE in nuclear extracts from these cells. These results are consistent with in vivo findings that iron deficiency increases plasma Cp and provides a molecular mechanism that may help to understand these

  16. Impaired copper and iron metabolism in blood cells and muscles of patients affected by copper deficiency myeloneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Spinazzi, Marco; Sghirlanzoni, Angelo; Salviati, Leonardo; Angelini, Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Severe copper deficiency leads in humans to a treatable multisystem disease characterized by anaemia and degeneration of spinal cord and nerves, but its mechanisms have not been investigated. We tested whether copper deficit leads to alterations in fundamental copper-dependent proteins and in iron metabolism in blood and muscles of patients affected by copper deficiency myeloneuropathy, and if these metabolic abnormalities are associated with compensatory mechanisms for copper maintenance. We evaluated the expression of critical copper enzymes, of iron-related proteins, and copper chaperones and transporters in blood and muscles from five copper-deficient patients presenting with subacute sensory ataxia, muscle paralysis, liver steatosis and variable anaemia. Severe copper deficiency was caused by chronic zinc intoxication in all of the patients, with an additional history of gastrectomy in two cases. The antioxidant enzyme SOD1 and subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase were significantly decreased in blood cells and in muscles of copper-deficient patients compared with controls. In muscle, the iron storage protein ferritin was dramatically reduced despite normal serum ferritin, and the expression of the haem-proteins cytochrome c and myoglobin was impaired. Muscle expression of the copper transporter CTR1 and of the copper chaperone CCS, was strikingly increased, while antioxidant protein 1 was diminished. copper-dependent enzymes with critical functions in antioxidant defences, in mitochondrial energy production, and in iron metabolism are affected in blood and muscles of patients with profound copper deficiency leading to myeloneuropathy. Homeostatic mechanisms are strongly activated to increase intracellular copper retention. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  17. Scrutinizing the Factors Affecting Fluency of English among Arab Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Ghazali, Fawzi

    2017-01-01

    This research study investigates the cognitive, psychological and personal factors affecting the accuracy and fluency of English language usage among Arab learners. Early research led by Chomsky (1965) and Krashen (1981) suggested that an individual's Language Acquisition Device once triggered at the appropriate time and supported with adequate…

  18. Factors Affecting the Technology Readiness of Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Stephanie E.

    2010-01-01

    Federal government policies are promoting diffusion of technologies into the healthcare system. If health professionals reject the new technologies planned for the healthcare system, it could result in costly failures, delays, and workforce problems. There is a lack of knowledge about factors that affect technology readiness (TR), defined as the…

  19. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  20. Factors Affecting Conservation Practice Behavior of CRP Participants in Alabama

    Treesearch

    Okwudili Onianwa; Gerald Wheelock; Shannon Hendrix

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the factors that affect conservation practice choices of CRP farmers in Alabama. From over 9,000 contracts enrolled in the state between 1986 and 1995, 594 were randomly selected for the study. A multiple-regression analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results indicate that education, ratio ofcropland in CRP, farm size, gender, prior crop...

  1. Industry Training: The Factors that Affect Demand. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, A.; Roberts, P.; Noble, C.; Hayton, G.; Thorne, E.

    A study was conducted in Australia, to determine the factors that affect demand for job training. The study consisted of 30 detailed industry case studies, an industry analysis, and a literature review. Each case study examined current training practices, training decision making in the business, and the determinants of training for the…

  2. Factors Affecting Online Groupwork Interest: A Multilevel Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Jianxia; Xu, Jianzhong; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the personal and contextual factors that may affect students' online groupwork interest. Using the data obtained from graduate students in an online course, both student- and group-level predictors for online groupwork interest were analyzed within the framework of hierarchical linear modeling…

  3. Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Microforms as a Reading Medium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Herbert; Reynolds, Linda

    Based on visits to representative microform users and an extensive survey of relevant literature, a study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of factors affecting the acceptability of microforms as reading mediums. The following variables were considered: (1) microform characteristics; (2) equipment design; (3) work station design;…

  4. Factors affecting maintenance overlay ride quality : 1996 rideability status.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    In early 1996, the Virginia Transportation Research Council initiated a formal analysis of the factors affecting overlay ride quality. As part of that effort, a statewide, multi-year survey of the ride quality for both new overlays and pavement await...

  5. Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinai, J.

    1993-05-28

    This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

  6. Factors Affecting Educational Innovation with in Class Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark; Bell, Amani; Comerton-Forde, Carole; Pickering, Joanne; Blayney, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the use of Rogers' diffusion of innovation perspective to understand the factors affecting educational innovation decisions, specifically in regard to in class electronic response systems. Despite decreasing costs and four decades of research showing strong student support, academic adoption is limited. Using data collected from…

  7. Factors Affecting Teen Involvement in Pennsylvania 4-H Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Bart E.; Ewing, John C.; Bruce, Jacklyn A.

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here determined the factors that affect teen involvement in 4-H programming. The design of the study was descriptive and correlational in nature. Using a purposive sampling procedure, a survey questionnaire was distributed to all (N=214) 4-H members attending the 4-H State Leadership Conference. The major findings of the study…

  8. Factors affecting species distribution predictions: A simulation modeling experiment

    Treesearch

    Gordon C. Reese; Kenneth R. Wilson; Jennifer A. Hoeting; Curtis H. Flather

    2005-01-01

    Geospatial species sample data (e.g., records with location information from natural history museums or annual surveys) are rarely collected optimally, yet are increasingly used for decisions concerning our biological heritage. Using computer simulations, we examined factors that could affect the performance of autologistic regression (ALR) models that predict species...

  9. Factors Affecting Role Stress and Burnout among School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willingham, Wendy Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors affecting role stress and burnout among practicing school counselors as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educators Survey (MBI-ES) and the Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scale. The MBI-ES utilizes three subscales to measure burnout: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal…

  10. The Synergistic Effect of Affective Factors on Student Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Lin, Huann-shyang; Yore, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates how affective and self-related factors impact participation in science learning and environmental awareness and responsibility. Using PISA 2006 datasets from Taiwan and Canada having similar level of science competency, the model for this study verifies and expands an earlier model by examining the relationships among…

  11. Factors Affecting Recruitment into Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Jon A.; Lewis, John E.; Katyal, Shalini

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the factors affecting the recruitment into child and adolescent psychiatry training in the United States. Methods: Medical students (n = 154) and general and child and adolescent psychiatry residents (n = 111) completed a questionnaire to evaluate career choice in child psychiatry (n = 265). Results: Compared with…

  12. Factors Affecting the Formation of Food Preferences in Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alles-White, Monica L.; Welch, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Identifies and discusses factors that affect the development of food preferences in preschool children, including familiarity, age, parents, peers, teachers, and programs designed to influence food habits. Makes recommendations to preschool and day care programs for creating an atmosphere conducive to trying new foods. (Author/DST)

  13. Formal Classroom Observations: Factors That Affect Their Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Zeba

    2017-01-01

    Formal class room observation is a very delicate topic in any educational institution. It involves a series of emotions and sentiments that come with the package. In this paper, the researcher will attempt to analyze the factors that affect the process in a relatively significant manner and thereby contribute greatly to the success or failure of…

  14. Teaching the Factors Affecting Resistance Using Pencil Leads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Küçüközer, Asuman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a way of teaching the factors that affect resistance using mechanical pencil leads and the brightness of the light given out by a light bulb connected to an electrical circuit. The resistance of a conductor is directly proportional to its length (L) and inversely proportional to its cross-sectional area (A).…

  15. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  16. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Hong Thi; Warren, Wendy; Fehring, Heather

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that aims to explore factors affecting the efficacy of non-major English teaching and learning in Vietnamese higher education through an investigation of classroom practices. Eight non-participant class observations were conducted at HUTECH University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study's findings show that…

  17. A study of the factors affecting the range of airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biermann, David

    1937-01-01

    A study was made of the most important factors affecting the range of airplanes. Numerical examples are given showing the effects of different variables on the range of a two-engine airplane. The takeoff problems of long-range airplanes are analyzed.

  18. The Impact of CLIL on Affective Factors and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Arantxa; Lasagabaster, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold: to assess the effectiveness of a CLIL (content and language integrated learning) module on affective factors (motivation and self-esteem), and to test the purported blurring effect of CLIL on gender differences in foreign language learning. Forty-six students in their fourth year of compulsory secondary…

  19. Nutritional Factors Affecting Adult Neurogenesis and Cognitive Function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plas...

  20. Factors Affecting Students' Grades in Principles of Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kara, Orhan; Bagheri, Fathollah; Tolin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Factors affecting students' grades in principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics students are analyzed from the data collected in two public universities. Results indicate that gender, number of hours worked, SAT scores, number of missed classes, recommending the course to a friend, instructors, being a junior, number of economics courses…

  1. Factors Affecting School Choice: What Do Malaysian Chinese Parents Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siah, Poh Chua; Christina Ong, Sook Beng; Tan, Swee Mee; Sim, Chzia Poaw; Xian Thoo, Raphael Yi

    2018-01-01

    Aiming to explore factors affecting Malaysian Chinese parents in sending their children to either national secondary schools or Chinese independent schools, 494 parents were surveyed using a questionnaire. Results showed that parents who sent their children to Chinese independent schools have different priorities compared to those who sent theirs…

  2. Factors Affecting Environmental Knowledge and Attitudes among Lebanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oweini, Ahmad; Houri, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study aimed at assessing the variables that would positively affect the knowledge and attitude of a group of Lebanese college students regarding the environment, namely such factors as gender, age, previous hiking experience and living abroad. A purposeful sample of students attending the Lebanese American University, was asked to…

  3. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  4. Factors Affecting Soil Microbial Community Structure in Tomato Cropping Systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil and rhizosphere microbial communities in agroecosystems may be affected by soil, climate, plant species, and management. We identified some of the most important factors controlling microbial biomass and community structure in an agroecosystem utilizing tomato plants with the following nine tre...

  5. Institutional and Managerial Factors Affecting International Student Recruitment Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Mitchell; Heaney, Joo-Gim; Cooper, Maxine

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate international student recruitment from an institutional perspective and to consider institutional factors that may affect recruitment. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative study is undertaken in which education marketing practitioners are interviewed regarding aspects of international…

  6. Factors Affecting the Retention Decisions of Female Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FACTORS AFFECTING THE RETENTION...Warfare Officers 6. AUTHOR(S) Clifton, Elizabeth A. 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School ...for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN LEADERSHIP AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL March 2003

  7. The Perspective of Gozitan Teachers on Factors Affecting Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Lorna; De Giovanni, Katya Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This study aims at exploring the impact of factors at pupil, teacher and school levels on students? academic achievement. Moreover, the main purpose was that of investigating which one of the three levels is most likely to affect students? educational accomplishment. A questionnaire was administered to 100 Gozitan teachers. Results were analysed…

  8. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  9. The Iron-Dependent Regulation of the Candida albicans Oxidative Stress Response by the CCAAT-Binding Factor

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarti, Ananya; Camp, Kyle; McNabb, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequently encountered fungal pathogen in humans, capable of causing mucocutaneous and systemic infections in immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans virulence is influenced by multiple factors. Importantly, iron acquisition and avoidance of the immune oxidative burst are two critical barriers for survival in the host. Prior studies using whole genome microarray expression data indicated that the CCAAT-binding factor is involved in the regulation of iron uptake/utilization and the oxidative stress response. This study examines directly the role of the CCAAT-binding factor in regulating the expression of oxidative stress genes in response to iron availability. The CCAAT-binding factor is a heterooligomeric transcription factor previously shown to regulate genes involved in respiration and iron uptake/utilization in C. albicans. Since these pathways directly influence the level of free radicals, it seemed plausible the CCAAT-binding factor regulates genes necessary for the oxidative stress response. In this study, we show the CCAAT-binding factor is involved in regulating some oxidative stress genes in response to iron availability, including CAT1, SOD4, GRX5, and TRX1. We also show that CAT1 expression and catalase activity correlate with the survival of C. albicans to oxidative stress, providing a connection between iron obtainability and the oxidative stress response. We further explore the role of the various CCAAT-binding factor subunits in the formation of distinct protein complexes that modulate the transcription of CAT1 in response to iron. We find that Hap31 and Hap32 can compensate for each other in the formation of an active transcriptional complex; however, they play distinct roles in the oxidative stress response during iron limitation. Moreover, Hap43 was found to be solely responsible for the repression observed under iron deprivation. PMID:28122000

  10. THE RECRYSTALLIZATION TEMPERATURE OF IRON AS AFFECTED BY DILUTE TRANSITIONAL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, E.P. II; Blakeney, B.S. Jr.

    1960-01-01

    The effect of the transition elements in binary solid solution additions upon the recrystalization temperature of iron has been investigated. All these elements immediately raise the temperature, most having their major effect in less than 0.10 at.%. A correlation is noted between the rate of change of recrystallization temperature with at.% solute and the electron configuration of the added element. An explanation is proposed to account for this phenomena. (auth)

  11. Exploring paraprofessional and classroom factors affecting teacher supervision.

    PubMed

    Irvin, Dwight W; Ingram, Paul; Huffman, Jonathan; Mason, Rose; Wills, Howard

    2018-02-01

    Paraprofessionals serve a primary role in supporting students with disabilities in the classroom, which necessitates teachers' supervision as a means to improve their practice. Yet, little is known regarding what factors affect teacher supervision. We sought to identify how paraprofessional competence and classroom type affected the levels of teacher direction. We administered an adapted version of the Paraprofessional Needs, Knowledge & Tasks Survey and the Survey for Teachers Supervising Paraprofessionals to teachers supervising paraprofessionals in elementary schools. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the link between paraprofessional competence and classroom factors affecting the level of teacher supervision. Our results indicated that when teachers perceived paraprofessionals as being more skilled, they provided more supervision, and when more supervision was provided the less they thought paraprofessionals should be doing their assigned tasks. Additionally, paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with mild disabilities received less supervision than paraprofessionals working in classrooms with more students with moderate-to-severe disabilities. Those paraprofessionals in classrooms serving mostly children with mild disabilities were also perceived as having lower levels of skill competence than those serving in classrooms with students with more moderate-to-severe disabilities. By understanding the factors that affect teacher supervision, policy and professional development opportunities can be refined/developed to better support both supervising teachers and paraprofessionals and, in turn, improve the outcomes of children with disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Bodily Iron Status Among Japanese Collegiate Elite Female Rhythmic Gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yuki; Yokoyama, Yuri; Kisara, Kumiko; Ohira, Yoshiko; Sunami, Ayaka; Yoshizaki, Takahiro; Tada, Yuki; Ishizaki, Sakuko; Hida, Azumi; Kawano, Yukari

    2016-04-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) and associations between dietary factors and incidence of ID in female rhythmic gymnasts during preseason periods. Participants were 60 elite collegiate rhythmic gymnasts (18.1 ± 0.3 years [M ± SD]) who were recruited every August over the course of 8 years. Participants were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of ID. Presence of ID was defined either by ferritin less than 12 μg/L or percentage of transferrin saturation less than 16%. Anthropometric and hematologic data, as well as dietary intake, which was estimated via a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, were compared. ID was noted in 48.3% of participants. No significant group-dependent differences were observed in physical characteristics, red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, haptoglobin, or erythropoietin concentrations. The ID group had a significantly lower total iron-binding capacity; serum-free iron; percentage of transferrin saturation; ferritin; and intake of protein, fat, zinc, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, beans, and eggs but not iron or vitamin C. The recommended dietary allowance for intake of protein, iron, zinc, and various vitamins was not met by 30%, 90%, 70%, and 22%-87% of all participants, respectively. Multiple logistic analysis showed that protein intake was significantly associated with the incidence of ID (odds ratio = 0.814, 95% confidence interval [0.669, 0.990], p = .039). Participants in the preseason's weight-loss periods showed a tendency toward insufficient nutrient intake and were at a high risk for ID, particularly because of lower protein intake.

  13. A review of affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Zohreh; Gardeshi, Zeinab Hamzeh; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Salehi, Fariba

    2014-12-01

    Sex is a complex, important and sensitive issue in human being and interwoven with the whole of human existence. Given the serious changes in attitude, function and behavior in sex, the need to address sexual function, especially sexual satisfaction, is felt completely. Sexual satisfaction has a very important role in creating marital satisfaction and any defect in sexual satisfaction is significantly associated with risky sexual behaviors, serious mental illness, social crimes and ultimately divorce. The aim of this study was to explore affecting factors on sexual satisfaction in women based on an overview in scientific database. In this narrative review the researchers searched MEDLINE database, Google Scholar and Science Direct as well as Persian database like Scientific Information Database with search terms of sexual satisfaction and sexual function, restricted to English/ Persian language, during the 20 years ago. Then those articles written by renowned experts were selected. In this regard, 57 articles have been reviewed, which 30 articles related to this research have been extracted. The findings were divided in to four categories including: Demographic factors, Pathophysiological factors, Psychological factors and Sociocultural factors. Sexuality, especially sexual intimacy is sophisticated and yet elegant affair that the other persons has different definitions and different functions. Discrepancies in the results of the studies show that analysis of factors affecting sexual satisfaction regardless of the women's' sociocultural context, religious beliefs, and personal attitudes is undoubtedly inefficient, unscientific and irrational.

  14. Are Affective Factors a Good Predictor of Science Achievement? Examining the Role of Affective Factors Based on PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Murat; Caglak, Serdar; Erdogan, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how affective factors like attitude and motivation contribute to science achievement in PISA 2006 using linear structural modeling. The data set of PISA 2006 collected from 4942 fifteen-year-old Turkish students (2290 females, 2652 males) was used for the statistical analyses. A total of 42 selected items on a four point…

  15. Factors affecting receipt of chemotherapy in women with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Libby; Coalson, Jenna; Mowat, Fionna; O’Malley, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review literature describing factors associated with receipt of chemotherapy for breast cancer, to better understand what factors are most relevant to women’s health and whether health disparities are apparent, and to assess how these factors might affect observational studies and outcomes research. Patterns of care for metastatic breast cancer, for which no standard-of-care exists, were of particular interest. Methods: Relevant studies written in English, Italian, French, or Spanish, published in 2000 or later, were identified through MEDLINE and reviewed. Review articles and clinical trials were excluded; all observational studies and surveys were considered. Articles were reviewed for any discussion of patient characteristics, hospital/physician/insurance characteristics, psychosocial characteristics, and clinical characteristics affecting receipt of chemotherapy by breast cancer patients. Results: In general, factors associated with increased likelihood of receiving chemotherapy included younger age, being Caucasian, having good general health and few co-morbidities, having more severe clinical disease, having responded well to previous treatment, and having breast cancer that is estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-negative. Many of the clinical factors found to increase the likelihood of receiving chemotherapy were consistent with current oncology guidelines. Of the relevant 19 studies identified, only six (32%) reported data specific to metastatic cancer; most studies aggregated women with stage I–IV for purposes of analysis. Conclusion: Studies of patterns of care in breast cancer treatment can help identify challenges in health care provided to particular subgroups of women and can aid researchers in designing studies that account for such factors in clinical and outcomes research. Although scarce, studies evaluating only women with metastatic breast cancer indicate that factors affecting decisions related to receipt of chemotherapy are similar

  16. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, V.S.; Prentice, A.; Darboe, M.K.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2 years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn = 25,) and low (LIn = 25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104 weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P ≤ 0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52 wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P = 0.04] and from 24 wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P = 0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [− 21% (4%) RU/mL, P ≤ 0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [− 0.5% (0.5%), P = 0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets

  17. Factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations in yellow-bellied marmots.

    PubMed

    Armitage, K B

    1991-01-01

    1. Bound and total corticosteroid concentrations of yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were lowest in May after emergence from hibernation and peaked in August prior to immergence. 2. Total corticosteroids were affected by age but not by sex or reproductive status. 3. There was no consistent relationship between measures of population density and concentrations of corticosteroids; when a significant relationship occurred, only 22-34% of the variation was explained. 4. Social status and social behavior were the major factors affecting corticosteroid concentrations.

  18. Factors Affecting Zebra Mussel Kill by the Bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2004-02-24

    The specific purpose of this research project was to identify factors that affect zebra mussel kill by the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Test results obtained during this three-year project identified the following key variables as affecting mussel kill: treatment concentration, treatment duration, mussel siphoning activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and naturally suspended particle load. Using this latter information, the project culminated in a series of pipe tests which achieved high mussel kill inside power plants under once-through conditions using service water in artificial pipes.

  19. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Roberto; Gomes, João Eduardo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Queiroz, Índia Olinta de Azevedo; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing), the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient) that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction. PMID:29069143

  20. Factors affecting the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Holland, Roberto; Gomes, João Eduardo; Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Queiroz, Índia Olinta de Azevedo; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tissue repair is an essential process that reestablishes tissue integrity and regular function. Nevertheless, different therapeutic factors and clinical conditions may interfere in this process of periapical healing. This review aims to discuss the important therapeutic factors associated with the clinical protocol used during root canal treatment and to highlight the systemic conditions associated with the periapical healing process of endodontically treated teeth. The antibacterial strategies indicated in the conventional treatment of an inflamed and infected pulp and the modulation of the host's immune response may assist in tissue repair, if wound healing has been hindered by infection. Systemic conditions, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, can also inhibit wound healing. The success of root canal treatment is affected by the correct choice of clinical protocol. These factors are dependent on the sanitization process (instrumentation, irrigant solution, irrigating strategies, and intracanal dressing), the apical limit of the root canal preparation and obturation, and the quality of the sealer. The challenges affecting the healing process of endodontically treated teeth include control of the inflammation of pulp or infectious processes and simultaneous neutralization of unpredictable provocations to the periapical tissue. Along with these factors, one must understand the local and general clinical conditions (systemic health of the patient) that affect the outcome of root canal treatment prediction.

  1. Nurse aide decision making in nursing homes: factors affecting empowerment.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Tanni; Yeatts, Dale E; Cready, Cynthia M

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate factors affecting structural empowerment among nurse aides in nursing homes. Structural empowerment can be defined as the actual rather than perceived ability to make autonomous decisions within an organisation. Given the paucity of research on the subject, this study helps to close the gap by identifying factors that affect nurse aide empowerment, that is, decision-making among nurse aides. The data for the study come from self-administered questionnaires distributed to direct-care workers (nurse aides) in 11 nursing homes in a southern state in the USA. Ordinary least square regression models were estimated to analyse the effects of demographic predictors, personal factors (competency, emotional exhaustion and positive attitude) and structural characteristics (coworker and supervisor support, information availability and shared governance) on nurse aide decision-making. Findings suggest race among demographic predictors, emotional exhaustion among personal characteristics, and supervisor support, and shared governance among structural factors, significantly affect nurse aide decision-making. It is important to explore race as one of the central determinants of structural empowerment among nurse aides. In addition, the nature and type of emotional exhaustion that propels decision-making needs to be further examined. The study shows the importance of shared governance and supervisor support for fostering nurse aide empowerment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Factors Affecting Successful Implementation of Hospital Information Systems.

    PubMed

    Farzandipur, Mehrdad; Jeddi, Fatemeh Rangraz; Azimi, Esmaeil

    2016-02-01

    Today, the use of information systems in health environments, like any other fields, is necessary and organizational managers are convinced to use these systems. However, managers' satisfaction is not the only factor in successfully implementing these systems and failed information technology projects (IT) are reported despite the consent of the directors. Therefore, this study aims to determine the factors affecting the successful implementation of a hospital information system. The study was carried out as a descriptive method in 20 clinical hospitals that the hospital information system (HIS) was conducted in them. The clinical and paraclinical users of mentioned hospitals are the study group. 400 people were chosen as samples in scientific method and the data was collected using a questionnaire consisted of three main human, managerial and organizational, and technological factors, by questionnaire and interview. Then the data was scored in Likert scale (score of 1 to 5) and were analyzed using the SPSS software. About 75 percent of the population were female, with average work experience of 10 years and the mean age was 30 years. The human factors affecting the success of hospital information system implementation achieved the mean score of 3.5, both organizational and managerial factors 2.9 and technological factors the mean of 3. Human factors including computer skills, perceiving usefulness and perceiving the ease of a hospital information system use are more effective on the acceptance and successful implementation of hospital information systems; then the technological factors play a greater role. It is recommended that for the successful implementation of hospital information systems, most of these factors to be considered.

  3. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings.

    PubMed

    Tahamtan, Iman; Pajouhanfar, Sara; Sedghi, Shahram; Azad, Mohsen; Roudbari, Masoud

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to acquire knowledge about the factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings in Iranian Hospitals. A qualitative and quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 medical residents and interns in 2013 to identify determinant factors for smartphone adoption. Afterwards, nine relationships were hypothesised. We developed a questionnaire to test these hypotheses and to evaluate the importance of each factor. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the causal relations between model parameters and to accurately identify determinant factors. Eight factors were identified in the qualitative phase of the study, including perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, training, internal environment, personal experience, social impacts, observability and job related characteristics. Among the studied factors, perceived usefulness, personal experience and job related characteristics were significantly associated with attitude to use a smartphone which accounted for 64% of the variance in attitude. Perceived usefulness had the strongest impact on attitude to use a smartphone. The factors that emerged from interviews were consistent with the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and some previous studies. TAM is a reliable model for understanding the factors of smartphone acceptance in medical settings. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Factors affecting cardiac rehabilitation referral by physician specialty.

    PubMed

    Grace, Sherry L; Grewal, Keerat; Stewart, Donna E

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is widely underutilized because of multiple factors including physician referral practices. Previous research has shown CR referral varies by type of provider, with cardiologists more likely to refer than primary care physicians. The objective of this study was to compare factors affecting CR referral in primary care physicians versus cardiac specialists. A cross-sectional survey of a stratified random sample of 510 primary care physicians and cardiac specialists (cardiologists or cardiovascular surgeons) in Ontario identified through the Canadian Medical Directory Online was administered. One hundred four primary care physicians and 81 cardiac specialists responded to the 26-item investigator-generated survey examining medical, demographic, attitudinal, and health system factors affecting CR referral. Primary care physicians were more likely to endorse lack of familiarity with CR site locations (P < .001), lack of standardized referral forms (P < .001), inconvenience (P = .04), program quality (P = .004), and lack of discharge communication from CR (P = .001) as factors negatively impacting CR referral practices than cardiac specialists. Cardiac specialists were significantly more likely to perceive that their colleagues and department would regularly refer patients to CR than primary care physicians (P < .001). Where differences emerged, primary care physicians were more likely to perceive factors that would impede CR referral, some of which are modifiable. Marketing CR site locations, provision of standardized referral forms, and ensuring discharge summaries are communicated to primary care physicians may improve their willingness to refer to CR.

  5. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  6. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Treesearch

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  7. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  8. Factors affecting onset of puberty in Denizli province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Semiz, Serap; Kurt, Funda; Kurt, Devrim Tanil; Zencir, Mehmet; Sevinç, Ozgür

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between the possible factors affecting pubertal onset and pubertal timing was investigated in the Denizli province in Turkey. A total number of 3311 subjects (1562 girls, 1749 boys) aged 6-16.5 years participated in this study. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Pubertal stages were assessed according to methods of Marshall and Tanner. Testicular volume was determined using Prader orchidometer. Menarcheal age was recorded. All parents and students completed different questionnaires on demographic variables affecting pubertal timing such as socioeconomic conditions, psychosocial factors, exercise, nutritional status, chronic diseases, migration and birth weight. Using distribution percentiles of pubertal stages according to age, the relation between pubertal timing and factors affecting puberty was investigated. There was no significant association between exercise, birth weight, migration, chronic disease, and socioeconomic status and age of puberty onset. Menarcheal age of overweight and obese girls was significantly lower than that of girls with normal weight. In-family stress was the cause of early puberty in girls and of delayed puberty in boys.

  9. Two soybean bHLH factors regulate response to iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Gao, Wenwen; Peng, Qi; Zhou, Bin; Kong, Qihui; Ying, Yinghui; Shou, Huixia

    2018-03-25

    Iron is an indispensable micronutrient for plant growth and development. Limited bioavailability of Fe in the soil leads to iron deficiency chlorosis in plants and yield loss. In this study, two soybean basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300, were identified in response to Fe-deficiency. Both transcription factors are expressed in roots and nodules, and are induced by Fe deficiency; these patterns were confirmed in transgenic hairy roots expressing constructs of the endogenous promoters fused to a GUS reporter gene. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation, yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays indicated a physical interaction between GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300. Studies on transgenic soybeans overexpressing GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 revealed that overexpression of each transcription factor, alone, results in no change of the responses to Fe deficiency, whereas overexpression of both transcription factors upregulated the downstream Fe uptake genes and increased the Fe content in these transgenic plants. Compared to wild type, these double overexpression transgenic plants were more tolerant to Fe deficiency. Taken together, our findings establish that GmbHLH57 and GmbHLH300 are important transcription factors involved in Fe homeostasis in soybean. © 2018 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Iron Ore Industry Emissions as a Potential Ecological Risk Factor for Tropical Coastal Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuki, Kacilda N.; Oliva, Marco A.; Pereira, Eduardo G.

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO2 originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  11. Iron ore industry emissions as a potential ecological risk factor for tropical coastal vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kuki, Kacilda N; Oliva, Marco A; Pereira, Eduardo G

    2008-07-01

    In the coastal zone of the Espírito Santo state, Brazil, fragments of restinga, which form a natural ecosystem, share their space with an increasing number of iron ore industries. The iron ore dust and SO(2) originating from the industry processing activities can interfere with the vegetation of the adjacent ecosystems at various levels. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the effects of industry emissions on representative members of the restinga flora, by measuring physiological and phenological parameters. Foliar samples of Ipomoea pes caprae, Canavalia rosea, Sophora tomentosa, and Schinus terebinthifolius were collected at three increasing distances from an ore industry (1.0, 5.0, and 15.0 km), and were assessed for their dust deposition, chlorophyll, and Fe content. Phenological monitoring was focused on the formation of shoots, flowers, and fruits and was also performed throughout the course of a year. The results showed that the edaphic characteristics and the mineral constitutions of the plants were affected by industry emissions. In addition, the chlorophyll content of the four species increased with proximity to the industry. Phenological data revealed that the reproductive effort, as measured by fruit production, was affected by emissions and S. tomentosa was the most affected species. The use of an integrative approach that combines biochemical and ecological data indicates that the restinga flora is under stress due to industry emissions, which on a long-term basis may put the ecosystem at risk.

