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Sample records for factors differentiating maternal

  1. Maternal Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 is required for the differentiation of primary superficial epithelia in Danio and Xenopus embryos

    PubMed Central

    Sabel, Jaime L.; d’Alençon, Claudia; O’Brien, Erin K.; Van Otterloo, Eric; Lutz, Katie; Cuykendall, Tawny N.; Schutte, Brian C.; Houston, Douglas W.; Cornell, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Early in the development of animal embryos, superficial cells of the blastula form a distinct lineage and adopt an epithelial morphology. In different animals, the fate of these primary superficial epithelial (PSE) cells varies, and it is unclear whether pathways governing segregation of blastomeres into the PSE lineage are conserved. Mutations in the gene encoding Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) are associated with syndromic and non-syndromic forms of cleft lip and palate, consistent with a role for Irf6 in development of oral epithelia, and mouse Irf6 targeted null mutant embryos display abnormal differentiation of oral epithelia and skin. In Danio rerio (zebrafish) and Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) embryos, zygotic irf6 transcripts are present in many epithelial tissues including the presumptive PSE cells and maternal irf6 transcripts are present throughout all cells at the blastula stage. Injection of antisense oligonucleotides with ability to disrupt translation of irf6 transcripts caused little or no effect on development. By contrast, injection of RNA encoding a putative dominant negative Irf6 caused epiboly arrest, loss of gene expression characteristic of the EVL, and rupture of the embryo at late gastrula stage. The dominant negative Irf6 disrupted EVL gene expression in a cell autonomous fashion. These results suggest Irf6 translated in the oocyte or unfertilized egg suffices for early development. Supporting the importance of maternal Irf6, we show that depletion of maternal irf6 transcripts in X. laevis embryos leads to gastrulation defects and rupture of the superficial epithelium. These experiments reveal a conserved role for maternally-encoded Irf6 in differentiation of a simple epithelium in X. laevis and D. rerio. This epithelium constitutes a novel model tissue in which to explore the Irf6 regulatory pathway. PMID:19013452

  2. [Maternal mortality: levels, trends, and differentials].

    PubMed

    Langer, A; Lozano, R; Hernandez, B

    1993-01-01

    Maternal mortality in Mexico has declined significantly over the past half century. The maternal mortality rate was 53/10,000 live births in 1940 and 5.1 in 1990. The greatest and most rapid decline occurred in the 1940s. The maternal mortality rate is still too high, and in addition the differential between Mexican rates and those of the developed countries has increased. The average age at maternal death is 29 years, a full 40 years less than potential life expectancy. The risk of death from causes related to reproduction varies substantially by educational level. Of all maternal deaths between 1986 and 1991, 26% were in illiterate women, 33% in women with incomplete primary, and 24% in those with complete primary. In 1990, the average female school attainment was complete primary. The maternal mortality rate was eight times higher among illiterate women and five times higher in those not completing primary than in those finishing preparatory. Geographically, states with low maternal mortality rates of under 3.1 are mainly located in the north and those with high maternal mortality of over 6.0 are in the south. The central zone is an intermediate area. The 1991 maternal mortality rates of Oaxaca, Puebla, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, and the state of Mexico are similar to those of Nuevo Leon 30 years ago or Aguascalientes, Sonora, and Baja California 20 years ago. 72% of maternal deaths in the 1980s occurred in rural areas. The rates were 6.5/10,000 in rural areas and 4.1/10,000 in urban areas. The maternal mortality rate also increases with marginalization. An index of marginalization constructed with census data using multivariate techniques showed that fertile aged women in very marginalized municipios had maternal mortality rates of 11.5/10,000, or a risk of death three times greater than women in municipios scoring low for marginalization. Maternal mortality continues to be a priority public health problem in Mexico. Because so many maternal deaths are preventable

  3. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    PubMed

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  4. Child Temperaments, Maternal Differential Behavior, and Sibling Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the influence of maternal differential behavior and child temperament on sibling relationships. Forty pairs of four-to-nine-year-old siblings and their mothers were observed playing in sibling dyads and mother-children triads in their homes. Mothers provided temperament ratings of their children's activity, emotional intensity, and…

  5. C-reactive protein is differentially modulated by co-existing infections, vitamin deficiencies and maternal factors in pregnant and lactating indigenous Panamanian women.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Doris; Pons, Emérita Del Carmen; Rueda, Delfina; Sinisterra, Odalis Teresa; Murillo, Enrique; Scott, Marilyn E; Koski, Kristine G

    2017-06-02

    The usefulness of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a non-specific marker of inflammation during pregnancy and lactation is unclear in impoverished populations where co-existing infections and vitamin deficiencies are common. This cross-sectional study in Panama recruited 120 pregnant and 99 lactating Ngäbe-Buglé women from 14 communities in rural Panama. Obstetric history, indoor wood smoke exposure, fieldwork, BMI, vitamins A, B12, D, and folic acid, and inflammation markers (CRP, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), plateletcrit and cytokines) were measured. Multiple regressions explored both associations of CRP with other inflammatory markers and associations of CRP and elevated CRP based on trimester-specific cut-offs with maternal factors, infections and vitamin deficiencies. CRP was higher in pregnancy (51.4 ± 4.7 nmol/L) than lactation (27.8 ± 3.5 nmol/L) and was elevated above trimester specific cut-offs in 21% of pregnant and 30% of lactating women. Vitamin deficiencies were common (vitamin A 29.6%; vitamin D 68.5%; vitamin B12 68%; folic acid 25.5%) and over 50% of women had two or more concurrent deficiencies as well as multiple infections. Multiple regression models highlighted differences in variables associated with CRP between pregnancy and lactation. In pregnancy, CRP was positively associated with greater indoor wood smoke exposure, caries and hookworm and negatively associated with Ascaris and vaginal Lactobacillus and Bacteroides/Gardnerella scores. Consistent with this, greater wood smoke exposure, caries as well as higher diplococcal infection score increased the odds of trimester-elevated CRP concentrations whereas longer gestational age lowered the likelihood of a trimester-elevated CRP. During lactation, folic acid deficiency was associated with higher CRP whereas parity, number of eosinophils and Mobiluncus score were associated with lower CRP. Also, a higher BMI and Trichomonas vaginalis score increased the likelihood of an elevated

  6. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  7. Child Health, Maternal Marital and Socioeconomic Factors, and Maternal Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarski, Dana; Witt, Whitney P.

    2013-01-01

    Although maternal socioeconomic status and health predict in part children's future health and socioeconomic prospects, it is possible that the intergenerational association flows in the other direction such that child health affects maternal outcomes. Previous research demonstrates that poor child health increases the risk of adverse maternal…

  8. Maternal exposure to 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile targets late-stage differentiation of hippocampal granule cell lineages to affect brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling and interneuron subpopulations in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Itahashi, Megu; Abe, Hajime; Tanaka, Takeshi; Mizukami, Sayaka; Kikuchihara, Yoh; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    3,3'-Iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) causes neurofilament (NF)-filled swellings in the proximal segments of many large-caliber myelinated axons. This study investigated the effect of maternal exposure to IDPN on hippocampal neurogenesis in rat offspring using pregnant rats supplemented with 0 (controls), 67 or 200 ppm IDPN in drinking water from gestational day 6 to day 21 after delivery. On postnatal day (PND) 21, female offspring subjected to analysis had decreased parvalbumin(+), reelin(+) and phospho-TrkB(+) interneurons in the dentate hilus at 200 ppm and increased granule cell populations expressing immediate-early gene products, Arc or c-Fos, at ≥  67 ppm. mRNA expression in the dentate gyrus examined at 200 ppm decreased with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) and very low density lipoprotein receptor. Immunoreactivity for phosphorylated NF heavy polypeptide decreased in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum radiatum of the cornu ammonis (CA) 3, portions showing axonal projections from mossy cells and pyramidal neurons, at 200 ppm on PND 21, whereas immunoreactivity for synaptophysin was unchanged in the dentate gyrus. Observed changes all disappeared on PND 77. There were no fluctuations in the numbers of apoptotic cells, proliferating cells and subpopulations of granule cell lineage in the subgranular zone on PND 21 and PND 77. Thus, maternal IDPN exposure may reversibly affect late-stage differentiation of granule cell lineages involving neuronal plasticity as evident by immediate-early gene responses to cause BDNF downregulation resulting in a reduction in parvalbumin(+) or reelin(+) interneurons and suppression of axonal plasticity in the mossy cells and CA3 pyramidal neurons. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  10. Differential effects of young maternal age on child growth

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Soo Hyun; Mason, John; Crum, Jennifer; Cappa, Claudia; Hotchkiss, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of early maternal birthing age with smaller children has been widely observed. However, it is unclear if this is due to confounding by factors such as socioeconomic status, or the age at which child growth restriction first occurs. Objective To examine the effect of early maternal birthing age on the first-born child's height-for-age in a sample of developing countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Design Cross-sectional data from Demographic Health Surveys from 18 countries were used, to select the first-born child of mothers aged 15–24 years and a range of potential confounding factors, including maternal height. Child length/height-for-age z-scores (HAZs) was estimated in age bands of 0–11, 12–23, 24–35, 36–47, and 48–59 months; HAZ was first compared between maternal age groups of 15–17, 18–19, and 20–24 years. Results 1) There were significant bivariate associations between low child HAZ and young maternal age (71 of 180 possible cases; at p<0.10), but the majority of these did not persist when controlling for confounders (41 cases, 23% of the 180). 2) For children <12 months, when controlling for confounders, three out of seven Asian countries showed a significant association between lower infant HAZ and low maternal age, as did six out of nine African countries (15–17 or 15–19 years vs. the older group). 3) The association (adjusted) continued after 24 months in 12 of the 18 countries, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. 4) The stunting differences for children between maternal age groups were around 9 percentage points (ppts) in Asia, 14 ppts in Africa, and 10 ppts in Latin America. These data do not show whether this is due to, for example, socioeconomic factors that were not included, an emerging effect of intrauterine growth restriction, or the child feeding or caring behaviors of young mothers. The latter is considered to be the most likely. Conclusions The effect of low maternal age on child height

  11. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    PubMed

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Noninheritable Maternal Factors Useful for Genetic Manipulation in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Shindo, Takayuki; Sato, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian early embryogenesis is supported by maternal factors, such as messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteins, produced and accumulated during oogenesis at least up to the stage when zygotic activation commences. These maternal factors are involved in biologically important events such as epigenetic activation, reprogramming, and mitochondrial growth. Most of these maternal mRNAs are degraded by the 2-cell to 4 ~ 8-cell stages. Maternal proteins, which are produced during oogenesis or by the maternal mRNAs, are degraded by the 4 ~ 8-cell stage. In other words, the maternal factors exist during specific stages of early embryogenesis. In this chapter, we will briefly summarize the property of these maternal factors and mention possible applications of these factors for developing new reproduction engineering-related technologies and producing genetically modified animals. More specifically, we will show the usefulness of maternally accumulated Cas9 protein as a promising tool for CRISPR-/Cas9-based simultaneous genetic modification of multiple loci in mammals.

  13. Our stolen figures: the interface of sexual differentiation, endocrine disruptors, maternal programming, and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jill E; Brozek, Jeremy M; Keen-Rhinehart, Erin

    2014-06-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". The prevalence of adult obesity has risen markedly in the last quarter of the 20th century and has not been reversed in this century. Less well known is the fact that obesity prevalence has risen in domestic, laboratory, and feral animals, suggesting that all of these species have been exposed to obesogenic factors present in the environment. This review emphasizes interactions among three biological processes known to influence energy balance: Sexual differentiation, endocrine disruption, and maternal programming. Sexual dimorphisms include differences between males and females in body weight, adiposity, adipose tissue distribution, ingestive behavior, and the underlying neural circuits. These sexual dimorphisms are controlled by sex chromosomes, hormones that masculinize or feminize adult body weight during perinatal development, and hormones that act during later periods of development, such as puberty. Endocrine disruptors are natural and synthetic molecules that attenuate or block normal hormonal action during these same developmental periods. A growing body of research documents effects of endocrine disruptors on the differentiation of adipocytes and the central nervous system circuits that control food intake, energy expenditure, and adipose tissue storage. In parallel, interest has grown in epigenetic influences, including maternal programming, the process by which the mother's experience has permanent effects on energy-balancing traits in the offspring. This review highlights the points at which maternal programming, sexual differentiation, and endocrine disruption might dovetail to influence global changes in energy balancing traits. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Infantile colic: maternal smoking as potential risk factor

    PubMed Central

    Reijneveld, S.; Brugman, E.; Hirasing, R.

    2000-01-01

    The association of maternal smoking and type of feeding with colic was assessed in 3345 children aged 1-6 months (96% response). The prevalence of colic was twofold higher among infants of smoking mothers, but less among breastfed infants. Maternal smoking as a potential risk factor for infantile crying needs further study.

 PMID:10999861

  15. Differential maternal treatment of infant twins: effects of infant behaviors.

    PubMed

    DiLalla, L F; Bishop, E G

    1996-11-01

    This project utilized twins to study differential mother-sibling interactions. The use of twins circumvented the traditional confounds of studying siblings of different ages or at two points in time. When the twins were 7 and 9 months of age, mothers spent 2.5 min alone with each infant in an attempt to elicit child vocalizations. The mother and infant behaviors were coded both microanalytically and globally. The infant attention behaviors were influenced primarily by unique environment, whereas the temperament behaviors were influenced by both unique environmental and genetic effects. Mothers tended to treat both children similarly, regardless of zygosity, suggesting that maternal characteristics drove the mother-infant interactions. Thus, even though identical twins were more similar on some measures than fraternal twins, mothers tended to treat both types of twins comparably regardless of infant characteristics or behaviors.

  16. Maternal factors associated with child behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lynne A; Rayens, Mary Kay; Peden, Ann R

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of risk factors in predicting young children's behavior problems may provide insights for the development of preventive interventions. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify maternal predictors of children's internalizing and externalizing behaviors in a volunteer sample of 205 low-income, single mothers with children between 2 and 6 years of age. Data were collected on chronic stressors, self-esteem, negative thinking, depressive symptoms, and child behavior during in-home interviews with the mothers. Mothers' reports of internalizing and externalizing behaviors did not differ by sex or race of the child. Chronic stressors and depressive symptoms, in addition to control variables, explained 27% of the variability in internalizing behavior while these two variables accounted for 21% of the variability in externalizing behavior. For both internalizing and externalizing behavior, chronic stressors exerted the largest total effects. The effects of self-esteem and negative thinking were indirect, with the latter playing a stronger role. The indirect effect of negative thinking on child behavior was exerted through depressive symptoms, while self-esteem was linked with child behavior through both negative thinking and depressive symptoms. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking, a variable amenable to intervention, may not only decrease a mother's depressive symptoms but also improve her perception of the child's behavior. Decreasing mothers' negative thinking may provide a way to reduce their depressive symptoms and result in fewer behavior problems among their young children. Nurses working in primary care and community-based settings are in key positions to address this problem and improve the mental health of low-income mothers and positively affect the behavior of their children.

  17. Maternal and neonatal factors related to prematurity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Laura Leismann de; Gonçalves, Annelise de Carvalho; Costa, Juvenal Soares Dias da; Bonilha, Ana Lucia de Lourenzi

    2016-01-01

    To identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with prematurity in the municipality of Porto Alegre. This was a population-based case-control study. The cases were newborns under 37 weeks of gestation and the controls were newborns over 37 weeks. The data came from the records of 19,457 births in the city of Porto Alegre in the year 2012 from the Information System on Live Births of the Municipal Health Department. The analysis was carried outand adjusted by a Logistic Regression according to a hierarchical model. The variables studied were allocated into three hierarchy levels: sociodemographic variables; reproductive history; and gestational and birth factors. There were 767 cases allocated and 1,534 controls in a design of a case for two controls (1:2) by simple randomization. In the final model, a statistically significant association was found for prematurity for the following variables: mother's age under 19 years old (OR=1.32; CI 95%: 1.02-1.71) or over 34 years old (OR=1.39; CI 95%: 1.12-1.72); inadequate maternal schooling for age (OR=2.11; CI 95%: 1.22-3.65); multiple pregnancies (OR=1.14; CI 95%: 1.01-1.29); C-section (OR=1.15; CI 95%: 1.03-1.29); birth weights under 2,500g (OR=4.04; CI 95%: 3.64-4.49); Apgar score at five minutes between zero and three (OR=1.47; CI 95%: 1.12-1.91); and inadequate prenatal care (OR=1.18; CI 95%: 1.02-1.36). The present study showed the most immediate consequence of prematurity for newborns by evidencing its association with worse Apgar scores and low birth weight. The following factors were also shown as possible more distal determinants of prematurity: mother's age; inadequate maternal education; multiple gestation; inadequate prenatal care; and C-section. Identificar fatores maternos e neonatais associados à prematuridade no município de Porto Alegre. Estudo do tipo caso-controle de base populacional. Os casos foram recém-nascidos com menos de 37 semanas de gestação, e os controles foram os rec

  18. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (<20 kg/m2), parity of 4 and above, Indian origin, economically under privileged, and low and high blood pressure. Blood pressure during pregnancy was an important risk factor for LBW, by using this parameter alone the risk of LBW could be predicted with a sensitivity rate of 70% and a specificity rate of 70%. The sensitivity and specificity was further improved to 80% and 75% percent respectively when other factors like maternal factors such as maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, ethnicity, and per capita monthly income were included in the analysis.

  19. Community level risk factors for maternal mortality in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Julio C; Moser, Christine M

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores the effect of risk and socioeconomic factors on maternal mortality at the community level in Madagascar using a unique, nationwide panel of communes (i.e., counties). Previous work in this area uses individual or cross-country data to study maternal mortality, however, studying maternal mortality at the community level is imperative because this is the level at which most policy is implemented. The results show that longer travel time from the community to the hospital leads to a high level of maternal mortality. The findings suggest that improvement to transportation systems and access to hospitals with surgery rooms are needed to deal with obstetric complications and reduce maternal mortality.

  20. Evaluating Iowa Severe Maternal Morbidity Trends and Maternal Risk Factors: 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, Brittni N; Lillehoj, Catherine J; Kane, Debra J; Goodman, Dave; Rankin, Kristin

    2017-07-25

    Objectives To describe statewide SMM trends in Iowa from 2009 to 2014 and identify maternal characteristics associated with SMM, overall and by age group. Methods We used 2009-2014 linked Iowa birth certificate and hospital discharge data to calculate SMM based on a 25-condition definition and 24-condition definition. The 24-condition definition parallels the 25-condition definition, but excludes blood transfusions. We calculated SMM rates for all delivery hospitalizations (N = 196,788) using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. We used log-binomial regression to assess the association of SMM with maternal characteristics, overall and stratified by age groupings. Results In contrast to national rates, Iowa's 25-condition SMM rate decreased from 2009 to 2014. Based on the 25-condition definition, SMM rates were significantly higher among women <20 years and >34 years compared to women 25-34 years. Blood transfusion was the most prevalent indicator, with hysterectomy and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) among the top five conditions. Based on the 24-condition definition, younger women had the lowest SMM rates and older women had the highest SMM rates. SMM rates were also significantly higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to non-Hispanic white women. Payer was the only risk factor differentially associated with SMM across age groups. First trimester prenatal care initiation was protective for SMM in all models. Conclusions High rates of blood transfusion, hysterectomy, and DIC indicate a need to focus on reducing hemorrhage in Iowa. Both younger and older women and racial/ethnic minorities are identified as high risk groups for SMM that may benefit from special consideration and focus.

  1. Cesarean delivery in Finland: maternal complications and obstetric risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pallasmaa, Nanneli; Ekblad, Ulla; Aitokallio-Tallberg, Ansa; Uotila, Jukka; Raudaskoski, Tytti; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Hurme, Saija

    2010-07-01

    To assess the rate of maternal complications related to cesarean section (CS) and to compare morbidity between elective, emergency and crash-emergency CS. To establish risk factors associated with maternal CS morbidity. A prospective multicenter cohort study. Twelve delivery units in Finland. Women delivering by CS (n = 2,496) during a 6 months period in the study hospitals. Data on pregnant women, CS, and maternal recovery during the hospital stay was collected prospectively on report forms. The complication rates by different CSs were calculated, and factors associated with morbidity were analyzed by odds ratios (OR). Maternal complication rates in different types of CS. The association of risk factors with morbidity. About 27% of women delivering by CS had complications; 10% had severe complications. The complication rate was higher in emergency CS than in elective CS, and highest in crash-emergency CS. Significant independent risk factors for maternal morbidity were emergency CS and crash-emergency CS compared to elective CS (OR 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.2), pre-eclampsia (OR 1.5; CI 1.1-2.0), maternal obesity (OR 1.4; CI 1.1-1.8) and maternal increasing age (OR 1.1; CI 1.03-1.2 per each 5 years). Maternal complications are frequent in CS, and although performing CS electively reduces the occurrence of complications, the frequency is still high. The complication rate depends on the degree of emergency, and increases with maternal obesity, older age and pre-eclampsia.

  2. Maternal environmental risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kalyvas, Aristotelis V; Kalamatianos, Theodosis; Pantazi, Mantha; Lianos, Georgios D; Stranjalis, George; Alexiou, George A

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Congenital hydrocephalus (CH) is one of the most frequent CNS congenital malformations, representing an entity with serious pathological consequences. Although several studies have previously assessed child-related risk factors associated with CH development, there is a gap of knowledge on maternal environmental risk factors related to CH. The authors have systematically assessed extrinsic factors in the maternal environment that potentially confer an increased risk of CH development. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE were systematically searched for works published between 1966 and December 2015 to identify all relevant articles published in English. Only studies that investigated environmental risk factors concerning the mother-either during gestation or pregestationally-were included. RESULTS In total, 13 studies (5 cohorts, 3 case series, 3 case-control studies, 1 meta-analysis, and 1 case report) meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Maternal medication or alcohol use during gestation; lifestyle modifiable maternal pathologies such as obesity, diabetes, or hypertension; lack of prenatal care; and a low socioeconomic status were identified as significant maternal environmental risk factors for CH development. Maternal infections and trauma to the mother during pregnancy have also been highlighted as potential mother-related risk factors for CH. CONCLUSIONS Congenital hydrocephalus is an important cause of serious infant health disability that can lead to health inequalities among adults. The present study identified several maternal environmental risk factors for CH, thus yielding important scientific information relevant to prevention of some CH cases. However, further research is warranted to confirm the impact of the identified factors and examine their underlying behavioral and/or biological basis, leading to the generation of suitable prevention strategies.

  3. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Gossage, J. Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother’s body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD. PMID:23580036

  4. Maternal Undernourished Fetal Kidneys Exhibit Differential Regulation of Nephrogenic Genes Including Downregulation of the Notch Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Thomas R.; Tafti, Sanaz A.; Desai, Mina; Liu, Qinghai; Ross, Michael G.; Nast, Cynthia C

    2011-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition results in offspring nephron number reduction and hypertension that are hypothesized to begin as compensatory changes in fetal gene expression during gestation. To evaluate mechanisms of dysregulated nephrogenesis, pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were 50% food restricted from embryonic day (E) 10 to E20. At E20, fetal male kidneys were examined by microarray analysis. A total of 476 differentially expressed transcripts were detected including those regulating development and differentiation, mitosis and cell cycle, chromatin assembly, and steroid hormone regulation. Differentially regulated genes were detected in MAPK/ERK, Wnt, and Notch signaling pathways. Validation of the microarray results was performed for the Notch signaling pathway, an important pathway in nephron formation. Protein expression of Notch pathway factors by Western blotting showed significantly decreased Notch2 and downstream effector Hey1 protein expression, while Ctbp1 co-repressor was increased. These data together show that maternal undernutrition results in developmental disruption in fetal nephrogenesis gene expression signaling. PMID:21273641

  5. Relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Ogun, S; Onder, H

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between maternal intrinsic factors and placental traits was investigated on three Southern Mediterranean breed of sheep; Cukurova Assaf (CA), Cukurova (C) and Cukurova Meat Sheep (CMS). The effect of parity and birth type were also considered in the study as a potential influencing factor. Our hypothesis was to show that while differences in placental traits between breed, parity and birth type affected lamb condition and survivability, its correlation to maternal intrinsic behavioral factors may also be a strong indicator. The study found breed related differences of maternal behavioral factors and also showed significant correlation of these behavioral patterns to various placental traits. It confirmed earlier findings that parity played a major role in the refinement of these behavioral patterns. Significant differences in birth weight (P<0.05), placental weight (P<0.05), number of cotyledons (P<0.01) and cotyledon length (P<0.05) was seen between breeds. Cotyledon weight (P<0.05), width (P<0.01) and length (P<0.05) were found to differ by parity. Breed and parity interaction significantly influenced cotyledon quantity. While we detected breed specific differences in relation to maternal intrinsic factors we also noticed significant variance within breeds to these behavioral patterns when linked to placental traits. Further study is required on the correlation between placental traits and postnatal behavior on not just the ewes but also on their lambs. This could have a significant bearing on how producers manage and maximize lamb survivability.

  6. Factors influencing maternal mortality among rural communities in southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Azuh, Dominic Ezinwa; Azuh, Akunna Ebere; Iweala, Emeka Joshua; Adeloye, Davies; Akanbi, Moses; Mordi, Raphael C

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity reflect the status of population health and quality of life across nations. Poor understanding of the interplay of many antecedent factors, including sociocultural, economic and logistic factors, combined with an overwhelming poor health services delivery, is a basic challenge in several countries, particularly in rural settings where functional health care services are relatively scarce. There are still uncertainties as to the extent of this burden, owing to current challenges with information and data collation. This study aimed at identifying nonmedical factors associated with maternal mortality in rural and semiurban communities of southwestern Nigeria. Methodology The study was carried out in Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area of Ogun State. A multistage sampling technique and an informant survey approach were used in the study. A total sample of 360 eligible respondents were selected randomly from 11 out of 16 political wards in the study area and interviewed through the administration of questionnaires. The data were processed using descriptive statistics and regression analyses. Results Place of consultation (P=0.000), who pays the treatment costs (P=0.000), awareness of pregnancy complications (P=0.002) and knowledge of the place of antenatal care treatment (P=0.000) significantly influenced maternal mortality (proxy by place of delivery of last birth). The F-statistic (15.100) confirmed the hypothesis that nonmedical factors influence maternal mortality. The correlation of predictor variables was significant at both the 0.01 level and the 0.05 level (2-tailed). Conclusion Our findings suggest that in a rural community setting with a depleted health care system, health education tailored toward community culture, subsidized maternal health care services by the government and operators of private clinics, as well as empowering and improving the status of women may reduce maternal mortality and prompt better

  7. Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M; Thulasiraj, Ravilla D; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, Sheela; Yanik, Elizabeth L; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy-related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk.

  8. Risk factors for maternal night blindness in rural South India

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Tielsch, James M.; Thulasiraj, R. D.; Coles, Christian; Sheeladevi, S.; Yanik, Elizabeth L.; Rahmathullah, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with maternal night blindness in rural South India. Methods At delivery, women enrolled in a population-based trial of newborn vitamin A supplementation were asked whether they were night blind at any time during the pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, demographic, and pregnancy related factors associated with maternal night blindness. Results Women reported night blindness in 687 (5.2%) of 13,171 pregnancies. In a multivariate model, having a concrete roof (Odds Ratio (OR): 0.60, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.47, 0.78), religion other than Hindu (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.76), maternal literacy (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.69), and maternal age from 25 to 29 years (OR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.50, 0.93) were associated with a lower risk of night blindness in pregnancy. The odds of night blindness were higher for those leasing rather than owning land (OR: 1.78, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.93), parity 6 or more compared to 0 (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.09, 4.08), and with twin pregnancies (OR: 3.23, 95% CI: 1.93, 5.41). Factors not associated with night blindness in the multivariate model were other markers of socioeconomic status such as electricity in the house, radio and television ownership, type of cooking fuel, and household transportation, and number of children under 5 years of age in the household. Conclusions Maternal night blindness was prevalent in this population. Being pregnant with twins and of higher parity put women at higher risk. Maternal literacy and higher socioeconomic status lowered the risk. PMID:19437315

  9. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kwast, B E; Liff, J M

    1988-03-01

    A housing probability survey in which 9315 women were interviewed was conducted in 1983 to detect the incidence and aetiology of maternal mortality in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Maternal mortality for the two-year period from 11 September 1981 was 350/100,000 livebirths (excluding abortions). A logistic regression analysis selected antenatal care, occupation and income as risk factors for maternal mortality, after adjusting for age, parity, education and marital status. Odds ratios were 2.5 for unbooked women compared to those receiving antenatal care, about 3 for students, and maids/janitresses compared to housewives, and between 3 and 5 for those earning less than US$25 monthly, compared to those earning US$150 or more.

  10. Maternal mortality in rural Gambia: levels, causes and contributing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Walraven, G.; Telfer, M.; Rowley, J.; Ronsmans, C.

    2000-01-01

    A demographic study carried out in a rural area of the Gambia between January 1993 and December 1998 recorded 74 deaths among women aged 15-49 years. Reported here is an estimation of maternal mortality among these 74 deaths based on a survey of reproductive age mortality, which identified 18 maternal deaths by verbal autopsy. Over the same period there were 4245 live births in the study area, giving a maternal mortality ratio of 424 per 100,000 live births. This maternal mortality estimate is substantially lower than estimates made in the 1980s, which ranged from 1005 to 2362 per 100,000 live births, in the same area. A total of 9 of the 18 deaths had a direct obstetric cause--haemorrhage (6 deaths), early pregnancy (2), and obstructed labour (1). Indirect causes of obstetric deaths were anaemia (4 deaths), hepatitis (1), and undetermined (4). Low standards of health care for obstetric referrals, failure to recognize the severity of the problem at the community level, delays in starting the decision-making process to seek health care, lack of transport, and substandard primary health care were identified more than once as probable or possible contributing factors to these maternal deaths. PMID:10859854

  11. Atrial natriuretic factor in maternal and fetal sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, C.Y.; Gibbs, D.M.; Brace, R.A.

    1987-02-01

    To determine atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) concentrations in the circulation and body fluids of adult pregnant sheep and their fetuses, pregnant ewes were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and the fetuses were exteriorized for sampling. ANF concentration, as measured by radioimmunoassay, was 47 +/- 6 (SE) pg/ml in maternal plasma, which was significantly higher than the 15 +/- 3 pg/ml in maternal urine. In the fetus, plasma ANF concentration was 265 +/- 49 pg/ml, 5.6 times that in maternal plasma. No umbilical arterial and venous difference in ANF concentration was observed. Fetal urine ANF concentration was significantly lower than that in fetal plasma, and was similar to that measured in amniotic and allantoic fluid. In chronically catheterized maternal and fetal sheep, fetal plasma ANF was again 5.1 times that in maternal plasma, and these levels were not different from those measured in acutely anesthetized animals. These results demonstrate that immunoreactive ANF is present in the fetal circulation at levels higher than those found in the mother. The low concentration of ANF in fetal urine suggests that ANF is probably metabolized and/or reabsorbed by the fetal kidney.

  12. Maternal Depression as a Risk Factor for Family Homelessness

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. Methods. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. Results. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. Conclusions. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness. PMID:25033116

  13. Maternal depression as a risk factor for family homelessness.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Marah A; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2014-09-01

    We estimated the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum year, which is often an unexpected event, on subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness in a national sample of urban, mostly low-income mothers. We used logistic regression models to estimate associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and both homelessness and risk of homelessness 2 to 3 years later, controlling for maternal and family history of depression, prenatal housing problems, and other covariates. Risk factors for homelessness included experiencing evictions or frequent moves and moving in with family or friends and not paying rent. We found robust associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and subsequent homelessness and risk of homelessness, even among mothers who had no history of mental illness, whose own mothers did not have a history of depressive symptoms, and who had no previous housing problems. This study provides robust evidence that maternal mental illness places families with young children at risk for homelessness, contributes to the scant literature elucidating directional and causal links between mental illness and homelessness, and contributes to a stagnant but important literature on family homelessness.

  14. The role of family and maternal factors in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lisa Y; Byrne, Susan M; Davis, Elizabeth A; Blair, Eve; Jacoby, Peter; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2007-06-04

    To investigate the relationship between a child's weight and a broad range of family and maternal factors. Cross-sectional data from a population-based prospective study, collected between January 2004 and December 2005, for 329 children aged 6-13 years (192 healthy weight, 97 overweight and 40 obese) and their mothers (n=265) recruited from a paediatric hospital endocrinology department and eight randomly selected primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) of children and mothers; demographic information; maternal depression, anxiety, stress and self-esteem; general family functioning; parenting style; and negative life events. In a multilevel model, maternal BMI and family structure (single-parent v two-parent families) were the only significant predictors of child BMI z scores. Childhood obesity is not associated with adverse maternal or family characteristics such as maternal depression, negative life events, poor general family functioning or ineffective parenting style. However, having an overweight mother and a single-parent (single-mother) family increases the likelihood of a child being overweight or obese.

  15. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  16. Differential Susceptibility to the Effects of Child Temperament on Maternal Warmth and Responsiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and…

  17. Maternal supplementation differentially affects the mother and newborn.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Although studying the effect of supplementation on maternal health or the outcome of pregnancy was not a primary goal of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study, many important findings in these areas were produced. As part of the study, a food supplementation program was implemented. Two villages received Atole, a gruel containing protein and energy, and 2 matched villages received a refreshing, low-energy drink containing no protein. Both drinks contained micronutrients. Some women did not choose to consume the supplements and those who did consumed widely varying amounts. More volume of Fresco was consumed than Atole. The energy in the supplements improved birthweight, with no apparent additional benefit from protein or micronutrients. Researchers identified several groups of women who benefited from supplementation more than others by having babies with higher birthweights, including those with poorer current nutritional status and those who consumed high amounts of the supplement continuously from one pregnancy to the next. Results from the study provided an early indication that supplementation might increase the duration of gestation and, thus, reduce preterm birth. On the other hand, maternal supplementation did not substantially alter the duration of postpartum amenorrhea once concurrent infant supplementation was taken into account. Finally, findings from this study provided evidence of a biological trade-off between maintenance of maternal nutritional status and increasing fetal size that was responsive to both current maternal nutritional status and supplement intake but not to the mother's nutritional status earlier in life.

  18. Differential susceptibility in a developmental perspective: DRD4 and maternal sensitivity predicting externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Linting, Mariëlle; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2015-01-01

    This study is the first to investigate the longitudinal effects of gene-environment interplay between DRD4 genotype and maternal sensitivity on child externalizing behavior. Multiple measures of maternal sensitivity (14, 36, and 48 months) and externalizing behavior (18 months, 36 months, and 5 years) were assessed in a large cohort study (N = 548). Early maternal insensitivity (14 months) was associated with early externalizing behavior (18 months) in a for better and for worse manner, but only in children with at least one DRD4 7-repeat, consistent with a differential susceptibility model. Later insensitivity (48 months) predicted externalizing behavior at age 5 independent of DRD4 genotype. A structural equation model including all measures across time supported the differential susceptibility model: The overall effect of early maternal sensitivity on later externalizing behavior was significant only for children with a DRD4 7-repeat allele. The results highlight the importance of studying gene-environment interactions across development.

  19. Differential susceptibility to maternal expressed emotion in children with ADHD and their siblings? Investigating plasticity genes, prosocial and antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer S; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-02-01

    The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantaged in positive environments. Understanding gene-environment interactions may help unravel the causal mechanisms involved in multifactorial psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The differential susceptibility theory was examined by investigating the presence of interaction effects between maternal expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and the solitary and combined effects of plasticity genes (DAT1, DRD4, 5-HTT) on prosocial and antisocial behaviour (measured with parent- and self-reports) in children with ADHD and their siblings (N = 366, M = 17.11 years, 74.9% male). Maternal warmth was positively associated with prosocial behaviour and negatively with antisocial behaviour, while maternal criticism was positively associated with antisocial behaviour and negatively with prosocial behaviour. No evidence of differential susceptibility was found. The current study found no evidence for differential susceptibility based on the selected plasticity genes, in spite of strong EE-behaviour associations. It is likely that additional factors play a role in the complex relationship between genes, environment and behaviour.

  20. Differential Susceptibility to Maternal Expressed Emotion in Children with ADHD and their Siblings? Investigating Plasticity Genes, Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Vásquez, Alejandro Arias; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The differential susceptibility theory states that children differ in their susceptibility towards environmental experiences, partially due to plasticity genes. Individuals carrying specific variants in such genes will be more disadvantaged in negative but, conversely, more advantageous in positive environments. Understanding gene-environment interactions may help unravel the causal mechanisms involved in multifactorial psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Methods The differential susceptibility theory was examined by investigating the presence of interaction effects between maternal expressed emotion (EE; warmth and criticism) and the solitary and combined effects of plasticity genes (DAT1, DRD4, 5-HTT) on prosocial and antisocial behaviour (measured with parent- and self-reports) in children with ADHD and their siblings (N=366, M=17.11 years, 74.9 % male). Results Maternal warmth was positively associated with prosocial behaviour and negatively with antisocial behaviour, while maternal criticism was positively associated with antisocial behaviour and negatively with prosocial behaviour. No evidence of differential susceptibility was found. Conclusions The current study found no evidence for differential susceptibility based on the selected plasticity genes, in spite of strong EE-behaviour associations. It is likely that additional factors play a role in the complex relationship between genes, environment and behaviour. PMID:24929324

  1. Maternal perception of fetal movement type: the effect of gestational age and maternal factors.

    PubMed

    Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Sheikh, Mahdi; Shariat, Mamak; Farahani, Zahra

    2015-04-01

    To assess maternal perception of fetal movement types and its association with maternal factors in normal pregnancies with good pregnancy outcome. This study was conducted on 729 normotensive singleton pregnant women with good pregnancy outcome who had referred for prenatal visit. After completing a questionnaire, the participants were asked to count fetal movements for 1 h/3 times/day. They were also asked to identify the type of fetal movement: general body movement (GBM) (rolling and stretching/strong), isolated limb movement (ILM; simple flutter or kicks/weak), trunk movement (TM) (strong jab, startle/strong), or hiccup movement (HM) (high frequency and rapid/weak). All the participants were followed till delivery to exclude pregnant women with preterm birth and/or small for gestational age from the study. 90.8% of participants perceived GBM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.18-4.4). 74.2% of participants perceived TM, which was associated with multiparity (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.18-2.4). 86.3% perceived ILM, which was independently associated with maternal unemployment (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 1.53-4.68), lower gestational age (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.28-3.67), perception of fetal movements at night (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.27-3.32), and multiparity (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.04-2.72). 36.6% perceived HM, which was independently associated with higher gestational age (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.2-2.44). Most pregnant women could discriminate changes in fetal movement type that follow a general pattern through the third gestational trimester, however this can be affected by maternal employment, parity and time of perception.

  2. [Maternal factors associated with low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Heredia-Olivera, Karen; Munares-García, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: En el Perú, el bajo peso al nacimiento es un indicador de riesgo de problemas perinatales y de la infancia, el objetivo del estudio fue determinar los factores maternos asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento. Métodos: Estudio de casos y controles, en 123 recién nacidos de bajo peso (casos) y 123 recién nacidos de peso normal (controles) pareados por fecha de nacimiento y distrito. Se indagaron factores maternos asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento y se comparó entre casos y controles. Se aplicó Chi cuadrada, Odds ratio (OR) con sus intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%), regresión logística binaria y curva ROC. Resultados: Se encontraron asociaciones para antecedentes maternos de bajo peso (OR: 41.1; IC 95%: 5.5-306.7); prematuridad (OR: 12.0; IC 95%: 1.5-94.3), antecedente de eclampsia (OR: 5.8; IC 95%: 1.9-17.4), 1 a 3 controles prenatales (OR: 5.7; IC 95%: 2.6-12.3), gestación múltiple (OR: 4.7; IC 95%: 1.3-17.0) y consumo de tabaco (OR: 3.8; IC 95%: 1.5-9.8), el no ser adolescente (OR: 0.3; IC 95%: 0.1-0.6), y no tener un intervalo intergenésico corto (OR: 0.2; IC 95%: 0.1-0.7). El análisis multivariado nos indicó que el tener entre 1 a 3 controles prenatales, gestación múltiple, ser adolescente y un intervalo intergenésico corto se asocian al bajo peso al nacimiento, el modelo propuesto explicó el 18.6% del evento, el área bajo la curva fue 72.9% considerando que predice adecuadamente (p ˂ 0.001). Conclusiones: Existen factores de riesgo materno asociados al bajo peso al nacimiento en gestantes de zona urbana de la costa como el tener de 1 a 3 controles prenatales, gestación múltiple, ser adolescente y tener un periodo entre embarazos menor a dos años.

  3. Growth Models of Maternal Smoking Behavior: Individual and Contextual Factors.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Elizabeth A; Liu, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    Persistent maternal smoking during pregnancy, reduction or cessation during pregnancy, and smoking initiation or resumption postpartum impel further research to understand these behavioral patterns and opportunities for intervention. We investigated heterogenous longitudinal patterns of smoking quantity to determine if these patterns vary across three maternal age groups, and whether the influence of individual and contextual risk factors varies by maternal age. Separate general growth mixture models were estimated for mothers ages 15-25, 26-35, and 36+, allowing different empirical patterns of an ordinal measure of smoking behavior at six time points, from preconception through child entry to kindergarten. We identify five classes for mothers ages 15-25, four classes for ages 26-35, and three classes for ages 36+. Each age group presents classes of nonsmokers and persistent heavy smokers. Intermediate to these ends of the spectrum, each age group exhibited its own smoking classes characterized by the extent of pregnancy smoking reductions and postpartum behavior. In all three age groups, class membership can be distinguished by individual sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Co-resident smokers predicted nearly all smoking classifications across age groups, and selected neighborhood characteristics predicted classification of younger (15-25) and older (36+) mothers. The design, timing, and delivery of smoking prevention and cessation services, for women seeking to become pregnant and for women presenting for prenatal or pediatric care, are best guided by individual characteristics, particularly maternal age, preconception alcohol consumption, and postpartum depression, but neighborhood characteristics merit further attention for mothers at different ages.

  4. Antibody production in early life supported by maternal lymphocyte factors.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Michio; Huang, Yi-Ying; Goji, Hiroshi

    2003-01-20

    To examine the influence of maternal lymphocyte factors on the immune responses in offspring in early life, antibody production in neonates born to either normal or lymphocyte-deficient mothers was analyzed. Recombination activating gene (Rag)-2(+/-) mouse neonates born to Rag-2(+/+), Rag-2(+/-)or Rag-2(-/-)mothers were injected with goat anti-mouse IgD antiserum, and IgE and IgG(1) production was evaluated. The levels of IgE and IgG(1) were higher in the pups born to Rag-2(+/+)and Rag-2(+/-) dams than to lymphocyte-deficient Rag-2(-/-) dams. The enhanced antibody production in the former compared with the latter neonates was also found following immunization with ovalbumin or TNP-Ficoll. Thus, the presence of maternal lymphocyte factors was suggested in neonates that augmented antigen-specific antibody production in both T cell-dependent and -independent pathways. A reduction in antibody production was observed in normal neonates when they were foster-nursed by Rag-2(-/-) mothers. Thus, the maternal lymphocyte factors enhancing the immune responses in newborns were shown to be present in breast-milk.

  5. Factors associated with maternal death in an intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Saintrain, Suzanne Vieira; de Oliveira, Juliana Gomes Ramalho; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Bruno, Zenilda Vieira; Borges, Juliana Lima Nogueira; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; da Silva Jr, Geraldo Bezerra

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with maternal death in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a maternal intensive care unit. All medical records of patients admitted from January 2012 to December 2014 were reviewed. Pregnant and puerperal women were included; those with diagnoses of hydatidiform mole, ectopic pregnancy, or anembryonic pregnancy were excluded, as were patients admitted for non-obstetrical reasons. Death and hospital discharge were the outcomes subjected to comparative analysis. Results A total of 373 patients aged 13 to 45 years were included. The causes for admission to the intensive care unit were hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, followed by heart disease, respiratory failure, and sepsis; complications included acute kidney injury (24.1%), hypotension (15.5%), bleeding (10.2%), and sepsis (6.7%). A total of 28 patients died (7.5%). Causes of death were hemorrhagic shock, multiple organ failure, respiratory failure, and sepsis. The independent risk factors associated with death were acute kidney injury (odds ratio [OR] = 6.77), hypotension (OR = 15.08), and respiratory failure (OR = 3.65). Conclusion The frequency of deaths was low. Acute kidney injury, hypotension, and respiratory insufficiency were independent risk factors for maternal death. PMID:28099637

  6. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms.

  7. Neonatal-maternal factors and perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood.

    PubMed

    Lien, Guang-Wen; Huang, Ching-Chun; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Chen, Mei-Huei; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Chia-Yang; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Chen, Pau-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) can cross the placenta, enter fetal circulation, and were found to correlate with adverse fetal growth. However, determinants of cord blood PFASs are not fully characterized. The study aimed to explore the association between PFASs and neonatal-maternal factors within a Taiwanese birth cohort. We selected subjects from Taiwan Birth Panel Study, which enrolled 486 infant-mother pairs in 2004-2005. We collected cord blood and analyzed perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctanyl sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUA) using a simple protein precipitation and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. We retrieved information pertaining to maternal socio-demographics, lifestyle- and dietary-related factors through structured questionnaires during the postpartum hospital stay. A total of 439 subjects, with 90% response rate, have completed serum analysis and questionnaire survey. The median concentrations for PFOA, PFOS, PFNA, and PFUA in cord blood were 1.86, 5.67, 3.00, and 13.5ngmL(-1), respectively. After adjusting for potential confounders, multiple linear regression models revealed that log10-PFOA was positively associated with maternal age (β=0.011) and negatively associated with multiparity (β=-0.044). Log10-PFOS was negatively correlated with birth weight (β=-0.011) and higher maternal education (senior high school: β=-0.067; university: β=-0.088). Log10-PFUA tended to negatively associate with gender, male infants (β=-0.075), and using cosmetics during pregnancy (β=-0.065). Interestingly, presence of cockroaches in the home was positively associated with log10-PFOA (β=0.041) and 1og10-PFNA (β=0.123). In conclusion, this study demonstrated several factors to correlate with cord blood PFASs and further investigation are still needed for confirmation of exposure routes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Maternal lifestyle and environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lyall, Kristen; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past 10 years, research into environmental risk factors for autism has grown dramatically, bringing evidence that an array of non-genetic factors acting during the prenatal period may influence neurodevelopment. Methods: This paper reviews the evidence on modifiable preconception and/or prenatal factors that have been associated, in some studies, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), including nutrition, substance use and exposure to environmental agents. This review is restricted to human studies with at least 50 cases of ASD, having a valid comparison group, conducted within the past decade and focusing on maternal lifestyle or environmental chemicals. Results: Higher maternal intake of certain nutrients and supplements has been associated with reduction in ASD risk, with the strongest evidence for periconceptional folic acid supplements. Although many investigations have suggested no impact of maternal smoking and alcohol use on ASD, more rigorous exposure assessment is needed. A number of studies have demonstrated significant increases in ASD risk with estimated exposure to air pollution during the prenatal period, particularly for heavy metals and particulate matter. Little research has assessed other persistent and non-persistent organic pollutants in association with ASD specifically. Conclusions: More work is needed to examine fats, vitamins and other maternal nutrients, as well as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and pesticides, in association with ASD, given sound biological plausibility and evidence regarding other neurodevelopmental deficits. The field can be advanced by large-scale epidemiological studies, attention to critical aetiological windows and how these vary by exposure, and use of biomarkers and other means to understand underlying mechanisms. PMID:24518932

  9. Reactive and proactive aggression: Differential links with emotion regulation difficulties, maternal criticism in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Skripkauskaite, Simona; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan J T; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Proactive and reactive functions of aggression are thought to manifest through different familial and emotional processes, even though they often co-occur. We investigated direct and indirect pathways through which maternal criticism and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties relate to reactive and proactive aggression in adolescence. Further, we examined how maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation interrelate, both concurrently and over time. Participants were 482 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.03, SD = 0.45, 57% boys) who self-reported on their ER difficulties, perceived maternal criticism, and reactive/proactive aggression. Cross-lagged panel modeling across four annual measurements revealed direct bidirectional links over time between maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation. Positive links over time from maternal criticism to proactive (but not reactive) aggression were also present. Emotion dysregulation and proactive aggression were linked only indirectly via maternal criticism. Gender did not significantly moderate these links. By revealing differential developmental pathways involving adolescents' ER and maternal criticism, the present study offers support for the dual function model of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:214-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  11. Multilevel Mediation: Cumulative Contextual Risk, Maternal Differential Treatment, and Children's Behavior within Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean Christophe; Boyle, Michael; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that links between contextual risk and children's outcomes are partially explained by differential parenting. Using multi-informant measurement and including up to four children per family (M[subscript age] = 3.51, SD = 2.38) in a sample of 397 families, indirect effects (through maternal differential…

  12. [Role of maternal risk factors in foetal growth impairment].

    PubMed

    Cieślik, Krystyna; Waszak, Małgorzata

    2007-01-01

    Clinical goal of foetal growth evaluation is primarily to identify foetuses with an accelerated or decelerated growth rate. Chief criterion of normal intrauterine development is a timely delivery of a neonate meeting applicable health norms. Obstetrician's decisions on how a pregnancy should be handled are based on foetal development and growth forecast and take into account whether foetal growth is normal, accelerated or decelerated. Such assessment requires correct determination of foetal age, selection of the most appropriate growth rate standards and defining potential risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre-selected risk factors on foetal growth. Material was 3889 foetuses (2203 males and 1686 females) stillborn between 20th and 42nd week of pregnancy. Morphological development of the study material was characterised based upon the values of seven pre-defined somatic features and the weight of eight internal organs. Clinical classification of maternal risk factors revealed four factors of most potent impact on foetal development, ie. maternal age, number of pregnancy and artificial and natural miscarriage history. Verification of developmental status of foetuses, ie. exposed vs. non-exposed to risk factors, allowed to determine the potency of selected risk factors. The non-exposed group was characterised by normal growth rate during each of stage of development meaning that despite being stillborn these foetuses did not differ significantly in their development of the selected features from live born foetuses. In the exposed group, however, the rate of development, compared to the standard, was significantly reduced and starting from the 35th week it was below the 5th percentile. It can, therefore, be seen that the exposed group development was significantly influenced by an adverse impact of risk factors. Our results show that the risk factors for the exposed group are a group of maternal risk factors impairing foetal growth and

  13. Maternal, neonatal and community factors influencing neonatal mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Machado, Carla Jorge; Hill, Kenneth

    2005-03-01

    Child mortality (the mortality of children less than five years old) declined considerably in the developing world in the 1990s, but infant mortality declined less. The reductions in neonatal mortality were not impressive and, as a consequence, there is an increasing percentage of infant deaths in the neonatal period. Any further reduction in child mortality, therefore, requires an understanding of the determinants of neonatal mortality. 209,628 birth and 2581 neonatal death records for the 1998 birth cohort from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were probabilistically matched. Data were from SINASC and SIM, Information Systems on Live Births and Deaths of Brazil. Logistic regression was used to find the association between neonatal mortality and the following risk factors: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, delivery mode, plurality, sex, maternal education, maternal age, number of prior losses, prenatal care, race, parity and community development. Infants of older mothers were less likely to die in the neonatal period. Caesarean delivery was not found to be associated with neonatal mortality. Low birth weight, pre-term birth and low Apgar scores were associated with neonatal death. Having a mother who lives in the highest developed community decreased the odds of neonatal death, suggesting that factors not measured in this study are behind such association. This result may also indicate that other factors over and above biological and more proximate factors could affect neonatal death.

  14. Differential Factor Structure of Seventh Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Very, Philip S.; Iacono, Carmine H.