  12. Factors affecting sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Graciana; Nkambule, Sizwe E.

    The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target to reduce the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by the year 2015 has been met as of 2010, but huge disparities exist. Some regions, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa are lagging behind it is also in this region where up to 30% of the rural schemes are not functional at any given time. There is need for more studies on factors affecting sustainability and necessary measures which when implemented will improve the sustainability of rural water schemes. The main objective of this study was to assess the main factors affecting the sustainability of rural water schemes in Swaziland using a Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach. The main factors considered were: financial, social, technical, environmental and institutional. The study was done in Lubombo region. Fifteen functional water schemes in 11 communities were studied. Data was collected using questionnaires, checklist and focused group discussion guide. A total of 174 heads of households were interviewed. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyse the data and to calculate sustainability scores for water schemes. SPSS was also used to classify sustainability scores according to sustainability categories: sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable. The averages of the ratings for the different sub-factors studied and the results on the sustainability scores for the sustainable, partially sustainable and non-sustainable schemes were then computed and compared to establish the main factors influencing sustainability of the water schemes. The results indicated technical and social factors as most critical while financial and institutional, although important, played a lesser role. Factors which contributed to the sustainability of water schemes were: functionality; design flow; water fetching time; ability to meet additional demand; use by population; equity; participation in decision making on operation and

  13. Iron biofortification of wheat grains through integrated use of organic and chemical fertilizers in pH affected calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Ramzani, Pia Muhammad Adnan; Khalid, Muhammad; Naveed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Rashid; Shahid, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    Incidence of iron (Fe) deficiency in human populations is an emerging global challenge. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of iron sulphate combined with biochar and poultry manure for Fe biofortification of wheat grains in pH affected calcareous soil. In first two incubation studies, rates of sulfur (S) and Fe combined with various organic amendments for lowering pH and Fe availability in calcareous soil were optimized. In pot experiment, best rate of Fe along with biochar (BC) and poultry manure (PM) was evaluated for Fe biofortification of wheat in normal and S treated low pH calcareous soil. Fe applied with BC provided fair increase in root-shoot biomass and photosynthesis up to 79, 53 and 67%, respectively in S treated low pH soil than control. Grain Fe and ferritin concentration was increased up to 1.4 and 1.2 fold, respectively while phytate and polyphenol was decreased 35 and 44%, respectively than control in treatment where Fe was applied with BC and S. In conclusion, combined use of Fe and BC could be an effective approach to improve growth and grain Fe biofortification of wheat in pH affected calcareous soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors Affecting Sleep Quality of Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Bihari, Shailesh; Doug McEvoy, R.; Matheson, Elisha; Kim, Susan; Woodman, Richard J.; Bersten, Andrew D.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disturbance is a frequently overlooked complication of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Aim: To evaluate sleep quality among patients admitted to ICU and investigate environmental and non-environmental factors that affect sleep quality in ICU. Methods: Over a 22-month period, we consecutively recruited patients who spent ≥ 2 nights post-endotracheal extubation in ICU and who were orientated to time, place, and person on the day of discharge. Self-reported sleep quality, according to a modified Freedman questionnaire, which provided data on self-reported ICU sleep quality in ICU and environmental factors affecting sleep quality in the ICU, were collected. We also investigated non-environmental factors, such as severity of illness, ICU interventions, and medications that can affect sleep quality. Results: Fifty males and 50 females were recruited with a mean (± SD) age of 65.1 ± 15.2 years. APACHE II score at admission to ICU was 18.1 ± 7.5 with duration of stay 6.7 ± 6.5days. Self-reported sleep quality score at home (1 = worst; 10 = best) was 7.0 ± 2.2; this decreased to 4.0 ± 1.7 during their stay in ICU (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis with APACHE III as severity of illness (R2 = 0.25), factors [exp(b)(95% CI), p value] which significantly affected sleep in ICU were sex [0.37(0.19-0.72), p < 0.01], age and sex interaction [1.02(1.01-1.03), p < 0.01], bedside phone [0.92(0.87-0.97), p < 0.01], prior quality of sleep at home [1.30(1.05-1.62), p = 0.02], and use of steroids [0.82(0.69-0.98), p = 0.03] during the stay in ICU. Conclusion: Reduced sleep quality is a common problem in ICU with a multifactorial etiology. Citation: Bihari S; McEvoy RD; Kim S; Woodman RJ; Bersten AD. Factors affecting sleep quality of patients in intensive care unit. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(3):301-307. PMID:22701388

  15. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content. PMID:26114113

  16. Lengths of Orthologous Prokaryotic Proteins Are Affected by Evolutionary Factors.

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, Tatiana; Salih, Bilal; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Cohen, Irit; Bolshoy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Proteins of the same functional family (for example, kinases) may have significantly different lengths. It is an open question whether such variation in length is random or it appears as a response to some unknown evolutionary driving factors. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate existence of factors affecting prokaryotic gene lengths. We believe that the ranking of genomes according to lengths of their genes, followed by the calculation of coefficients of association between genome rank and genome property, is a reasonable approach in revealing such evolutionary driving factors. As we demonstrated earlier, our chosen approach, Bubble-sort, combines stability, accuracy, and computational efficiency as compared to other ranking methods. Application of Bubble Sort to the set of 1390 prokaryotic genomes confirmed that genes of Archaeal species are generally shorter than Bacterial ones. We observed that gene lengths are affected by various factors: within each domain, different phyla have preferences for short or long genes; thermophiles tend to have shorter genes than the soil-dwellers; halophiles tend to have longer genes. We also found that species with overrepresentation of cytosines and guanines in the third position of the codon (GC3 content) tend to have longer genes than species with low GC3 content.

  17. Demographic and obstetric factors affecting women's sexual functioning during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Abouzari-Gazafroodi, Kobra; Najafi, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Rahnama, Parvin; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-08-19

    Sexual desire and frequency of sexual relationships during pregnancy remains challenging. This study aimed to assess factors that affect women's sexual functioning during pregnancy. This was a cross sectional study carried out at prenatal care clinics of public health services in Iran. An author-designed structured questionnaire including items on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, the current pregnancy, and women's sexual functioning during pregnancy was used to collect data. The generalized linear model was performed in order to find out factors that affect women's sexual functioning during pregnancy. In all, 518 pregnant women participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 26.4 years (SD = 4.7). Overall 309 women (59.7%) scored less than mean on sexual functioning. The results obtained from generalized linear model demonstrated that that lower education, unwanted pregnancy, earlier stage of pregnancy, older age, and longer duration of marriage were the most important factors contributing to disturbed sexual functioning among couples. The findings suggest that sexual function during pregnancy might be disturbed due to several factors. Indeed issues on sexual relationship should be included as part of prenatal care and reproductive health programs for every woman.

  18. Factors affecting midwives' confidence in intrapartum care: a phenomenological study.

    PubMed

    Bedwell, Carol; McGowan, Linda; Lavender, Tina

    2015-01-01

    midwives are frequently the lead providers of care for women throughout labour and birth. In order to perform their role effectively and provide women with the choices they require midwives need to be confident in their practice. This study explores factors which may affect midwives' confidence in their practice. hermeneutic phenomenology formed the theoretical basis for the study. Prospective longitudinal data collection was completed using diaries and semi-structured interviews. Twelve midwives providing intrapartum care in a variety of settings were recruited to ensure a variety of experiences in different contexts were captured. the principal factor affecting workplace confidence, both positively and negatively, was the influence of colleagues. Perceived autonomy and a sense of familiarity could also enhance confidence. However, conflict in the workplace was a critical factor in reducing midwives' confidence. Confidence was an important, but fragile, phenomenon to midwives and they used a variety of coping strategies, emotional intelligence and presentation management to maintain it. this is the first study to highlight both the factors influencing midwives' workplace confidence and the strategies midwives employed to maintain their confidence. Confidence is important in maintaining well-being and workplace culture may play a role in explaining the current low morale within the midwifery workforce. This may have implications for women's choices and care. Support, effective leadership and education may help midwives develop and sustain a positive sense of confidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mothers recovering from cocaine addiction: factors affecting parenting skills.

    PubMed

    Coyer, S M

    2001-01-01

    To identify factors that may influence parenting by mothers who are recovering from cocaine addiction. Exploratory descriptive, with in-depth unstructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in the woman's home or in a treatment center. A convenience sample of 11 women recovering from cocaine addiction who were mothers of children 3 years of age and younger. A content analysis was used to analyze the interview data. Two themes, personal/psychologic factors and environmental/contextual factors, and four subthemes emerged. They identify issues that may affect parenting by mothers being treated for cocaine addiction. Subthemes included low self-esteem, difficulty developing a maternal identity, isolation from friends and family, and chronic life stress. This study provides a better understanding of the sources contributing to vulnerability in the parenting role for mothers recovering from cocaine addiction and will assist nurses in providing care for these mothers and their children.

  20. IscR Regulates Synthesis of Colonization Factor Antigen I Fimbriae in Response to Iron Starvation in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud-Barbe, Nadège; Poncet, David; Reverchon, Sylvie; Wawrzyniak, Julien; Nasser, William

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iron availability functions as an environmental cue for enteropathogenic bacteria, signaling arrival within the human host. As enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of human diarrhea, the effect of iron on ETEC virulence factors was evaluated here. ETEC pathogenicity is directly linked to production of fimbrial colonization factors and secretion of heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and/or heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Efficient colonization of the small intestine further requires at least the flagellin binding adhesin EtpA. Under iron starvation, production of the CFA/I fimbriae was increased in the ETEC H10407 prototype strain. In contrast, LT secretion was inhibited. Furthermore, under iron starvation, gene expression of the cfa (CFA/I) and etp (EtpBAC) operons was induced, whereas transcription of toxin genes was either unchanged or repressed. Transcriptional reporter fusion experiments focusing on the cfa operon further showed that iron starvation stimulated cfaA promoter activity in ETEC, indicating that the impact of iron on CFA/I production was mediated by transcriptional regulation. Evaluation of cfaA promoter activity in heterologous E. coli single mutant knockout strains identified IscR as the regulator responsible for inducing cfa fimbrial gene expression in response to iron starvation, and this was confirmed in an ETEC ΔiscR strain. The global iron response regulator, Fur, was not implicated. IscR binding sites were identified in silico within the cfaA promoter and fixation confirmed by DNase I footprinting, indicating that IscR directly binds the promoter region to induce CFA/I. IMPORTANCE Pathogenic enterobacteria modulate expression of virulence genes in response to iron availability. Although the Fur transcription factor represents the global regulator of iron homeostasis in Escherichia coli, we show that several ETEC virulence factors are modulated by iron, with expression of the major fimbriae under the control of the iron

  1. External factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination.

    PubMed

    González-Méijome, José Manuel; Queirós, Antonio; Jorge, Jorge; Fernandes, Paulo; Cerviño, Alejandro; de Almeida, José Borges

    2007-03-01

    To analyze the factors affecting data acquisition during corneal topography examination with the Medmont E-300 videokeratoscope and to provide strategies to minimize their effects. Sixty eyes from thirty young adults were examined. A second observer registered incidences with the potential to affect data acquisition. Those factors were correlated with the difficulty of measurements as judged subjectively by the practitioner who performed the examination. Measurements of axial curvature were analyzed to evaluate the variability expressed as intrasession and intersession coefficient of variation and the standard error of the mean (SEM). The level of difficulty rated by the practitioner was in general low, with 70% of the eyes being easy or very easy to measure. For the remaining 30% of the eyes, corneal topography measurements were considered to be difficult (27%) or very difficult (3%). Of the external parameters investigated, only fixation instability (P<0.001, chi2) and the need for head repositioning (P=0.024, chi2) were associated significantly with a higher level of difficulty, as rated subjectively by the practitioner. Further analysis showed that some external factors, including those previously mentioned and others related to tear instability, affect the variability of measurements at certain corneal locations, particularly in the vertical meridian when related to tear instability and in the horizontal meridian when related to the need for head repositioning on the chin rest owing to physiognomy interferences with the keratoscope cone. Intersession SEM improved when three readings from each session were considered. The level of subjective difficulty found during videokeratoscopy examination is correlated strongly with fixation instability and the need for head reorientation in the chin rest, whereas tear-related events seem to be less relevant in the practitioner perception of test ease or difficulty. Those factors have relevance in measurement variability.

  2. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  3. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, P.A.; Archana, S.; Jayaraj, B.S.; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S.K.; Shashidhar, H.P.; Sunitha, B.S.; Prabhakar, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Methods: Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. Results: A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients. PMID:23168702

  4. Factors affecting the reproductive success of dominant male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Spong, Göran F; Hodge, Sarah J; Young, Andrew J; Clutton-Brock, Tim H

    2008-05-01

    Identifying traits that affect the reproductive success of individuals is fundamental for our understanding of evolutionary processes. In cooperative breeders, a dominant male typically restricts mating access to the dominant female for extended periods, resulting in pronounced variation in reproductive success among males. This may result in strong selection for traits that increase the likelihood of dominance acquisition, dominance retention and reproductive rates while dominant. However, despite considerable research on reproductive skew, few studies have explored the factors that influence these three processes among males in cooperative species. Here we use genetic, behavioural and demographic data to investigate the factors affecting reproductive success in dominant male meerkats (Suricata suricatta). Our data show that dominant males sire the majority of all offspring surviving to 1 year. A male's likelihood of becoming dominant is strongly influenced by age, but not by weight. Tenure length and reproductive rate, both important components of dominant male reproductive success, are largely affected by group size and composition, rather than individual traits. Dominant males in large groups have longer tenures, but after this effect is controlled, male tenure length also correlates negatively to the number of adult females in the group. Male reproductive rate also declines as the number of intra- and extra-group competitors increases. As the time spent in the dominant position and reproductive rate while dominant explain > 80% of the total variance in reproductive success, group composition thus has major implications for male reproductive success.

  5. The factors influencing urinary arsenic excretion and metabolism of workers in steel and iron smelting foundry.

    PubMed

    Shuhua, Xi; Qingshan, Sun; Fei, Wang; Shengnan, Liu; Ling, Yan; Lin, Zhang; Yingli, Song; Nan, Yan; Guifan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the degree of arsenic (As) exposure and the factors influencing urinary As excretion and metabolism, 192 workers from a steel and iron smelting plant, with different type of work in production such as roller, steel smelting, iron smelting and metallic charge preparation, were recruited. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic As (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The results showed that steel smelters had significantly higher concentrations of DMA and total As (TAs) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers, and iron and steel smelters had a higher value of primary methylation index and lower proportion of the iAs (iAs%) than rollers and metallic charge preparation workers. In steel smelters, urinary As level exceeded the biological exposure index (BEI) limit for urinary As of 35 μg/l by 65.52%, and higher than metallic charge preparation workers (35.14%). The individuals consumed seafood in recent 3 days had a higher TAs than the individuals without seafood consumption. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that different jobs, taken Chinese medicine of bezoar and seafood consumption in recent 3 days were significantly associated with urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value 35 μg/l. Our results suggest that workers in steel and iron smelting plant had a lower level of As exposure, and seafood consumption and taking Chinese medicine of bezoar also could increase the risk of urinary TAs exceeded BEI limit value.

  6. Clinical trials involving cats: what factors affect owner participation?

    PubMed

    Gruen, Margaret E; Jiamachello, Katrina N; Thomson, Andrea; Lascelles, B Duncan X

    2014-09-01

    Clinical trials are frequently hindered by difficulties in recruiting eligible participants, increasing the timeline and limiting generalizability of results. In veterinary medicine, where proxy enrollment is required, no studies have detailed what factors influence owner participation in clinical trials involving cats. We aimed to investigate these factors through a survey of owners at first opinion practices. The survey was designed using feedback from a pilot study and input from clinical researchers. Owners were asked demographic questions and whether they would, would not, or were unsure about participating in a clinical trial with their cat. They then ranked the importance and influence of various factors on participation using a five-point Likert-type scale, and incentives from most to least encouraging. A total of 413 surveys were distributed to cat owners at four hospitals, two feline-only and two multi-species; 88.6% were completed. Data for importance and influence factors as well as incentive rankings were analyzed overall, and by hospital type, location and whether owners would consider participating. The most influential factors were trust in the organization, benefit to the cat and veterinarian recommendation. Importance and influence factors varied by willingness to participate. Ranked incentives were not significantly different across groups, with 'Free Services' ranked highest. This study provides a first look at what factors influence participation in clinical trials with cats. Given the importance placed in the recommendation of veterinarians, continued work is needed to determine veterinarian-related factors affecting clinical trial participation. The results provide guidance towards improved clinical trial design, promotion and education. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Key factors affecting dying children and their families.

    PubMed

    Hinds, Pamela S; Schum, Lisa; Baker, Justin N; Wolfe, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    The death of a child alters the life and health of others immediately and for the rest of their lives. How a child dies influences parents' abilities to continue their role functions as well as siblings' abilities to make and maintain friendships, and may be the basis for health care providers' decisions to exit direct care roles. Thus, facilitating a "good death"-an obvious care priority for all involved with the dying child-ought also to be a priority for the health of bereaved families and affected health care providers. Making this a care priority is complicated by a serious lack of data, as details of the last hours or weeks of a dying child or adolescent's life are largely unknown. The purpose of this paper is to identify key factors that affect the course of dying children and adolescents and that of their bereaved survivors, and to link those key factors to needed research that could produce clinically relevant findings to improve the care of these patients. Key factors described here include suffering (physical, psychological, and spiritual), communication, decision making, prognostic ambiguities, ability of the seriously ill child to give assent to research participation, and educational preparation of health care providers to give competent end-of-life care.

  8. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    PubMed

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Factors affecting yearly and monthly visits to Taipei Zoo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ai-Tsen; Lin, Yann-Jou

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the "opening effect" and "animal star effect" had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.

  10. Multifactorial analysis of factors affecting recurrence of stroke in Japan.

    PubMed

    Omori, Toyonori; Kawagoe, Masahiro; Moriyama, Michiko; Yasuda, Takeshi; Ito, Yasuhiro; Hyakuta, Takeshi; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-03-01

    Data on factors affecting stroke recurrence are relatively limited. The authors examined potential factors affecting stroke recurrence, retrospectively. The study participants were 1087 patients who were admitted to stroke centers suffering from first-ever ischemic stroke and returned questionnaires with usable information after discharge. The authors analyzed the association between clinical parameters of the patients and their prognosis. Recurrence rate of during an average of 2 years after discharge was 21.3%, and there were differences among stroke subtypes. It was found that the disability level of the patients after discharge correlated well with the level at discharge (r s = 0.66). Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data shows that modified Rankin Scale score, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score, gender, age, and family history had statistically significant impacts on stroke recurrence, and the impact was different depending on subtypes. These findings suggest that aggressive and persistent health education for poststroke patients and management of risk factors are essential to reduce stroke recurrence. © 2012 APJPH.

  11. A holistic approach to factors affecting depression in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Gerogianni, Georgia; Kouzoupis, Anastasios; Grapsa, Eirini

    2018-05-19

    Depression in dialysis populations is affected by co-morbid diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and immune dysfunction, and it also includes high suicide risk and frequent hospitalizations. Depressive disorders have a close association with malnutrition and chronic inflammation, as well as with cognitive impairment. Impaired cognitive function may be manifested as low adherence to dialysis treatment, leading to malnutrition. Additionally, chronic pain and low quality of sleep lead to high rates of depressive symptoms in haemodialysis patients, while an untreated depression can cause sleep disturbances and increased mortality risk. Depression can also lead to sexual dysfunction and non-adherence, while unemployment can cause depressive disorders, due to patients' feelings of being a financial burden on their family. The present review provides a holistic approach to the factors affecting depression in haemodialysis, offering significant knowledge to renal professionals.

  12. Factors affecting the decision to pursue glaucoma fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Gedde, Steven J; Budenz, Donald L; Haft, Payman; Lee, Yunhee; Quigley, Harry A

    2007-01-01

    To identify factors associated with the choice to pursue glaucoma fellowship training by graduating ophthalmology residents. An anonymous survey was sent to each graduating ophthalmology resident in the United States in February 2003. Demographic data and information relating to residency training, career goals, and factors influencing career choices were collected from the surveys. Surveys were completed by 215 (49.2%) residents, including 135 (62.8%) who were pursuing fellowships. Among residents undertaking fellowship training, 17 (12.6%) selected glaucoma and 118 (87.4%) chose other subspecialties. Residents entering glaucoma fellowships performed more glaucoma filtering procedures (P=0.006), and they were less likely to publish a paper (P=0.05) and have time allocated for research (P=0.04) than residents seeking fellowships in other subspecialties. Factors that were rated as less important to those choosing glaucoma fellowships included interest in challenging diagnostic problems (P=0.009), types of patient problems (P=0.015), an academic career (P=0.03), and working with new technology (P=0.04). The decision to pursue fellowship training was made later by residents entering glaucoma compared with those choosing other subspecialties (P=0.001). A variety of factors affect the decision to pursue fellowship training. There are differences in how these factors are weighed among residents seeking fellowships in glaucoma and other subspecialties.

  13. Recruitment and retention: factors that affect pericyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Kristina Y.

    2013-01-01

    Pericytes are critical for vascular morphogenesis and contribute to several pathologies, including cancer development and progression. The mechanisms governing pericyte migration and differentiation are complex and have not been fully established. Current literature suggests that platelet-derived growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, sphingosine 1-phosphate/endothelial differentiation gene-1, angiopoietin-1/tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, angiopoietin-2/tyros-ine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2, transforming growth factor β/activin receptor-like kinase 1, transforming growth factor β/activin receptor-like kinase 5, Semaphorin-3A/Neuropilin, and matrix metalloproteinase activity regulate the recruitment of pericytes to nascent vessels. Interestingly, many of these pathways are directly affected by secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). Here, we summarize the function of these factors in pericyte migration and discuss if and how SPARC might infuence these activities and thus provide an additional layer of control for the recruitment of vascular support cells. Additionally, the consequences of targeted inhibition of pericytes in tumors and the current understanding of pericyte recruitment in pathological environments are discussed. PMID:23912898

  14. Elevated Hepatic Iron Activates NF-E2–Related Factor 2–Regulated Pathway in a Dietary Iron Overload Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Harriet C.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic iron overload has been associated classically with the genetic disorder hereditary hemochromatosis. More recently, it has become apparent that mild-to-moderate degrees of elevated hepatic iron stores observed in other liver diseases also have clinical relevance. The goal was to use a mouse model of dietary hepatic iron overload and isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation proteomics to identify, at a global level, differentially expressed proteins in livers from mice fed a control or 3,5,5-trimethyl-hexanoyl-ferrocene (TMHF) supplemented diet for 4 weeks. The expression of 74 proteins was altered by ≥ ±1.5-fold, showing that the effects of iron on the liver proteome were extensive. The top canonical pathway altered by TMHF treatment was the NF-E2–related factor 2 (NRF2–)–mediated oxidative stress response. Because of the long-standing association of elevated hepatic iron with oxidative stress, the remainder of the study was focused on NRF2. TMHF treatment upregulated 25 phase I/II and antioxidant proteins previously categorized as NRF2 target gene products. Immunoblot analyses showed that TMHF treatment increased the levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST) M1, GSTM4, glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic subunit, GCL modifier subunit, glutathione synthetase, glutathione reductase, heme oxygenase 1, epoxide hydrolase 1, and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1. Immunofluorescence, carried out to determine the cellular localization of NRF2, showed that NRF2 was detected in the nucleus of hepatocytes from TMHF-treated mice and not from control mice. We conclude that elevated hepatic iron in a mouse model activates NRF2, a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative stress. PMID:22649188

  15. 78 FR 46418 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity; Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  16. 75 FR 62634 - Proposed Information Collection (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... (Obligation to Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... use of other forms of information technology. Title: Obligation to Report Factors Affecting... entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital status, and the beneficiary's number of...

  17. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  18. The Factors that Affect Science Teachers' Participation in Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Judi Ann

    Scientific literacy for our students and the possibilities for careers available in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) areas are important topics for economic growth as well as global competitiveness. The achievement of students in science learning is dependent upon the science teachers' effectiveness and experienced science teachers depend upon relevant professional development experiences to support their learning. In order to understand how to improve student learning in science, the learning of science teachers must also be understood. Previous research studies on teacher professional development have been conducted in other states, but Minnesota science teachers comprised a new and different population from those previously studied. The purpose of this two-phase mixed methods study was to identify the current types of professional development in which experienced, Minnesota secondary science teachers participated and the factors that affect their participation in professional development activities. The mixed-methods approach s utilized an initial online survey followed by qualitative interviews with five survey respondents. The results of the quantitative survey and the qualitative interviews indicated the quality of professional development experiences and the factors which affected the science teachers' participation in professional development activities. The supporting and inhibiting factors involved the availability of resources such as time and money, external relationships with school administrators, teacher colleagues, and family members, and personal intrinsic attributes such as desires to learn and help students. This study also describes implications for science teachers, school administrators, policymakers, and professional development providers. Recommendations for future research include the following areas: relationships between and among intrinsic and extrinsic factors, science-related professional development activities

  19. Factors Affecting Husband Participation in Antenatal Care Attendance and Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumaseuw, R.; Berliana, S. M.; Nursalam, N.; Efendi, F.; Pradanie, R.; Rachmawati, P. D.; Aurizki, G. E.

    2018-02-01

    The government has implemented several programs to prevent and reduce a mother’s mortality rate by enhancing active role of the family. The most responsible family member on maintaining the pregnancy and delivery process is the husband. The husband must be active to take care of his wife. Active participation of the husband in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process is one of the substantial factors, which helps the husband to take decisions related to the health of his wife. This study aimed to identify variables and its trends, which significantly affect a husband’s participation in accompanying his wife during pregnancy and the delivery process. The data used in this study was from an Indonesian Demographic Health Survey 2012. The study used binary logistic regression as the analysis method. The result showed as many as 8,237 husbands accompanied their wife in antenatal care and the delivery process. The significant variables affecting the husband participation are the age of the wife, the education of wife, the education of the husband, the occupational status of the wife and the husband, the number of children, pregnancy status, and residency region. The possibility for a husband to accompany his wife is larger in several factors, such as the wife being between the ages of 21 - 35 years old, a husband who minimally graduated from junior high school, a working husband, as well as a wife, and the number of children less than and equal to two and the expected pregnancy. The government should consider those factors to create policy related women’s health and integrate the factors into various sectors.

  20. Factors affecting the employability in people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Wo, Monica Chen Mun; Lim, Kheng Seang; Choo, Wan Yuen; Tan, Chong Tin

    2016-12-01

    People with epilepsy (PWE) are negatively prejudiced in their ability to work. This study aimed to examine demographic, clinical and psychological factors associated with employability in PWE. This study recruited epilepsy patients from a neurology clinic in Malaysia. Employability was measured using employment ratio, with a ratio ≥90% (ER90) classified as high employability. Basic demographic data such as age, gender, marital status, religion, education level and household income was collected. Clinical measures consisted of age of seizure onset, seizure frequency, type of epilepsy, aura, polytherapy, nocturnal seizures and seizure control. Psychological measures included Work Self-Determination Index (WSDI), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS). Of 146 PWE, 64.4% had high employability. The participants were predominantly female (52%), Chinese (50.7%), single (50%), having tertiary education (55.5%) and focal epilepsy (72.6%). Clinically, only type of epilepsy was significantly correlated to employability of PWE. Employability of PWE was associated with ability to work (indicated by education level, work performance affected by seizures, ability to travel independently and ability to cope with stress at work) and family overprotection. The high employability group was found to have lower self-perceived stigma (ESS), higher self-determined motivation (WSDI), self-esteem (SES) and perceived social support (MSPSS), than the low employability group. Logistic regression analysis showed that tertiary education level (AOR 3.42, CI: 1.46-8.00), higher self-determination (WSDI, AOR 1.09, CI: 1.012-1.17), lower family overprotection (AOR 0.76, CI: 0.61-0.95), and generalised epilepsy (AOR 4.17, CI: 1.37-12.70) were significant predictors for higher employability in PWE. Ability to work (education level), clinical factor (type of epilepsy) and psychological factor (self-determined motivation and family

  1. Factors Other than GFR Affecting Serum Cystatin C Levels

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Lesley A; Schmid, Christopher H.; Greene, Tom; Li, Liang; Beck, Gerald J; Joffe, Marshall; Froissart, Marc; Kusek, John; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Coresh, Josef; Levey, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    Cystatin C is gaining acceptance as an endogenous filtration marker. Factors other than glomerular filtration rate (GFR) that affect the serum level have not been carefully studied. In a cross-sectional analysis of a pooled dataset of participants from clinical trials and a clinical population with chronic kidney disease (N=3418), we related serum levels of cystatin C and creatinine to clinical and biochemical variables after adjustment for GFR using errors-in-variables models to account for GFR measurement error. GFR was measured as urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate and 15Cr-EDTA. Cystatin C was assayed at a single laboratory and creatinine was standardized to reference methods. Mean (SD) creatinine and cystatin C were 2.1 (1.1) mg/dL and 1.8 (0.8) mg/L, respectively. After adjustment for GFR, cystatin C was 4.3% lower for every 20 years of age, 9.2% lower for female sex but only 1.9% lower in blacks. Diabetes was associated with 8.5% higher levels of cystatin C and 3.9% lower levels of creatinine. Higher C-reactive protein and white blood cell count and lower serum albumin were associated with higher levels of cystatin C and lower levels of creatinine. Adjustment for age, sex and race had a greater effect on association of factors with creatinine than cystatin C. In conclusion, cystatin C is affected by factors other than GFR. Clinicians should consider these factors when interpreting the serum levels or GFR estimates from cystatin C. PMID:19119287

  2. Iron depletion affects nitrogenase activity and expression of nifH and nifA genes in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Rosconi, Federico; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Platero, Raúl A; González, Cecilia; González, Marcela; Batista, Silvia; Gill, Paul R; Fabiano, Elena R

    2006-05-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium able to colonize the rhizosphere and the interior of several plants. As iron is a key element for nitrogen fixation, we examined the response of this microorganism to iron deficiency under nitrogen fixing conditions. We identified a H. seropedicae exbD gene that was induced in response to iron limitation and is involved in iron homeostasis. We found that an exbD mutant grown in iron-chelated medium is unable to fix nitrogen. Moreover, we provide evidence that expression of the nifH and nifA genes is iron dependent in a H. seropedicae genetic background.

  3. Factors affecting clinical reasoning of occupational therapists: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Shafaroodi, Narges; Kamali, Mohammad; Parvizy, Soroor; Mehraban, Afsoon Hassani; O’Toole, Giyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical reasoning is generally defined as the numerous modes of thinking that guide clinical practice but little is known about the factors affecting how occupational therapists manage the decision-making process. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the factors influencing the clinical reasoning of occupational therapists. Methods: Twelve occupational therapy practitioners working in mental and physical dysfunction fields participated in this study. The sampling method was purposeful and interviews were continued until data saturation. All the interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis method. Results: There were three main themes. The first theme: socio-cultural conditions included three subthemes: 1- client beliefs; 2- therapist values and beliefs; 3- social attitude to disability. The second theme: individual attributions included two subthemes 1- client attributions; 2- therapist attributions. The final theme was the workplace environment with the three subthemes: 1- knowledge of the managers of rehabilitation services, 2- working in an inter-professional team; 3- limited clinical facilities and resources. Conclusion: In this study, the influence of the attitudes and beliefs of client, therapist and society about illness, abilities and disabilities upon reasoning was different to previous studies. Understanding these factors, especially the socio-cultural beliefs basis can play a significant role in the quality of occupational therapy services. Accurate understanding of these influential factors requires more extensive qualitative and quantitative studies. PMID:25250253

  4. The main factor affecting the competitiveness of Contractor Company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurisra; Malahayati, Nurul; Mahmuddin

    2018-05-01

    Contractor companies must have the competitive advantage to compete in maintaining the survival of the company. Problems arise because quite a lot of advantages can be used and these advantages must be used appropriately to produce competitiveness for the company to continue to compete and to win the competition. This study aims to determine the main factors affecting the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data collection was obtained through questionnaires distributed to 31 middle-class contractors in Banda Aceh. Data processing and analysis is done by using descriptive analysis. Based on the result of descriptive analysis, it can be concluded that the most important competitiveness factor with a mean score value 4.52 is the relationship, and the factor that has the highest mean score value is the relationship with the government of 4.97, while the result of the ranking analysis is obtained 25 factor that is critical to the competitiveness of medium-class contractors in Banda Aceh.

  5. Factors that affect coseismic folds in an overburden layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shaogang; Cai, Yongen

    2018-03-01

    Coseismic folds induced by blind thrust faults have been observed in many earthquake zones, and they have received widespread attention from geologists and geophysicists. Numerous studies have been conducted regarding fold kinematics; however, few have studied fold dynamics quantitatively. In this paper, we establish a conceptual model with a thrust fault zone and tectonic stress load to study the factors that affect coseismic folds and their formation mechanisms using the finite element method. The numerical results show that the fault dip angle is a key factor that controls folding. The greater the dip angle is, the steeper the fold slope. The second most important factor is the overburden thickness. The thicker the overburden is, the more gradual the fold. In this case, folds are difficult to identify in field surveys. Therefore, if a fold can be easily identified with the naked eye, the overburden is likely shallow. The least important factors are the mechanical parameters of the overburden. The larger the Young's modulus of the overburden is, the smaller the displacement of the fold and the fold slope. Strong horizontal compression and vertical extension in the overburden near the fault zone are the main mechanisms that form coseismic folds.