    1970-01-01

    Analysis of the mental factors of seventh grade students indicates that numerical facility and perceptual speed are a single factor at this age level and that no purely verbal factor exists. Seven clearly differentiated factors are found for males and five for females. (Author/WY)

  15. Maternal Obesity Enhances White Adipose Tissue Differentiation and Alters Genome-Scale DNA Methylation in Male Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Borengasser, Sarah J.; Zhong, Ying; Kang, Ping; Lindsey, Forrest; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Badger, Thomas M.; Gomez-Acevedo, Horacio

    2013-01-01

    The risk of obesity (OB) in adulthood is strongly influenced by maternal body composition. Here we examined the hypothesis that maternal OB influences white adipose tissue (WAT) transcriptome and increases propensity for adipogenesis in the offspring, prior to the development of OB, using an established model of long-term metabolic programming. Employing an overfeeding-based rat model, in which exposure to OB is limited to preconception and gestation alone, we conducted global transcriptomic profiling in WAT, and gene/protein expression analysis of lipogenic and adipogenic pathways and examined adipogenic differentiation of WAT stromal-vascular cells ex vivo. Using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing we also evaluated genome-scale changes in DNA methylation in offspring WAT. Maternal OB led to extensive changes in expression of genes (±1.8-fold, P ≤ .05), revealing a distinct up-regulation of lipogenic pathways in WAT. mRNA expression of a battery of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1-regulated genes was increased in OB-dam offspring, which were confirmed by immunoblotting. In conjunction with lipogenic gene expression, OB-dam offspring showed increased glucose transporter-4 mRNA/protein expression and greater AKT phosphorylation following acute insulin challenge, suggesting sensitization of insulin signaling in WAT. Offspring of OB dams also exhibited increased in vivo expression of adipogenic regulators (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, CCAAT enhancer binding protein α [C/EBP-α] and C/EBP-β), associated with greater ex vivo differentiation of WAT stromal-vascular cells. These transcriptomic changes were associated with alterations in DNA methylation of CpG sites and CGI shores, proximal to developmentally important genes, including key pro-adipogenic factors (Zfp423 and C/EBP-β). Our findings strongly suggest that the maternal OB in utero alters adipocyte commitment and differentiation via epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:23959936

  16. Maternal heme oxygenase 1 regulates placental vasculature development via angiogenic factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Azuma, Junya; Kalish, Flora; Wong, Ronald J; Stevenson, David K

    2011-11-01

    The placental vasculature is critical for nutrient, gas, and waste exchange between the maternal and fetal systems. Its development depends on the proper expression and interaction of angiogenesis and associated growth factors. Heme oxygenase (HMOX), the enzyme for heme degradation, plays a role in angiogenesis and is highly expressed in the placenta. To evaluate the role of maternal HMOX1, the inducible HMOX isozyme, on placental vasculature formation, mice with a partial deficiency in Hmox1 (Hmox1(+/-)) were used. Three-dimensional images of placental vasculatures as well as spiral arteries from Hmox1(+/+) or Hmox1(+/-) placentas were created by vascular corrosion casting technique and imaged by micro-computerized tomography (microCT). The structures and morphologies of fetomaternal interfaces were observed by histological staining and the ultrastructure of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells, a major regulator in spiral artery remodeling, was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. A group of growth factors and angiogenic factors from the decidua/mesometrial lymphoid aggregate of pregnancy (MLAp) as well as labyrinth regions were quantified using an angiogenesis PCR array kit and compared between Hmox1(+/+) or Hmox1(+/-) placentas. In conclusion, a partial deficiency of maternal Hmox1 resulted in the malformation of fetomaternal interface, insufficiency of spiral artery remodeling, and alteration of uNK cell differentiation and maturation. These changes were independent of the fetal genotype, but relied on the maternal HMOX1 level, which determined the balance of expression levels of pro- and antiangiogenic factors in the decidua/MLAp region. These results implied that Hmox1 polymorphisms among the human population might contribute to some unexplained cases of pregnancy disorders, such as fetal growth retardation and preeclampsia.

  17. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Interacts with Maternal Parenting Influencing Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: Evidence of Differential Susceptibility Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leilei; Li, Zhi; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Zhang, Jianxin; Belsky, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.

  18. Maternal risk factors and obstetric complications in late preterm prematurity.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Cristina C; Medina, Maria C; Ginovart, Gemma; Betancourt, Jocelyn; Armengol, Josep A; Calaf, Joaquim

    2014-08-01

    Late preterm prematurity has been related to poorer neonatal outcomes. However, research has focused on the neonatal outcomes of late preterm infants, maternal characteristics of these births have been less evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare maternal risk factors and obstetric complications in late preterm births (LPTB) and term births. These factors were also assessed comparing spontaneous LPTB with medically-indicated LPTB. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with two groups. All singleton LPTB occurred at our University Hospital between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2010 were included in the first cohort (n=171). A comparison cohort of term births was configured in a ratio 2:1 (n=342). Well-dated pregnancies without congenital malformations, congenital infections or chromosome abnormalities were eligible. LPTB were classified into two groups, spontaneous LPTB and medically-indicated LPTB following delivery indications. Statistical analysis of categorical variables was performed using either χ(2) or Fisher's exact. Continuous variables were compared using the Student's t-test. Women with LPTB had more medical conditions than women with term births (29% vs 15.7%; P=0.002). Prior preterm births (9.7% vs 2%; P<0.001), prior adverse obstetric outcomes (6.9% vs 2.3%; P<0.001), and obstetric complications were also more frequent in LPTB than in term births. However, no differences were found in maternal medical conditions when spontaneous LPTB and medically-indicated LPTB were compared. Women with medically-indicated LPTB were older (33.69 vs 31.07; P=0.003) and mainly nulliparous (75.8% vs 49.4%; P=0.002). Obstetric complications were more frequent in medically-indicated LPTB than in spontaneous LPTB. Maternal risk factors and obstetric complications are significantly higher in LPTB than in term births. These factors should be considered to identify women at risk for either spontaneous or medically-indicated LPTB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  19. OS052. Preeclampsia candidate genes differentially methylated in maternal leukocyte DNA.

    PubMed

    White, W; Brost, B; O'Brien, J; Rose, C; Davies, N; Sun, Z; Turner, S; Garovic, V

    2012-07-01

    Altered gene expression in biomarkers associated with preeclampsia/ eclampsia (PE) could be explained in part by epigenetic phenomena such as variable methylation We sought to characterize the methylation profiles of candidate genes known to be associated with the preeclampsia phenotype in maternal leukocyte DNA in preeclamptic cases and normotensive controls at the time of delivery. Methylation profiles of maternal leukocyte DNA were evaluated in 14 PE cases and 14 normotensive controls. Subjects were nulliparous, non-smokers, age and BMI matched. Genomic DNA was run on a commercially available beadchip human methylation assay. Mean methylation at sites in genes from a well-defined preeclampsia gene set present on our platform were compared using a t-test. QC confirmed high correlation of replicates and detection p values >95%. Of the 39 genes in the "preeclampsia gene set", 34 were present on our platform with 73 CpG sites. Seven out of 34 tested in this gene set had differential methylation with p value <0.05. Two genes were found to be less methylated in PE which may result in more expression. AGT (-3%;p= 0.027), angiotensin, is a potent vasoconstrictor with exaggerated effect in PE. DDAH1 (-6%;p=0.031) is involved in nitric oxide generation, via asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), levels of which are known to be altered in PE. Five genes were more methylated and therefore may correlate with reduced transcription. CALCA (+4%;p=0.001) forms calcitonin-gene related peptide, a potent vasodilator decreased in the PE . F5 (+1%;p=0.016), coagulation Factor V, is a target of activated protein C, and increased resistance related to genetic variants (Factor V Leiden) or pregnancy have been associated with PE. MTHFR (+3%;p=0.041) regulates homocysteine; high levels are associated with a 20X increase in risk for PE. POMC (+4%;p=0.014) produces beta endorphin and through ACTH stimulates aldosterone, both decreased in PE. PTGS2 (+3%;p=0.03) is part of the COX 2

  20. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  1. Risk Factors Linking Maternal Depressed Mood to Growth in Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Rebecca C.; Fleming, Charles B.; Mason, W. Alex; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal depression has been implicated in the development of adolescent substance use. Conceptualizing depression as a continuum, the aims of this study are to (a) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood and risk factors associated with adolescent substance use; (b) understand the relationship between maternal depressed mood…

  2. [An analysis of factors influencing maternal mortality in Southern Algeria].

    PubMed

    Coppieters, Yves; Bivort, Philippe; Madani, Kamel; Metboul, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Southern Algeria has the highest rate of maternal mortality in the country. An action-research study was conducted to identify the explanatory factors of this issue. Three methodological approaches were used: (i) an epidemiological data analysis of maternal mortality and an analysis of obstetric complications at the hospital of Tamanrasset; (ii) a socio-anthropological study conducted among women in Tamanrasset; and (iii) semi-structured interviews with health professionals aimed at understanding their beliefs and representations. RESULTS; The study identified three major factors influencing the decision to seek care: (i) the interpretation of illness by mothers; (ii) the origin of their decision to seek care based on their assessment of the range of available therapeutic options; and (iii) medical uncertainty, with mothers often forced to resort to a range of therapeutic options because of uncertainty and pressure from family and other local residents. A detailed analysis of the implementation of mobile healthcare services is required to provide local health services to the population.

  3. Differential Senescence in Feto-Maternal Tissues During Mouse Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Bonney, Elizabeth A; Krebs, Kendall; Saade, George; Kechichian, Talar; Trivedi, Jayshil; Huaizhi, Yin; Menon, Ramkumar

    2017-01-01

    Background Human studies show that fetal membranes have a limited lifespan and undergo telomere-dependent cellular senescence that is augmented by oxidative stress and mediated by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Further, these studies suggest that fetal membranes are anatomically physiologically positioned to transmit senescence signals that may initiate parturition at term. Methods Longitudinal evaluation of feto-maternal tissues from mouse pregnancies was undertaken to determine the molecular progression of senescence during normal pregnancy. On days 10–18 of gestation, C57BL/6 mice were euthanized. Fetal membranes, placenta, and decidua/uterus were collected. Tissues were examined for Telomere length (TL) and the presence of Phosphorylated (P) p38MAPK and p53, p21 and senescence associated β-Galactosidase (SA- β-Gal). Findings Telomere length negatively correlated with gestational age in fetal membranes (β= − 0.1901 ± 0.03125, p < 0.0001), placenta (−0.09000 ± 0.03474, p=0.0135), and decidua/uterus (− 0.1317 ± 0.03264, p=0.0003). Progressive activation p38MAPK was observed in all tissues from days 10 to day18, with the highest activation observed in fetal membranes. Activation of p53 was progressive in fetal membranes. In contrast, active p53 was constitutive in placenta and decidua/uterus throughout gestation. Detection of p21 indicated that pro-senescent change was higher in all compartments on day 18 as compared to other days. The number of SA-β-Gal positive cells increased in fetal membranes as gestation progressed. However, in placenta and uterus and decidua/uterus SA-β-Gal was seen only in days 15 and 18. Conclusions Telomere dependent p38 and p53 mediated senescence progressed in mouse fetal membranes as gestation advanced. Although senescence is evident, telomere dependent events were not dominant in placenta or decidua/uterus. Fetal membrane senescence may significantly contribute to mechanisms of parturition at term. PMID

  4. Differential senescence in feto-maternal tissues during mouse pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Elizabeth A; Krebs, Kendall; Saade, George; Kechichian, Talar; Trivedi, Jayshil; Huaizhi, Yin; Menon, Ramkumar

    2016-07-01

    Human studies show that fetal membranes have a limited lifespan and undergo telomere-dependent cellular senescence that is augmented by oxidative stress and mediated by p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). Further, these studies suggest that fetal membranes are anatomically and physiologically positioned to transmit senescence signals that may initiate parturition at term. Longitudinal evaluation of feto-maternal tissues from mouse pregnancies was undertaken to determine the molecular progression of senescence during normal pregnancy. On days 10-18 of gestation, C57BL/6 mice were euthanized. Fetal membranes, placenta, and decidua/uterus were collected. Tissues were examined for Telomere length (TL) and the presence of Phosphorylated (P) p38MAPK and p53, p21 and senescence associated β-Galactosidase (SA- β-Gal). Linear regression modeling of observed telomere length as a function of gestational age revealed that beta (β), the slope of the linear regression was negative and significantly different from zero for each tissue (fetal membranes, β = -0.1901 ± 0.03125, p < 0.0001; placenta β = -0.09000 ± 0.03474, p = 0.0135; decidua/uterus β = -0.1317 ± 0.03264, p = 0.0003). Progressive activation p38MAPK was observed in all tissues from days 10 to day18, with the highest activation observed in fetal membranes. Activation of p53 was progressive in fetal membranes. In contrast, active p53 was constitutive in placenta and decidua/uterus throughout gestation. Detection of p21 indicated that pro-senescent change was higher in all compartments on day 18 as compared to other days. The number of SA-β-Gal positive cells increased in fetal membranes as gestation progressed. However, in placenta and uterus and decidua/uterus SA-β-Gal was seen only in days 15 and 18. Telomere dependent p38 and p53 mediated senescence progressed in mouse fetal membranes as gestation advanced. Although senescence is evident, telomere dependent events were not

  5. Differential methylation of chloroplast DNA regulates maternal inheritance in a methylated mutant of Chlamydomonas

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Ruth; Grabowy, Constance

    1983-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas, the maternal inheritance of chloroplast genes correlates with the differential methylation of chloroplast DNA (chlDNA) in females (mt+) but not in males (mt-). Our previous studies have supported our methylation-restriction model in which the maternal transmission is accounted for by the differential methylation in gametes which protects female but not male chlDNA from degradation during zygote formation. In the mutant me-1 [Bolen, P. L., Grant, D. M., Swinton, D., Boynton, J. E. & Gillham, N. W. (1982) Cell 28, 335-343], chlDNA of vegetative cells of both mating types is heavily methylated even before gametogenesis; nonetheless, maternal inheritance occurs in mutants as in wild type. To investigate the mechanism of maternal inheritance in the me-1 mutant, we have compared restriction fragment patterns after agarose gel electrophoresis of chlDNAs from mutant vegetative cells and gametes with those from wild type, by using a set of 32 restriction enzymes of which 17 were methylation-sensitive in this system. We find that additional methylation occurs during gametogenesis in the mutant female (mt+) but not in the corresponding male (mt-). Thus, gamete-specific, mating-type-specific methylation occurs in the me-1 mutant as in the wild type, consistent with our methylation-restriction model. In the me-1 mutant, gametic methylation occurs on a background of vegetative cell methylation not present in wild-type cells and irrelevant to the regulation of chloroplast inheritance. Comparison of the me-1 mutation with the mat-1 mutation [Sager, R., Grabowy, C. & Sano, H. (1981) Cell 24, 41-47] provides evidence for the existence of two different chlDNA methylation control systems: mat-1, linked to the mating type locus and regulating the mating-type-specific methylation that correlates with maternal inheritance, and me-1, unlinked to the mating type locus and unrelated to the regulation of maternal inheritance. Images PMID:16593314

  6. [Maternal factors associated with fetal weight estimated by ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos de; Assunção, Paula Lisiane; Melo, Fabiana de Oliveira; Gondim, Sheila Sherezaide Rocha; Carvalho, Danielle Franklin de; Cardoso, Maria Aparecida Alves

    2008-09-01

    to evaluate the effect of maternal, socioeconomic and obstetric variables, as well the presence of artery incisions in the 20th and 24th weeks on the fetal weight estimated at the end of pregnancy (36th week) in pregnant women attended by Programa Saúde da Família, in an inland town of the northeast of Brazil. a longitudinal study including 137 pregnant women, who have been followed up every four weeks in order to assess clinical, socioeconomic and obstetric conditions, including their weight. The uterine arteries were evaluated by Doppler in the 20th and 24th weeks, the fetal weight and the amniotic fluid index (AFI), determined in the 36th week. The initial maternal nutritional state has been determined by the body mass index (BMI), the pregnant women being classified as low weight, eutrophic, over weight and obese. Weight gain during gestation has been evaluated, according to the initial nutritional state, being classified at the end of the second and third trimester as insufficient, adequate and excessive weight gain. Analysis of variance was performed to evaluate the association of the fetal weight in the 36th week with the predictor variables, adjusted by multiple linear regression. an association between the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week and the mother's age (p=0.02), mother's job (p=0.02), initial nutritional state (p=0.04), weight gain in the second trimester (p=0.01), presence of incisions in the uterine arteries (p=0.02), and AFI (p=0.007) has been observed. The main factors associated to the fetal weight estimated in the 36th week, after the multiple regression analysis were: BMI at the pregnancy onset, weight gain in the second trimester, AFI and tabagism. in the present study, the fetal weight is positively associated with the initial maternal nutritional state, the weight gain in the second trimester and the volume of amniotic fluid, and negatively, to tabagism.

  7. Clinical Risk Factors Associated With Peripartum Maternal Bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Easter, Sarah Rae; Molina, Rose L; Venkatesh, Kartik K; Kaimal, Anjali; Tuomala, Ruth; Riley, Laura E

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate risk factors associated with maternal bacteremia in febrile peripartum women. We performed a case-control study of women with fevers occurring between 7 days before and up to 42 days after delivery of viable neonates at two academic hospitals. Women with positive blood cultures were matched with the next two febrile women meeting inclusion criteria with negative blood cultures in the microbiology data without other matching parameters. We compared maternal and neonatal characteristics and outcomes between women in the case group and those in the control group with univariate analysis. We then used logistic regression to examine the association between clinical characteristics and maternal bacteremia. After excluding blood cultures positive only for contaminants, we compared 115 women in the case group with 285 in the control group. Bacteremic women were more likely to experience their initial fever during labor (40.9% compared with 22.8%, P<.01) and more likely to have fever at or above 102°F (62.6% compared with 31.6%, P<.01). These associations persisted in the adjusted analysis: multiparity (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.07-2.87), initial fever during labor (adjusted OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.70-4.70), and fever at or above 102°F (adjusted OR 3.83, 95% CI 2.37-6.19). In an analysis restricted to neonates whose mothers had initial fevers before or in the immediate 24 hours after delivery, neonates born to women in the case group had higher rates of bacteremia compared with those born to women in the control group (9.0% compared with 1.3%, P<.01). Eight of the nine bacteremic neonates born to bacteremic mothers (89%) grew the same organism as his or her mother in blood culture. Maternal bacteremia is associated with multiparity, initial fever during labor, and fever at or above 102°F; however, 37.5% of cases of bacteremia occurred in women with maximum fevers below this threshold. Obstetricians should maintain a heightened suspicion for an

  8. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Shyama; Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jack, Susan; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-07-01

    Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women's and Children's Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula--fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women's and children's health towards 2015 and beyond.

  9. Maternal inheritance and familial fecundity factors in male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Collins, Anthony; Morrison, Martine; Orrells, Jennifer Claire; Cadinouche, Khatija; Greenfield, Sherene; Begum, Sabina

    2008-12-01

    This study, following Camperio-Ciani, Corna, and Capiluppi [(2004), Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences, 271, 2217-2221] aimed to examine the familial history of male homosexuality, and test the so-called "fertile female" hypothesis for this trait in a contemporary British sample. Using a comparative survey design, we found that white (comprising those of Anglo-European descent) and non-white (comprising ethnic "Blacks, "South Asians," "East Asians," "Hispanics," and "Others") homosexual men (n = 147) had a significant excess of maternal but not paternal line male homosexual relatives compared to heterosexual men (n = 155). We also found significantly elevated fecundity of maternal aunts of white homosexual men compared to white heterosexual men, whereas non-white heterosexual men showed elevated fecundities of almost every class of relative compared to non-white homosexual men. No significant excess of older brothers was found in homosexual compared to heterosexual men, irrespective of ethnic grouping. These data were discussed in relation to possible population-related factors in evolutionary explanations for human male homosexuality.

  10. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance.

  11. Survey of trend and factors in perinatal maternal fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chou, Yu-Hua; Wang, Panchalli; Tsai, Jung-Mei; Liou, Shwu-Ru

    2014-05-18

    Few studies have investigated maternal fatigue, particularly fatigue throughout the duration of pregnancy and the postpartum period. The purpose of this study was to explore changes related to maternal fatigue from pregnancy to postpartum and the factors influencing fatigue. This prospective longitudinal study surveyed 197 pregnant women beyond 24 gestational weeks monthly until one month postpartum. The Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale and one question about fatigue were used. Women at late pregnancy experienced a significant increase in level of fatigue, which remained high after childbirth. Those who were not happy about the pregnancy or were multiparas experienced a higher level of prenatal fatigue than their counterparts. At postpartum, mothers who were unemployed, had no one to help with childcare, or felt that the baby's night-time sleep pattern was a serious problem had a higher level of fatigue. Interventions can be planned and implemented at early pregnancy to reduce the prevalence of fatigue. Encouraging pregnant women to share experiences and thoughts about pregnancy and being a mother is suggested. Further studies that evaluate culturally sensitive instruments for fatigue are needed.

  12. Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    (P<0.001), suggested imprinted genes and miRNA interference as mechanisms for differential effects of maternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle. PMID:23341941

  13. Trophoblast differentiation during embryo implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface

    PubMed Central

    Red-Horse, Kristy; Zhou, Yan; Genbacev, Olga; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Foulk, Russell; McMaster, Michael; Fisher, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    Trophoblasts, the specialized cells of the placenta, play a major role in implantation and formation of the maternal-fetal interface. Through an unusual differentiation process examined in this review, these fetal cells acquire properties of leukocytes and endothelial cells that enable many of their specialized functions. In recent years a great deal has been learned about the regulatory mechanisms, from transcriptional networks to oxygen tension, which control trophoblast differentiation. The challenge is to turn this information into clinically useful tests for monitoring placental function and, hence, pregnancy outcome. PMID:15372095

  14. Maternal effects and Symbiodinium community composition drive differential patterns in juvenile survival in the coral Acropora tenuis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Bette L.; Bay, Line K.

    2016-01-01

    Coral endosymbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium are known to impact host physiology and have led to the evolution of reef-building, but less is known about how symbiotic communities in early life-history stages and their interactions with host parental identity shape the structure of coral communities on reefs. Differentiating the roles of environmental and biological factors driving variation in population demographic processes, particularly larval settlement, early juvenile survival and the onset of symbiosis is key to understanding how coral communities are structured and to predicting how they are likely to respond to climate change. We show that maternal effects (that here include genetic and/or effects related to the maternal environment) can explain nearly 24% of variation in larval settlement success and 5–17% of variation in juvenile survival in an experimental study of the reef-building scleractinian coral, Acropora tenuis. After 25 days on the reef, Symbiodinium communities associated with juvenile corals differed significantly between high mortality and low mortality families based on estimates of taxonomic richness, composition and relative abundance of taxa. Our results highlight that maternal and familial effects significantly explain variation in juvenile survival and symbiont communities in a broadcast-spawning coral, with Symbiodinium type A3 possibly a critical symbiotic partner during this early life stage. PMID:27853562

  15. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, M.; Adami, H.O.; Ericson, A. )

    1991-07-15

    This report describes an exploratory population-based study of maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood leukemia in Sweden. The Swedish National Cancer Registry ascertained 411 cases in successive birth cohorts from 1973 through 1984 recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Registry. Using the latter, we matched five controls without cancer to each case by sex and month and year of birth. Mothers of children with leukemia were more likely to have been exposed to nitrous oxide anesthesia during delivery than mothers of controls (odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0, 1.6). Children with leukemia were more likely than controls to have Down's syndrome (OR = 32.5; 95% CI = 7.3, 144.0) or cleft lip or cleft palate (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.0, 24.8); to have had a diagnosis associated with difficult labor but unspecified complications (OR = 4.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 18.2) or with other conditions of the fetus or newborn (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1, 2.1), specifically, uncomplicated physiological jaundice (OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.9); or to have received supplemental oxygen (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.3, 4.9). Because multiple potential risk factors were analyzed in this study, future studies need to check these findings. The authors did not confirm the previously reported higher risks for childhood leukemia associated with being male, having a high birth weight, or being born to a woman of advanced maternal age.

  16. Properties and natural occurrence of maternal-effect selfish genes ('Medea' factors) in the red flour beetle, tribolium castaneum

    PubMed

    Beeman; Friesen

    1999-05-01

    Maternally acting selfish genes, termed 'Medea' factors, were found to be widespread in wild populations of Tribolium castaneum collected in Europe, North and South America, Africa and south-east Asia, but were rare or absent in populations from Australia and the Indian subcontinent. We detected at least four distinct genetic loci in at least two different linkage groups that exhibit the Medea pattern of differential mortality of genotypes within maternal families. Although each M factor tested had similar properties of maternal lethality to larvae and zygotic self-rescue, M factors representing distinct loci did not show cross-rescue. Alleles at two of these loci, M1 and M4, were by far the most prevalent, M4 being the predominant type. M2 and M3 were each found only once, in Pakistan and Japan, respectively. Although M1 could be genetically segregated from M4 and maintained as a purified stock, the M1 factor invariably co-occurred with M4 in field populations, whereas M4 usually occurred in the absence of other Medea factors. The dominant maternal lethal action of M1 could be selectively inactivated (reverted) by gene-knockout gamma irradiation with retention of zygotic rescue activity.

  17. Maternal-Fetal Attachment Differentiates Patterns of Prenatal Smoking and Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Suena H.; Bublitz, Margaret H.; Magee, Susanna R.; Salisbury, Amy; Niaura, Raymond S.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Stroud, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Smoking cessation during pregnancy may reflect altruistic motives on behalf of the unborn baby. We test the hypothesis that pregnancy quitters have higher maternal-fetal attachment than persistent smokers, and secondarily explore how maternal-fetal attachment differs among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Methods Participants were 156 women in the Behavior and Mood in Babies and Mothers study who provided report of smoking throughout pregnancy via timeline follow back interviews, with salivary cotinine confirmation of reported cessation at 30 and 35 weeks gestation, and postpartum day one. Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale total and subscale scores (role-taking, differentiation of self from fetus, interaction with fetus, attributing characteristics to fetus, giving of self) were examined among non-smokers, pregnancy quitters, and persistent smokers. Results At 30 weeks, pregnancy quitters scored higher on the ‘giving of self’ subscale compared to persistent smokers (21.6 ± 2.4 versus 19.9 ± 2.9; p = .004). Maternal ‘giving of self’ also differentiated pregnancies exposed to cigarette smoking from those without exposure from 30 weeks through delivery (19.9 ± 2.9 versus 21.2 ± 2.2; p = .002). Controlling for age, income, unemployment, gravida, and father’s smoking status, ‘giving of self’ differentiated pregnancy quitters from persistent smokers [OR = 5.144; 95% C.I. 1.509 – 17.538; B (SE) = 1.638 (.626); p = .009]. Conclusions Women who reported a greater desire to maintain their personal health for the health of their fetus were more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy. Implications of findings for interventions and understanding mechanisms of risk are discussed. PMID:25644587

  18. Maternal obesity - a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    MOREA, MELINDA; MIU, NICOLAE; MOREA, VICENŢIU FLORIN; CORNEAN, RODICA

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between the metabolic syndrome in children (MS) and the pre-pregnancy nutritional status of the mother. Design and methods A total number of 180 children aged between 6–19 years were examined. Self reported data about parents and their children were collected. The children underwent physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF criteria for MS were used in children 10 years and older, and age and gender specific cut-off points in children younger than 10 years. The mothers were classified in the normal weight, overweight and obese categories according to the pre-pregnancy BMI. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive and inferential analysis. In the bivariate analysis of the association between qualitative variables, we used the Chi-Square test and the exact Fisher test. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v 13.0. Results 73 (40.55%) children were normal weight, 54 (30%) were overweight and 53 (29.44%) were obese. None of the normal weight children, 16 (29.60%) of the overweight and 23 (43.40%) of the obese ones had MS; 125 (69.44%) of the mothers were normal weight, 44 (24.44%) were overweight and 11 (6.11%) were obese. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring MS in both genders, obese children and in the 10–16 age group. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity represents a risk factor for offspring MS. The results are very difficult to compare between studies because of different cut-off values and definition of MS in children. If prevention is the goal rather than treatment, the perinatal period may be an important focus for future research. PMID:26527958

  19. Success factors for reducing maternal and child mortality

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julian; Bishai, David; Chowdhury, Sadia; Caramani, Daniele; Frost, Laura; Cortez, Rafael; Daelmans, Bernadette; de Francisco, Andres; Adam, Taghreed; Cohen, Robert; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Franz-Vasdeki, Jennifer; Saadat, Seemeen; Pratt, Beth Anne; Eugster, Beatrice; Bandali, Sarah; Venkatachalam, Pritha; Hinton, Rachael; Murray, John; Arscott-Mills, Sharon; Axelson, Henrik; Maliqi, Blerta; Sarker, Intissar; Lakshminarayanan, Rama; Jacobs, Troy; Jacks, Susan; Mason, Elizabeth; Ghaffar, Abdul; Mays, Nicholas; Presern, Carole; Bustreo, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reducing maternal and child mortality is a priority in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and will likely remain so after 2015. Evidence exists on the investments, interventions and enabling policies required. Less is understood about why some countries achieve faster progress than other comparable countries. The Success Factors for Women’s and Children’s Health studies sought to address this knowledge gap using statistical and econometric analyses of data from 144 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) over 20 years; Boolean, qualitative comparative analysis; a literature review; and country-specific reviews in 10 fast-track countries for MDGs 4 and 5a. There is no standard formula – fast-track countries deploy tailored strategies and adapt quickly to change. However, fast-track countries share some effective approaches in addressing three main areas to reduce maternal and child mortality. First, these countries engage multiple sectors to address crucial health determinants. Around half the reduction in child mortality in LMICs since 1990 is the result of health sector investments, the other half is attributed to investments made in sectors outside health. Second, these countries use strategies to mobilize partners across society, using timely, robust evidence for decision-making and accountability and a triple planning approach to consider immediate needs, long-term vision and adaptation to change. Third, the countries establish guiding principles that orient progress, align stakeholder action and achieve results over time. This evidence synthesis contributes to global learning on accelerating improvements in women’s and children’s health towards 2015 and beyond. PMID:25110379

  20. Differential expression of the metastasis suppressor KAI1 in decidual cells and trophoblast giant cells at the feto-maternal interface

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tae Bon; Han, Min-Su; Tadashi, Yamashita; Seong, Won Joon; Choi, Je-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Invasion of trophoblasts into maternal uterine tissue is essential for establishing mature feto-maternal circulation. The trophoblast invasion associated with placentation is similar to tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated the role of KAI1, an anti-metastasis factor, at the maternal-fetal interface during placentation. Mouse embryos were obtained from gestational days 5.5 (E5.5) to E13.5. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that KAI1 was expressed on decidual cells around the track made when a fertilized ovum invaded the endometrium, at days E5.5 and E7.5, and on trophoblast giant cells, along the central maternal artery of the placenta at E9.5. KAI1 in trophoblast giant cells was increased at E11.5, and then decreased at E13.5. Furthermore, KAI1 was upregulated during the forskolinmediated trophoblastic differentiation of BeWo cells. Collectively, these results indicate that KAI1 is differentially expressed in decidual cells and trophoblasts at the maternal-fetal interface, suggesting that KAI1 prevents trophoblast invasion during placentation. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(10): 507-512] PMID:24148772

  1. Differential susceptibility to the effects of child temperament on maternal warmth and responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunju J

    2013-01-01

    A child's difficult temperament can elicit negative parenting and inhibit positive parenting behavior. However, mothers appear to be differentially susceptible to child temperament. The author examined the differential susceptibility to the effects of a child's temperament on the mother-child interaction style (i.e., maternal warmth and responsiveness) as well as plausible reasons for these differences. With 2,130 mothers of 14-month-old infants (51% male) as subjects, a regression mixture analysis identified three latent classes with varying associations between the child's temperament and mother-child interactions: nonsusceptible class, susceptible-high class, and susceptible-low class. Mother-reported depression was most predictive of class membership. Latent class differences in the maternal self-efficacy, marital conflict, and coparenting alliance were also found. On the other hand, family income, maternal employment, and the child's gender were not significant predictors of class membership when individual and contextual resources were considered. Overall, mothers with abundant individual and family resources (i.e., less depressed, highly self-efficacious, few marital conflicts, and high coparenting alliance with their spouse) showed that their interaction style with a child would vary according to the child's temperament, whereas mothers with slender resources interacted with their children in a less warm and responsive manner, regardless of the child's temperament. The implications of these findings are also discussed.

  2. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming.

  3. The neglected role of insulin-like growth factors in the maternal circulation regulating fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Sferruzzi-Perri, A N; Owens, J A; Pringle, K G; Roberts, C T

    2011-01-01

    Maternal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) play a pivotal role in modulating fetal growth via their actions on both the mother and the placenta. Circulating IGFs influence maternal tissue growth and metabolism, thereby regulating nutrient availability for the growth of the conceptus. Maternal IGFs also regulate placental morphogenesis, substrate transport and hormone secretion, all of which influence fetal growth either via indirect effects on maternal substrate availability, or through direct effects on the placenta and its capacity to supply nutrients to the fetus. The extent to which IGFs influence the mother and/or placenta are dependent on the species and maternal factors, including age and nutrition. As altered fetal growth is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality and a greater risk of developing degenerative diseases in adult life, understanding the role of maternal IGFs during pregnancy is essential in order to identify mechanisms underlying altered fetal growth and offspring programming. PMID:20921199

  4. Sperm competition and maternal effects differentially influence testis and sperm size in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Hosken, D J; Vasudev, R; Tregenza, T; Eady, P E

    2009-05-01

    The evolutionary factors affecting testis size are well documented, with sperm competition being of major importance. However, the factors affecting sperm length are not well understood; there are no clear theoretical predictions and the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Recently, maternal effects have been implicated in sperm length variation, a finding that may offer insights into its evolution. We investigated potential proximate and microevolutionary factors influencing testis and sperm size in the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus using a combined approach of an artificial evolution experiment over 90 generations and an environmental effects study. We found that while polyandry seems to select for larger testes, it had no detectable effect on sperm length. Furthermore, population density, a proximate indicator of sperm competition risk, was not significantly associated with sperm length or testis size variation. However, there were strong maternal effects influencing sperm length.

  5. High Spending on Maternity Care in India: What Are the Factors Explaining It?

    PubMed Central

    Moradhvaj; Rammohan, Anu; Shruti; Pradhan, Jalandhar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives High maternity-related health care spending is often cited as an important barrier in utilizing quality health care during pregnancy and childbirth. This study has two objectives: (i) to measure the levels of expenditure on total maternity care in disaggregated components such as ANCs, PNCs, and Natal care expenditure; (ii) to quantify the extent of catastrophic maternity expenditure (CME) incurred by households and identify the factors responsible for it. Methods and Findings Data from the 71st round of the National Sample Survey (2014) was used to estimate maternity expenditure and its predictors. CME was measured as a share of consumption expenditure by different cut-offs. The two-part model was used to identify the factors associated with maternity spending and CME. The findings show that household spending on maternity care (US$ 149 in constant price) is much higher than previous estimates (US$ 50 in constant price). A significant proportion of households in India (51%) are incurring CME. Along with economic and educational status, type of health care and place of residence emerged as significant factors in explaining CME. Conclusion Findings from this study assume importance in the context of an emerging demand for higher maternity entitlements and government spending on public health care in India. To reduce CME, India needs to improve the availability and accessibility of better-quality public health services and increase maternity entitlements in line with maternity expenditure identified in this study. PMID:27341520

  6. Maternal obesity induces epigenetic modifications to facilitate Zfp423 expression and enhance adipogenic differentiation in fetal mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi-Yuan; Liang, Jun-Fang; Rogers, Carl J; Zhao, Jun-Xing; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2013-11-01

    Maternal obesity (MO) predisposes offspring to obesity and type 2 diabetes despite poorly defined mechanisms. Zfp423 is the key transcription factor committing cells to the adipogenic lineage, with exceptionally dense CpG sites in its promoter. We hypothesized that MO enhances adipogenic differentiation during fetal development through inducing epigenetic changes in the Zfp423 promoter and elevating its expression. Female mice were subjected to a control (Con) or obesogenic (OB) diet for 2 months, mated, and maintained on their diets during pregnancy. Fetal tissue was harvested at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), when the early adipogenic commitment is initiated. The Zfp423 expression was 3.6-fold higher and DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter was lower in OB compared with Con. Correspondingly, repressive histone methylation (H3K27me3) was lower in the Zfp423 promoter of OB fetal tissue, accompanied by reduced binding of enhancer of zeste 2 (EZH2). Gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that Zfp423 regulates early adipogenic differentiation in fetal progenitor cells. In summary, MO enhanced Zfp423 expression and adipogenic differentiation during fetal development, at least partially through reducing DNA methylation in the Zfp423 promoter, which is expected to durably elevate adipogenic differentiation of progenitor cells in adult tissue, programming adiposity and metabolic dysfunction later in life.

  7. Individual differences in maternal response to immune challenge predict offspring behavior: Contribution of environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Bronson, Stefanie L.; Ahlbrand, Rebecca; Horn, Paul S.; Kern, Joseph R.; Richtand, Neil M.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy elevates risk for schizophrenia and related disorders in offspring. Converging evidence suggests the maternal inflammatory response mediates the interaction between maternal infection, altered brain development, and behavioral outcome. The extent to which individual differences in the maternal response to immune challenge influence the development of these abnormalities is unknown. The present study investigated the impact of individual differences in maternal response to the viral mimic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on offspring behavior. We observed significant variability in body weight alterations of pregnant rats induced by administration of poly I:C on gestational day 14. Furthermore, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss predicted MK-801 and amphetamine stimulated locomotor abnormalities in offspring. MK-801 stimulated locomotion was altered in offspring of all poly I:C treated dams; however, the presence or absence of maternal weight loss resulted in decreased and modestly increased locomotion, respectively. Adult offspring of poly I:C treated dams that lost weight exhibited significantly decreased amphetamine stimulated locomotion, while offspring of poly I:C treated dams without weight loss performed similarly to vehicle controls. Social isolation and increased maternal age predicted weight loss in response to poly I:C but not vehicle injection. In combination, these data identify environmental factors associated with the maternal response to immune challenge and functional outcome of offspring exposed to maternal immune activation. PMID:21255612

  8. Contributory Factors for Severe Maternal Morbidity: A 10-Year Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Nik Hussain, Nik Hazlina; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Abdul Razak, Asrenee

    2015-11-01

    Maternal morbidity is a concept of increasing interest in maternal health. This review aims to assess the contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity over the past one decade worldwide. A comprehensive electronic search was conducted. The search was restricted to articles written in the English language published from 2004 to 2013. Qualitative studies were excluded. A total of 24 full articles were retrieved of which 9 cohort, 7 case-control, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 5 unmentioned designs were included. The contributory factors were divided into 3 components: (a) sociodemographic characteristics, (b) medical and gynecological history, and (c) past and present obstetric performance. This review informs emerging knowledge regarding contributory factors for severe maternal morbidity and has implications for education, clinical practice and intervention. It enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy for maternal morbidity and mortality. © 2015 APJPH.

  9. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood: a risk factor for preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) were approximately 4 times greater among women with a history of childhood adoption or foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Differential susceptibility to effects of maternal sensitivity? A study of candidate plasticity genes.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Newman, Daniel A; Widaman, Keith F; Rodkin, Phil; Pluess, Michael; Fraley, R Chris; Berry, Daniel; Helm, Jonathan L; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-08-01

    Here we tested whether there was genetic moderation of effects of early maternal sensitivity on social-emotional and cognitive-linguistic development from early childhood onward and whether any detected Gene × Environment interaction effects proved consistent with differential-susceptibility or diathesis-stress models of Person × Environment interaction (N = 695). Two new approaches for evaluating models were employed with 12 candidate genes. Whereas maternal sensitivity proved to be a consistent predictor of child functioning across the primary-school years, candidate genes did not show many main effects, nor did they tend to interact with maternal sensitivity/insensitivity. These findings suggest that the developmental benefits of early sensitive mothering and the costs of insensitive mothering look more similar than different across genetically different children in the current sample. Although acknowledgement of this result is important, it is equally important that the generally null Gene × Environment results reported here not be overgeneralized to other samples, other predictors, other outcomes, and other candidate genes.

  11. Differential sensitization of parenting on early adolescent cortisol: Moderation by profiles of maternal stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christina Gamache; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2016-05-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a critical component of the body's stress-response neurobiological system, and its development and functioning are shaped by the social environment. Much of our understanding of the effects of the caregiving environment on the HPA axis is based on (a) parenting in young children and (b) individual maternal stressors, such as depression. Yet, less is known about how parenting behaviors and maternal stressors interact to influence child cortisol regulation, particularly in older children. With an ethnically diverse sample of 199 mothers and their early adolescent children (M=11.00years; 54% female), a profile analytic approach was used to investigate how multiple phenotypes of maternal stress co-occur and moderate the relation between parenting behaviors and youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Latent profile analysis yielded 4 profiles: current parenting stress, concurrent parenting and childhood stress, childhood stress, and low stress. For mothers with the concurrent parenting and childhood stress profile, inconsistent discipline, poor parental supervision, and harsh caregiving behaviors each were related to flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the current parenting stress and childhood stress profiles, their use of inconsistent discipline was associated with flattened diurnal cortisol rhythms in their adolescents. For mothers with the low stress profile, none of the parenting behaviors was related to their adolescents' cortisol regulation. Findings suggest that based on mothers' stress profile, parenting behaviors are differentially related to youths' diurnal cortisol rhythms. Implications for parenting interventions are discussed.

  12. Differential Antidepressant-Like Response to Lithium Treatment between Mouse Strains: Effects of Sex, Maternal Care, and Mixed Genetic Background

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Piantadosi, Sean C.; Gould, Todd D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lithium is a mood stabilizer with both antidepressant and antimanic properties, though its mechanism of action is unclear. Identifying the genetic factors that influence lithium's therapeutic actions will be an important step to assist in identifying such mechanisms. We previously reported that lithium treatment of male mice has antidepressant-like effects in the C57BL/6J strain but that such effects were absent in the BALB/cJ strain. Objectives To assess the roles of both genetic, and non-genetic factors such as sex and non-shared environmental factors that may mediate differential behavioral responses to lithium. Methods Mice were treated with lithium for ten days and then tested in the forced swim test followed by lithium discontinuation and retesting to assess effects of lithium withdrawal. We also assessed effects of sex and cross-fostering on lithium response between the C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ strains, and antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the hybrid CB6F1/J strain that is derived from C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ parental strains. Results Neither sex nor maternal care significantly influenced the differential antidepressant-like profile of lithium. Withdrawal from lithium treatment reversed antidepressant-like effects in the C57BL/6J strain, but had no effects in BALB/cJ mice. Lithium treatment did not result in antidepressant-like effects in the CB6F1/J strain. Conclusions Genetic factors are likely primarily responsible for differential antidepressant-like effects of lithium in the C57BL/6J and BALB/cJ strains. Future studies identifying such genetic factors may help to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms of lithium's therapeutic actions. PMID:23503701

  13. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others. PMID:20003411

  14. Differentially methylated regions in maternal and paternal uniparental disomy for chromosome 7

    PubMed Central

    Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Muurinen, Mari; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Reinius, Lovisa E; Ezer, Sini; Greco, Dario; Kere, Juha

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation is a hallmark of genomic imprinting and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) are found near and in imprinted genes. Imprinted genes are expressed only from the maternal or paternal allele and their normal balance can be disrupted by uniparental disomy (UPD), the inheritance of both chromosomes of a chromosome pair exclusively from only either the mother or the father. Maternal UPD for chromosome 7 (matUPD7) results in Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) with typical features and growth retardation, but no gene has been conclusively implicated in SRS. In order to identify novel DMRs and putative imprinted genes on chromosome 7, we analyzed eight matUPD7 patients, a segmental matUPD7q31-qter, a rare patUPD7 case and ten controls on the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip with 30 017 CpG methylation probes for chromosome 7. Genome-scale analysis showed highly significant clustering of DMRs only on chromosome 7, including the known imprinted loci GRB10, SGCE/PEG10, and PEG/MEST. We found ten novel DMRs on chromosome 7, two DMRs for the predicted imprinted genes HOXA4 and GLI3 and one for the disputed imprinted gene PON1. Quantitative RT-PCR on blood RNA samples comparing matUPD7, patUPD7, and controls showed differential expression for three genes with novel DMRs, HOXA4, GLI3, and SVOPL. Allele specific expression analysis confirmed maternal only expression of SVOPL and imprinting of HOXA4 was supported by monoallelic expression. These results present the first comprehensive map of parent-of-origin specific DMRs on human chromosome 7, suggesting many new imprinted sites. PMID:24247273

  15. Comparison of feto-maternal organ derived stem cells in facets of immunophenotype, proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Indumathi, S; Harikrishnan, R; Mishra, R; Rajkumar, J S; Padmapriya, V; Lissa, R P; Dhanasekaran, M

    2013-12-01

    Scientific explorations on feto-maternal organ stem cells revealed its possible applicability in treatment of various diseases. However, establishment of an ideal placental tissue stem cell source in regenerative application is inconclusive and arduous. Hence, this study aims to resolve this tribulation by comparison of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from fetal placenta - amniotic membrane (AM-MSC), chorionic plate (CP-MSC) tissue and the maternal placenta-Decidua (D-MSC), thereby facilitating the researchers to determine their pertinent source. The cells were expanded and scrutinized for expression profiling, proliferation and differentiation ability. Remarkable expressions of certain markers in addition to its prospective mesodermal differentiation confirmed their mesenchyme origin. Despite the specified alikeness among these sources, reliable and non-invasive procurement of AM-MSC coupled with its higher growth potency makes it the most constructive stem cell source. However, exhibited similarities demands further investigations on extensive expandability and cytogenetic stability of these sources prior to its therapeutic applicability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The prolonged effect of repeated maternal glucocorticoid exposure on the maternal and fetal leptin/insulin-like growth factor axis in Papio spp

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia E.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan C.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Miller, Myrna M.; Ford, Stephen P.; Li, Cun; Hubbard, Gene B.; Ferry, Robert J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity represents a risk factor for pregnancy-related complications. Glucocorticoids are known to promote obesity in adults. Methods We evaluated maternal and fetal metabolic changes during and after three weekly courses of betamethasone (BM) administered to pregnant baboons (Papio spp.) at doses equivalent to those given to pregnant women. Results BM administration during the second half of pregnancy increased maternal weight, but neither maternal food intake nor fetal weight, as assessed at the end of gestation. BM increased maternal serum glucose concentration, IGF-I:IGFBP-3 ratio, and serum leptin during treatment (normalized by 17, 35, and 45 days post-treatment respectively for each parameter). Maternal and fetal serum leptin concentrations did not differ between groups at the end of gestation. Conclusion Prolonged maternal hyperleptinemia caused by BM administration in the second half of gestation did not change fetal metabolic parameters measured and placental leptin distribution at the end of gestation. PMID:19087979

  17. Factors associated with maternal cell contamination in amniocentesis samples as evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hockstein, S; Chen, P X; Thangavelu, M; Pergament, E

    1998-10-01

    To determine which patient- and procedure-related factors contribute to maternal cell contamination in uncultured amniocentesis fluid. One hundred thirty amniotic fluid (AF) samples were obtained by three operator groups: maternal-fetal medicine faculty (n=50), general obstetrician gynecologists (n=50), and obstetrics and gynecology residents supervised by maternal-fetal medicine faculty (n=30). These groups were designated "most," "intermediate," and "least experience," respectively. Study variables were recorded at the time of the procedure. Amniotic fluid cells from male fetuses underwent fluorescent in situ hybridization. Maternal cell contamination was calculated by analyzing 100 cells and determining the number of XX and XY cells. A control system was created to validate the methods used for AF processing and cell counting. Median maternal cell contamination was 2.0%. Maternal cell contamination did not vary with body mass index (r=-.13, P=.14), gestational age (r=.08, P=.35), or placental location (P=.55). Maternal cell contamination was significantly elevated with placental penetration (6.0% compared with 1.0%, P < .001), two passes (27.5% compared with 2.0%, P=.002), blood-tinged fluid color (14.0% compared with 2.0%, P < .001), and operator inexperience ("intermediate experience" compared with "most experience," 4.5% compared with 1.0%, P=.026). Maternal cell contamination did not differ between the "most experience" and "least experience" groups (1.0% compared with 2.0%, not significant). Concordance between detected and actual maternal cell contamination in the control system was extremely high (concordance coefficient=0.98, P=.008), confirming the validity of the techniques used. Our techniques of cell counting and maternal cell contamination calculation are accurate. Maternal cell contamination is increased with placental penetration, two passes, and operator inexperience. However, with expert supervision, inexperienced physicians can perform

  18. DNA interference-mediated screening of maternal factors in the chordate Oikopleura dioica

    PubMed Central

    Omotezako, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Masaki; Onuma, Takeshi A.; Nishida, Hiroki

    2017-01-01

    The maternal contribution to the oocyte cytoplasm plays an important role during embryogenesis because it is involved in early cell fate specification and embryonic axis establishment. However, screening projects targeting maternal factors have only been conducted in a limited number of animal models, such as nematodes, fruit flies, and zebrafish, while few maternal genes have been analysed because of difficulties encountered in inhibiting gene products already expressed in the ovaries. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for large-scale maternal screening are necessary. The appendicularian Oikopleura dioica is a planktonic tunicate member of the chordates. Gonadal microinjection and a novel gene knockdown method, DNA interference (DNAi), have been developed for use in this animal with the aim of inhibiting gene functions during oogenesis within the gonad. In this study, we adapted these methods for large-scale maternal factor screening, and observed malformation phenotypes related to some maternal factors. Approximately 2000 (56.9%) ovary-enriched gene products were screened, of which the knockdown of seven encoding genes resulted in various abnormalities during embryonic development. Most of these were related to microtubules and cell adhesion-related proteins. We conclude that DNAi is a potentially powerful screening tool for the identification of novel maternal factors in chordates. PMID:28281645

  19. Prognostic Factors in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Revisited.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Eran; Alon, Eran; Bedrin, Lev; Talmi, Yoav P

    2017-02-01

    More than 90% of all thyroid cancers are differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC) with a 10 year survival rate greater than 90%. The commonly used risk stratification systems for DTC include: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), AGES (Age, histologic Grade, Extent of tumor, Size), AMES (Metastasis) and MACIS (Completeness of resection, local Invasion). Other systems are also utilized. Several new factors that may be involved in DTC risk stratification have emerged in recent studies, with other "traditional" factors being challenged. To present recent updates in the literature on new potential prognostic factors for DTC. We conducted a literature review and analysis of publications regarding DTC prognostic factors or risk stratification published in the last 10 years. Several new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC were noted, including family history, lymph node involvement parameters, positive PET-CT findings, multifocal disease, thyroglobulin level and several molecular markers including BRAF. Increasing age is associated with poorer outcome in DTC; however, recent studies suggest that the cutoff point of 45 years may be contested. Furthermore, several studies have shown contradictory results regarding male gender as a negative prognostic factor, thus questioning its prognostic significance. A number of new factors with potential prognostic implications for DTC have emerged and should be addressed. However, their role and possible inclusion in new staging systems has yet to be determined.

  20. Impact of maternal diabetes type 1 on proliferative potential, differentiation and apoptotic activity in villous capillaries of term placenta.

    PubMed

    Jirkovská, Marie; Kučera, Tomáš; Dvořáková, Veronika; Jadrníček, Martin; Moravcová, Milena; Žižka, Zdeněk; Krejčí, Vratislav

    2016-04-01

    Maternal diabetes mellitus changes morphology and impairs function of placental capillaries. Here, quantitative parameters characterizing cell proliferation using detection of Ki67, differentiation reflected by nestin expression and apoptosis in placental capillary bed with active caspase 3 as a marker were compared in normal term placentas and placentas from pregnancies complicated by Type 1 maternal diabetes mellitus. Specimens of sixteen diabetic placentas and eight control placentas were collected by systematic uniform random sampling. Immunohistochemical detections of Ki67, nestin, and active caspase 3 were performed in histological sections of five haphazardly chosen blocks per placenta. Twenty fields of view per section, i.e. one hundred fields of view per placenta, were used for analysis of proliferation as well as of apoptosis, and in approximately 70 capillary cross-sections per placenta the nestin-positive segments of their circumference were measured. The percentage of Ki67-positive cells counted in the capillary wall was significantly lower in diabetic group. The counts of Ki67-labelled nuclei per villous area unit were significantly lower in cytotrophoblast and capillary wall of terminal villi in diabetic placenta. The proportion of nestin-labeled segments of capillary circumference was significantly higher in placentas of diabetic group. No differences in the numbers of apoptotic cells were found between studied groups. The results show that the term placenta in Type 1 diabetes has lower potential to enlarge the surface area of structures involved in maternofetal transport, and that the villous capillary bed displays delayed differentiation. Those factors may participate in decreased ability of diabetic placenta to comply with fetal requirements in the final stage of pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential expression of genes in fetal brain as a consequence of maternal protein deficiency and nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Haque, Manjurul; Starr, Lisa M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2017-09-10

    Maternal dietary protein deficiency and gastrointestinal nematode infection during early pregnancy have negative impacts on both maternal placental gene expression and fetal growth in the mouse. Here we used next-generation RNA sequencing to test our hypothesis that maternal protein deficiency and/or nematode infection also alter the expression of genes in the developing fetal brain. Outbred pregnant CD1 mice were used in a 2×2 design with two levels of dietary protein (24% versus 6%) and two levels of infection (repeated sham versus Heligmosomoides bakeri beginning at gestation day 5). Pregnant dams were euthanized on gestation day 18 to harvest the whole fetal brain. Four fetal brains from each treatment group were analyzed using RNA Hi-Seq sequencing and the differential expression of genes was determined by the edgeR package using NetworkAnalyst. In response to maternal H. bakeri infection, 96 genes (88 up-regulated and eight down-regulated) were differentially expressed in the fetal brain. Differentially expressed genes were involved in metabolic processes, developmental processes and the immune system according to the PANTHER classification system. Among the important biological functions identified, several up-regulated genes have known neurological functions including neuro-development (Gdf15, Ing4), neural differentiation (miRNA let-7), synaptic plasticity (via suppression of NF-κβ), neuro-inflammation (S100A8, S100A9) and glucose metabolism (Tnnt1, Atf3). However, in response to maternal protein deficiency, brain-specific serine protease (Prss22) was the only up-regulated gene and only one gene (Dynlt1a) responded to the interaction of maternal nematode infection and protein deficiency. In conclusion, maternal exposure to GI nematode infection from day 5 to 18 of pregnancy may influence developmental programming of the fetal brain. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Is Military Deployment a Risk Factor for Maternal Depression?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    compliance with all applicable federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects in research. Naval Health Research Center 140...relationship between deployment experience before and after childbirth and maternal depression among U.S. servicewomen. Methods: The study included...Results: Deployment before childbirth , regardless of combat experience, and deployment without combat ex- perience after childbirth did not increase the

  3. Maternal and neonatal risk factors for childhood type 1 diabetes: a matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Lynn; Harrild, Kirsten

    2010-05-27

    An interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors is thought to be involved in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate maternal and neonatal risk factors for type 1 diabetes in children under 15 years old in Grampian, Scotland. A matched case-control study was conducted by record linkage. Cases (n = 361) were children born in Aberdeen Maternity Hospital from 1972 to 2002, inclusive, who developed type 1 diabetes, identified from the Scottish Study Group for the Care of Diabetes in the Young Register. Controls (n = 1083) were randomly selected from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank, matched by year of birth. Exposure data were obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity Neonatal Databank. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between various maternal and neonatal factors and the risk of type 1 diabetes. There was no evidence of statistically significant associations between type 1 diabetes and maternal age, maternal body mass index, previous abortions, pre-eclampsia, amniocentesis, maternal deprivation, use of syntocinon, mode of delivery, antepartum haemorrhage, baby's sex, gestational age at birth, birth order, birth weight, jaundice, phototherapy, breast feeding, admission to neonatal unit and Apgar score (P > 0.05). A significantly decreased risk of type 1 diabetes was observed in children whose mothers smoked at the booking appointment compared to those whose mothers did not, with an adjusted OR of 0.67, 95% CI (0.46, 0.99). This case-control study found limited evidence of a reduced risk of the development of type 1 diabetes in children whose mothers smoked, compared to children whose mothers did not. No evidence was found of a significant association between other maternal and neonatal factors and childhood type 1 diabetes.

  4. Chinese primiparous women's experiences of early motherhood: factors affecting maternal role competence.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Fei-Wan; Chan, Sally W C; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to explore Chinese women's perceptions of maternal role competence and factors contributing to maternal role competence during early motherhood. Developing a sense of competence and satisfaction in the maternal role are considered critical components in maternal adaptation, which have a significant impact on parenting behaviours and the psychosocial development of the child. However, qualitative studies that address maternal role competence are limited in the Chinese population. This was an exploratory descriptive study. A purposive sample of 26 Chinese primiparous mothers participated in a childbirth psychoeducation programme and was interviewed at six weeks postpartum. Data were analysed using content analysis. Women perceived a competent mother as being able to make a commitment to caring for the physical and emotional well-being of child, while cultivating appropriate values for childhood. Personal knowledge and experience of infant care, success in breastfeeding, infant's well-being, availability of social support and contradictory information from various sources were major factors affecting maternal role competency. The findings highlight the importance of understanding Chinese cultural attitudes to childrearing and maternal role competence. New Chinese mothers need information on child care, positive experiences of infant care, social support and consistent information to enhance their maternal role competency. Recommendations are made for Chinese culturally specific guidelines and healthcare delivery interventions to enhance maternal role competence in early motherhood. Nursing and midwifery care should always take into account the cultural beliefs and enable adaptation of traditional postpartum practices. Providing consistent information and positive experience on parenting skills and infant behaviour as well as enhancing effective coping strategies could strengthen Chinese women's maternal role competency. © 2011 Blackwell

  5. Differential Susceptibility in Spillover Between Interparental Conflict and Maternal Parenting Practices: Evidence for OXTR and 5-HTT Genes

    PubMed Central

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Davies, Patrick T.; Suor, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the affective spillover hypothesis and the differential susceptibility to environmental influence frameworks, the present study examined how associations between interparental conflict and mothers’ parenting practices were moderated by serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes. A sample of 201 mothers and their two-year old child participated in a laboratory-based research assessment. Results supported differential susceptibility hypotheses within spillover frameworks. With respect to OXTR rs53576, mothers with the GG genotype showed greater differential maternal sensitivity across varying levels of interparental conflict. Mothers with one or two copies of the 5-HTTLPR S allele demonstrated differential susceptibility for both sensitive and harsh/punitive caregiving behaviors. Finally, analyses examined whether maternal depressive symptoms and emotional closeness to their child mediated the moderating effects. Findings suggest that maternal emotional closeness with their child indirectly linked OXTR with maternal sensitivity. The results highlight how molecular genetics may explain heterogeneity in spillover models with differential implications for specific parenting behaviors. Implications for clinicians and therapists working with maritally distressed parents are discussed. PMID:22563705

  6. Maternal profiling of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 deficient mice in association with restraint stress.

    PubMed

    D'Anna, Kimberly L; Stevenson, Sharon A; Gammie, Stephen C

    2008-11-19

    Mice deficient in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 2 (CRF2) (C57BL/6J:129Sv background) exhibit impaired maternal defense (protection of offspring) and are more reactive to stressors than wild-type mice. To further understand CRF2's role in maternal behavior, we crossed the knockout mice with a line bred for high maternal defense that also has elevated maternal care relative to inbred lines. Maternal care was normal in knockout mice (relative to wild-type). Maternal defense was impaired as previously observed. Exposure to a mild stressor (15 min restraint) did not trigger deficits in maternal defense in either genotype as determined by a two-way repeated measures ANOVA analysis. However, when examining difference scores between unrestrained and restrained conditions, knockout mice exhibited significant decreases in maternal defense with stress, suggesting knockouts are more susceptible to a mild stressor's effects. To gain possible insights into brain activity differences between WT and KO mice, we examined c-Fos expression in association with stress. Unrestrained KO mice exhibited significantly lower c-Fos levels relative to unrestrained WT mice in 9 regions, including lateral septum and periaqueductal gray. For WT mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos activity increases in 3 regions while for KO mice, restraint stress triggered c-Fos increases in 16 regions. Taken together, our results suggest both altered behavioral and c-Fos responses to stress in lactating CRF2 KO mice.

  7. Maternal Prenatal Stress and Other Developmental Risk Factors for Adolescent Depression: Spotlight on Sex Differences.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Seth D; Fineberg, Anna M; Drabick, Deborah A; Murphy, Shannon K; Ellman, Lauren M

    2017-04-10

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been linked to premorbid abnormalities associated with depression (e.g., difficult temperament, cognitive deficits) in offspring. However, few studies have looked across developmental periods to examine maternal stress during pregnancy and offspring depression during adolescence and whether these associations differ by sex. The current study used data from 1711 mother-offspring dyads (offspring sex: 49.8% male) in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Maternal narratives collected during pregnancy were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes by independent raters. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct subgroups of offspring based on exposure to maternal prenatal stress and other developmental factors from the prenatal, childhood, and adolescent periods that have been associated with depression and/or maternal prenatal stress. LCA identified subgroups that were compared to determine whether and to what extent they differed on adolescent depressive symptoms. LCA revealed a subgroup of "high-risk" individuals, characterized by maternal factors during pregnancy (higher ambivalence/negativity and lower positivity towards the pregnancy, higher levels of hassles, lower maternal education and higher maternal age at birth, higher pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring developmental factors (decreased cognitive functioning during childhood and adolescence, lower perceived parental support during adolescence, and higher levels of maternal depression during adolescence). High-risk females exhibited elevated conduct symptoms and higher birth order, while high-risk males exhibited decreased internalizing symptoms and lower birth order. Both high-risk males and females reported elevated depressive symptoms during adolescence relative to their "low-risk" counterparts.

  8. Infant, maternal, and familial predictors and correlates of regulatory problems in early infancy: The differential role of infant temperament and maternal anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Martini, Julia; Petzoldt, Johanna; Knappe, Susanne; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Asselmann, Eva; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-09-01

    Excessive infant crying, feeding and sleeping problems are likely to emerge from the complex interplay of various factors. To investigate the role of infant (e.g., temperament), maternal (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders), and familial (e.g., social support) factors as potential precursors of infant regulatory problems. Prospective-longitudinal study. 286 mother-infant dyads were investigated from early pregnancy until 16 months postpartum via questionnaires and interviews. Regulatory problems at 2, 4 and 16 months postpartum assessed by standardized diagnostic interviews. Fussy infant temperament and maternal anxiety disorders were associated with excessive infant crying (OR=1.16, 95%CI:1.05-1.29, OR=3.28, 95%CI:1.16-9.26) and feeding problems (OR=1.05, 95%CI:1.01-1.11, OR=2.27, 95%CI:1.36-3.80) whereas maternal depressive disorders were associated with infant sleeping problems (OR=2.55, 95%CI:1.06-6.11). Moreover, high maternal age (OR=0.86, 95%CI:0.75-0.98) was associated with a lower risk for excessive crying and being a single mother (OR=0.16, 95%CI:0.03-0.73) and cognitive reappraisal to regulate emotions (OR: 0.59, 95%CI:0.36-0.96) was associated with a lower risk for sleeping problems. Excessive infant crying and feeding problems may be related to interactional deficits of anxious mothers who perceive their infants as "difficult" during soothing or feeding situations. Sleeping problems may be transmitted already during pregnancy by an altered sleep-wake-rhythm of mothers with a history of depression or by a genetic predisposition. Therapeutic interventions should focus on maternal anxiety and depression, behavior management techniques to cope with difficult situations with "fussy" infants and potential protective factors (e.g. favorable maternal emotion regulation) to address crying, feeding and sleeping problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Associations of maternal psychological factors on umbilical and uterine blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Mendelson, Tamar; DiPietro, Janet A.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Chen, Ping; Henderson, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alteration to blood flow in the maternal-fetal compartment has been proposed as a mechanism underlying maternal psychological effects on pregnancy outcomes. This study characterized the progression of umbilical and uterine blood flow resistance in healthy pregnancies and evaluated concurrent and longitudinal associations with maternal anxiety and other psychological factors. Methods The study assessed participants (n = 107) at five visits spanning 24 to 38 weeks gestation. The resistance index (RI) in the uterine and umbilical arteries was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Maternal psychological function was assessed using validated, self-report instruments. Results Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that uterine and umbilical RI decreased during the second half of gestation, and that uterine RI was lower in nulliparous women. Few concurrent associations emerged between psychological factors and RI. Longitudinal analyses determined that psychological well-being was associated with decreased left uterine artery RI, and psychological distress was associated with lower right artery RI. Conclusions While uterine artery resistance was modestly associated with the maternal psychological milieu during gestation, our findings do not indicate an association between increased maternal distress and decreased RI. Thus, this study fails to affirm a key component of the hypothesized relation of maternal stress to fetal outcomes via vasoconstriction. PMID:21219117

  10. Associations of maternal psychological factors with umbilical and uterine blood flow.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; DiPietro, Janet A; Costigan, Kathleen A; Chen, Ping; Henderson, Janice L

    2011-03-01

    Alteration to blood flow in the maternal-foetal compartment has been proposed as a mechanism underlying maternal psychological effects on pregnancy outcomes. This study characterised the progression of umbilical and uterine blood flow resistance in healthy pregnancies and evaluated concurrent and longitudinal associations with maternal anxiety and other psychological factors. The study assessed participants (n=107) at five visits spanning 24-38 weeks gestation. The resistance index (RI) in the uterine and umbilical arteries was measured with Doppler ultrasound. Maternal psychological function was assessed using validated, self-report instruments. Hierarchical linear modelling revealed that uterine and umbilical RI decreased during the second half of gestation, and that uterine RI was lower in nulliparous women. Few concurrent associations emerged between psychological factors and RI. Longitudinal analyses determined that psychological well-being was associated with decreased left uterine artery RI, and psychological distress was associated with lower right artery RI. Although uterine artery resistance was modestly associated with the maternal psychological milieu during gestation, our findings do not indicate an association between increased maternal distress and decreased RI. Thus, this study fails to affirm a key component of the hypothesised relation of maternal stress to foetal outcomes via vasoconstriction.

  11. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  12. Modeling Ability Differentiation in the Second-Order Factor Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Dylan; Dolan, Conor V.; van der Maas, Han L. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we present factor models to test for ability differentiation. Ability differentiation predicts that the size of IQ subtest correlations decreases as a function of the general intelligence factor. In the Schmid-Leiman decomposition of the second-order factor model, we model differentiation by introducing heteroscedastic residuals,…

  13. Factors associated with maternal mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau. A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Høj, L; da Silva, D; Hedegaard, K; Sandström, A; Aaby, P

    2002-07-01

    To assess demographic and obstetric risk factors for pregnancy-related death in a multiethnic rural population in a developing country. A prospective survey of women in the fertile age-range. Rural Guinea-Bissau. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at six-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. A total of 10,931 pregnancies were registered prospectively; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. Maternal mortality ratio. In the rural areas of Guinea-Bissau, we conducted a prospective survey of women in the fertile age range. More than 15,000 women living in 100 clusters were visited at 6-monthly intervals over a period of more than six years. An analysis of demographic, environmental and obstetric risk factors for maternal death was performed based on 10,931 prospectively registered pregnancies; 85 of these pregnancies resulted in maternal or late maternal death. In the adjusted model maternal mortality ratio increased with increasing distance from the regional hospital (OR>25 km = 7.4 [95% CI: 1.6-132]). Multiple pregnancy was found to increase the risk of maternal death (OR = 3.4 [95% CI: 1.3-7.5]). The risk of subsequent maternal death was increased if the fetus was stillborn (OR = 5.3 [95% CI: 2.8-9.4]). Women living in the region of Gabu had higher mortality than those living in Biombo (OR = 2.5 [95% CI: 1.3-5.1]). No category of age or parity were associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality. Predictive values did not exceed 3% for any of the significant risk factors. For the purpose of reducing maternal mortality, the screening approach of antenatal care is of limited value. Age and parity should not be used routinely as selection criteria for transfer of otherwise healthy pregnant women to higher-level health institutions. Twin pregnancy seems to be the only operational risk factor identified in this study. Stillbirth is associated with an increased risk of maternal death. Regional

  14. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  15. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M; Zhou, Nan

    2014-10-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers' provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers' ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers' parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory.

  16. Differential induction of HNF-3 transcription factors during neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Jacob, A; Budhiraja, S; Reichel, R R

    1997-08-01

    We have investigated the regulation of transcription factors HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta during the retinoic acid-mediated differentiation of mouse P19 cells. Retinoic acid treatment converts P19 stem cells into neurons and astrocytes and we have clearly shown that gene expression of both HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta is activated during this process. HNF-3alpha transcription was detected 2 h after addition of retinoic acid and took place in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. This suggests that HNF-3alpha is a primary target for retinoic acid action. HNF-3alpha induction displays a biphasic profile and HNF-3alpha mRNA reaches maximal levels at 2 and 6 days postdifferentiation. Additional experiments strongly suggest that the second peak is due to HNF-3alpha induction in postmitotic neurons. P19 stem cells, on the other hand, do not contain any detectable HNF-3alpha mRNA. According to our studies, the retinoic acid-mediated induction of HNF-3alpha occurs at the level of transcriptional initiation and is conferred by distal promoter sequences. In comparison to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta induction is a subsequent event and detectable levels of HNF-3beta mRNA materialize approximately 1 day after addition of retinoic acid to P19 stem cells. Time course studies firmly demonstrate that HNF-3beta mRNA peaks at about 2 days postdifferentiation and then declines to virtually unreadable levels. This temporal pattern is consistent with HNF-3beta being a secondary target for retinoic acid. In analogy to HNF-3alpha, HNF-3beta activation also takes place at the level of transcriptional initiation. Recent studies implicate HNF-3alpha and HNF-3beta in early mammalian neurogenesis. The detection of HNF-3alpha/beta activation during P19 cell differentiation provides us with a convenient cell culture system to elucidate the induction mechanism and the precise role of both transcriptional regulators in the formation of neuronal cells.

  17. Restricted maternal nutrition alters myogenic regulatory factor expression in satellite cells of ovine offspring.

    PubMed

    Raja, J S; Hoffman, M L; Govoni, K E; Zinn, S A; Reed, S A

    2016-07-01

    Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in activated and proliferating satellite cells and myogenin is expressed in terminally differentiating cells. Disruption in the expression pattern or timing of expression of myogenic regulatory factors negatively affects muscle development and growth. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition during gestation would alter the in vitro temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin in satellite cells from offspring at birth and 3 months of age. Ewes were fed 100% or 60% of NRC requirements from day 31±1.3 of gestation. Lambs from control-fed (CON) or restricted-fed (RES) ewes were euthanized within 24 h of birth (birth; n=5) or were fed a control diet until 3 months of age (n=5). Satellite cells isolated from the semitendinosus muscle were used for gene expression analysis or cultured for 24, 48 or 72 h and immunostained for Pax7, MyoD or myogenin. Fusion index was calculated from a subset of cells allowed to differentiate. Compared with CON, temporal expression of MyoD and myogenin was altered in cultured satellite cells isolated from RES lambs at birth. The percent of cells expressing MyoD was greater in RES than CON (P=0.03) after 24 h in culture. After 48 h of culture, there was a greater percent of cells expressing myogenin in RES compared with CON (P0.05). In satellite cells from RES lambs at 3 months of age, the percent of cells expressing MyoD and myogenin were greater than CON after 72 h in culture (P<0.05). Fusion index was reduced in RES lambs at 3 months of age compared with CON (P<0.001). Restricted nutrition during gestation alters the temporal expression of myogenic regulatory factors in satellite cells of the

  18. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-07-01

    Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m(2), gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life.

  19. Impact of gestational risk factors on maternal cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Scarce evidence is available on the potential cardiovascular abnormalities associated with some common gestational complications. We aimed to analyze the potential maternal cardiac alterations related to gestational complications, including body mass index (BMI) >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, or developing antenatal depression. Methods The design of this study was a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Echocardiography was performed to assess cardiovascular indicators of maternal hemodynamic, cardiac remodeling and left ventricular (LV) function in 59 sedentary pregnant women at 20 and 34 weeks of gestation. Results Starting pregnancy with a BMI >25 kg/m2, gaining excessive weight, and developing antenatal depression had no cardiovascular impact on maternal health (P value >0.002). Depressed women were more likely to exceed weight gain recommendations than non-depressed women (P value <0.002). Conclusions The evaluated gestational complications seem not to induce cardiovascular alterations in hemodynamic, remodeling and LV function indicators. However, developing antenatal depression increases the risk of an excessive weight gain. This finding is potentially important because excessive weight gain during pregnancy associates with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. PMID:27500154

  20. Risk factors and outcomes of maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy; Durmuş, Büşra; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2013-05-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women of reproductive age is increasing. We aimed to determine risk factors and maternal, fetal and childhood consequences of maternal obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. The study was embedded in a population-based prospective cohort study among 6959 mothers and their children. The study was based in Rotterdam, The Netherlands (2001-2005). Maternal lower educational level, lower household income, multiparity, and FTO risk allel were associated with an increased risk of maternal obesity, whereas maternal European ethnicity, nulliparity, higher total energy intake, and smoking during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of excessive gestational weight gain (all p-values <0.05). As compared to normal weight, maternal obesity was associated with increased risks of gestational hypertension (OR 6.31 (95% CI 4.30, 9.26)), preeclampsia (OR (3.61, (95% CI 2.04, 6.39)), gestational diabetes (OR 6.28 (95%CI 3.01, 13.06)), caesarean delivery (OR 1.91 (95% CI 1.46, 2.50)), delivering large size for gestational age infants (OR 2.97 (95% CI 2.16, 4.08)), and childhood obesity (OR 5.02 (95% CI:2.97, 8.45)). Weaker associations of excessive gestational weight gain with maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes were observed, with the strongest effects for first trimester weight gain. Our study shows that maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with socio-demographic, lifestyle, and genetic factors and with increased risks of adverse maternal, fetal and childhood outcomes. As compared to prepregnancy overweight and obesity, excessive gestational weight gain has a limited influence on adverse pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  1. Risk factors for maternal mortality in Delhi slums: a community-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Abha; Pandey, Arvind; Bhattacharya, B N

    2007-09-01

    In order to develop, implement and evaluate policy for reducing maternal mortality, it is essential to study the risk factors associated with maternal deaths. The study aims to determine the epidemiological risk factors and its related causes associated with maternal deaths in Delhi slums. A community-based case-control study was designed, wherein snowball-sampling method was used to identify the maternal deaths (cases) in the community and circular systematic random sampling procedure was used to select the controls from the same area where a maternal death was found. Data on 70 cases and 384 controls that had live births as the outcome of the pregnancy were analyzed. Logistic regression was applied to identify the risk factors. In the study population, most of the deliveries were conducted at home by untrained 'dais.' Cases were mostly illiterate, young, having high parity and no antenatal care taken during pregnancy (P CONCLUSIONS: The study findings suggest that women should be educated about the importance of antenatal registration and regular checkups. Untrained 'dais' should be trained to recognize the obstetric complications at an early stage and refer high-risk cases for adequate management. These preventive measures could help in reducing maternal mortality at the community level.

  2. Maternal Investment in the Swordtail Fish Xiphophorus multilineatus: Support for the Differential Allocation Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Rios-Cardenas, Oscar; Brewer, Jason; Morris, Molly R.

    2013-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that reproductive investment will be influenced by mate attractiveness, given a cost to reproduction and a tradeoff between current and future reproduction. We tested the differential allocation hypothesis in the swordtail fish Xiphophorus multilineatus, where males have genetically influenced (patroclinous inheritance) alternative mating tactics (ARTs) maintained by a tradeoff between being more attractive to females (mature later as larger courting males) and a higher probability of reaching sexual maturity (mature earlier as smaller sneaker males). Males in X. multilineatus do not provide parental care or other resources to the offspring. Allelic variation and copy number of the Mc4R gene on the Y-chromosome influences the size differences between males, however there is no variation in this gene on the X-chromosome. Therefore, to determine if mothers invested more in offspring of the larger courter males, we examined age to sexual maturity for daughters. We confirmed a tradeoff between number of offspring and female offspring’s age to sexual maturity, corroborating that there is a cost to reproduction. In addition, the ART of their fathers significantly influenced the age at which daughters reached sexual maturity, suggesting increased maternal investment to daughters of courter males. The differential allocation we detected was influenced by how long the wild-caught mother had been in the laboratory, as there was a brood order by father genotype (ART) interaction. These results suggest that females can adjust their reproductive investment strategy, and that differential allocation is context specific. We hypothesize that one of two aspects of laboratory conditions produced this shift: increased female condition due to higher quality diet, and/or assessment of future mating opportunities due to isolation from males. PMID:24349348

  3. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Di Mauro, Maria; Russo, Marco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ERs) on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth factors on thyroid

  4. Maternal obesity is a risk factor for orofacial clefts: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, R; Colombo, A; Suazo, J

    2015-10-01

    Orofacial clefts are the most prevalent birth defects that affect craniofacial structures and implicate genetic and environmental factors in their aetiology. Maternal metabolic state and nutrition have been related to these and other structural malformations, and studies of maternal obesity before pregnancy have shown controversial results about its association with the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring. Our aim was to assess the combined effect of several single studies of maternal obesity on the risk of orofacial clefts using meta-analysis. We searched for these reports in the PubMed database, and selected 8 studies that met our criteria for eligibility. As a result of this analysis, and using maternal normal weight as a reference, we found that maternal obesity does increase the risk of orofacial clefts in their offspring (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.26). When these clefts are considered separately, maternal obesity is associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.23), and with cleft palate alone (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35). Our results support the relation between maternal obesity and orofacial clefts, and confirm two previous meta-analyses that considered fewer studies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this statistical evidence have not been fully elucidated.

  5. Differential development of infants at risk for psychopathology: the moderating role of early maternal responsivity.

    PubMed

    Laucht, M; Esser, G; Schmidt, M H

    2001-05-01

    The development of behaviour problems in infants born with biological risk (low birthweight) and psychosocial risk (psychosocially disadvantaged family) was studied in a sample of 347 children (171 males, 176 females) at the ages of 2, 4:6, and 8 years. In the search for factors that moderate the effects of early risks, the role of early responsive caregiving was examined. Results indicate that infants at psychosocial risk exhibited both more externalizing and internalizing problems across ages than infants not at psychosocial risk, while no overall differences were apparent between normal- and low-birthweight groups. With one exception, no interactions between biological and psychosocial risk factors emerged, suggesting that their simultaneous effect is largely additive. Maternal responsivity was found to moderate the effects of low birthweight on hyperkinetic and internalizing problems as well as to influence the consequences of family disadvantage on total problems. These findings stress the importance of early parenting in the behavioural development of at-risk children.

  6. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: not as simple as it might seem.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Gossage, J Phillip

    2011-01-01

    Gathering information about drinking during pregnancy is one of the most difficult aspects of studying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). This information is critical to linking specific risk factors to any particular diagnosis within the FASD continuum. This article reviews highlights from the literature on maternal risk factors for FASD and illustrates that maternal risk is multidimensional, including factors related to quantity, frequency, and timing of alcohol exposure; maternal age; number of pregnancies; number of times the mother has given birth; the mother's body size; nutrition; socioeconomic status; metabolism; religion; spirituality; depression; other drug use; and social relationships. More research is needed to more clearly define what type of individual behavioral, physical, and genetic factors are most likely to lead to having children with FASD.

  7. Maternal age at the birth of the first child as an epistatic factor in polygenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Comings, David E; MacMurray, James P

    2006-01-05

    The identification of the genes for complex, polygenic disorders has proven difficult. This is due to the small effect size of each gene and genetic heterogeneity. An additional important factor could be the presence of unidentified epistatic factors. In the broad definition of epistasis, the effect of one unit is not predicable unless the value of another unit is known and one of the units may not be a gene. We have previously identified maternal age as an epistatic factor for the effect of the LEP gene on the age of onset of menarche. We report here the effect of maternal age and the age of the mother at the birth of her first child (maternal age 1st) as epistatic factors for the interaction of the dopamine D1 gene (DRD1) with obsessive-compulsive behaviors and with stuttering. The epistatic effects of maternal age 1st were stronger than maternal age. This type of epistatic factor may be generalizable to many other gene-trait interactions. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. The suppression of maternal-fetal leukemia inhibitory factor signal relay pathway by maternal immune activation impairs brain development in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Tsuyoshi; Simamura, Eriko; Shimada, Hiroki; Arai, Takuma; Higashi, Nobuaki; Akai, Takuya; Iizuka, Hideaki; Hatta, Toshihisa

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies in rodents suggest that maternal immune activation (MIA) by viral infection is associated with schizophrenia and autism in offspring. Although maternal IL-6 is though t to be a possible mediator relating MIA induced these neuropsychiatric disorders, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Previously, we reported that the maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-placental ACTH-fetal LIF signaling relay pathway (maternal-fetal LIF signal relay) promotes neurogenesis of fetal cerebrum in rats. Here we report that the maternal-fetal LIF signal relay in mice is suppressed by injection of polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid into dams, which induces MIA at 12.5 days post-coitum. Maternal IL-6 levels and gene expression of placental suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) increased according to the severity of MIA and gene expression of placental Socs3 correlated with maternal IL-6 levels. Furthermore, we show that MIA causes reduction of LIF level in the fetal cerebrospinal fluid, resulting in the decreased neurogenesis in the cerebrum. These findings suggest that maternal IL-6 interferes the maternal-fetal LIF signal relay by inducing SOCS3 in the placenta and leads to decreased neurogenesis.

  9. Maternal and family factors and child eating pathology: risk and protective relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between maternal and family factors and child eating disorder symptoms. However, it is not clear whether family factors predict eating disorder symptoms specifically, or relate to more general child psychopathology, of which eating disorder symptoms may be one component. This study aimed to identify maternal and family factors that may predict increases or decreases in child eating disorder symptoms over time, accounting for children’s body mass index z-scores and levels of general psychological distress. Methods Participants were 221 mother-child dyads from the Childhood Growth and Development Study, a prospective cohort study in Western Australia. Participants were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up and 2-year follow-up using interview and self-report measures. Children had a mean age of 10 years at baseline and 46% were male. Linear mixed models and generalised estimating equations were used to identify predictors of children’s eating disorder symptoms, with outcome variables including a global index of eating disorder psychopathology, levels of dietary restraint, levels of emotional eating, and the presence of loss of control (‘binge’) eating. Results Children of mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly higher levels of global eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than other children, and mothers with a current or past eating disorder reported significantly more concern about their children’s weight than other mothers. Maternal concern about child weight, rather than maternal eating disorder symptoms, was significant in predicting child eating disorder symptoms over time. Family exposure to stress and low maternal education were additional risk factors for eating disorder symptoms, whilst child-reported family satisfaction was a protective factor. Conclusions After adjusting for relevant confounding variables, maternal concern about child weight, children

  10. Cytoplasmic factors do not contribute to a maternal effect on ethanol teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Downing, C; Gilliam, D

    1999-01-01

    Both maternal and fetal genetic factors influence variations in response to prenatal ethanol exposure. To assess the effect of maternal genotype on the incidence of ethanol teratogenesis, a reciprocal cross study was conducted in an animal mode using the relatively susceptible C57BL/6J (B6) and the relatively resistant DBA/2J (D2) inbred mice. This mating pattern produced four embryonic genotypes: true-bred B6B6 and D2D2 litters and hybrid B6D2 and D2B6 litters. To examine the role of maternal egg cytoplasm as the source of variation that could account for a maternal effect, B6D2 and D2B6 F1 females were mated back to B6 males, which produced two additional embryonic genotypes: B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6. Dams were intubated with either 5.8 g/kg of ethanol or an isocaloric amount of maltose-dextrin on day 9 of pregnancy. On day 18 of pregnancy, dams were sacrificed, fetuses were removed, weighed, sexed, and examined for gross morphological malformations. Every other fetus within a litter was prepared for either skeletal or soft tissue analysis. Results showed a higher rate of teratogenesis in the B6D2 group compared to the genetically similar D2B6 group, which indicates an influence of maternal genotype on susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis. The percentage of affected male and female fetuses did not differ, which suggests that sex-linked factors are not responsible for the maternal effect. The backcross B6D2.B6 and D2B6.B6 litters did not differ significantly for any measure of teratogenesis, suggesting that differences in maternally transmitted cytoplasmic material are not the cause of the maternal effect. Factors that could account for the maternal effect are differences in the maternal uterine environment and genomic imprinting. Separating maternal from fetal-mediated mechanisms responsible for susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis is needed for identifying mothers and infants at risk.

  11. Association between maternal socioeconomic factors and nutritional outcomes in children under 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Géa-Horta, Tatiane; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Ortiz, Renzo Joel Flores; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    To estimate the association between maternal socioeconomic factors and the occurrence of nutritional outcomes in children under five years of age in a representative sample of the Brazilian population. This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated data from the latest National Survey of Children and Women's Demographics and Health, carried out in Brazil in 2006-2007. Maternal employment and maternal level of schooling were the main exposures. The following nutritional outcomes in children were considered: height/age <-2 standard deviations (SD) for short stature and BMI/age >2SD for overweight. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were utilized as the regression method. After adjustments, it was observed that children whose mothers had low level of schooling had a higher chance of having short stature (OR=3.97, 95% CI, 1.23-12.80) and children whose mothers worked outside the home were more likely to have excess weight (OR=1.57, 95% CI, 1.02-2.42). Maternal employment was not associated with short stature in children (OR=1.09, 95% CI, 0.67-1.77). Maternal level of schooling was associated with short stature in children and maternal employment with overweight, indicating the need to take into account the socioeconomic factors when proposing programs and strategies aimed at health and nutrition improvement of children, considering inter-sectoral interventions. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Is Maternal Periodontal Disease a Risk Factor for Preterm Delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Kungsadalpipob, Kajorn; Chanchareonsook, Prohpring; Limpongsanurak, Sompop; Vanichjakvong, Ornanong; Sutdhibhisal, Sanutm; Wongkittikraiwan, Nopmanee; Sookprome, Chulamanee; Kamolpornwijit, Wiboon; Jantarasaengaram, Surasak; Manotaya, Saknan; Siwawej, Vatcharapong; Barlow, William E.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery, but this has not been a consistent finding. In 2006–2007, the authors examined the relation between maternal periodontal disease and preterm delivery among 467 pregnant Thai women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (<37 weeks’ gestation) and 467 controls who delivered a singleton infant at term (≥37 weeks’ gestation). Periodontal examinations were performed within 48 hours after delivery. Participants’ periodontal health status was classified into 4 categories according to the extent and severity of periodontal disease. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Preterm delivery cases and controls were similar with regard to mean probing depth, mean clinical attachment loss, and mean percentage of sites exhibiting bleeding on probing. After controlling for known confounders, the authors found that severe clinical periodontal disease was not associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (odds ratio = 1.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 2.16). In addition, there was no evidence of a linear increase in risk of preterm delivery or its subtypes associated with increasing severity of periodontal disease (Ptrend > 0.05). The results of this case-control study do not provide convincing evidence that periodontal disease is associated with preterm delivery or its subtypes among Thai women. PMID:19131565

  13. [Failure of vacuum extractions: risk factors, maternal and fetal issues].

    PubMed

    Le Brun, C; Beucher, G; Morello, R; Jones, F; Lamendour, N; Dreyfus, M

    2013-11-01

    Determine cases which are at risk of vacuum extraction failure as well as maternal and foetal issues depending on the delivery outcome. It was a retrospective study comparing 147 vacuum failures, from January 2002 to December 2010, with a control group randomly composed of 526 successful vacuum extractions. The outcomes were high risk situations of vacuum failure, maternal and neonatal morbidity depending on the delivery method (caesarean section or other instrumental extraction). The global vacuum failure rate was 3.3 %. During labour, we identified several situations at risk of vacuum extraction failure: cephalhematomas prior to extraction (P<0.001), deflexion attitude (P<0.001), posterior variety (P<0.001), entering above the inlet strait (P<0.001), occiput posterior delivery (P<0.001), fœtal weight greater than 3500g (P=0.023). Neonatals consequency were more Apgar score below 7 at five minutes life (P=0.007), fœtal acidosis (pH<7,20) (P=0.032), neonatal resuscitation (P<0.001), and craniofacial damages (P<0.001). Many dystocic situations occurring during labour require intense care when practicing vacuum extraction since they more frequently result in failure. In case of vacuum extraction failure, immediate adaptation to extra-uterine life seems to be more difficult for new-born babies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential expression of circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia

    PubMed Central

    GE, QINYU; ZHU, YANAN; LI, HAILING; TIAN, FEI; XIE, XUEYING; BAI, YUNFEI

    2015-01-01

    Macrosomia is associated with problems at birth and has life-long health implications for the infant. The aim of this study was to profile the plasma microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and evaluate the potential of circulating miRNAs to predict fetal macrosomia. The expression levels of miRNAs in plasma samples obtained from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia and from women with normal pregnancies (controls) were analyzed using TaqMan Low-Density Arrays (TLDAs) followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) validation and analysis. The TLDA data revealed that 143 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma samples from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia compared with the controls (43 upregulated and 100 downregulated miRNAs). Twelve of these miRNAs were selected for RT-qPCR analysis. Receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that several miRNAs (e.g., miR-141-3p and miR-200c-3p) were clearly distinguished between pregnancies with fetal macrosomia and other types of abnormal pregnancy and healthy pregnancies with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC >0.9). The expression of miRNA clusters also showed a similar trend in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia. This study provides a platform for profiling circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma. Our data also suggest that altered levels of maternal plasma miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers and as a mechanistic indicator of abnormal pregnancies. PMID:25370776

  15. Differential expression of circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qinyu; Zhu, Yanan; Li, Hailing; Tian, Fei; Xie, Xueying; Bai, Yunfei

    2015-01-01

    Macrosomia is associated with problems at birth and has life-long health implications for the infant. The aim of this study was to profile the plasma microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) and evaluate the potential of circulating miRNAs to predict fetal macrosomia. The expression levels of miRNAs in plasma samples obtained from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia and from women with normal pregnancies (controls) were analyzed using TaqMan Low-Density Arrays (TLDAs) followed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) validation and analysis. The TLDA data revealed that 143 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma samples from pregnant women with fetal macrosomia compared with the controls (43 upregulated and 100 downregulated miRNAs). Twelve of these miRNAs were selected for RT-qPCR analysis. Receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that several miRNAs (e.g., miR‑141-3p and miR-200c-3p) were clearly distinguished between pregnancies with fetal macrosomia and other types of abnormal pregnancy and healthy pregnancies with high sensitivity and specificity (AUC >0.9). The expression of miRNA clusters also showed a similar trend in pregnancies with fetal macrosomia. This study provides a platform for profiling circulating miRNAs in maternal plasma. Our data also suggest that altered levels of maternal plasma miRNAs have great potential to serve as non-invasive biomarkers and as a mechanistic indicator of abnormal pregnancies.

  16. Maternally imprinted microRNAs are differentially expressed during mouse and human lung development

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Andrew E.; Moschos, Sterghios A.; Perry, Mark M.; Barnes, Peter J.; Lindsay, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a recently discovered class of non-coding genes that regulate the translation of target mRNA. More than 300 miRNAs have now been discovered in humans, although the function of most is still unknown. A highly sensitive, semi-quantitative RT-PCR method was utilised to reveal the differential expression of a number of miRNAs during the development of both mouse and human lung. Of note was the upregulation in neonatal mouse and fetal human lung of a maternally imprinted miRNA cluster located at human chromosome 14q32.21 (mouse chromosome 12F2), which includes the miR-154 and miR-335 families and is situated within the Gtl2-Dio3 domain. Conversely, several miRNAs were upregulated in adult compared to neonatal/fetal lung including miR-29a and miR-29b. Differences in the spatial expression patterns of miR-154, miR-29a and miR-26a was demonstrated using in situ hybridisation of mouse neonatal and adult tissue using miRNA-specific LNA probes. Interestingly, miR-154 appeared to be localised to the stroma of fetal but not adult lungs. The overall expression profile was similar for mouse and human tissue suggesting evolutionary conservation of miRNA expression during lung development and demonstrating the importance of maternally imprinted miRNAs in the developmental process. PMID:17191223

  17. Independence and Interplay between Maternal and Child Risk Factors for Preschool Problem Behaviors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire; Ensor, Rosie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the independence and interplay between cognitive risk factors (poor executive function/emotion understanding) and maternal risk factors (low education/high depression) for preschool problem behaviors, indexed by multi-measure, multi-informant (mother/teacher/ researcher) ratings. A socio-economically diverse sample of 235…

  18. Hyperglycemia Differentially Affects Maternal and Fetal DNA Integrity and DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Jusciele B.; Santos, Janine H.; Lorenzon-Ojea, Aline Rodrigues; Corrêa-Silva, Simone; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro; Rudge, Marilza V.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Bevilacqua, Estela; Calderon, Iracema M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the DNA damage and its cellular response in blood samples from both mother and the umbilical cord of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia. Methods: A total of 144 subjects were divided into 4 groups: normoglycemia (ND; 46 cases), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH; 30 cases), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; 45 cases) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2; 23 cases). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation and/or leukocytes from whole maternal and umbilical cord blood were obtained from all groups at delivery. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage were measured by gene-specific quantitative PCR, and the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway were assessed by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Apoptosis was measured in vitro experiments by caspase 3/7 activity and ATP levels. Results: GDM and DM2 groups were characterized by an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, an increase in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and decreased expression of mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1) involved in BER. The levels of hyperglycemia were associated with the in vitro apoptosis pathway. Blood levels of DNA damage in umbilical cord were similar among the groups. Newborns of diabetic mothers had increased expression of BER mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1, POLβ and FEN1). A diabetes-like environment was unable to induce apoptosis in the umbilical cord blood cells. Conclusions: Our data show relevant asymmetry between maternal and fetal blood cell susceptibility to DNA damage and apoptosis induction. Maternal cells seem to be more predisposed to changes in an adverse glucose environment. This may be due to differential ability in upregulating multiple genes involved in the activation of DNA repair response, especially the BER mechanism. However if this study shows a more effective adaptive response by the fetal organism, it also calls for

  19. Undernutrition among Kenyan children: contribution of child, maternal and household factors.

    PubMed

    Gewa, Constance A; Yandell, Nanette

    2012-06-01

    To examine the contribution of selected child-, maternal- and household-related factors to child undernutrition across two different age groups of Kenyan under-5s. Demographic and Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1851 children between the ages of 0 and 24 months and 1942 children between the ages of 25 and 59 months in Kenya. Thirty per cent of the younger children were stunted, 13 % were underweight and 8 % were wasted. Forty per cent of the older children were stunted, 17 % were underweight and 4 % were wasted. Longer breast-feeding duration, small birth size, childhood diarrhoea and/or cough, poor maternal nutritional status and urban residence were associated with higher odds of at least one form of undernutrition, while female gender, large birth size, up-to-date immunization, higher maternal age at first birth, BMI and education level at the time of the survey and higher household wealth were each associated with lower odds of at least one form of undernutrition among Kenyan children. The more proximal child factors had the strongest impact on the younger group of children while the intermediate and more distal maternal and household factors had the strongest impact on child undernutrition among the older group of children. The present analysis identifies determinants of undernutrition among two age groups of Kenyan pre-school children and demonstrates that the contribution of child, maternal and household factors on children's nutritional status varies with children's age.

  20. Knockdown of Maternal Homeobox Transcription Factor SEBOX Gene Impaired Early Embryonic Development in Porcine Parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Zhong; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; JIA, Jia-Lin; HEO, Young-Tae; CUI, Xiang-Shun; OH, Jeong Su; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes. PMID:24018616

  1. Knockdown of maternal homeobox transcription factor SEBOX gene impaired early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Jia, Jia-Lin; Heo, Young-Tae; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2013-12-17

    A number of germ cell-specific transcription factors essential for ovarian formation and folliculogenesis have been identified and studied. However, the role of these factors during early embryonic development has been poorly explored. In the present study, we investigated the role of SEBOX, a maternal homeobox transcription factor, during early embryonic development in porcine parthenotes. mRNA for SEBOX is preferentially expressed in oocytes, and expression persists until embryonic genome activation (EGA). Knockdown of SEBOX by siRNA disrupted early embryonic development, but not oocyte maturation. Many maternal genes essential for early embryonic development were upregulated in SEBOX-depleted embryos. Moreover, some pluripotency-associated genes, including SOX2 and NANOG, were upregulated when SEBOX was knocked down. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SEBOX is required for early embryonic development in pigs and appears to regulate the degradation of maternal transcripts and the expression of pluripotency genes.

  2. Female Reproductive Factors and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moleti, Mariacarla; Sturniolo, Giacomo; Di Mauro, Maria; Russo, Marco; Vermiglio, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is markedly more common in women than men, the highest female-to-male ratio being recorded during the reproductive period. This evidence has led to the suggestion that female hormonal and reproductive factors may account for the observed DTC gender disparity. This review focuses on current evidence on the risk of DTC in conjunction with major female reproductive factors, including the impact of pregnancy on DTC occurrence and progression/recurrence. Overall, studies exploring the link between the risk of DTC and menstrual and menopausal factors, oral contraceptives and/or hormone replacement therapy, showed these associations, if any, to be generally weak. Nonetheless, there is some evidence that higher levels of exposure to estrogens during reproductive years may confer an increased risk of DTC. As far as pregnancy is concerned, it is unclear whether a potential association between parity and risk of DTC actually exists, and whether it is enhanced in the short-term following delivery. A possible role for pregnancy-related factors in DTC progression has been recently suggested by some reports, the results of which are consistent with a worse outcome in the short-term of women diagnosed with DTC during gestation compared to non-pregnant control patients. Also, some progression of disease has been described in women with structural evidence of disease prior to pregnancy. However, there seems to be no impact from pregnancy in DTC-related death or overall survival. Several in vitro and animal studies have evaluated the influence of estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ERs) on thyroid cell proliferation. Presently available data are indicative of a role of E and ERs in thyroid cancer growth, although considerable discrepancies in respect to ER expression patterns in thyroid cancer tissues actually exist. Further studies providing more direct evidence on the possible role of E and of placental hormones and growth factors on thyroid

  3. Reduced maternal and cord nerve growth factor levels in preterm deliveries.

    PubMed

    Dhobale, Madhavi; Mehendale, Savita; Pisal, Hemlata; Nimbargi, Vandana; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-04-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin, which exerts an important role in the development and function of the central and peripheral nervous system. There is limited information regarding the levels of NGF during pregnancy and its role in fetal development. We have earlier reported increased oxidative stress in pregnancy complications. The present study examines the levels of NGF in maternal and cord samples in preterm deliveries and its association with oxidative stress marker. A total number of 96 women delivering preterm (<37 weeks gestation) and 94 women delivering at term (control group) (≥37 weeks gestation) were recruited. Plasma NGF levels were measured in both mother and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System Promega kit. Maternal and cord plasma NGF levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05 for both) in women delivering preterm as compared to term. There was a positive association between maternal and cord plasma NGF levels (p=0.022). Maternal NGF levels were negatively (p=0.017) associated with maternal malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Reduced cord NGF levels may affect fetal growth in preterm deliveries which may have implications for the neurodevelopmental pathologies in later life. Circulating maternal NGF levels in preterm pregnancies may be a useful marker to predict NGF levels in the neonate.

  4. Maternal haemoglobin levels and cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood: the Generation R study.

    PubMed

    Welten, M; Gaillard, R; Hofman, A; de Jonge, L L; Jaddoe, V W V

    2015-05-01

    To assess whether variations in maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy are associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in school age children. Population-based prospective cohort study. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2002-2012. Mothers and children (n = 5002) participating in the Generation R Study. We obtained maternal haemoglobin levels during early pregnancy (median gestational age 14.6 weeks [95% range 10.3, 25.3]) from venous blood samples. Maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels were based on World Health Organization criteria. We measured childhood cardio-metabolic risk factors at age 6 years. Cardio-metabolic risk factors included body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and blood levels of cholesterol, insulin and C-peptide. Maternal haemoglobin levels were not associated with childhood body mass index, total fat mass percentage, android/gynoid fat mass ratio, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol or insulin levels. Compared with children with normal maternal haemoglobin levels, children from anaemic mothers had slightly higher diastolic blood pressures (difference 0.70 mmHg, 95% CI 0.12, 1.29) and lower C-peptide levels (difference factor 0.93, 95% CI 0.88, 0.98), and children of mothers with elevated haemoglobin levels had lower left ventricular masses (difference -1.08 g, 95% CI -1.88, -0.29). These associations attenuated after adjustment for multiple testing and were not consistent within linear models. These results do not strongly support the hypothesis that variations in maternal haemoglobin levels during pregnancy influence cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  5. Fetal origins of autism spectrum disorders: the non-associated maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hind N; Srikrishnan, Anand; Blackwell, Sean C; Dash, Pramod; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Several population-based studies have been conducted to determine whether maternal exposures are involved in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We review these studies and describe the factors not associated with increased risk for ASD development. Methods: We identified studies describing associations between maternal exposures and ASD development. These studies include the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment, Nurses’ Health Study II, and the Swedish population registry. Results: Factors not associated with ASD development include Type 2 and gestational diabetes, chronic hypertension, fever treated with antipyretic medication, autoimmune disease and short interpregnancy intervals. Conclusion: There is increasing evidence that maternal exposures are involved in the pathophysiology of ASD in the developing fetus. PMID:28031961

  6. Maternal and neonatal factors impacting response to methadone therapy in infants treated for neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Isemann, B; Meinzen-Derr, J; Akinbi, H

    2011-01-01

    To identify maternal and neonatal factors that impact response to methadone therapy for neonatal abstinence syndrome. This is a retrospective review of 128 infants that received pharmacotherapy for opiate withdrawal to identify factors associated with favorable response to methadone therapy. Maternal and neonatal data were analyzed with univariate statistics and multivariate logistic regression. Maternal methadone maintenance dose during pregnancy correlated with length of stay (P=0.009). There was an inverse correlation between the amount of mother's breast milk ingested and length of stay (β=-0.03, P=0.02). Methadone was initiated later, tapered more rapidly and was more successful as monotherapy in preterm infants. Five percent of infants were admitted to hospital again for rebound withdrawal following reduction of breast milk intake. Severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome may be mitigated by titrating methadone to the lowest effective dose during pregnancy and by encouraging breast milk feeds, which should be weaned gradually.

  7. Context dependence of maternal effects: testing assumptions of optimal egg size, differential, and sex allocation models.

    PubMed

    Krist, Miloš; Munclinger, Pavel

    2015-10-01

    If offspring develop in adverse conditions, the maternal component of their phenotypic variation might increase due to the stronger dependence of offspring traits on parental investment. This should result in increased parental investment to individual offspring, as assumed by the model of optimal egg size. The opposite pattern, i.e., stronger dependence of offspring fitness on parental investment and consequently larger parental investment under good conditions is assumed by both the theory of differential allocation if attractive males provide material benefits, and reproductive compensation if they invest less into paternal care. Another influential idea is the Trivers-Willard model, which assumes sex-specific dependence of offspring fitness on parental investment. Here we tested these ideas by examining the effects of egg size on offspring fitness across many postnatal contexts in the Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis. We employed a cross-fostering design that generated variation in egg size within nests and used brood means of fledgling mass as a functional measure of the quality of rearing conditions. Effects of egg size on three offspring traits, including lifetime reproductive success of recruits, were more pronounced in low-quality broods. These results support the assumption of the model of optimal egg size. Based on female preference for males providing material benefits, this pattern could support differential allocation, if attractive males invest less in paternal care, or reproductive compensation, if they invest more. By comparison, we did not find any evidence for sex specificity of fitness returns that might explain sex monomorphism of egg size in this species. The challenge for future studies will be the integration of components of parental investment and offspring fitness into their global measures and testing how the former affects the latter across gradients of postnatal conditions.

  8. Differential Genetic Susceptibility to Child Risk at Birth in Predicting Observed Maternal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Keren; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Mankuta, David; Kaitz, Marsha; Avinun, Reut; Ebstein, Richard P.; Knafo, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parenting as a function of child medical risks at birth and parental genotype (dopamine D4 receptor; DRD4). Our hypothesis was that the relation between child risks and later maternal sensitivity would depend on the presence/absence of a genetic variant in the mothers, thus revealing a gene by environment interaction (GXE). Risk at birth was defined by combining risk indices of children's gestational age at birth, birth weight, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. The DRD4-III 7-repeat allele was chosen as a relevant genotype as it was recently shown to moderate the effect of environmental stress on parental sensitivity. Mothers of 104 twin pairs provided DNA samples and were observed with their children in a laboratory play session when the children were 3.5 years old. Results indicate that higher levels of risk at birth were associated with less sensitive parenting only among mothers carrying the 7-repeat allele, but not among mothers carrying shorter alleles. Moreover, mothers who are carriers of the 7-repeat allele and whose children scored low on the risk index were observed to have the highest levels of sensitivity. These findings provide evidence for the interactive effects of genes and environment (in this study, children born at higher risk) on parenting, and are consistent with a genetic differential susceptibility model of parenting by demonstrating that some parents are inherently more susceptible to environmental influences, both good and bad, than are others. PMID:21603618

  9. Risk Factors for Maternal Mortality in Rural Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Godefay, Hagos; Byass, Peter; Graham, Wendy J; Kinsman, John; Mulugeta, Afework

    2015-01-01

    Maternal mortality continues to have devastating impacts in many societies, where it constitutes a leading cause of death, and thus remains a core issue in international development. Nevertheless, individual determinants of maternal mortality are often unclear and subject to local variation. This study aims to characterise individual risk factors for maternal mortality in Tigray, Ethiopia. A community-based case-control study was conducted, with 62 cases and 248 controls from six randomly-selected rural districts. All maternal deaths between May 2012 and September 2013 were recruited as cases and a random sample of mothers who delivered in the same communities within the same time period were taken as controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to identify independent determinants of maternal mortality. Four independent individual risk factors, significantly associated with maternal death, emerged. Women who were not members of the voluntary Women's Development Army were more likely to experience maternal death (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.04-4.11), as were women whose husbands or partners had below-median scores for involvement during pregnancy (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.14-4.18). Women with a pre-existing history of other illness were also at increased risk (OR 5.58, 95% CI 2.17-14.30), as were those who had never used contraceptives (OR 2.58, 95% CI 1.37-4.85). Previous pregnancy complications, a below-median number of antenatal care visits and a woman's lack of involvement in health care decision making were significant bivariable risks that were not significant in the multivariable model. The findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing maternal mortality need to focus on encouraging membership of the Women's Development Army, enhancing husbands' involvement in maternal health services, improving linkages between maternity care and other disease-specific programmes and ensuring that women with previous illnesses or non-users of contraceptive services are identified

  10. Is advanced maternal age a risk factor for congenital heart disease?

    PubMed

    Best, Kate E; Rankin, Judith

    2016-06-01

    Studies have reported that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for congenital heart disease (CHD), but none of these have been performed in the United Kingdom. Currently, women in the United Kingdom are not referred for specialist fetal echocardiography based on maternal age alone. The aim of this study is to examine the association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence in the North of England. Singleton cases of CHD notified to the Northern Congenital Abnormality Survey and born between January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, were included. Cases with chromosomal anomalies were excluded. The relative risk (RR) of CHD according to maternal age at delivery was estimated using Poisson regression. There were 4024 singleton cases of nonchromosomal CHD, giving a prevalence of 8.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8-8.3) per 1000 live and stillbirths. There was no association between maternal age at delivery and CHD prevalence (p = 0.97), with no evidence of an increased risk of CHD in mothers aged ≥35 compared to aged 25 to 29 (RR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.09). There were no significant associations between maternal age at delivery and severity III CHD (p = 0.84), severity II CHD (p = 0.74), or severity I CHD (p = 0.66), although there was a slight increased risk of severity I CHD in mothers aged ≥35 (RR = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.83-1.95). We found little evidence that advanced maternal age is a risk factor for CHD. There is no evidence that women in the United Kingdom should be referred for specialist prenatal cardiac screening based on their age. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:461-467, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Alpha 2 macroglobulin is a maternally-derived immune factor in amphioxus embryos: New evidence for defense roles of maternal immune components in invertebrate chordate.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, Anjalika; Diao, Mingyue; Huang, Shibo; Zuo, Lingling; Liang, Yujun

    2016-03-01

    In fish, a series of maternal derived immune components have been identified in their eggs or embryos at very early stages, which are proposed to provide protections to themselves against pathogenic attacks from hostile environment. The phenomenon of maternal immunity has been also recorded in several invertebrate species, however, so far, very limited information about the maternal immune molecules are available. In this study, it was demonstrated maternal alpha2 macroglobulin (A2m) protein, an important innate immune factor, exists in the fertilized eggs of amphioxus Branchiostoma japonicum, an invertebrate chordate. Maternal mRNA of A2m was also detected in amphioxus embryos at very early developing stages. In addition, it was recorded that the egg lysate prepared from the newly fertilized eggs can inhibit the growth of both Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus in a concentration dependent manner. The bacteriostatic activity can be reduced notably after precipitated A2m with anti-A2m antibody. Thus maternal A2m is partly attributed to the bacteriostatic activity. It was further demonstrated that recombinant A2m can bind to E. coli cells directly. All these points come to a result that A2m is a maternal immune factor existing in eggs of invertebrate chordate, which may be involved in defense their embryos against harmful microbes' attacks.