  6. Factor affecting happiness among nursing students in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jun, W H; Jo, M J

    2016-08-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Despite the increased interest in nursing students' happiness in South Korea, few studies have attempted to identify factors influencing their happiness. Therefore, nursing educators should consistently investigate the factors influencing happiness and develop strategies to improve happiness among Korean nursing students. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This study confirmed that there were positive correlations between grateful disposition, social support and happiness. In addition, grateful disposition and support from intimate people were identified as predictors of happiness in Korean nursing students. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Development of intervention programmes to help nursing students increase grateful disposition and support from intimate people may be helpful for improving happiness. These programmes can include activity, such as writing a gratitude journal, and extracurricular programmes, such as mentoring programmes between seniors and juniors and/or professor and student. Introduction Happiness is very important in the training and development of nursing students as future nurses. However, nursing students experience a high level of stress and low level of happiness in South Korea. Aim This study aimed to investigate factors that affect happiness among nursing students in South Korea. Method Data were collected from a total of 241 nursing enrolled in two 4-year baccalaureate nursing programmes in South Korea, using a self-administrated questionnaire. To identify predictors of happiness, stepwise regression analysis was conducted. Results The results indicated that grateful disposition and support from intimate people significantly predict happiness among Korean nursing students. These two factors accounted for 38.0% of the variance in happiness. Discussion This study indicated grateful disposition and support from intimate people as factors promoting happiness in nursing students. The findings

  7. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid content in milk and meat.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Tilak R; Nam, Seung-Hee; Ure, Amy L

    2005-01-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been recently studied mainly because of its potential in protecting against cancer, atherogenesis, and diabetes. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a collective term for a series of conjugated dienoic positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid, which are found in relative abundance in milk and tissue fat of ruminants compared with other foods. The cis-9, trans-11 isomer is the principle dietary form of CLA found in ruminant products and is produced by partial ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid or by endogenous synthesis in the tissues themselves. The CLA content in milk and meat is affected by several factors, such as animal's breed, age, diet, and management factors related to feed supplements affecting the diet. Conjugated linoleic acid in milk or meat has been shown to be a stable compound under normal cooking and storage conditions. Total CLA content in milk or dairy products ranges from 0.34 to 1.07% of total fat. Total CLA content in raw or processed beef ranges from 0.12 to 0.68% of total fat. It is currently estimated that the average adult consumes only one third to one half of the amount of CLA that has been shown to reduce cancer in animal studies. For this reason, increasing the CLA contents of milk and meat has the potential to raise the nutritive and therapeutic values of dairy products and meat.

  8. Factors affecting sexual life during pregnancy in eastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Gülşen; Ege, Emel; Zincir, Handan

    2004-01-01

    This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study aiming to determine the factors affecting sexual life in pregnant women. The study was carried out in 238 women in Malatya, Turkey. It was found that 61.4% regarded coitus as a risk during pregnancy, 31.9% did not have any knowledge about this matter. In 81.5% sexual life was affected during pregnancy. The mean frequency of intercourse was 2.02 +/- 0.7/week before pregnancy and decreased to 1.51 +/- 0.6/week during pregnancy. The reasons for this decline are: exhaustion and fatigue (64.3%); waning of sexual desire (55.9%); harmful to the fetus (49.2%); causing abortions in early pregnancy (45%), and inducing preterm labor (34%). There was a significant relationship between changes in sexual life during pregnancy and the duration of marriage (chi2=10.8, p<0.05), education level (chi2=18.1, p<0.05), parity (chi2=11.1, p<0.05), and gravidity (chi2=6.8, p<0.05). The variables such as age, employment status, and number of abortions did not affect sexual life during pregnancy. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds

    PubMed Central

    Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for

  10. Succinate, iron chelation, and monovalent cations affect the transformation efficiency of Acinetobacter baylyi ATCC 33305 during growth in complex media.

    PubMed

    Leong, Colleen G; Boyd, Caroline M; Roush, Kaleb S; Tenente, Ricardo; Lang, Kristine M; Lostroh, C Phoebe

    2017-10-01

    Natural transformation is the acquisition of new genetic material via the uptake of exogenous DNA by competent bacteria. Acinetobacter baylyi is model for natural transformation. Here we focus on the natural transformation of A. baylyi ATCC 33305 grown in complex media and seek environmental conditions that appreciably affect transformation efficiency. We find that the transformation efficiency for A. baylyi is a resilient characteristic that remains high under most conditions tested. We do find several distinct conditions that alter natural transformation efficiency including addition of succinate, Fe 2+ (ferrous) iron chelation, and substitution of sodium ions with potassium ones. These distinct conditions could be useful to fine tune transformation efficiency for researchers using A. baylyi as a model organism to study natural transformation.

  11. Companion of choice at birth: factors affecting implementation.

    PubMed

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Portela, Anayda

    2017-08-31

    Two recent recommendations made by the World Health Organization confirm the benefits of companion of choice at birth on labour outcomes; however institutional practices and policies do not always support its implementation in different settings around the world. We conducted a review to determine factors that affect implementation of this intervention considering the perspectives and experiences of different stakeholders and other institutional, systemic barriers and facilitators. Forty one published studies were included in this review. Thirty one publications were identified from a 2013 Cochrane review on the effectiveness of companion of choice at birth. We also reviewed 10 qualitative studies conducted alongside the trials or other interventions on labour and birth companionship identified through electronic searches. The SURE (Supporting the Use of Research Evidence) framework was used to guide the thematic analysis of implementation factors. Women and their families expressed appreciation for the continuous presence of a person to provide support during childbirth. Health care providers were concerned about the role of the companion and possible interference with activities in the labour ward. Allocation of resources, organization of care, facility-related constraints and cultural inclinations were identified as implementation barriers. Prior to introducing companion of choice at birth, understanding providers' attitudes and sensitizing them to the evidence is necessary. The commitment of the management of health care facilities is also required to change policies, including allocation of appropriate physical space that respects women's privacy. Implementation research to develop models for different contexts which could be scaled up would be useful, including documentation of factors that affected implementation and how they were addressed. Future research should also focus on documenting the costs related to implementation, and on measuring the impact of

  12. Study of factors affecting the appearance of colors under microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakizadeh, Roshanak; Martinez-Garcia, Juan; Raja, Kiran B.; Siakidis, Christos

    2013-11-01

    The variation of colors in microscopy systems can be quite critical for some users. To address this problem, a study is conducted to analyze how different factors such as size of the sample, intensity of the microscope's light source and the characteristics of the material like chroma and saturation can affect the color appearance through the eyepiece of the microscope. To study the changes in colors considering these factors, the spectral reflectance of 24 colors of GretagMacbeth Classic ColorChecker® and Mini ColorChecker® which are placed under a Nikon ECLIPSE MA200 microscope®2 using dark filed and bright field illuminations which result in different intensity levels, is measured using a spectroradiometer®3 which was placed in front of the eyepiece of the microscope. The results are compared with the original data from N. Ohta1. The evaluation is done by observing the shift in colors in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the CIELAB space, also by applying a wide set of color-difference formulas, namely: CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, DIN99d and DIN99b. Furthermore, to emphasize on the color regions in which the highest difference is observed, the authors have obtained the results from another microscope; Olympus SZX10®4, which in this case the measurement is done by mounting the spectroradiometer to the camera port of the microscope. The experiment leads to some interesting results, among which is the consistency in the highest difference observed considering different factors or how the change in saturation of the samples of the same hue can affect the results.

  13. Timing of clamping and factors associated with iron stores in full-term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Assis, Karine Franklin; Martins, Mariana Campos; do Prado, Mara Rúbia Maciel Cardoso; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Sant’Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of timing of clamping and obstetric, biological and socioeconomic factors on the iron stores of full-term newborns. METHODS Cross-sectional study between October 2011 and July 2012 in which hematological parameters were evaluated for newborns in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. It involved collecting 7 mL of umbilical cord blood from 144 full-term not underweight newborns. The parameters investigated were complete blood count, serum iron, ferritin and C-reactive protein. The time of umbilical cord clamping was measured using a digital timer without interfering in the procedures of childbirth. The birth data were collected from Live Birth Certificates and other information was obtained from the mother through a questionnaire applied in the first month postpartum. Analysis of multiple linear regression was then used to estimate the influence of biological, obstetrics and socioeconomic factors on the ferritin levels at birth. RESULTS The median ferritin was 130.3 µg/L (n = 129, minimum = 16.4; maximum = 420.5 µg/L), the mean serum iron was 137.9 μg/dL (n = 144, SD = 39.29) and mean hemoglobin was 14.7 g/dL (n = 144, SD = 1.47). The median time of cord clamping was 36 seconds, ranging between 7 and 100. The bivariate analysis detected an association between ferritin levels and color of the child, timing clamping of 60 seconds, type of delivery, the presence of gestational diabetes and per capita family income. In multivariate analysis, the variables per capita income, number of antenatal visits and length at birth accounted for 22.0% of variation in ferritin levels. CONCLUSIONS Iron stores at birth were influenced by biological, obstetric and social characteristics. Tackling anemia should involve creating policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, improving the quality of antenatal care, as well as implementing a criterion of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord within the guidelines of labor. PMID:24789632

  14. Responses to iron limitation in Hordeum vulgare L. as affected by the atmospheric CO2 concentration.

    PubMed

    Haase, S; Rothe, A; Kania, A; Wasaki, J; Römheld, V; Engels, C; Kandeler, E; Neumann, G

    2008-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 treatments stimulated biomass production in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient barley plants, both in hydroponics and in soil culture. Root/shoot biomass ratio was increased in severely Fe-deficient plants grown in hydroponics but not under moderate Fe limitation in soil culture. Significantly increased biomass production in high CO2 treatments, even under severe Fe deficiency in hydroponic culture, indicates an improved internal Fe utilization. Iron deficiency-induced secretion of PS in 0.5 to 2.5 cm sub-apical root zones was increased by 74% in response to elevated CO2 treatments of barley plants in hydroponics but no PS were detectable in root exudates collected from soil-grown plants. This may be attributed to suppression of PS release by internal Fe concentrations above the critical level for Fe deficiency, determined at final harvest for soil-grown barley plants, even without additional Fe supply. However, extremely low concentrations of easily plant-available Fe in the investigated soil and low Fe seed reserves suggest a contribution of PS-mediated Fe mobilization from sparingly soluble Fe sources to Fe acquisition of the soil-grown barley plants during the preceding culture period. Higher Fe contents in shoots (+52%) of plants grown in soil culture without Fe supply under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may indicate an increased efficiency for Fe acquisition. No significant influence on diversity and function of rhizosphere-bacterial communities was detectable in the outer rhizosphere soil (0-3 mm distance from the root surface) by DGGE of 16S rRNA gene fragments and analysis of marker enzyme activities for C-, N-, and P-cycles.

  15. How do local and remote processes affect the distribution of iron in the Atlantic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliabue, A.; Boyd, P.; Rijkenberg, M. J. A.; Williams, R. G.

    2016-02-01

    Iron (Fe) plays an important role in governing the magnitudes and patterns of primary productivity, nitrogen fixation and phytoplankton community composition across the Atlantic Ocean. Variations in the supply of Fe to surface waters across the mixed layer interface, over seasonal to annual to decadal scales, are underpinned by it's vertical profile. Traditionally, nutrient profiles are understood in terms of surface depletion and subsurface regeneration, but for Fe this is more complicated due to the role of scavenging and organic complexation by ligands, as well as subsurface sources. This means that the Fe profile may be controlled locally, by sinking, regeneration and scavenging or remotely, by the upstream conditions of subducted water masses. Subduction drives the transfer of Fe across the interface between winter mixed layer and the ocean interior, but has received little attention thus far. Via the subduction of watermasses with distinct biogeochemical signatures to low latitudes, remote processes can regulate the Atlantic Ocean Fe distribution at local scales. Specifically, the formation of mode waters with excess Fe binding ligands (positive L*) enable these waters to stabilise any Fe flux from regeneration that would otherwise be lost by scavenging. The pattern of mode water ventilation then highlights those regions of the ocean where local processes are able to influence the Fe profile. Local process that augment L*, such as the production of ligands during particle regeneration, can also interact with the larger scale ventilation signature but do not alter the main trends. By applying our framework to recent GEOTRACES datasets over the Atlantic Ocean we are able to highlight regions where the Fe profile is forced locally or remotely, thereby providing an important process-based constraint on the biogeochemical models we rely on for future projections. Furthermore, we are able to appraise how the varying influence of local and remote processes drives

  16. Factors affecting the public awareness and behavior on antibiotic use.

    PubMed

    Huh, Kyungmin; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Kim, So Hyun; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2018-05-18

    To evaluate the effects of demographic and perceptive factors on the knowledge, perception, and behavior regarding antibiotic use in the general public, we conducted three serial telephone interview surveys in 2010, 2012, and 2015. Computer-aided telephone interview was conducted, with a predetermined quota stratified by sex, age, and geographic location. Respondents who answered correctly to four or more questions were categorized as having better knowledge. A total of 3013 respondents participated. Better knowledge was associated with age < 60 years (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.82), college education (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.26-1.97), healthcare-related occupation or education (OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.52-3.36), and media exposure (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.54). In contrast, correct antibiotic use behavior was associated with male sex (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.27-1.73), older age (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.34-1.99), and being married (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.04-1.52), along with better knowledge (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.19-1.71). However, multifaceted analysis indicated that better knowledge was associated with correct behavior in all subgroups. Other demographic factors were associated only in respondents with poor knowledge. Various factors other than knowledge on antibiotics, many of them traditionally underappreciated, affect antibiotic use behavior.

  17. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed. PMID:27570519

  18. Factors Affecting Healthful Eating Among Touring Popular Musicians and Singers.

    PubMed

    Cizek, Erin; Kelly, Patrick; Kress, Kathleen; Mattfeldt-Beman, Mildred

    2016-06-01

    Maintaining good health is essential for touring musicians and singers. The stressful demands of touring may impact food choices, leading to detrimental effects on health and performance. This exploratory pilot study aimed to assess factors affecting healthful eating of touring musicians and singers. A 46-item survey was used to assess food- and nutrition-related attitudes, knowledge and behaviors, and environmental factors, as well as lifestyle, musical background, and demographic data. Participants (n=35) were recruited from a musicians' assistance foundation as well as touring musical theater productions and a music festival. Results indicate that touring musicians and singers had positive attitudes regarding healthful foods. Of 35 respondents, 80.0% indicated eating healthful food was important to them. Respondents reported feeling confident selecting (76.5%) and preparing (82.4%) healthful foods; however, they showed uncertainty when determining if carbohydrate-containing foods should be consumed or avoided. Respondents indicated environmental factors including availability and cost of healthy food options and tour schedules limited access to healthful foods. Venues (73.5%), fast food restaurants (67.6%), and airports (64.7%) were the most frequently identified locations in need of offering more healthful food choices. Respondents (52.9%) indicated more support from others while touring would help them make healthier food choices. More research is needed to develop mobile wellness programs as well as performance-based nutrition guidelines for musicians and singers that address the unique demands associated with touring.

  19. Technological Factors Affecting Biogenic Amine Content in Foods: A Review.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Fausto; Özogul, Yesim; Suzzi, Giovanna; Tabanelli, Giulia; Özogul, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are molecules, which can be present in foods and, due to their toxicity, can cause adverse effects on the consumers. BAs are generally produced by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids in food products. The most significant BAs occurring in foods are histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, tryptamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, and agmatine. The importance of preventing the excessive accumulation of BAs in foods is related to their impact on human health and food quality. Quality criteria in connection with the presence of BAs in food and food products are necessary from a toxicological point of view. This is particularly important in fermented foods in which the massive microbial proliferation required for obtaining specific products is often relater with BAs accumulation. In this review, up-to-date information and recent discoveries about technological factors affecting BA content in foods are reviewed. Specifically, BA forming-microorganism and decarboxylation activity, genetic and metabolic organization of decarboxylases, risk associated to BAs (histamine, tyramine toxicity, and other BAs), environmental factors influencing BA formation (temperature, salt concentration, and pH). In addition, the technological factors for controlling BA production (use of starter culture, technological additives, effects of packaging, other non-thermal treatments, metabolizing BA by microorganisms, effects of pressure treatments on BA formation and antimicrobial substances) are addressed.

  20. Factors affecting economies of scale in combined sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Max; Wolfram, Martin; Anja, Herlyn

    2010-01-01

    A generic model is introduced that represents the combined sewer infrastructure of a settlement quantitatively. A catchment area module first calculates the length and size distribution of the required sewer pipes on the basis of rain patterns, housing densities and area size. These results are fed into the sewer-cost module in order to estimate the combined sewer costs of the entire catchment area. A detailed analysis of the relevant input parameters for Swiss settlements is used to identify the influence of size on costs. The simulation results confirm that an economy of scale exists for combined sewer systems. This is the result of two main opposing cost factors: (i) increased construction costs for larger sewer systems due to larger pipes and increased rain runoff in larger settlements, and (ii) lower costs due to higher population and building densities in larger towns. In Switzerland, the more or less organically grown settlement structures and limited land availability emphasise the second factor to show an apparent economy of scale. This modelling approach proved to be a powerful tool for understanding the underlying factors affecting the cost structure for water infrastructures.

  1. Risk factors affecting chronic rupture of the plantar fascia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Seong; Choi, Young Rak; Kim, Sang Woo; Lee, Jin Yong; Seo, Jeong Ho; Jeong, Jae Jung

    2014-03-01

    Prior to 1994, plantar fascia ruptures were considered as an acute injury that occurred primarily in athletes. However, plantar fascia ruptures have recently been reported in the setting of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We analyzed risk factors causing plantar fascia rupture in the presence of preexisting plantar fasciitis. We retrospectively reviewed 286 patients with plantar fasciitis who were referred from private clinics between March 2004 and February 2008. Patients were divided into those with or without a plantar fascia rupture. There were 35 patients in the rupture group and 251 in the nonrupture group. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for plantar fascia rupture were compared between the 2 groups. We compared age, gender, the affected site, visual analog scale pain score, previous treatment regimen, body mass index, degree of ankle dorsiflexion, the use of steroid injections, the extent of activity, calcaneal pitch angle, the presence of a calcaneal spur, and heel alignment between the 2 groups. Of the assessed risk factors, only steroid injection was associated with the occurrence of a plantar fascia rupture. Among the 35 patients with a rupture, 33 had received steroid injections. The odds ratio of steroid injection was 33. Steroid injections for plantar fasciitis should be cautiously administered because of the higher risk for plantar fascia rupture. Level III, retrospective comparative study.

  2. Host iron redistribution as a risk factor for incident tuberculosis in HIV infection: an 11-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Identifying people at higher risk of developing tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may improve clinical management of co-infections. Iron influences tuberculosis (TB) pathogenesis, but understanding the exact mechanisms of how and timing of when iron is involved remains challenging since biological samples are rarely available from the disease susceptibility period due to the difficulty in predicting in who and when, if ever, TB will develop. The objective of this research was to determine how host iron status measured at HIV diagnosis and genotypes related to host iron metabolism were associated with incident TB. Methods Archived clinical data, plasma and DNA were analyzed from 1139 adult participants in a large HIV-1, HIV-2 and dual seroprevalent cohort based at the Medical Research Council Laboratories in The Gambia. Incident pulmonary and/or extrapulmonary TB diagnoses a minimum of 28 days after HIV diagnosis were independently re-confirmed using available evidence (n=152). Multiple host iron status biomarkers, Haptoglobin and solute carrier family 11, member 1 (SLC11A1) genotypes were modeled to characterize how indicators of host iron metabolism were associated with TB susceptibility. Results Hemoglobin (incidence rate ratio, IRR=0.88, 95% CI=0.79-0.98), plasma transferrin (IRR=0.53, 0.33-0.84) and ferritin (IRR=1.26, 1.05-1.51) were significantly associated with TB after adjusting for TB susceptibility factors. While genotype associations were not statistically significant, SLC11A1 associations replicated similar directions as reported in HIV-seronegative meta-analyses. Conclusions Evidence of host iron redistribution at HIV diagnosis was associated with incident TB, and genetic influences on iron homeostasis may be involved. Low hemoglobin was associated with subsequent diagnosis of TB, but when considered in combination with additional iron status biomarkers, the collective findings point to a mechanism whereby anemia

  3. Factors affecting aggression in South Korean middle school students.

    PubMed

    Park, MiJeong; Choi, Jihea; Lim, Seung-Joo

    2014-12-01

    The study was undertaken to assess levels of aggression, and to determine factors affecting aggression among South Korean middle school students. A descriptive study was conducted using self-report questionnaires. The participants were 340 girls and boys from two middle schools and 302 questionnaires were used for the final data analysis. Aggression, academic stress, depression, self esteem, decision-making competency, and happiness were measured. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regressions. Aggression had significant correlations with academic stress (r = .21, p < .001), depression (r = .43, p < .001), self esteem (r = -.25, p < .001), decision-making competency (r = -.25, p < .001), and happiness (r = -.21, p < .001). Mean score for aggression was 2.49 out of 5. Significant explanatory variables for aggression were grade (t = 4.39, p < .001), academic stress (t = 2.78, p = .006), and depression (t = 5.03, p < .001). The explanatory power of these factors was 26.9%, and this was statistically significant (F = 16.06, p < .001). Findings indicate that depression, academic stress, and grade (second grade) influence aggression. To decrease aggressive behavior, it is necessary to provide systematic and political programs in schools and local communities that can ameliorate negative emotional factors like depression and academic stress. Additionally, development of positive factors such as self esteem, decision-making skills, and happiness in middle school students is important to reduce aggression. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Factors affecting compliance with measles vaccination in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Phimmasane, Maniphet; Douangmala, Somthana; Koffi, Paulin; Reinharz, Daniel; Buisson, Yves

    2010-09-24

    In line with WHO objectives, the Lao Government is committed to eliminate measles by 2012. Yet from 1992 to 2007, the annual incidence of measles remained high while the vaccination coverage showed a wide diversity across provinces. A descriptive study was performed to determine factors affecting compliance with vaccination against measles, which included qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative study used a convenience sample of 13 persons in charge of the vaccination program, consisting of officials from different levels of the health care structure and members of vaccination teams. The quantitative study performed on the target population consisted of a matched, case-control survey conducted on a stratified random sample of parents of children aged 9-23 months. Overall, 584 individuals (292 cases and 292 controls) were interviewed in the three provinces selected because of low vaccination coverage. On the provision of services side (supply), the main problems identified were a lack of vaccine supply and diluent, a difficulty in maintaining the cold chain, a lack of availability and competence among health workers, a lack of coordination and a limited capacity to assess needs and make coherent decisions. In the side of the consumer (demand), major obstacles identified were poor knowledge about measles immunization and difficulties in accessing vaccination centers because of distance and cost. In multivariate analysis, a low education level of the father was a factor of non-immunization while the factors of good compliance were high incomes, spacing of pregnancies, a feeling that children must be vaccinated, knowledge about immunization age, presenting oneself to the hospital rather than expecting the mobile vaccination teams and last, immunization of other family members or friends' children. The main factors affecting the compliance with vaccination against measles in Laos involve both the supply side and the demand side. Obtaining an effective

  5. Factors affecting hazardous waste solidification/stabilization: a review.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Rachana; Chaudhary, Rubina

    2006-09-01

    Solidification/stabilization is accepted as a well-established disposal technique for hazardous waste. As a result many different types of hazardous wastes are treated with different binders. The S/S products have different property from waste and binders individually. The effectiveness of S/S process is studied by physical, chemical and microstructural methods. This paper summarizes the effect of different waste stream such as heavy metals bearing sludge, filter cake, fly ash, and slag on the properties of cement and other binders. The factors affecting strength development is studied using mix designs, including metal bearing waste alters the hydration and setting time of binders. Pore structure depends on relative quantity of the constituents, cement hydration products and their reaction products with admixtures. Carbonation and additives can lead to strength improvement in waste-binder matrix.

  6. Factors affecting choice of a healthy lifestyle: implications for nurses.

    PubMed

    Ochieng, Bertha M N

    2006-02-01

    Living a healthy lifestyle still remains a challenge to a wide section of the population. This article argues that since a healthy lifestyle is associated with other aspects of economic and social life, it should be examined within this context. This perspective suggests that participation in a healthy lifestyle, with its behavioural emphasis, which typically involves decisions about food, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, risk of infection and accidents, is not necessarily up to the individual. Socioeconomic status, level of education, family, kin and social networks, gender, age and interpersonal influences all affect the choice of lifestyle. This has implications for community practitioners working in the field of health promotion, in particular to promote healthy lifestyle. A correlation model is presented that can be used by practitioners to identity factors that should be taken into consideration when working with clients to enable them to make a healthy lifestyle the easier option.

  7. Factors affecting Brucella spp. blood cultures positivity in children.

    PubMed

    Apa, Hurşit; Devrim, Ilker; Memur, Seyma; Günay, Ilker; Gülfidan, Gamze; Celegen, Mehmet; Bayram, Nuri; Karaarslan, Utku; Bağ, Ozlem; Işgüder, Rana; Oztürk, Aysel; Inan, Seyhan; Unal, Nurrettin

    2013-03-01

    Brucella infections have a wide spectrum of symptoms especially in children, making the diagnosis a complicated process. The gold standard for the final diagnosis for brucellosis is to identify the Brucella spp. isolated from blood or bone marrow cultures. The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the factors affecting the isolation of Brucella spp. from blood cultures. In our study, the ratio of fever, presence of hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In addition, C-reactive protein levels and liver function enzymes were found to be higher in the bacteremic group. In our opinion, while evaluating the febrile child with suspected Brucella infection, we highly recommend sampling blood cultures regardless of the history of previous antimicrobial therapy and duration of the symptoms.

  8. Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China.

    PubMed

    Penm, Jonathan; Moles, Rebekah; Wang, Holly; Li, Yan; Chaar, Betty

    2014-03-01

    New policies in China have recently led to the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in hospitals. We explored the views of hospital administrators, pharmacy directors, clinical pharmacists, and dispensing pharmacists about the factors affecting clinical pharmacy services in China, using the framework approach and organizational theory. We conducted 30 interviews with 130 participants at 29 hospitals (both secondary and tertiary) in Beijing, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Shanghai. We found that the barriers to and facilitators of implementation of clinical pharmacy services slotted into the environment and participant dimensions of Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's organizational model. External support from government was perceived as crucial to promoting pharmacy services. It is proposed that the internationally recognized Basel Statements of the International Pharmaceutical Federation also provide a strong foundation for guiding China in implementing clinical pharmacy services.

  9. FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF LISSAMINE GREEN BY SERUM PROTEINS

    PubMed Central

    Brackenridge, C. J.

    1960-01-01

    Eight physicochemical factors which affect the uptake of lissamine green on filter paper impregnated with serum proteins have been examined, and their relevance to the staining of electrophoretically separated protein fractions is discussed. It is shown that grade of paper, weight of protein applied, separate and combined denaturation and staining time, temperature and concentration of staining solution, concentration of denaturant, and type of protein all influence the weight of dye absorbed per unit weight of applied protein, and must be rigidly standardized if valid quantitative results are to be obtained. Five sets of conditions are obtained for optimal staining and it is found that separation of denaturant from dye yields the best procedure. It is concluded that lissamine green is an excellent dye for the staining and quantitative estimation of separated protein fractions in paper electrophoresis, and that conditions can usually be arranged to produce a linear relation between dye uptake and protein concentration in an experimentally efficient manner. PMID:13803681

  10. Relevant principal factors affecting the reproducibility of insect primary culture.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2017-06-01

    The primary culture of insect cells often suffers from problems with poor reproducibility in the quality of the final cell preparations. The cellular composition of the explants (cell number and cell types), surgical methods (surgical duration and surgical isolation), and physiological and genetic differences between donors may be critical factors affecting the reproducibility of culture. However, little is known about where biological variation (interindividual differences between donors) ends and technical variation (variance in replication of culture conditions) begins. In this study, we cultured larval fat bodies from the Japanese rhinoceros beetle, Allomyrina dichotoma, and evaluated, using linear mixed models, the effect of interindividual variation between donors on the reproducibility of the culture. We also performed transcriptome analysis of the hemocyte-like cells mainly seen in the cultures using RNA sequencing and ultrastructural analyses of hemocytes using a transmission electron microscope, revealing that the cultured cells have many characteristics of insect hemocytes.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not.

  12. [Early mother-infant interaction and factors negatively affecting parenting].

    PubMed

    Cerezo, María Angeles; Trenado, Rosa María; Pons-Salvador, Gemma

    2006-08-01

    The social information-processing model contributes to identifying the psychological processes underlying the construct "sensitivity" in early mother-child interaction. Negative emotional states associated with inadequate self-regulation in coping with stressors affect the mother's attention skills and the processing of the baby's signals. This leads to less synchronous parental practices, particularly unsatisfactory when the baby is unhappy, or crying because the required self-regulation is not provided. This micro-social research studies the sequential profile of maternal reactions to the baby's positive/neutral vs. difficult behaviours and compares them in two groups of dyads, one with mothers who reported high levels of distress and other negative factors for parenting and another group with low levels. The unfavourable circumstances of the high stress group and their negative effects on interaction were observed in some indiscriminate maternal responses and particularly as they reacted to their baby's difficult behaviour, when the mother's regulatory role is more necessary.

  13. Factors Affecting Differences in Medicare Reimbursements for Physicians' Services

    PubMed Central

    Gornick, Marian; Newton, Marilyn; Hackerman, Carl

    1980-01-01

    Under Medicare's Part B program, wide variations are found in average reimbursements for physicians' services by demographic and geographic characteristics of the beneficiaries. Average reimbursements per beneficiary enrolled In the program depend upon the percentage of enrolled persons who exceed the deductible and receive reimbursements, the average allowed charge per service, and the number of services used. This study analyzes differences in average reimbursements per beneficiary for physicians' services In 1975 and discusses allowed charges and use factors that affect average reimbursements. Differences in the level of allowed charges and their impact on meeting the annual deductible are also discussed. The study indicates that average reimbursements per beneficiary are likely to continue to vary significantly year after year under the present Part B cost-sharing and reimbursement mechanisms. PMID:10309221

  14. Discerning environmental factors affecting current tree growth in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Cienciala, Emil; Russ, Radek; Šantrůčková, Hana; Altman, Jan; Kopáček, Jiří; Hůnová, Iva; Štěpánek, Petr; Oulehle, Filip; Tumajer, Jan; Ståhl, Göran

    2016-12-15

    We examined the effect of individual environmental factors on the current spruce tree growth assessed from a repeated country-level statistical landscape (incl. forest) survey in the Czech Republic. An extensive set of variables related to tree size, competition, site characteristics including soil texture, chemistry, N deposition and climate was tested within a random-effect model to explain growth in the conditions of dominantly managed forest ecosystems. The current spruce basal area increment was assessed from two consecutive landscape surveys conducted in 2008/2009 and six years later in 2014/2015. Tree size, age and competition within forest stands were found to be the dominant explanatory variables, whereas the expression of site characteristics, environmental and climatic drives was weaker. The significant site variables affecting growth included soil C/N ratio and soil exchangeable acidity (pH KCl; positive response) reflecting soil chemistry, long-term N-deposition (averaged since 1975) in combination with soil texture (clay content) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), a drought index expressing moisture conditions. Sensitivity of growth to N-deposition was positive, although weak. SPI was positively related to and significant in explaining tree growth when expressed for the growth season. Except SPI, no significant relation of growth was determined to altitude-related variables (temperature, growth season length). We identified the current spruce growth optimum at elevations about 800ma.s.l. or higher in the conditions of the country. This suggests that at lower elevations, limitation by a more pronounced water deficit dominates, whereas direct temperature limitation may concern the less frequent higher elevations. The mixed linear model of spruce tree growth explained 55 and 65% of the variability with fixed and random effects included, respectively, and provided new insights on the current spruce tree growth and factors affecting it within the

  15. Factors affecting retention of early pregnancy in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Dailey, Robert A; Inskeep, E Keith

    2004-08-01

    Potential factors affecting retention of pregnancy during weeks 5-9 of gestation were studied in dairy cows and heifers (N = 211) on two farms. Cows were examined by ultrasonography for presence of a viable embryo, and sizes of the corpus luteum (CL) and of follicles > or = 5mm were recorded. Blood samples were taken at each examination and assayed for progesterone and estradiol. Overall pregnancy loss was 11.4%. Cows with two CL did not have greater concentrations of progesterone than cows with one CL and they retained fewer pregnancies (P < 0.01; 73% versus 91%). Pregnancy retention was associated positively with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol during week 5 (P < 0.05). Embryos that were lost apparently died before CL regression. Retention of pregnancy declined in cows with high body condition and as age of the cow increased. Pregnancy retention was lower in cows bred to one of four frequently-used service sires (P < 0.05). Days postpartum, milk production, parity, service number, inseminator, synchronization of estrus, diameter of follicles and size of CL did not affect pregnancy retention. In conclusion, retention of pregnancy during placentation varied with concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, age of cow, body condition and service sire.