  12. Fetal macrosomia: risk factors, maternal, and perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Mohammadbeigi, A; Farhadifar, F; Soufi Zadeh, N; Mohammadsalehi, N; Rezaiee, M; Aghaei, M

    2013-10-01

    Macrosomia is defined as birth-weight over 4,000 g irrespective of gestational age and affects 3-15% of all pregnancies. Aim The present study aimed to determine the relationship between mother's characteristics and macrosomic births and also compare macrosomic and normal newborns regarding the maternal and offspring complications of diabetes during pregnancy. In this case control study, among the 420 consecutive births occurring in public and private hospitals of Shiraz, Iran from October 2006 to March 2007, the data of 32 macrosomic and 128 normal newborns were analyzed using t-test and chi square in bivariate and logistic regression in multivariate model. The mean (SD) of neonate weight, height, and head size was 3323.4 (709), 48.95 (3.2), and 34.9 (1.8), respectively. Regression analysis showed that gestational diabetes (Odds Ratio (OR): 11.9, Confidence Interval (CI): 4.6-30.3), preeclampsia in the pregnancy period due to diabetes (OR: 3.81, CI: 1.1-13.2), and macrosomic birth history (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.04-10.4) were the main predictors of macrosomia. Moreover, macrosomia increased neonate hypoglycemia (OR: 4.7, CI: 1.4-15.8) and section delivery (OR: 4.1, CI: 1.27-13.1). Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia due to diabetes, and history of macrosomic birth were the main predictors of macrosomia. Moreover, macrosomia increased some delivery complications for both mothers and newborns.

  13. Maternal insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, body mass index, and fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, R.; Holly, J; Soothill, P.

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To examine the hypothesis that the maternal insulin-like growth factor system may constrain fetal growth.
METHODS—A prospective observational study of maternal serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and fetal growth was undertaken in neonates with birthweights below the 5th centile. They had been classified either as having fetal growth restriction (FGR) due to placental dysfunction (increased umbilical artery Doppler pulsatility index (PI); n = 25) or as being small for gestational age (SGA; normal umbilical artery PI, growth velocity and amniotic fluid; n = 27). Eighty nine controls had normal birthweights (5th-95th centile), umbilical artery PI, growth velocity, and amniotic fluid. IGFBP-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay.
RESULTS—Among the controls, there was no significant correlation between IGFBP-1 and birthweight after allowing for body mass index (BMI). Maternal BMI was high in FGR and after adjusting for this, IGFBP-1 was increased (109 ng/ml) compared with SGA babies (69ng/ml) and controls (57 ng/ml) and correlated with the umbilical artery PI.
CONCLUSIONS—Maternal IGFBP-1 is probably not part of normal placental function. Its increase in FGR could be the cause or consequence of impaired placental perfusion, but high IGFBP-1 concentrations might further reduce the availability of maternal IGF-I to the placenta. This could worsen placental function and so adversely affect fetal growth.
 PMID:10685983

  14. Levels of maternal serum angiogenic factors in third-trimester normal pregnancies: reference ranges, influence of maternal and pregnancy factors and fetoplacental Doppler indices.

    PubMed

    Lobmaier, Silvia Martina; Figueras, Francesc; Mercade, Imma; Crovetto, Francesca; Peguero, Anna; Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Ortiz, Javier U; Crispi, Fatima; Gratacós, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    To establish normal ranges of maternal placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio at 32-41 weeks' gestation and to evaluate the influence of maternal characteristics, and of fetoplacental Doppler. Serum levels of PlGF, sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio were measured in 300 noncomplicated pregnancies (30 at each gestational week between 32 and 41). Quantile regression analysis was used to derive gestational age (GA)-adjusted normal ranges, and to account for characteristics that might influence serum levels. The relationship with Doppler indices was tested, including umbilical artery pulsatility index and middle cerebral artery pulsatility index. PlGF decreased with GA from 32 weeks, while sFlt-1 and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio increased steadily. None of the factors evaluated showed any significant influence on the levels of angiogenic factors. PlGF multiple of the median significantly correlated with mean uterine artery Doppler (R -0.17; p = 0.029). In normal pregnancies during the third trimester, serum PlGF decreases, sFlt-1 increases and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio increases with GA. Angiogenic factor levels needed no adjustment for factors such as smoking, body mass index, blood pressure or parity.

  15. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  16. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  17. Initiating a Caregiving Relationship: Pregnancy and Childbirth Factors as Predictors of Maternal Sensitivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernier, Annie; Jarry-Boileau, Veronique; Tarabulsy, George M.; Miljkovitch, Raphaele

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between pregnancy and childbirth factors and subsequent quality of maternal interactive behavior in a sample of 116 full-term infants and their mothers. Mothers reported on the conditions of childbirth when infants were 6-8 months of age, and their interactive behavior was observed during a…

  18. Fetal Macrosomia: Risk Factors, Maternal, and Perinatal Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, A; Farhadifar, F; Soufi zadeh, N; Mohammadsalehi, N; Rezaiee, M; Aghaei, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Macrosomia is defined as birth-weight over 4,000 g irrespective of gestational age and affects 3-15% of all pregnancies. Aim The present study aimed to determine the relationship between mother's characteristics and macrosomic births and also compare macrosomic and normal newborns regarding the maternal and offspring complications of diabetes during pregnancy. Subjects and Methods: In this case control study, among the 420 consecutive births occurring in public and private hospitals of Shiraz, Iran from October 2006 to March 2007, the data of 32 macrosomic and 128 normal newborns were analyzed using t-test and chi square in bivariate and logistic regression in multivariate model. Results: The mean (SD) of neonate weight, height, and head size was 3323.4 (709), 48.95 (3.2), and 34.9 (1.8), respectively. Regression analysis showed that gestational diabetes (Odds Ratio (OR): 11.9, Confidence Interval (CI): 4.6-30.3), preeclampsia in the pregnancy period due to diabetes (OR: 3.81, CI: 1.1-13.2), and macrosomic birth history (OR: 3.3, CI: 1.04-10.4) were the main predictors of macrosomia. Moreover, macrosomia increased neonate hypoglycemia (OR: 4.7, CI: 1.4-15.8) and section delivery (OR: 4.1, CI: 1.27-13.1). Conclusion: Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia due to diabetes, and history of macrosomic birth were the main predictors of macrosomia. Moreover, macrosomia increased some delivery complications for both mothers and newborns. PMID:24380006

  19. Sport club participation of adolescents with asthma: maternal factors and adolescent cognitions.

    PubMed

    Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-09-01

    Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct associations between maternal sport-specific factors and sport club participation of early adolescents with asthma and the indirect effect through adolescent's sport-specific cognitions. During home visits, 261 adolescents (aged 10-15) completed questionnaires about self-efficacy, beliefs regarding sport participation, and their actual sport club participation. Their mothers reported their sport-specific support, beliefs about offspring's and own sport participation, their own levels of physical activity, and their self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports. Path analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect associations of maternal sport-specific factors with adolescents sport club participation via adolescent sport-specific cognitions. Analyses showed that maternal sport-specific support (β = 0.20, P = 0.007) and self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports (β = 0.20, P = 0.027) related positively to adolescents' sport club participation. Adolescents' self-efficacy (indirect effect = 0.09, SE = 3.01, P < 0.001) mediated the positive relation between maternal self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sport and adolescents' participation in sport clubs. Maternal sport-specific factors related to adolescents' sport club participation directly and indirectly through adolescents' sport-specific cognitions. Intervention programs should focus on maternal sport-specific support and self-efficacy and adolescents' self-efficacy to increase sport participation of adolescents with asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Maternal and childhood psychological factors predict chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years.

    PubMed

    Collin, Simon M; Tilling, Kate; Joinson, Carol; Rimes, Katharine A; Pearson, Rebecca M; Hughes, Rachael A; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Crawley, Esther

    2015-02-01

    To investigate whether premorbid maternal and childhood psychological problems are risk factors for chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort. Chronic disabling fatigue was defined as fatigue of at least 3-month, and up to 5-year, duration that prevented school attendance or hobbies/sport/leisure activities, and for which other causes were not identified. Maternal psychological factors were symptoms of anxiety and depression assessed up to eight times between pregnancy and age 6 years. We investigated critical periods for maternal effects and effects of paternal depression at three time points. Child psychological factors included internalizing and externalizing problems and upsetting life events occurring at age 7-8 years. Of 5,657 children, 110 (1.9%) had chronic disabling fatigue at age 13 years. Maternal anxiety (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-1.31 per episode), maternal depression (AOR, 1.24; CI, 1.11-1.39 per episode), child psychological problems (AOR, 1.19; CI, 1.00-1.41 per problem), and upsetting events (AOR, 1.22; CI, .99-1.58 per event) were associated with chronic disabling fatigue. Associations of child psychological problems and upsetting events were attenuated (AOR, 1.12; CI, .93-1.33 per problem; AOR, 1.19; CI, .94-1.52 per event) after further adjusting for maternal anxiety and depression. Pediatricians need to be aware that children whose mothers experience anxiety and/or depression between pregnancy and child's age 6 years have an increased risk of developing chronic disabling fatigue in early adolescence. Conversely, clinicians need to be alert to fatigue in children whose mothers have longstanding anxiety and depression. These findings suggest the importance of family-based approaches to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Androgen concentrations in umbilical cord blood and their association with maternal, fetal and obstetric factors.

    PubMed

    Keelan, Jeffrey A; Mattes, Eugen; Tan, HaiWei; Dinan, Andrew; Newnham, John P; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Jacoby, Peter; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure umbilical blood androgen concentrations in a birth cohort using a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay and assesses the effects of sex, labor, and gestational age on fetal androgen levels at birth. We performed a prospective cohort study of androgen concentrations in mixed arterial and venous umbilical cord serum from 803 unselected singleton pregnancies from a general obstetric population in Western Australia. Total testosterone (TT), Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone were extracted from archived cord serum samples and measured using LC-MS/MS. SHBG was measured by ELISA; free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) values were also calculated. Median values for all three androgens were generally lower than previously published values. Levels of TT, FT, BioT, and SHBG were significantly higher in male verses female neonates (P<0.0001), while dehydroepiandrosterone levels were higher in females (P<0.0001). Labor was associated with a significant (∼15-26%) decrease in median cord blood TT and FT levels (both sexes combined), but a modest (∼16-31%) increase in SHBG, Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. TT and FT were significantly negatively correlated with gestational age at delivery, while SHBG, Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone were positively correlated. Antenatal glucocorticoid administration also had a significant effect in the multiple regression models. This is the first study to report umbilical cord androgen levels in a large unselected population of neonates using LC-MS/MS. Our findings suggest that previous studies have over-estimated cord androgen levels, and that fetal, maternal, and obstetric factors influence cord androgen levels differentially. Caution should be exercised when interpreting previously-published data that have not taken all of these factors into account.

  2. Androgen Concentrations in Umbilical Cord Blood and Their Association with Maternal, Fetal and Obstetric Factors

    PubMed Central

    Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Mattes, Eugen; Tan, HaiWei; Dinan, Andrew; Newnham, John P.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Jacoby, Peter; Hickey, Martha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure umbilical blood androgen concentrations in a birth cohort using a highly specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay and assesses the effects of sex, labor, and gestational age on fetal androgen levels at birth. We performed a prospective cohort study of androgen concentrations in mixed arterial and venous umbilical cord serum from 803 unselected singleton pregnancies from a general obstetric population in Western Australia. Total testosterone (TT), Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone were extracted from archived cord serum samples and measured using LC-MS/MS. SHBG was measured by ELISA; free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BioT) values were also calculated. Median values for all three androgens were generally lower than previously published values. Levels of TT, FT, BioT, and SHBG were significantly higher in male verses female neonates (P<0.0001), while dehydroepiandrosterone levels were higher in females (P<0.0001). Labor was associated with a significant (∼15–26%) decrease in median cord blood TT and FT levels (both sexes combined), but a modest (∼16–31%) increase in SHBG, Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations. TT and FT were significantly negatively correlated with gestational age at delivery, while SHBG, Δ4-androstenedione, and dehydroepiandrosterone were positively correlated. Antenatal glucocorticoid administration also had a significant effect in the multiple regression models. This is the first study to report umbilical cord androgen levels in a large unselected population of neonates using LC-MS/MS. Our findings suggest that previous studies have over-estimated cord androgen levels, and that fetal, maternal, and obstetric factors influence cord androgen levels differentially. Caution should be exercised when interpreting previously-published data that have not taken all of these factors into account. PMID:22916165

  3. Argentina: risk factors and maternal mortality in La Matanza, Province of Buenos Aires, 1990.

    PubMed

    Szmoisz, S; Vuegen, S E; Plaza, A S; Barracchini, R; Checa, S; Derlindati, A; Espinola, D A; Rúgolo, E C

    1995-01-01

    An evaluation of the health services infrastructure of the La Matanza part of Buenos Aires in 1990 was carried out in addition to an evaluation of maternal mortality case studies. This procedure allowed for an assessment of factors related to the performance of health services and the health behaviour of women which, concomitantly, led to maternal deaths. Approximately 50% of maternal deaths went unreported in La Matanza on the basis of record checks performed in the institutions, hence the maternal mortality was twice as high as officially indicated for 1990. Flaws in the proper clinical diagnosis of the causes of deaths were detected and a higher degree of precision was called for. In the case of women who came from the poorest section of La Matanza, most deaths were due to complications related to abortion (either self-induced or non-professionally induced). Most of the maternal deaths could have been avoided. The sociological enquiry revealed conflicting social pressures which led the women onto the path of maternal death. The men were found not to be involved in the health issues arising from pregnancy and delivery, and the reproductive process was seen to lie exclusively in the women's domain. The services were not prepared to cater for the needs of poor women, and the inadequacy of the existing system to reach the women in need was well documented. Detection of women at risk was lacking in most establishments and, with the exception of one hospital, referral procedures did not exist. At the municipal level the absence of a policy for maternal and child health was noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Factors associated with severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia: A comparative cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Nik Hazlina, Nik Hussain; Aniza, Abd Aziz; Sulaiman, Zaharah

    2016-07-26

    Knowledge on the factors associated with severe maternal morbidity enables a better understanding of the problem and serves as a foundation for the development of an effective preventive strategy. However, various definitions of severe maternal morbidity have been applied, leading to inconsistencies between studies. The objective of this study was to identify the sociodemographic characteristics, medical and gynaecological history, past and present obstetric performance and the provision of health care services as associated factors for severe maternal morbidity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary referral hospitals in 2014. Postpartum women with severe morbidity and without severe morbidity who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were eligible as cases and controls, respectively. The study population included all postpartum women regardless of their age. Pregnancy at less than 22 weeks of gestation, more than 42 days after the termination of pregnancy and non-Malaysian citizens were excluded. Consecutive sampling was applied for the selection of cases and for each case identified, one unmatched control from the same hospital was selected using computer-based simple random sampling. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were performed using Stata Intercooled version 11.0. A total of 23,422 pregnant women were admitted to these hospitals in 2014 and 395 women with severe maternal morbidity were identified, of which 353 were eligible as cases. An age of 35 or more years old [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.6 (1.67, 4.07)], women with past pregnancy complications [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 1.7 (1.00, 2.79)], underwent caesarean section deliveries [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 6.8 (4.68, 10.01)], preterm delivery [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 3.4 (1.87, 6.32)] and referral to tertiary centres [Adj. OR (95 % CI): 2.7 (1.87, 3.97)] were significant associated factors for severe maternal morbidity. Our study suggests the enhanced

  5. Factors influencing maternal nutrition in rural Nepal: an exploratory research project.

    PubMed

    Schumer, Jean E; Bernell, Stephanie L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Long, Marie L

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot project we examined factors contributing to maternal nutrition among women of child-bearing age in the Western Region of Nepal. We found that rural women are interested in learning about nutrition regardless of educational attainment and that level of education is strongly associated with interest in learning about nutrition (p <.001). Although the majority of women with no education expressed interest in learning about nutrition (71%), a substantial percentage (22%) were not interested. Education and the teaching of basic health messages may hold important benefits for improving maternal and child health.

  6. Differential Effects of Maternal Sensitivity to Infant Distress and Nondistress on Social-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Associations between maternal sensitivity to infant distress and nondistress and infant social-emotional adjustment were examined in a subset of dyads from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care (N = 376). Mothers reported on infant temperament at 1 and 6 months postpartum, and maternal sensitivity to distress and nondistress were observed at 6…

  7. The effects of joint legal custody on mothers, fathers, and children controlling for factors that predispose a sole maternal versus joint legal award.

    PubMed

    Gunnoe, M L; Braver, S L

    2001-02-01

    Findings from comparisons of joint and sole custody families that do not control for predivorce differences in demographic and family process variables (factors that may predispose families to choose or be awarded joint custody) are of limited generalizability, since obtained group differences may be attributable to predisposing (self-selection) factors, custody, or both. This study compared a random sample of 254 recently separated, not-yet-divorced families on 71 predivorce variables that might plausibly differentiate between families awarded joint legal versus sole maternal custody. Twenty such factors were identified and controlled for in subsequent comparisons of 52 sole maternal and 26 joint legal custody families 2 years postdivorce. Families with joint custody had more frequent father-child visitation, lower maternal satisfaction with custody arrangements, more rapid maternal repartnering, and fewer child adjustment problems (net of predivorce selection factors). Moreover, these effects did not appear to be moderated by level of predecree parental conflict. No association between custody and fathers' compliance with child support orders was obtained.

  8. Predicting change in parenting stress across early childhood: child and maternal factors.

    PubMed

    Williford, Amanda P; Calkins, Susan D; Keane, Susan P

    2007-04-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine child and maternal factors predicting parenting stress at age 2 and changes in parenting stress across time. Results indicated that single parenthood, maternal psychopathology, child anger proneness, and child emotion dysregulation predicted 2-year parenting stress. Child externalizing behaviors predicted initial status and changes across time in parenting stress. Stability of parenting stress was dependent upon child externalizing problems, as well as interactions between child externalizing problems and gender, and child externalizing problems and emotion regulation. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms by which parenting stress may influence the development of child externalizing behaviors.

  9. Factors associated with higher fecundity in female maternal relatives of homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S; Fontanesi, Lilybeth; Iemmola, Francesca; Giannella, Elga; Ferron, Claudia; Lombardi, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that sexually antagonistic genetic factors in the maternal line promote homosexuality in men and fecundity in female relatives. However, it is not clear if and how these genetic factors are phenotypically expressed to simultaneously induce homosexuality in men and increased fecundity in their mothers and maternal aunts. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic expression of genetic factors that could explain increased fecundity in the putative female carriers. Using a questionnaire-based approach, which included also the Big Five Questionnaire personality inventory based on the Big Five theory, we investigated fecundity in 161 female European subjects and scrutinized possible influences, including physiological, behavioral, and personality factors. We compared 61 female probands who were either mothers or maternal aunts of homosexual men. One hundred females who were mothers or aunts of heterosexual men were used as controls. Personality traits, retrospective physiological and clinical data, behavior and opinions on fecundity-related issues were assessed and analyzed to illustrate possible effects on fecundity between probands and control females. Our analysis showed that both mothers and maternal aunts of homosexual men show increased fecundity compared with corresponding maternal female relatives of heterosexual men. A two-step statistical analysis, which was based on t-tests and multiple logistic regression analysis, showed that mothers and maternal aunts of homosexual men (i) had fewer gynecological disorders; (ii) had fewer complicated pregnancies; (iii) had less interest in having children; (iv) placed less emphasis on romantic love within couples; (v) placed less importance on their social life; (vi) showed reduced family stability; (vii) were more extraverted; and (viii) had divorced or separated from their spouses more frequently. Our findings are based on a small sample and would benefit from a larger

  10. In utero tobacco exposure is associated with modified effects of maternal factors on fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Aagaard-Tillery, Kjersti M; Porter, T Flint; Lane, Robert H; Varner, Michael W; Lacoursiere, D Yvette

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether maternal tobacco use is associated with an attenuation in fetal birthweight among women with nutritional and uteroplacental constraints. A population-based retrospective analysis of term (37 weeks or longer) singleton pregnancies delivered in Utah from 1991 to 2001. Birthweight (BW) and percent small for gestational age (SGA) (less than 10% for gestational age) among self-identified smokers and nonsmokers were compared. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the association of maternal smoking with delivery of an SGA infant controlling for potential confounders across maternal strata. Among the 424,912 gestations, 37,076 occurred in self-identified smokers. Mean BW was significantly less and the prevalence of SGA infants was significantly greater in tobacco-exposed infants across all maternal BMI strata (P < .001) as well as pregnancies complicated by diabetes (P < .001) and hypertensive disorders (P < .001). In a multivariable logistic regression model, tobacco exposure remained the significant associative factor for SGA (OR 3.53, 95% confidence interval 2.61 to 4.79) after selecting for the first birth in the study interval (n = 283,916). Self-identified tobacco use increases the risk of a SGA infant at term across maternal strata.

  11. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Townsend, R. Leigh; Kruger, Claudia; Carmouche, Richard; Newman, Susan; Salbaum, J. Michael; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and

  12. Maternal obese-type gut microbiota differentially impact cognition, anxiety and compulsive behavior in male and female offspring in mice.

    PubMed

    Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Fernandez-Kim, Sun-Ok; Townsend, R Leigh; Kruger, Claudia; Carmouche, Richard; Newman, Susan; Salbaum, J Michael; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Maternal obesity is known to predispose offspring to metabolic and neurodevelopmental abnormalities. While the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are unclear, high fat diets dramatically alter intestinal microbiota, and gut microbiota can impact physiological function. To determine if maternal diet-induced gut dysbiosis can disrupt offspring neurobehavioral function, we transplanted high fat diet- (HFD) or control low fat diet-associated (CD) gut microbiota to conventionally-housed female mice. Recipient mice were then bred and the behavioral phenotype of male and female offspring was tracked. While maternal behavior was unaffected, neonatal offspring from HFD dams vocalized less upon maternal separation than pups from CD dams. Furthermore, weaned male offspring from HFD dams had significant and selective disruptions in exploratory, cognitive, and stereotypical/compulsive behavior compared to male offspring from CD dams; while female offspring from HFD dams had increases in body weight and adiposity. 16S metagenomic analyses confirmed establishment of divergent microbiota in CD and HFD dams, with alterations in diversity and taxonomic distribution throughout pregnancy and lactation. Likewise, significant alterations in gut microbial diversity and distribution were noted in offspring from HFD dams compared to CD dams, and in males compared to females. Regression analyses of behavioral performance against differentially represented taxa suggest that decreased representation of specific members of the Firmicutes phylum predict behavioral decline in male offspring. Collectively, these data establish that high fat diet-induced maternal dysbiosis is sufficient to disrupt behavioral function in murine offspring in a sex-specific manner. Thus these data reinforce the essential link between maternal diet and neurologic programming in offspring and suggest that intestinal dysbiosis could link unhealthy modern diets to the increased prevalence of neurodevelopmental and

  13. Maternal growth factor regulation of human placental development and fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Karen; Westwood, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Normal development and function of the placenta is critical to achieving a successful pregnancy, as normal fetal growth depends directly on the transfer of nutrients from mother to fetus via this organ. Recently, it has become apparent from both animal and human studies that growth factors within the maternal circulation, for example the IGFs, are important regulators of placental development and function. Although these factors act via distinct receptors to exert their effects, the downstream molecules activated upon ligand/receptor interaction are common to many growth factors. The expression of numerous signaling molecules is altered in the placentas from pregnancies affected by the fetal growth complications, fetal growth restriction, and macrosomia. Thus, targeting these molecules may lead to more effective treatments for complications of pregnancy associated with altered placental development. Here, we review the maternal growth factors required for placental development and discuss their mechanism of action.

  14. [Fetal macrosomia in Lubumbashi: risk factors and maternal and perinatal prognosis].

    PubMed

    Luhete, Prosper Kakudji; Mukuku, Olivier; Kiopin, Patrick Mubinda; Tambwe, Albert Mwembo; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze

    2016-01-01

    Fetal macrosomia is usually defined when the estimated fetal weight is greater than or equal to 4000 grams. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of macrosomia, to identify its etiological factors and to evaluate maternal and perinatal prognosis. This is a case-control study conducted in maternity units of 10 general referral hospitals in the city of Lubumbashi in Democratic Republic of Congo between 1 December 2013 and 31 March 2014. The post-partum women were divided into two groups according to their fetal birth weight: group I (≥4000 grams or more) and groups II (from 2500 to 3500 grams). Maternal characteristics, obstetrical environment as well as maternal and perinatal prognosis were studied and compared in the two groups. Data were analyzed using Epi Info 7.1 software. Differences were considered significant if p <0,05. A total of 668 mothers-newborns pairs were included in the study, 167 macrosoma and 501 controls. The incidence of fetal macrosomia was 5,7%. Compared to mothers from the control group, we found that mothers of macrosomic infants were older, multiparous, multigravidae, obese, diabetic and had previously delivered a macrosomic fetus. The rates of cesarean delivery and pathological delivery were significantly higher in mothers of macrosomic infants than in those of the control group. Male sex was significantly more prevalent among macrosomic infants than among the control group. Shoulder dystocia was recorded only in the macrosomic group. The prevalence of delivery of a macrosomic infant in Lubumbashi is 5,7%. Macrosomia is often the cause of maternal and perinatal complications. Reduction of maternal and perinatal complications passes through a better understanding of risk factors and an early detection.

  15. Maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer: record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Beasley, Marcus; Pang, Dong; Macfarlane, Gary J

    2014-01-06

    To investigate maternal and perinatal risk factors for childhood cancer. Case-control analysis of linked records from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank with the Scottish Cancer Registry and the General Registry of Births and Deaths in Scotland was carried out. Aberdeen, Scotland. Cases (n=176) comprised children diagnosed with cancer under 15 years or recorded as having died of cancer. Four controls per case were matched by age and gender. Maternal age, body mass index, social class, marital status and smoking as well as pre-eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and previous miscarriage, gestational age, birth weight and Apgar scores were compared between groups to test for association with cancer. ORs with 95% CIs were calculated using conditional logistic regression in univariable and multivariable models. Of the maternal characteristics tested, mother's age at delivery (cases mean 28.9 (SD 5.6) years vs controls mean 30.2 (SD 4.6), p=0.002) and smoking status (38.6% smokers among cases, 29.7% among controls, p=0.034) were found to be different between groups. Of the perinatal factors tested, low Apgar score at 5 min (adjusted OR (AOR) 4.59, 95% CI 1.52 to 13.87) and delivery by caesarean section (AOR 1.95, 95% CI 1.30 to 2.92) showed statistically significant associations with childhood cancer in the multivariable model. Younger maternal age, maternal smoking, delivery by caesarean section and low Apgar score at 5 min were independently associated with increased risk of childhood cancer. These general findings should be interpreted with caution as this study did not have the power to detect any association with individual diagnostic categories of childhood cancer.

  16. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Results Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Conclusions Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration. PMID:23006315

  17. Seed dimorphism, nutrients and salinity differentially affect seed traits of the desert halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica via multiple maternal effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Dong, Ming; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-09-25

    Maternal effects may influence a range of seed traits simultaneously and are likely to be context-dependent. Disentangling the interactions of plant phenotype and growth environment on various seed traits is important for understanding regeneration and establishment of species in natural environments. Here, we used the seed-dimorphic plant Suaeda aralocaspica to test the hypothesis that seed traits are regulated by multiple maternal effects. Plants grown from brown seeds had a higher brown:black seed ratio than plants from black seeds, and germination percentage of brown seeds was higher than that of black seeds under all conditions tested. However, the coefficient of variation (CV) for size of black seeds was higher than that of brown seeds. Seeds had the smallest CV at low nutrient and high salinity for plants from brown seeds and at low nutrient and low salinity for plants from black seeds. Low levels of nutrients increased size and germinability of black seeds but did not change the seed morph ratio or size and germinability of brown seeds. High levels of salinity decreased seed size but did not change the seed morph ratio. Seeds from high-salinity maternal plants had a higher germination percentage regardless of level of germination salinity. Our study supports the multiple maternal effects hypothesis. Seed dimorphism, nutrient and salinity interacted in determining a range of seed traits of S. aralocaspica via bet-hedging and anticipatory maternal effects. This study highlights the importance of examining different maternal factors and various offspring traits in studies that estimate maternal effects on regeneration.

  18. [Risk factors associated with maternal satisfaction during childbirth: a retrospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Gil-Wey, Béatrice; Savoldelli, Georges L; Kern, Christian; Haller, Guy

    2011-10-01

    Factors associated with maternal satisfaction of anesthetic management during labour and delivery are poorly known. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors. We performed a retrospective cohort study on parturients admitted between January 2004 and December 2008. Data on patients' demographics, comorbidities, procedures performed and various aspects of their anesthetic experience were retrieved from the anesthetic records. Maternal satisfaction was measured using a numerical scale from 0 to 10 (0 = not satisfied at all, 10 = very satisfied). A cutoff of ≤ 6 was taken as poor satisfaction. We performed a multivariate analysis to identify the different predictors of maternal satisfaction and more specifically those related to pain, overall experience with the technique, delays, and presence of anesthetic, obstetrical and neonatal complications. There were 15,386 parturients admitted during the study period. Of these, 10,034 had complete information in the chart and 761 (7.6%) parturients were dissatisfied with their anesthetic care. Factors decreasing patient satisfaction were high risk pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59 (0.34-1.02)] and difficult delivery [OR (95% CI) 0.62 (0.52-0.74)]. Pain, a negative experience of the procedure, delays, poor coordination in management, and the presence of complications decreased patient satisfaction [OR (95% CI) 0.07 to 0.71]; P < 0.001. Maternal satisfaction with anesthesia care is largely determined by the effectiveness and correct performance of the procedure carried from the technical and human point of view. However, other factors such as a good coordination in patient management and the absence of complications also influence maternal satisfaction.

  19. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  20. Multilevel Factors Influencing Maternal Stress during the First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulsow, Miriam; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Pursley, Marta; Reifman, Alan; Huston, Aletha C.

    2002-01-01

    Study applies family stress theory to the influence of personal, child, and familial factors on a mother's parenting stress during the first 3 years of her infant's life. Mother's personality was most predictive of parenting stress. Counterintuitively, mothers who were more satisfied with work or school choices were more likely to be chronically…

  1. Differentially Expressed MicroRNAs in Maternal Plasma for the Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

    PubMed Central

    Moftah, Reham Fadl Hassan; Burow, Martin; Thiel, Gundula; Stuke-Sontheimer, Annegret; Chaoui, Rabih; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Most developmental processes are under the control of small regulatory RNAs called microRNAs (miRNAs). We hypothesize that different fetal developmental processes might be reflected by extracellular miRNAs in maternal plasma and may be utilized as biomarkers for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal aneuploidies. In this proof-of-concept study, we report on the identification of extracellular miRNAs in maternal plasma of Down syndrome (DS) pregnancies. Methods. Using high-throughput quantitative PCR (HT-qPCR), 1043 miRNAs were investigated in maternal plasma via comparison of seven DS pregnancies with age and fetal sex matched controls. Results. Six hundred and ninety-five miRNAs were identified. Thirty-six significantly differentially expressed mature miRNAs were identified as potential biomarkers. Hierarchical cluster analysis of these miRNAs resulted in the clear discrimination of DS from euploid pregnancies. Gene targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched in signaling pathways such as mucin type-O-glycans, ECM-receptor interactions, TGF-beta, and endocytosis, which have been previously associated with DS. Conclusions. miRNAs are promising and stable biomarkers for a broad range of diseases and may allow a reliable, cost-efficient diagnostic tool for the noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of DS. PMID:25478570

  2. Maternal inexperience as a risk factor of innate fear and PTSD-like symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Anja; Dahlhoff, Maik; Habersetzer, Ursula; Mederer, Anna; Wolf, Eckhard; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2009-09-01

    In laboratory rats and mice, differences in maternal care during the first week of life have been shown to exert long-lasting consequences on cognitive functioning and stress processing of the offspring. Such epigenetic programming is also assumed to play an important role in the transgenerational transmission of PTSD in humans. Here we studied whether even subtle within-subject differences in maternal care - caused by increasing mothering experience from the first to the second litter - can determine subsequent vulnerability for PTSD-like behaviour. To assess the influence of maternal experience on different components of fear, we analysed the adult male offspring of two subsequent litters (offspring 1, 2) from the same parental C57BL/6NCrl (B6N) and C57BL/6JOla (B6JOla) mice for (i) their innate anxiety behaviour on a modified hole board and (ii) their vulnerability to develop long-lasting PTSD-like fear symptoms ("hyperarousal", contextually conditioned fear) following perception of an inescapable foot shock. Increasing maternal experience reduced the animals' innate fear on the modified hole board (more exploration, less inhibition), the acute stress reaction to the shock and - one month after trauma - the levels of hyperarousal-like behaviour in the PTSD-prone B6N strain. In contrast, both acquisition and extinction of contextually conditioned fear were increased in the second offspring, representing cognitive flexibility. A factor analysis showed that innate fear, "hyperarousal" and conditioned fear represent independent behavioural dimensions. In conclusion, the present study identifies maternal inexperience as a risk factor for the development of PTSD-like symptoms. This effect - occurring in inbred mice on an almost identical genetic background - emphasizes the impact of epigenetic factors in PTSD-like behaviour.

  3. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in umbilical cord of newborns and determinant maternal factors.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Vázquez, Antonio; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo; Bassol-Mayagoitia, Susana; Monrroy, Antonio; Recio-Vega, Rogelio

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to identify exposure levels to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and to assess maternal factors as determinants of the serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentration in umbilical cord in newborns from the Mexican Pacific coastal area of Oaxaca State. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 86 paired mothers and newborns from the Oaxaca community of Pochutla. Blood and umbilical cord blood samples were collected to determine DDT and DDE by GC. Information concerning possible determinant factors with regard to pesticide concentration was obtained by means of a questionnaire. A positive correlation between maternal and umbilical cord serum DDE concentration was observed (geometric mean of 7.69 microg g(-1) and 7.29, respectively). Multiple analyses showed that significant maternal factors related to umbilical cord serum DDE concentrations were: always having lived in the same community; low to high socioeconomic strata; accumulated breast-feeding time. The determinant factors observed in this study must be considered in future studies for the quantification of organochlorine concentration. In addition, these factors must be taken into account when preventive actions to minimize in utero exposure to these pesticides are carried out. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Preimplantation embryo-secreted factors modulate maternal gene expression in rat uterus.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Kazuki; Islam, M Rashedul; Yoshii, Yuka; Mori, Kazuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko

    2016-05-01

    In mammalian reproduction, embryo implantation into the uterus is spatiotemporally regulated by a complex process triggered by a number of factors. Although previous studies have suggested that uterine receptivity is mediated by blastocyst-derived factors, specific functions of embryos remain to be defined during preimplantation. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify the maternal genes regulated by embryo-secreted factors in the rat uterus. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed that 10 genes are up-regulated in the delayed implantation uterus compared with the pseudopregnancy uterus. The RNA-seq results were further verified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Sulf1 expression is significantly (P < 0.05) induced in the delayed implantation uterus, although Areg, Calca, Fxyd4 and Lamc3 show a definite but non-statistically significant increase in their expression levels. During early pregnancy, the levels of Areg, Calca, Fxyd4, Lamc3 and Sulf1 expression at 3.5 days post coitus (dpc) are significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those at 1.5 dpc. Treatment with embryo-conditioned media revealed that Lamc3 and Sulf1 are up-regulated compared with the other genes studied. Thus, embryo-derived factors regulate maternal gene expression, with Lamc3 and Sulf1 possibly being suitable markers for a response study of embryo-secreted factors to improve our understanding of embryo-maternal communication.

  5. Effect of Maternal Factors and Fetomaternal Glucose Homeostasis on Birth Weight and Postnatal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Özbörü Aşkan, Öykü; Bozaykut, Abdülkadir; Sezer, Rabia Gönül; Güran, Tülay; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is important to identify the possible risk factors for the occurrence of large for gestational age (LGA) in newborns and to determine the effect of birth weight and metabolic parameters on subsequent growth. We aimed to determine the effects of maternal weight, weight gain during pregnancy, maternal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), C-peptide and insulin as well as cord C-peptide and insulin levels on birth weight and postnatal growth during the first two years of life. Methods: Healthy, non-diabetic mothers and term singleton newborns were included in this prospective case-control cohort study. Fasting maternal glucose, HbA1c, C-peptide and insulin levels were studied. Cord blood was analyzed for C-peptide and insulin. At birth, newborns were divided into two groups according to birth size: LGA and appropriate for GA (AGA). Infants were followed at six-month intervals for two years and their length and weight were recorded. Results: Forty LGA and 43 AGA infants were included in the study. Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was positively correlated with maternal body mass index (BMI) before delivery (r=0.2, p=0.04) and with weight gain during pregnancy (r=0.2, p=0.04). In multivariate analyses, the strongest association with macrosomia was a maternal C-peptide level >3.85 ng/mL (OR=20). Although the LGA group showed decreased growth by the 6-month of follow-up, the differences between the LGA and AGA groups in weight and length SDS persisted over the 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: The control of maternal BMI and prevention of overt weight gain during pregnancy may prevent excessive birth weight. The effect of the in utero metabolic environment on the weight and length SDS of infants born LGA persists until at least two years of age. PMID:26831549

  6. Deletion of corticotropin-releasing factor binding protein selectively impairs maternal, but not intermale aggression.

    PubMed

    Gammie, S C; Seasholtz, A F; Stevenson, S A

    2008-12-02

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) binding protein (CRF-BP) is a secreted protein that acts to bind and limit the activity of the neuropeptides, CRF and urocortin (Ucn) 1. We previously selected for high maternal defense (protection of offspring) in mice and found CRF-BP to be elevated in the CNS of selected mice. We also previously determined that both CRF and Ucn 1 are potent inhibitors of offspring protection when administered centrally. Thus, elevated CRF-BP could promote defense by limiting endogenous actions of CRF or Ucn 1. To test this hypothesis, we crossed the deletion for CRF-BP into the mice selected for high maternal defense and evaluated offspring protection and other maternal behaviors. CRF-BP knockout (KO) mice exhibited significant deficits in maternal aggression relative to wild-type (WT) mice in three different measures. Other maternal features were almost identical between groups, including dam and pup weight, litter size, nursing time, and pup retrieval. Both groups performed similarly in a forced swim stress test and aggression in both groups was reduced following the swim test. Virgin KO female mice exhibited higher levels of anxiety-like behavior in terms of decreased time in the light portion of the light/dark box test. For males, no differences in light/dark box or swim test were found. However, increased anxiety-like behavior in male KO mice was identified in terms of contact and approach to a novel object both with and without previous exposure to the swim test. No differences in isolation induced resident intruder male aggression were found between groups. Together, these results indicate that loss of CRF-BP selectively impairs maternal, but not intermale aggression and that loss of the gene induces anxiety-like behavior in males and females, but there are sex differences in terms of how that anxiety is revealed.

  7. Differential ethnic associations between maternal flexibility and play sophistication in toddlers born very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Sarah J.; Montague, Erica Q.; Maclean, Peggy C.; Bancroft, Mary E.; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Children born very low birth weight (<1500 grams, VLBW) are at increased risk for developmental delays. Play is an important developmental outcome to the extent that child’s play and social communication are related to later development of self-regulation and effective functional skills, and play serves as an important avenue of early intervention. The current study investigated associations between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication in Caucasian, Spanish speaking Hispanic, English speaking Hispanic, and Native American toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) in a cross-sectional cohort of 73 toddlers born VLBW and their mothers. We found that the association between maternal flexibility and toddler play sophistication differed by ethnicity (F(3,65) = 3.34, p = .02). In particular, Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads evidenced a significant positive association between maternal flexibility and play sophistication of medium effect size. Results for Native Americans were parallel to those of Spanish speaking Hispanic dyads: the relationship between flexibility and play sophistication was positive and of small-medium effect size. Findings indicate that for Caucasians and English speaking Hispanics, flexibility evidenced a non-significant (negative and small effect size) association with toddler play sophistication. Significant follow-up contrasts revealed that the associations for Caucasian and English speaking Hispanic dyads were significantly different from those of the other two ethnic groups. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for the amount of maternal language, an index of maternal engagement and stimulation; and after adjusting for birth weight, gestational age, gender, test age, cognitive ability, as well maternal age, education, and income. Our results provide preliminary evidence that ethnicity and acculturation may mediate the association between maternal interactive behavior such as flexibility and toddler developmental outcomes, as

  8. Antiangiogenic factors and maternal hemodynamics during intensive hemodialysis in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, Tom; Spaanderman, Marc; Beerenhout, Charles; Perschel, Frank H; Verlohren, Stefan; Schalkwijk, Casper G; van der Sande, Frank M; Kooman, Jeroen P; Hladunewich, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    We report on a 21-year-old pregnant patient with IgA nephropathy who was initiated on intensive hemodialysis (8 hours of hemodialysis 3 times a week) at a gestational age of 26 weeks on the basis of worsening kidney function resulting in rapidly progressive fatigue and difficulties in metabolic control. Throughout the pregnancy, and while on intensive hemodialysis, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure control was within the target, and results of weekly 24-hour measurement of central hemodynamics and pulse wave velocity, and of serial levels of circulating (anti-)angiogenic factors were comparable to normal pregnancies. Estimated fetal growth evolved along the 50th percentile, and no polyhydramnios was detected. After induction for a sudden, unexplained increase in blood pressure, she delivered a healthy boy of 2480 g at a gestational age of 36 weeks. This case adds to the expanding literature that supports the use of intensive hemodialysis in pregnant patients with end-stage renal disease and illustrates, for the first time, the potential use of serial (anti-) angiogenic factors and 24-hour measurements of blood pressure and hemodynamic indices in order to facilitate monitoring of these complicated patients.

  9. Risk and protective factors in maternal-fetal attachment development.

    PubMed

    Pisoni, Camilla; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Orcesi, Simona; Spinillo, Arsenio; Politi, Pierluigi; Balottin, Umberto; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2014-09-01

    Prenatal attachment can be described as the parents' emotions, perceptions and behaviors that are related to the fetus. This relationship has been described as the most basic form of the human intimacy and represents the earlier internalized representation of the fetus that both parents typically acquire and elaborate during pregnancy. The quality of the relationship between an infant and his or her parent is an important factor influencing the child's later development, both cognitive and emotional. There is evidence - even though yet unclear - that demographic, perinatal and psychological variables may correlate with attachment. In this perspective, it is essential to recognize the factors influencing attachment of parents towards their fetus and to planning psychosocial interventions in antepartum units or in obstetric clinics, in order to preserve a positive physical and emotional development of the infant and to provide family-centered prenatal care. Particular attention should be paid to women hospitalized for a high-risk pregnancy, since this condition involves a high distress that often results in feelings of anxiety and depression, that can hinder an adequate mother-fetus attachment.

  10. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual factors on the death inquiry

  11. Maternal death inquiry and response in India--the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives.

    PubMed

    Kalter, Henry D; Mohan, Pavitra; Mishra, Archana; Gaonkar, Narayan; Biswas, Akhil B; Balakrishnan, Sudha; Arya, Gaurav; Babille, Marzio

    2011-11-30

    Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. The impact of several contextual factors on the death inquiry process could be discerned, and suggested an

  12. Duration of Lactation and Risk Factors for Maternal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Ray, Roberta M.; Stuebe, Alison M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Ness, Roberta B.; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine dose-response relationships between the cumulative number of months women lactated and postmenopausal risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Methods: We examined data from 139,681 postmenopausal women (median age 63 years) who reported at least 1 live birth upon enrolling in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study or controlled trials. Multivariable models were used to control for sociodemographic (age, parity, race, education, income, age at menopause), lifestyle, and family history variables when examining the impact of duration of lactation on risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity (body mass index(BMI) at or above 30), hypertension, self-reported diabetes, hyperlipidemia, prevalent and incident cardiovascular disease. Results: Dose-response relationships were observed; in fully-adjusted models, women who reported a lifetime history of more than 12 months of lactation were less likely to have hypertension (OR=0.88, p<0.001), diabetes (OR= 0.80, p<0.001), hyperlipidemia (OR=0.81, p<0.001) or cardiovascular disease (OR= 0.91, p=0.008) than women who never breastfed, but they were not less likely to be obese. In models adjusted for all above variables and BMI, similar relationships were seen. Over an average of 7.9 years of postmenopausal participation in the WHI, women with a single live birth who breastfed for 7-12 months were significantly less likely to develop cardiovascular disease (HR 0.72 (0.53 to 0.97)) than women who never breastfed. Conclusion: Among postmenopausal women, increased duration of lactation was associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19384111

  13. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  14. The plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as contributing factors to the risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Nuttall, Johnathan R

    2017-05-01

    Recent research suggests the maternal environment may be especially important for the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In particular maternal infections, micronutrient deficiencies, obesity, and toxicant exposures are likely to interact with genetic risk factors to disrupt fetal brain development. The goal of this paper is to investigate the plausibility of maternal toxicant exposure and nutritional status as causal factors in the development of ASD. This paper reviews current research investigating the hypothesis that maternal toxicant exposure and prenatal micronutrient intake are important modifiable risk factors for ASD. Zinc, copper, iron, and vitamin B9 are identified as specific micronutrients with relevance to the etiology of ASD. Specific toxicants induce a maternal inflammatory response leading to fetal micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt early brain development. Importantly, maternal micronutrient supplementation is associated with reduced risk of ASD. Furthermore, animal studies show that micronutrient supplementation can prevent the teratogenicity and developmental neurotoxicity of specific toxicants. These findings lead to the hypothesis that maternal infection, obesity, and toxicant exposures (e.g. valproic acid, endocrine disrupting plasticizers, ethanol, and heavy metals) are all environmental risk factors for ASD that lead to fetal micronutrient deficiencies resulting from a maternal inflammatory response. It could be possible to use markers of inflammation and micronutrient status to identify women that would benefit from micronutrient supplementation or dietary interventions to reduce the risk of ASD. However, more research is needed to demonstrate a causal role of fetal micronutrient deficiencies and clarify the underlying mechanisms that contribute to ASD.

  15. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  16. Factors That Contribute to the Improvement in Maternal Parenting after Separation from a Violent Husband or Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A…

  17. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report versus Maternal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann E.; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2016-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 25-55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that…

  18. Specific Lipopolysaccharide Serotypes Induce Differential Maternal and Neonatal Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Model of Preterm Labor.

    PubMed

    Migale, Roberta; Herbert, Bronwen R; Lee, Yun S; Sykes, Lynne; Waddington, Simon N; Peebles, Donald; Hagberg, Henrik; Johnson, Mark R; Bennett, Phillip R; MacIntyre, David A

    2015-09-01

    Intrauterine inflammation is recognized as a key mediator of both normal and preterm birth but is also associated with neonatal neurological injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is often used to stimulate inflammatory pathways in animal models of infection/inflammation-induced preterm labor; however, inconsistencies in maternal and neonatal responses to LPS are frequently reported. We hypothesized that LPS serotype-specific responses may account for a portion of these inconsistencies. Four different Escherichia coli LPS serotypes (O111:B4, O55:B5, O127:B8, and O128:B12) were administered to CD1 mice via intrauterine injection at gestational day 16. Although control animals delivered at term 60 ± 15 hours postinjection (p.i.), those administered with O111:B4 delivered 7 ± 2 hours p.i., O55:B5 delivered 10 ± 3 hours p.i., O127:B8 delivered 16 ± 10 hours p.i., and O128:B12 delivered 17 ± 2 hours p.i. (means ± SD). A correlation between the onset of preterm labor and myometrial activation of the inflammatory transcription factor, activator protein 1, but not NF-κB was observed. Specific LPS serotypes induced differential activation of downstream contractile and inflammatory pathways in myometrium and neonatal pup brain. Our findings demonstrate functional disparity in inflammatory pathway activation in response to differing LPS serotypes. Selective use of LPS serotypes may represent a useful tool for targeting specific inflammatory response mechanisms in these models. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR), the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions) and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21) and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81) in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61) and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83) times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in

  20. [Maternal and perinatal risk factors for neonatal morbidity: a narrative literature review].

    PubMed

    Hernández Núñez, Jónathan; Valdés Yong, Magel; Suñol Vázquez, Yoanca de la Caridad; López Quintana, Marelene de la Caridad

    2015-07-14

    Newborn diseases increase neonatal mortality rates, so a literature review was conducted to establish the risk factors related to maternal and peripartum morbidity affecting the newborn. We searched the following electronic databases: Cumed, EBSCO, LILACS, IBECS and PubMed/MEDLINE. We used specific terms and Boolean operators in Spanish, Portuguese and English. We included longitudinal and cross-sectional descriptive studies, as well as case-control and cohort studies, systematic reviews and meta-analysis, spanning from 2010 to 2015 that responded the topic of interest. The included studies show that multiple maternal and perinatal conditions are risk factors for significant increase of neonatal morbidity, which are described in this narrative review.

  1. Maternal/fetal mortality and fetal growth restriction: Role of nitric oxide and virulence factors in intrauterine infection in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewska-Seniuk, Katarzyna; Nowicki, Stella; Lebouguénec, Chantal; Nowicki, Bogdan; Yallampalli, Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective The mechanism of infection-related mortality of pregnant rats and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are not understood. We assessed if nitric oxide (NO) has differential effects on infection with E. coli Dr/Afa mutants lacking either AfaE or AfaD invasins. Material and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were intrauterinally infected with the clinical strain of E. coli AfaE+D+ or one of its isogenic mutants in the presence or absence of the NO synthesis inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Maternal/fetal mortality, feto-placental weight, and the infection rate were evaluated. Results Maternal and/or fetal mortality was associated with the presence of at least one virulence factor (AfaE+D+>AfaE+D−>AfaE-D+) and was increased by L-NAME treatment. The fetal and placental weights were lower than controls and they were further reduced by L-NAME treatment. Conclusions These results demonstrate that NO enhanced AfaE and AfaD mediated virulence and play an important role in Dr/Afa+ E. coli gestational tropism. PMID:21481839

  2. The maternally expressed WRKY transcription factor TTG2 controls lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dilkes, Brian P; Spielman, Melissa; Weizbauer, Renate; Watson, Brian; Burkart-Waco, Diana; Scott, Rod J; Comai, Luca

    2008-12-09

    The molecular mechanisms underlying lethality of F1 hybrids between diverged parents are one target of speciation research. Crosses between diploid and tetraploid individuals of the same genotype can result in F1 lethality, and this dosage-sensitive incompatibility plays a role in polyploid speciation. We have identified variation in F1 lethality in interploidy crosses of Arabidopsis thaliana and determined the genetic architecture of the maternally expressed variation via QTL mapping. A single large-effect QTL, DR. STRANGELOVE 1 (DSL1), was identified as well as two QTL with epistatic relationships to DSL1. DSL1 affects the rate of postzygotic lethality via expression in the maternal sporophyte. Fine mapping placed DSL1 in an interval encoding the maternal effect transcription factor TTG2. Maternal parents carrying loss-of-function mutations in TTG2 suppressed the F1 lethality caused by paternal excess interploidy crosses. The frequency of cellularization in the endosperm was similarly affected by both natural variation and ttg2 loss-of-function mutants. The simple genetic basis of the natural variation and effects of single-gene mutations suggests that F1 lethality in polyploids could evolve rapidly. Furthermore, the role of the sporophytically active TTG2 gene in interploidy crosses indicates that the developmental programming of the mother regulates the viability of interploidy hybrid offspring.

  3. Increasing maternal percentage body fat in early second trimester: a risk factor for preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxia; Qiu, Jie; Zhou, Min; Wang, Youjie; Du, Yukai

    2015-02-01

    To determine if maternal percentage body fat (PBF) or fat free mass (FFM) in the early second trimester of pregnancy influenced the development of preeclampsia. A matched nested case-control study was conducted from a cohort study of 1668 women at Gansu provincial maternal and child care hospital from July 2007 to August 2011 in China. Maternal PBF and FFM were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis during 12th-16th gestational week. The demographic characteristics were all chart abstracted. After childbirth, 70 cases of preeclampsia were matched by race/age with 140 uncomplicated pregnancies women. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associated risk factors. Pre-pregnancy body mass index were higher in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with controls (p < 0.001). During 12th-16th gestational week, there were nearly 7-fold increase in the odds of preeclampsia (adjusted OR: 6.84, 95% CI: 4.15-41.60) among women with PBF ≥ 40% versus women with PBF < 40%. But FFM were not at further increased risk of the development of preeclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.6-3.6). Maternal PBF but not FFM is a predictor of preeclampsia in the early second trimester. Excessive adipose tissue possibly played an important role in developing of preeclampsia.

  4. Investigation of biological factors influencing the placental mRNA profile in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Nancy B Y; Wong, Cesar S C; Chow, Katherine C K; Lo, Elena S F; Cheng, Yvonne K Y

    2014-03-01

    Circulating placental-derived RNA is useful for noninvasive prenatal investigation. However, in addition to placental gene expression, there are limited investigations on other biological parameters that may affect the circulating placental RNA profile. In this study, we explored two of these potential parameters. We first demonstrated the existence of such biological parameters by comparing the relative levels of a panel of placental-derived transcripts between the placentas and maternal plasma by digital PCRs. We then compared the post-delivery clearance of the transcripts by serial plasma samples collected from pregnant women after delivery. We also studied the placental in vivo localization of the transcripts by in situ hybridization. There was an imperfect correlation of the transcript levels between the placentas and maternal plasma, with placenta-specific 4 (PLAC4) mRNA showing the largest discrepancy. Although PLAC4 mRNA showed a similar clearance half-life with other transcripts, we observed a preferential localization of PLAC4 mRNA around the villous surface. We speculated that this phenomenon might play a role in favoring the release of PLAC4 mRNA molecules into maternal plasma. We revealed that in addition to expression levels in the placenta, other biological factors might interplay to determine the maternal plasma profile of placental-derived RNAs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Depression, partnership, social support, and parenting: interaction of maternal factors with behavioral problems of the child.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Judith E; Wirtz, Markus; Bengel, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    Children of depressed mothers are at elevated risk to develop behavioral problems. Besides maternal depression, other risk factors like interpersonal functioning, are discussed. The object of this study was to investigate the predictive value of the maternal variables depression, partnership, social support, and parenting for internal and external behavioral problems of the children. A total of 100 mothers and their children who participated in a German mother-child rehabilitation program were interviewed by questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was conducted in order to determine the predictive value of the mentioned maternal variables on behavioral problems of the children. Behavioral problems of the children can be predicted by the parenting and the partnership of the mothers. Mothers with more parenting difficulties and with less containment with partnership report more behavioral problems of their children. Depression and social support do indirectly predict the child's problems. The data is from a cross-sectional sample. Therefore, path models do not demonstrate causation. All information is based upon maternal report. These findings suggest the need for intervention programs which focus on the parenting and the partnership of the mothers. More research with independent assessment is needed. Copyright 2003 Elsevier B.V.

  6. IMPACT OF PRENATAL MATERNAL FACTORS AND BIRTH ORDER ON THE ANTHROPOMETRIC STATUS OF NEWBORNS IN IRAN.

    PubMed

    Kheirouri, Sorayya; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This cross-sectional study was carried out to capture possible maternal factors affecting newborns' anthropometric measurements. Data were collected from eight public health centres and referral university hospital records in Tabriz and Heriss districts, north-west Iran, for 807 mother-neonate pairs delivering live singleton births and their offspring during the two years up to August 2014. The incidence of low birth weight (LBW) was 5.1%. A close correlation was found between maternal anthropometry and birth order with neonatal anthropometric data. Birth order and maternal height and body mass index (BMI) positively affected neonates' birth size (weight, length and head circumference). The rate of LBW was significantly higher for older (≥35 years), taller (≥170 cm), underweight (BMI<18.5) and non-iron-taking women and in the first-born babies. The odds of having LBW newborns in older, taller, underweight, obese and irregular iron-taking women were 3.82, 4.00, 9.07, 3.50 and 2.50 times those of mid-age group, middle-height, overweight and regular iron-taking women, respectively. First-born newborns were 5.97 times more likely to be LBW compared with second-birth neonates. The results indicate that maternal anthropometric indices, age, iron intake and birth order influence the risk of LBW in newborns.

  7. Peri-implantation and late gestation maternal undernutrition differentially affect fetal sheep skeletal muscle development

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Paula M; Rowlerson, Anthea; Astaman, Nur Aida; Anthony, Fred Erick W; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Hanson, Mark A; Green, Lucy R

    2008-01-01

    Poor prenatal nutrition is associated with a greater risk of adult glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in the offspring. Skeletal muscle is the primary tissue for glucose utilization, and insulin resistance in muscle is the earliest identifiable abnormality in the pre-diabetic patient. We investigated the effect of early and late gestation undernutrition on structure and markers of growth and glucose metabolism regulation in the fetal triceps brachii (TB, slow- and fast-twitch myofibres) and soleus (slow-twitch myofibres) muscles. Pregnant sheep were fed 100% nutrient requirements (C, n = 8) or a restricted diet peri-implantation (PI, n = 9; 40%, 1–31 days gestation (dGA) (term ∼147)) or in late gestation (L, n = 6; 50%, 104–127 dGA). At 127 ± 1 dGA we measured myofibre and capillary density in the fetal TB and soleus muscles, and mRNA levels in the TB of insulin receptor (InsR), glucose transporter-4 (GLUT-4) and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-1R). Total myofibre and capillary densities were lower in the TB, but not the soleus, of PI and L fetuses. The predominant effect in the L group was on slow-twitch myofibres. In TB, InsR, GLUT-4 and IGF-1R mRNA levels were greater in L group fetuses. Our finding of reduced myofibre density is consistent with a redistribution of resources at the expense of specific peripheral tissues by early and late gestation undernutrition which may be mediated by a decrease in capillary density. The increase in key regulatory components of glucose uptake following late gestation undernutrition may constitute a short-term compensation to maintain glucose homeostasis in the face of fewer type I (insulin-sensitive) myofibres. However, together these adaptations may influence the risk of later metabolic disease and thus our findings have implications for future strategies aimed at improving maternal diet. PMID:18339691

  8. Maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth: The national collaborative perinatal project

    PubMed Central

    Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Salafia, Carolyn M; Nicholson, Wanda K; Duggan, Anne; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Brancati, Frederick L

    2008-01-01

    Background Previous studies of maternal risk factors for abnormal placental growth have focused on placental weight and placental ratio as measures of placental growth. We sought to identify maternal risk factors for placental weight and two neglected dimensions of placental growth: placental thickness and chorionic plate area. Methods We conducted an analysis of 24,135 mother-placenta pairs enrolled in the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a prospective cohort study of pregnancy and child health. We defined growth restriction as < 10th percentile and hypertrophy as > 90th percentile for three placental growth dimensions: placental weight, placental thickness and chorionic plate area. We constructed parallel multinomial logistic regression analyses to identify (a) predictors of restricted growth (vs. normal) and (b) predictors of hypertrophic growth (vs. normal). Results Black race was associated with an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight, thickness and chorionic plate area, but was associated with a reduced likelihood of hypertrophy for these three placental growth dimensions. We observed an increased likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area among mothers with hypertensive disease at 24 weeks or beyond. Anemia was associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction for placental weight and chorionic plate area. Pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy weight gain were associated with a reduced likelihood of growth restriction and an increased likelihood of hypertrophy for all three dimensions of placental growth. Conclusion Maternal risk factors are either associated with placental growth restriction or placental hypertrophy not both. Our findings suggest that the placenta may have compensatory responses to certain maternal risk factors suggesting different underlying biological mechanisms. PMID:18811957

  9. Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a province in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene; Gossage, J Phillip; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason; May, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Maternal interviews (n = 905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child's family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95%C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child's neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child's family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p < .001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a Province in Italy*

    PubMed Central

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Fiorentino, Daniela; Coriale, Giovanna; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Gossage, J. Phillip; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie; Romeo, Marina; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Blankenship, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background Maternal risk factors for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in Italy and Mediterranean cultures need clarification, as there are few studies and most are plagued by inaccurate reporting of antenatal alcohol use. Methods Maternal interviews (n=905) were carried out in a population-based study of the prevalence and characteristics of FASD in the Lazio region of Italy which provided data for multivariate case control comparisons and multiple correlation models. Results Case control findings from interviews seven years post-partum indicate that mothers of children with FASD are significantly more likely than randomly-selected controls or community mothers to: be shorter; have higher body mass indexes (BMI); be married to a man with legal problems; report more drinking three months pre-pregnancy; engage in more current drinking and drinking alone; and have alcohol problems in her family. Logistic regression analysis of multiple candidate predictors of a FASD diagnosis indicates that alcohol problems in the child’s family is the most significant risk factor, making a diagnosis within the continuum of FASD 9 times more likely (95% C.I. = 1.6 to 50.7). Sequential multiple regression analysis of the child’s neuropsychological performance also identifies alcohol problems in the child’s family as the only significant maternal risk variable (p<.001) when controlling for other potential risk factors. Conclusions Underreporting of prenatal alcohol use has been demonstrated among Italian and other Mediterranean antenatal samples, and it was suspected in this sample. Nevertheless, several significant maternal risk factors for FASD have been identified. PMID:25456331

  11. [Association between risk factors during maternal pregnancy and the neonatal period and childhood bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Qin; Fan, Rui; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Tao, Xiao-Juan; Sun, Xin

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the risk factors during maternal pregnancy and the neonatal period with childhood bronchial asthma. A total of 306 children with asthma (asthma group) and 250 healthy children (control group) were enrolled. Their clinical data during the neonatal period and the maternal data during pregnancy were retrospectively studied. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences in the rates of maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy, use of antibiotics and probiotics during the neonatal period, preterm birth, cesarean section, low birth weight, and breast feeding (>6 months) between the asthma and control groups (P<0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that use of antibiotics during pregnancy (OR=3.908, 95%CI: 1.277-11.962), use of antibiotics during neonatal period (OR=24.154, 95%CI: 7.864-74.183), preterm birth (OR=8.535, 95%CI: 2.733-26.652), and cesarean section (OR=4.588, 95%CI: 2.887-7.291) were independent risk factors for childhood asthma. The use of probiotics during the neonatal period (OR=0.014, 95%CI: 0.004-0.046) and breast feeding (>6 months) (OR=0.161, 95%CI: 0.103-0.253) were protective factors for childhood asthma. The early prevention of childhood asthma can be improved by reducing the use of antibiotics during pregnancy, reducing cesarean section, avoiding abuse of antibiotics during the neonatal period, trying breast feeding and taking probiotics in early stage.

  12. Maternal risk factors and anaemia in pregnancy: a prospective retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Noronha, J A; Bhaduri, A; Vinod Bhat, H; Kamath, A

    2010-02-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy is still a concern during the reproductive period, as it is associated with increased maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity. This study examined the maternal risk factors associated with increased prevalence of anaemia among antenatal and postnatal women. A prospective-retrospective cohort approach was carried out among 1,077 antenatal and 1,000 postnatal women. The haemoglobin was estimated using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. The maternal factors included were age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, spacing, history of bleeding, worm infestation, period of gestation, knowledge regarding anaemia in pregnancy, food selection ability and compliance to iron supplementation. Of the 1,077 antenatal women studied, 540 were anaemic. Among the 1,000 postnatal women, the prevalence was 537 (53.7%). The high prevalence was strongly associated with low socioeconomic status (OR 1.409 [1.048-1.899]; p < 0.023) which affected their knowledge and health seeking behaviour in both the groups. Hence it can be concluded that empowering women in terms of education and economic status is the key factor in combating anaemia in pregnancy to prevent the vicious cycle of associated problems.

  13. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  14. Factors Associated with Subjective Quality of Life of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Self-Report vs. Maternal Reports

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jinkuk; Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Smith, Leann; Greenberg, Jan S.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2015-01-01

    We examined factors related to subjective quality of life (QoL) of adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged 25 to 55 (n = 60), using the World Health Organization Quality of Life measure (WHOQOL-BREF). We used three different assessment methods: adult self-report, maternal proxy-report, and maternal report. Reliability analysis showed that adults with ASD rated their own QoL reliably. QoL scores derived from adult self-reports were more closely related to those from maternal proxy-report than from maternal report. Subjective factors such as perceived stress and having been bullied frequently were associated with QoL based on adult self-reports. In contrast, level of independence in daily activities and physical health were significant predictors of maternal reports of their son or daughter’s QoL. PMID:26707626

  15. Interactions between fibroblast growth factors and Notch regulate neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Faux, C H; Turnley, A M; Epa, R; Cappai, R; Bartlett, P F

    2001-08-01

    The differentiation of precursor cells into neurons has been shown to be influenced by both the Notch signaling pathway and growth factor stimulation. In this study, the regulation of neuronal differentiation by these mechanisms was examined in the embryonic day 10 neuroepithelial precursor (NEP) population. By downregulating Notch1 expression and by the addition of a Delta1 fusion protein (Delta Fc), it was shown that signaling via the Notch pathway inhibited neuron differentiation in the NEP cells, in vitro. The expression of two of the Notch receptor homologs, Notch1 and Notch3, and the ligand Delta1 in these NEP cells was found to be influenced by a number of different growth factors, indicating a potential interaction between growth factors and Notch signaling. Interestingly, none of the growth factors examined promoted neuron differentiation; however, the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) 1 and 2 potently inhibited differentiation. FGF1 and FGF2 upregulated the expression of Notch and decreased expression of Delta1 in the NEP cells. In addition, the inhibitory response of the cells to the FGFs could be overcome by downregulating Notch1 expression and by disrupting Notch cleavage and signaling by the ablation of the Presenilin1 gene. These results indicate that FGF1 and FGF2 act via the Notch pathway, either directly or indirectly, to inhibit differentiation. Thus, signaling through the Notch receptor may be a common regulator of neuronal differentiation within the developing forebrain.

  16. Maternal and Neonatal Birth Factors Affecting the Age of ASD Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Darcy-Mahoney, Ashley; Minter, Bonnie; Higgins, Melinda; Guo, Ying; Zauche, Lauren Head; Hirst, Jessica

    2016-12-01

    Early diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) enables early intervention that improves long term functioning of children with ASD but is often delayed until age of school entry. Few studies have identified factors that affect timely diagnosis. This study addressed how maternal education, race, age, marital status as well as neonatal birth factors affect the age at which a child is diagnosed with ASD. This study involved a retrospective analysis of 664 records of children treated at one of the largest autism treatment centers in the United States from March 1, 2009 to December 30, 2010. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to identify maternal and neonatal factors associated with age of diagnosis. Infant gender, maternal race, marital status, and maternal age were identified as significant factors for predicting the age of ASD diagnosis. In the Cox proportional hazards regression model, only maternal race and marital status were included. Median survival age till diagnosis of children born to married mothers was 53.4 months compared to 57.8 months and 63.7 months of children born to single and divorced or widowed mothers respectively. Median survival age till diagnosis for children of African American mothers was 53.8 months compared to 57.2 months for children of Caucasian mothers. No statistically significant difference of timing of ASD diagnosis was found for children of varying gestational age. Children born to older or married mothers and mothers of minority races were more likely to have an earlier ASD diagnosis. No statistically significant differences in timing of ASD diagnosis were found for children born at varying gestational ages. Identification of these factors has the potential to inform public health outreach aimed at promoting timely ASD diagnosis. This work could enhance clinical practice for timelier diagnoses of ASD by supporting parents and clinicians around the world in identifying risk factors beyond gender

  17. Biobehavioral Factors in Child Health Outcomes: The Roles of Maternal Stress, Maternal-Child Engagement, Salivary Cortisol, and Salivary Testosterone.

    PubMed

    Clowtis, Licia M; Kang, Duck-Hee; Padhye, Nikhil S; Rozmus, Cathy; Barratt, Michelle S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of maternal stress and ineffective maternal-child engagement (MC-E) may adversely affect child health-related outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of maternal stress and MC-E on maternal and child biological responses (salivary cortisol and testosterone) and child health outcome in mother-child dyads of preschool children (3-5.9 years) in a low socioeconomic setting. Observational and biobehavioral data were collected from 50 mother-child dyads in a preschool setting. Assessments included maternal stress with the Perceived Stress Scale, child health outcomes with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and MC-E with videotaped mother-child interactions and scored with the Keys to Interactive Parenting Scale. Morning and evening saliva samples were collected from mother and child for biological assays. Maternal stress was negatively correlated with MC-E (r = -.32, p < .05) and child health outcome (r = -.33, p < .05). Lower levels of MC-E predicted higher morning cortisol (p = .02) and higher morning and bedtime testosterone levels in children (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively). Child biological responses did not predict child health outcome. Maternal stress and MC-E during mother-child interactions play a significant role in the regulation of child stress physiology and child health outcome. Elevated cortisol and testosterone related to high maternal stress and low MC-E may increase the child's vulnerability to negative health outcomes-if sustained. More biobehavioral research is needed to understand how parent-child interactions affect child development and health outcomes in early childhood.

  18. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Martino, J; Sebert, S; Segura, M T; García-Valdés, L; Florido, J; Padilla, M C; Marcos, A; Rueda, R; McArdle, H J; Budge, H; Symonds, M E; Campoy, C

    2016-01-01

    Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the "Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming" survey at the first antenatal visit (12-20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight.

  19. Differential associations between maternal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation in toddlers born preterm and full term.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Sarah J; Duvall, Susanne W; Fuller, Janell; Schrader, Ron; MacLean, Peggy; Lowe, Jean R

    2013-09-01

    Parental "scaffolding" behavior has been associated with developmental outcomes in at-risk children. Because there are limited empirical data regarding how scaffolding is associated with emotion-based developmental skills, the purpose of this study was to compare associations between maternal verbal scaffolding and toddler emotion regulation, including fewer displays of negative affect and increased contentment and enjoyment during play, in toddlers born preterm and full term. This study was a cross-sectional cohort design. Maternal and toddler behavior was assessed during 5 min of videotaped free play with standardized toys. 131 toddlers (18-22 months) and their mothers were included (77 born preterm; 54 born full term). Toddler emotion regulation, negative affect, and dyadic mutual enjoyment were coded from videotaped play. The association between maternal scaffolding and emotion regulation was different for dyads with a toddler born preterm versus full term, wherein the association was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Similarly, the association between maternal scaffolding and negative affect was different for the two groups: negative for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Finally, the association between maternal scaffolding and mutual enjoyment was positive for toddlers born preterm and non-significant for toddlers born full term. Our findings highlight early differences in mother-child interactive style correlates of children born preterm compared to those born full term. Maternal scaffolding behavior may be uniquely associated with emotion regulation and a positive dyadic encounter for toddlers born preterm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal Body Weight and Gestational Diabetes Differentially Influence Placental and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Martino, J.; Sebert, S.; Segura, M. T.; García-Valdés, L.; Florido, J.; Padilla, M. C.; Marcos, A.; Rueda, R.; McArdle, H. J.; Budge, H.; Campoy, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can both contribute to adverse neonatal outcomes. The extent to which this may be mediated by differences in placental metabolism and nutrient transport remains to be determined. Objective: Our objective was to examine whether raised maternal body mass index (BMI) and/or GDM contributed to a resetting of the expression of genes within the placenta that are involved in energy sensing, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic pathways. Methods: Pregnant women from Spain were recruited as part of the “Study of Maternal Nutrition and Genetics on the Foetal Adiposity Programming” survey at the first antenatal visit (12–20 weeks of gestation) and stratified according to prepregnancy BMI and the incidence of GDM. At delivery, placenta and cord blood were sampled and newborn anthropometry measured. Results: Obese women with GDM had higher estimated fetal weight at 34 gestational weeks and a greater risk of preterm deliveries and cesarean section. Birth weight was unaffected by BMI or GDM; however, women who were obese with normal glucose tolerance had increased placental weight and higher plasma glucose and leptin at term. Gene expression for markers of placental energy sensing and oxidative stress, were primarily affected by maternal obesity as mTOR was reduced, whereas SIRT-1 and UCP2 were both upregulated. In placenta from obese women with GDM, gene expression for AMPK was also reduced, whereas the downstream regulator of mTOR, p70S6KB1 was raised. Conclusions: Placental gene expression is sensitive to both maternal obesity and GDM which both impact on energy sensing and could modulate the effect of either raised maternal BMI or GDM on birth weight. PMID:26513002

  1. Maternal and grandmaternal obesity and environmental factors as determinants of daughter's obesity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Na; Lee, Kyung Hea; Lee, Hye Sang; Sasaki, Satoshi; Oh, Hea Young; Lyu, Eun Soon

    2013-01-01

    Obesity may be the consequence of various environmental or genetic factors, which may be highly correlated with each other. We aimed to examine whether grandmaternal and maternal obesity and environmental risk factors are related to obesity in daughters. Daughters (n = 182) recruited from female students, their mothers (n = 147) and their grandmothers (n = 67) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between the daughter's obesity and maternal, grandmaternal, and environmental factors. Maternal heights of 161-175cm (OD: 8.48, 95% CI: 3.61-19.93) and 156-160 cm (2.37, 1.14-4.91) showed positive associations with a higher height of daughter, compared to those of 149-155 cm. Mothers receiving a university or a higher education had a significant OR (3.82, 1.27-11.50) for a higher height of daughter compared to those having a low education (elementary school). Mother having the heaviest weight at current time (59-80 kg, 3.78, 1.73-8.28) and the heaviest weight at 20 years of age (51-65 kg, 3.17, 1.53-6.55) had significant associations with a higher height of daughters, compared to those having the lightest weight at the same times. There was no association between the height, weight, and BMI of daughters and the characteristics and education of her grandmothers. In conclusion, although genetic factors appear to influence the daughter's height more than environmental factors, the daughter's weight appears to be more strongly associated with individual factors than the genetic factors. PMID:24133620

  2. Maternal Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in Murmansk County, Russia: A Registry-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Usynina, Anna A; Postoev, Vitaly A; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Krettek, Alexandra; Nieboer, Evert; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Anda, Erik Eik

    2016-09-01

    Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry. We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of moderate-to-late PTB, very PTB and extremely PTB for a range of maternal characteristics were estimated using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. The overall prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County was 6.9%. Unmarried status, prior PTBs, spontaneous and induced abortions were strongly associated with PTB at any gestational age. Maternal low educational level increased the risk of extremely and moderate-to-late PTB. Young (<18 years) or older (≥35 years) mothers, graduates of vocational schools, underweight, overweight/obese mothers, and smokers were at higher risk of moderate-to-late PTB. Secondary education, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, or gestational diabetes were strongly associated with moderate-to-late and very PTB. The observed prevalence of PTB (6.9%) in Murmansk County, Russia was comparable with data on live PTB from European countries. Adverse prior pregnancy outcomes, maternal low educational level, unmarried status, alcohol abuse, and diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes were the most common risk factors for PTB. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Maternal depression as a risk factor for children's inadequate housing conditions.

    PubMed

    Corman, Hope; Curtis, Marah A; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Depression among mothers with young children is an important public health issue that not only has implications for their own well-being, but can also potentially affect their children's health and developmental trajectories. This study explored the extent to which maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing conditions related to utilities, a noteworthy risk factor for poor child health. Using data on 2965 mothers and children from a national urban cohort of U.S. births in 1998-2000, we estimated multivariate logistic regression models of associations between maternal depression during the postpartum year and a U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) measure of severely inadequate housing due to heating issues, as well as a broader measure of energy insecurity that encompasses various types of utility problems. We also considered outcomes that incorporated housing instability and food insecurity in conjunction with housing inadequacy. Mothers who experienced depression had about 60% higher odds of experiencing severely inadequate housing due to heat (OR: 1.57) and 70% higher odds of experiencing energy insecurity (OR: 1.69) compared to mothers who did not experience depression. Maternal depression was even more strongly associated with multiple hardships in the forms of housing inadequacy plus housing instability and/or food insecurity than it was with housing inadequacy. This study provides robust evidence that maternal depression is a risk factor for inadequate housing and multiple hardships during a critical period of children's development. The findings suggest that policy efforts should not occur in mental health, housing, and food security silos.

  4. Mild perinatal adversities moderate the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol: Evidence for differential susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, Dafna A; Rippe, Ralph C A; Mileva-Seitz, Viara R; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Noppe, Gerard; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C; van den Akker, Erica L T; Tiemeier, Henning; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2017-03-13

    It has been shown that following exposure to mild perinatal adversity, children have greater susceptibility to both the negative and positive aspects of their subsequent environment. In a large population-based cohort study (N = 1,776), we investigated whether mild perinatal adversity moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and children's hair cortisol levels, a biomarker of chronic stress. Mild perinatal adversity was defined as late preterm birth (gestational age at birth of 34-37 weeks, 6 days) or small for gestational age (birth weight between the 2.5th and 10th percentile for full term gestational age). Harsh parenting was assessed by maternal self-report at 3 years. Children's hair cortisol concentrations were measured from hair samples collected at age 6. There were no significant bivariate associations between mild perinatal adversities and harsh parenting and hair cortisol. However, mild perinatal adversities moderated the association between maternal harsh parenting and hair cortisol levels. Children with mild perinatal adversity had lower cortisol levels if parented more harshly and higher cortisol levels in the absence of harsh parenting than children who did not experience mild perinatal adversity. These results provide further evidence that mild perinatal adversity is a potential marker of differential susceptibility to environmental influences.

  5. Women's Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Rossella; Napolitano, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy. Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9%) reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women's levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy.

  6. Maternal Factors for Low Birth Weight and Preterm Birth At Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ojha, N

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight and preterm birth are the major community health problems in developing countries. They are the major determinants of perinatal survival and infant morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion and the maternal risk factors for low birth weight and preterm birth among hospital deliveries in Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital. A cross sectional retrospective study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of TUTH. Maternal risk factors like age, parity, ethnicity, history of previous abortion, history of previous cesarean section, antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were studied. Information on all births that occurred was extracted from maternity case notes and delivery registers. During the study period, there were 685 singleton live births. Among these 78(11.4%) were low birth weight and 47(6.9%) were preterm birth. The mean birth weight was 2950±488 gm. The mean weight of female was statistically less compared to male babies (p=0.032). The significant risk factors for LBW were primiparity (OR 2.12; 95%CI 1.25-3.58), Indo-Aryan ethnicity (OR 1.97; 95%CI 1.12-3.45) and history of medical disorder (OR 3.08; 95%CI 1.17-8.12). As for PTB antepartum hemorrhage (OR 8.63; 95%CI 1.99-37.30) and history of medical disorder (OR 3.20; 95%CI 1.04-9.89) were significant risk factors. Parity, ethnicity, and medical disorders were the main risk factors for low birth weight. Antepartum hemorrhage and medical disorders were significant risk factors for preterm birth.

  7. Women’s Knowledge, Attitudes and Behavior about Maternal Risk Factors in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Rossella; Napolitano, Francesco; Di Giuseppe, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of women about the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy and to identify the factors linked to the main outcomes of interest. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 513 pregnant women randomly selected from the gynecological ambulatory services of five hospitals located in Naples, Italy. Results Only 42% of women correctly knew all the main maternal risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Only 21.7% of women were very worried about causing harm to the fetus or child with their risk behaviors, and 22.3% of women reported smoking during pregnancy. Approximately one-third of women (28.9%) reported regularly drinking alcohol before pregnancy and 74.8% of these women reported stopping drinking alcohol during pregnancy. However, only 27.3% of women who were drinking alcohol during pregnancy had the intention of stopping. Only 43.7% of women indicated that during ambulatory gynecological examinations they received information from physicians about the possible damage resulting from all the main risk factors in pregnancy (alcohol, smoking, passive smoking and obesity). Conclusion The results indicate that pregnant women lack knowledge regarding the main maternal risk factors. Pregnant women claim to receive little information during gynecological examinations and, therefore, some continue to smoke and drink alcohol during pregnancy. Our results suggest an urgent need for the design of interventions to improve women’s levels of knowledge and to promote appropriate behavior in relation to the major risk factors in pregnancy. PMID:26714032

  8. Differential hypothalamic leptin sensitivity in obese rat offspring exposed to maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, M; Nilsson, C; Secher, A; Kildegaard, J; Skovgaard, T; Nielsen, M O; Grove, K; Raun, K

    2017-01-01

    Background/objective: Intake of high-energy foods and maternal nutrient overload increases the risk of metabolic diseases in the progeny such as obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that maternal and postnatal intake of chocolate and soft drink will affect leptin sensitivity and hypothalamic astrocyte morphology in adult rat offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed ad libitum chow diet only (C) or with chocolate and high sucrose soft drink supplement (S). At birth, litter size was adjusted into 10 male offspring per mother. After weaning, offspring from both dietary groups were assigned to either S or C diet, giving four groups until the end of the experiment at 26 weeks of age. Results: As expected, adult offspring fed the S diet post weaning became obese (body weight: P<0.01, %body fat per kg: P<0.001) and this was due to the reduced energy expenditure (P<0.05) and hypothalamic astrogliosis (P<0.001) irrespective of maternal diet. Interesting, offspring born to S-diet-fed mothers and fed the S diet throughout postnatal life became obese despite lower energy intake than controls (P<0.05). These SS offspring showed increased feed efficiency (P<0.001) and reduced fasting pSTAT3 activity (P<0.05) in arcuate nucleus (ARC) compared with other groups. The findings indicated that the combination of the maternal and postnatal S-diet exposure induced persistent changes in leptin signalling, hence affecting energy balance. Thus, appetite regulation was more sensitive to the effect of leptin than energy expenditure, suggesting differential programming of leptin sensitivity in ARC in SS offspring. Effects of the maternal S diet were normalized when offspring were fed a chow diet after weaning. Conclusions: Maternal intake of chocolate and soft drink had long-term consequences for the metabolic phenotype in the offspring if they continued on the S diet in postnatal life. These offspring displayed obesity despite lowered energy intake associated with

  9. Investigation of CBS, MTR, RFC-1 and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fintelman-Rodrigues, N; Corrêa, J C; Santos, J M; Pimentel, M M G; Santos-Rebouças, C B

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that almost 92% of the DS children are born from young mothers, suggesting that other risk factors than advanced maternal age must be involved. In this context, some studies demonstrated a possible link between DS and maternal polymorphisms in genes involved in folate metabolism. These polymorphisms, as well as low intake of folate could generate genomic instability, DNA hypomethylation and abnormal segregation, leading to trisomy 21. We compared the frequency of CBS 844ins68, MTR 2756A>G, RFC-1 80G> A and TC 776C>G polymorphisms among 114 case mothers and 110 matched controls, in order to observe whether these variants act as risk factors for DS. The genotype distributions revealed that there were not significant differences between both samples. However, when we proceed the multiplicative interaction analyses between the four polymorphisms described above together with the previously studied MTHFR 677C>T, MTHFR 1298A>C and MTRR 66A>G polymorphisms, our results show that the combined genotype TC 776CC / MTHFR 677TT and TC 776CC / MTR 2756AG were significantly higher in the control sample. Nevertheless, there was no significant association after Bonferroni correction. Our results suggest that maternal folate-related polymorphisms studied here have no influence on trisomy 21 susceptibility in subjects of Brazilian population.

  10. Are infants differentially sensitive to parenting? Early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and externalizing behavior during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Nikitopoulos, Jörg; Zohsel, Katrin; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Buchmann, Arlette F; Schmid, Brigitte; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Becker, Katja; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Brandeis, Daniel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Insensitive and unresponsive caregiving during infancy has been linked to externalizing behavior problems during childhood and adolescence. The 7-repeat (7r) allele of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has meta-analytically been associated with a heightened susceptibility to adverse as well as supportive environments. In the present study, we examined long-term effects of early maternal care, DRD4 genotype and the interaction thereof on externalizing and internalizing psychopathology during adolescence. As part of an ongoing epidemiological cohort study, early maternal care was assessed at child's age 3 months during a nursing and playing situation. In a sample of 296 offspring, externalizing and internalizing symptoms were assessed using a psychiatric interview conducted at age 15 years. Parents additionally filled out a questionnaire on their children's psychopathic behaviors. Results indicated that adolescents with the DRD4 7r allele who experienced less responsive and stimulating early maternal care exhibited more symptoms of ADHD and CD/ODD as well as higher levels of psychopathic behavior. In accordance with the hypothesis of differential susceptibility, 7r allele carriers showed fewer ADHD symptoms and lower levels of psychopathic behavior when exposed to especially beneficial early caregiving. In contrast, individuals without the DRD4 7r allele proved to be insensitive to the effects of early maternal care. This study replicates earlier findings with regard to an interaction between DRD4 genotype and early caregiving on externalizing behavior problems in preschoolers. It is the first one to imply continuity of this effect until adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic fluoxetine treatment and maternal adversity differentially alter neurobehavioral outcomes in the rat dam.

    PubMed

    Pawluski, Jodi L; Charlier, Thierry D; Fillet, Marianne; Houbart, Virginie; Crispin, Hilda T; Steinbusch, Harry W; van den Hove, Daniël L

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of stress and stress-related disorders with the transition to motherhood, such as postpartum depression, is estimated to be 20%. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are currently the antidepressant of choice to treat maternal mood disorders. However, little is known about the effects of these medications on the maternal brain and behavior. Therefore, the present study investigated how a commonly used SSRI, fluoxetine, affects neurobehavioral outcomes in the mother using a model of maternal adversity. To do this, gestationally stressed and non-stressed Sprague-Dawley rat dams were treated with either fluoxetine (5 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Dams were divided into four groups: (1) Control + Vehicle, (2) Control + Fluoxetine, (3) Stress + Vehicle and (4) Stress + Fluoxetine. Fluoxetine or vehicle was administered to the dam during the postpartum period via osmotic minipump implants (Alzet) for 28 days. Results show that chronic fluoxetine treatment, after exposure to gestational stress, significantly decreased serum levels of corticosteroid binding globulin and increased hippocampal neurogenesis. In the absence of maternal stress, fluoxetine treatment alone significantly increased maternal arched-back nursing of pups, increased anxiety-related behavior, and decreased serum levels of corticosterone and corticosteroid binding globulin in the dam. This research provides important information on how SSRIs may act on the behavior, physiology, and neural plasticity of the mother. Although this is a first step in investigating the role of antidepressant treatment on the mother, much more work is needed before we can understand and improve the efficacy of these medications to treat mood disorders in pregnant and postpartum women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    2016-01-01

    Background The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Methods and Findings Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15–30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women’s control, resulting in birth-related complications. Conclusions Our findings suggest that despite women’s multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality

  13. Maternal nerve growth factor levels during pregnancy in women with preeclampsia: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Vandita; Kilari, Anitha; Pisal, Hemlata; Patil, Vidya; Mehendale, Savita; Wagh, Girija; Gupte, Sanjay; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-12-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. Improper development of the placenta due to altered angiogenesis is the main culprit in PE. Nerve growth factor (NGF) is an angiogenic factor which is expressed and localized in the placenta. Our earlier cross sectional study has shown altered NGF levels at delivery in women with PE. However, there are no studies on NGF levels in PE early in pregnancy before manifestation of the disease. Thus, there is a need to examine the role of NGF in vascular development during different stages of gestation in PE. A longitudinal study was carried out where pregnant women were enrolled from two major hospitals from Pune, Bharati hospital and Gupte hospital. They were followed at three different time points [16-20 weeks (T1), 26-30 weeks (T2) and at delivery (T3)] during pregnancy and maternal blood at every time point and cord blood at delivery was collected and processed. This study included normotensive women (n=88) and women with PE (n=48). NGF levels were measured from maternal and cord plasma using the Emax Immuno Assay System (Promega). The data was analyzed using the SPSS/PC+ package (Version 20.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Maternal NGF levels did not change at all time points while cord NGF levels were higher (p<0.05) in women with PE. Further, maternal NGF levels were negatively associated with blood pressure while cord NGF levels were positively associated with baby head circumference. Our data suggests that there may possibly be a compensatory role for NGF in the foeto-placental circulation in PE.

  14. Maternal factors, birthweight, and racial differences in infant mortality: a Georgia population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, J. F.; Taylor, B. D.; Blumenthal, D. S.; Sikes, K.; Davis-Floyd, V.; McGrady, G.; Lofton, T. C.; Wade, T. E.

    1994-01-01

    Black infant mortality rates (IMRs) are approximately twice those of whites in Georgia and nationwide. This study evaluates maternal factors, particularly marital status, that influence racial differences in infant mortality. Population-based data on 565,730 live births and 7269 infant deaths in Georgia from 1980 to 1985 were examined. The IMR ratio for unmarried compared to married mothers was calculated and adjusted singly for maternal education, age and race, and infant birthweight. In addition, racial differences in IMR were estimated using stratified analysis on the basis of four factors: infant birthweight, maternal age, marital status, and education. When only normal birthweight infants were considered, the IMR, adjusted for maternal education level, was highest for infants born to unmarried black teens (9.5/1000 live births), followed by that for infants born to married black teens (9.1), unmarried black adults (7.5), married black adults (4.8), married white teens (4.4), married white adults (3.4), unmarried white adults (2.4), and unmarried white teens (1.3). When only low birthweight infants were considered, the highest IMR per 1000 was found in infants born to married black adults (119), followed by unmarried black adults (103), married black teens (99.9), unmarried black teens (92.5), married white adults (92.1), married white teens (79.0), unmarried white adults (38.0), and unmarried white teens (26.3). These differences led to a black-to-white IMR risk ratio from 1.3 for low birthweight infants born to unmarried teen or adult mothers to 3.7 for normal birthweight infants born to unmarried teen mothers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8078081

  15. Competing risks model in screening for preeclampsia by maternal factors and biomarkers at 11-13 weeks gestation.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Neil; Wright, David; Syngelaki, Argyro; Akolekar, Ranjit; Wright, Alan; Poon, Leona C; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia affects approximately 3% of all pregnancies and is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death. In the last decade, extensive research has been devoted to early screening for preeclampsia with the aim of reducing the prevalence of the disease through pharmacologic intervention in the high-risk group starting from the first trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for preeclampsia based on maternal demographic characteristics and medical history (maternal factors) and biomarkers. The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for adverse obstetric outcomes in women who attended for their routine first hospital visit at 11-13 weeks gestation in 2 maternity hospitals in England. We screened 35,948 singleton pregnancies that included 1058 pregnancies (2.9%) that experienced preeclampsia. Bayes theorem was used to combine the a priori risk from maternal factors with various combinations of uterine artery pulsatility index, mean arterial pressure, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, and placental growth factor multiple of the median values. Five-fold cross validation was used to assess the performance of screening for preeclampsia that delivered at <37 weeks gestation (preterm-preeclampsia) and ≥37 weeks gestation (term-preeclampsia) by models that combined maternal factors with individual biomarkers and their combination with screening by maternal factors alone. In pregnancies that experienced preeclampsia, the values of uterine artery pulsatility index and mean arterial pressure were increased, and the values of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and placental growth factor were decreased. For all biomarkers, the deviation from normal was greater for early than late preeclampsia; therefore, the performance of screening was related inversely to the gestational age at which delivery became necessary for maternal and/or fetal indications. Combined screening by maternal

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism influences the association of the methylome with maternal anxiety and neonatal brain volumes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Pan, Hong; Tuan, Ta Anh; Teh, Ai Ling; MacIsaac, Julia L; Mah, Sarah M; McEwen, Lisa M; Li, Yue; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Buschdorf, Jan Paul; Chong, Yap Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Fortier, Marielle V; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Kobor, Michael S; Qiu, Anqi; Meaney, Michael J; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2015-02-01

    Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine-phosphate-guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.

  17. Relative importance of maternal constitutional factors and glucose intolerance of pregnancy in the development of newborn macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Okun, N; Verma, A; Mitchell, B F; Flowerdew, G

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this case-control study was to determine the relative importance of various predictors of newborn macrosomia, with particular reference to maternal constitutional factors and glucose intolerance of pregnancy. Macrosomia was defined by both absolute birthweight > or = 4,000 g and birthweight > or = 90th centile for gestational age. One thousand mother/newborn pairs [209 macrosomic (cases) and 791 non-macrosomic newborns (controls)] were recruited. Mothers with pre-gestational diabetes mellitus were excluded. Data on pregnancy and pregnancy variables were collected by review of prenatal, labour, and delivery and newborn assessment records and interview with the mother. Predictors that entered the stepwise multiple regression model in order of significance were: previous history of macrosomia, increasing maternal weight, nonsmoking status, multiparity, male newborn gender, gestational age of 40-42 weeks, North American Aboriginal ethnicity, maternal birthweight > 4,000 g, maternal height and maternal age < 17 years. Glucose screen positive/100-g oral glucose tolerance test (GTT) negative status was a significant predictor for macrosomia as defined by birthweight greater than the 90th percentile for gestational age, but not for absolute birthweight over 4,000 g. It was the least significant of all the factors examined. Treated gestational diabetes was not a significant predictor. By multivariate analysis, maternal constitutional factors are more powerful predictors of newborn macrosomia than maternal mild glucose intolerance. Treatment of mothers with GDM may be masking the effect of more pronounced carbohydrate intolerance.

  18. Testing isonymy with paternal and maternal lineages in the early Québec population: the impact of polyphyletism and demographic differentials.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Alain; Toupance, Bruno

    2002-04-01

    Isonymy is an ingenious and useful approach to studying kinship in human populations. However, it relies on assumptions that are difficult to verify. In this study, we provided a way to assess, in the early Québec population, the impact of factors such as polyphyletism, unbalanced sex-ratio among founders, and age differentials between spouses. All data were taken from the Population Register of Early Québec, which contains births, marriages, and deaths (>712,000) recorded in parish registers from the beginning of colonization (in 1608) to 1800. More specifically, using the 70,869 marriages recorded during that period, we compared kinship estimates given by genealogies, surnames, and paternal and maternal lineages. We also calculated a fifth coefficient of kinship by combining paternal and maternal lineage, thus providing a new way to test the isonymy method. The results show a good agreement between genealogical and isonymous estimates. However, this good correspondence is due to counterbalancing biases. Some of the implications of our results are discussed in the context of colonial America. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Relationships between fetal biometry, maternal factors and birth weight of purebred domestic cat kittens.

    PubMed

    Gatel, L; Rosset, E; Chalvet-Monfray, K; Buff, S; Rault, D N

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relation between kittens' birth weights and biometrical factors from the kittens and the mother during pregnancy. Knowing fetal birth weight could help in detecting abnormalities before parturition. A Caesarean-section or a postnatal management plan could be scheduled. Consequently, the neonatal mortality rate should be decreased. We used ultrasonographic measurements of femur length (FL) or fetal biparietal diameter (BPD), pregnancies, and maternal factors to obtain a model of prediction. For this purpose, linear mixed-effects models were used because of random effects (several fetuses for one queen and a few paired measurements) and fixed effects (litter size, pregnancy rank, weight, wither height, and age of the queen). This study was performed in 24 purebred queens with normal pregnancies and normal body conditions. Queens were scanned in the second half of pregnancy, using a micro-convex probe. They gave birth to 140 healthy kittens whose mean birth weight was 104 g (ranged 65 to 165 g). No correlation between the birth weight and the age of the queen, as a maternal factor alone, was observed. But the birth weight was found to be inversely proportional to the pregnancy rank and the litter size. Moreover, birth weight increased when the weight and wither height of queen increased. BPD and FL increased linearly during pregnancy so a model was used to estimate mean birth weight. Using this model, we found a correlation between mean birth weights and an association of parameters: maternal factors (wither height and age), and litter size.

  20. Maternal weight gain, smoking and other factors in pregnancy as predictors of infant birth-weight in Sydney women.

    PubMed

    Ash, S; Fisher, C C; Truswell, A S; Allen, J R; Irwig, L

    1989-08-01

    Two hundred and four (204) women attending a Sydney maternity hospital and their babies were followed throughout pregnancy in a study, which aimed: 1) to describe the distribution of maternal weight gain in present day Australian women and 2) to determine the effect of weight gain and other factors on birth-weight. Maternal weights and skinfold thicknesses were measured serially to give an indication of weight gain. Mean weight gain from conception to term was 14.2kg and mean birth-weight was 3,442g. Maternal predictors of birth-weight such as maternal weight gain, parity, age, education, height, public or private booking status, smoking, prepregnancy weight, and sex of the infant and gestational age were explored using simple and multiple regression analysis. Weight gain was predictive of birth-weight, each kg increase in total weight gain resulting in about a 30g increase in birthweight. Other strong predictors were gestational age, maternal smoking, sex of the infant and maternal parity. Maternal height was less strongly predictive and age and prepregnant weight were not predictive. Smoking mothers had infants who were 268g lighter than those of nonsmoking mothers. However, smokers were also younger, shorter, had less education and were more likely to book as public patients than nonsmokers. After adjusting for all other predictors, the birth-weight of infants whose mothers smoked, was still 224g less than that for nonsmoking mothers.

  1. Maternal anesthesia via isoflurane or ether differentially affects pre-and postnatal behavior in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ronca, April E; Abel, Regina A; Alberts, Jeffrey R

    2007-11-01

    Our understanding of prenatal behavior has been significantly advanced by techniques for direct observation and manipulation of unanesthetized, behaving rodent fetuses with intact umbilical connections to the mother. These techniques involve brief administration of an inhalant anesthesic, enabling spinal transection of the rat or mouse dam, after which procedures can continue with unanesthetized dams and fetuses. Because anesthetics administered to the mother can cross the placental barrier, it is possible that fetuses are anesthetized to varying degrees. We compared in perinatal rats the effects of prenatal maternal exposure to two inhalant anesthetics: ether and isoflurane. Fewer spontaneous fetal movements and first postpartum nipple attachments were observed following maternal exposure to ether as compared to isoflurane. Neonatal breathing frequencies and oxygenation did not account for group differences in nipple attachment. Our results provide evidence that the particular inhalant anesthetic employed in prenatal manipulation studies determines frequencies of perinatal behavior. Copyright 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. First trimester maternal serum placental growth factor in trisomy 21 pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Cowans, N J; Stamatopoulou, A; Spencer, K

    2010-05-01

    To examine placental growth factor (PlGF) levels in first trimester maternal serum in trisomy 21 pregnancies and to investigate the potential value of PlGF in a first trimester screening test. First trimester maternal serum from 70 trisomy 21 cases and 375 euploid controls were retrospectively analyzed for PlGF using a DELFIA Xpress immunoassay platform. Results were expressed as multiples of medians (MoM) for comparison. PlGF levels were significantly decreased in pregnancies with trisomy 21, 0.76 MoM versus 0.98 MoM in controls. Inclusion of PlGF into the first trimester combined test [maternal age, pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free-beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) and nuchal translucency] would increase the detection rate by 0.5% at a 5% false positive rate. PlGF at 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days has the potential to be included as a marker for the detection of pregnancies with trisomy 21.

  3. Related factors of insulin resistance in Korean children: adiposity and maternal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Kang, Jae-Heon; Hur, Yang-Im; Song, Jihyun; Lee, Kang-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Increased adiposity and unhealthy lifestyle augment the risk for type 2 diabetes in children with familial predisposition. Insulin resistance (IR) is an excellent clinical marker for identifying children at high risk for type 2 diabetes. This study was conducted to investigate parental, physiological, behavioral and socio-economic factors related to IR in Korean children. This study is a cross-sectional study using data from 111 children aged 7 years and their parents. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated using fasting glucose and insulin level as a marker of IR. All children's adiposity indices (r = 0.309-0.318, all P-value = 0.001) and maternal levels of fasting insulin (r = 0.285, P-value = 0.003) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.290, P-value = 0.002) were positively correlated with children's HOMA-IR level. There was no statistical difference of children's HOMA-IR level according to children's lifestyle habits and socioeconomic status of families. An increase of 1 percentage point in body fat was related to 2.7% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value < 0.001) and an increase of 1% of maternal level of HOMA-IR was related to 0.2% increase in children's HOMA-IR (P-value = 0.002). This study shows that children's adiposity and maternal IR are positively associated with children's IR.

  4. Maternal hormonal interventions as a risk factor for Autism Spectrum Disorder: an epidemiological assessment from India.

    PubMed

    Mamidala, Madhu Poornima; Polinedi, Anupama; Kumar, P T V Praveen; Rajesh, N; Vallamkonda, Omsai Ramesh; Udani, Vrajesh; Singhal, Nidhi; Rajesh, Vidya

    2013-12-01

    Globalization and women empowerment have led to stressful life among Indian women. This stress impairs women's hormonal makeup and menstrual cycle, leading to infertility. National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3) reports a decline in fertility status in India, indicating a rise in various infertility treatments involving hormonal interventions. No studies are available from India on the risk association link between maternal hormonal treatments and ASD. Hence, this study explores the association of maternal hormonal interventions with risk for ASD. Parents of 942 children (471 ASD and 471 controls) across 9 cities in India participated in the questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire was pilot tested and validated for its content and reliability as a psychometric instrument. Data collection was done at 70 centres through direct interaction with parents and with the help of trained staff. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SAS 9.1.3. Out of the 471 ASD cases analysed, 58 mothers had undergone hormonal interventions (12.3 percent) while there were only 22 mothers among controls who underwent hormonal interventions (4.6 percent). According to logistic regression analysis maternal hormonal intervention (OR=2.24) was a significant risk factor for ASD.

  5. Persistent fetal infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus differentially affects maternal blood cell signal transduction pathways.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Ptitsyn, Andrey A; Austin, Kathleen J; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Han, Hyungchul; van Olphen, Alberto L; Hansen, Thomas R

    2009-02-02

    The consequences of viral infection during pregnancy include impact on fetal and maternal immune responses and on fetal development. Transplacental infection in cattle with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) during early gestation results in persistently infected (PI) fetuses with life-long viremia and susceptibility to infections. Infection of the fetus during the third trimester or after birth leads to a transient infection cleared by a competent immune system. We hypothesized that ncpBVDV infection and presence of an infected fetus would alter immune response and lead to downregulation of proinflammatory processes in pregnant dams. Naïve pregnant heifers were challenged with ncpBVDV2 on day 75 (PI fetus) and day 175 [transiently infected (TI) fetus] or kept uninfected (healthy control fetus). Maternal blood samples were collected up to day 190 of gestation. Genome-wide microarray analysis of gene expression in maternal peripheral white blood cells, performed on days 160 and 190 of gestation, revealed multiple signal transduction pathways affected by ncpBVDV infection. Acute infection and presence of a TI fetus caused upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway genes, including dsRNA sensors and IFN-stimulated genes. The presence of a PI fetus caused prolonged downregulation of chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and T cell receptor (TCR) signaling in maternal blood cells. We conclude that: 1) infection with ncpBVDV induces a vigorous type I IFN response, and 2) presence of a PI fetus causes downregulation of important signaling pathways in the blood of the dam, which could have deleterious consequences on fetal development and the immune response.

  6. [Preeclampsia: main maternal risk factor for low weight in preterm newborn].

    PubMed

    Martínez Contreras, Angélica María; Soria Rodríguez, Carmen Gorety; Prince Vélez, Roberto; Clark Ordoñez, Isadora; Medina Ramírez, María Concepción Rosa

    2008-07-01

    In 3 to 8% of pregnancies there are preeclampsia, and it is considered an irreversible disease that affects several organs, and causes injuries in fetus and mother alike. To identify maternal risk factors related to low birth weight in preterm newborns born at Hospital de Ginecología-Pediatría con Medicina Familiar no. 31 from IMSS, at Mexicali, BC, Mexico. Case-control study (1:2 ratio) made in 114 prematures (38 cases and 76 controls) who were evaluated for socioeconomic and biological maternal risk factors influencing low birth weight in preterm newborns. Odds ratio and confidence intervals of 95% were used to calculate epidemiologic correlation, and logistic regression to specific importance of risks. Preeclampsia persists as a risk factor for low birth weight: OR 3.16 (95% CI 3.15-8.40, p = 0.00). In logistic regression meaningful variables were: preeclampsia 5.27 (95% CI 1.45-19.14, p = 0.01), and in premature newborn: thrombocytopenia 6.0 (95% CI 1.2-11.2, p = 0.00), and neonatal sepsis 4.31 (95% CI 1.73-10.70, p = 0.00). Preeclampsia was the major risk factor related to low birth weight and was associated with thrombocytopenia in preterm newborn. Neonatal sepsis is secondary to low birth weight. We need to observe and obey prenatal care of pregnant women in our hospital to reduce negative impact of low birth weight in preterm newborns.