  16. Factors affecting jail detention of defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed.

    PubMed

    Christy, Annette; Otto, Randy; Finch, Jacquelyn; Ringhoff, Daniel; Kimonis, Eva R

    2010-01-01

    The movement of defendants through the legal process who have been adjudicated incompetent to proceed is little studied, yet it is important. The purpose of this study was to provide empirical data regarding factors that affected the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed and ordered to undergo hospitalization remained in jail while awaiting transfer to a state hospital. Statewide data collected in Florida between July 2005 and June 2008 were used to determine the lengths of time incompetent defendants spent at certain stages in the legal process. The addition of forensic bed capacity following media attention and litigation resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of time defendants adjudicated incompetent to proceed waited in jail for transfer to a state hospital for treatment. The amount of time it took for completed commitment orders to be submitted to the state mental health authority by the Clerks of Court of each county accounted for a meaningful portion of days defendants spent in jail awaiting transfer to a state hospital, with considerable variation across counties with respect to waiting times. These findings reflect how various stakeholders can affect the amount of time defendants spend in jail while awaiting hospitalization. These issues are discussed in the context of controversy related to Florida's forensic mental health system, as well as issues related to the political process and funding of the state's mental health authority. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Factors Affecting Formation of Incomplete Vi Antibody in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Sidney; Currie, Julius A.; Tully, Joseph G.

    1965-01-01

    Gaines, Sidney (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), Julius A. Currie, and Joseph G. Tully. Factors affecting formation of incomplete Vi antibody in mice. J. Bacteriol. 90:635–642. 1965.—Single immunizing doses of purified Vi antigen elicited complete and incomplete Vi antibodies in BALB/c mice, but only incomplete antibody in Cinnamon mice. Three of six other mouse strains tested responded like BALB/c mice; the remaining three, like Cinnamon mice. Varying the quantity of antigen injected or the route of administration failed to stimulate the production of detectable complete Vi antibody in Cinnamon mice. Such antibody was evoked in these animals by multiple injections of Vi antigen or by inoculating them with Vi-containing bacilli or Vi-coated erythrocytes. The early protection afforded by serum from Vi-immunized BALB/c mice coincided with the appearance of incomplete Vi antibody, 1 day prior to the advent of complete antibody. Persistence of incomplete as well as complete antibody in the serum of immunized mice was demonstrated for at least 56 days after injection of 10 μg of Vi antigen. Incomplete Vi antibody was shown to have blocking ability, in vitro bactericidal activity, and the capability of protecting mice against intracerebral as well as intraperitoneal challenge with virulent typhoid bacilli. Production of incomplete and complete Vi antibodies was adversely affected by immunization with partially depolymerized Vi antigens. PMID:16562060

  18. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers' PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers.

  19. Internal and External Factors Related to Burnout among Iron and Steel Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Anshan, China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Haiqiang; Guo, Huifang; Yang, Yilong; Sun, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout is a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism and reduced professional efficacy, which can result from long-term work stress. Although the burnout level is high among iron and steel workers, little is known concerning burnout among iron and steel worker. This study aimed to evaluate the burnout and to explore its associated internal and external factors in iron and steel workers. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in iron and steel workers at the Anshan iron-steel complex in Anshan, northeast China. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 1,600 workers, and finally 1,300 questionnaires were returned. Burnout was measured using the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey (MBI-GS). Effort-reward imbalance (ERI), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) were measured anonymously. A hierarchical regression model was applied to explore the internal and external factors associated with burnout. Results Mean MBI-GS scores were 13.11±8.06 for emotional exhaustion, 6.64±6.44 for cynicism, and 28.96±10.39 for professional efficacy. Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that ERI and POS were the most powerful predictors for emotional exhaustion and cynicism, and PsyCap was the most robust predictor for high professional efficacy. Conclusions Chinese iron and steel workers have a high level of burnout. Burnout might be associated with internal and external factors, including ERI, POS, and PsyCap. Further studies are recommended to develop an integrated model including both internal and external factors, to reduce the level of ERI, and improve POS and workers’ PsyCap, thereby alleviating the level of burnout among iron and steel workers. PMID:26575031

  20. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Perignon, Marlene; Fiorentino, Marion; Kuong, Khov; Burja, Kurt; Parker, Megan; Sisokhom, Sek; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine) of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443) from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616). Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM) and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05). In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067) or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064). Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05), and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05). Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and significantly associated with long-term (stunting) and current

  1. Factors that affect the flow of patients through triage.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Melinda; Brown, Ruth; Wears, Robert

    2007-02-01

    To use observational methods to objectively evaluate the organisation of triage and what issues may affect the effectiveness of the process. A two-phase study comprising observation of 16 h of triage in a London hospital emergency department and interviews with the triage staff to build a qualitative task analysis and study protocol for phase 2; observation and timing in triage for 1870 min including 257 patients and for 16 different members of the triage staff. No significant difference was found between grades of staff for the average triage time or the fraction of time absent from triage. In all, 67% of the time spent absent from triage was due to escorting patients into the department. The average time a patient waited in the reception before triage was 13 min 34 s; the average length of time to triage for a patient was 4 min 17 s. A significant increase in triage time was found when patients were triaged to a specialty, expected by a specialty, or were actively "seen and treated" in triage. Protocols to prioritise patients with potentially serious conditions to the front of the queue had a significantly positive effect on their waiting time. Supplementary tasks and distractions had varying effects on the timely assessment and triage of patients. The human factors method is applicable to the triage process and can identify key factors that affect the throughput at triage. Referring a patient to a specialty at triage affects significantly the triage workload; hence, alternative methods or management should be suggested. The decision to offer active treatment at triage increases the time taken, and should be based on clinical criteria and the workload determined by staffing levels. The proportion of time absent from triage could be markedly improved by support from porters or other non-qualified staff, as well as by proceduralised handovers from triage to the main clinical area. Triage productivity could be improved by all staff by becoming aware of the effect of

  2. Dietary factors affecting susceptibility to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Kontiokari, Tero; Nuutinen, Matti; Uhari, Matti

    2004-04-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is usually an ascending infection caused by bacteria derived from stools. Since the bacterial composition of stools is dependent on the diet, it is likely that the risk of UTI will change with changes in the diet. Most data describing diet as a risk factor for UTI come from epidemiological and interventional trials. It has been shown in a case-control setting that frequent consumption of fresh berry or fruit juices and fermented milk products containing probiotic bacteria decreases the risk for UTI recurrence in women. Several interventional trials have found Vaccinium berry products to provide protection from UTI recurrence. Probiotics have not been able to prevent UTI in interventional trials. However, the lack of an effect may be related to too low a dose or to the use of non-optimal products in these trials. Limited data are available on the effects of nutrition on UTI in children. However, there is no reason to expect that children would be different from adults in this respect. In this review, we discuss the dietary factors affecting the susceptibility to UTI.

  3. Validating YouTube Factors Affecting Learning Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratama, Yoga; Hartanto, Rudy; Suning Kusumawardani, Sri

    2018-03-01

    YouTube is often used as a companion medium or a learning supplement. One of the educational places that often uses is Jogja Audio School (JAS) which focuses on music production education. Music production is a difficult material to learn, especially at the audio mastering. With tutorial contents from YouTube, students find it easier to learn and understand audio mastering and improved their learning performance. This study aims to validate the role of YouTube as a medium of learning in improving student’s learning performance by looking at the factors that affect student learning performance. The sample involves 100 respondents from JAS at audio mastering level. The results showed that student learning performance increases seen from factors that have a significant influence of motivation, instructional content, and YouTube usefulness. Overall findings suggest that YouTube has a important role to student learning performance in music production education and as an innovative and efficient learning medium.

  4. Factors Affecting Lung Function: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Talaminos Barroso, Alejandro; Márquez Martín, Eduardo; Roa Romero, Laura María; Ortega Ruiz, Francisco

    2018-06-01

    Lung function reference values are traditionally based on anthropometric factors, such as weight, height, sex, and age. FVC and FEV 1 decline with age, while volumes and capacities, such as RV and FRC, increase. TLC, VC, RV, FVC and FEV 1 are affected by height, since they are proportional to body size. This means that a tall individual will experience greater decrease in lung volumes as they get older. Some variables, such as FRC and ERV, decline exponentially with an increase in weight, to the extent that tidal volume in morbidly obese patients can be close to that of RV. Men have longer airways than women, causing greater specific resistance in the respiratory tract. The increased work of breathing to increase ventilation among women means that their consumption of oxygen is higher than men under similar conditions of physical intensity. Lung volumes are higher when the subject is standing than in other positions. DLCO is significantly higher in supine positions than in sitting or standing positions, but the difference between sitting and standing positions is not significant. Anthropometric characteristics are insufficient to explain differences in lung function between different ethnic groups, underlining the importance of considering other factors in addition to the conventional anthropometric measurements. Copyright © 2018 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors affecting methane production and mitigation in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masaki; Terada, Fuminori

    2010-02-01

    Methane (CH(4)) is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) and that emitted from enteric fermentation in livestock is the single largest source of emissions in Japan. Many factors influence ruminant CH(4) production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds and environmental temperature. The objectives of this review are to identify the factors affecting CH(4) production in ruminants, to examine technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants, and to identify areas requiring further research. The following equation for CH(4) prediction was formulated using only dry matter intake (DMI) and has been adopted in Japan to estimate emissions from ruminant livestock for the National GHG Inventory Report: Y = -17.766 + 42.793X - 0.849X(2), where Y is CH(4) production (L/day) and X is DMI (kg/day). Technologies for the mitigation of CH(4) emissions from ruminants include increasing productivity by improving nutritional management, the manipulation of ruminal fermentation by changing feed composition, the addition of CH(4) inhibitors, and defaunation. Considering the importance of ruminant livestock, it is essential to establish economically feasible ways of reducing ruminant CH(4) production while improving productivity; it is therefore critical to conduct a full system analysis to select the best combination of approaches or new technologies to be applied under long-term field conditions.

  6. Factors affecting the behavior of unburned carbon upon steam activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that could affect the behavior of unburned carbon samples upon steam activation. Through this work, the relationships among the factors that could influence the carbon-steam reaction with the surface area of the produced activated carbon were explored. Statistical analysis was used to relate the chemical and physical properties of the unburned carbon to the surface area of the activated carbon. Six unburned carbons were selected as feedstocks for activated carbon, and marked as UCA through UCF. The unburned carbons were activated using steam at 850°C for 90 minutes, and the surface areas of their activated counterparts were measured using N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The activated carbons produced from different unburned carbon precursors presented different surface areas at similar carbon burn-off levels. Moreover, in different carbon burn-off regions, the sequences for surface area of activated carbons from different unburned carbon samples were different. The factors that may affect the carbon-steam gasification reactions, including the concentration of carbon active sites, the crystallite size of the carbon, the intrinsic porous structure of carbon, and the inorganic impurities, were investigated. All unburned carbons investigated in this study were similar in that they showed the very broad (002) and (10 ) carbon peaks, which are characteristic of highly disordered carbonaceous materials. In this study, the unburned carbon samples contained about 17--48% of inorganic impurities. Compared to coals, the unburned carbon samples contain a larger amount of inorganic impurities as a result of the burn-off, or at lease part, of the carbon during the combustion process. These inorganic particles were divided into two groups in terms of the way they are associated with carbon particles: free single particles, and particles combined with carbon particles. As indicated from the present work, unburned

  7. Relationship between Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Iron Overload.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dong-Mei; Sun, Wan-Ling

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this study was to summarize the interactions between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and iron overload, and to understand the mechanisms of iron overload in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and the role iron plays in HCV life cycle. This review was based on data in articles published in the PubMed databases up to January 28, 2017, with the keywords "hepatitis C virus", "iron overload", "iron metabolism", "hepcidin", "translation", and "replication". Articles related to iron metabolism, iron overload in patients with CHC, or the effects of iron on HCV life cycle were selected for the review. Iron overload is common in patients with CHC. The mechanisms involve decreased hepcidin levels caused by HCV through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase, or bone morphogenetic protein/SMAD signaling pathways, and the altered expression of other iron-metabolism-related genes. Some studies found that iron increases HCV replication, while other studies found the opposite result. Most of the studies suggest the positive role of iron on HCV translation, the mechanisms of which involve increased expression levels of factors associated with HCV internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation, such as eukaryotic initiation factor 3 and La protein. The growing literature demonstrates that CHC leads to iron overload, and iron affects the HCV life cycle in turn. Further research should be conducted to clarify the mechanism involved in the complicated interaction between iron and HCV.

  8. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    PubMed

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  9. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ∼147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n = 856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n = 283), the effect of the ewes’ own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  10. Factors affecting detection of burrowing owl nests during standardized surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, C.J.; Garcia, V.; Smith, M.D.; Hughes, K.

    2008-01-01

    Identifying causes of declines and evaluating effects of management practices on persistence of local populations of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) requires accurate estimates of abundance and population trends. Moreover, regulatory agencies in the United States and Canada typically require surveys to detect nest burrows prior to approving developments or other activities in areas that are potentially suitable for nesting burrowing owls. In general, guidelines on timing of surveys have been lacking and surveys have been conducted at different times of day and in different stages of the nesting cycle. We used logistic regression to evaluate 7 factors that could potentially affect probability of a surveyor detecting a burrowing owl nest. We conducted 1,444 detection trials at 323 burrowing owl nests within 3 study areas in Washington and Wyoming, USA, between February and August 2000-2002. Detection probability was highest during the nestling period and increased with ambient temperature. The other 5 factors that we examined (i.e., study area, time of day, timing within the breeding season, wind speed, % cloud cover) interacted with another factor to influence detection probability. Use of call-broadcast surveys increased detection probability, even during daylight hours when we detected >95% of owls visually. Optimal timing of surveys will vary due to differences in breeding phenology and differences in nesting behavior across populations. Nevertheless, we recommend ???3 surveys per year: one that coincides with the laying and incubation period, another that coincides with the early nestling period, and a third that coincides with the late nestling period. In northern latitudes, surveys can be conducted throughout the day.

  11. Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Tiina M.; Raatikka, Veli-Pekka; Rytkönen, Mika; Jokelainen, Jari; Rintamäki, Hannu; Ruuhela, Reija; Näyhä, Simo; Hassi, Juhani

    2006-09-01

    The extent of outdoor exposure during winter and factors affecting it were examined in a cross-sectional population study in Finland. Men and women aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK 2002 sub-study ( n=6,591) were queried about their average weekly occupational, leisure-time and total cold exposure during the past winter. The effects of gender, age, area of residence, occupation, ambient temperature, self-rated health, physical activity and education on cold exposure were analysed. The self-reported median total cold exposure time was 7 h/week (8 h men, 6 h women),<1 h/week (2 h men, 0 h women) at work, 4 h/week (5 h men, 4 h women) during leisure time and 1 h/week (1 h men, 1.5 h women) while commuting to work. Factors associated with increased occupational cold exposure among men were: being employed in agriculture, forestry and industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being less educated and being aged 55-64 years. Factors associated with increased leisure-time cold exposure among men were: employment in industry/mining/construction or related occupations, being a pensioner or unemployed, reporting at least average health, being physically active and having college or vocational education. Among women, being a housewife, pensioner or unemployed and engaged in physical activity increased leisure-time cold exposure, and young women were more exposed than older ones. Self-rated health was positively associated with leisure time cold exposure in men and only to a minor extent in women. In conclusion, the subjects reported spending 4% of their total time under cold exposure, most of it (71%) during leisure time. Both occupational and leisure-time cold exposure is greater among men than women.

  12. Factors affecting the initiation of breastfeeding: implications for breastfeeding promotion.

    PubMed

    Earle, Sarah

    2002-09-01

    Breastfeeding rates in the United Kingdom (UK) are one of the lowest in the developed world and certainly the lowest in Europe. There have been numerous studies of breastfeeding in the UK, most of which have adopted a quantitative approach, and they have largely focused on obstetric or socio-demographic factors in the decision to breastfeed. Whilst these studies have an important role to play, this paper draws on a study that adopts a qualitative methodology to explore women's personal experiences and perceptions of breastfeeding. A qualitative study of 19 primagravidae was undertaken and completed in 1998. Participants were recruited to the study via 12 antenatal clinics in the West Midlands, England, UK. Their ages ranged from 16 to 30 years and the majority described themselves as 'white'. The majority of participants were in paid employment in a variety of occupations. The study was prospective in design. Participants were interviewed three times either during pregnancy or after childbirth: the first stage was between 6 and 14 weeks of pregnancy; the second stage was between 34 and 39 weeks; and the third stage was between 6 and 14 weeks after childbirth. The data indicate that there are several factors affecting breastfeeding initiation. First, infant feeding decisions seem to be made prior to, or irrespective of, contact with health professionals. Secondly, the data suggest that health promotion campaigns in the UK have been influential in their ability to educate women about the benefits of breastfeeding. However, this did not dissuade participants from formula feeding once their decision was made. The desire for paternal involvement also seemed to be another influential factor; fathers were either seen as able to alleviate the daily grind of early motherhood, or there was a desire for 'shared parenting'. Finally, some of the formula feeding women expressed a strong desire to re-establish their identities as separate individuals and as 'non-mothers'.

  13. Identifying Nonprovider Factors Affecting Pediatric Emergency Medicine Provider Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Fareed; Breslin, Kristen; Mullan, Paul C; Tillett, Zachary; Chamberlain, James M

    2017-10-31

    The aim of this study was to create a multivariable model of standardized relative value units per hour by adjusting for nonprovider factors that influence efficiency. We obtained productivity data based on billing records measured in emergency relative value units for (1) both evaluation and management of visits and (2) procedures for 16 pediatric emergency medicine providers with more than 750 hours worked per year. Eligible shifts were in an urban, academic pediatric emergency department (ED) with 2 sites: a tertiary care main campus and a satellite community site. We used multivariable linear regression to adjust for the impact of shift and pediatric ED characteristics on individual-provider efficiency and then removed variables from the model with minimal effect on productivity. There were 2998 eligible shifts for the 16 providers during a 3-year period. The resulting model included 4 variables when looking at both ED sites combined. These variables include the following: (1) number of procedures billed by provider, (2) season of the year, (3) shift start time, and (4) day of week. Results were improved when we separately modeled each ED location. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, shift start time, and season explained 23% of the variation in provider efficiency at the academic ED site. A 3-variable model using procedures billed by provider, patient arrivals per hour, and shift start time explained 45% of the variation in provider efficiency at the satellite ED site. Several nonprovider factors affect provider efficiency. These factors should be considered when designing productivity-based incentives.

  14. Undergraduate nursing students' perceptions regarding factors that affect math abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Katrina A.

    2011-07-01

    A review of the nursing literature reveals many undergraduate nursing students lack proficiency with basic mathematical skills, those necessary for safe medication preparation and administration. Few studies exploring the phenomenon from the undergraduate nursing student perspective are reported in the nursing literature. The purpose of this study was to explore undergraduate nursing students’ perceptions of math abilities, factors that affect math abilities, the use of math in nursing, and the extent to which specific math skills were addressed throughout a nursing curriculum. Polya’s Model for Problem Solving and the Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Affective Domain served as the theoretical background for the study. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to obtain data from a purposive sample of undergraduate nursing students from a private university in western Pennsylvania. Participants were selected based on the proficiency level with math skills, as determined by a score on the Elsevier’s HESI™ Admission Assessment (A2) Exam, Math Portion. Ten students from the “Excellent” benchmark group and eleven students from the “Needing Additional Assistance or Improvement” benchmark group participated in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews, and completed a 25-item, 4-point Likert scale survey that rated confidence levels with specific math skills and the extent to which these skills were perceived to be addressed in the nursing curriculum. Responses from the two benchmark groups were compared and contrasted. Eight themes emerged from the qualitative data. Findings related to mathematical approach and confidence levels with specific math skills were determined to be statistically significant.

  15. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p < 0.001). The diagnostic delay in ALS is about one year, besides the growing number of tertiary centres and the spread of information about the disease through media and internet. Cognitive errors based on an incorrect use of heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors affecting quality of social interaction park in Jakarta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangunsong, N. I.

    2018-01-01

    The existence of social interactions park in Jakarta is an oasis in the middle of a concrete jungle. Parks is a response to the need for open space as a place of recreation and community interaction. Often the social interaction parks built by the government does not function as expected, but other functions such as a place to sell, trash, unsafe so be rarely visited by visitors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the quality of social interaction parks in Jakarta by conducting descriptive analysis and correlation analysis of the variables assessment. The results of the analysis can give an idea of social interactions park based on community needs and propose the development of social interactioncity park. The object of study are 25 social interaction parks in 5 municipalities of Jakarta. The method used is descriptive analysis method, correlation analysis using SPSS 19 and using crosstab, chi-square tests. The variables are 5 aspects of Design, Plants composition: Selection type of plant (D); the beauty and harmony (Ind); Maintenance and fertility (P); Cleanliness and Environmental Health (BS); Specificity (Drainage, Multi Function garden, Means, Concern/Mutual cooperation, in dense settlements) (K). The results of analysis show that beauty is the most significant correlation with the value of the park followed by specificity, cleanliness and maintenance. Design was not the most significant variable affecting the quality of the park. The results of this study can be used by the Department of Parks and Cemeteries as input in managing park existing or to be developed and to improve the quality of social interaction park in Jakarta.

  17. Factors Affecting Prostate Volume Estimation in Computed Tomography Images

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how apex-localizing methods and the computed tomography (CT) slice thickness affected the CT-based prostate volume estimation. Twenty-eight volunteers underwent evaluations of prostate volume by CT, where the contour segmentations were performed by three observers. The bottom of ischial tuberosities (ITs) and the bulb of the penis were used as reference positions to locate the apex, and the distances to the apex were recorded as 1.3 and 2.0 cm, respectively. Interobserver variations to locate ITs and the bulb of the penis were, on average, 0.10 cm (range 0.03-0.38 cm) and 0.30 cm (rangemore » 0.00-0.98 cm), respectively. The range of CT slice thickness varied from 0.08-0.48 cm and was adopted to examine the influence of the variation on volume estimation. The volume deviation from the reference case (0.08 cm), which increases in tandem with the slice thickness, was within {+-} 3 cm{sup 3}, regardless of the adopted apex-locating reference positions. In addition, the maximum error of apex identification was 1.5 times of slice thickness. Finally, based on the precise CT films and the methods of apex identification, there were strong positive correlation coefficients for the estimated prostate volume by CT and the transabdominal ultrasonography, as found in the present study (r > 0.87; p < 0.0001), and this was confirmed by Bland-Altman analysis. These results will help to identify factors that affect prostate volume calculation and to contribute to the improved estimation of the prostate volume based on CT images.« less

  18. Main error factors, affecting inversion of EM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuev, M. A.; Magomedov, M.; Korneev, V. A.; Goloshubin, G.; Zuev, J.; Brovman, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Inversions of EM data are complicated by a number of factors that need to be taken into account. These factors might contribute by tens of percents in data values, concealing responses from target objects, which usually contribute at the level of few percents only. We developed the exact analytical solutions of the EM wave equations that properly incorporate the contributions of the following effects: 1) A finite source size effect, where conventional dipole (zero-size) approximation brings 10-40% error compare to a real size source, needed to provide adequate signal-to-noise ratio. 2) Complex topography. A three-parametrical approach allows to keep the data misfits in 0.5% corridor while topography effect might be up to 40%. 3) Grounding shadow effect, caused by return ground currents, when Tx-line vicinity is horizontally non-uniform. By keeping survey setup within some reasonable geometrical ratios, the shadow effect comes to just one frequency-independent coefficient, which can be excluded from processing by using logarithmical derivatives. 4) Layer's wide spectral range effect. This brings to multi-layer spectral overlapping, so each frequency is affected by many layers; that requires wide spectral range processing, making the typical 'few-frequency data acquisition' non-reliable. 5) Horizontal sensitivity effect. The typical view at the target signal, reflected from a Tx-Rx mid-point is valid only for a ray approximation, reliable in a far-field zone. Unlike this, the real EM surveys usually work in near-field zone. Thus Tx-Rx mid-point does not represent the layer, so a sensitivity distribution function must be computed for each layer for the following 3D-unification process. 6) Wide range Rx-directions from mid-line Tx. Survey terrain often prevents placing Rx perpendicular to Tx-line, and even small deviations without proper corrections cause a significant inaccuracy. A radical simplification of the effect's description becomes possible after applying a

  19. Factors affecting bone mineral density in multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Azin; Mohajeri-Tehrani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease which can cause many disabilities for the patient. Recent data suggests that MS patients have higher risk for osteoporosis. This study was performed to investigate if the osteoporosis prevalence is higher in MS patients and to determine the possible factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD). Methods 51 definite relapsing-remitting MS patients according to McDonald's criteria (45 females, 6 males aged between 20 and 50 years) participated in this study. The control group included 407 females aged from 20 to 49 years; they were healthy and had no history of the diseases affecting bone metabolism. Femoral and lumbar BMD were measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). The disability of MS patients was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The patient's quality of life was evaluated by the validated Persian version of multiple sclerosis impact scale (MSIS-29). Results Patients’ mean age was 36 ± 3.3 years and their mean disease duration was 8.7 ± 1.7 years. The mean EDSS score and the mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients were 3 ± 0.9 and 23.5 ± 2.3 kg/m2, respectively. 29% of the patients had never been treated by ß-interferon and 6% of them had not received glucocorticoids (GCs) pulses since their MS had been diagnosed. 26% of the patients had a history of fracture.18% of our patients were osteoporotic and 43% of them were osteopenic. Femoral BMD was significantly lower among MS patients than age matched controls (P < 0.001), but lumbar BMD showed no difference. There was no correlation between administration of GCs pulses, interferon and BMD; however, we found a significant correlation between EDSS score, quality of life (QoL), disease duration and BMD of both site. Conclusion As a result of this study, bone loss inevitably occurs in MS patients. The major factor of BMD loss is immobility. Osteoporosis should be managed as part of MS patients’ treatment protocols

  20. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  1. Factors affecting the estimate of primary production from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balch, W. M.; Byrne, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Remote sensing of primary production in the euphotic zone has been based mostly on visible-band and water-leaving radiance measured with the coastal zone color scanner. There are some robust, simple relationships for calculating integral production based on surface measurements, but they also require knowledge for photoadaptive parameters such as maximum photosynthesis which currently cannot be obtained from spave. A 17,000-station data set is used to show that space-based estimates of maximum photosynthesis could improve predictions of psi, the water column light utiliztion index, which is an important term in many primary productivity models. Temperature is also examined as a factor for predicting hydrographic structure and primary production. A simple model is used to relate temperature and maximum photosynthesis; the model incorporates (1) the positive relationship between maximum photosynthesis and temperature and (2) the strongly negative relationship between temperature and nitrate in the ocean (which directly affects maximum growth rates via nitrogen limitation). Since these two factors relate to carbon and nitrogen, 'balanced carbon/nitrogen assimilation' was calculated using the Redfield ratio, It is expected that the relationship between maximum balanced carbon assimilation versus temperature is concave-down, with the peak dependent on nitrate uptake kinetics, temperature-nitrate relationships,a nd the carbon chlorophyll ration. These predictions were compared with the sea truth data. The minimum turnover time for nitrate was also calculated using this approach. Lastly, sea surface temperature gradients were used to predict the slope of isotherms (a proxy for the slope of isopycnals in many waters). Sea truth data show that at size scales of several hundred kilometers, surface temperature gradients can provide information on the slope of isotherms in the top 200 m of the water column. This is directly relevant to the supply of nutrients into the surface

  2. Factors affecting rural volunteering in palliative care - an integrated review.

    PubMed

    Whittall, Dawn; Lee, Susan; O'Connor, Margaret

    2016-12-01

    To review factors shaping volunteering in palliative care in Australian rural communities using Australian and International literature. Identify gaps in the palliative care literature and make recommendations for future research. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Proquest, Scopus, Sage Premier, Wiley online, Ovid, Cochran, Google Scholar, CINAHL and Informit Health Collection. The literature was synthesised and presented in an integrated thematic narrative. Australian Rural communities. While Australia, Canada, the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) are leaders in palliative care volunteer research, limited research specifically focuses on volunteers in rural communities with the least occurring in Australia. Several interrelated factors influence rural palliative care provision, in particular an increasingly ageing population which includes an ageing volunteer and health professional workforce. Also current and models of palliative care practice fail to recognise the innumerable variables between and within rural communities such as distance, isolation, lack of privacy, limited health care services and infrastructure, and workforce shortages. These issues impact palliative care provision and are significant for health professionals, volunteers, patients and caregivers. The three key themes of this integrated review include: (i) Geography, ageing rural populations in palliative care practice, (ii) Psychosocial impact of end-end-of life care in rural communities and (iii) Palliative care models of practice and volunteering in rural communities. The invisibility of volunteers in rural palliative care research is a concern in understanding the issues affecting the sustainability of quality palliative care provision in rural communities. Recommendations for future Australian research includes examination of the suitability of current models of palliative care practice in addressing the needs of rural communities; the recruitment

  3. Factors affecting the surgical approach and timing of bilateral adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Lan, Billy Y; Taskin, Halit E; Aksoy, Erol; Birsen, Onur; Dural, Cem; Mitchell, Jamie; Siperstein, Allan; Berber, Eren

    2015-07-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy has gained widespread acceptance. However, the optimal surgical approach to laparoscopic bilateral adrenalectomy has not been clearly defined. The aim of this study is to analyze the patient and intraoperative factors affecting the feasibility and outcome of different surgical approaches to define an algorithm for bilateral adrenalectomy. Between 2000 and 2013, all patients who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy at a single institution were selected for retrospective analysis. Patient factors, surgical approach, operative outcomes, and complications were analyzed. From 2000 to 2013, 28 patients underwent bilateral adrenalectomy. Patient diagnoses included Cushing's disease (n = 19), pheochromocytoma (n = 7), and adrenal metastasis (n = 2). Of these 28 patients, successful laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed in all but 2 patients. Twenty-three out of the 26 adrenalectomies were completed in a single stage, while three were performed as a staged approach due to deterioration in intraoperative respiratory status in two patients and patient body habitus in one. Of the adrenalectomies completed using the minimally invasive approach, a posterior retroperitoneal (PR) approach was performed in 17 patients and lateral transabdominal (LT) approach in 9 patients. Patients who underwent a LT approach had higher BMI, larger tumor size, and other concomitant intraabdominal pathology. Hospital stay for laparoscopic adrenalectomy was 3.5 days compared to 5 and 12 days for the two open cases. There were no 30-day hospital mortality and 5 patients had minor complications for the entire cohort. A minimally invasive operation is feasible in 93% of patients undergoing bilateral adrenalectomy with 65% of adrenalectomies performed using the PR approach. Indications for the LT approach include morbid obesity, tumor size >6 cm, and other concomitant intraabdominal pathology. Single-stage adrenalectomies are feasible in most patients, with prolonged operative

  4. Reproductive factors affecting the bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ferda; Demirbag, Derya; Rodoplu, Meliha

    2005-03-01

    Osteoporosis has been defined as a metabolic bone disease characterized by a loss of bone mineral density (BMD) greater than 2.5 standard deviations below young adult peak bone mass or the presence of fracture. By considering that some factors related to female reproductive system might influence the ultimate risk of osteoporosis, we aimed to investigate if a relationship exists between the present BMD of postmenopausal women with their past and present reproductive characteristics. The present study focused on how BMD could be affected by the following factors in postmenopausal women, such as age at menarche, age at first pregnancy, the number of pregnancies and total breast-feeding time. We reviewed detailed demographic history of 303 postmenopausal women. According to the results of the present study, a negative correlation was found between the number of parities and BMD. The BMD values decreased as the number of pregnancies increased. When the BMD values for lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle were investigated, it was observed that a significant difference exists between the women with no child birth and those with more than five parities. There was a significant relationship between age at first pregnancy and BMD values at the lumbar vertebrae 2 and Ward's triangle. Women who had five or more abortions were found to have significantly lower spine BMD values compared to women who had no abortions or women who had one or two abortions. These findings indicate that the increased risk of osteoporosis is associated with the increased number of pregnancies and abortions and higher age at first pregnancy.