  7. Preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes: association with sociodemographic factors and maternal genitourinary infections.

    PubMed

    Hackenhaar, Arnildo A; Albernaz, Elaine P; da Fonseca, Tânia M V

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections. this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 grams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression. of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge. the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological, Behavioral and Maternal Factors That Contribute to Size Variation in Larval Amphibian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Warne, Robin W.; Kardon, Adam; Crespi, Erica J.

    2013-01-01

    Size variance among similarly aged individuals within populations is a pattern common to many organisms that is a result of interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic traits of individuals. While genetic and maternal effects, as well as physiological and behavioral traits have been shown to contribute to size variation in animal populations, teasing apart the influence of such factors on individual growth rates remain a challenge. Furthermore, tracing the effects of these interactions across life stages and in shaping adult phenotypes also requires further exploration. In this study we investigated the relationship between genetics, hatching patterns, behaviors, neuroendocrine stress axis activity and variance in growth and metamorphosis among same-aged larval amphibians. Through parallel experiments we found that in the absence of conspecific interactions, hatch time and to a lesser extent egg clutch identity (i.e. genetics and maternal effects) influenced the propensity for growth and development in individual tadpoles and determined metamorphic traits. Within experimental groups we found that variance in growth rates was associated with size-dependent foraging behaviors and responses to food restriction. We also found an inverse relationship between glucocorticoid (GC) hormone levels and body mass and developmental stage among group-reared tadpoles, which suggests that GC expression plays a role in regulating differing within-population growth trajectories in response to density-dependent conditions. Taken together these findings suggest that factors that influence hatching conditions can have long-term effects on growth and development. These results also raise compelling questions regarding the extent to which maternal and genetic factors influence physiological and behavioral profiles in amphibians. PMID:24143188

  9. Identifying maternal risk factors associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esper, Larissa Horta; Furtado, Erikson Felipe

    2014-10-01

    To identify the demographic, psychological, and social maternal risk factors associated with the development of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). A bibliographic search was conducted in PubMed, SciELO, Lilacs, Web of Knowledge, and PsycINFO. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the studies with case-control design. Articles were selected based on their relevance and presentation of data related to statistical comparisons of at least one or more demographic, psychological, or social maternal risk factors for FASD. 738 references were identified, of which 15 met the criteria to be included in the present review. Mothers of FASD children tend to: be older at the time of birth of the affected child, present lower educational level, have other family relatives with alcohol abuse, have other children with FASD, present a pattern of little prenatal care and a distinguishing pattern of alcohol consumption (alcohol use before and during pregnancy, failure to reduce alcohol use during pregnancy, and frequent episodes of binge drinking). Application of the NOS scale of methodological quality indicated that 8 studies (53 %) met the criterion for selection, 4 (27 %) were suitable for the criterion for comparability and only 4 studies were suitable for the exposition criterion. Mothers of FASD children have a distinctive pattern of drinking and accumulate several social risk factors. Maternal age at birth of the child seems to accentuate the risk. There are, however, few controlled studies that are adequate according to the NOS requirements for methodological quality. Fewer are based on the verification of a theoretical model. Clinicians should be aware of the relevance of preventive assessment of FASD risk mothers.

  10. [Maternal risk factors associated to stillbirth in a public hospital at West of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Molina, Jesús; Quezada-López, Claudia; Panduro-Barón, Guadalupe; Castro-Hernández, Juan Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Mortality rates in preterm births and stillbirth are high. To identify maternal risk factors relating to stillbirth in preterm infants. We conducted a cross-sectional, analytic study of 1,022 newborns between 20 and 36 weeks of gestation, from September 2004 to August 2005. Stillbirth was defined as fetal death prior to expulsion or extraction from the mother. Data was collected prospectively by directly interviewing the pregnant women and from the medical chart. The dependent variable was stillbirth and the independent ones were the maternal risk factors. Associations were evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS. One thousand and twenty-four (1,024) preterm births were detected in a total of 14,882 births (6.9%/year). One hundred and fifty-two (152) were stillborn and 870 were live births. The fetal mortality rate was 10.3 per 1,000 live births. The least common maternal factors associated to stillbirth included: urinary tract infection (22/152, 14% vs. 224/869, 26%, p = 0.020), PMR > 24 h (18/152, 12% vs. 172/869, 20%, p = 0.020) and cesarean delivery (24/138, 17% vs. 344/719, 48%, p < 0.001). The crude odd risk ratios for stillbirth included spontaneous preterm delivery (OR 4.38, CI95% 2.70-7.17) and deficient prenatal care (OR 2.64, CI95% 1.83-3.82). By multivariate analysis, stillbirth predictors included: spontaneous preterm delivery (OR 4.00, CI 95% 2.61-6.61) and deficient prenatal care (OR 2.54, CI 95% 1.78-3.62). Deficient prenatal care was the only statistically significant and clinically coherent variable predicting stillbirth.

  11. Rural origin as a risk factor for maternal and child health in periurban Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Bender, D E; Rivera, T; Madonna, D

    1993-12-01

    Rapid migration in Latin America is settling rural women and their families next to those of urban origin in sprawling urban settings. Those born and reared in rural areas bring with them knowledge and skills learned and adapted to rural areas; those same skills may be maladaptive in urban areas. Hypothesized is that urban women of rural origin are more likely to have poorer health outcomes for themselves and their children than lifelong urban counterparts. Identification of specific risk factors affecting child and/or maternal health status in peri-urban barrios can assist health workers to target limited resources to those least likely to access available services.

  12. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein- Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan–McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  13. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    PubMed

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter < 2.5 and 10 μm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10) during pregnancy is also associated with ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are

  14. Social differentiation and embodied dispositions: a qualitative study of maternal care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Rööst, Mattias; Jonsson, Cecilia; Liljestrand, Jerker; Essén, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    Background Use of maternal health care in low-income countries has been associated with several socioeconomic and demographic factors, although contextual analyses of the latter have been few. A previous study showed that 75% of women with severe obstetric morbidity (near-miss) identified at hospitals in La Paz, Bolivia were in critical conditions upon arrival, underscoring the significance of pre-hospital barriers also in this setting with free and accessible maternal health care. The present study explores how health care-seeking behaviour for near-miss morbidity is conditioned in La Paz, Bolivia. Methods Thematic interviews with 30 women with a near-miss event upon arrival at hospital. Near-miss was defined based on clinical and management criteria. Modified analytic induction was applied in the analysis that was further influenced by theoretical views that care-seeking behaviour is formed by predisposing characteristics, enabling factors, and perceived need, as well as by socially shaped habitual behaviours. Results The self-perception of being fundamentally separated from "others", meaning those who utilise health care, was typical for women who customarily delivered at home and who delayed seeking medical assistance for obstetric emergencies. Other explanations given by these women were distrust of authority, mistreatment by staff, such as not being kept informed about their condition or the course of their treatment, all of which reinforced their dissociation from the health-care system. Conclusion The findings illustrate health care-seeking behaviour as a practise that is substantially conditioned by social differentiation. Social marginalization and the role health institutions play in shaping care-seeking behaviour have been de-emphasised by focusing solely on endogenous cultural factors in Bolivia. PMID:19640286

  15. Gravity, an Regulation Factor in BMSCs Differentiation to osteoblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huang; Yinghui, Li; Fen, Yang; Zhongquan, Dai

    PURPOSE Most studies of regulatory mechanisms of adult stem cell differentiation are concentrated in chemical factors but few efforts are put into physical factors Recent space life science studies indicate mechanical factors participate in the differentiation of cells The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of simulated microgravity or hypergravity on the osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells BMSCs METHODOLOGY The BMSCs at day 7 were added osteogenic inducer 10nM dexamethasone 10mM beta -glycerophosphate and 50 mu M asorbic acid-2-phosphate for 7 days and cultured under simulated microgravity or hypergravity 2g for 1 day 3 days 5 days or 7 days RESULTS After treating BMSCs with osteogenic inducer and hypergravity the cells expressed more ColIA1 Cbfa1 and ALP than in single steogenic inducer treatment Reversely the cells treated with osteogenic inducer and simulated microgravity expressed less ColIA1 Cbfa1 and ALP CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests that hypergravity promotes the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and simulated microgravity inhibits this process Gravity is an important regulation factor in BMSCs differentiation to osteoblasts

  16. Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Minako; Aichinger, Ernst; Gong, Wen; Groot, Edwin; Verstraeten, Inge; Vu, Lam Dai; De Smet, Ive; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Umeda, Masaaki; Laux, Thomas

    2017-03-15

    In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical-basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor. How SSP/YDA signaling is transduced into the nucleus and how these pathways are integrated have remained elusive. Here we show that paternal SSP/YDA signaling directly phosphorylates WRKY2, which in turn leads to the up-regulation of WOX8 transcription in the zygote. We further discovered the transcription factors HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11/12 (HDG11/12) as maternal regulators of zygote asymmetry that also directly regulate WOX8 transcription. Our results reveal a framework of how maternal and paternal factors are integrated in the zygote to regulate embryo patterning. © 2017 Ueda et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Transcriptional integration of paternal and maternal factors in the Arabidopsis zygote

    PubMed Central

    Aichinger, Ernst; Gong, Wen; Groot, Edwin; Verstraeten, Inge; Vu, Lam Dai; De Smet, Ive; Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Umeda, Masaaki; Laux, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In many plants, the asymmetric division of the zygote sets up the apical–basal axis of the embryo. Unlike animals, plant zygotes are transcriptionally active, implying that plants have evolved specific mechanisms to control transcriptional activation of patterning genes in the zygote. In Arabidopsis, two pathways have been found to regulate zygote asymmetry: YODA (YDA) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, which is potentiated by sperm-delivered mRNA of the SHORT SUSPENSOR (SSP) membrane protein, and up-regulation of the patterning gene WOX8 by the WRKY2 transcription factor. How SSP/YDA signaling is transduced into the nucleus and how these pathways are integrated have remained elusive. Here we show that paternal SSP/YDA signaling directly phosphorylates WRKY2, which in turn leads to the up-regulation of WOX8 transcription in the zygote. We further discovered the transcription factors HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS11/12 (HDG11/12) as maternal regulators of zygote asymmetry that also directly regulate WOX8 transcription. Our results reveal a framework of how maternal and paternal factors are integrated in the zygote to regulate embryo patterning. PMID:28404632

  18. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences

    PubMed Central

    Boomsma, Jacobus J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201

  19. Opposite differential risks for autism and schizophrenia based on maternal age, paternal age, and parental age differences.

    PubMed

    Byars, Sean G; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-01-01

    Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers' age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  20. Gestational diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for long-term maternal renal disease.

    PubMed

    Beharier, Ofer; Shoham-Vardi, Ilana; Pariente, Gali; Sergienko, Ruslan; Kessous, Roy; Baumfeld, Yael; Szaingurten-Solodkin, Irit; Sheiner, Eyal

    2015-04-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) was found to be an independent risk factor for recurrent long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular morbidity, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, data on the link between GDM and future risk for long-term maternal renal disease are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether GDM poses a risk for subsequent long-term maternal renal morbidity. A population-based noninterventional study compared the incidence of future renal morbidity in a cohort of women with and without previous GDM. Deliveries occurred during a 25-year period, with a mean follow-up duration of 11.2 years. The study was conducted at the Soroka University Medical Center. The study population was composed of all singleton pregnancies in women who delivered between January 1988 and December 2013. The main outcome was diagnosis of renal morbidities. Of 97,968 women who met the inclusion criteria, 9542 (9.7%) had at least 1 previous pregnancy with GDM. Using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve, we show that women with GDM had higher rates of total renal morbidity (0.1% vs 0.2%, for no GDM and with GDM, respectively; odds ratio, 2.3, 95% confidence interval, 1.4-3.7; P < .001). In addition, we found a significant dose-response association (using the χ(2) test for trends) between the number of pregnancies with GDM and future risk for renal morbidity (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% for no GDM, 1 episode of GDM, and 2 episodes of GDM, respectively; P < .001). In a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusted for confounders, GDM was independently associated with future renal morbidity. GDM is a significant risk factor for future maternal renal morbidity. The risk is more substantial for patients with recurrent episodes of GDM.

  1. Impact of maternal and neonatal factors on parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood

    PubMed Central

    Al-Deghaither, Sara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine characteristics of laboratory parameters of hematopoietic potential in umbilical cord blood and their association with maternal and neonatal factors. Methods: This prospective analysis was performed on 206 umbilical cord blood donations (50-200 ml) from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and September 2014. Samples were processed and analyzed for total nucleated cells (TNC’s), cluster designation (CD)45+, CD34+ counts, nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) count, and viability testing. Results: Most of the study participants (63.6%) were on their first 3 deliveries and from women with age between 17 and 30 years (80.6%). The donated volume was 50.4-192.4 ml, TNCs ranged from 500.2×106 to 9430.3 ×106 cells, and CD34+ cells ranged from 1.25×106 to 12.82×106/unit. The volume was positively affected by bigger birth weight of the baby (p<0.0001), larger placenta (p=0.001), TNCs (p<0.0001), CD34+ (p<0.0001), NRBCs (p<0.0001), and viability (p=0.002). There were no statistically significant differences between baby boys and girls for laboratory variables. Conclusion: In the selection and identification of a possible donor of umbilical cord blood, several maternal and neonatal factors should be considered, as younger maternal age, neonatal birth weight >3300 grams, larger placental size, and first or second-born babies, were shown to be associated with higher TNCs, CD34+, CD45+, NRBCs, and viability. PMID:25987113

  2. Maternal factors and monoamine changes in stress-resilient and susceptible mice: cross-fostering effects.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Priya; Merali, Zul; Kolajova, Miroslava; Tannenbaum, Beth M; Anisman, Hymie

    2006-09-21

    Genetic factors influence stressor-provoked monoamine changes associated with anxiety and depression, but such effects might be moderated by early life experiences. To assess the contribution of maternal influences in determining adult brain monoamine responses to a stressor, strains of mice that were either stressor-reactive or -resilient (BALB/cByJ and C57BL/6ByJ, respectively) were assessed as a function of whether they were raising their biological offspring or those of the other strain. As adults, offspring were assessed with respect to stressor-provoked plasma corticosterone elevations and monoamine variations within discrete stressor-sensitive brain regions. BALB/cByJ mice demonstrated poorer maternal behaviors than C57BL/6ByJ dams, irrespective of the pups being raised. In response to a noise stressor, BALB/cByJ mice exhibited higher plasma corticosterone levels and elevated monoamine turnover in several limbic and hypothalamic sites. The stressor-provoked corticosterone increase in BALB/cByJ mice was diminished among males (but not females) raised by a C57BL/6ByJ dam. Moreover, increased prefrontal cortical dopamine utilization was attenuated among BALB/cByJ mice raised by a C57BL/6ByJ dam. These effects were asymmetrical as a C57BL/6ByJ mice raised by a BALB/cByJ dam did not exhibit increased stressor reactivity. It appears that stressors influence multiple neurochemical systems that have been implicated in anxiety and affective disorders. Although monoamine variations were largely determined by genetic factors, maternal influences contributed to stressor-elicited neurochemical changes in some regions, particularly dopamine activation within the prefrontal cortex.

  3. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India.

  4. Fetal and maternal factors associated with neonatal adiposity as measured by air displacement plethysmography: a large cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Au, Cheryl P; Raynes-Greenow, Camille H; Turner, Robin M; Carberry, Angela E; Jeffery, Heather

    2013-10-01

    There is evidence that the fetal and early postnatal environments play a role in determining the risk of lifetime obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Neonatal body composition, as a surrogate marker of the in-utero environment, can be reliably and accurately measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP). Our primary objective was to identify preconception, fetal and maternal factors affecting neonatal body composition. This cross-sectional study included 599 term babies born between September and October 2010 at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Neonatal body fat percentage (BF%) was measured within 48 h of birth using ADP. Maternal demographic, anthropometric and medical data as well as neonatal gestational age and sex were used to develop a regression model that predicted body composition and birthweight. The mean (SD) neonatal BF% in our whole population was 9.2(4.4)%. Significant variables in the model for neonatal BF% were neonatal sex, gestational age, maternal ethnicity, gestational weight gain (GWG), pre-pregnancy BMI, parity and maternal hypertension (p<0.05); together, these explained 19% of the variation in BF%. GDM status was not a significant variable. Neonatal female sex, maternal Caucasian ethnicity and increased gestational weight gain explained the most variation and were most strongly associated with increased BF%. This study highlights maternal obesity and increased gestational weight gain as two factors that are amenable to intervention as risk factors for newborn adiposity, which is important in the future study of the "developmental origins of health and disease" hypothesis. © 2013.

  5. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pingsheng; Feldman, Amy S; Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D; Hartert, Tina V

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C

  6. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  7. Fibronectin is a survival factor for differentiated osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Doty, S. B.; Lull, J. C.; Holmuhamedov, E.; Humphries, M. J.; Damsky, C. H.

    1998-01-01

    The skeletal extracellular matrix produced by osteoblasts contains the glycoprotein fibronectin, which regulates the adhesion, differentiation and function of various adherent cells. Interactions with fibronectin are required for osteoblast differentiation in vitro, since fibronectin antagonists added to cultures of immature fetal calvarial osteoblasts inhibit their progressive differentiation. To determine if fibronectin plays a unique role in fully differentiated osteoblasts, cultures that had already formed mineralized nodules in vitro were treated with fibronectin antagonists. Fibronectin antibodies caused >95% of the cells in the mature cultures to display characteristic features of apoptosis (nuclear condensation, apoptotic body formation, DNA laddering) within 24 hours. Cells appeared to acquire sensitivity to fibronectin antibody-induced apoptosis as a consequence of differentiation, since antibodies failed to kill immature cells and the first cells killed were those associated with mature nodules. Intact plasma fibronectin, as well as fragments corresponding to the amino-terminal, cell-binding, and carboxy-terminal domains of fibronectin, independently induced apoptosis of mature (day-13), but not immature (day-4), osteoblasts. Finally, transforming growth factor-beta1 partially protected cells from the apoptotic effects of fibronectin antagonists. Thus, in the course of maturation cultured osteoblasts switch from depending on fibronectin for differentiation to depending on fibronectin for survival. These data suggest that fibronectin, together with transforming growth factor-beta1, may affect bone formation, in part by regulating the survival of osteoblasts.

  8. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in first trimester maternal serum: correlation with pathologic pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Eckmann-Scholz, Christel; Wilke, Christina; Acil, Yahya; Alkatout, Ibrahim; Salmassi, Ali

    2016-06-01

    To determine correlations between macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) levels in maternal blood during first trimester screening with respect to normal and pathological pregnancies. This was a prospective single centre study. First trimester screening was performed according to FMF London certificates. Nuchal translucency, PAPP-A and free β-HCG were obtained as well as M-CSF serum levels in maternal blood. Fetal karyotyping was achieved by chorionic villi sampling. 125 patients were enrolled in this study. 21 pregnancies had confirmed aberrant karyotypes. Trisomy 21 cases showed significantly elevated M-CSF levels of 270 ± 91 pg/ml (p = 0.032), whereas cases of trisomy 13 (183 ± 68 pg/ml) and trisomy 18 (143 ± 40 pg/ml) had low M-CSF levels. Furthermore M-CSF levels tended to be low in preterm deliveries, placental insufficiency and nicotine consumption. In cases with gestational diabetes M-CSF tended to be elevated. Furthermore we found a positive correlation between high free β-human chorionic gonadotropin (hcg) and MCSF values. There was no correlation between pregnancy associated plasma protein (PAPP-A) and M-CSF. M-CSF is a cytokine promoting placental growth and differentiation. M-CSF is known to be involved in the process of implantation in pregnancy. The role of M-CSF with respect to disturbed pregnancy outcomes such as placental insufficiency in normal or aberrant karyotypes, for example, is yet subject to further research.

  9. Children's genotypes interact with maternal responsive care in predicting children's competence: diathesis-stress or differential susceptibility?

    PubMed

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Kim, Sanghag; Barry, Robin A; Philibert, Robert A

    2011-05-01

    We examined Genotype × Environment (G × E) interactions between children's genotypes (the serotonin transporter linked promoter region [5-HTTLPR] gene) and maternal responsive care observed at 15, 25, 38, and 52 months on three aspects of children's competence at 67 months: academic skills and school engagement, social functioning with peers, and moral internalization that encompassed prosocial moral cognition and the moral self. Academic and social competence outcomes were reported by both parents, and moral internalization was observed in children's narratives elicited by hypothetical stories and in a puppet interview. Analyses revealed robust G × E interactions, such that children's genotype moderated the effects of maternal responsive care on all aspects of children's competence. Among children with a short 5-HTTLPR allele (ss/sl), those whose mothers were more responsive were significantly more competent than those whose mothers were less responsive. Responsiveness had no effect for children with two long alleles (ll). For academic and social competence, the G × E interactions resembled the diathesis-stress model: ss/sl children of unresponsive mothers had particularly unfavorable outcomes, but ss/sl children of responsive mothers had no worse outcomes than ll children. For moral internalization, the G × E interaction reflected the differential susceptibility model: whereas ss/sl children of unresponsive mothers again had particularly unfavorable outcomes, ss/sl children of responsive mothers had significantly better outcomes than ll children.

  10. Is Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy a Causal Environmental Risk Factor for Adolescent Antisocial Behavior? Testing Etiological Theories and Assumptions

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although many studies indicate that maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) is correlated with later offspring antisocial behavior (ASB), recent quasi-experimental studies suggest that background familial factors confound the association. The present study sought to test alternative etiological hypotheses using multiple indices of adolescent ASB, comparing differentially exposed siblings, and testing assumptions in the sibling-comparison design. Methods The study examined the association between maternal SDP and adolescent-reported ASB, criminal convictions, and membership in a group of individuals with early-starting and chronic ASB among 6,066 offspring of women from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative sample of women in the United States. The analyses controlled for statistical covariates and examined associations while comparing differentially exposed siblings. Results At the population-level, each additional pack of cigarettes/day predicted greater mean adolescent-reported ASB symptoms (ratio of means=1.15, 95% CIs=1.08–1.22), odds of being in the top 10% of ASB (OR=1.34, 95% CIs=1.10–1.65), hazard of a criminal conviction (HR=1.51, 95% CIs=1.34–1.68), and odds of chronic ASB (OR=1.57, 95% CIs=1.25–1.99). SDP robustly predicted most assessments of ASB while controlling for measured covariates. When siblings exposed to differing levels of SDP were compared, however, all of the associations were attenuated and were not statistically significant: adolescent-reported mean ASB (ratio of means=0.86, 95% CIs=0.74–1.01), High ASB (OR=0.67, 95% CIs=0.41–1.12), criminal conviction (HR=0.98, 95% CIs=0.66–1.44), and Chronic ASB (OR=0.80, 95% CIs=0.46–1.38). Conclusions The results strongly suggest that familial factors account for the correlation between SDP and offspring adolescent ASB, rather than a putative causal environmental influence of SDP. PMID:22085725

  11. Transcription factor binding dynamics during human ESC differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tsankov, Alexander M.; Gu, Hongcang; Akopian, Veronika; Ziller, Michael J.; Donaghey, Julie; Amit, Ido; Gnirke, Andreas; Meissner, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotent stem cells provide a powerful system to dissect the underlying molecular dynamics that regulate cell fate changes during mammalian development. Here we report the integrative analysis of genome wide binding data for 38 transcription factors with extensive epigenome and transcriptional data across the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to the three germ layers. We describe core regulatory dynamics and show the lineage specific behavior of selected factors. In addition to the orchestrated remodeling of the chromatin landscape, we find that the binding of several transcription factors is strongly associated with specific loss of DNA methylation in one germ layer and in many cases a reciprocal gain in the other layers. Taken together, our work shows context-dependent rewiring of transcription factor binding, downstream signaling effectors, and the epigenome during human embryonic stem cell differentiation. PMID:25693565

  12. [Maternal factors associated with birth weight in term infants, Colombia, 2002-2011].

    PubMed

    Estrada-Restrepo, Alejandro; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía; Feria, Natalia Del Carmen Ceballos; Santander, Francisco Mardones

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to identify maternal factors associated with birth weight in Colombia from 2002 to 2011. This was a descriptive study based on data from the Live Birth Registry of Colombia, Administrative Department of Vital Statistics. Birth weight was classified as low birth weight < 2,500g, insufficient birth weight 2,500-2,999g, normal birth weight 3,000-3,999g, and high birth weight ≥ 4,000g. Data analysis used Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multinomial logistic regression. Women with increased likelihood of low birth weight newborns were 35 years or older (OR = 1.4; 95%CI: 1.39-1.4), had little schooling (OR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.1-1.1), were single (OR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.1-1.2), without prenatal care (OR = 1.9; 95%CI: 1.9-2.0), and lived in rural areas (OR = 1.2; 95%CI: 1.1-1.2). Women with higher prevalence of high birth weight newborns were 35 years or older (OR = 1.1; 95%CI: 1.1-1.1) and had four or more children (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 2.0-2.1). Insufficient birth weight showed a similar pattern to low birth weight. In conclusion, social, demographic, and maternal factors influence the birth weight of newborns in Colombia.

  13. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  14. Developmental programming of neonatal pancreatic β-cells by a maternal low-protein diet in rats involves a switch from proliferation to differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Trejo, Adriana; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Zambrano, Elena; Granados-Silvestre, María de los Ángeles; Méndez, Carmen; Blondeau, Bertrand; Bréant, Bernadette; Nathanielsz, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal low-protein diets (LP) impair pancreatic β-cell development, resulting in later-life failure and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that intrauterine and/or postnatal developmental programming seen in this situation involve altered β-cell structure and relative time course of expression of genes critical to β-cell differentiation and growth. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either control (C) 20% or restricted (R) 6% protein diets during pregnancy (1st letter) and/or lactation (2nd letter) in four groups: CC, RR, RC, and CR. At postnatal days 7 and 21, we measured male offspring β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate number, and size as well as mRNA level for 13 key genes regulating β-cell development and function in isolated islets. Compared with CC, pre- and postnatal LP (RR) decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Isl1, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. LP only in pregnancy (RC) also decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Rfx6, and Ins mRNA levels. Postnatal LP offspring (CR) showed decreased β-cell mass but increased β-cell fraction, aggregate number, and Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. We conclude that LP in pregnancy sets the trajectory of postnatal β-cell growth and differentiation, whereas LP in lactation has smaller effects. We propose that LP promotes differentiation through upregulation of transcription factors that stimulate differentiation at the expense of proliferation. This results in a decreased β-cell reserve, which can contribute to later-life predisposition to T2D. PMID:22436693

  15. Developmental programming of neonatal pancreatic β-cells by a maternal low-protein diet in rats involves a switch from proliferation to differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Trejo, Adriana; Ortiz-López, María Guadalupe; Zambrano, Elena; Granados-Silvestre, María de Los Ángeles; Méndez, Carmen; Blondeau, Bertrand; Bréant, Bernadette; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Menjivar, Marta

    2012-06-01

    Maternal low-protein diets (LP) impair pancreatic β-cell development, resulting in later-life failure and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that intrauterine and/or postnatal developmental programming seen in this situation involve altered β-cell structure and relative time course of expression of genes critical to β-cell differentiation and growth. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either control (C) 20% or restricted (R) 6% protein diets during pregnancy (1st letter) and/or lactation (2nd letter) in four groups: CC, RR, RC, and CR. At postnatal days 7 and 21, we measured male offspring β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate number, and size as well as mRNA level for 13 key genes regulating β-cell development and function in isolated islets. Compared with CC, pre- and postnatal LP (RR) decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Isl1, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. LP only in pregnancy (RC) also decreased β-cell fraction, mass, proliferation, aggregate size, and number and increased Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Pdx1, Rfx6, and Ins mRNA levels. Postnatal LP offspring (CR) showed decreased β-cell mass but increased β-cell fraction, aggregate number, and Hnf1a, Hnf4a, Rfx6, and Slc2a2 mRNA levels. We conclude that LP in pregnancy sets the trajectory of postnatal β-cell growth and differentiation, whereas LP in lactation has smaller effects. We propose that LP promotes differentiation through upregulation of transcription factors that stimulate differentiation at the expense of proliferation. This results in a decreased β-cell reserve, which can contribute to later-life predisposition to T2D.

  16. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-01-01

    Background Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. Objectives To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. Methods The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Results Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51–0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11–6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10–1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31–6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23–2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22–2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60–1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. ChildhoodTrichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Conclusions Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. PMID:25171741

  17. Maternal hookworm modifies risk factors for childhood eczema: results from a birth cohort in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mpairwe, Harriet; Ndibazza, Juliet; Webb, Emily L; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Apule, Barbara; Lule, Swaib; Akurut, Hellen; Kizito, Dennison; Kakande, Mohammed; Jones, Frances M; Fitzsimmons, Colin M; Muwanga, Moses; Rodrigues, Laura C; Dunne, David W; Elliott, Alison M

    2014-08-01

    Worms may protect against allergy. Early-life worm exposure may be critical, but this has not been fully investigated. To investigate whether worms in pregnancy and in early childhood are associated with childhood eczema incidence. The Entebbe Mother and Baby Study, an anthelminthic treatment trial, enrolled pregnant women between 2003 and 2005 in Uganda. Mothers were investigated for worms during pregnancy and children annually. Eczema was doctor-diagnosed from birth to age five years. A planned observational analysis was conducted within the trial cohort to investigate associations between worms and eczema. Data for 2345 live-born children were analysed. Hookworm was the most prevalent maternal worm (45%). Childhood worms were less prevalent. Eczema incidence was 4.68/100 person-years. Maternal hookworm was associated with reduced eczema incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval), p-value: 0.71(0.51-0.99), 0.04] and modified effects of known risk factors for eczema: Dermatophagoides-specific IgE in children was positively associated with eczema incidence if the mother had no hookworm [2.72(1.11-6.63), 0.03], but not if the mother had hookworm [0.41(0.10-1.69), 0.22], interaction p-value = 0.03. Similar interactions were seen for maternal history of eczema {[2.87(1.31-6.27, 0.008) vs. [0.73(0.23-2.30), 0.60], interaction p-value = 0.05}, female gender {[1.82(1.22-2.73), 0.004 vs. [0.96(0.60-1.53), 0.87], interaction p-value = 0.04} and allergen-specific IgE. Childhood Trichuris trichiura and hookworm were inversely associated with eczema. Maternal hookworm modifies effects of known risk factors for eczema. Mechanisms by which early-life worm exposures influence allergy need investigation. Worms or worm products, and intervention during pregnancy have potential for primary prevention of allergy. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Factors Used by Accounting Students in Differentiating among Prospective Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Carl R.; Phillips, Antoinette S.

    2006-01-01

    Past research has revealed a number of determinants that employers use in making selection decisions about college students. However, few studies have examined those factors students use in differentiating among prospective employers and to date no studies have examined Accounting student preferences. Increased scrutiny of corporate accounting…

  19. Factors Used by Accounting Students in Differentiating among Prospective Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Carl R.; Phillips, Antoinette S.

    2006-01-01

    Past research has revealed a number of determinants that employers use in making selection decisions about college students. However, few studies have examined those factors students use in differentiating among prospective employers and to date no studies have examined Accounting student preferences. Increased scrutiny of corporate accounting…

  20. An Exploratory Study of Factors Differentiating Freshmen Educational Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenning, Oscar T.

    The present study was an exploratory investigation of factors that differentiate students who exhibit "negative educational growth" from a group of equally able students who exhibit marked "positive educational growth." Educational growth was operationally defined as estimated true test-retest change on American College Tests (ACT) composite…

  1. Maternal Factors that Induce Epigenetic Changes Contribute to Neurological Disorders in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Banik, Avijit; Kandilya, Deepika; Ramya, Seshadri; Stünkel, Walter; Chong, Yap Seng; Dheen, S. Thameem

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that the regulation of epigenetic factors, including chromatic reorganization, histone modifications, DNA methylation, and miRNA regulation, is critical for the normal development and functioning of the human brain. There are a number of maternal factors influencing epigenetic pathways such as lifestyle, including diet, alcohol consumption, and smoking, as well as age and infections (viral or bacterial). Genetic and metabolic alterations such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and thyroidism alter epigenetic mechanisms, thereby contributing to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs) such as embryonic neural tube defects (NTDs), autism, Down’s syndrome, Rett syndrome, and later onset of neuropsychological deficits. This review comprehensively describes the recent findings in the epigenetic landscape contributing to altered molecular profiles resulting in NDs. Furthermore, we will discuss potential avenues for future research to identify diagnostic markers and therapeutic epi-drugs to reverse these abnormalities in the brain as epigenetic marks are plastic and reversible in nature. PMID:28538662

  2. The relationship between maternal work and other socioeconomic factors and child health in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hussain, T M; Smith, J F

    1999-11-01

    The relationship between maternal work status, other socio-economic factors, and incidence of diarrhoea among children was studied using the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) 1994 data. This study showed that 12.4% of children had suffered from diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of the women in the sample, 12% were working. Logistic regression analysis revealed that children of working mothers were 65% more likely to have had diarrhoea than children of non-working mothers. We also found that children of women who work seasonally were 8% less likely to have had diarrhoea than children of women who work all year. Women's higher education was found to be one of the important determinants related to childhood diarrhoea. Religion and ownership of land also appeared to be important factors affecting the incidence of diarrhoea in early childhood.

  3. The impact of maternal factors on the association between temperature and preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rupa; Chen, Hong; Li, De-Kun; Avalos, Lyndsay A

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have examined maternal modifiers of temperature and adverse birth outcomes because of lack of data. We assessed the relationship between apparent temperature, preterm delivery (PTD) and maternal demographics, medical and mental health conditions, and behaviors. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was conducted using 14,466 women who had a PTD (20 to less than 37 gestational weeks) from 1995 to 2009 using medical records from a large health maintenance organization in Northern California. Effect modifiers considered by stratification included several maternal factors: age, race/ethnicity, depression, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, alcohol use, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and Medicaid status. Apparent temperature data for women who had a monitor located within 20km of their residential zip codes were included. All analyses were stratified by warm (May 1 through October 31) and cold (November 1 through April 30) seasons. For every 10°F (5.6°C) increase in average cumulative weekly apparent temperature (lag06), a greater risk was observed for births occurring during the warm season (11.63%; 95% CI: 4.08, 19.72%) compared to the cold season (6.18%; -2.96, 16.18%), especially for mothers who were younger, Black, Hispanic, underweight, smoked or consumed alcohol during pregnancy, or had pre-existing /gestational hypertension, diabetes, or pre-eclampsia. Our findings suggest that warmer apparent temperatures exacerbate the risk of PTD, particularly for subgroups of more vulnerable women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Evolutionarily Conserved Plant RKD Factor Controls Germ Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koi, Satoshi; Hisanaga, Tetsuya; Sato, Katsutoshi; Shimamura, Masaki; Yamato, Katsuyuki T; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Nakajima, Keiji

    2016-07-11

    In contrast to animals, in which the germ cell lineage is established during embryogenesis, plant germ cells are generated in reproductive organs via reprogramming of somatic cells. The factors that control germ cell differentiation and reprogramming in plants are poorly understood. Members of the RKD subfamily of plant-specific RWP-RK transcription factors have been implicated in egg cell formation in Arabidopsis based on their expression patterns and ability to cause an egg-like transcriptome upon ectopic expression [1]; however, genetic evidence of their involvement is lacking, due to possible genetic redundancy, haploid lethality, and the technical difficulty of analyzing egg cell differentiation in angiosperms. Here we analyzed the factors that govern germ cell formation in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. This recently revived model bryophyte has several characteristics that make it ideal for studies of germ cell formation, such as low levels of genetic redundancy, readily accessible germ cells, and the ability to propagate asexually via gemma formation [2, 3]. Our analyses revealed that MpRKD, a single RWP-RK factor closely related to angiosperm RKDs, is preferentially expressed in developing eggs and sperm precursors in M. polymorpha. Targeted disruption of MpRKD had no effect on the gross morphology of the vegetative and reproductive organs but led to striking defects in egg and sperm cell differentiation, demonstrating that MpRKD is an essential regulator of germ cell differentiation. Together with previous findings [1, 4-6], our results suggest that RKD factors are evolutionarily conserved regulators of germ cell differentiation in land plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal coffee intake and associated risk factors: effects on fetal growth and activity.

    PubMed

    Conde, Ana; Teves, Cláudia; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies have shown that fetal growth and activity can be affected by several risk factors, such as maternal anxiety, depression and tobacco or alcohol consumption. Caffeine intake has received less attention in the literature, as well as the analysis of the mutual interplay of the range of such risk factors. This study aimed to examine effects of mother's coffee intake and associated risk factors during early pregnancy on fetal growth and activity. The sample involved 47 fetuses (51.1% male and 48.9% female) with gestational ages between 20-22 weeks whose mothers were recruited in a Portuguese antenatal obstetric unit. Repeated measures of mother's anxiety (STAI-S) and depression (EPDS) and information about socio-demographics and substances consumption were collected during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. Fetal activity and biometry were measured during the 2(nd) trimester ultrasound. Results showed that 1) 23.4% of the pregnant women (N = 11) had regular coffee intake; 2) no significant differences were found neither on fetal growth nor on fetal movements considering mother's coffee intake; 3) when mother's socio-demographics and substances consumption were considered, tobacco consumption and anxiety at the 2(nd) trimester appeared as significant predictors of fetal growth and mother's coffee intake and anxiety symptoms at the 2(nd) trimester emerged as significant predictors of fetal movements. An adverse impact of maternal coffee intake during pregnancy was found on fetal activity but not on fetal growth. A deeper understanding of the multiple pathways by which these risk factors affect fetal growth and activity is needed.

  6. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits.

  7. Reasons for Persistently High Maternal and Perinatal Mortalities in Ethiopia: Part II-Socio-Economic and Cultural Factors

    PubMed Central

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2014-01-01

    Background The major causes of maternal and perinatal deaths are mostly pregnancy related. However, there are several predisposing factors for the increased risk of pregnancy related complications and deaths in developing countries. The objective of this review was to grossly estimate the effect of selected socioeconomic and cultural factors on maternal mortality, stillbirths and neonatal mortality in Ethiopia. Methods A comprehensive literature review was conducted focusing on the effect of total fertility rate (TFR), modern contraceptive use, harmful traditional practice, adult literacy rate and level of income on maternal and perinatal mortalities. For the majority of the data, regression analysis and Pearson correlation coefficient were used as a proxy indicator for the association of variables with maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality. Results Although there were variations in the methods for estimation, the TFR of women in Ethiopia declined from 5.9 to 4.8 in the last fifteen years, which was in the middle as compared with that of other African countries. The preference of injectable contraceptive method has increased by 7-fold, but the unmet contraceptive need was among the highest in Africa. About 50% reduction in female genital cutting (FGC) was reported although some women's attitude was positive towards the practice of FGC. The regression analysis demonstrated increased risk of stillbirths, neonatal and maternal mortality with increased TFR. The increased adult literacy rate was associated with increased antenatal care and skilled person attended delivery. Low adult literacy was also found to have a negative association with stillbirths and neonatal and maternal mortality. A similar trend was also observed with income. Conclusion Maternal mortality ratio, stillbirth rate and neonatal mortality rate had inverse relations with income and adult education. In Ethiopia, the high total fertility rate, low utilization of contraceptive methods, low adult

  8. Early pregnancy maternal and fetal angiogenic factors and fetal and childhood growth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Bergen, N E; Bouwland-Both, M I; Steegers-Theunissen, R P M; Hofman, A; Russcher, H; Lindemans, J; Jaddoe, V W V; Steegers, E A P

    2015-06-01

    What are the effects of maternal and fetal soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF) concentrations on fetal and childhood growth patterns? An angiogenic profile that is characterized by both low early pregnancy maternal sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and higher sFlt-1 concentrations, lower PlGF concentrations or a higher sFlt-1:PlGF ratio in umbilical cord blood is associated with a reduced fetal and childhood growth. An imbalance in maternal and fetal sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations has been suggested to affect pregnancy outcomes. However, their effects on longitudinal fetal and childhood growth remain largely unknown. This study was performed in 5980 mothers and 4108 of their children, participating in the Generation R Study; a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life onwards in Rotterdam, the Netherlands (2001-2005). Blood samples were obtained from mothers in early and mid-pregnancy and from the umbilical vein at delivery. Fetal and childhood growth characteristics (weight and length) were measured repeatedly by ultrasound and physical examinations until the age of 6 years. We assessed the associations of maternal and fetal angiogenic factors with fetal and childhood growth using repeated measurement regression models. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between angiogenic factors and small for gestational age at birth (SGA). Compared with early pregnancy maternal sFlt-1 concentrations in the lowest quintile, early pregnancy maternal sFlt-1 concentrations in the highest quintile were associated with a higher fetal weight growth resulting in a higher birthweight (difference in birthweight 0.33 standard deviation score (SDS); 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.25-0.41), a lower risk of SGA (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.36; 95% CI 0.27-0.48) and a subsequent higher weight growth until the age of 6 years. Early pregnancy maternal PlGF concentrations in the lowest quintile were associated with a

  9. Prediction of spontaneous preterm delivery from maternal factors, obstetric history and placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks.

    PubMed

    Beta, Jarek; Akolekar, Ranjit; Ventura, Walter; Syngelaki, Argyro; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2011-01-01

    To develop a model for prediction of spontaneous delivery before 34 weeks based on maternal factors, placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Two groups of studies: first, screening study of maternal characteristics, serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free β-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG) and uterine artery pulsatility index (PI). Second, case-control studies of maternal serum or plasma concentration of placental growth factor (PlGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 (ADAM12), inhibin-A and activin-A. Regression analysis was used to develop a model for the prediction of spontaneous early delivery. Spontaneous early delivery occurred in 365 (1.1%) of the 34 025 pregnancies. A model based on maternal factors could detect 38.2% of the preterm deliveries in women with previous pregnancies at or beyond 16 weeks and 18.4% in those without, at a false positive rate (FPR) of 10%. In the preterm delivery group, compared with unaffected pregnancies there were no significant differences in the markers of placental perfusion or function, except for PAPP-A which was reduced. Patient-specific risk of preterm delivery is provided by maternal factors and obstetric history. Placental perfusion and function at 11-13 weeks are not altered in pregnancies resulting in spontaneous early delivery. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Fibroblast growth factor is an inhibitor of chondrocyte terminal differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Y.; Iwamoto, M. )

    1990-04-05

    The effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) on terminal differentiation of chondrocytes and cartilage-matrix calcification were investigated. Rabbit growth-plate chondrocytes maintained as a pelleted mass in a centrifuge tube produced an abundant proteoglycan matrix during the matrix-maturation stage, yielding a cartilage-like tissue. Thereafter, they terminally differentiated to hypertrophic chondrocytes which produced high levels of alkaline phosphatase. These cells induced extensive calcification of the matrix in the absence of additional phosphate. Addition of bFGF to the chondrocyte cultures abolished the increases in alkaline phosphatase activity, {sup 45}Ca deposition, and the calcium content. These effects were dose-dependent, reversible, and observed in the presence of cytosine arabinoside, an inhibitor of DNA synthesis. The inhibitory effects could be observed only when chondrocytes were exposed to bFGF in a transition period between the matrix-maturation and hypertrophic stages. As chondrocytes differentiated to hypertrophic cells, bFGF became less effective in inhibiting the expression of the mineralization-related phenotypes. The present study also shows that although the rate of ({sup 35}S)sulfate incorporation into large, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan in the cell-matrix fraction is very high during the matrix-maturation stage, it abruptly decreases by 90% after terminal differentiation. Furthermore, the terminal differentiation-associated decrease in proteoglycan synthesis was delayed by bFGF. These results provide evidence that bFGF inhibits terminal differentiation of chondrocytes and calcification.

  11. Investigating maternal risk factors as potential targets of intervention to reduce socioeconomic inequality in small for gestational age: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Irene; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Cleathero, Lesley A; Janssen, Patricia A; Lanphear, Bruce P; Hayes, Michael V; Mattman, Andre; Pampalon, Robert; Venners, Scott A

    2012-06-13

    The major aim of this study was to investigate whether maternal risk factors associated with socioeconomic status and small for gestational age (SGA) might be viable targets of interventions to reduce differential risk of SGA by socioeconomic status (socioeconomic SGA inequality) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, Canada. This study included 59,039 live, singleton births in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area (Vancouver) from January 1, 2006 to September 17, 2009. To identify an indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality, we used hierarchical logistic regression to model SGA by area-level variables from the Canadian census. We then modelled SGA by area-level average income plus established maternal risk factors for SGA and calculated population attributable SGA risk percentages (PAR%) for each variable. Associations of maternal risk factors for SGA with average income were investigated to identify those that might contribute to SGA inequality. Finally, we estimated crude reductions in the percentage and absolute differences in SGA risks between highest and lowest average income quintiles that would result if interventions on maternal risk factors successfully equalized them across income levels or eliminated them altogether. Average income produced the most linear and statistically significant indicator of socioeconomic SGA inequality with 8.9% prevalence of SGA in the lowest income quintile compared to 5.6% in the highest. The adjusted PAR% of SGA for variables were: bottom four quintiles of height (51%), first birth (32%), bottom four quintiles of average income (14%), oligohydramnios (7%), underweight or hypertension, (6% each), smoking (3%) and placental disorder (1%). Shorter height, underweight and smoking during pregnancy had higher prevalence in lower income groups. Crude models assuming equalization of risk factors across income levels or elimination altogether indicated little potential change in relative socioeconomic SGA inequality and reduction

  12. Relationship between birth weight and adult lung function: controlling for maternal factors

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, C; Osman, L; Godden, D; Campbell, D; Douglas, J

    2003-01-01

    Methods: In 2001 the cohort was assessed for current lung function, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms. Birth details obtained from the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank recorded birth weight, gestation, parity, and mother's age and height. Results: 381 subjects aged 45–50 years were traced and tested for lung function; 323 (85%) had birth details available. A significant linear trend (p<0.01) was observed between birth weight and current forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values (adjusted for height, age, sex, weight, deprivation category (Depcat), childhood group, and smoking status). This trend remained significant after adjusting birth weight for gestation, parity, sex, mother's height and weight (p = 0.01). The relationship between birth weight and FEV1 and FVC remained significant when adjusted for smoking history. There was no association between birth weight and current wheezing symptoms. Conclusion: There is a positive linear trend between birth weight, adjusted for maternal factors, and lung function in adulthood. The strength of this association supports the "fetal origins hypothesis" that impairment of fetal growth is a significant influence on adult lung function. PMID:14645976

  13. Maternal factors and low birthweight infants: a comparison of blacks with Mexican-Americans.

    PubMed

    Dowling, P T; Fisher, M

    1987-08-01

    Regional vital statistics suggest that the Mexican-American population, in spite of low socioeconomic status, has an infant mortality that is very similar to whites. American blacks of similar socioeconomic status have rates that are almost double that of whites. Part of this discrepancy can be explained by lifestyles, maternal behavior, lack of access to health care, and poor nutrition. The study reported here compared the most potent predictor of infant mortality--low birthweight--among low-income black and Mexican-American infants born at Cook County Hospital. The incidence of low birthweight was 16.6 percent for blacks and 5.9 percent for Mexican-Americans, suggesting that the latter group enjoys some sociocultural protection from the effects of urban poverty in the United States. Further efforts to reduce the infant mortality rate in the inner city should be directed at preserving those sociocultural traits that improve pregnancy outcomes and changing those social and economic factors that cause and promote unhealthy maternal behavior.

  14. Preeclampsia in Jordan: incidence, risk factors, and its associated maternal and neonatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khader, Yousef S; Batieha, Anwar; Al-Njadat, Rania Ali; Hijazi, Sa'ad S

    2017-03-08

    To estimate the incidence of preeclampsia among Jordanian pregnant women, determine its risk factors and its associated neonatal morbidity and mortality. The study is a part of a comprehensive national study of perinatal mortality that was conducted in Jordan. This study included all women who gave birth in the selected hospitals during the study period. Maternal and medical conditions during pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were compared between women who developed preeclampsia and who did not. This study included a total of 21,928 women. The overall incidence rate of preeclampsia was 1.3%. Obesity (OR = 2.6) and high blood pressure (OR = 11.9) were significantly associated with increasing odds of preeclampsia. The risk of preeclampsia was 2.3 times higher in first pregnancies than that in second or more pregnancies. The rates of low birth weight (LBW) delivery (32.5% vs. 8.3%), and prematurity (30.8% vs. 7%), and the neonatal mortality rate (81 vs. 12 per 1000 live births) were significantly higher among women with preeclampsia. The overall incidence rate of preeclampsia was 1.3%. Preeclampsia was significantly associated with maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as increasing vaginal operative delivery, cesarean section, LBW, and birth asphyxia.

  15. Association of maternal and nutrient supply line factors with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus in multiple tissues of newborn twins.

    PubMed

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Galati, John C; Morley, Ruth; Joo, Eric Ji-Hoon; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Xin; Weinrich, Blaise; Carson, Nicole; Ollikainen, Miina; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Andronikos, Roberta; Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa Abdul; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic events are crucial for early development, but can be influenced by environmental factors, potentially programming the genome for later adverse health outcomes. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus is crucial for prenatal growth and the epigenetic state at this locus is environmentally labile. Recent studies have implicated maternal factors, including folate intake and smoking, in the regulation of DNA methylation at this locus, although data are often conflicting in the direction and magnitude of effect. Most studies have focused on single tissues and on one or two differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) regulating IGF2/H19 expression. In this study, we investigated the relationship between multiple shared and non-shared gestational/maternal factors and DNA methylation at four IGF2/H19 DMRs in five newborn cell types from 67 pairs of monozygotic and 49 pairs of dizygotic twins. Data on maternal and non-shared supply line factors were collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and DNA methylation was measured via mass spectrometry using Sequenom MassArray EpiTyper analysis. Our exploratory approach showed that the site of umbilical cord insertion into the placenta in monochorionic twins has the strongest positive association with methylation in all IGF2/H19 DMRs (p<0.05). Further, evidence for tissue- and locus-specific effects were observed, emphasizing that responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero cannot be generalized across genes and tissues, potentially accounting for the lack of consistency in previous findings. Such complexity in responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero has implications for all epigenetic studies investigating the developmental origins of health and disease.

  16. Association of maternal and nutrient supply line factors with DNA methylation at the imprinted IGF2/H19 locus in multiple tissues of newborn twins

    PubMed Central

    Loke, Yuk Jing; Galati, John C; Morley, Ruth; Joo, Eric Ji-Hoon; Novakovic, Boris; Li, Xin; Weinrich, Blaise; Carson, Nicole; Ollikainen, Miina; Ng, Hong-Kiat; Andronikos, Roberta; Aziz, Nur Khairunnisa Abdul; Saffery, Richard; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic events are crucial for early development, but can be influenced by environmental factors, potentially programming the genome for later adverse health outcomes. The insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2)/H19 locus is crucial for prenatal growth and the epigenetic state at this locus is environmentally labile. Recent studies have implicated maternal factors, including folate intake and smoking, in the regulation of DNA methylation at this locus, although data are often conflicting in the direction and magnitude of effect. Most studies have focused on single tissues and on one or two differentially-methylated regions (DMRs) regulating IGF2/H19 expression. In this study, we investigated the relationship between multiple shared and non-shared gestational/maternal factors and DNA methylation at four IGF2/H19 DMRs in five newborn cell types from 67 pairs of monozygotic and 49 pairs of dizygotic twins. Data on maternal and non-shared supply line factors were collected during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and DNA methylation was measured via mass spectrometry using Sequenom MassArray EpiTyper analysis. Our exploratory approach showed that the site of umbilical cord insertion into the placenta in monochorionic twins has the strongest positive association with methylation in all IGF2/H19 DMRs (p < 0.05). Further, evidence for tissue- and locus-specific effects were observed, emphasizing that responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero cannot be generalized across genes and tissues, potentially accounting for the lack of consistency in previous findings. Such complexity in responsiveness to environmental exposures in utero has implications for all epigenetic studies investigating the developmental origins of health and disease. PMID:23917818

  17. Factors influencing the differentiation of bovine preadipocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lengi, A J; Corl, B A

    2010-06-01

    -vascular cells in the presence of trans-10, cis-12 CLA inhibited differentiation of stromal-vascular cells into mature adipocytes, reducing radiolabeled acetate incorporation into lipids (P < 0.001), stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNA (P < 0.05) and protein abundance (P < 0.05), and ACCalpha protein abundance (P < 0.05). We have developed a method to differentiate primary bovine adipocytes, which will allow us to study the regulation of lipogenic enzymes by nutrient and endocrine factors.