  5. Factors affecting the diffusion of online end user literature searching.

    PubMed

    Ash, J S

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors that affect diffusion of usage of online end user literature searching. Fifteen factors clustered into three attribute sets (innovation attributes, organizational attributes, and marketing attributes) were measured to study their effect on the diffusion of online searching within institutions. A random sample of sixty-seven academic health sciences centers was selected and then 1,335 library and informatics staff members at those institutions were surveyed by mail with electronic mail follow-up. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The survey yielded a 41% response rate with electronic mail follow-up being particularly effective. Two dependent variables, internal diffusion (spread of diffusion) and infusion (depth of diffusion), were measured. There was little correlation between them, indicating they measured different things. Fifteen independent variables clustered into three attribute sets were measured. The innovation attributes set was significant for both internal diffusion and infusion. Significant individual variables were visibility for internal diffusion and image enhancement effects (negative relation) as well as visibility for infusion (depth of diffusion). Organizational attributes were also significant predictors for both dependent variables. No individual variables were significant for internal diffusion. Communication, management support (negative relation), rewards, and existence of champions were significant for infusion. Marketing attributes were not significant predictors. Successful diffusion of online end user literature searching is dependent on the visibility of the systems, communication among, rewards to, and peers of possible users who promote use (champions). Personal image enhancement effects have a negative relation to infusion, possibly because the use of intermediaries is still seen as the more luxurious way to have searches done. Management support also has a negative relation to

  6. Treatment of Iron Deficiency in Women

    PubMed Central

    Breymann, C.; Römer, T.; Dudenhausen, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency with and without anaemia is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in women. Iron deficiency is generally the result of an imbalance between iron loss and iron absorption. In women with symptoms suspicious for iron deficiency, it is important to confirm or exclude the suspicion using proper tests. The use of serum ferritin levels is considered the gold standard for diagnosis. Although the ideal ferritin levels are not unknown the current consent is that levels < 40 ng/ml indicate iron deficiency, which needs to be treated in symptomatic patients. However, symptoms can already occur at ferritin levels of < 100 ng/ml and treatment must be adapted to the individual patient. Iron supplementation is only indicated in symptomatic patients diagnosed with iron deficiency whose quality of life is affected. It is important to treat iron deficiency together with its causes or risk factors. For example, blood loss from hypermenorrhea should be reduced. Women also need to receive information about the benefits of an iron-rich diet. If oral treatment with iron supplements is ineffective, parenteral iron administration is recommended. PMID:26633902

  7. Risk factors affecting injury severity determined by the MAIS score.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sara; Amorim, Marco; Couto, Antonio

    2017-07-04

    Traffic crashes result in a loss of life but also impact the quality of life and productivity of crash survivors. Given the importance of traffic crash outcomes, the issue has received attention from researchers and practitioners as well as government institutions, such as the European Commission (EC). Thus, to obtain detailed information on the injury type and severity of crash victims, hospital data have been proposed for use alongside police crash records. A new injury severity classification based on hospital data, called the maximum abbreviated injury scale (MAIS), was developed and recently adopted by the EC. This study provides an in-depth analysis of the factors that affect injury severity as classified by the MAIS score. In this study, the MAIS score was derived from the International Classification of Diseases. The European Union adopted an MAIS score equal to or greater than 3 as the definition for a serious traffic crash injury. Gains are expected from using both police and hospital data because the injury severities of the victims are detailed by medical staff and the characteristics of the crash and the site of its occurrence are also provided. The data were obtained by linking police and hospital data sets from the Porto metropolitan area of Portugal over a 6-year period (2006-2011). A mixed logit model was used to understand the factors that contribute to the injury severity of traffic victims and to explore the impact of these factors on injury severity. A random parameter approach offers methodological flexibility to capture individual-specific heterogeneity. Additionally, to understand the importance of using a reliable injury severity scale, we compared MAIS with length of hospital stay (LHS), a classification used by several countries, including Portugal, to officially report injury severity. To do so, the same statistical technique was applied using the same variables to analyze their impact on the injury severity classified according to LHS

  8. Contribution for Iron Vapor and Radiation Distribution Affected by Current Frequency of Pulsed Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimokura, Takuya; Mori, Yusuke; Iwao, Toru; Yumoto, Motoshige

    Pulsed GTA welding has been used for improvement of stability, weld speed, and heat input control. However, the temperature and radiation power of the pulsed arc have not been elucidated. Furthermore, arc contamination by metal vapor changes the arc characteristics, e.g. by increasing radiation power. In this case, the metal vapor in pulsed GTA welding changes the distribution of temperature and radiation power as a function of time. This paper presents the relation between metal vapor and radiation power at different pulse frequencies. We calculate the Fe vapor distribution of the pulsed current. Results show that the Fe vapor is transported at fast arc velocity during the peak current period. During the base current period, the Fe vapor concentration is low and distribution is diffuse. The transition of Fe vapor distribution does not follow the pulsed current; the radiation power density distribution differs for high frequencies and low frequencies. In addition, the Fe vapor and radiation distribution are affected by the pulsed arc current frequency.

  9. Oxidative stability of soybean oil in oleosomes as affected by pH and iron.

    PubMed

    Kapchie, Virginie N; Yao, Linxing; Hauck, Catherine C; Wang, Tong; Murphy, Patricia A

    2013-12-01

    The oxidative stability of oil in soybean oleosomes, isolated using the Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Process (EAEP), was evaluated. The effects of ferric chloride, at two concentration levels (100 and 500 μM), on lipid oxidation, was examined under pH 2 and 7. The peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value of oil, in oleosome suspensions stored at 60 °C, were measured over a 12 day period. The presence of ferric chloride significantly (P<0.05) affected the oxidative stability of oil in the isolated oleosome, as measured by the PV and TBARS. Greater lipid oxidation occurred under an acidic pH. In the pH 7 samples, the positively charged transition metals were strongly attracted to the negatively charged droplets. However, the low ζ-potential and the high creaming rate at this pH, may have limited the oxidation. Freezing, freeze-drying or heating of oleosomes have an insignificant impact on the oxidative stability of oil in isolated soybean oleosomes. Manufacturers should be cautious when adding oleosomes as ingredients in food systems containing transition metal ions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Factors affecting the shear strength behavior of municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Pulat, Hasan Firat; Yukselen-Aksoy, Yeliz

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the shear strength behavior of European (E-1), Turkey (T-1), and United States of America (U-1) average synthetic municipal solid waste (MSW) compositions were investigated. The large-scale direct shear tests were conducted using fresh and aged MSW samples collected from the Manisa Landfill. The natural samples' test results were compared with synthetic samples. The affecting factors such as ageing, waste composition, and waste type (synthetic and natural) on the shear strength of MSWs were investigated. The effect of composition was evaluated using three main and six modified synthetic MSW compositions. In addition to the synthetic fresh MSW samples, synthetic aged samples were also used. Angle of shearing resistance decreased with increasing organic content whereas cohesion intercept increased with increasing organic content. The fresh and aged wastes with higher coarse fraction lead to a higher angle of shearing resistance. The synthetic aged samples had higher internal friction angles but lower cohesion values than the synthetic fresh samples. Waste with average European composition had the highest internal friction angle as it has the highest fibrous content. On the other hand, the highest cohesion belonged to the Turkey composition, which had the highest organic matter ratio. The main differences between E-1, T-1 and U-1 samples in terms of compositions were observed. The results of this study indicated that shear strength of waste significantly depends on composition and hence a site specific evaluation is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors affecting the internal brain drain of Saudi healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Bakhsh, Zuhair T; Mansour, Ameerah Y; Mensah, Edward K; Croke, Kevin G; Drummond, James L; Koerber, Anne

    2012-12-01

    To investigate factors affecting the internal brain drain of healthcare professionals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted using an anonymous self-administered online questionnaire sent to all Saudi students enrolled in healthcare profession programs in North America. The data was collected between January and March 2008 at the University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America. Results were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. A total of 377 completed questionnaires were returned. Results revealed that 71% of respondents intended to return to work within the 2 major urban cities Riyadh and Jeddah. Respondents who completed their undergraduate studies in a large city were more likely to work in the same city (odds ratio [OR]=3.2; p=0.000; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0-5.2). Furthermore, 51% of the students were willing to work in a rural area for a 50% or more increase in their salary. Finally, men were more willing to work in a rural area for a financial incentive (OR=2.3; p=0.006, 95% CI = 1.3-4.3). This study suggests that realistic financial incentives would probably not suffice to attract Saudi healthcare providers to rural areas. The provision of medical schools in smaller cities and rural areas is predicted to be a more effective method for improving the current maldistribution of healthcare providers.

  12. Factors affecting tumor ablation during high intensity focused ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Hassanuddin, Aizan; Choi, Jun-Ho; Seo, Dong-Wan; Ryu, Choong Heon; Kim, Su-Hui; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2014-07-01

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) utilizes a targeted extracorporeal focused ultrasound beam to ablate neoplastic pancreatic tissue. We used an in vitro model to examine the effects of bone, metallic stents, plastic stents, metal plates, and cyst-like lesions on HIFU treatment. HIFU was delivered to the phantom models implanted with foreign bodies, and the location, shape, and size of the ablated zones were evaluated. Bone and metallic plates reflected the ultrasound beam, shifting the ablation zone from the focal zone to the prefocal area. In the phantoms containing metal stent, plastic stent, and cyst, most of the ablative energy was reflected to the prefocal area by the surface, with the remainder penetrating through the phantom. The area of the ablated margins was significantly larger in size and volume than the intended focal ablation zone. During HIFU therapy, artificial or anatomical barriers could affect the direction of the ultrasound beams, shifting the ablation zone from the focal area to a prefocal site with a larger than expected ablation zone. These factors should be considered prior to HIFU treatment for pancreatic tumors because they could limit ablation success, in addition to causing complications.

  13. Hydrologic and geologic factors affecting land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Epstein, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    At an extensometer site near Eloy, Arizona, 1.09 m of land subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal were measured by leveling in 1965-83. The extensometer, which partially penetrates the compressible sediments, recorded 0.82 m of compaction during the same period. By use of a one-dimensional model, cumulative daily compaction values were simulated to within an average of 0.0038 m of the actual values. Land subsidence was simulated to within an average of 0.011 m using the same model in conjunction with geohydrologic data of the sediments below the extensometer. A highly compressible clay layer that is 24.38 m thick was partially penetrated by the extensometer. The simulation indicated that the layer was driving compaction and land subsidence linearly with respect to time, despite the presence of other compacting layers. Because of its thickness and compressibility, this layer can be expected to continue to compact after applied vertical stresses have stopped increasing and other layers have stopped compacting. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the compressibility of fine-grained sediments (expressed as specific storage) is one of the factors to which compact is most sensitive. Preconsolidation stress and hydraulic conductivity also affect land subsidence near Eloy, Arizona. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Synoptic Factors Affecting Structure Predictability of Hurricane Alex (2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Aleman, J. J.; Evans, J. L.; Kowaleski, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    On January 7, 2016, a disturbance formed over the western North Atlantic basin. After undergoing tropical transition, the system became the first hurricane of 2016 - and the first North Atlantic hurricane to form in January since 1938. Already an extremely rare hurricane event, Alex then underwent extratropical transition [ET] just north of the Azores Islands. We examine the factors affecting Alex's structural evolution through a new technique called path-clustering. In this way, 51 ensembles from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Ensemble Prediction System (ECMWF-EPS) are grouped based on similarities in the storm's path through the Cyclone Phase Space (CPS). The differing clusters group various possible scenarios of structural development represented in the ensemble forecasts. As a result, it is possible to shed light on the role of the synoptic scale in changing the structure of this hurricane in the midlatitudes through intercomparison of the most "realistic" forecast of the evolution of Alex and the other physically plausible modes of its development.

  15. Identification of factors affecting birth rate in Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zámková, Martina; Blašková, Veronika

    2013-10-01

    This article is concerned with identifying economic factors primarily that affect birth rates in Czech Republic. To find the relationship between the magnitudes, we used the multivariate regression analysis and for modeling, we used a time series of annual values (1994-2011) both economic indicators and indicators related to demographics. Due to potential problems with apparent dependence we first cleansed all series obtained from the Czech Statistical Office using first differences. It is clear from the final model that meets all assumptions that there is a positive correlation between birth rates and the financial situation of households. We described the financial situation of households by GDP per capita, gross wages and consumer price index. As expected a positive correlation was proved for GDP per capita and gross wages and negative dependence was proved for the consumer price index. In addition to these economic variables in the model there were used also demographic characteristics of the workforce and the number of employed people. It can be stated that if the Czech Republic wants to support an increase in the birth rate, it is necessary to consider the financial support for households with small children.

  16. Some factors affecting acceptance of family planning in Manus.

    PubMed

    Avue, B; Freeman, P

    1991-12-01

    This paper examines selected factors affecting the acceptance and delivery of modern family planning from health centres in Manus. A survey was carried out of mothers attending Maternal and Child Health clinics and a written questionnaire was given to health workers. The survey of mothers demonstrated the importance of the husband's approval for contraceptive practice and showed that knowledge about traditional methods of family planning is widespread. The health workers' questionnaire demonstrated a high level of dissatisfaction with the current family planning program delivered by health clinics: 45% found the program ineffective; 68% wrote that health workers' attitudes discouraged mothers from attending for family planning. The perceived and actual benefits and costs of children and the role of men should be assessed locally before planning future family planning programs. Widespread retraining and motivating of health workers is essential if improved coverage is to be achieved through health services. The efficacy of alternative methods of delivery of family planning such as local community-based and social marketing programs should also be investigated.

  17. Affective and cognitive factors influencing sensitivity to probabilistic information.

    PubMed

    Tyszka, Tadeusz; Sawicki, Przemyslaw

    2011-11-01

    In study 1 different groups of female students were randomly assigned to one of four probabilistic information formats. Five different levels of probability of a genetic disease in an unborn child were presented to participants (within-subject factor). After the presentation of the probability level, participants were requested to indicate the acceptable level of pain they would tolerate to avoid the disease (in their unborn child), their subjective evaluation of the disease risk, and their subjective evaluation of being worried by this risk. The results of study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that an experience-based probability format decreases the subjective sense of worry about the disease, thus, presumably, weakening the tendency to overrate the probability of rare events. Study 2 showed that for the emotionally laden stimuli, the experience-based probability format resulted in higher sensitivity to probability variations than other formats of probabilistic information. These advantages of the experience-based probability format are interpreted in terms of two systems of information processing: the rational deliberative versus the affective experiential and the principle of stimulus-response compatibility. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Factors affecting nurses' decision to get the flu vaccine.

    PubMed

    Shahrabani, Shosh; Benzion, Uri; Yom Din, Gregory

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to identify factors that influence the decision whether or not to get the influenza (flu) vaccine among nurses in Israel by using the health belief model (HBM). A questionnaire distributed among 299 nurses in Israel in winter 2005/2006 included (1) socio-demographic information; (2) variables based on the HBM, including susceptibility, seriousness, benefits, barriers and cues to action; and (3) knowledge about influenza and the vaccine, and health motivation. A probit model was used to analyze the data. In Israel, the significant HBM categories affecting nurses' decision to get a flu shot are the perceived benefits from vaccination and cues to action. In addition, nurses who are vaccinated have higher levels of (1) knowledge regarding the vaccine and influenza, (2) perceived seriousness of the illness, (3) perceived susceptibility, and (4) health motivation than do those who do not get the vaccine. Immunization of healthcare workers may reduce the risk of flu outbreaks in all types of healthcare facilities and reduce morbidity and mortality among high-risk patients. In order to increase vaccination rates among nurses, efforts should be made to educate them regarding the benefits of vaccination and the potential health consequences of influenza for their patients, and themselves.

  19. Bedside talc pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusion: factors affecting success.

    PubMed

    Aydogmus, Umit; Ozdemir, Servet; Cansever, Levent; Sonmezoglu, Yasar; Kocaturk, Celalettin Ibrahim; Bedirhan, Mehmet Ali

    2009-03-01

    To determine the factors affecting the success of bedside talc slurry (TS) used for symptomatic treatment of patients with malignant pleural effusion (MPE). Data of 113 effusions in 103 MPE patients treated between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively evaluated for the study. The study group involved 73 patients whose follow-up information was available out of 81 patients treated by TS. Causes of MPE were lung cancer in 22 patients (30.1%) and breast carcinoma in 21 patients (28.8%). The success rate of TS was significantly higher if the time period between radiological diagnosis of effusion and administration of TS was less than 30 days (P= .02), or spontaneous expansion was attained after chest tube drainage (CTD) (P= .01). Success rate was higher for patients with daily drainage of less than 200 ml before TS than patients with more than 200 ml of daily drainage (P= .01). Dose of talc, either 4 g or above (P= .34), primary cause of MPE (P= .53), time to termination of CTD (P= .57), amount of drainage when CTD was terminated (P= .23), and time period between CTD and administration of TS (P= .20) did not show a statistically significant effect on the success of TS. In the treatment of malignant pleural effusion, patients with daily drainage of less than 200 ml before TS developed less recurrence than patients with daily drainage of more than 200 ml. Longer time period between the diagnosis of MPE and onset of CTD increased recurrence.

  20. Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students.

    PubMed

    Aker, Servet; Şahin, Mustafa Kürşat; Sezgin, Serap; Oğuz, Gülay

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate psychosocial factors affecting smartphone addiction in university students. The study was performed among students at the Ondokuz Mayis University Samsun School of Health (Samsun, Turkey) on October-December 2015. Four hundred ninety-four students possessing smartphones and agreeing to participate were included. A sociodemographic data form produced by the authors and consisting of 10 questions was administered together with a questionnaire involving the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV), the Flourishing Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. The questionnaires were applied in a class environment at face-to-face interviews. SAS-SV scores of 6.47% of students were "significantly higher" than the participating group mean SAS-SV score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that depression, anxiety and insomnia, and familial social support statistically, significantly predicted smartphone addiction. Further studies of smartphone addiction in different age groups and with different educational levels are now needed.

  1. Haze variation in valley region its affecting factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yinge; Zhao, Aling; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shaoxiong; Dang, Caoni

    2018-02-01

    The haze has a great harm on the environment and human health. Based on the daily meteorological observation data including visibility, relative humidity, wind speed, temperature, air pollution index and weather record of Baoji region in China, and using least squares method, wavelet and correlation analysis method, the temporal and spatial characteristics of haze were analyzed. While the factors affecting the haze change were discussed. The results showed that the haze mainly occurs in plain areas, and in hilly areas and mountain the haze frequency is relatively small. Overall the annual average haze is decreasing, especially in winter and spring the reduction trend of haze is most obvious, however, in summer haze is increasing. The haze has a 5-year short period and 10-year and 15-year long-term cycles change. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between temperature and wind speed with haze, while the relative humidity was significantly positively correlated with haze. These studies provide the basis for atmospheric environmental monitor and management.

  2. Non-auditory factors affecting urban soundscape evaluation.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; Hong, Joo Young; Cabrera, Densil

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize urban spaces, which combine landscape, acoustics, and lighting, and to investigate people's perceptions of urban soundscapes through quantitative and qualitative analyses. A general questionnaire survey and soundwalk were performed to investigate soundscape perception in urban spaces. Non-auditory factors (visual image, day lighting, and olfactory perceptions), as well as acoustic comfort, were selected as the main contexts that affect soundscape perception, and context preferences and overall impressions were evaluated using an 11-point numerical scale. For qualitative analysis, a semantic differential test was performed in the form of a social survey, and subjects were also asked to describe their impressions during a soundwalk. The results showed that urban soundscapes can be characterized by soundmarks, and soundscape perceptions are dominated by acoustic comfort, visual images, and day lighting, whereas reverberance in urban spaces does not yield consistent preference judgments. It is posited that the subjective evaluation of reverberance can be replaced by physical measurements. The categories extracted from the qualitative analysis revealed that spatial impressions such as openness and density emerged as some of the contexts of soundscape perception. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  3. Factors affecting parental satisfaction following pediatric procedural sedation.

    PubMed

    Lew, Vincent K; Lalwani, Kirk; Palermo, Tonya M

    2010-02-01

    To investigate factors affecting parental satisfaction with a pediatric sedation service in a university hospital setting. Prospective, observational study with interviews using a survey instrument. Academic university hospital. Parents (or legal guardians; hereafter "parents") of 220 children scheduled for sedation with the hospital's pediatric sedation service. Caregivers of children scheduled for sedation were interviewed using a validated survey instrument. The instrument was designed to investigate the quality of communication, environment, care provided, and the overall experience. We followed patients by telephone the day after discharge. Chi-square or linear-by-linear association tests were used to evaluate associations between satisfaction scores and demographic variables; the Mann-Whitney test was used for mean levels of satisfaction in anxious versus non-anxious children. Of 222 parents approached, 220 agreed to participate (response rate = 99.1%). Significant associations between each area of satisfaction and parents' overall satisfaction existed (P < 0.001). Previous sedations, types of sedation, age of child, or any individual provider were not significantly associated with overall satisfaction. Caregivers of anxious children reported less satisfaction than caregivers of non-anxious children. Parents of children who underwent magnetic resonance imaging reported the lowest mean satisfaction scores. Overall satisfaction was high, and care provided by anesthesiologists was significantly associated with overall satisfaction. A site in our institution was associated with significantly lower satisfaction as a result of inadequate space and privacy.

  4. Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, Regina S.; Rodriguez, Rusty J.

    1994-01-01

    Factors affecting the efficient transformation of Colletotrichum species. Experimental Mycology, 18, 230-246. Twelve isolates representing four species of Colletotrichum were transformed either by enhanced protoplast, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI), or electroporation-mediated protocols. The enhanced protoplast transformation protocol resulted in 100- and 50-fold increases in the transformation efficiencies of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. magna , respectively. REMI transformation involved the use of Hin dIII and vector DNA linearized with HindIII to increase the number of integration events and potential gene disruptions in the fungal genome. Combining the enhanced protoplast and the REMI protocols resulted in a 22-fold increase in the number of hygromycin/nystatin-resistant mutants in C. lindemuthianum . Electroporation-mediated transformation was performed on mycelial fragments and spores of four Colletotrichum species, resulting in efficiencies of up to 1000 transformants/μg DNA. The pHA1.3 vector which confers hygromycin resistance contains telomeric sequences from Fusarium oxysporum , transforms by autonomous replication and genomic integration, and was essential for elevated transformation efficiencies of 100 to 10,000 transformants/μg DNA. Modifications of pHA1.3 occurred during bacterial amplification and post fungal transformation resulting in plasmids capable of significantly elevated transformation efficiencies in C. lindemuthianum.

  5. Factors affecting graded and ungraded memory loss following hippocampal lesions.

    PubMed

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Sekeres, Melanie J

    2013-11-01

    This review evaluates three current theories--Standard Consolidation (Squire & Wixted, 2011), Overshadowing (Sutherland, Sparks, & Lehmann, 2010), and Multiple Trace-Transformation (Winocur, Moscovitch, & Bontempi, 2010)--in terms of their ability to account for the role of the hippocampus in recent and remote memory in animals. Evidence, based on consistent findings from tests of spatial memory and memory for acquired food preferences, favours the transformation account, but this conclusion is undermined by inconsistent results from studies that measured contextual fear memory, probably the most commonly used test of hippocampal involvement in anterograde and retrograde memory. Resolution of this issue may depend on exercising greater control over critical factors (e.g., contextual environment, amount of pre-exposure to the conditioning chamber, the number and distribution of foot-shocks) that can affect the representation of the memory shortly after learning and over the long-term. Research strategies aimed at characterizing the neural basis of long-term consolidation/transformation, as well as other outstanding issues are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Factors Affecting the Habitability of Earth-like Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Victoria; NAI-Virtual Planetary Laboratory Team

    2014-03-01

    Habitability is a measure of an environment's potential to support life. For exoplanets, the concept of habitability can be used broadly - to inform our calculations of the possibility and distribution of life elsewhere - or as a practical tool to inform mission designs and to prioritize specific targets in the search for extrasolar life. Although a planet's habitability does depend critically on the effect of stellar type and planetary semi-major axis on climate balance, work in the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology has identified many additional factors that can affect a planet's environment and its potential ability to support life. Life requires material for metabolism and structures, a liquid medium for chemical transport, and an energy source to drive metabolism and other life processes. Whether a planet's surface or sub-surface can provide these requirements is the result of numerous planetary and astrophysical processes that affect the planet's formation and evolution. Many of these factors are interdependent, and fall into three main categories: stellar effects, planetary effects and planetary system effects. Key abiotic processes affecting the resultant planetary environment include photochemistry (e.g. Segura et al., 2003; 2005), stellar effects on climate balance (e.g. Joshii et al., 2012; Shields et al., 2013), atmospheric loss (e.g. Lopez and Fortney, 2013), and gravitational interactions with the star (e.g. Barnes et al., 2013). In many cases, the effect of these processes is strongly dependent on a specific planet's existing environmental properties. Examples include the resultant UV flux at a planetary surface as a product of stellar activity and the strength of a planet's atmospheric UV shield (Segura et al., 2010); and the amount of tidal energy available to a planet to drive plate tectonics and heat the surface (Barnes et al., 2009), which is in turn due to a combination of stellar mass, planetary mass and composition, planetary orbital

  7. Chronotype and personality factors of predisposition to seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Oginska-Bruchal, Katarzyna

    2014-05-01

    The study aimed to recognize the personality factors of a predisposition to seasonal mood fluctuations in a non-clinical sample. A group of 101 subjects (57 women, 44 men; mean age 26.4 ± 6.5 years) completed a battery of tests comprising a Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), Chronotype Questionnaire (ChQ), a NEO-Five Factor Inventory and a Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS). A smaller sample (n = 44) completed a Winter Blues Scale (WBS). Women scored significantly higher than men in seasonality (p = 0.014), neuroticism (p = 0.049), agreeableness (p = 0.010), and avoidance-oriented coping style (p = 0.041). Subjects with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) (n = 41) or sub-SAD (n = 33), as diagnosed with SPAQ, exhibited higher levels of neuroticism (p = 0.017) and openness (p = 0.016) in comparison to non-SAD individuals. The latter declared a less frequent avoidance coping style. Both measures of seasonality, i.e. the SPAQ Global Seasonality Score and WBS, correlated significantly (r = 0.28 and 0.44, respectively) with the subjective amplitude of the circadian rhythm, as described with the "distinctness" scale of ChQ. Female gender, neuroticism and openness were confirmed as factors linked to seasonal mood variability. Additionally, the study revealed an association between susceptibility to mild winter depression and an avoidance-oriented coping style. The avoidance coping style was correlated positively with all the aspects of seasonality described by SPAQ (correlation coefficients from 0.21 to 0.34). Both sub-types of avoidance-oriented style, i.e. distraction and social diversion, were associated with marked subjective seasonal changes in sleep length, mood and the energy level. While the subjective amplitude of circadian rhythm proved to be connected with seasonality, the subjective acrophase of the rhythm (morningness-eveningness preference) did not. It may be hypothesized that sensitivity

  8. Social cognition in schizophrenia: cognitive and affective factors.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Ido; Leiser, David; Levine, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition refers to how people conceive, perceive, and draw inferences about mental and emotional states of others in the social world. Previous studies suggest that the concept of social cognition involves several abilities, including those related to affect and cognition. The present study analyses the deficits of individuals with schizophrenia in two areas of social cognition: Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition and processing. Examining the impairment of these abilities in patients with schizophrenia has the potential to elucidate the neurophysiological regions involved in social cognition and may also have the potential to aid rehabilitation. Two experiments were conducted. Both included the same five tasks: first- and second-level false-belief ToM tasks, emotion inferencing, understanding of irony, and matrix reasoning (a WAIS-R subtest). The matrix reasoning task was administered to evaluate and control for the association of the other tasks with analytic reasoning skills. Experiment 1 involved factor analysis of the task performance of 75 healthy participants. Experiment 2 compared 30 patients with schizophrenia to an equal number of matched controls. Results. (1) The five tasks were clearly divided into two factors corresponding to the two areas of social cognition, ToM and emotion recognition and processing. (2) Schizophrenics' performance was impaired on all tasks, particularly on those loading heavily on the analytic component (matrix reasoning and second-order ToM). (3) Matrix reasoning, second-level ToM (ToM2), and irony were found to distinguish patients from controls, even when all other tasks that revealed significant impairment in the patients' performance were taken into account. The two areas of social cognition examined are related to distinct factors. The mechanism for answering ToM questions (especially ToM2) depends on analytic reasoning capabilities, but the difficulties they present to individuals with schizophrenia are due

  9. Iron Homeostasis and Nutritional Iron Deficiency123

    PubMed Central

    Theil, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Nonheme food ferritin (FTN) iron minerals, nonheme iron complexes, and heme iron contribute to the balance between food iron absorption and body iron homeostasis. Iron absorption depends on membrane transporter proteins DMT1, PCP/HCP1, ferroportin (FPN), TRF2, and matriptase 2. Mutations in DMT1 and matriptase-2 cause iron deficiency; mutations in FPN, HFE, and TRF2 cause iron excess. Intracellular iron homeostasis depends on coordinated regulation of iron trafficking and storage proteins encoded in iron responsive element (IRE)-mRNA. The noncoding IRE-mRNA structures bind protein repressors, IRP1 or 2, during iron deficiency. Integration of the IRE-RNA in translation regulators (near the cap) or turnover elements (after the coding region) increases iron uptake (DMT1/TRF1) or decreases iron storage/efflux (FTN/FPN) when IRP binds. An antioxidant response element in FTN DNA binds Bach1, a heme-sensitive transcription factor that coordinates expression among antioxidant response proteins like FTN, thioredoxin reductase, and quinone reductase. FTN, an antioxidant because Fe2+ and O2 (reactive oxygen species generators) are consumed to make iron mineral, is also a nutritional iron concentrate that is an efficiently absorbed, nonheme source of iron from whole legumes. FTN protein cages contain thousands of mineralized iron atoms and enter cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, an absorption mechanism distinct from transport of nonheme iron salts (ferrous sulfate), iron chelators (ferric-EDTA), or heme. Recognition of 2 nutritional nonheme iron sources, small and large (FTN), will aid the solution of iron deficiency, a major public health problem, and the development of new policies on iron nutrition. PMID:21346101

  10. Factors affecting health-related quality of life in Thai children with thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the factors associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with thalassemia is essential in developing more suitable clinical, counseling, and social support programs to improve treatment outcomes of these patients. In light of the limited research in this area, this study aims to examine factors associated with HRQOL among children and adolescents with thalassemia in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three selected hospitals in Thailand during June to November 2006. PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale (Thai version) was used to assess HRQOL in 315 thalassemia patients between 5 and 18 years of age. Other related clinical characteristics of the patients were collected via medical record review. Results The mean (SD) of the total summary score was 76.67 (11.40), while the means (SD) for the Physical Health Summary score and Psychosocial Health Summary score were 78.24 (14.77) and 75.54 (12.76), respectively. The school functioning subscale scored the lowest, with a mean of 67.89 (SD = 15.92). The following factors significantly affected the HRQOL of the patients: age; age at onset of anemia and age at first transfusion; pre-transfusion hemoglobin (Hb) level; receiving a blood transfusion during the previous three months; and disease severity. In addition, iron chelation therapy had a significant negative effect on HRQOL in the school functioning subscale. In contrast, serum ferritin level, frequency of blood transfusions per year, and gender were not significantly related to HRQOL among these patients. The results from multivariate analysis also confirmed these findings. Conclusions To improve HRQOL of thalassemia patients, suitable programs aimed at providing psychosocial support and a link between the patient, school officials, the family and the physician are important, especially in terms of improving the school functioning score. The findings also confirmed the importance of maintaining a pre

  11. Human likeness: cognitive and affective factors affecting adoption of robot-assisted learning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hosun; Kwon, Ohbyung; Lee, Namyeon

    2016-07-01

    With advances in robot technology, interest in robotic e-learning systems has increased. In some laboratories, experiments are being conducted with humanoid robots as artificial tutors because of their likeness to humans, the rich possibilities of using this type of media, and the multimodal interaction capabilities of these robots. The robot-assisted learning system, a special type of e-learning system, aims to increase the learner's concentration, pleasure, and learning performance dramatically. However, very few empirical studies have examined the effect on learning performance of incorporating humanoid robot technology into e-learning systems or people's willingness to accept or adopt robot-assisted learning systems. In particular, human likeness, the essential characteristic of humanoid robots as compared with conventional e-learning systems, has not been discussed in a theoretical context. Hence, the purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model to explain the process of adoption of robot-assisted learning systems. In the proposed model, human likeness is conceptualized as a combination of media richness, multimodal interaction capabilities, and para-social relationships; these factors are considered as possible determinants of the degree to which human cognition and affection are related to the adoption of robot-assisted learning systems.