  18. Risk factors for childhood asthma and wheezing. Importance of maternal and household smoking.

    PubMed

    Ehrlich, R I; Du Toit, D; Jordaan, E; Zwarenstein, M; Potter, P; Volmink, J A; Weinberg, E

    1996-09-01

    To identify modifiable risk factors for wheezing illness in childhood, the associations between current asthma or wheezing and factors such as household smoking, damp and dietary salt preference were measured in a questionnaire-based prevalence study of schoolchildren 7 to 9 yr of age in Cape Town. In a random sample of 15 schools, questionnaires were completed by parents of 1,955 children, from which 368 cases and 294 controls were selected on the basis of reported asthma diagnosis or symptoms. Urinary cotinine concentrations were measured, and the parents were interviewed. An exposure-response relationship between the urinary cotinine creatinine ratio and asthma/wheeze was observed. In multivariate analysis, predictors of asthma/wheeze were hay fever (odds ratio [OR] - 5.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.16 to 8.89), eczema (OR = 2.19; 95% CI = 1.33-3.62), parental asthma (OR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.84), absence of paternal contribution to income (OR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.17 to 2.54), maternal smoking in pregnancy (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.25 to 2.81), and each additional household smoker (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.30). Findings were similar, with higher odds ratios for most variables, except number of household smokers, when the group was restricted to children with parent-reported asthma. The findings confirm that household smoking is an important modifiable risk factor in asthma/wheeze among young schoolchildren, and they suggest that maternal smoking in pregnancy and current household exposure are independent contributors to this effect.

  19. Gestational age-dependent risk factors for preterm birth: associations with maternal education and age early in gestation.

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Wynant, Willy; Lo, Ernest

    2014-05-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) before 37 weeks can occur over a wide range of gestational ages, but few studies have assessed if associations between risk factors and PTB vary over the duration of gestation. We sought to evaluate if associations between two major risk factors (maternal education and age) and PTB depend on gestational age at delivery. We estimated hazard ratios of PTB for education and age in a time-to-event analysis using a retrospective cohort of 223,756 live singleton births from the province of Québec, Canada for the years 2001-2005. Differences in hazards of maternal education and age with PTB were assessed over gestational age in a Cox proportional hazards model using linear and nonlinear time interaction terms, adjusting for maternal characteristics. Associations of PTB with lower (vs. higher) education and older (vs. younger) age strengthened progressively at earlier gestational ages, such that the risk of PTB for maternal education and age was not constant over the course of gestation. Associations of PTB with risk factors such as maternal low education and older age may be stronger early in gestation. Models that capture the time-dependent nature of PTB may be useful when the goal is to assess associations at low gestational ages, and to avoid masked or biased associations early in gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Socioeconomic position and factors associated with use of a nonsupine infant sleep position: findings from the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey.

    PubMed

    Smylie, Janet; Fell, Deshayne B; Chalmers, Beverley; Sauve, Reg; Royle, Catherine; Allan, Billie; O'Campo, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    With a focus on socioeconomic position, we examined the association between maternal education and nonsupine infant sleep position, and examined patterns of effect modification with additional sociodemographic, maternal, infant, and health services predictors. Data were from the Maternity Experiences Survey, a national population-based sample of 76 178 new Canadian mothers (unweighted n = 6421) aged 15 years or older interviewed in 2006-2007. Using logistic regression, we developed multivariate models for 3 maternal education strata. Level of maternal education was significantly and inversely related to nonsupine infant sleep position. Stratified analyses revealed different predictive factors for nonsupine infant sleep position across strata of maternal education. Postpartum home visits were not associated with use of this sleep position among new mothers with less than high school completion. Adequacy of postpartum information regarding sudden infant death syndrome was not associated with nonsupine infant sleep position in any of the educational strata. These findings suggest a need to revisit Back to Sleep health promotion strategies and to ensure that these interventions are tailored to match the information needs of all families, including mothers with lower levels of formal education.

  1. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R; Siegmund, Kimberly D

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement.

  2. Identifying differential transcription factor binding in ChIP-seq

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dai-Ying; Bittencourt, Danielle; Stallcup, Michael R.; Siegmund, Kimberly D.

    2015-01-01

    ChIP seq is a widely used assay to measure genome-wide protein binding. The decrease in costs associated with sequencing has led to a rise in the number of studies that investigate protein binding across treatment conditions or cell lines. In addition to the identification of binding sites, new studies evaluate the variation in protein binding between conditions. A number of approaches to study differential transcription factor binding have recently been developed. Several of these methods build upon established methods from RNA-seq to quantify differences in read counts. We compare how these new approaches perform on different data sets from the ENCODE project to illustrate the impact of data processing pipelines under different study designs. The performance of normalization methods for differential ChIP-seq depends strongly on the variation in total amount of protein bound between conditions, with total read count outperforming effective library size, or variants thereof, when a large variation in binding was studied. Use of input subtraction to correct for non-specific binding showed a relatively modest impact on the number of differential peaks found and the fold change accuracy to biological validation, however a larger impact might be expected for samples with more extreme copy number variations between them. Still, it did identify a small subset of novel differential regions while excluding some differential peaks in regions with high background signal. These results highlight proper scaling for between-sample data normalization as critical for differential transcription factor binding analysis and suggest bioinformaticians need to know about the variation in level of total protein binding between conditions to select the best analysis method. At the same time, validation using fold-change estimates from qRT-PCR suggests there is still room for further method improvement. PMID:25972895

  3. History of Maternal Fetal Loss and Childhood Leukaemia Risk in Subsequent Offspring: Differentials by Miscarriage or Stillbirth History and Disease Subtype.

    PubMed

    Karalexi, M A; Skalkidou, A; Thomopoulos, T P; Belechri, M; Biniaris-Georgallis, S-I; Bouka, E; Baka, M; Hatzipantelis, E; Kourti, M; Polychronopoulou, S; Sidi, V; Stiakaki, E; Moschovi, M; Dessypris, N; Petridou, E Th

    2015-09-01

    Despite the putative intrauterine origins of childhood (0-14 years) leukaemia, it is complex to assess the impact of perinatal factors on disease onset. Results on the association of maternal history of fetal loss (miscarriage/stillbirth) with specific disease subtypes in the subsequent offspring are in conflict. We sought to investigate whether miscarriage and stillbirth may have different impacts on the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and of its main immunophenotypes (B-cell and T-cell ALL), as contrasted to acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). One thousand ninety-nine ALL incidents (957 B-ALL) and 131 AML cases along with 1:1 age and gender-matched controls derived from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies and Brain Tumors (1996-2013) were studied. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the roles of previous miscarriage(s) and stillbirth(s) on ALL (overall, B-, T-ALL) and AML, controlling for potential confounders. Statistically significant exposure and disease subtype-specific associations of previous miscarriage(s) exclusively with AML [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00, 2.81] and stillbirth(s) with ALL [OR 4.82, 95% CI 1.63, 14.24] and B-ALL particularly, emerged. Differential pathophysiological pathways pertaining to genetic polymorphisms or cytogenetic aberrations are likely to create hostile environments leading either to fetal loss or the development of specific leukaemia subtypes in subsequent offspring, notably distinct associations of maternal miscarriage history confined to AML and stillbirth history confined to ALL (specifically B-ALL). If confirmed and further supported by studies revealing underlying mechanisms, these results may shed light on the divergent leukemogenesis processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Why are women so intelligent? The effect of maternal IQ on childhood mortality may be a relevant evolutionary factor.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2010-03-01

    Humans are an unusual species because they exhibit an economic division of labour. Most theories concerning the evolution of specifically human intelligence have focused either on economic problems or sexual selection mechanisms, both of which apply more to men than women. Yet while there is evidence for men having a slightly higher average IQ, the sexual dimorphism of intelligence is not obvious (except at unusually high and low levels). However, a more female-specific selection mechanism concerns the distinctive maternal role in child care during the offspring's early years. It has been reported that increasing maternal intelligence is associated with reducing child mortality. This would lead to a greater level of reproductive success for intelligent women, and since intelligence is substantially heritable, this is a plausible mechanism by which natural selection might tend to increase female intelligence in humans. Any effect of maternal intelligence on improving child survival would likely be amplified by assortative mating for IQ by which people tend to marry others of similar intelligence - combining female maternal and male economic or sexual selection factors. Furthermore, since general intelligence seems to have the functional attribute of general purpose problem-solving and more rapid learning, the advantages of maternal IQ are likely to be greater as the environment for child-rearing is more different from the African hunter-gatherer society and savannah environment in which ancestral humans probably evolved. However, the effect of maternal IQ on child mortality would probably only be of major evolutionary significance in environments where childhood mortality rates were high. The modern situation is that population growth is determined mostly by birth rates; so in modern conditions, maternal intelligence may no longer have a significant effect on reproductive success; the effect of female IQ on reproductive success is often negative. Nonetheless, in the

  5. Differential expression and costs between maternally and paternally derived immune priming for offspring in an insect.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Caroline; Troussard, Jean-Philippe; Martinaud, Guillaume; Moreau, Jérôme; Moret, Yannick

    2011-11-01

    1. When parasitized, both vertebrates and invertebrates can enhance the immune defence of their offspring, although this transfer of immunity is achieved by different mechanisms. In some insects, immune-challenged males can also initiate trans-generational immune priming (TGIP), but its expressions appear qualitatively different from the one induced by females similarly challenged. 2. The existence of male TGIP challenges the traditional view of the parental investment theory, which predicts that females should invest more into their progeny than males. However, sexual dimorphism in life-history strategies and the potential costs associated with TGIP may nevertheless lead to dissymmetric investment between males and females into the immune protection of the offspring. 3. Using the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, we show that after parental exposure to a bacterial-like infection, maternal and paternal TGIP are associated with the enhancement of different immune effectors and different fitness costs in the offspring. While all the offspring produced by challenged mothers had enhanced immune defence, only those from early reproductive episodes were immune primed by challenged fathers. 4. Despite the fact that males and females may share a common interest in providing their offspring with an immune protection from the current pathogenic threat, they seem to have evolved different strategies concerning this investment.

  6. Maternal dietary loads of α-tocopherol differentially influence fear conditioning and spatial learning in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    Ambrogini, Patrizia; Ciuffoli, Stefano; Lattanzi, Davide; Minelli, Andrea; Bucherelli, Corrado; Baldi, Elisabetta; Betti, Michele; Cuppini, Riccardo

    2011-10-24

    α-Tocopherol, the main component of vitamin E, is well known to be a radical scavenger, so an increased intake of vitamin E is recommended in complicated pregnancy, to prevent possible fetus damage by free radical. In a previous work, we found that maternal α-tocopherol supplementation affects PKC-mediated cellular signaling and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in developing brain; the latter effect persists in adulthood. Here, adult rats maternally exposed to supranutritional doses of α-tocopherol were evaluated for Contextual Fear Conditioning and spatial learning in Morris Water Maze, two different hippocampus-dependent learning tasks. Moreover, anxiety, spontaneous activity, and explorative drive were also evaluated as factors potentially affecting learning performance. Treated rats showed a different behavior with respect to controls: performance in Contextual Fear Conditioning was improved, while spatial learning tested in Morris Water Maze, was impaired. The improvement of fear response was not ascribable to differences in anxiety level and/or spontaneous activity; thus it appears to be a specific effect of α-tocopherol overloading during brain development. On the contrary, the impaired performance in Morris Water Maze exhibited by treated rats can be in part explained by their enhanced explorative drive. Although extrapolation from rats to humans is difficult, a caveat in assuming supranutritional doses of vitamin E in pregnancy arises from this study. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of Transcription Factors for Lineage-Specific ESC Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Yamamizu, Kohei; Piao, Yulan; Sharov, Alexei A.; Zsiros, Veronika; Yu, Hong; Nakazawa, Kazu; Schlessinger, David; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary A network of transcription factors (TFs) determines cell identity, but identity can be altered by overexpressing a combination of TFs. However, choosing and verifying combinations of TFs for specific cell differentiation have been daunting due to the large number of possible combinations of ∼2,000 TFs. Here, we report the identification of individual TFs for lineage-specific cell differentiation based on the correlation matrix of global gene expression profiles. The overexpression of identified TFs—Myod1, Mef2c, Esx1, Foxa1, Hnf4a, Gata2, Gata3, Myc, Elf5, Irf2, Elf1, Sfpi1, Ets1, Smad7, Nr2f1, Sox11, Dmrt1, Sox9, Foxg1, Sox2, or Ascl1—can direct efficient, specific, and rapid differentiation into myocytes, hepatocytes, blood cells, and neurons. Furthermore, transfection of synthetic mRNAs of TFs generates their appropriate target cells. These results demonstrate both the utility of this approach to identify potent TFs for cell differentiation, and the unanticipated capacity of single TFs directly guides differentiation to specific lineage fates. PMID:24371809

  8. Rethinking How to Promote Maternity Care-Seeking: Factors Associated With Institutional Delivery in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births—and not simply obstetric emergencies—in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care. PMID:24821280

  9. Rethinking how to promote maternity care-seeking: factors associated with institutional delivery in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Brazier, Ellen; Fiorentino, Renée; Barry, Saidou; Kasse, Yaya; Millimono, Sita

    2014-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study on women's delivery care-seeking in two regions of Guinea. We explored exposure to interventions promoting birth preparedness and complication readiness among women with recent live births and stillbirths. Using multivariate regression models, we identified factors associated with women's knowledge and practices related to birth preparedness, as well as their use of health facilities during childbirth. We found that women's knowledge about preparations for any birth (normal or complicated) was positively associated with increased preparation for birth, which itself was associated with institutional delivery. Knowledge about complication readiness, obstetric risks, and danger signs was not associated with birth preparation or with institutional delivery. The study findings highlight the importance of focusing on preparation for all births--and not simply obstetric emergencies--in interventions aimed at increasing women's use of skilled maternity care.

  10. Disentangling nutritional factors and household characteristics related to child stunting and maternal overweight in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jounghee; Houser, Robert F; Must, Aviva; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to identify nutritional factors and households characteristics associated with child stunting, maternal overweight and the familial coexistence of both types of malnutrition. In Guatemala, 2000, with nationally representative data, we selected 2261 households with at least one child aged 12-60 months and his/her mother. Nutritional status was assessed in children (e.g., stunting as height-for-age Z-score<-2) and mothers (e.g., overweight as body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2)) and identified the presence of both, child stunting and maternal overweight in the same household (SCOM). With logistic regression models we assessed the association of the malnutrition indicators with individual and household socio-economic and health characteristics. SCOM was identified in 18% of households. Socio-economic status (SES) of SCOM households was significantly lower than SES of households with non-stunted children. SCOM households, compared to those with normal-stature children and normal weight mothers, were more likely to have mothers of short stature (adjusted odds ratio-OR+/-95% CI=3.1 (2.1-4.7)), higher parity (1.2 (1.1-1.3)), currently working (1.7 (1.1-2.6), and self-identified as indigenous (2.0 (1.3-3.1)). Factors associated with stunting in children such as poverty, maternal short stature and indigenousness, were predictors of SCOM. These findings support the notion that SCOM is an extension of the malnutrition spectrum in the most disadvantaged population groups in countries that are in the middle of their nutrition transitions such as Guatemala. At the same time it revealed that these populations are already in the stage of chronic, nutrition related diseases associated with less physical activity and more access to highly processed foods of low cost, high dietary energy and low nutrient density in important population groups. The challenge for the decision makers and service deliverers is to guide SCOM households to deal equally with both

  11. Four factors of impulsivity differentiate antisocial and borderline personality disorders.

    PubMed

    DeShong, Hilary L; Kurtz, John E

    2013-04-01

    Impulsivity is a shared criterion for the diagnosis of antisocial and borderline personality disorders, and this link may account for the high comorbidity rates between the two disorders. The current study aimed to differentiate between borderline and antisocial personality disorders using the four factors of impulsivity identified by Whiteside and Lynam (2001). Five hundred thirty-six undergraduate participants completed the personality assessment inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991) to assess borderline and antisocial personality features and the NEO personality inventory, third edition (NEO-PI-3; McCrae & Costa, 2010) to assess the four factors of impulsivity. Results indicate that negative urgency and lack of perseverance were significantly and uniquely related to borderline features, while sensation seeking and lack of premeditation were significantly and uniquely related to antisocial features. The implications of these results for improved differential diagnosis are discussed.

  12. Mediators of maternal depression and family structure on child BMI: parenting quality and risk factors for child overweight.

    PubMed

    McConley, Regina L; Mrug, Sylvie; Gilliland, M Janice; Lowry, Richard; Elliott, Marc N; Schuster, Mark A; Bogart, Laura M; Franzini, Luisa; Escobar-Chaves, Soledad L; Franklin, Frank A

    2011-02-01

    Risk factors for child obesity may be influenced by family environment, including maternal depression, family structure, and parenting quality. We tested a path model in which maternal depression and single parent status are associated with parenting quality, which relates to three risk factors for child obesity: diet, leisure, and sedentary behavior. Participants included 4,601 5th-grade children and their primary caregivers who participated in the Healthy Passages study. Results showed that associations of maternal depression and single parenthood with child BMI are mediated by parenting quality and its relation to children's leisure activity and sedentary behavior. Interventions for child obesity may be more successful if they target family environment, particularly parenting quality and its impact on children's active and sedentary behaviors.

  13. Epidemiologic evidence supporting the role of maternal vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for the development of infantile autism

    PubMed Central

    Soles, Connie M

    2009-01-01

    This study examines whether maternal vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for infantile autism disease (IAD). We used epidemiologic data seasonal variation of birth rates and prevalence of IAD for cohorts born before 1985. For seven studies reporting spring-to-summer excess birth rates for IAD, the season progressed from broad near 30° N latitude, spring/summer in midlatitudes, to winter at the highest latitude. Also, using data from 10 studies, we found a strong effective latitudinal (related to wintertime solar ultraviolet B radiation) increase in IAD prevalence. These findings are consistent with maternal vitamin D deficiency’s being a risk factor for IAD, possibly by affecting fetal brain development as well as possibly by affecting maternal immune system status during pregnancy. Further investigation of this hypothesis is warranted. PMID:20592795

  14. The relationship between psychological factors and maternal social support to breastfeeding process

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Mitra; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Aliyari, Roqayeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childbirth is a stressful factor that can trigger disorders such as depression in women. The various problems characteristic to the puerperal period make mothers more prone than ever to stress, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between psychological factors and social support and breastfeeding process in mothers presenting to healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 465 mothers with infants aged one to six months, presenting to Shahrood healthcare centers in 2015–16. Data were obtained using a researcher-designed demographic and breastfeeding questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Data were analyzed in SPSS-18 using measures of central tendency, the Chi-square test, the t-test, Mann-Whitney’s test and Fisher’s exact test and Logistic Regression Model. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 68.4% in the study population. The results revealed a significant relationship between state and trait anxiety and exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). According to the results of the logistic regression, each unit of increase in the mother’s mean state of anxiety protects the chances of non-exclusive breastfeeding up to about 54% (OR=0.462). Conclusion The findings suggest that maternal anxiety can reduce the chances of exclusive breastfeeding. It is therefore recommended to actively monitor and manage maternal anxiety in the postpartum period so as to support exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:28243407

  15. Maternal and genetic factors in stress-resilient and -vulnerable rats: a cross-fostering study.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shusaku; Hara, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Otsuki, Koji; Hobara, Teruyuki; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2010-02-26

    Early environmental factors can modulate the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, together with subsequent brain functions and emotional behaviors. Two rat strains, Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Fischer 344 (F344), are known to exhibit differences in HPA axis reactivity and anxiety behavior in response to restraint stress in adulthood. To investigate the contribution of maternal influences in determining HPA axis and behavioral responses to stress, a cross-fostering study was performed using stress-resilient (SD) or stress-susceptible (F344) strains. We found that SD rats adopted by either an SD (in-fostered) or an F344 (cross-fostered) dam and F344 rats adopted by an SD dam (cross-fostered) showed a suppression of the HPA axis response following 14 days of repeated restraint stress. In contrast, F344 rats adopted by an F344 dam (in-fostered) did not show such HPA axis habituation. We also found that F344 rats adopted by an F344 dam showed increased anxiety-related behaviors in social interaction and novelty-suppressed feeding tests as a result of the 14 days of restraint stress, while SD rats adopted by either an SD or an F344 dam and F344 rats adopted by an SD dam showed normal anxiety-related behaviors under the same experimental conditions. These results suggest that while genetic differences between SD and F344 strains account for some of the variations in stress vulnerability, maternal factors also contribute. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport.

    PubMed

    Day, Pricilla E; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R; Mahon, Pam A; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Godfrey, Keith M; Hanson, Mark A; Lewis, Rohan M; Cleal, Jane K

    2015-01-01

    Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother's capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women's Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01), y+LAT2 (p = 0.03), aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02) and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04) mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01), ASCT1 (p = 0.03), mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02) and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05) was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05) associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern) pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01) associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001). A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter and metabolic genes and maternal smoking

  17. Maternal Factors Are Associated with the Expression of Placental Genes Involved in Amino Acid Metabolism and Transport

    PubMed Central

    Day, Pricilla E.; Ntani, Georgia; Crozier, Sarah R.; Mahon, Pam A.; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Hanson, Mark A.; Lewis, Rohan M.; Cleal, Jane K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal environment and lifestyle factors may modify placental function to match the mother’s capacity to support the demands of fetal growth. Much remains to be understood about maternal influences on placental metabolic and amino acid transporter gene expression. We investigated the influences of maternal lifestyle and body composition (e.g. fat and muscle content) on a selection of metabolic and amino acid transporter genes and their associations with fetal growth. Methods RNA was extracted from 102 term Southampton Women’s Survey placental samples. Expression of nine metabolic, seven exchange, eight accumulative and three facilitated transporter genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Increased placental LAT2 (p = 0.01), y+LAT2 (p = 0.03), aspartate aminotransferase 2 (p = 0.02) and decreased aspartate aminotransferase 1 (p = 0.04) mRNA expression associated with pre-pregnancy maternal smoking. Placental mRNA expression of TAT1 (p = 0.01), ASCT1 (p = 0.03), mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (p = 0.02) and glutamine synthetase (p = 0.05) was positively associated with maternal strenuous exercise. Increased glutamine synthetase mRNA expression (r = 0.20, p = 0.05) associated with higher maternal diet quality (prudent dietary pattern) pre-pregnancy. Lower LAT4 (r = -0.25, p = 0.05) and aspartate aminotransferase 2 mRNA expression (r = -0.28, p = 0.01) associated with higher early pregnancy diet quality. Lower placental ASCT1 mRNA expression associated with measures of increased maternal fat mass, including pre-pregnancy BMI (r = -0.26, p = 0.01). Lower placental mRNA expression of alanine aminotransferase 2 associated with greater neonatal adiposity, for example neonatal subscapular skinfold thickness (r = -0.33, p = 0.001). Conclusion A number of maternal influences have been linked with outcomes in childhood, independently of neonatal size; our finding of associations between placental expression of transporter

  18. SpSoxB1, a maternally encoded transcription factor asymmetrically distributed among early sea urchin blastomeres.

    PubMed

    Kenny, A P; Kozlowski, D; Oleksyn, D W; Angerer, L M; Angerer, R C

    1999-12-01

    We have identified a Sox family transcription factor, SpSoxB1, that is asymmetrically distributed among blastomeres of the sea urchin embryo during cleavage, beginning at 4th cleavage. SpSoxB1 interacts with a cis element that is essential for transcription of SpAN, a gene that is activated cell autonomously and expressed asymmetrically along the animal-vegetal axis. In vitro translated SpSoxB1 forms a specific complex with this cis element whose mobility is identical to that formed by a protein in nuclear extracts. An anti-SpSoxB1 rabbit polyclonal antiserum specifically supershifts this DNA-protein complex and recognizes a single protein on immunoblots of nuclear proteins that comigrates with in vitro translated SpSoxB1. Developmental immunoblots of total proteins at selected early developmental stages, as well as EMSA of egg and 16-cell stage proteins, show that SpSoxB1 is present at low levels in unfertilized eggs and progressively accumulates during cleavage. SpSoxB1 maternal transcripts are uniformly distributed in the unfertilized egg and the protein accumulates to similar, high concentrations in all nuclei of 4- and 8-cell embryos. However, at fourth cleavage, the micromeres, which are partitioned by asymmetric division of the vegetal 4 blastomeres, have reduced nuclear levels of the protein, while high levels persist in their sister macromeres and in the mesomeres. During cleavage, the uniform maternal SpSoxB1 transcript distribution is replaced by a zygotic nonvegetal pattern that reinforces the asymmetric SpSoxB1 protein distribution and reflects the corresponding domain of SpAN mRNA accumulation at early blastula stage ( approximately 150 cells). The vegetal region lacking nuclear SpSoxB1 gradually expands so that, after blastula stage, only cells in differentiating ectoderm accumulate this protein in their nuclei. The results reported here support a model in which SpSoxB1 is a major regulator of the initial phase of asymmetric transcription of SpAN in

  19. Do Maternal Caregiver Perceptions of Childhood Obesity Risk Factors and Obesity Complications Predict Support for Prevention Initiatives Among African Americans?

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dayna S; Alfonso, Moya L; Cao, Chunhua; Wright, Alesha R

    2017-07-01

    Objectives African American maternal caregiver support for prevention of childhood obesity may be a factor in implementing, monitoring, and sustaining children's positive health behaviors. However, little is known about how perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors and health complications influence caregivers' support of childhood obesity prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to determine if childhood obesity risk factors and health complications were associated with maternal caregivers' support for prevention initiatives. Methods A convenience sample of maternal caregivers (N = 129, ages 22-65 years) completed the childhood obesity perceptions (COP) survey. A linear regression was conducted to determine whether perceptions about childhood obesity risk factors and subsequent health complications influenced caregivers' support for prevention strategies. Results Caregivers' perceptions of childhood obesity risk factors were moderate (M = 3.4; SD = 0.64), as were their perceptions of obesity-related health complications (M = 3.3; SD = 0.75); however, they perceived a high level of support for prevention strategies (M = 4.2; SD = 0.74). In the regression model, only health complications were significantly associated with caregiver support (β = 0.348; p < 0.004). Conclusions Childhood obesity prevention efforts should emphasize health complications by providing education and strategies that promote self-efficacy and outcome expectations among maternal caregivers.

  20. Maternal and fetal risk factors for stillbirth in Northern Tanzania: A registry-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chuwa, Francisca S.; Mwanamsangu, Amasha H.; Brown, Benjamin G.; Msuya, Sia E.; Senkoro, Elizabeth E.; Mnali, Oresta P.; Mazuguni, Festo; Mahande, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Stillbirth is a major cause of perinatal mortality and occurs disproportionately in developing countries including Tanzania. However, there is scant information regarding the predictors of this condition in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine maternal and fetal risk factors for stilbirth in northen Tanzania. Methodology A retrospective cohort study was performed using maternally-linked data from the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre birth registry. A total of 47681 women who had singleton delivery at KCMC between 2000 and 2014 were analyzed. Women with multiple gestations were excluded. Descriptive statistics were summarized using proportions and frequency. Chi-square test was used to determine risk factors for stillbirth in bivariate analysis. A multivariable regression model was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals for maternal and fetal factors associated with stillbirth. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The frequency of stillbirth was 3.5%. Pre-eclampsia (AOR 3.99; 95% CI: 3.31–4.81) and placental abruption (AOR 22.62; 95% CI: 15.41–33.19) were the strongest maternal risk factors associated with still birth. While non-cephalic presentation (AOR 6.05; 95% CI: 4.77–7.66) and low birth weight (AOR 9.66; 95%CI: 8.66–10.77) were the fetal factors with the greatest impact on stillbirth. Conclusion The rate of stillbirth in our study was consistent with past studies of developing countries. Numerous maternal and fetal factors risk factors were identified. Early identification of at risk pregnancies and appropriate intervention may help to reduce the occurrence of stillbirth. PMID:28813528

  1. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gaviglio, Angela L; Knelson, Erik H; Blobe, Gerard C

    2017-02-07

    High-risk neuroblastoma is characterized by undifferentiated neuroblasts and low Schwannian stroma content. The tumor stroma contributes to the suppression of tumor growth by releasing soluble factors that promote neuroblast differentiation. Here we identify heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HBEGF) as a potent prodifferentiating factor in neuroblastoma. HBEGF mRNA expression is decreased in human neuroblastoma tumors compared with benign tumors, with loss correlating with decreased survival. HBEGF protein is expressed only in stromal compartments of human neuroblastoma specimens, with tissue from high-stage disease containing very little stroma or HBEGF expression. In 3 human neuroblastoma cell lines (SK-N-AS, SK-N-BE2, and SH-SY5Y), soluble HBEGF is sufficient to promote neuroblast differentiation and decrease proliferation. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans and heparin derivatives further enhance HBEGF-induced differentiation by forming a complex with the epidermal growth factor receptor, leading to activation of the ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and up-regulation of the inhibitor of DNA binding transcription factor. These data support a role for loss of HBEGF in the neuroblastoma tumor microenvironment in neuroblastoma pathogenesis.-Gaviglio, A. L., Knelson, E. H., Blobe, G. C. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor promotes neuroblastoma differentiation.

  2. Maternal exposure to air pollution and type 1 diabetes--Accounting for genetic factors.

    PubMed

    Malmqvist, Ebba; Larsson, Helena Elding; Jönsson, Ida; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Ivarsson, Sten-Anders; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Stroh, Emilie; Rittner, Ralf; Jakobsson, Kristina; Swietlicki, Erik; Rylander, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Genetic and non-genetic factors probably act together to initiate and accelerate development of type 1 diabetes [T1D]. One suggested risk factor contributing to development of T1D is air pollution. The aim of the study was to investigate whether maternal exposure during pregnancy to air pollution, measured as nitrogen oxides [NOx] and ozone, in a low-dose exposure area was associated with the child developing T1D. In Scania (Skåne), the most southern county in Sweden, 84,039 infants were born during the period 1999-2005. By the end of April 2013, 324 of those children had been diagnosed with T1D. For each of those T1D children three control children were randomly selected and matched for HLA genotype and birth year. Individually modelled exposure data at residence during pregnancy were assessed for nitrogen oxides [NOx], traffic density and ozone. Ozone as well as NOx exposures were associated with T1D. When the highest exposure group was compared to the lowest group an odds ratios of 1.62 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99-2.65) was observed for ozone in the second trimester and 1.58 (95% CI 1.06-2.35) for NOx in the third trimester. This study indicates that living in an area with elevated levels of air pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for offspring T1D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Socio-demographic and maternal factors in anaemia in pregnancy at booking in Kano, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwizu, E N; Iliyasu, Z; Ibrahim, S A; Galadanci, H S

    2011-12-01

    Anaemia in pregnancy still causes significant maternal morbidity and mortality in the developing countries including Nigeria. The burden and underlying factors are varied even within countries. We studied the prevalence of anaemia at booking and underlying factors in a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Using the capillary technique and blood film, the packed cell volume (PCV) and red cell morphology of 300 pregnant women was determined. Additional information was obtained on sociodemographic characteristics, obstetric and past medical history using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Of the 300 pregnant women studied, 51 (17%) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)=12.9%-21.7%] were anaemic. Specifically, 12.7% and 4.3% of the women had mild and moderate anaemia respectively. Blood film of 74.5%, 15.7% and 11.8% anaemic women showed normochromic normocytic, haemolytic and microcytic hypochromic pictures respectively. Low educational attainment [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.13], being single or divorced [AOR=2.02], high parity [AOR=2.06], late booking [AOR=2.71] and short intervals between pregnancies [AOR=2.37] were significant predictors of anaemia in pregnancy. The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy related to low educational and economic status especially among women with background obstetric risk factors calls for vigilance, sustained health education and chemoprophylaxis for pregnant women.

  4. Risk factors for burns in children: crowding, poverty, and poor maternal education.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J; Ramírez-Cardich, M E; Gilman, R H; Lavarello, R; Dahodwala, N; Bazán, A; Rodríguez, V; Cama, R I; Tovar, M; Lescano, A

    2002-03-01

    To characterize the presentation of burns in children and risk factors associated with their occurrence in a developing country as a basis for future prevention programs. Case-control study. Burn unit of the National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño) in Lima, Peru. A questionnaire was administered to all consenting guardians of children admitted to the burns (cases) and general medicine (controls) units during a period of 14 months. Guardians of patients were questioned regarding etiology of the injury, demographic and socioeconomic data. 740 cases and controls were enrolled. Altogether 77.5% of the cases burns occurred in the patient's home, with 67.8% in the kitchen; 74% were due to scalding. Most involved children younger than 5 years. Lack of water supply (odds ratio (OR) 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1 to 1 2.3), low income (OR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0 to 3.9), and crowding (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.7 to 3.6) were associated with an increased risk. The presence of a living room (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4 to 0.8) and better maternal education (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) were protective factors. To prevent burns interventions should be directed to low socioeconomic status groups; these interventions should be designed accordingly to local risk factors.

  5. Methamphetamine reversed maternal separation-induced decrease in nerve growth factor in the ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dimatelis, J J; Russell, V A; Stein, D J; Daniels, W M

    2014-06-01

    Stress has been suggested to predispose individuals to drug abuse. The early life stress of maternal separation (MS) is known to alter the response to drugs of abuse later in life. Exposure to either stress or methamphetamine has been shown to alter neurotrophic factors in the brain. Changes in neurotrophin levels may contribute to the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for drug use- and stress-induced behaviours. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the individual effects of MS and methamphetamine administration during adolescence and the combined effects of both stressors on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus (HC) in adulthood. Methamphetamine administration (1 mg/kg, daily from postnatal day (PND) 33 to 36 and from PND 39 to 42), MS and the combination of the two stressors resulted in decreased BDNF levels in both the dorsal and ventral HC. MS decreased NGF levels in the ventral HC which was restored by methamphetamine administration in adolescence. In the dorsal HC, NGF remained unaltered by either stressor alone or in combination. We propose that the restoration of NGF levels in the ventral HC may reflect a possible compensatory mechanism in response to methamphetamine exposure in adolescence following the early life stress of MS.

  6. The effects of maternal iron deficiency on infant fibroblast growth factor-23 and mineral metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, V.S.; Prentice, A.; Darboe, M.K.; Prentice, A.M.; Moore, S.E.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), a phosphate(Phos)-regulating hormone, is abnormally elevated in hypophosphataemic syndromes and an elevated FGF23 is a predictor of mortality in kidney disease. Recent findings suggest iron deficiency as a potential mediator of FGF23 expression and murine studies have shown in utero effects of maternal iron deficiency on offspring FGF23 and phosphate metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the impact of maternal iron status on infant FGF23 and mineral metabolites over the first 2 years of life. Infants born to mothers with normal (NIn = 25,) and low (LIn = 25) iron status during pregnancy, from a mother-infant trial (ISRCTN49285450) in rural Gambia, West Africa, had blood and plasma samples analysed at 12, 24, 52, 78 and 104 weeks (wk) of age. Circulating intact-FGF23 (I-FGF23), Phos, total alkaline phosphatase (TALP) and haemoglobin (Hb) decreased and estimated glomerular filtration rate increased over time [all P ≤ 0.0001)]. C-terminal-FGF23 (C-FGF23) and TALP were significantly higher in LI compared with NI, from 52 wk for C-FGF23 [Beta coefficient (SE) 18.1 (0.04) %, P = 0.04] and from 24 wk for TALP [44.7 (29.6) U/L, P = 0.04]. Infant Hb was the strongest negative predictor of C-FGF23 concentration [− 21% (4%) RU/mL, P ≤ 0.0001], Phos was the strongest positive predictor of I-FGF23 [32.0(3.9) pg/mL, P ≤ 0.0001] and I-FGF23 did not predict C-FGF23 over time [− 0.5% (0.5%), P = 0.3]. In conclusion, this study suggests that poor maternal iron status is associated with a higher infant C-FGF23 and TALP but similar I-FGF23 concentrations in infants and young children. These findings further highlight the likely public health importance of preventing iron deficiency during pregnancy. Whether or not children who are born to iron deficient mothers have persistently high concentrations of these metabolites and are more likely to be at risk of impaired bone development and pre-disposed to rickets

  7. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  8. Understanding the Psychosocial and Environmental Factors and Barriers Affecting Utilization of Maternal Healthcare Services in Kalomo, Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sialubanje, Cephas; Massar, Karlijn; Hamer, Davidson H.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to identify psychosocial and environmental factors contributing to low utilization of maternal healthcare services in Kalomo, Zambia. Twelve focus group discussions (n = 141) and 35 in-depth interviews were conducted in six health centre catchment areas. Focus group discussions comprised women of reproductive age…

  9. Interrelations between Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Seguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2006-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale…

  10. Normative Scores and Factor Structure of the Profile of Mood States for Women Seeking Prenatal Diagnosis for Advanced Maternal Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunis, Sandra L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A sample of pregnant women (N=705) was given the monopolar version of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) in prenatal counseling for advanced maternal age to develop normative data and to determine the factor structure of the POMS for this group of women in the first trimester of pregnancy. (SLD)

  11. Factors affecting maternal serum magnesium levels during long-term magnesium sulfate tocolysis in singleton and twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Hiroshi; Uchida, Akiko; Minamitani, Tomoyuki; Makishi, Aya; Takamatsu, Yukou; Kiyoshi, Kenji; Samoto, Takashi; Funakoshi, Toru

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine factors that affect maternal serum magnesium (Mg) levels, to help ensure the safety and efficacy of long-term magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 ) therapy for threatened preterm labor in singleton and twin pregnancies. We retrospectively and arbitrarily studied 100 patients (singleton pregnancy, n = 65; twin pregnancy, n = 35) who received i.v. MgSO4 for >48 h for tocolysis of threatened preterm labor. We used multiple regression analysis to investigate the functional relations between the candidate factors and maternal serum Mg levels. MgSO4 was administered as a loading dose of 3 g for 1 h followed by a maintenance dose of 1.0-2.0 g/h. There were no maternal severe adverse events related to the elevated Mg levels in any of the subjects. The results of multiple regression analysis revealed that total dose of MgSO4 for 24 h before blood collection (g/day), total serum protein level (g/dL), serum total calcium level (mg/dL), serum creatinine level (mg/dL) and maternal bodyweight (kg) significantly affected maternal serum Mg levels in both singleton and twin pregnancies (all P-values were < 0.001). Gestational age (weeks) and period of MgSO4 administration (days) at blood collection had no significant effect in singleton or twin pregnancies. Our study statistically shows that dose of MgSO4 , total serum protein level, serum total calcium level, serum creatinine level and maternal bodyweight are key factors to achieving safe and effective long-term tocolysis with MgSO4 in not only singleton but also twin pregnancies. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Influence of maternal and socioeconomic factors on breast milk fatty acid composition in urban, low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Uma; Kanungo, Suman; Zhang, Dadong; Ross Colgate, E; Carmolli, Marya P; Dey, Ayan; Alam, Masud; Manna, Byomkesh; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Kim, Deok Ryun; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Choudhury, Saugato; Sahoo, Sushama; Harris, William S; Wierzba, Thomas F; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Kirkpatrick, Beth D; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C

    2017-02-15

    The lipid composition of breast milk may have a significant impact on early infant growth and cognitive development. Comprehensive breast milk data is lacking from low-income populations in the Indian subcontinent impeding assessment of deficiencies and limiting development of maternal nutritional interventions. A single breast milk specimen was collected within 6 weeks postpartum from two low-income maternal cohorts of exclusively breastfed infants, from Dhaka, Bangladesh (n = 683) and Kolkata, India (n = 372) and assayed for percentage composition of 26 fatty acids. Mature milk (>15 days) in Dhaka (n = 99) compared to Kolkata (n = 372) was higher in total saturated fatty acid (SFA; mean 48% vs. 44%) and disproportionately lower in ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), hence the ω6- and ω3-PUFA ratio in Dhaka were almost double the value in Kolkata. In both sites, after adjusting for days of lactation, increased maternal education was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA, and increasing birth order or total pregnancies was associated with decreasing ω6-PUFA or ω3-PUFA by a factor of 0.95 for each birth and pregnancy. In Dhaka, household prosperity was associated with decreased SFA and PUFA and increased ω6- and ω3-PUFA. Maternal height was associated with increased SFA and PUFA in Kolkata (1% increase per 1 cm), but body mass index showed no independent association with either ratio in either cohort. In summary, the socioeconomic factors of maternal education and household prosperity were associated with breast milk composition, although prosperity may only be important in higher cost of living communities. Associated maternal biological factors were height and infant birth order, but not adiposity. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of these effects.

  13. Population-based study of risk factors for severe maternal morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock, and elcampsia. SMM affects 20,000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987–2008), identifying 9,485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum, or postpartum SMM with ≥3-day hospitalization or transfer from another facility and 41,112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, preexisting medical condition, multiple birth, prior cesarean delivery, and BMI were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Results Older women [35–39: OR 1.65 CI 1.52, 1.79; 40+: OR 2.48 CI 2.16, 2.81], non-white women [Black: OR 1.82 CI 1.64, 2.01; American Indian: OR 1.52 CI 1.32, 1.73; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 CI 1.19, 1.41; Hispanic: OR 1.17 CI 1.07, 1.27], and women at parity extremes [OR 1.83 CI 1.72, 1.95, nulliparous; OR 1.34 CI 1.23, 1.45, parity 3+] were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a preexisting medical condition [OR 2.10 CI 1.88, 2.33], a multiple birth [OR 2.54 CI 2.26, 2.82], and a prior cesarean delivery [OR 2.08 CI 1.93, 2.23] were also at increased risk. Conclusion The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM. PMID:23061686

  14. Population-based study of risk factors for severe maternal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kristen E; Wallace, Erin R; Nelson, Kailey R; Reed, Susan D; Schiff, Melissa A

    2012-11-01

    Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) is a serious health condition potentially resulting in death without immediate medical attention, including organ failure, obstetric shock and eclampsia. SMM affects 20000 US women every year; however, few population-based studies have examined SMM risk factors. We conducted a population-based case-control study linking birth certificate and hospital discharge data from Washington State (1987-2008), identifying 9485 women with an antepartum, intrapartum or postpartum SMM with ≥3-day hospitalisation or transfer from another facility and 41 112 random controls. Maternal age, race, smoking during pregnancy, parity, pre-existing medical condition, multiple birth, prior caesarean delivery, and body mass index were assessed as risk factors with logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals [CI], adjusted for education and delivery payer source. Older women (35-39: OR 1.65 [CI 1.52, 1.79]; 40+: OR 2.48 [CI 2.16, 2.81]), non-White women (Black: OR 1.82 [CI 1.64, 2.01]; American Indian: OR 1.52 [CI 1.32, 1.73]; Asian/Pacific Islander: OR 1.30 [CI 1.19, 1.41]; Hispanic: OR 1.17 [CI 1.07, 1.27]) and women at parity extremes (nulliparous: OR 1.83 [CI 1.72, 1.95]; parity 3+: OR 1.34 [CI 1.23, 1.45]) were at greater risk of SMM. Women with a pre-existing medical condition (OR 2.10 [CI 1.88, 2.33]), a multiple birth (OR 2.54 [CI 2.26, 2.82]) and a prior caesarean delivery (OR 2.08 [CI 1.93, 2.23]) were also at increased risk. The risk factors identified are not modifiable at the individual level; therefore, provider and system-level factors may be the most appropriate target for preventing SMM. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Maternal and congenital syphilis in Bolivia, 1996: prevalence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Southwick, K. L.; Blanco, S.; Santander, A.; Estenssoro, M.; Torrico, F.; Seoane, G.; Brady, W.; Fears, M.; Lewis, J.; Pope, V.; Guarner, J.; Levine, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The present study was carried out in seven maternity hospitals to determine the prevalence of maternal syphilis at the time of delivery and the associated risk factors, to conduct a pilot project of rapid syphilis testing in hospital laboratories, to assure the quality of syphilis testing, and to determine the rate of congenital syphilis in infants born to women with syphilis at the time of delivery--all of which would provide baseline data for a national prevention programme in Bolivia. METHODS: All women delivering either live-born or stillborn infants in the seven participating hospitals in and around La Paz, El Alto, and Cochabamba between June and November 1996 were eligible for enrolment in the study. FINDINGS: A total of 61 out of 1428 mothers (4.3%) of live-born infants and 11 out of 43 mothers (26%) of stillborn infants were found to have syphilis at delivery. Multivariate analysis showed that women with live-born infants who had less than secondary-level education, who did not watch television during the week before delivery (this was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status), who had a previous history of syphilis, or who had more than one partner during the pregnancy were at increased risk of syphilis. While 76% of the study population had received prenatal care, only 17% had syphilis testing carried out during the pregnancy; 91% of serum samples that were reactive to rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests were also reactive to fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption (FTA-ABS) testing. There was 96% agreement between the results from local hospital laboratories and national reference laboratories in their testing of RPR reactivity of serum samples. Congenital syphilis infection was confirmed by laboratory tests in 15% of 66 infants born to women with positive RPR and FTA-ABS testing. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that a congenital syphilis prevention programme in Bolivia could substantially reduce adverse infant outcomes due to this

  16. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women and factors associated with maternal prenatal distress.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Fatma; Akin, Semiha; Durna, Zehra

    2014-01-01

    To assess: (1) the prenatal distress level in Turkish pregnant women and (2) to examine the association between prenatal maternal distress and personal and pregnancy-specific factors. Pregnant women experience stress originating from a variety of pregnancy-specific issues, including physical symptoms and changes, changes in body image, physiological, social and emotional changes, parenting concerns, changes in relationships with significant others, medical problems, anxiety about labour and delivery, concerns about birth and the baby's health. A descriptive cross-sectional study. This study was conducted at a gynaecology clinic of a private hospital in Istanbul, Turkey within a 12-month period. The study sample comprised 522 pregnant women continuing their regular visits for prenatal care. Pregnancy Description Form and Turkish Version of Revised Version of Prenatal Distress Questionnaire [(NUPDQ)-17 Item Version] were used for data collection. Study sample was moderately distressed. Turkish pregnant women were mostly distressed and concerned about premature delivery, having an unhealthy baby, labour and delivery, feeling tired and having low energy during pregnancy. Prenatal distress in Turkish pregnant women was associated with personal and pregnancy-related characteristics. This study found that pregnant women need to be supported emotionally, physically and socially. A better understanding of prenatal maternal distress could assist in informing healthcare professionals about the provision of physically, emotionally, socially and behaviourally appropriate support for achieving a healthy pregnancy. It is crucial for pregnant women to be regularly assessed and educated for dealing successfully with concerns and fears about prenatal period, birth and postnatal period and about difficulties that women may encounter during their pregnancy. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. "Polymorphisms in folate metabolism genes as maternal risk factor for neural tube defects: an updated meta-analysis".

    PubMed

    Yadav, Upendra; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Sushil Kumar; Mishra, Om Prakash; Rai, Vandana

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T, A1298C and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) A66G polymorphisms and risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. However, the results from the published studies on the association between these three polymorphisms and NTD risk are conflicting. To derive a clearer picture of association between these three maternal polymorphisms and risk of NTD, we performed meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify all case-control studies of maternal MTHFR and MTRR polymorphisms and NTD risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. Overall, we found that maternal MTHFR C677T polymorphism (OR(TvsC) =1.20; 95% CI = 1.13-1.28) and MTRR A66G polymorphism (OR(GvsA) = 1.21; 95% CI = 0.98-1.49) were risk factors for producing offspring with NTD but maternal MTHFR A1298C polymorphism (OR(CvsA) = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) was not associated with NTD risk. However, in stratified analysis by geographical regions, we found that the maternal C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of NTD in Asian (OR(TvsC) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.05-1.94), European (OR(TvsC) = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04-1.24) and American (OR(TvsC) = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.41) populations. In conclusion, present meta-analysis supports that the maternal MTHFR C677T and MTRR A66G are polymorphisms contributory to risk for NTD.

  18. Disability due to maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) as a risk factor for chronic childhood malnutrition: cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cavalcante-Neto, Jorge Lopes; Paula, Cristiane Silvestre de; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo; Miranda, Claudio Torres de

    2016-05-13

    The disability associated with maternal common mental disorders (CMDs) is among the possible explanations for the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and CMDs. CMDs may impair the mother's ability to perform her role, particularly in deprived environments. The present study aimed to evaluate whether disability relating to CMDs could be part of the pathway of the association between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs. Cross-sectional study conducted in two institutions: one for malnourished children and another for eutrophic children living in a low-income community in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The cases consisted of 55 malnourished children aged from 12 to 60 months who were attending a nutritional rehabilitation center, with height-for-age z-scores < 2. The controls were 70 eutrophic children of the same age who were attending a day care center in the same area as the cases. The Self-Report Questionnaire made it possible to identify likely cases of maternal CMD. The Sheehan Disability Scale enabled evaluation of the associated disability. Chronic childhood malnutrition was significantly associated with maternal disability relating to CMDs (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.02-5.1). The best logistic regression model using chronic childhood malnutrition as the dependent variable included the following independent variables: higher number of people living in the household; absence of the biological father from the household; and maternal disability relating to CMDs. If confirmed, the association between chronic childhood malnutrition and maternal disability relating to CMDs may be useful in helping to identify the causal chain between childhood malnutrition and maternal CMDs and to indicate environmental risk factors associated with chronic childhood malnutrition.

  19. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change.

    PubMed

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Urassa, David P; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2011-04-17

    The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52%-65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71%-75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single magic bullet intervention exists for

  20. Maternal health interventions in resource limited countries: a systematic review of packages, impacts and factors for change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The burden of maternal mortality in resource limited countries is still huge despite being at the top of the global public health agenda for over the last 20 years. We systematically reviewed the impacts of interventions on maternal health and factors for change in these countries. Methods A systematic review was carried out using the guidelines for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Articles published in the English language reporting on implementation of interventions, their impacts and underlying factors for maternal health in resource limited countries in the past 23 years were searched from PubMed, Popline, African Index Medicus, internet sources including reproductive health gateway and Google, hand-searching, reference lists and grey literature. Results Out of a total of 5084 articles resulting from the search only 58 qualified for systematic review. Programs integrating multiple interventions were more likely to have significant positive impacts on maternal outcomes. Training in emergency obstetric care (EmOC), placement of care providers, refurbishment of existing health facility infrastructure and improved supply of drugs, consumables and equipment for obstetric care were the most frequent interventions integrated in 52% - 65% of all 54 reviewed programs. Statistically significant reduction of maternal mortality ratio and case fatality rate were reported in 55% and 40% of the programs respectively. Births in EmOC facilities and caesarean section rates increased significantly in 71% - 75% of programs using these indicators. Insufficient implementation of evidence-based interventions in resources limited countries was closely linked to a lack of national resources, leadership skills and end-users factors. Conclusions This article presents a list of evidenced-based packages of interventions for maternal health, their impacts and factors for change in resource limited countries. It indicates that no single

  1. Cooperation between myogenic regulatory factors and SIX family transcription factors is important for myoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yubing; Chu, Alphonse; Chakroun, Imane; Islam, Uzma; Blais, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Precise regulation of gene expression is crucial to myogenesis and is thought to require the cooperation of various transcription factors. On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis of gene regulatory sequences, we hypothesized that myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), key regulators of skeletal myogenesis, cooperate with members of the SIX family of transcription factors, known to play important roles during embryonic skeletal myogenesis. To this day little is known regarding the exact molecular mechanism by which SIX factors regulate muscle development. We have conducted a functional genomic study of the role played by SIX1 and SIX4 during the differentiation of skeletal myoblasts, a model of adult muscle regeneration. We report that SIX factors cooperate with the members of the MRF family to activate gene expression during myogenic differentiation, and that their function is essential to this process. Our findings also support a model where SIX factors function not only ‘upstream’ of the MRFs during embryogenesis, but also ‘in parallel’ to them during myoblast differentiation. We have identified new essential nodes that depend on SIX factor function, in the myogenesis regulatory network, and have uncovered a novel way by which MRF function is modulated during differentiation. PMID:20601407

  2. Differential Impact of Medical Status, Maternal Coping, and Marital Satisfaction on Coping with Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…

  3. Particulate matter phagocytosis induces tissue factor in differentiating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Milano, M; Dongiovanni, P; Artoni, A; Gatti, S; Rosso, L; Colombo, F; Bollati, V; Maggioni, M; Mannucci, P M; Bertazzi, P A; Fargion, S; Valenti, L

    2016-01-01

    Airborne exposure to particulate matter with diameter < 10 mcM (PM10) has been linked to an increased risk of thromboembolic events, but the mechanisms are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PM10 phagocytosis on the release of procoagulant molecules in human differentiating macrophages, and that of PM10 inhalation in an experimental model in rats. Human monocytes were separated from the peripheral blood by the lymphoprep method, differentiated in vitro and treated with standard PM10 or vehicle. Sprague-Dawley rats were instilled intratracheally with PM10 or vehicle alone. The outcome was expression of proinflammatory genes and of tissue factor (TF). In human differentiating macrophages, PM10 exposure upregulated inflammatory genes, but most consistently induced TF mRNA and protein levels, but not TF protein inhibitor, resulting in increased TF membrane expression and a procoagulant phenotype. Differentiation towards the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype inhibited PM10 -mediated TF expression. TF induction required phagocytosis of PM10 , whereas phagocytosis of inert particles was less effective. PM10 phagocytosis was associated with a gene expression profile consistent with intracellular retention of iron, inducing oxidative stress. Both PM10 and iron activated the stress kinases ERK1/2 pathway, involved in the induction of TF expression. In rats, alveolar exposure to PM10 was associated with pulmonary recruitment of inflammatory cells and resulted in local, but not systemic, induction of TF expression, which was sufficient to increase circulating TF levels. In conclusion, TF induction by differentiating lung macrophages, activated following phagocytosis, contributes to the increased risk of thromboembolic complications associated with PM10 exposure. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Maternal and antenatal risk factors for stillbirths and neonatal mortality in rural Bangladesh: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Owais, Aatekah; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Das, Sumon K; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Rahman, Shahed; Stein, Aryeh D

    2013-01-01

    To identify maternal and antenatal factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Bangladesh. A prospective cohort study is being conducted to evaluate a maternal and child nutrition program in rural Bangladesh. Cases were all stillbirths and neonatal deaths that occurred in the cohort between March 7, 2011 and December 30, 2011. Verbal autopsies were used to determine cause of death. For each case, four controls were randomly selected from cohort members alive at age 3-months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with these deaths. Overall, 112 adverse pregnancy outcomes (44 stillbirths, 19/1,000 births; 68 neonatal deaths, 29/1,000 live births) were reported. Of the stillbirths 25 (56.8%) were fresh. The main causes of neonatal death were birth asphyxia (35%), sepsis (28%) and preterm birth (19%). History of bleeding during pregnancy was the strongest risk factor for stillbirths (adjusted odds ratio 22.4 [95% confidence interval 2.5, 197.5]) and neonatal deaths (adjusted odds ratio 19.6 [95% confidence interval 2.1, 178.8]). Adequate maternal nutrition was associated with decreased risk of neonatal death (adjusted odds ratio 0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.2, 0.8]). Identifying high-risk pregnancies during gestation and ensuring adequate antenatal and obstetric care needs to be a priority for any community-based maternal and child health program in similar settings.