  12. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    PubMed

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P < 0.05). USDA grade did not affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving

  13. Affect and Health Behavior Co-Occurrence: The Emerging Roles of Transdiagnostic Factors and Sociocultural Factors.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    The majority of scientific work addressing relations among affective states and health correlates has focused primarily on their co-occurrence and a limited range of health conditions. We have developed a Special Issue to highlight recent advances in this emerging field of work that addresses the nature and interplay between affective states and disorders, in terms of their impact and consequences from health status and behavior. This Special Issue is organized into three parts classified as (a) co-occurrence and interplay between (b) transdiagnostic factors and (c) sociocultural factors. It is hoped that this issue will (a) alert readers to the significance of this work at different levels of analysis, (b) illustrate the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches, and (c) identify fecund areas for future systematic study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Iron Deficiency and Obesity: The Contribution of Inflammation and Diminished Iron Absorption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    development of worldwide economies, iron defICiency continues to be the most prevalent single micronutrient deficiency disease in the world, affecting...al. Obesity-related hypoferremia is not explained by differences in reported intake of heme and nonheme iron or intake of dietary factors that can

  15. Factors Influencing the Diversity of Iron Uptake Systems in Aquatic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Dhwani K.; Desai, Falguni D.; LaRoche, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for many processes in all living cells. Dissolved Fe (dFe) concentrations in the ocean are of the order of a few nM, and Fe is often a factor limiting primary production. Bioavailability of Fe in aquatic environments is believed to be primarily controlled through chelation by Fe-binding ligands. Marine microbes have evolved different mechanisms to cope with the scarcity of bioavailable dFe. Gradients in dFe concentrations and diversity of the Fe-ligand pool from coastal to open ocean waters have presumably imposed selection pressures that should be reflected in the genomes of microbial communities inhabiting the pelagic realm. We applied a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based search for proteins related to cellular iron metabolism, and in particular those involved in Fe uptake mechanisms in 164 microbial genomes belonging to diverse taxa and occupying different aquatic niches. A multivariate statistical approach demonstrated that in phototrophic organisms, there is a clear influence of the ecological niche on the diversity of Fe uptake systems. Extending the analyses to the metagenome database from the Global Ocean Sampling expedition, we demonstrated that the Fe uptake and homeostasis mechanisms differed significantly across marine niches defined by temperatures and dFe concentrations, and that this difference was linked to the distribution of microbial taxa in these niches. Using the dN/dS ratios (which signify the rate of non-synonymous mutations) of the nucleotide sequences, we identified that genes encoding for TonB, Ferritin, Ferric reductase, IdiA, ZupT, and Fe2+ transport proteins FeoA and FeoB were evolving at a faster rate (positive selection pressure) while genes encoding ferrisiderophore, heme and Vitamin B12 uptake systems, siderophore biosynthesis, and IsiA and IsiB were under purifying selection pressure (evolving slowly). PMID:23087680

  16. Infant Iron Deficiency, Child Affect, and Maternal Unresponsiveness: Testing the Long-Term Effects of Functional Isolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia; Lozoff, Betsy; Blanco, Estela; Delker, Erin; Delva, Jorge; Encina, Pamela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    Children who are iron deficient (ID) or iron-deficient anemic (IDA) have been shown to seek and receive less stimulation from their caregivers, contributing to "functional isolation". Over time, the reduced interactions between child and caregiver are thought to interfere with the acquisition of normative social competencies and…

  17. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide do not affect iron absorption from formula in healthy term infants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron absorption from infant formula is relatively low. Alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide have been suggested to enhance mineral absorption. We therefore assessed the effect of alpha-lactalbumin and casein-glycomacropeptide on iron absorption from infant formula in healthy term infants. ...

  18. Milk peptides increase iron solubility in water but do not affect DMT-1 expression in Caco-2 cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In vitro digestion of milk produces peptide fractions that enhance iron uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our objectives were to investigate whether these fractions a) exert their effect by increasing relative gene expression of DMT-1 in Caco-2 cells b) enhance iron dialyzability when added in meals. Peptid...

  19. Factors affecting stall use for different freestall bases.

    PubMed

    Wagner-Storch, A M; Palmer, R W; Kammel, D W

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare stall use (stall occupancy and cow position) by barn side for factors affecting stall use. A closed circuit television system recorded stall use four times per day for a 9-mo period starting May 9, 2001. Six factors were analyzed: stall base, distance to water, stall location within stall base section, stall location within barn, inside barn temperature, and length of time cows were exposed to stall bases. Two barn sides with different stocking densities were analyzed: low (66%), with cows milked by robotic milker; and high (100%), with cows milked 2X in parlor. Six stall base types were tested: two mattresses, a waterbed, a rubber mat, concrete, and sand (high side only). The base types were grouped 3 to 7 stalls/section and randomly placed in each row. Cows spent more time in mattress-based stalls, but the highest percentage lying was in sand-based stalls. The following significant stall occupancy percentages were found: sand had the highest percentage of cows lying on the high stocking density side (69%), followed by mattress type 1 (65%) > mattress type 2 (57%) > waterbed (45%) > rubber mat (33%) > concrete (23%). Mattress type 1 had the highest percentage stalls occupied (88%), followed by mattress type 2 (84%) > sand (79%) > soft rubber mat (65%) > waterbed (62%) > concrete (39%). On the low stocking rate side, mattress type 1 had the highest percentage cows lying (45%) and occupied (59.6%), followed by mattress type 2 > waterbed > soft rubber mat > concrete. Cow lying and stalls occupied percentages were highest for stalls 1) not at the end of a section, and 2) on the outside row, and varied by base type for time cows exposed to stalls and inside barn temperature. Lying and occupied percentages were different for different mattress types. The percentage of stalls with cows standing was higher for mat and mattress-based stalls. Results show mattress type 1 and sand to be superior and rubber mats and concrete inferior

  20. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Powdered Drug Reconstitution in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Johnston, Smith; Marshburn, Tom

    1999-01-01

    standard pharmacological supplies. The experiment included a parametric assessment of possible factors affecting the reconstitution process. The specific questions that we wished to answer were: (1) Is it possible to reconstitute powdered drugs in weightlessness using standard pharmacological equipment? (2) What are the differences between drug reconstitution in a 1-G and a 0-G environment? (3) What techniques of mixing the drug powder and diluent are more successful? (4) What physical and chemical factors play a role in determining the success of mixing and dissolution? (5) Is it necessary to employ crewmember and equipment restraints during the reconstitution process?

  1. Agricultural factors affecting Fusarium communities in wheat kernels.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Ida; Friberg, Hanna; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula

    2017-07-03

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical distance and the wheat cultivar grown. We characterised the Fusarium community in harvested wheat kernels using 454 sequencing of translation elongation factor 1-α amplicons. In addition, we quantified Fusarium spp. using real-time PCR to reveal differences in biomass between fields. We identified 12 Fusarium operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a median of 4.5 OTUs per field. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant species, while F. avenaceum had the highest occurrence. The abundance of Fusarium spp. ranged two orders of magnitude between fields. Two pairs of Fusarium species co-occurred between fields: F. poae with F. tricinctum and F. culmorum with F. sporotrichoides. We could not detect any difference in Fusarium communities between the organic and conventional systems. However, agricultural intensity, measured as the number of pesticide applications and the amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied, had an

  2. Factors affecting bone mineral density in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Behzad; Hosseini, Reza; Javadian, Yahya; Bijani, Ali; Sateri, Mohammad Hassan; Nouroddini, Haj Ghorban

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between bone mineral density (BMD) and demographic, biochemical, and clinical features according to BMD measurement sites. The results indicated that BMD correlates negatively with menopause duration, parity, and history of fractures but positively correlates with obesity, physical activity, education, and serum ferritin. Osteoporosis (OP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly people. The impacts of various factors on bone mineral density (BMD) differ across diverse population. We hypothesized that the influences of factors which affect BMD vary according to BMD measurement sites. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between BMD in the femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) with some common clinical, demographic, and biochemical parameters in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional case-control study, all postmenopausal women of the Amirkola Health and Ageing Project (AHAP) who performed bone densitometry were included. BMD at FN and LS was measured by DXA method. Data regarding clinical, demographic, and biochemical characteristics were provided. OP was diagnosed by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry criteria. Pearson correlation and multivariate regression analyses with simultaneous adjustment were performed to determine relationship. Five hundred thirty-seven women with mean age of 67.9 ± 6.7 years and mean menopause duration (MD) of 15.8 ± 5.1 years were studied. MD correlated negatively with FN-BMD and LS-BMD g/cm(2) (r = -0.405, p = 0.001 and r = -0.217, p = 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with FN and LS-BMD g/cm(2) (r = 0.397, p = 0.001 and r = 0.311, p = 0.001). The association of MD with risk of FN-OP was stronger than LS-OP. Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) and higher serum ferritin reduced the risk of OP at both LS and FN similarly, whereas the impacts of parity, prior fracture, high level of education, and physical

  3. Factors affecting patients' adherence to orthodontic appointments.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Omair M; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Tavares, Mary

    2016-03-01

    Studies show that attendance at orthodontic appointments affects treatment outcomes, treatment duration, and the probability of side effects. The aim of this study was to predict factors that influence patients' attendance at orthodontic appointments. We conducted a face-to-face guided interview survey of 153 participants from orthodontic clinics in the Greater Boston area. Attendance at scheduled orthodontic appointments was self-reported as always, sometimes, or rarely. Participants' characteristics, including demographics, dental insurance, and oral hygiene practices, were self-reported. Moreover, from dental records, we collected the time that the participants spent undergoing active orthodontic treatment. Multivariable ordered logistic regression was used to report proportional odds ratios and attendance probabilities. A likelihood ratio test was performed to ensure that the proportional odds assumption held. For overall appointment attendance, 76% of the participants reported always attending, 16% reported sometimes attending, and 8% reported rarely attending. Based on multivariable logistic regression (adjusted for age, race, and sex), the participants with optimal oral hygiene practices were almost 6 times (5.9) more likely to attend appointments than those who did not (P = 0.002). The odds of attending appointments decreased significantly (by 23%) for every 6-month increase in treatment duration (P = 0.008). Participants covered by non-Medicaid insurance were 4 times (P = 0.018) more likely to attend appointments than were those with Medicaid insurance. Our findings indicate that adherence to orthodontic treatment follow-up visits was strongly correlated to insurance type, treatment duration, and oral hygiene practices. Unlike previous studies, sex was not a significant predictor of adherence. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors affecting members' evaluation of agri-business ventures' effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Mahmoud; Hedjazi, Yousef

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents work to identify factors affecting effectiveness of agri-business ventures (A-BVs) on the side of providers as perceived by their members. A survey was conducted among 95 members of A-BVs in Zanjan province, Iran. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed. Two distinct groups of A-BVs with low (group 1) and high (group 2) perceived (evaluated) levels of effectiveness were revealed. The study showed that there were significant differences between the two groups on important characteristics of A-BVs and their members. The study also found that there were statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' governance structure and capacity, management and organization characteristics and the perceived effectiveness, whereas there were no statistically significant relationships between A-BVs' advisory methods characteristic applied by members and the perceived effectiveness. Logistic regression results also showed that level of application of rules encouraging members' active participation in important decision makings, clear terms of reference to guide contracting procedures, roles, and responsibilities of parties involved, type of people served and geographical area of program coverage, and members' ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) were predictors of the perceived (evaluated) effectiveness of A-BVs. The study showed that evaluation of members of effectiveness of A-BVs would not be the same. It is suggested that Iranian public agricultural extension organization, as responsible organization for monitoring and evaluating services conducted by A-BVs, considered these differences between members with different levels of some important variables. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren and affecting factors].

    PubMed

    Giray, Hatice; Keskinoğlu, Pembe

    2006-01-01

    This study was carried out in order to determine the factors affecting the presence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren. This investigation was a cross-sectional and analytic study. The dependent variable was the presence of parasites and the independent variables were the characteristics of the children, families, houses, toilets and drinking water. A stool specimen was taken in the morning using the cellophane tape method, and examined the same day by microscopy. Data were evaluated using the Chi square test and logistic regression analysis and p < 0.05 was accepted as being statistically significant. There were 529 students in the kindergarten and 1-5 classes in the Isikkent and Sait Guzelcan primary schools in the region of the Isikkent Health Center in Izmir. However specimens could only be obtained from 477 (90.2%) students. The mean age of children was 8.6+/-2.0 years. The number of residents in their homes averaged 5.4+/-2.0, the average number of children in the homes was 3.2+/-1.9 and 290 (60.8%) houses were single dwellings. The source for piped water in 404 houses (84.7%) was the city network, and there were modern sanitary facilities (toilets) in 377 (70.6%) houses. Enterobius vermicularis was found in 209 (43.8%) children. According to logistic regression analyses, the rate of Enterobius vermicularis was found to be 3.05 times higher in students from the Sait Guzelcan primary school, if there were more than 6 residents in the home 2.05 times even higher and 2.02 times still higher if there were no sanitary facilities at his/her home. When there was a history of parasites in the family, the risk was significantly decreased. The prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in schoolchildren was higher in slum areas, in crowded homes and in those that lacked modern sanitary facilities.

  6. Reconstruction in oral malignancy: Factors affecting morbidity of various procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Suvadip; Chakrabarti, Preeti Rihal; Desai, Sanjay M.; Agrawal, Deepak; Mehta, Dharmendra Y.; Pancholi, Mayank

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Objective: (1) To study the age and sex distribution of patient with oral malignancies. (2) To analyze various types of surgery performed. (3) Evaluation of reconstruction and factors affecting complications and its relation to the type of reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Cases of oral malignancies, undergoing surgery for the same in Sri Aurobindo Medical College and PG Institute, Indore from the period from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2015. Results: Out of analysis of 111 cases of oral malignancy, 31 (27.9%) cases were in the fifth decade of life with male to female ratio 1.9:1. The commonest site of cancer was buccal mucosa. Forty-seven cases (43.2%) were in stage IVa. Diabetes was the most common co-morbidity reported, accounting for 53.9% of cases with reported morbidity. Tobacco chewing was the common entity in personal habits. All the cases underwent neck dissection along with resection of the primary. Hemimandibulectomy was the most preferred form of primary resection accounting for 53.15% (59 cases), followed by wide resection of primary 27% (30 cases). Pectoralis major myocutaneous (PMMC) flap only was the most common reconstruction across the study population. PMMC alone accounted for 38.7% (43 cases). The infection rate was 16.21%. PMMC alone accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. PMMC + deltopectoral accounted for 5 out of 18 (27.8%) of total infection rate, and 4.5% of the total study population. Conclusion: PMMC is a major workhorse for reconstruction with better functional outcome and acceptance among operated patients. PMID:26981469

  7. Factors affecting the pullout strength of cancellous bone screws.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J R; Harrington, R M; Lee, K M; Anderson, P A; Tencer, A F; Kowalski, D

    1996-08-01

    Screws placed into cancellous bone in orthopedic surgical applications, such as fixation of fractures of the femoral neck or the lumbar spine, can be subjected to high loads. Screw pullout is a possibility, especially if low density osteoporotic bone is encountered. The overall goal of this study was to determine how screw thread geometry, tapping, and cannulation affect the holding power of screws in cancellous bone and determine whether current designs achieve maximum purchase strength. Twelve types of commercially available cannulated and noncannulated cancellous bone screws were tested for pullout strength in rigid unicellular polyurethane foams of apparent densities and shear strengths within the range reported for human cancellous bone. The experimentally derived pullout strength was compared to a predicted shear failure force of the internal threads formed in the polyurethane foam. Screws embedded in porous materials pullout by shearing the internal threads in the porous material. Experimental pullout force was highly correlated to the predicted shear failure force (slope = 1.05, R2 = 0.947) demonstrating that it is controlled by the major diameter of the screw, the length of engagement of the thread, the shear strength of the material into which the screw is embedded, and a thread shape factor (TSF) which accounts for screw thread depth and pitch. The average TSF for cannulated screws was 17 percent lower than that of noncannulated cancellous screws, and the pullout force was correspondingly less. Increasing the TSF, a result of decreasing thread pitch or increasing thread depth, increases screw purchase strength in porous materials. Tapping was found to reduce pullout force by an average of 8 percent compared with nontapped holes (p = 0.0001). Tapping in porous materials decreases screw pullout strength because the removal of material by the tap enlarges hole volume by an average of 27 percent, in effect decreasing the depth and shear area of the internal

  8. Factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Bilotto, Luigi; Loughman, James

    2015-06-01

    The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of

  9. Iron Enhances Hepatic Fibrogenesis and Activates Transforming Growth Factor-β Signaling in Murine Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Kosha J; Coombes, Jason D; Briones-Orta, Marco; Manka, Paul P; Williams, Roger; Patel, Vinood B; Syn, Wing-Kin

    2018-02-01

    Although excess iron induces oxidative stress in the liver, it is unclear whether it directly activates the hepatic stellate cells (HSC). We evaluated the effects of excess iron on fibrogenesis and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in murine HSC. Cells were treated with holotransferrin (0.005-5g/L) for 24 hours, with or without the iron chelator deferoxamine (10µM). Gene expressions (α-SMA, Col1-α1, Serpine-1, TGF-β, Hif1-α, Tfrc and Slc40a1) were analyzed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction, whereas TfR1, ferroportin, ferritin, vimentin, collagen, TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 proteins were evaluated by immunofluorescence, Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HSC expressed the iron-uptake protein transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) and the iron-export protein ferroportin. Holotransferrin upregulated TfR1 expression by 1.8-fold (P < 0.03) and ferritin accumulation (iron storage) by 2-fold (P < 0.01), and activated HSC with 2-fold elevations (P < 0.03) in α-SMA messenger RNA and collagen secretion, and a 1.6-fold increase (P < 0.01) in vimentin protein. Moreover, holotransferrin activated the TGF-β pathway with TGF-β messenger RNA elevated 1.6-fold (P = 0.05), and protein levels of TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 increased by 1.8-fold (P < 0.01) and 1.6-fold (P < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, iron chelation decreased ferritin levels by 30% (P < 0.03), inhibited collagen secretion by 60% (P < 0.01), repressed fibrogenic genes α-SMA (0.2-fold; P < 0.05) and TGF-β (0.4-fold; P < 0.01) and reduced levels of TGF-β RII and phospho-Smad2 proteins. HSC express iron-transport proteins. Holotransferrin (iron) activates HSC fibrogenesis and the TGF-β pathway, whereas iron depletion by chelation reverses this, suggesting that this could be a useful adjunct therapy for patients with fibrosis. Further studies in primary human HSC and animal models are necessary to confirm this. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Increased optical contrast in imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor using magnetically actuated hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaron, Jesse S.; Oh, Junghwan; Larson, Timothy A.; Kumar, Sonia; Milner, Thomas E.; Sokolov, Konstantin V.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a new approach for optical imaging that combines the advantages of molecularly targeted plasmonic nanoparticles and magnetic actuation. This combination is achieved through hybrid nanoparticles with an iron oxide core surrounded by a gold layer. The nanoparticles are targeted in-vitro to epidermal growth factor receptor, a common cancer biomarker. The gold portion resonantly scatters visible light giving a strong optical signal and the superparamagnetic core provides a means to externally modulate the optical signal. The combination of bright plasmon resonance scattering and magnetic actuation produces a dramatic increase in contrast in optical imaging of cells labeled with hybrid gold/iron oxide nanoparticles.

  11. Splicing factor SR34b mutation reduces cadmium tolerance in Arabidopsis by regulating iron-regulated transporter 1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wentao; Du, Bojing; Liu, Di

    Highlights: • Arabidopsis splicing factor SR34b gene is cadmium-inducible. • SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant is sensitive to cadmium due to high cadmium uptake. • SR34b is a regulator of cadmium transporter IRT1 at the posttranscription level. • These results highlight the roles of splicing factors in cadmium tolerance of plant. - Abstract: Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are important splicing factors. However, the biological functions of plant SR proteins remain unclear especially in abiotic stresses. Cadmium (Cd) is a non-essential element that negatively affects plant growth and development. In this study, we provided clear evidence for SR gene involved in Cd tolerancemore » in planta. Systemic expression analysis of 17 Arabidopsis SR genes revealed that SR34b is the only SR gene upregulated by Cd, suggesting its potential roles in Arabidopsis Cd tolerance. Consistent with this, a SR34b T-DNA insertion mutant (sr34b) was moderately sensitive to Cd, which had higher Cd{sup 2+} uptake rate and accumulated Cd in greater amounts than wild-type. This was due to the altered expression of iron-regulated transporter 1 (IRT1) gene in sr34b mutant. Under normal growth conditions, IRT1 mRNAs highly accumulated in sr34b mutant, which was a result of increased stability of IRT1 mRNA. Under Cd stress, however, sr34b mutant plants had a splicing defect in IRT1 gene, thus reducing the IRT1 mRNA accumulation. Despite of this, sr34b mutant plants still constitutively expressed IRT1 proteins under Cd stress, thereby resulting in Cd stress-sensitive phenotype. We therefore propose the essential roles of SR34b in posttranscriptional regulation of IRT1 expression and identify it as a regulator of Arabidopsis Cd tolerance.« less

  12. Excess iron intake as a factor in growth, infections, and development of infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2017-12-01

    The provision of iron via supplementation or the fortification of foods has been shown to be effective in preventing and treating iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in infants and young children. However, iron is a pro-oxidative element and can have negative effects on biological systems even at moderate amounts. An increasing number of studies have reported adverse effects of iron that was given to infants and young-children populations who initially were iron replete. These effects include decreased growth (both linear growth and weight), increased illness (usually diarrhea), interactions with other trace elements such as copper and zinc, altered gut microbiota to more pathogenic bacteria, increased inflammatory markers, and impaired cognitive and motor development. If these results can be confirmed by larger and well-controlled studies, it may have considerable programmatic implications (e.g., the necessity to screen for iron status before interventions to exclude iron-replete individuals). A lack of understanding of the mechanisms underlying these adverse outcomes limits our ability to modify present supplementation and fortification strategies. This review summarizes studies on the adverse effects of iron on various outcomes; suggests possible mechanisms that may explain these observations, which are usually made in clinical studies and intervention trials; and gives examples from animal models and in vitro studies. With a better understanding of these mechanisms, it may be possible to find novel ways of providing iron in a form that causes fewer or no adverse effects even when subjects are iron replete. However, it is apparent that our understanding is limited, and research in this area is urgently needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. The glucose sensor Snf1 and the transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4 regulate transcription of the vacuolar iron importer gene CCC1 and iron resistance in yeast.

    PubMed

    Li, Liangtao; Kaplan, Jerry; Ward, Diane M

    2017-09-15

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae stores iron in the vacuole, which is a major resistance mechanism against iron toxicity. One key protein involved in vacuolar iron storage is the iron importer Ccc1, which facilitates iron entry into the vacuole. Transcription of the CCC1 gene is largely regulated by the binding of iron-sulfur clusters to the activator domain of the transcriptional activator Yap5. Additional evidence, however, suggests that Yap5-independent transcriptional activation of CCC1 also contributes to iron resistance. Here, we demonstrate that components of the signaling pathway involving the low-glucose sensor Snf1 regulate CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. We found that SNF1 deletion acts synergistically with YAP5 deletion to regulate CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. A kinase-dead mutation of Snf1 lowered iron resistance as did deletion of SNF4 , which encodes a partner protein of Snf1. Deletion of all three alternative partners of Snf1 encoded by SIT1 , SIT2 , and GAL83 decreased both CCC1 transcription and iron resistance. The Snf1 complex is known to activate the general stress transcription factors Msn2 and Msn4. We show that Msn2 and Msn4 contribute to Snf1-mediated CCC1 transcription. Of note, SNF1 deletion in combination with MSN2 and MSN4 deletion resulted in additive effects on CCC1 transcription, suggesting that other activators contribute to the regulation of CCC1 transcription. In conclusion, we show that yeast have developed multiple transcriptional mechanisms to regulate Ccc1 expression and to protect against high cytosolic iron toxicity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Family Factors Affecting Retention: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    leadership has begun to recognize that career and reenlistment decisions are often family decisions, research incorporating family factors have...tentative links among these factors and between these factors and retention. There is much to be learned in order to provide Army leadership with the...questions are tied to key policy questions that Army leadership has asked of the AFRP. Rsac QLuestions: 1. What family factors inmact on retention? 2

  15. Environmental and genetic factors affecting cow survival of Israeli Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2015-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of various environmental factors that may affect herd-life of Israeli Holsteins, including first-calving age and season, calving ease, number of progeny born, and service sire for first calving in complete and truncated records; and to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between herd-life and the other traits included in the Israeli breeding index. The basic data set consisted of 590,869 cows in milk recording herds with first freshening day between 1985 and at least 8 yr before the cut-off date of September 15, 2013. Herd-life was measured as days from first calving to culling. The phenotypic and genetic trends for herd-life were 5.7 and 16.8d/yr. The genetic trend was almost linear, whereas the phenotypic trend showed 4 peaks and 3 valleys. Cows born in February and March had the shortest herd-life, whereas cows born in September had the longest herd-life. Herd-life was maximal with calving age of 23mo, which is 1mo less than the mean calving age, and minimal at 19 and 31mo of calving age. Dystocia and twinning on first-parity calving reduced herd-life by approximately180 and 120d, but the interaction effect increased herd-life by 140d. Heritability for herd-life was 0.14. Despite the fact that the service sire effect was significant in the fixed model analysis, service sire effect accounted for <0.05% of the total variance. In the analysis of 1,431,938 truncated records, the effects of dystocia and twinning rate were very similar but less than 50% of the effects found in the analysis of complete records. Pregnancy at the truncation date increased expected herd-life by 432d. The correlation between actual herd-life and predicted herd-life based on truncated records was 0.44. Genetic correlations between the truncated records and actual herd-life were 0.75 for records truncated after 6mo but approached unity for records truncated after 3 yr. The genetic correlations of herd-life with first-parity milk

  16. A Qualitative Study on Organizational Factors Affecting Occupational Accidents.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Davood; Jafari, Mohammad Javad; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Kian, Mostafa Pouya; Charkhand, Hossein; Mirghotbi, Mostafa

    2017-03-01

    Technical, human, operational and organizational factors have been influencing the sequence of occupational accidents. Among them, organizational factors play a major role in causing occupational accidents. The aim of this research was to understand the Iranian safety experts' experiences and perception of organizational factors. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 safety experts working in Iranian universities and industries and analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method using the MAXQDA software. Eleven organizational factors' sub-themes were identified: management commitment, management participation, employee involvement, communication, blame culture, education and training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system. The participants considered these factors as effective on occupational accidents. The mentioned 11 organizational factors are probably involved in occupational accidents in Iran. Naturally, improving organizational factors can increase the safety performance and reduce occupational accidents.

  17. Reducing behavioural risk factors for cancer: An affect regulation perspective.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Daniel; Suri, Gaurav; Gross, James J

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of all cancer deaths are attributable to preventable causes, primarily unhealthy behaviours such as tobacco use, alcohol use and overeating. In this review, we argue that people engage in these behaviours, at least in part, as a means of regulating their affective states. To better understand why people engage in these behaviours and how researchers might design interventions to promote the selection of healthier methods for regulating affect, we propose a conceptual model of affect regulation. We synthesise research from both the stress and coping tradition as well as the emotion and emotion regulation tradition, two literatures that are not typically integrated. In so doing, we indicate where researchers have made headway in understanding these behaviours as affect regulation and note how our model could be used to structure future work in a way that would be particularly advantageous to cancer control efforts.

  18. A Qualitative Study on Organizational Factors Affecting Occupational Accidents

    PubMed Central

    ESKANDARI, Davood; JAFARI, Mohammad Javad; MEHRABI, Yadollah; KIAN, Mostafa Pouya; CHARKHAND, Hossein; MIRGHOTBI, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technical, human, operational and organizational factors have been influencing the sequence of occupational accidents. Among them, organizational factors play a major role in causing occupational accidents. The aim of this research was to understand the Iranian safety experts’ experiences and perception of organizational factors. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 by using the content analysis technique. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 17 safety experts working in Iranian universities and industries and analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method using the MAXQDA software. Results: Eleven organizational factors’ sub-themes were identified: management commitment, management participation, employee involvement, communication, blame culture, education and training, job satisfaction, interpersonal relationship, supervision, continuous improvement, and reward system. The participants considered these factors as effective on occupational accidents. Conclusion: The mentioned 11 organizational factors are probably involved in occupational accidents in Iran. Naturally, improving organizational factors can increase the safety performance and reduce occupational accidents. PMID:28435824

  19. 75 FR 80114 - Agency Information Collection (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... (Obligation To Report Factors Affecting Entitlement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Report Factors Affecting Entitlement (38 CFR 3.204(a)(1), 38 CFR 3.256(a) and 38 CFR 3.277(b)). OMB... benefits must report changes in their entitlement factors. Individual factors such as income, marital...

  20. Factors influencing lead and iron release from some Egyptian drinking water pipes.

    PubMed

    Lasheen, M R; Sharaby, C M; El-Kholy, N G; Elsherif, I Y; El-Wakeel, S T

    2008-12-30

    The major objective of this study is to assess the effect of stagnation time, pipe age, pipes material and water quality parameters such as pH, alkalinity and chloride to sulfate mass ratio on lead and iron release from different types of water pipes used in Egypt namely polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and galvanized iron (GI), by using fill and dump method. Low pH increased lead and iron release from pipes. Lead and iron release decreased as pH and alkalinity increased. Lead and iron release increased with increasing chloride to sulfate mass ratio in all pipes. EDTA was used as an example of natural organic matter which may be influence metals release. It is found that lead and iron release increased then this release decreased with time. In general, GI pipes showed to be the most effected by water quality parameters tested and the highest iron release. PVC pipes are the most lead releasing pipes while PP pipes are the least releasing.

  1. Factors affecting the recognition of faults exposed in exploratory trenches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonilla, Manuel G.; Lienkaemper, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Trenching-a widely used method for evaluating fault activity-has limitations that can mislead investigators. Some segments of fault strands in trench walls may not be visible, and this nonvisibility can lead to incorrect interpretations of time of most recent displacement and recurrence intervals on a fault. We examined the logs of 163 trench exposures and tabulated data on more than 1,200 fault strands to investigate three categories of nonvisibility: (1) strands with obscure (invisible or poorly visible) segments, (2) strands that die out upward, and (3) strands that die out downward. About 14 percent of all the strands have obscure segments. Of the 143 strands on which it is possible to recognize dieout up (limited to strands for which position of ground surface at time of faulting is known), 45 percent do die out upward, and the fraction exceeds 70 percent for strike-slip and reverse faults. Thus a fault strand overlain by an apparently undisturbed deposit is not necessarily older than the deposit. More than 30 percent of all the strands die out downward, providing more evidence that fault strands can end for reasons other than being covered by deposits younger than the fault. Analysis of trench-log data revealed various relations between geologic factors and nonvisibility of fault strands. For example, fault type affects the incidence of nonvisibility, which is generally most common on strike-slip faults, less common on reverse faults, and least common on normal fau Its. The type of material penetrated by the fault also influences nonvisibility, which tends to be more common in soil horizons and sand, and less common in gravel. Dieout down is weakly influenced by fault displacement, decreasing in frequency with increase in displacement; the frequencies of obscure segments and dieout up do not vary consistently with fault displacement. Frequency of obscure segments generally decreases with increase in length of obscure segments, and frequency of dieout up

  2. An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Honors Program Completion Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Hallie; Raehsler, Rod D.; Fiedor, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important issues in any educational environment is identifying factors that promote academic success. A plethora of research on such factors exists across most academic fields, involving a wide range of student demographics, and the definition of student success varies across the range of studies published. The analysis in this…

  3. Factors Affecting EWS-FLI1 Activity in Ewing's Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Herrero-Martin, David; Fourtouna, Argyro; Niedan, Stephan; Riedmann, Lucia T.; Schwentner, Raphaela; Aryee, Dave N. T.

    2011-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) are characterized by specific chromosomal translocations, which give rise to EWS-ETS chimeric proteins. These aberrant transcription factors are the main pathogenic drivers of ESFT. Elucidation of the factors influencing EWS-ETS expression and/or activity will guide the development of novel therapeutic agents against this fatal disease. PMID:22135504

  4. Classroom Factors Affecting Students: Self-Evaluation: An Interactional Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Hermine H.; Weinstein, Rhona S.

    1984-01-01

    A complex interactional model of classroom factors that contribute to the development of students' self-evaluations is presented. Factors described are: (1) task structure; (2) grouping practices; (3) feedback and evaluation procedures and information about ability; (4) motivational strategies; (5) locus of responsibility for learning; and (6) the…

  5. SYNOPSIS OF DISCUSSION SESSION ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL FACTORS AFFECTING TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. or each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. limitations in the empiri...

  6. Examining Factors That Affect Students' Knowledge Sharing within Virtual Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Jinxia; Gunter, Glenda

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that might impact student knowledge sharing within virtual teams through online discussion boards. These factors include: trust, mutual influence, conflict, leadership, and cohesion. A path model was developed to determine whether relationships exist among knowledge sharing from asynchronous group…

  7. Digital Textbooks: A Study of Factors Affecting College Student Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barajas-Murphy, Noreen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative research study was to examine the factors that influence students' intentions to continue to use digital texts. Specifically, the purpose was to investigate what impact the external factors of instructor modeling and instructor expectation to use had on the intention to continue to use digital textbooks as…

  8. Factors Affecting Participation of Preservice Teachers in E-Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendag, Serkan; Toker, Sacip

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal the factors associated with the participation of preservice teachers in e-democracy. It was designed as a correlational study and 1,519 preservice teachers from a teacher preparation program in Turkey participated in it by completing a 54-item questionnaire. As a result, three major factors for involvement in e-democracy…

  9. Cognitive Factors Affecting Student Understanding of Geologic Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodick, Jeff; Orion, Nir

    2003-01-01

    Presents a model that describes how students reconstruct geological transformations over time. Defines the critical factors influencing reconstructive thinking: (1) the transformation scheme, which influences the other diachronic schemes; (2) knowledge of geological processes; and (3) extracognitive factors. (Author/KHR)

  10. Factors Affecting Teacher Satisfaction in an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpert, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish factors that influence the satisfaction levels of teachers in urban school districts. This work also distinguished factors that directly impacted teachers' level of satisfaction towards their work and their attitude towards the administration of their schools. Forty-one teachers from two kindergarten…

  11. [Factors affecting the localization of joints in rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Keitel, W; Wellmann, C; Gedschold, A; Wille, R

    1981-03-15

    For testing a possible connection between the localization of a joint and anthropometric data in rheumatoid arthritis the numbers of a maximum and minimum affection in the region of the hand were at first determined. Former findings of a more frequent participation of the right hand could be confirmed. In the region of the distal skeleton of the hand the changes were to be found more radially, in the proximal parts more frequently ulnarly. Examinations concerning the influence of the breadth, length and angular measures of the hand showed above all connections of the affection of the joints with the breadth of the hand. An influence of measures and indices of the body on the frequency of the affection of peripheral joints could statistically ascertained only for few of the constellations examined. Future investigations shall take into consideration the regional vessel and nerve supply, shall issue from homogeneous groups of test persons and shall be performed with other methods of evaluation.

  12. Risk factors affecting survival in heart transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Almenar, L; Cardo, M L; Martínez-Dolz, L; García-Palomar, C; Rueda, J; Zorio, E; Arnau, M A; Osa, A; Palencia, M

    2005-11-01

    Certain cardiovascular risk factors have been linked to morbidity and mortality in heart transplant (HT) patients. The sum of various risk factors may have a large cumulative negative effect, leading to a substantially worse prognosis and the need to consider whether HT is contraindicated. The objective of this study was to determine whether the risk factors usually available prior to HT result in an excess mortality in our setting that contraindicates transplantation. Consecutive patients who underwent heart transplantation from November 1987 to January 2004 were included. Heart-lung transplants, retransplants, and pediatric transplants were excluded. Of the 384 patients, 89% were men. Mean age was 52 years (range, 12 to 67). Underlying disease included ischemic heart disease (52%), idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (36%), valvular disease (8%), and other (4%). Variables considered risk factors were obesity (BMI >25), dyslipidemia, hypertension, prior thoracic surgery, diabetes, and history of ischemic heart disease. Survival curves by number of risk factors using Kaplan-Meier and log-rank for comparison of curves. Overall patient survival at 1, 5, 10, and 13 years was 76%, 68%, 54%, and 47%, respectively. Survival at 10 years, if fewer than two risk factors were present, was 69%; 59% if two or three factors were present; and 37% if more than three associated risk factors were present (P = .04). The presence of certain risk factors in patients undergoing HT resulted in lower survival rates. The combination of various risk factors clearly worsened outcomes. However, we do not believe this should be an absolute contraindication for transplantation.

  13. Factors That Affect Academic Performance Among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sansgiry, Sujit S.; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. Methods A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Results Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Conclusion Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year. PMID:17149433

  14. Factors that affect academic performance among pharmacy students.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, Sujit S; Bhosle, Monali; Sail, Kavita

    2006-10-15

    The objective of this study was to examine factors such as academic competence, test competence, time management, strategic studying, and test anxiety, and identify whether these factors could distinguish differences among students, based on academic performance and enrollment in the experiential program. A cross-sectional study design utilizing questionnaires measuring previously validated constructs was used to evaluate the effect of these factors on students with low and high cumulative grade point averages (GPAs). Pharmacy students (N = 198) enrolled at the University of Houston participated in the study. Academic performance was significantly associated with factors such as academic competence and test competence. Students with a cumulative GPA of 3.0 or greater significantly differed in their level of test competence than those with a GPA of less than 3.0. Students enrolled in their experiential year differed from students enrolled in their second year of curriculum on factors such as test anxiety, academic competence, test competence, and time management skills. Test competence was an important factor to distinguish students with low vs. high academic performance. Factors such as academic competence, test competence, test anxiety and time management improve as students' progress in their experiential year.

  15. Major psychological factors affecting acceptance of gene-recombination technology.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yutaka

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the validity of a causal model that was made to predict the acceptance of gene-recombination technology. A structural equation model was used as a causal model. First of all, based on preceding studies, the factors of perceived risk, perceived benefit, and trust were set up as important psychological factors determining acceptance of gene-recombination technology in the structural equation model. An additional factor, "sense of bioethics," which I consider to be important for acceptance of biotechnology, was added to the model. Based on previous studies, trust was set up to have an indirect influence on the acceptance of gene-recombination technology through perceived risk and perceived benefit in the model. Participants were 231 undergraduate students in Japan who answered a questionnaire with a 5-point bipolar scale. The results indicated that the proposed model fits the data well, and showed that acceptance of gene-recombination technology is explained largely by four factors, that is, perceived risk, perceived benefit, trust, and sense of bioethics, whether the technology is applied to plants, animals, or human beings. However, the relative importance of the four factors was found to vary depending on whether the gene-recombination technology was applied to plants, animals, or human beings. Specifically, the factor of sense of bioethics is the most important factor in acceptance of plant gene-recombination technology and animal gene-recombination technology, and the factors of trust and perceived risk are the most important factors in acceptance of human being gene-recombination technology.

  16. Environmental factors affecting contaminant toxicity in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, Barnett A.; Heath, Alan G.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    Physical and natural factors have long been known to influence the toxicity of environmental contaminants to vertebrates. The majority of data that address this topic have been derived from studies on fish, highly inbred laboratory rodents, and man.' The degree to which these factors modify toxicity has principally been elucidated by controlled laboratory experiments. Until recently, the significance of such effects to free-ranging vertebrates Figure 23.1 was frequently overlooked in ecological risk assessments.' Drawing upon controlled experiments and observational science, we overview environmental factors that influence pollutant toxicity in fish and wildlife, and present some perspective on their ecotoxicological significance.

  17. Factors Affecting Teachers' Continuation of Technology Use in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the continuation of technology use in science and mathematics teaching of the teachers who attended a professional development program between 2010 and 2012. Continuation of technology use was hypothesized to be affected by the professional development program and by personal, institutional, and…

  18. Factors, Correlates, Emotional Barriers Affecting Career Decisions of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, James M.; And Others

    The correlates of career choice and the problem areas affecting career decisions are important to counseling psychologists. They are important to understanding the complexities of vocational behavior, facilitating differential treatment in counseling, and developing preventive career programs for men, women, and special groups. The effects of the…

  19. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING METHANE GAS RECOVERY FROM SIX LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a pilot study of six U.S. landfills that have methane (CH4) gas recovery systems. NOTE: The study was a first step in developing a field testing program to gather data to identify key variables that affect CH4 generation and to develop an empirical mod...

  20. Climatic and weather factors affecting fire occurrence and behavior

    Treesearch

    Randall P. Benson; John O. Roads; David R. Weise

    2009-01-01

    Weather and climate have a profound influence on wildland fire ignition potential, fire behavior, and fire severity. Local weather and climate are affected by large-scale patterns of winds over the hemispheres that predispose wildland fuels to fire. The characteristics of wildland fuels, especially the moisture content, ultimately determine fire behavior and the impact...

  1. Factors Affecting Willingness to Communicate in a Spanish University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahuerta, Ana Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the relationships among the variables believed to affect Spanish undergraduates' willingness to communicate in English. The participants were 195 students majoring in several degrees at the University of Oviedo. A questionnaire and a standardized English Test were administered to the students in February-March 2013.…

  2. Factors Affecting Students' Self-Efficacy in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Dinther, Mart; Dochy, Filip; Segers, Mien

    2011-01-01

    Researchers working in educational settings are increasingly paying attention to the role students' thoughts and beliefs play in the learning process. Self-efficacy, a key element of social cognitive theory, appears to be an important variable because it affects students' motivation and learning. This article investigates empirical literature…

  3. Institutional Factors Affecting Biophysical Outcomes in Forest Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Although there is considerable interest in the impact of diverse policies affecting the biophysical outcomes in forests, gaining a substantial sample over time of forests under different institutional arrangements has been difficult. This article analyzes data from 46 forests located in six countries over time. In forests where policies have been…

  4. Factors Affecting Item Difficulty in English Listening Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Pei-Ju; Lin, Su-Wei; Hung, Pi-Hsia

    2015-01-01

    Task difficulty is a critical issue affecting test developers. Controlling or balancing the item difficulty of an assessment improves its validity and discrimination. Test developers construct tests from the cognitive perspective, by making the test constructing process more scientific and efficient; thus, the scores obtained more precisely…

  5. bHLH transcription factor bHLH115 regulates iron homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Gang; Zhang, Huimin; Li, Xiaoli; Ai, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Iron (Fe) deficiency is a limiting factor for the normal growth and development of plants, and many species have evolved sophisticated systems for adaptation to Fe-deficient environments. It is still unclear how plants sense Fe status and coordinate the expression of genes responsive to Fe deficiency. In this study, we show that the bHLH transcription factor bHLH115 is a positive regulator of the Fe-deficiency response. Loss-of-function of bHLH115 causes strong Fe-deficiency symptoms and alleviates expression of genes responsive to Fe deficiency, whereas its overexpression causes the opposite effect. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that bHLH115 binds to the promoters of the Fe-deficiency-responsive genes bHLH38/39/100/101 and POPEYE (PYE), which suggests redundant molecular functions with bHLH34, bHLH104, and bHLH105. This is further supported by the fact that the bhlh115-1 mutant was complemented by overexpression of any of bHLH34, bHLH104, bHLH105, and bHLH115. Further investigations determined that bHLH115 could interact with itself and with bHLH34, bHLH104, and bHLH105. Their differential tissue-specific expression patterns and the severe Fe deficiency symptoms of multiple mutants supported their non-redundant biological functions. Genetic analysis revealed that bHLH115 is negatively regulated by BRUTUS (BTS), an E3 ligase that can interact with bHLH115. Thus, bHLH115 plays key roles in the maintenance of Fe homeostasis in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:28369511

  6. FACTORS AFFECTING CARBON ACCUMULATION IN NEW ENGLAND EELGRASS MEADOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    As atmospheric and oceanic concentrations of carbon dioxide continue to increase, quantifying the carbon storage potential of seagrass meadows and improving the understanding of the factors controlling carbon sequestration in seagrass meadows is essential information for decision...

  7. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  8. Factors affecting consumer usage and acceptance of child restraints

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1983-09-01

    This study was designed to focus on two factors with potential relevance to the child restraint device (CRD) usage problem: CRD design and directions for use; problems of initial users and repeated users were targeted for consideration. Ultimate obje...

  9. Factors affecting minority population proximity to hazardous facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1995-04-01

    Disproportionate exposure of minority groups to environmental hazards has been attributed to ``environmental racism`` by some authors, without systematic investigation of the factors underlying this exposure pattern. This study examines regional differences in the proximity of African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians, and non-Hispanic Whites to a broad range of facility types and explores the effects of urban and income factors. A statistically significant inverse relationship is found between the percentage of non-Hispanic Whites and virtually all facility categories in all regions. Except for Hispanics in the South, all such associations for minority groups show a direct relationship, though some are nonsignificant. Themore » geographic concentration of facilities is more closely tied to urbanization than to economic factors. Controlling for both urban and economic factors, minority population concentration is still a significant explanatory variable for some facility types in some regions. This finding is most consistent for African-Americans.« less

  10. Factors affecting consumer acceptance and use of child restraint systems

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1982-01-01

    The causes of consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with child restraint systems were studied, and factors contributing to non-use and misuse were identified. Thirty-two families used several different child restraint models for extended periods, ...

  11. Synopsis of discussion session on physicochemical factors affecting toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, R.J.; Bills, T.D.; Clark, J.R.; Hansen, D.J.; Knezovich, J.; Hamelink, J.L.; Landrum, P.F.; Bergman, H.L.; Benson, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper documents the workshop discussion regarding the role of these factors in altering toxicity. For each factor, the nature, magnitude, and uncertainty of its empirical relation to the toxicity of various chemicals or chemical classes is discussed. Limitations in the empirical database regarding the variety of species and endpoints tested were addressed. Possible mechanisms underlying the empirical relations are identified. Finally, research needed to better understand these effects is identified.

  12. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  13. A RhABF2/Ferritin module affects rose (Rosa hybrida) petal dehydration tolerance and senescence by modulating iron levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jitao; Fan, Youwei; Zou, Jing; Fang, Yiqun; Wang, Linghao; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Xinqiang; Liu, Yiqing; Gao, Junping; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-12-01

    Plants often develop the capacity to tolerate moderate and reversible environmental stresses, such as drought, and to re-establish normal development once the stress has been removed. An example of this phenomenon is provided by cut rose (Rosa hybrida) flowers, which experience typical reversible dehydration stresses during post-harvest handling after harvesting at the bud stages. The molecular mechanisms involved in rose flower dehydration tolerance are not known, however. Here, we characterized a dehydration- and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced ferritin gene (RhFer1). Dehydration-induced free ferrous iron (Fe 2+ ) is preferentially sequestered by RhFer1 and not transported outside of the petal cells, to restrict oxidative stresses during dehydration. Free Fe 2+ accumulation resulted in more serious oxidative stresses and the induction of genes encoding antioxidant enzyme in RhFer1-silenced petals, and poorer dehydration tolerance was observed compared with tobacco rattle virus (TRV) controls. We also determined that RhABF2, an AREB/ABF transcription factor involved in the ABA signaling pathway, can activate RhFer1 expression by directly binding to its promoter. The silencing of RhABF2 decreased dehydration tolerance and disrupted Fe homeostasis in rose petals during dehydration, as did the silencing of RhFer1. Although both RhFer1 and Fe transporter genes are induced during flower natural senescence in plants, the silencing of RhABF2 or RhFer1 accelerates the petal senescence processes. These results suggest that the regulatory module RhABF2/RhFer1 contributes to the maintenance of Fe levels and enhances dehydration tolerance through the action of RhFer1 locally sequestering free Fe 2+ under dehydration conditions, and plays synergistic roles with transporter genes during flower senescence. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Factors affecting placement of a child with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2005-05-06

    Parents of disabled children often face the question whether or not to keep the child at home or to place them. The choice between the two alternatives resides with the parents and various factors influence their decision. Several researchers have identified these factors, which include child-related parameters, family and parental attitudes, the influence of the social environment, and the external assistance provided to the family. In a pilot study, we attempted to isolate the main factors involved in the parental decision either to keep the child at home or place the child by examining a sample comprised of 50 parents of children suffering severe intellectual disability studying in a special education school and 48 parents of adults with intellectual disability working in sheltered workshops. Each parent filled out a questionnaire used in a study in the United States and results of the research indicated parental-related factors as the dominant factors that delayed the placement of their child in residential care; guilt feelings were the main factor.

  15. Factors affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic repair: osteoporosis as one of the independent risk factors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Oh, Joo Han; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Joon Yub; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2011-10-01

    The prognostic factors associated with structural outcome after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair have not yet been fully determined. The hypothesis of this study was that bone mineral density (BMD) is an important prognostic factor affecting rotator cuff healing after arthroscopic cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Among 408 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair for full-thickness rotator cuff tear between January 2004 and July 2008, 272 patients were included whose postoperative cuff integrity was verified by computed tomography arthrography (CTA) or ultrasonography (USG) and simultaneously who were evaluated by various functional outcome instruments. The mean age at the time of operation was 59.5 ± 7.9 years. Postoperative CTA or USG was performed at a mean 13.0 ± 5.1 months after surgery, and the mean follow-up period was 37.2 ± 10.0 months (range, 24-65 months). The clinical, structural, and surgery-related factors affecting cuff integrity including BMD were analyzed using both univariate and multivariate analysis. Evaluation of postoperative cuff integrity was performed by musculoskeletal radiologists who were unaware of the present study. The failure rate of rotator cuff healing was 22.8% (62 of 272). The failure rate was significantly higher in patients with lower BMD (P < .001); older age (P < .001); female gender (P = .03); larger tear size (P < .001); higher grade of fatty infiltration (FI) of the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis (all P < .001); diabetes mellitus (P = .02); shorter acromiohumeral distance (P < .001); and associated biceps procedure (P < .001). However, in the multivariate analysis, only BMD (P = .001), FI of the infraspinatus (P = .01), and the amount of retraction (P = .03) showed a significant relationship with cuff healing failure following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Bone mineral density, as well as FI of the infraspinatus and amount of retraction, was an independent determining factor

  16. Risk factors affecting human traumatic tympanic membrane perforation regeneration therapy using fibroblast growth factor-2.

    PubMed

    Lou, Zhengcai; Yang, Jian; Tang, Yongmei; Xiao, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The use of growth factors to achieve closure of human traumatic tympanic membrane perforations (TMPs) has recently been demonstrated. However, pretreatment factors affecting healing outcomes have seldom been discussed. The objective of this study was to evaluate pretreatment factors contributing to the success or failure of healing of TMPs using fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). A retrospective cohort study of 99 patients (43 males, 56 females) with traumatic TMPs who were observed for at least 6 months after FGF-2 treatment between March 2011 and December 2012. Eleven factors considered likely to affect the outcome of perforation closure were evaluated statistically using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Each traumatic TMP was treated by direct application of FGF-2. Complete closure versus failure to close. In total, 99 patients were analyzed. The total closure rate was 92/99 (92.9%) at 6 months; the mean closure time was 10.59 ±  6.81 days. The closure rate did not significantly differ between perforations with or without inverted edges (100.0% vs. 91.4%, p = 0.087), among different size groups (p = 0.768), or among different periods of exposure to injury (p = 0.051). However, the closure rate was significantly different between the high- and low-dose FGF-2 groups (85.0% vs. 98.3%, p = 0.010) and between perforations where the umbo or malleus was or was not involved in perforation (85.4% vs. 98.3%, p = 0.012). Additionally, univariate logistic regression analysis tests showed that it was difficult to achieve healing of these perforations with a history of chronic otitis media or residual TM calcification (p = 0.006), the umbo or malleus was involved in perforation (p = 0.038), and with a high dose of FGF-2 (p = 0.035) compared with control groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that only a history of chronic otitis media and residual TM calcification and perforation close to the

  17. Ethnic and genetic factors of iron status in women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Gordeuk, Victor R; Brannon, Patsy M

    2017-12-01

    Background: African Americans are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID) but also have higher serum ferritin (SF) concentrations than those of the general population. The Hemochromatosis and Iron Overload Screening (HEIRS) Study was a multicenter study of ethnically diverse participants that tested for the hemochromatosis ( HFE ) C282Y genotype and iron status. Objective: We sought to determine the prevalence and predictors of ID (SF concentration ≤15 μg/L) and elevated iron stores (SF concentration >300 μg/L) in HEIRS women of reproductive age (25-44 y). Design: The HEIRS Study was a cross-sectional study of iron status and HFE mutations in primary care patients at 5 centers in the United States and Canada. We analyzed data for women of reproductive age according to whether or not they were pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of the study. Results: ID was present in 12.5% of 20,080 nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 19.2% of 1962 pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P < 0.001). Asian American ethnicity (OR ≤0.9; P ≤ 0.049) and HFE C282Y (OR ≤0.84; P ≤ 0.060) were independently associated with a decreased risk of ID in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women. Hispanic ethnicity (OR: 1.8; P < 0.001) and African American ethnicity (OR: 1.6; P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk of ID in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women. Elevated iron stores were shown in 1.7% of nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women compared with 0.7% of pregnant or breastfeeding women ( P = 0.001). HFE C282Y homozygosity had the most marked independent association with elevated iron stores in nonpregnant and nonbreastfeeding women and in pregnant or breastfeeding women (OR >49.0; P < 0.001), but African American ethnicity was also associated with increased iron stores in both groups of women (OR >2.0; P < 0.001). Asian American ethnicity (OR: 1.8; P = 0.001) and HFE C282Y heterozygosity (OR: 1.9; P = 0.003) were

  18. Changes in Serum Ferritin and Other Factors Associated with Iron Metabolism During Chronic Hyperbaric Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    tech- jects prior to their participation included standard radio- ques , using- radioisotopes ("SFe and S"Tcm-- diphospho- graphic surveys for evidence of... es were apparent by the third dive day for iron and the iv than ABN. It is of interest that no VGE were heard ajt seventh dive day for ferrtin. No...source of the increased amounts of ferritin levels in acute bepatocellular damage from serum ferritin and iron found during these dives ap.- paracetamol

  19. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The exemption is intended for work affected by natural...(a)(5) Exemption § 784.118 The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors. As... that are controlled or materially affected by natural factors or elements, such as the vicissitudes of...

  20. 29 CFR 784.118 - The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The exemption is intended for work affected by natural...(a)(5) Exemption § 784.118 The exemption is intended for work affected by natural factors. As... that are controlled or materially affected by natural factors or elements, such as the vicissitudes of...

  1. Environmental factors affecting inflammatory bowel disease: have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is only partially understood; various environmental and host (e.g. genetic, epithelial, immune, and nonimmune) factors are involved. The critical role for environmental factors is strongly supported by recent worldwide trends in IBD epidemiology. One important environmental factor is smoking. A meta-analysis partially confirms previous findings that smoking was found to be protective against ulcerative colitis and, after the onset of the disease, might improve its course, decreasing the need for colectomy. In contrast, smoking increases the risk of developing Crohn's disease and aggravates its course. The history of IBD is dotted by cyclic reports on the isolation of specific infectious agents responsible for Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The more recently published cold chain hypothesis is providing an even broader platform by linking dietary factors and microbial agents. An additional, recent theory has suggested a breakdown in the balance between putative species of 'protective' versus 'harmful' intestinal bacteria - this concept has been termed dysbiosis resulting in decreased bacterial diversity. Other factors such as oral contraceptive use, appendectomy, dietary factors (e.g. refined sugar, fat, and fast food), perinatal events, and childhood infections have also been associated with both diseases, but their role is more controversial. Nonetheless, there is no doubt that economic development, leading to improved hygiene and other changes in lifestyle ('westernized lifestyle') may play a role in the increase in IBD. This review article focuses on the role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis and progression of IBDs. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Bioavailability of zinc oxide added to corn tortilla is similar to that of zinc sulfate and is not affected by simultaneous addition of iron

    PubMed Central

    Rosado, Jorge L.; Díaz, Margarita; Muñoz, Elsa; Westcott, Jamie L.; González, Karla E.; Krebs, Nancy F.; Caamaño, María C.; Hambidge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Corn tortilla is the staple food of Mexico and its fortification with zinc, iron, and other micronutrients is intended to reduce micronutrient deficiencies. However, no studies have been performed to determine the relative amount of zinc absorbed from the fortified product and whether zinc absorption is affected by the simultaneous addition of iron. Objective To compare zinc absorption from corn tortilla fortified with zinc oxide versus zinc sulfate and to determine the effect of simultaneous addition of two doses of iron on zinc bioavailability. Methods A randomized, double-blind, crossover design was carried out in two phases. In the first phase, 10 adult women received corn tortillas with either 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added, 20 mg/kg of zinc sulfate added, or no zinc added. In the second phase, 10 adult women received corn tortilla with 20 mg/kg of zinc oxide added and either with no iron added or with iron added at one of two different levels. Zinc absorption was measured by the stable isotope method. Results The mean (± SEM) fractional zinc absorption from unfortified tortilla, tortilla fortified with zinc oxide, and tortilla fortified with zinc sulfate did not differ among treatments: 0.35 ± 0.07, 0.36 ± 0.05, and 0.37 ± 0.07, respectively. The three treatment groups with 0, 30, and 60 mg/kg of added iron had similar fractional zinc absorption (0.32 ± 0.04, 0.33 ± 0.02, and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively) and similar amounts of zinc absorbed (4.8 ± 0.7, 4.5 ± 0.3, and 4.8 ± 0.7 mg/day, respectively). Conclusions Since zinc oxide is more stable and less expensive and was absorbed equally as well as zinc sulfate, we suggest its use for corn tortilla fortification. Simultaneous addition of zinc and iron to corn tortilla does not modify zinc bioavailability at iron doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg of corn flour. PMID:23424892

  3. Sourcebook of Temporal Factors Affecting Information Transfer from Visual Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    moving object and take appropriate action? Obviously, these behaviors are affected not only by motion perception but by memory and motor control as...Perf., 1975, 1, 383394. Layton, B. Perceptual Noise and Aging. Psych. Bull., 1975, 82, 875- 883. LeGrand, Y. Light, colour and vision. Ch. 13, time...ligkeit intermittierender lichtreize von der flimmerfreque (Brucke-effekt,,, brightness enchancement ): Unt!rsuchungen bei verschiedener leuchtdichte

  4. Factors affecting urethrocystographic parameters in urinary continent women.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M

    1996-06-01

    To evaluate the urethrocystographic changes in different conditions, 154 women were evaluated by using introital sonography. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 103) normal, including 10 postmenopausal women; group 2 (n = 46) pregnant, including 16 women in the first trimester, 15 in the second trimester, and 15 in the third trimester; group 3 (n = 15) severe genitourinary prolapse. None of the 154 women had a history of urinary incontinence. The following parameters were measured at rest: urethral thickness, uretheral length, urethral inclination, and posterior urethrovesical angle. On maximum straining, urethral inclination, posterior urethrovesical angle, and rotational angle were measured. In general, age, parity, and menopause did not affect the urethrocystographic parameters in Group 1 patients. Postmenopausal women had a significant decrease in the urethral thickness compared with the premenopausal women (p = 0.026). Patients in Groups 2 and 3 had a significantly lower urethral position than those in group 1. However, hypermobility of the urethra was found only in Group 3. Different menstrual ages did not affect the urethral position but could affect the posterior urethrovesical angle at rest in the first trimester. Introital sonography, without the risk of radiation exposure, enables the observation of static and dynamic changes in the lower urinary tract, both repeatedly and reproducibly.

  5. Behavioural factors affecting physical health of the New Zealand Maori.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, P S

    1990-01-01

    A major factor in the aetiology of illness is the behaviour of individuals with regard to certain risks and hazards of the environment. The Maori of New Zealand have been shown to be at greater risk of illness and death than their non-Maori counterparts. It is estimated that a significant proportion of this excess morbidity and mortality can be attributed to at least four behavioural factors: smoking, obesity, alcohol use and accidents. This paper examines the inter-cultural differences in these factors, both from a contemporary and an historical perspective. Some of the reasons for the continuation of these adverse patterns of behaviour are explored, in particular the role of psycho-cultural stress. Some possible mechanisms of effecting behavioural change in modern Maori society are discussed.

  6. Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E.

    Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect onmore » energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.« less

  7. Enhance placebo, avoid nocebo: How contextual factors affect physiotherapy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Testa, Marco; Rossettini, Giacomo

    2016-08-01

    Placebo and nocebo represent complex and distinct psychoneurobiological phenomena in which behavioural and neurophysiological modifications occur together with the application of a treatment. Despite a better understanding of this topic in the medical field, little is known about their role in physiotherapy. The aim of this review is: a) to elucidate the neurobiology behind placebo and nocebo effects, b) to describe the role of the contextual factors as modulators of the clinical outcomes in rehabilitation and c) to provide clinical and research guidelines on their uses. The physiotherapist's features, the patient's features, the patient-physiotherapist relationship, the characteristics of the treatment and the overall healthcare setting are all contextual factors influencing clinical outcomes. Since every physiotherapy treatment determines a specific and a contextual effect, physiotherapists should manage the contextual factors as a boosting element of any manual therapy to improve placebo effects and avoid detrimental nocebo effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kers, Jannigje G.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fischer, Egil A. J.; Hermes, Gerben D. A.; Stegeman, J. A.; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  9. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  10. Host and Environmental Factors Affecting the Intestinal Microbiota in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kers, Jannigje G; Velkers, Francisca C; Fischer, Egil A J; Hermes, Gerben D A; Stegeman, J A; Smidt, Hauke

    2018-01-01

    The initial development of intestinal microbiota in poultry plays an important role in production performance, overall health and resistance against microbial infections. Multiplexed sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA gene amplicons is often used in studies, such as feed intervention or antimicrobial drug trials, to determine corresponding effects on the composition of intestinal microbiota. However, considerable variation of intestinal microbiota composition has been observed both within and across studies. Such variation may in part be attributed to technical factors, such as sampling procedures, sample storage, DNA extraction, the choice of PCR primers and corresponding region to be sequenced, and the sequencing platforms used. Furthermore, part of this variation in microbiota composition may also be explained by different host characteristics and environmental factors. To facilitate the improvement of design, reproducibility and interpretation of poultry microbiota studies, we have reviewed the literature on confounding factors influencing the observed intestinal microbiota in chickens. First, it has been identified that host-related factors, such as age, sex, and breed, have a large effect on intestinal microbiota. The diversity of chicken intestinal microbiota tends to increase most during the first weeks of life, and corresponding colonization patterns seem to differ between layer- and meat-type chickens. Second, it has been found that environmental factors, such as biosecurity level, housing, litter, feed access and climate also have an effect on the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As microbiota studies have to deal with many of these unknown or hidden host and environmental variables, the choice of study designs can have a great impact on study outcomes and interpretation of the data. Providing details on a broad range of host and environmental factors in articles and sequence data repositories is highly recommended. This creates opportunities to

  11. Ubiquitination-Related MdBT Scaffold Proteins Target a bHLH Transcription Factor for Iron Homeostasis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Qing-Jie; Wang, Xiao-Fei; You, Chun-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) homeostasis is crucial for plant growth and development. A network of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors positively regulates Fe uptake during iron deficiency. However, their up-regulation or overexpression leads to Fe overload and reactive oxygen species generation, thereby damaging the plants. Here, we found that two BTB/TAZ proteins, MdBT1 and MdBT2, interact with the MbHLH104 protein in apple. In addition, the function of MdBT2 was characterized as a regulator of MdbHLH104 degradation via ubiquitination and the 26S proteasome pathway, thereby controlling the activity of plasma membrane H+-ATPases and the acquisition of iron. Furthermore, MdBT2 interacted with MdCUL3 proteins, which were required for the MdBT2-mediated ubiquitination modification of MdbHLH104 and its degradation. In sum, our findings demonstrate that MdBT proteins interact with MdCUL3 to bridge the formation of the MdBTsMdCUL3 complex, which negatively modulates the degradation of the MdbHLH104 protein in response to changes in Fe status to maintain iron homeostasis in plants. PMID:27660166

  12. Factors Affecting Long-Term Abstinence from Substances Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsheikh, Salah Elgaily

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes of abstainers from drug use that relate to the factors leading to long-term abstinence. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Al-Amal Hospital to examine, which attitudes of abstainers related to long-term abstinence. A random survey was conducted on 62…

  13. Factors Affecting the Misperception of Friendliness Cues in Initial Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; And Others

    Some researchers have found men to attribute more sexual meaning to heterosexual interactions than do women. This study was conducted to examine factors which may enhance or diminish this gender difference on perceptions of sexual intent by considering the three variables of physical attractiveness of target, similarity of target's personality to…

  14. A Quantitative Assessment of Factors Affecting College Sports' Team Unity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud; Kyei, Kwasi

    2009-01-01

    The competitiveness of National Collegiate Association (NCAA) schools increases in intensity each year. With the increased pressure on college sport staffs to be undefeated season after season, coaches have to find ways to keep players happy; to do this, they have to find factors that contribute to unify the players. It is nearly impossible to…

  15. Fatigue factors affecting metropolitan bus drivers: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Herbert; Dingsdag, Donald; Stenson, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan bus drivers daily face work in a stressful and draining work environment, exposing them to the serious risk of driver fatigue. However, there has been a dearth of information exploring the unique antecedents and effects of such fatigue. To date, much of the research into metropolitan bus drivers has been under the umbrella of large heavy vehicle driving studies, which include a disproportionally large population of long-haul drivers, who are likely to face a significantly different set of fatigue factors [1]. The present study aimed to investigate which work and environmental factors may cause fatigue in metropolitan bus drivers by seeking drivers' own perspectives on the issues. To this end, focus groups were held at five bus depots in Sydney and Newcastle, with an effort made to include a stratified sample of drivers at each. Each of the groups were invited to nominate what factors they felt were most salient, with a number of common factors emerging across the depots. Key themes identified were: support from management; ticketing and related issues; interaction with passengers; cabin ergonomics; tight route schedules; turn-around and shift irregularity; extended shift cycles; interactions with other road users; and extended commute times.

  16. Social, institutional, and psychological factors affecting wildfire incident decision making

    Treesearch

    Matthew P. Thompson

    2014-01-01

    Managing wildland fire incidents can be fraught with complexity and uncertainty. Myriad human factors can exert significant influence on incident decision making, and can contribute additional uncertainty regarding programmatic evaluations of wildfire management and attainment of policy goals. This article develops a framework within which human sources of uncertainty...

  17. Temperature can interact with landscape factors to affect songbird productivity

    Treesearch

    W. Andrew Cox; Frank R. III Thompson; Jennifer L. Reidy; John Faaborg

    2013-01-01

    Increased temperatures and more extreme weather patterns associated with global climate change can interact with other factors that regulate animal populations, but many climate change studies do not incorporate other threats to wildlife in their analyses. We used 20 years of nest-monitoring data from study sites across a gradient of habitat fragmentation in Missouri,...

  18. Factors That Affect Initial Enrollment of Working Adult, Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrignola, Matt Nolan

    2010-01-01

    What factors lead working adults to initially enroll in graduate programs? Is the undergraduate degree no longer enough to sustain a rewarding career? Little is known as to why this segment of graduate students are building careers and pursuing advanced degrees simultaneously. Traditional institutions of higher learning have primarily focused on…

  19. Affective Factors Which Influence Learning about Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Mary F.; McKirnan, David

    This study investigated the role that emotional factors play in learning about sexual health and in adopting sexually healthy behaviors. Learning about health and adopting healthy behaviors hinges on two variables: the desire to avoid illness and a belief that one can avoid threats to health through personal action. This paper reports on…

  20. Social Life Factors Affecting Suicide in Japanese Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araki, Shunichi; Murata, Katsuyuki

    1986-01-01

    Examined relationship between social and demographic indicators and age-adjusted suicide mortality in 46 prefectures in Japan. Rural residence was the major factor for male mortality in 1970 and 1975. In 1970, home help for the elderly, depopulation by social mobility, and urban residence were positively associated with male mortality. In women,…

  1. Factors Affecting Academics' Involvement in TEL Continuing Professional Development (CPD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlMutlaq, Abdullah; Dimitriadi, Yota; McCrindle, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Reinforcing the level of essentiality of understanding the factors that influence the involvement in TEL-oriented CPD and the challenges to the sustained expansion of their expertise not only for academics, but also professional bodies and educational developer for effective integration of digital technologies in teaching and learning remains is…

  2. Factors Affecting Drug Abuse in Adolescent Females in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renes, Susan L.; Strange, Anthony T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores factors influencing adolescent female substance use in rural communities. Self-reported data gathered from females 12 to 15 years of age in two northwestern communities in the United States showed an association among gender identity, peer and parental relationships, and substance use. Aggressive masculinity had the strongest…

  3. Factors affecting Bromus tectorum seed bank carryover in western Utah

    Treesearch

    Duane C. Smith; Susan E. Meyer; V. J. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is a winter annual weed that presents a serious obstacle to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors regulating the size and persistence of cheatgrass carryover seed banks on semiarid sites in western Utah. We prevented current-year seed production in each of...

  4. Individual Differences: Factors Affecting Employee Utilization of Flexible Work Arrangements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Alysa D.; Marler, Janet H.; Gueutal, Hal G.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated individual and organizational factors that predict an individual's choice to use flexible work arrangements (FWAs). Survey data was collected from 144 employees in two different organizations. The results revealed several significant predictors of FWAs: tenure, hours worked per week, supervisory responsibilities,…

  5. Investigating Factors that Affect Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes activities that demonstrate the effects of factors such as wind velocity, water temperature, convection currents, intensity of light, rate of photosynthesis, atmospheric pressure, humidity, numbers of decomposers, presence of oxidizable ions, and respiration by plants and animals on the dissolved oxygen concentration in water. (MA)

  6. Demographic Factors Affecting Internet Using Purposes of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdullah Faruk; Güzeller, Cem Oktay

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the impact of demographic factors on the Internet usage purposes of high school students. The population of the study consisted of students between 9th and 12th grades from the Anatolian high schools, science high schools, social sciences high schools, sports high schools and fine arts high schools in Turkey. The…

  7. Environmental Factors Affecting Brook Trout Occurrence in Headwater Stream Segments

    Treesearch

    Yoichiro Kanno; Benjamin H. Letcher; Ana L. Rosner; Kyle P. O' Neil; Keith H. Nislow

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed the associations of catchment-scale and riparian-scale environmental factors with occurrence of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis in Connecticut headwater stream segments with catchment areas of 15 < km2. A hierarchical Bayesian approach was applied to a statewide stream survey data set, in which Brook...

  8. The Discovery of Personal Meaning: Affective Factors in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorrell, Jeffrey

    Learner-centered principles espoused by the American Psychological Association (APA) built on research of the last three decades suggest that learning does not simply entail coordinated cognitive processes. These 12 principles portray factors associated with learning as essential parts of the portrayal of learners as active creators of their own…

  9. Factors affecting the quality of walnut lumber and veneer

    Treesearch

    Daniel L. Cassens

    2004-01-01

    Walnut is a unique species in both its timber and wood characteristics. Although market conditions vary it is generally considered a valuable species. Because of these factors, setting quality (value) levels for both lumber and veneer can be involved. Lumber grades are quantitative thus straight forward once the system is understood. Determining quality in veneer is...

  10. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  11. Keeping the PROMISE: Factors Affecting Timing to Merit Scholarship Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Jacob P. K.; Bell, Angela D.; Berry, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased attention paid to the advent and development of state merit scholarship policies (such as Georgia's Helping Outstanding Pupils Educationally) and some evidence that suggests differences in scholarship retention by socioeconomic status or other student characteristics, little empirical work has explored factors affecting…

  12. Factors affecting predation at songbird nests in old fields

    Treesearch

    Dirk E. Burhans; Donald Dearborn; Frank R. III Thompson; John Faaborg

    2002-01-01

    We determined the effects of microhabitat, year, weather, time of season, stage of the nesting cycle, and brood parasitism on nest predation from a 7-year dataset on field sparrows (Spizella pusilla) and indigo buntings (Passerina cyanea) in central Missouri, USA. Year, site, and the interaction of species and 2-week interval of the season were important factors...

  13. Factors Affecting University Teaching Team Effectiveness in Detached Working Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Roger; Kane, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the outcomes of a study of the factors that contribute to teaching team effectiveness in situations where team members rarely meet face to face. Academic faculty within a university Business School were asked to report the degrees to which they believed that the module teaching teams to which they belonged contained members who…

  14. FACTORS AFFECTING ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS IN BENGHAZI, LIBYA

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghaweel, Ibrahim; Mursi, Saleh A.; Jack, Joel P.; Joel, Irene

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the factors responsible for road traffic accidents in Benghazi. Material and Methods: Retrospective and descriptive studies were done in the years 2006-2007. The data was collected from Traffic and License Department, Benghazi. The data were analyzed, based on fatalities, the severely handicapped, hit and run victims and were correlated with age, sex, time, environmental factors, type of roads, etc. Results: One-Thousand-Two-Hundred-Sixty-Five accidents occurred between the years 2006-2007 within the Benghazi city limits; 11.14% of the injuries were fatal; 67.35% of the victims had severe injuries and 21.51% escaped with minor injuries. Table 1 shows that 73.04% lost their lives within the city limits, 13.47% on the fly-over, and 2.12% on minor roads connected to main roads within the city limits. The mean of the accidents and its standard deviation were 16.66± 25.67 with a variance of fatality of 1.54. Conclusion: It is concluded from the studies that major road traffic accidents occur because of environmental stress factors. In addition, fatalities and the seriousness of the accidents depend on a number of factors such as the age of the vehicle, safety measures, human error and time and place of accident. PMID:23012183

  15. Factors affecting the implementation of green specifications in construction.

    PubMed

    Lam, Patrick T I; Chan, Edwin H W; Poon, C S; Chau, C K; Chun, K P

    2010-01-01

    Green specifications constitute one of the important elements in green construction. New sustainability requirements and changing priorities in construction management have spurred the emerging green specifications to a faster pace of development. A cross-sectional survey has been conducted in Hong Kong in 2007 to identify principal factors leading to the success of preparing green specifications. Based on extensive construction management literature, 20 variables concerning sustainable construction were summarized. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, the subtle differences between stakeholders in specifying construction work have been detected even with the high consistency of the responses among the groups. Moreover, five independent factors for successful specification of green construction have been categorized by factor analysis. They are related to (1) green technology and techniques, (2) reliability and quality of specification, (3) leadership and responsibility, (4) stakeholder involvement, and (5) guide and benchmarking systems. Whilst the first and fourth factors are generally more important, different stakeholder groups have different emphases. The results of the survey have been validated against established principles. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. School-Related Factors Affecting High School Seniors' Methamphetamine Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Jarrod M.; Lo, Celia C.

    2009-01-01

    Data from the 2005 Monitoring the Future survey were used to examine relationships between school-related factors and high school seniors' lifetime methamphetamine use. The study applied logistic regression techniques to evaluate effects of social bonding variables and social learning variables on likelihood of lifetime methamphetamine use. The…

  17. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Students' Learning with Erroneous Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klopp, Eric; Stark, Robin; Kopp, Veronika; Fischer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of diagnostic competence is seen as a major goal during the course of study in medicine. One innovative method to foster this goal is problem-based learning with erroneous worked examples provided in a computer learning environment. The present study explores the relationship of attitudinal, emotional and cognitive factors for…

  18. Evaluation of factors affecting resolution of shallow water bottom features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, C. C.; Norris, D. R.; Browne, I. D.

    1972-01-01

    To ensure good aerial photography, the effects that factors such as submergence depth, sun angle, film and filter type, exposure, aircraft altitude, and polarization have on the photographic resolution of an underwater object must be determined. Various subjects were photographed, such as the deck of a small submersible, colored and gray scale panels, and natural bottom features. No underwater resolution target was used.

  19. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  20. Factors Affecting Completion of Apprenticeship Training in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambin, Lynn; Hogarth, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines factors that are associated with the probability of completion of apprenticeship programmes by individual learners in England. Data are from the 2008/2009 academic year Individualised Learner Record--the administrative database containing information on all learners in the Further Education system in England. The analysis…

  1. Factors Affecting Teachers' Participation in Professional Development Activities in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayar, Adem

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between factors (internal [personal] and external [environmental]) and teachers' participation in professional development (PD) programs in Turkey. The researcher employed a survey design, using a multiple-stage sampling method, selecting 30 out of 66 elementary schools in the Center…

  2. Sociological Factors Affecting Agricultural Price Risk Management in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Elizabeth; Quaddus, Mohammed; Islam, Nazrul; Stanton, John

    2009-01-01

    The highly volatile auction system in Australia accounts for 85 percent of ex-farm wool sales, with the remainder sold by forward contract, futures, and other hedging methods. In this article, against the background of an extensive literature on price risk strategies, we investigate the behavioral factors associated with producers' adoption of…

  3. High-Cycle Fatigue Resistance of Si-Mo Ductile Cast Iron as Affected by Temperature and Strain Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteis, Paolo; Scavino, Giorgio; Castello, Alessandro; Firrao, Donato

    2015-09-01

    Silicon-molybdenum ductile cast irons are used to fabricate exhaust manifolds of internal combustion engines of large series cars, where the maximum pointwise temperature at full engine load may be higher than 973 K (700 °C). In this application, high-temperature oxidation and thermo-mechanical fatigue (the latter being caused by the engine start and stop and by the variation of its power output) have been the subject of several studies and are well known, whereas little attention has been devoted to the high-cycle fatigue, arising from the engine vibration. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of Si-Mo cast iron is studied here by means of stress-life fatigue tests up to 10 million cycles, at temperatures gradually increasing up to 973 K (700 °C). The mechanical characterization is completed by tensile and compressive tests and ensuing fractographic examinations; the mechanical test results are correlated with the cast iron microstructure and heat treatment.

  4. Baseline factors affecting closure of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Marston, William A; Ennis, William J; Lantis, John C; Kirsner, Robert S; Galiano, Robert D; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Eming, Sabine A; Malka, Marcin; Cargill, D Innes; Dickerson, Jaime E; Slade, Herbert B

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with closure of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) in a pooled analysis of subjects from three randomized clinical trials. Closure of VLUs after treatment with HP802-247, an allogeneic living cell therapy consisting of growth-arrested human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, vs standard therapy with compression bandaging was evaluated in three phase 3 clinical trials of similar design. Two trials enrolled subjects with VLUs ranging from 2 cm 2 to 12 cm 2 in area with 12-week treatment periods; the third trial enrolled subjects with VLUs between >12 cm 2 and ≤36 cm 2 with a 16-week treatment period. The first trial went to completion but failed to demonstrate a benefit to therapy with HP802-247 compared with placebo, and because of this, the remaining trials were terminated before completion. On the basis of no differences in outcomes between groups, subjects from both HP802-247 and control groups were pooled across all three studies. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was employed to evaluate factors associated with VLU closure. This analysis included data from 716 subjects with VLU. Factors evaluated for association with healing included age, gender, race, diabetes, glycated hemoglobin level, body mass index, treatment (HP802-247 vs compression alone), and ulcer characteristics including location and area and duration at baseline. In an initial model including all of these putative factors, the following were significant at the P < .10 level: diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, gender, wound location (ankle or leg), baseline wound area, and wound duration at baseline. In a final model including only these factors, all but diabetes mellitus were significant at the P < .05 level. Effect sizes were as follows (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]): female gender (1.384 [1.134-1.690]), wound location on the leg (1.490 [1.187-1.871]), smaller wound area at baseline (0.907 [0.887-0.927]), and shorter

  5. Iron-induced Local Complement Component 3 (C3) Up-regulation via Non-canonical Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L

    2015-05-08

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Iron-induced Local Complement Component 3 (C3) Up-regulation via Non-canonical Transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β Signaling in the Retinal Pigment Epithelium*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yafeng; Song, Delu; Song, Ying; Zhao, Liangliang; Wolkow, Natalie; Tobias, John W.; Song, Wenchao; Dunaief, Joshua L.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of iron homeostasis may be a pathogenic factor in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Meanwhile, the formation of complement-containing deposits under the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell layer is a pathognomonic feature of AMD. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which complement component 3 (C3), a central protein in the complement cascade, is up-regulated by iron in RPE cells. Modulation of TGF-β signaling, involving ERK1/2, SMAD3, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, is responsible for iron-induced C3 expression. The differential effects of spatially distinct SMAD3 phosphorylation sites at the linker region and at the C terminus determined the up-regulation of C3. Pharmacologic inhibition of either ERK1/2 or SMAD3 phosphorylation decreased iron-induced C3 expression levels. Knockdown of SMAD3 blocked the iron-induced up-regulation and nuclear accumulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-δ, a transcription factor that has been shown previously to bind the basic leucine zipper 1 domain in the C3 promoter. We show herein that mutation of this domain reduced iron-induced C3 promoter activity. In vivo studies support our in vitro finding of iron-induced C3 up-regulation. Mice with a mosaic pattern of RPE-specific iron overload demonstrated co-localization of iron-induced ferritin and C3d deposits. Humans with aceruloplasminemia causing RPE iron overload had increased RPE C3d deposition. The molecular events in the iron-C3 pathway represent therapeutic targets for AMD or other diseases exacerbated by iron-induced local complement dysregulation. PMID:25802332

  7. Looking under the Bonnet: Factors Affecting Student Adoption of E-Learning Systems in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbad, Muneer Mahmood; Morris, David; de Nahlik, Carmel

    2009-01-01

    The primary questions addressed in this paper are the following: what are the factors that affect students' adoption of an e-learning system and what are the relationships among these factors? This paper investigates and identifies some of the major factors affecting students' adoption of an e-learning system in a university in Jordan. E-learning…

  8. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  9. Substrate-Related Factors Affecting Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocelluloses: Our Recent Understanding

    Treesearch

    Shao-Yuan Leu; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Enzymatic saccharification of cellulose is a key step in conversion of plant biomass to advanced biofuel and chemicals. Many substrate-related factors affect saccharification. Rather than examining the role of each individual factor on overall saccharification efficiency, this study examined how each factor affects the three basic processes of a heterogeneous...

  10. Factors affecting orthopedic residency selection: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Strelzow, Jason; Petretta, Robert; Broekhuyse, Henry M

    2017-06-01

    Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate's choice of orthopedic residency program. We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1-5). The confidential online survey focused on 3 broad categories of program selection: educational, program cohesion and noneducation factors. Questions were graded on a Likert Scale and tailed for mean scores. In total, 139 residents from 11 of 17 Canadian orthopedic programs (49% response rate) and 23 medical student applicants (88% response rate) completed our survey. Orthopedic electives and mandatory rotations were reported by 71% of participants as somewhat or very important to their career choice. Collegiality among residents (4.70 ± 0.6), program being the "right fit" (4.65 ± 0.53) and current resident satisfaction with their chosen program (4.63 ±0.66) were ranked with the highest mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale. There are several modifiable factors that residency programs may use to attract applicants, including early availability of clerkship rotations and a strong mentorship environment emphasizing both resident-resident and resident-staff cohesion. Desirable residency programs should develop early access to surgical and operative skills. These must be balanced with a continued emphasis on top-level orthopedic training.

  11. Factors affecting orthopedic residency selection: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Strelzow, Jason; Petretta, Robert; Broekhuyse, Henry M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Annually, orthopedic residency programs rank and recruit the best possible candidates. Little evidence exists identifying factors that potential candidates use to select their career paths. Recent literature from nonsurgical programs suggests hospital, social and program-based factors influence program selection. We sought to determine what factors influence the choice of an orthopedic career and a candidate’s choice of orthopedic residency program. Methods We surveyed medical student applicants to orthopedic programs and current Canadian orthopedic surgery residents (postgraduate year [PGY] 1–5). The confidential online survey focused on 3 broad categories of program selection: educational, program cohesion and noneducation factors. Questions were graded on a Likert Scale and tailed for mean scores. Results In total, 139 residents from 11 of 17 Canadian orthopedic programs (49% response rate) and 23 medical student applicants (88% response rate) completed our survey. Orthopedic electives and mandatory rotations were reported by 71% of participants as somewhat or very important to their career choice. Collegiality among residents (4.70 ± 0.6), program being the “right fit” (4.65 ± 0.53) and current resident satisfaction with their chosen program (4.63 ±0.66) were ranked with the highest mean scores on a 5-point Likert scale. Conclusion There are several modifiable factors that residency programs may use to attract applicants, including early availability of clerkship rotations and a strong mentorship environment emphasizing both resident–resident and resident–staff cohesion. Desirable residency programs should develop early access to surgical and operative skills. These must be balanced with a continued emphasis on top-level orthopedic training. PMID:28327273

  12. Genetic Factors that Affect Tumorigenesis in NF1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Genetica Medica, Universita di Padova, Padova, Italy, 4Institute of Medical Genetics, University of Wales College of Medicine, Heath Park, Cardiff CF14... conditions as described. We do not know the frequency of false results in a 1.5 Mb rearrangement, yet the NF1REP is over positives nor how it might be...affected by minor alterations in twice the length of the CMT1A-REP. Both rearrangements assay conditions . It is possible that this recombination is a low

  13. Culture and affect: the factor structure of the affective style questionnaire and its relation with depression and anxiety among Japanese.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaya; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2014-09-02

    Affective styles are assumed to be one of the underlying processes of depression and anxiety maintenance. However, little is known about the effect of depression and anxiety and the cultural influence of the factor structure. Here, we examined the cross-cultural validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire and its incremental validity for the influence on depression and anxiety. Affective Style Questionnaire was translated into Japanese using standard back-translation procedure. Japanese university students (N = 1,041) served as participants. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire, Brief COPE, Self-Construal Scale, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the Affective Style Questionnaire comprised four factors: Concealing, Adjusting, Holding and Tolerating (CFI = .92, TLI = .90, RMSEA = .07). The measure's convergent and discriminant validity was substantiated by its association with various emotion regulation measures. Regression analyses showed that negative influence of Adjusting, Holding, Reappraisal (β = -.17, -.19, -.30) and positive influence of Suppression (β = .23) were observed on depression. For anxiety, Adjusting and Reappraisal was negatively influenced (β = -.29, and -.18). Reliability and validity of the Affective Style Questionnaire was partly confirmed. Further study is needed to clarify the culturally dependent aspects of affective styles.

  14. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  15. Factors influencing the dissolved iron input by river water to the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krachler, R.; Jirsa, F.; Ayromlou, S.

    2005-05-01

    The influence of natural metal chelators on the bio-available iron input to the ocean by river water was studied. Ferrous and ferric ions present as suspended colloidal particles maintaining the semblance of a dissolved load are coagulated and settled as their freshwater carrier is mixed with seawater at the continental boundary. However, we might argue that different iron-binding colloids become sequentially destabilized in meeting progressively increasing salinities. By use of a 59Fe tracer method, the partitioning of the iron load from the suspended and dissolved mobile fraction to storage in the sediments was measured with high accuracy in mixtures of natural river water with artificial sea water. The results show a characteristic sequence of sedimentation. Various colloids of different stability are removed from a water of increasing salinity, such as it is the case in the transition from a river water to the open sea. However, the iron transport capacities of the investigated river waters differed greatly. A mountainous river in the Austrian Alps would add only about 5% of its dissolved Fe load, that is about 2.0 µg L-1 Fe, to coastal waters. A small tributary draining a sphagnum peat-bog, which acts as a source of refractory low-molecular-weight fulvic acids to the river water, would add approximately 20% of its original Fe load, that is up to 480 µg L-1 Fe to the ocean's bio-available iron pool. This points to a natural mechanism of ocean iron fertilization by terrigenous fulvic-iron complexes originating from weathering processes occurring in the soils upstream.

  16. The ethylene response factor AtERF4 negatively regulates the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Karemera, N. J. Umuhoza; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of many conditions that can seriously damage crops. Low levels of photosynthesis can lead to the degradation of chlorophyll content and impaired respiration in affected plants, which together cause poor growth and reduce quality. Although ethylene plays an important role in responses to Fe deficiency, a limited number of studies have been carried out on ethylene response factor (ERFs) as components of plant regulation mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of AtERF4 in plant responses to Fe deficiency. Results collected when Arabidopsis thaliana was grown under Fe deficient conditions as well as in the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) revealed that leaf chlorosis did not occur over short timescales and that chloroplast structural integrity was retained. At the same time, expression of the chlorophyll degradation-related genes AtPAO and AtCLH1 was inhibited and net H+ root flux was amplified. Our results show that chlorophyll content was enhanced in the mutant erf4, while expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene AtCLH1 was reduced. Ferric reductase activity in roots was also significantly higher in the mutant than in wild type plants, while erf4 caused high levels of expression of the genes AtIRT1 and AtHA2 under Fe deficient conditions. We also utilized yeast one-hybrid technology in this study to determine that AtERF4 binds directly to the AtCLH1 and AtITR1 promoter. Observations show that transient over-expression of AtERF4 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and the up-regulation of gene AtCLH1 expression. In summary, AtERF4 plays an important role as a negative regulator of Fe deficiency responses, we hypothesize that AtERF4 may exert a balancing effect on plants subject to nutrition stress. PMID:29045490

  17. The ethylene response factor AtERF4 negatively regulates the iron deficiency response in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Karemera, N J Umuhoza; Wu, Ting; Yang, Yafei; Zhang, Xinzhong; Xu, Xuefeng; Wang, Yi; Han, Zhenhai

    2017-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of many conditions that can seriously damage crops. Low levels of photosynthesis can lead to the degradation of chlorophyll content and impaired respiration in affected plants, which together cause poor growth and reduce quality. Although ethylene plays an important role in responses to Fe deficiency, a limited number of studies have been carried out on ethylene response factor (ERFs) as components of plant regulation mechanisms. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the role of AtERF4 in plant responses to Fe deficiency. Results collected when Arabidopsis thaliana was grown under Fe deficient conditions as well as in the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) revealed that leaf chlorosis did not occur over short timescales and that chloroplast structural integrity was retained. At the same time, expression of the chlorophyll degradation-related genes AtPAO and AtCLH1 was inhibited and net H+ root flux was amplified. Our results show that chlorophyll content was enhanced in the mutant erf4, while expression of the chlorophyll degradation gene AtCLH1 was reduced. Ferric reductase activity in roots was also significantly higher in the mutant than in wild type plants, while erf4 caused high levels of expression of the genes AtIRT1 and AtHA2 under Fe deficient conditions. We also utilized yeast one-hybrid technology in this study to determine that AtERF4 binds directly to the AtCLH1 and AtITR1 promoter. Observations show that transient over-expression of AtERF4 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum and the up-regulation of gene AtCLH1 expression. In summary, AtERF4 plays an important role as a negative regulator of Fe deficiency responses, we hypothesize that AtERF4 may exert a balancing effect on plants subject to nutrition stress.

  18. Metabolic Factors Affecting Enhanced Phosphorus Uptake by Activated Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Boughton, William H.; Gottfried, Richard J.; Sinclair, Norval A.; Yall, Irving

    1971-01-01

    Activated sludges obtained from the Rilling Road plant located at San Antonio, Tex., and from the Hyperion treatment plant located at Los Angeles, Calif., have the ability to remove all of the orthophosphate normally present in Tucson sewage within 3 hr after being added to the waste water. Phosphorus removal was independent of externally supplied sources of energy and ions, since orthophosphate and 32P radioactivity were readily removed from tap water, glass-distilled water, and deionized water. Phosphorus uptake by Rilling sludge in the laboratory appears to be wholly biological, as it has an optimum pH range (7.7 to 9.7) and an optimum temperature range (24 to 37 C). It was inhibited by HgCl2, iodoacetic acid, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, NaN3, and 2, 4-dinitrophenol (compounds that affect bacterial membrane permeability, sulfhydryl enzymes, and adenosine triphosphate synthesis). Uptake was inhibited by 1% NaCl but was not affected by 10−3m ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (a chelating agent for many metallic ions). PMID:5002140

  19. A Factor Affecting Transonic Leading-edge Flow Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, George P; Gooderum, Paul B

    1956-01-01

    A change in flow pattern that was observed as the free-stream Mach number was increased in the vicinity of 0.8 was described in NACA Technical Note 1211 by Lindsey, Daley, and Humphreys. The flow on the upper surface behind the leading edge of an airfoil at an angle of attack changed abruptly from detached flow with an extensive region of separation to attached supersonic flow terminated by a shock wave. In the present paper, the consequences of shock-wave - boundary layer interaction are proposed as a factor that may be important in determining the conditions under which the change in flow pattern occurs. Some experimental evidence in support of the importance of this factor is presented.

  20. Documentation of incidental factors affecting the home healthcare work environment.

    PubMed

    Sitzman, Kathleen L; Leiss, Jack K

    2009-10-01

    Working conditions related to unrestrained pets, unruly children, clutter, and poor lighting during home healthcare visits are considered normal aspects of care providers' jobs. To date, there has been no documentation related to how often these factors are present in the home healthcare setting during home visits. In this study, 833 home healthcare nurses practicing in North Carolina answered a questionnaire that included items related to how often unrestrained pets, unruly children, poor lighting, and clutter existed in the homes they visited. Results showed that one-third to one-half of the respondents usually or always visited homes with unrestrained pets, clutter, or poor lighting and few nurses usually or always visited homes with uncontrolled children. Better understanding of the prevalence of these factors will facilitate further study related to their effects on safety, efficiency, and job satisfaction for home healthcare workers.