  5. Maternal and Antenatal Risk Factors for Stillbirths and Neonatal Mortality in Rural Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Das, Sumon K.; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Rahman, Shahed; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify maternal and antenatal factors associated with stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural Bangladesh. Study Design A prospective cohort study is being conducted to evaluate a maternal and child nutrition program in rural Bangladesh. Cases were all stillbirths and neonatal deaths that occurred in the cohort between March 7, 2011 and December 30, 2011. Verbal autopsies were used to determine cause of death. For each case, four controls were randomly selected from cohort members alive at age 3-months. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with these deaths. Results Overall, 112 adverse pregnancy outcomes (44 stillbirths, 19/1,000 births; 68 neonatal deaths, 29/1,000 live births) were reported. Of the stillbirths 25 (56.8%) were fresh. The main causes of neonatal death were birth asphyxia (35%), sepsis (28%) and preterm birth (19%). History of bleeding during pregnancy was the strongest risk factor for stillbirths (adjusted odds ratio 22.4 [95% confidence interval 2.5, 197.5]) and neonatal deaths (adjusted odds ratio 19.6 [95% confidence interval 2.1, 178.8]). Adequate maternal nutrition was associated with decreased risk of neonatal death (adjusted odds ratio 0.4 [95% confidence interval 0.2, 0.8]). Conclusions Identifying high-risk pregnancies during gestation and ensuring adequate antenatal and obstetric care needs to be a priority for any community-based maternal and child health program in similar settings. PMID:24244638

  6. Risk factors and consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels during pregnancy: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Romy; Eilers, Paul H C; Yassine, Siham; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-05-01

    To determine sociodemographic and life style-related risk factors and trimester specific maternal, placental, and fetal consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 7317 mothers, we measured haemoglobin levels in early pregnancy [gestational age median 14.4 weeks (inter-quartile-range 12.5-17.5)]. Anaemia (haemoglobin ≤11 g/dl) and elevated haemoglobin levels (haemoglobin ≥13.2 g/dl) were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal blood pressure, placental function and fetal growth were measured in each trimester. Data on gestational hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes was collected from hospitals. Older maternal age, higher body mass index, primiparity and European descent were associated with higher haemoglobin levels (P < 0.05). Elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure throughout pregnancy (mean differences 5.1 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8, 6.5 and 4.1 mmHg, 95% CI 3.0, 5.2, respectively) and with a higher risk of third trimester uterine artery notching (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.7). As compared with maternal normal haemoglobin levels, not anaemia, but elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with fetal head circumference, length, and weight growth restriction from third trimester onwards (P < 0.05). Elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with increased risks of gestational hypertensive disorders (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.8) and adverse birth outcomes (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1, 1.7). In a low-risk population, various sociodemographic and life style factors affect haemoglobin levels during pregnancy. Elevated haemoglobin levels are associated with increased risks of maternal, placental, and fetal complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maternal SNPs in the p53 Pathway: Risk Factors for Trisomy 21?

    PubMed Central

    Boquett, Juliano André; Brandalize, Ana Paula Carneiro; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia

    2013-01-01

    The p53 family and its regulatory pathway play an important role as regulators of developmental processes, limiting the propagation of aneuploid cells. Its dysfunction or imbalance can lead to pathological abnormalities in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal polymorphisms TP53 c.215G>C (P72R), TP73 4 c.-30G>A and 14 c.-20C>T, MDM2 c.14+309T>G (SNP309), MDM4 c.753+572C>T and USP7 c.2719-234G>A as risk factors for Down Syndrome (DS) birth. A case-control study was conducted with 263 mothers of DS children and 196 control mothers. The distribution of these genotypic variants was similar between case and control mothers. However, the combined alleles TP53 C and MDM2 G, and TP53 C and USP7 A increased the risk of having offspring with DS (OR = 1.84 and 1.77; 95% CI; P < 0.007 and 0.018, respectively). These results suggest that, although the individual polymorphisms were not associated with DS birth, the effect of the combined genotypes among TP53, MDM2 and USP7 genes indicates a possible role of TP53 and its regulatory pathway as a risk factor for aneuploidy. PMID:23089923

  8. Structured Inequalities: Factors Associated with Spatial Disparities in Maternity Care in India

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Sonalde; Wu, Lijuan

    2013-01-01

    Research on India documents considerable heterogeneity in health and health care across states. However, while regional differences are well established, factors underlying these differences have received little attention. This paper seeks to explain disparities in delivery care across districts by focusing on three factors: (1) Marriage and kinship patterns; (2) District wealth; (3) Governance and quality of services. Using data from nationally representative India Human Development Survey 2005 (IHDS) it examines the probability that the 11,905 women who had a child between 2000 and 2005 delivered in a hospital or received care from a doctor or a nurse while delivering at home. The results suggest that 47% of the variation in delivery care in India is between districts while 53% is between women within district. Although compositional differences in education and household wealth explain some of the variation between districts, marriage and kinship patterns, district wealth and governance each has a significant impact on shaping between-district variation in maternity care. PMID:24761090

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Maternal Anxiety in Late Pregnancy in China

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yu-ting; Yao, Yan; Dou, Jing; Guo, Xin; Li, Shu-yue; Zhao, Cai-ning; Han, Hong-zhi; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: A large number of studies have shown the adverse neonatal outcomes of maternal psychological ill health. Given the potentially high prevalence of antenatal anxiety and few studies performed among Chinese people, the authors wanted to investigate the prevalence of antenatal anxiety and associated factors among pregnant women and to provide scientific basis to reduce prenatal anxiety effectively. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Changchun Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital from January 2015 to march 2015, with 467 participants of at least 38 weeks’ gestation enrolled. Antenatal anxiety was measured using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). χ2 test and logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of related factors of antenatal anxiety. Results: Among the 467 participants, the prevalence of antenatal anxiety was 20.6% (96 of 467). After adjustment for women’s socio-demographic characteristics (e.g., area, age, household income), multivariate logistical regression analysis revealed that antenatal anxiety showed significant relationship with education level lower than middle school (years ≤ 9), expected natural delivery, anemia during pregnancy, pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, disharmony in family relationship and life satisfaction. Conclusions: It is important to prevent or reduce antenatal anxiety from occurring by improving the health status of pregnant women and strengthening prenatal-related education and mental intervention. PMID:27153080

  10. Tumor aggressiveness risk factors in the differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lukas, J; Hitnausova, B; Jiskra, J; Syrucek, M

    2016-01-01

    The differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most frequent malignancy in endocrinology (95%). Our aim was to retrospectively compare risk factors of tumor aggressiveness and history of thyroid disease in patients with conventional DTC and differentiated thyroid microcarcinoma (DTMC). Retrospective analysis of 167 patients after total thyroidectomy with a histologically confirmed DTC, of which 83 patients with conventional DTC (> 1 cm) and 84 with DTMC (≤ 1 cm). The analyzed factors were tumor size, its aggressiveness (i.e. multifocal or bilateral occurrence, angioinvasion, extracapsular growth, presence of cervical lymph node metastases, distant metastases, and early local relapse) and medical history of thyroid diseases. In the DTMC group, there were 80/84 (95.2%) papillary carcinomas compared with 58/83 (69.9%) in the conventional DTC group (p=0.001). Patients with DTMC were significantly older than those with conventional DTC (p=0.006). In the conventional DTC group, there was a significantly higher occurrence of angioinvasion and extracapsular growth (p=0.001), cervical lymph node metastases (p=0.013), relapse (p=0.018), and distant metastases (p=0.007), compared with the DTMC group. In patients with DTMC, there was a significantly lower presence of risk factors of tumor aggressiveness, compared with the conventional DTC group (Tab. 2, Ref. 17).

  11. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L.; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p<0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p>0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications. PMID:28439600

  12. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; De Vries, Marlene M.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M.; Hasken, Julie M.; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K.; Manning, Melanie A.; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D.H.; Hoyme, H. Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods: Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 89–129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196–276 per 1000 or 20–28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions. PMID:28498341

  13. Replication of High Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence Rates, Child Characteristics, and Maternal Risk Factors in a Second Sample of Rural Communities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; De Vries, Marlene M; Marais, Anna-Susan; Kalberg, Wendy O; Buckley, David; Adnams, Colleen M; Hasken, Julie M; Tabachnick, Barbara; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie A; Bezuidenhout, Heidre; Adam, Margaret P; Jones, Kenneth L; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2017-05-12

    Background: Prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and total fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) were studied in a second sample of three South African rural communities to assess change. Methods: Active case ascertainment focused on children with height, weight and/or head circumference ≤25th centile and randomly-selected children. Final diagnoses were based on dysmorphology, neurobehavioral scores, and maternal risk interviews. Results: Cardinal facial features, head circumference, and total dysmorphology scores differentiated specific FASD diagnostic categories in a somewhat linear fashion but all FASD traits were significantly worse than those of randomly-selected controls. Neurodevelopmental delays were significantly worse for children with FASD than controls. Binge alcohol use was clearly documented as the proximal maternal risk factor for FASD, and significant distal risk factors were: low body mass, education, and income; high gravidity, parity, and age at birth of the index child. FAS rates continue to extremely high in these communities at 9-129 per 1000 children. Total FASD affect 196-276 per 1000 or 20-28% of the children in these communities. Conclusions: Very high rates of FASD persist in these general populations where regular, heavy drinking, often in a binge fashion, co-occurs with low socioeconomic conditions.

  14. Porphyromonas gingivalis Infection during Pregnancy Increases Maternal Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha, Suppresses Maternal Interleukin-10, and Enhances Fetal Growth Restriction and Resorption in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dongming; Smith, Mary Alice; Champagne, Catherine; Elter, John; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a potential association between maternal periodontitis and pregnancy complications. We used a pregnant murine model to study the effect of infection with the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis on pregnancy outcomes. Female BALB/c mice were inoculated with heat-killed P. gingivalis (109 CFU) in a subcutaneous chamber and mated 2 weeks later. At gestation day (GD) 7.5, mice were challenged with live P. gingivalis (107 CFU) (n = 20) or broth (control; n = 8) and sacrificed at GD 16.5. Fetal growth restriction (FGR, <0.46 g) was defined as fetuses with weights 2 standard deviations (SD) smaller than controls (0.56 ± 0.05 g [mean ± SD]). Among the 20 challenged mice, 8 had both normal-weight (0.51 ± 0.11 g) and FGR (0.34 ± 0.1 g) fetuses within the same litter. All other challenged dams had normal-weight fetuses (0.57 ± 0.04 g). Maternal liver, uterus, and spleen samples were examined for P. gingivalis DNA using a PCR technique. Of the eight challenged mice with FGR fetuses, three had PCR signals for P. gingivalis in liver and uterus, but not in the spleen. Liver, uterus, and spleen were negative for P. gingivalis DNA among all other challenged and control mice. In serum of dams with FGR fetuses, tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were elevated significantly, while interluekin-10 levels were significantly reduced compared to levels in dams with normal fetuses. P. gingivalis-specific serum immunoglobulin G levels were significantly elevated in dams with FGR fetuses compared to dams without any FGR fetuses. These data demonstrate that P. gingivalis-induced murine FGR is associated with systemic dissemination of the organism and activated maternal immune and inflammatory responses. PMID:12933859

  15. Maternal factors associated with the duration of breast feeding in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Shawky, Sherine; Abalkhail, Bahaa A

    2003-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing concern about the decline in breast-feeding pattern in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to document the recent breast-feeding trends in Jeddah during the first year of an infant's life and identify the probable maternal risk factors implicated in breast-feeding cessation. Data were collected from six randomly selected primary health care centres in Jeddah City. All married women with an infant maternal risk factors related to breast-feeding cessation. A total of 400 women were enrolled in the study. Their mean age at delivery was 28.0 years (SD = 4.1 years). Approximately 40.0% had never attended school, 43.0% had at least five children and 13.8% were smokers. Deliveries by caesarean section were reported by 13.0% of women and contraceptive use by 44.7%, among whom oral contraceptives were the commonest method. Around 94.0% of women ever initially breast fed their infants, and this proportion dropped to 40.0% by the infant's 12th month. Women who delivered by caesarean section (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.3, 2.8]P = 0.001) and those who used oral contraceptives (OR = 1.5 [95% CI 1.1, 2.2]P = 0.031) were at higher risk of stopping breast feeding and lower probability of maintaining breast feeding to the 12th month post partum than those who delivered vaginally and did not use oral contraceptives. Breast-feeding practice seems to decline rapidly during the first year of the infant's life. Health care professionals should promote breast-feeding practice as early as the antenatal period. They should also take into consideration the impact of caesarean section deliveries and early oral contraceptive use to avoid their negative impact on breast-feeding practice.

  16. The use of angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors in the differential diagnosis of pre-eclampsia, antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy and lupus nephritis.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, G R; de Jesus, N R; Levy, R A; Klumb, E M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity, perinatal deaths, preterm birth and intrauterine growth restriction. Differential diagnosis with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) nephropathy and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) nephritis during pregnancy is difficult, if not sometimes impossible, as all three diseases may present hypertension and proteinuria. Improvement in diagnosis of PE has also offered new paths for differential diagnosis with other conditions and the analysis of angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor) and antiangiogenic factors (serum soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, soluble endoglin) is promising for differentiation between PE, APS nephropathy and SLE nephritis. This article reviews published studies about those factors in non-pregnant and pregnant patients with APS and SLE, comparing with patterns described in PE.

  17. Differentiated Instruction: Understanding the Personal Factors and Organizational Conditions that Facilitate Differentiated Instruction in Elementary Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbati, Diana Guglielmo

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated instruction is a widely held practice used by teachers to provide diverse learners with complex learning opportunities in the area of mathematics. Research on differentiated instruction shows a multitude of factors that support high quality instruction in mixed-ability elementary classrooms. These factors include small-class size,…

  18. Uncovering stem cell differentiation factors for salivary gland regeneration by quantitative analysis of differential proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Kwon, Jin Teak; Park, Yong-Seok; Yang, Lijun; Cha, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Severe xerostomia (dry mouth) compromises the quality of life in patients with Sjögren’s syndrome or radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A clinical management of xerostomia is often unsatisfactory as most interventions are palliative with limited efficacy. Following up our previous study demonstrating that mouse BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system, we further explored the molecular basis that governs the MSC reprogramming by utilizing high-throughput iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Our data revealed the novel induction of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1α), muscle, intestine and stomach expression-1 (MIST-1), and achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (ASCL3) in 7 day co-cultured MSCs but not in control MSCs. More importantly, a common notion of pancreatic-specific expression of PTF1 α was challenged for the first time by our verification of PTF1 α expression in the mouse salivary glands. Furthermore, a molecular network simulation of our selected putative MSC reprogramming factors demonstrated evidence for their perspective roles in salivary gland development. In conclusion, quantitative proteomics with extensive data analyses narrowed down a set of MSC reprograming factors potentially contributing to salivary gland regeneration. Identification of their differential/synergistic impact on MSC conversion warrants further investigation. PMID:28158262

  19. Uncovering stem cell differentiation factors for salivary gland regeneration by quantitative analysis of differential proteomes.

    PubMed

    Park, Yun-Jong; Koh, Jin; Kwon, Jin Teak; Park, Yong-Seok; Yang, Lijun; Cha, Seunghee

    2017-01-01

    Severe xerostomia (dry mouth) compromises the quality of life in patients with Sjögren's syndrome or radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. A clinical management of xerostomia is often unsatisfactory as most interventions are palliative with limited efficacy. Following up our previous study demonstrating that mouse BM-MSCs are capable of differentiating into salivary epithelial cells in a co-culture system, we further explored the molecular basis that governs the MSC reprogramming by utilizing high-throughput iTRAQ-2D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomics. Our data revealed the novel induction of pancreas-specific transcription factor 1a (PTF1α), muscle, intestine and stomach expression-1 (MIST-1), and achaete-scute complex homolog 3 (ASCL3) in 7 day co-cultured MSCs but not in control MSCs. More importantly, a common notion of pancreatic-specific expression of PTF1 α was challenged for the first time by our verification of PTF1 α expression in the mouse salivary glands. Furthermore, a molecular network simulation of our selected putative MSC reprogramming factors demonstrated evidence for their perspective roles in salivary gland development. In conclusion, quantitative proteomics with extensive data analyses narrowed down a set of MSC reprograming factors potentially contributing to salivary gland regeneration. Identification of their differential/synergistic impact on MSC conversion warrants further investigation.

  20. Maternal obesity is associated with ovarian inflammation and upregulation of early growth response factor 1.

    PubMed

    Ruebel, Meghan; Shankar, Kartik; Gaddy, Dana; Lindsey, Forrest; Badger, Thomas; Andres, Aline

    2016-07-01

    Obesity impairs reproductive functions through multiple mechanisms, possibly through disruption of ovarian function. We hypothesized that increased adiposity will lead to a proinflammatory gene signature and upregulation of Egr-1 protein in ovaries from obese (OB; n = 7) compared with lean (LN; n = 10) female Sprague-Dawley rats during the peri-implantation period at 4.5 days postcoitus (dpc). Obesity was induced by overfeeding (40% excess calories for 28 days) via total enteral nutrition prior to mating. OB dams had higher body weight (P < 0.001), greater fat mass (P < 0.001), and reduced lean mass (P < 0.05) and developed metabolic dysfunction with elevated serum lipids, insulin, leptin, and CCL2 (P < 0.05) compared with LN dams. Microarray analyses identified 284 differentially expressed genes between ovaries from LN vs. OB dams (±1.3 fold, P < 0.05). RT-qPCR confirmed a decrease in expression of glucose transporters GLUT4 and GLUT9 and elevation of proinflammatory genes, including CCL2, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCR2, CXCR1, and TNFα in ovaries from OB compared with LN (P < 0.05). Protein levels of PI3K and phosphorylated Akt were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), whereas nuclear levels of Egr-1 (P < 0.05) were increased in OB compared with LN ovaries. Moreover, Egr-1 was localized to granulosa cells, with the highest expression in cumulus cells of preovulatory follicles. mRNA expression of VCAN, AURKB, and PLAT (P < 0.05) correlated with %visceral fat weight (r = 0.51, -0.77, and -0.57, respectively, P ≤ 0.05), suggesting alterations in ovarian function with obesity. In summary, maternal obesity led to an upregulation of inflammatory genes and Egr-1 expression in peri-implantation ovarian tissue and a concurrent downregulation of GLUTs and Akt and PI3K protein levels.

  1. Risk factors leading to preterm births in Morocco: a prospective study at the maternity Souissi in Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Sabiri, Nargisse; Kabiri, Meryem; Razine, Rachid; Barkat, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Eminent morbidity and mortality of preterm infants is perceived, especially in developing countries. The aim of the study is to identify the main factors involved in the occurrence of premature births in Morocco. Methods This was a descriptive and analytical study conducted at the maternity Souissi in Rabat, from January 2011 to December 2011. The data were collected using interview with women in the postpartum, and via, the exploitation of obstetric and perinatal records. The data sheet was filled out for each newborn, including socio-demographic, obstetrical, maternal, childbirth and neonatal data, as well as, monitoring and surveillance of pregnancy. Results A total of 1015 births were collected. 954 were full term babies and 61 were preterms. The gestational age was between 33-34 weeks in 57.4%. Relying on Statistical analysis, many risk factors were, significantly, associated with the occurrence of prematurity, namely: low level of maternal education (p < 0.004), absence of pregnancy’ monitoring (p < 0.001), multiparity (p < 0.001), maternal chronic diseases (p < 0.001), and drug taking during pregnancy (p < 0.001). Conclusion To reduce the incidence of preterm births, reliable programs must be established, devoting all its interest, to educate the young woman in childbearing age about the appropriate ways of monitoring pregnancy, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative development of health care structures. PMID:26600920

  2. Assessment of maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Domple, Vijay Kishanrao; Doibale, Mohan K; Nair, Abhilasha; Rajput, Pinkesh S

    2016-01-01

    To assess the maternal risk factors associated with low birth weight (LBW) neonates at a tertiary hospital, Nanded, Maharashtra. This study was carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Nanded city of Maharashtra between January 2014 and July 2014 among 160 cases (LBW-birth weight ≤2499 g) and 160 controls (normal birth weight-birth weight >2499. Data collection was done by using predesigned questionnaire and also related health documents were checked and collected the expected information during the interview after obtaining informed consent from mothers. The data were analyzed by Epi Info 7 Version. The present study found the significant association among gestational age, sex of baby, type of delivery, maternal age, religion, education of mother and husband, occupation of mother and husband, type of family, maternal height, weight gain, hemoglobin level, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, interval between pregnancies, previous history of LBW, underlying disease, tobacco chewing, timing of first antenatal care (ANC) visit, total number of ANC visit, and iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets consumption with LBW. No significant association was found among maternal age, residence, caste, consanguinity of marriage, socioeconomic status, gravida, birth order, multiple pregnancy, and smoking with LBW in our study. It was concluded that hemoglobin level, weight gain during pregnancy, gestational age, planned/unplanned delivery, bad obstetric history, and IFA tablets consumption during pregnancy were independent risk factors for LBW.

  3. Positive regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by growth differentiation factor 15 upregulated in osteocytic cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Ochi, Hiroki; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakatani, Eri; Iezaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hidano, Shinya; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takeda, Shu; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Osteocytes are thought to play a role as a mechanical sensor through their communication network in bone. Although osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological functions in skeletogenesis. Here, we have attempted to delineate the pivotal functional role of osteocytes in regulation of bone remodeling under pathological conditions. We first found markedly increased osteoclastic differentiation by conditioned media (CM) from osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells previously exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Using microarray and real-time PCR analyses, we identified growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as a key candidate factor secreted from osteocytes under hypoxia. Recombinant GDF15 significantly promoted osteoclastic differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner, with concomitant facilitation of phosphorylation of both p65 and inhibitory-κB in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. To examine the possible functional significance of GDF15 in vivo, mice were subjected to ligation of the right femoral artery as a hypoxic model. A significant increase in GDF15 expression was specifically observed in tibias of the ligated limb but not in tibias of the normally perfused limb. Under these experimental conditions, in cancellous bone of proximal tibias in the ligated limb, a significant reduction was observed in bone volume, whereas a significant increase was seen in the extent of osteoclast surface/bone surface when determined by bone histomorphometric analysis. Finally, the anti-GDF15 antibody prevented bone loss through inhibiting osteoclastic activation in tibias from mice with femoral artery ligation in vivo, in addition to suppressing osteoclastic activity enhanced by CM from osteocytes exposed to hypoxia in vitro. These findings suggest that GDF15 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss relevant to hypoxia through promotion of osteoclastogenesis after

  4. Maternal Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia in Maceió, Alagoas.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque; Bezerra, Alexandra Rodrigues; de Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne Machado

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia has been associated with several risk factors and events. However, it still deserves further investigation, considering the multitude of related factors that affect different populations. To evaluate the maternal factors and adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with preeclampsia receiving care in the public health network of the city of Maceió. Prospective cohort study carried out in 2014 in the public health network of the city with a sample of pregnant women calculated based on a prevalence of preeclampsia of 17%, confidence level of 90%, power of 80%, and ratio of 1:1. We applied a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic, personal, and anthropometric data, and retrieved perinatal variables from medical records and certificates of live birth. The analysis was performed with Poisson regression and chi-square test considering p values < 0.05 as significant. We evaluated 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP). A previous history of preeclampsia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47 - 1.67, p = 0.000) and black skin color (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 - 1.33, p = 0.040) were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Among the newborns of PWP and PWoP, respectively, 12.5% and 13.1% (p = 0.907) were small for gestational age and 25.0% and 23.2% (p = 0.994) were large for gestational age. There was a predominance of cesarean delivery. Personal history of preeclampsia and black skin color were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. There was a high frequency of birth weight deviations and cesarean deliveries.

  5. Maternal Factors and Adverse Perinatal Outcomes in Women with Preeclampsia in Maceió, Alagoas

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Alane Cabral Menezes; Santos, Arianne Albuquerque; Bezerra, Alexandra Rodrigues; de Barros, Amanda Maria Rocha; Tavares, Myrian Cicyanne Machado

    2016-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia has been associated with several risk factors and events. However, it still deserves further investigation, considering the multitude of related factors that affect different populations. Objective To evaluate the maternal factors and adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of pregnant women with preeclampsia receiving care in the public health network of the city of Maceió. Methods Prospective cohort study carried out in 2014 in the public health network of the city with a sample of pregnant women calculated based on a prevalence of preeclampsia of 17%, confidence level of 90%, power of 80%, and ratio of 1:1. We applied a questionnaire to collect socioeconomic, personal, and anthropometric data, and retrieved perinatal variables from medical records and certificates of live birth. The analysis was performed with Poisson regression and chi-square test considering p values < 0.05 as significant. Results We evaluated 90 pregnant women with preeclampsia (PWP) and 90 pregnant women without preeclampsia (PWoP). A previous history of preeclampsia (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.57, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.47 - 1.67, p = 0.000) and black skin color (PR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 - 1.33, p = 0.040) were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Among the newborns of PWP and PWoP, respectively, 12.5% and 13.1% (p = 0.907) were small for gestational age and 25.0% and 23.2% (p = 0.994) were large for gestational age. There was a predominance of cesarean delivery. Conclusion Personal history of preeclampsia and black skin color were associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia. There was a high frequency of birth weight deviations and cesarean deliveries. PMID:26761076

  6. Obstetric Knowledge of Nurse-Educators in Nigeria: Levels, Regional Differentials and Their Implications for Maternal Health Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Salisu Ishaku; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Oginni, Ayodeji Babatunde; Tukur, Jamilu; Adoyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurse-midwife educators on the major causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Setting: Schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria. Method: A total of 292 educators from 171 schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria were surveyed for their knowledge of the major causes of maternal mortality as a prelude to…

  7. Obstetric Knowledge of Nurse-Educators in Nigeria: Levels, Regional Differentials and Their Implications for Maternal Health Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Salisu Ishaku; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Oginni, Ayodeji Babatunde; Tukur, Jamilu; Adoyi, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the knowledge of nurse-midwife educators on the major causes of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Setting: Schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria. Method: A total of 292 educators from 171 schools of nursing and midwifery in Nigeria were surveyed for their knowledge of the major causes of maternal mortality as a prelude to…

  8. Maternal obesity enhances white adipose tissue differentiation and alters genome-scale DNA methylation in male rat offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The risk of obesity in adulthood is strongly influenced by maternal body composition. Here we examined the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences white adipose tissue (WAT) transcriptome and increases propensity for adipogenesis in the offspring, prior to the development of obesity, using an es...

  9. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community.

  10. Factors that contribute to the improvement in maternal parenting after separation from a violent husband or partner.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko

    2012-01-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that separation from a violent husband or partner improves maternal parenting in Japan and examine how childhood abuse history (CAH), experience of domestic violence (DV), mental health problems, husband or partner's child maltreatment, and other demographic factors affect maternal parenting after such separation. A self-administered questionnaire survey is conducted for mothers (n = 304) and their children (n = 498) staying in 83 mother-child homes in Japan to assess the mothers' CAH, DV experiences, current mental health problems, and exposure to a husband or partner's child maltreatment. The authors also assess maternal poor parenting (physical and psychological abuse, neglect, no playing, and no praise) before and after admission into the mother-child homes. The total poor parenting score (specifically for neglect, no playing, and no praise) significantly reduces after separation from a violent husband or partner (p = .001, paired t test). However, scores for psychological abuse significantly increase after admission (p < .001, paired t test). CAH, DV, and mental health problems are not associated with a reduced total poor parenting score after admission. Husband or partner's child maltreatment is independently significantly associated with a reduced maternal poor parenting score: A 10% increase in such maltreatment is associated with a 5% reduction in the poor parenting score after separation. Marital status also contributes to the score reduction: The reduction is less in married or divorced mothers than in those who did not marry the partner. Mother-child homes might be useful for improving maternal parenting. Further study is needed to elucidate the mechanism of the impact of separation from a violent husband or partner on maternal parenting.

  11. Toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Raheleh; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Alipoor, Mikaeil; Mahaki, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    Background: Toothbrushing is an important aspect of children's oral health self-care. This study aimed to explore toothbrushing frequency among 4–6-year-old Iranian children and associated maternal attitude and sociobehavioral factors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 407 mother–child (aged 4–6 years) pairs through stratified random sampling in Tabriz, Iran. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires including demographic characteristic, maternal attitude, and toothbrushing frequency of both mothers and children. Logistic regression was used to determine the predicators of children's toothbrushing. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05 for all tests. Results: The mean ages were 32.6 ± 4.8 and 5.3 ± 1.1 years for mothers and children respectively. Twice-daily toothbrushing was observed at a relative frequency of 12.8% in children and 18.4% in mothers. About 43.7% of children brushed their teeth once daily. Nearly 38.7% of children started toothbrushing behavior regularly at 4 years of age, and 41% had dental visits. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that children's toothbrushing (once daily or more) was associated with maternal brushing frequency (odds ratio [OR] =2.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.53–2.86), maternal attitude toward oral health (OR = 1.15, CI = 1.08–1.22), and children's age (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.02–1.77). Conclusion: The descriptive results indicated that maternal and children toothbrushing behaviors are unfavorable. Furthermore, maternal toothbrushing behavior is a strong predicator of children's brushing behavior. Health promotional activities seem necessary for mothers to enhance oral health behavior of their children. PMID:28348618

  12. Transcription factor induction of human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Pol, Suyog U.; Haberman, Alexa K.; Wang, Chunming; O’Bara, Melanie A.; Sim, Fraser J.

    2014-01-01

    Human oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) specification and differentiation occurs slowly and limits the potential for cell-based treatment of demyelinating disease. In this study, using FACS-based isolation and microarray analysis, we identified a set of transcription factors expressed by human primary CD140a+O4+ OPCs relative to CD133+CD140a− neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs). Among these, lentiviral overexpression of transcription factors ASCL1, SOX10, and NKX2.2 in NPCs was sufficient to induce Sox10 enhancer activity, OPC mRNA, and protein expression consistent with OPC fate; however, unlike ASCL1 and NKX2.2, only the transcriptome of SOX10-infected NPCs was induced to a human OPC gene expression signature. Furthermore, only SOX10 promoted oligodendrocyte commitment, and did so at quantitatively equivalent levels to native OPCs. In xenografts of shiverer/rag2 animals, SOX10 increased the rate of mature oligodendrocyte differentiation and axon ensheathment. Thus, SOX10 appears to be the principle and rate-limiting regulator of myelinogenic fate from human NPCs. PMID:24982138

  13. Maternal emotion socialization differentially predicts third-grade children's emotion regulation and lability.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Megan L; Halberstadt, Amy G; Castro, Vanessa L; MacCormack, Jennifer K; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    Numerous parental emotion socialization factors have been implicated as direct and indirect contributors to the development of children's emotional competence. To date, however, no study has combined parents' emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and regulation strategies in one model to assess their cumulative-as well as unique-contributions to children's emotion regulation. We considered the 2 components that have recently been distinguished: emotion regulation and emotional lability. We predicted that mothers' beliefs about the value of and contempt for children's emotions, mothers' supportive and nonsupportive reactions to their children's emotions, as well as mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal and suppression of their own emotions would each contribute unique variance to their children's emotion regulation and lability, as assessed by children's teachers. The study sample consisted of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse group of 165 mothers and their third-grade children. Different patterns emerged for regulation and lability: Controlling for family income, child gender, and ethnicity, only mothers' lack of suppression as a regulatory strategy predicted greater emotion regulation in children, whereas mothers' valuing of children's emotions, mothers' lack of contempt for children's emotions, mothers' use of cognitive reappraisal to reinterpret events, and mothers' lack of emotional suppression predicted less lability in children. These findings support the divergence of emotion regulation and lability as constructs and indicate that, during middle childhood, children's lability may be substantially and uniquely affected by multiple forms of parental socialization.

  14. Placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors affected by parity and breed in goats.

    PubMed

    Ocak, S; Onder, H

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between placental traits and maternal intrinsic factors of Saanen, German Fawn and Damascus goats was investigated. Data was collected from 93 goats. The results of the study demonstrated that there were positive correlations between placental weight (PW) and cotyledon number (CN) (r=0.498, P<0.01), cotyledon weight (CW) (r=0.880, P<0.01), cotyledon density (CD) (r=0.538, P<0.01), cotyledon width (CWI) (r=0.500, P<0.01) cotyledon length (CL) (r=0.414, P<0.01) and cotyledon density (CD) (r=0.278, P<0.05). CN was negatively correlated with placental efficiency (PE) (r=-0.421, P<0.01) and CD (r=-0.325, P<0.05). While expulsion of placenta, right teat length and cotyledon length were affected by parity of doe (P<0.05) birth weight (BW), CN, right teat diameter (RTD), left teat diameter (LTD), CD, and CL were affected by breed (P<0.01). Breed×parity was found significant both for expulsion time of placenta and left teat length (LTL) (P<0.05). Damascus goats had a significantly longer duration of licking and grooming events than others. Saanen was more likely to require birth assistance compared to the German Fawn.

  15. Infection Susceptibility in Gastric Intrinsic Factor (Vitamin B12)-Defective Mice Is Subject to Maternal Influences

    PubMed Central

    Mottram, Lynda; Speak, Anneliese O.; Selek, Reza M.; Cambridge, Emma L.; McIntyre, Zoe; Kane, Leanne; Mukhopadhyay, Subhankar; Grove, Carolyn; Colin, Amy; Brandt, Cordelia; Duque-Correa, Maria A.; Forbester, Jessica; Nguyen, Tu Anh Pham; Hale, Christine; Vasilliou, George S.; Arends, Mark J.; Wren, Brendan W.; Dougan, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mice harboring a mutation in the gene encoding gastric intrinsic factor (Gif), a protein essential for the absorption of vitamin B12/cobalamin (Cbl), have potential as a model to explore the role of vitamins in infection. The levels of Cbl in the blood of Giftm1a/tm1a mutant mice were influenced by the maternal genotype, with offspring born to heterozygous (high Cbl, F1) mothers exhibiting a significantly higher serum Cbl level than those born to homozygous (low Cbl, F2) equivalents. Low Cbl levels correlated with susceptibility to an infectious challenge with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or Citrobacter rodentium, and this susceptibility phenotype was moderated by Cbl administration. Transcriptional and metabolic profiling revealed that Cbl deficient mice exhibited a bioenergetic shift similar to a metabolic phenomenon commonly found in cancerous cells under hypoxic conditions known as the Warburg effect, with this metabolic effect being exacerbated further by infection. Our findings demonstrate a role for Cbl in bacterial infection, with potential general relevance to dietary deficiency and infection susceptibility. PMID:27329747

  16. [Factors associated with maternal body mass index in a group of pregnant teenagers, Medellin, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Zapata-López, Natalia; Restrepo-Mesa, Sandra Lucía

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the influence of socioeconomic risk factors, food security, health, and key anthropometric measures on body mass index (BMI) in a group of teenagers from Medellin, Colombia, in the third trimester of pregnancy. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 294 pregnant teenagers. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Pregnant teenagers whose families earned less than one minimum wage were more likely to have low weight (OR = 5.8; 95%CI: 1.97-16.8). Age under 15 years was associated with a fourfold increase in low gestational weight. Arm and calf circumference greater than 24cm and 32cm, respectively, were associated with a 94% reduction in low gestational weight (arm circumference: OR = 0.1; 95%CI: 0.0-0.2) (calf circumference: OR = 0.1; 95%CI: 0.0-0.2). In conclusion, low income and young age were associated with low gestational weight. Arm and calf circumference correlated with maternal weight.

  17. Maternal and infant factors associated with infancy-onset hydrocephalus in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Hannah M; Capote, Raquel T; Saltzman, Babette S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Hydrocephalus, a complex condition characterized by progressive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricular system of the brain, affects ~6 in 10,000 infants and is heterogeneous in nature. Previous investigations of risk factors have not considered etiologic heterogeneity. Methods We conducted a case-control study of 1,748 children with hydrocephalus identified through birth certificate check boxes and ICD-9 codes of linked hospital discharge records through the first year of life. Control infants were identified from birth records (n=19,700), frequency-matched to cases by year of birth. Three mutually exclusive, non-exhaustive subgroups were identified: hydrocephalus associated with a neural tube defect (NTD-H; n=332); prenatal-onset hydrocephalus (PO-H; n=402); and hydrocephalus associated with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH-H; n=446). Within each group, we examined associations with maternal age, race/ethnicity, parity, diabetes and hypertension; and infant sex and gestational age. We used logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Asian ethnicity was independently associated with an inverse risk of all subtypes of hydrocephalus (NTD-H: OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.23–0.84; PO-H: OR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.27–0.83; ICH-H: OR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.33, 1.07), compared to whites. Pre-existing diabetes was associated to varying degrees with all three subtypes (NTD-H: OR: 1.94; 95% CI: 0.61–6.17; PO-H: OR: 5.20; 95% CI: 2.60–10.40; ICH-H: OR: 5.26; 95% CI: 2.85–9.69). Hypertension had a positive association with ICH-H (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.46–2.52) but an inverse association with NTD-H (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.36, 0.98). Gestational age ≤ 30 weeks was associated with all three subgroups, most notably ICH-H (OR: 443.56; 95% CI: 326.34–602.87); nearly two-thirds (64%) of ICH-H infants were born ≤ 30 weeks. Male sex was independently associated only with ICH-H (OR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.40–2.39). No

  18. Influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospitalisation for asthma in children: evidence from the Oxford record linkage study.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Rebekah; Roberts, Stephen E; Wotton, Clare J; Goldacre, Michael J

    2010-03-16

    There is much interest in the possibility that perinatal factors may influence the risk of disease in later life. We investigated the influence of maternal and perinatal factors on subsequent hospital admission for asthma in children. Analysis of data from the Oxford record linkage study (ORLS) to generate a retrospective cohort of 248 612 records of births between 1970 and 1989, with follow-up to records of subsequent hospital admission for 4 017 children with asthma up to 1999. Univariate analysis showed significant associations between an increased risk of admission for asthma and later years of birth (reflecting the increase in asthma in the 1970s and 1980s), low social class, asthma in the mother, unmarried mothers, maternal smoking in pregnancy, subsequent births compared with first-born, male sex, low birth weight, short gestational age, caesarean delivery, forceps delivery and not being breastfed. Multivariate analysis, identifying each risk factor that had a significant effect independently of other risk factors, confirmed associations with maternal asthma (odds ratio (OR) 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.7-3.6), male sex (versus female, 1.8, 1.7-2.0), low birth weight (1000-2999 g versus 3000-3999 g, 1.2, 1.1-1.3), maternal smoking (1.1, 1.0-1.3) and delivery by caesarean section (1.2; 1.0-1.3). In those first admitted with asthma under two years old, there were associations with having siblings (e.g. second child compared with first-born, OR 1.3, 1.0-1.7) and short gestational age (24-37 weeks versus 38-41 weeks, 1.6, 1.2-2.2). Multivariate analysis confined to those admitted with asthma aged six years or more, showed associations with maternal asthma (OR 3.8, 3.1-4.7), age of mother (under 25 versus 25-34 at birth, OR 1.16, 1.03-1.31; over 35 versus 25-34, OR 1.4, 1.1-1.7); high social class was protective (1 and 2, compared with 3, 0.72; 0.63-0.82). Hospital admission for asthma in people aged over six was more common in males than females (1.4; 1

  19. Prepregnancy Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and the Role of Maternal Nativity in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Stephanie A; Crespi, Catherine M; Gee, Denise C; Zhu, Yuda; Whaley, Shannon E

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth in a low-income, Hispanic population in Southern California. Additionally, the study assessed whether the prevalence of preterm birth and any associations between risk factors and preterm birth differed between U.S.- and foreign-born mothers. The study sample included 1174 mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) within 1 year postpartum, including an augment sample of mothers who delivered preterm. Maternal sociodemographic traits, prepregnancy health-related characteristics and behaviors, and birth outcomes were collected by telephone survey. Odds ratios for associations between risk factors and preterm birth were estimated by logistic regression with sampling weights. Effect measure modification of any association by maternal nativity was also assessed using interaction terms. After adjustment for confounding, significant prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age ≥35 years (OR 2.00; 95 % CI 1.04, 3.84) compared to age 18-24 years, and experience of a financially stressful life event among U.S.-born, but not foreign-born, women (OR 2.61; 95 % CI 1.43, 4.77). The weighted prevalence of preterm birth was 15.1 % and did not significantly differ by maternal nativity (P = 0.19). Further investigation with large, prospective studies is needed to better understand the risk factors for and disparities in preterm birth among the growing Hispanic population in the U.S. so that women who are at risk prepregnancy can be identified and provided risk-specific services.

  20. Prepregnancy Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and the Role of Maternal Nativity in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Gee, Denise C.; Zhu, Yuda; Whaley, Shannon E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth in a low-income, Hispanic population in Southern California. Additionally, the study assessed whether the prevalence of preterm birth and any associations between risk factors and preterm birth differed between U.S.- and foreign-born mothers. The study sample included 1,174 mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) within 1 year postpartum, including an augment sample of mothers who delivered preterm. Maternal sociodemographic traits, prepregnancy health-related characteristics and behaviors, and birth outcomes were collected by telephone survey. Odds ratios for associations between risk factors and preterm birth were estimated by logistic regression with sampling weights. Effect measure modification of any association by maternal nativity was also assessed using interaction terms. After adjustment for confounding, significant prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age ≥35 y (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.84) compared to age 18–24 y, and experience of a financially stressful life event among U.S.-born, but not foreign-born, women (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.77). The weighted prevalence of preterm birth was 15.1% and did not significantly differ by maternal nativity (P = 0.19). Further investigation with large, prospective studies is needed to better understand the risk factors for and disparities in preterm birth among the growing Hispanic population in the U.S. so that women who are at risk prepregnancy can be identified and provided risk-specific services. PMID:25994418

  1. Bioactive factors in milk across lactation: maternal effects and influence on infant growth in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Robin; Hinde, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Among mammals, numerous bioactive factors in milk vary across mothers and influence offspring outcomes. This emerging area of research has primarily investigated such dynamics within rodent biomedical models, domesticated dairy breeds, and among humans in clinical contexts. Less understood are signaling factors in the milk of non-human primates. Here, we report on multiple bioactive components in rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) milk and their associations with maternal and infant characteristics. Milk samples were collected from 59 macaques at multiple time points across lactation in conjunction with maternal and infant morphometrics and life-history animal records. Milk was assayed for adiponectin (APN), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGF-R), and transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2). Regression models were constructed to assess the contributions of maternal factors on variation in milk bioactives, and on the relationship of this variation to infant body mass and growth. Maternal body mass, parity, social rank and infant sex were all predictive of concentrations of milk bioactives. Primiparous mothers produced milk with higher adiponectin, but lower EGF, than multiparous mothers. Heavier mothers produced milk with lower EGF and EGF-R, but higher TGF-β2. Mothers of daughters produced milk with higher TGF-β2. Mid-ranking mothers produced milk with higher mean EGF and adiponectin concentrations than low-ranking mothers. Milk EGF and EGF-R were positively associated with infant body mass and growth rate. Importantly, these signaling bioactives (APN, EGF, EGF-R, TGF-β2) were significantly correlated with nutritional values of milk. The effects of milk signals remained after controlling for the available energy in milk revealing the added physiological role of non-nutritive milk bioactives in the developing infant. Integrating analyses of energetic and other bioactive components of milk yields an important perspective for interpreting the

  2. Maternal and early life factors of tooth emergence patterns and number of teeth at one and two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ntani, Georgia; Day, Peter F; Baird, Janis; Godfrey, Keith M; Robinson, Sian M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel M

    2015-01-01

    Various environmental factors have been associated with the timing of eruption of primary dentition, but the evidence to date comes from small studies with limited information on potential risk factors. We aimed to investigate associations between tooth emergence patterns and pre-conception, pregnancy and post-natal influences. Dentition patterns were recorded at ages one and two years in 2,915 children born to women in the Southampton Women’s Survey from whom information had been collected on maternal factors before conception and during pregnancy. In mutually adjusted regression models we found that: children were more dentally advanced at ages one and two years if their mothers had smoked during pregnancy or they were longer at birth; mothers of children whose dental development was advanced at age two years tended to have poorer socioeconomic circumstances, and to have reported a slower walking speed pre-pregnancy; and children of mothers of Asian ethnicity had later tooth development than those of white mothers. The findings add to the evidence of environmental impacts on the timing of the eruption of primary dentition in indicating that maternal smoking during pregnancy, socio-economic status and physical activity (assessed by reported walking speed) may influence the child’s primary dentition. Early life factors, including size at birth are also associated with dentition patterns, as is maternal ethnicity. PMID:25936832

  3. Maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns: Associations with socio-demographic factors.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Valsamma; Walter, Amelia; Guan, Jane; Descallar, Joseph; Axelsson, Emma; Einfeld, Stewart; Eastwood, John; Murphy, Elisabeth; Beasley, Deborah; Silove, Natalie; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Woolfenden, Sue; Williams, Katrina; Jalaludin, Bin; The 'Watch Me Grow' Study Group

    2017-10-01

    To examine socio-demographic factors associated with maternal help-seeking for child developmental concerns in a longitudinal birth cohort study. An understanding of these factors is critical to improving uptake of services to maximise early identification and intervention for developmental concerns. A birth cohort was recruited from the post-natal wards of two teaching hospitals and through community nurses in South Western Sydney, Australia, between November 2011 and April 2013. Of the 4047 mothers approached, 2025 consented to participate (response rate = 50%). Socio-demographic and service use information was collected after the child's birth and when the child was 18 months of age. Sources of help were divided into three categories (formal health services, other formal services and informal supports) and compound variables were created by summing the number of different sources identified by mothers. Significantly more sources of help were intended to be used and/or actually accessed by mothers born in Australia, whose primary language was English, with higher levels of education and annual household income, and among mothers of first-born children. Developmental concerns are known to increase with increased psychosocial adversity. Our findings of reduced intent to access and use of services by socio-economically disadvantaged families and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds suggests that an inverse care effect is in operation whereby those children with the greatest health needs may have the least access to services. Possible explanations for this, and recommendations for improving service accessibility for these populations through targeted and culturally appropriate services, are discussed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Partner aggression and children's externalizing problems: maternal and partner warmth as protective factors.

    PubMed

    Skopp, Nancy A; McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N; Rosenfield, David

    2007-09-01

    This research examined maternal and partner warmth as moderators of the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Participants were 157 mothers and their children (ages 7-9 years). Results indicate that maternal and partner warmth each moderated the relation between men's intimate partner aggression and children's externalizing problems. Partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with child reports of externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. Similarly, partner-to-mother aggression was positively associated with mother reports of girls', but not boys', externalizing problems at lower, but not higher, levels of maternal warmth. On the other hand, the moderating effect of partner warmth was in the opposite direction and was found only with child-reported externalizing problems. Increased levels of partner-to-mother aggression related positively to child-reported externalizing problems when partners were higher, but not lower, in warmth.

  5. Does maternal birth outcome differentially influence the occurrence of infant death among African Americans and European Americans?

    PubMed

    Masho, Saba W; Archer, Phillip W

    2011-11-01

    The United States continues to have one of the highest infant mortality rates (IMR). Although studies have examined the association between maternal and infant birth outcomes, few studies have examined the impact of maternal birth outcome on infant mortality. This study was designed to examine the influence of maternal low birth weight and preterm birth on infant mortality. The 1997-2007 Virginia birth and infant death registry was analyzed. The infant birth and death data was linked to maternal birth registry data using the mother's maiden name and date of birth. From the mother's birth registry data, the grandmother's demographic and pregnancy history was obtained. Logistic regression modeling was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. There was a statistically significant association between maternal birth outcome and subsequent infant mortality. Infants born from a mother who was low birth weight were 2.3 times more likely to have an infant die within the first year of life. Similarly, infants born from a mother born preterm were 2.2 times more likely to have an infant die. Stratification by race showed that there was no statistical association between maternal birth weight and infant death among Whites. However, a strong association was observed among Blacks. Maternal birth outcomes may be an important indicator for infant mortality. Future longitudinal studies are needed to understand the underlying cause of these associations.

  6. Fetal exposure to maternal stress and risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders among offspring: Differential influences of fetal sex

    PubMed Central

    Fineberg, Anna M.; Ellman, Lauren M.; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Maxwell, Seth D.; Shen, Ling; Chaudhury, Nashid; Cook, Aundrea L.; Bresnahan, Michaeline A.; Susser, Ezra S.; Brown, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to adverse life events during pregnancy has been linked to increased risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) in offspring. Nevertheless, much of the previous work inferred maternal stress from severe life events rather than directly assessing maternal reports of stress. The present study aimed to examine maternal reports of stress during pregnancy and risk for offspring SSD. Participants were 95 SSD cases and 206 controls who were offspring from a large birth cohort study that followed pregnant women from 1959–1966. During pregnancy interviews, women were asked if anything worrisome had occurred recently. Interviews were qualitatively coded for stress-related themes, including reports of daily life stress, by two independent raters. None of the maternal psychosocial stress themes were significantly associated with increased odds of offspring SSD in analyses of the full sample. However, results indicated a significant daily life stress by infant sex interaction. Maternal daily life stress during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased odds of SSD among male offspring. Findings suggest sex-specific fetal sensitivity to maternal reported daily life stress during pregnancy on risk for SSD, with males appearing to be more vulnerable to the influences of maternal stress during pregnancy. PMID:26753951

  7. Factors affecting pregnancy weight gain and relationships with maternal/fetal outcomes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akgun, Nilufer; Keskin, Huseyin L; Ustuner, Isık; Pekcan, Gulden; Avsar, Ayse F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the effects of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on maternal and fetal complications, and to examine whether Turkish women achieve the recommended gestational weight gain. We also investigated the relationship between pregnancy weight gain and mode of delivery, with an examination of maternal anthropometry.  Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a population of 986 pregnant women between November 2011 and November 2015 at Atatürk Education and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey. Maternal age, BMI, monthly weight gain during pregnancy, infant birth weight, gender, and maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were evaluated. Results: The frequency of maternal complications was positively associated with elevated pre-pregnancy BMI (p less than 0.05), and weight gain during pregnancy was associated with parity and increased infant birth weight (p less than 0.05). However, no correlations were observed between mean pregnancy weight gain and maternal complications (p greater than 0.05). The percentage of women who gained the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended amount of weight was the highest in the underweight BMI group (54.1%) and the lowest in the obese BMI group (24.3%). Pregnancy weight gain exceeded IOM recommendations in the overweight (56.3%) and obese (52.5%) groups. Conclusions: While maternal weight gain during pregnancy affects neonatal body weight, higher pre-pregnancy BMI has an adverse effect on recommended weight gain during pregnancy, with increased maternal complications.

  8. Leukemia inhibitory factor blocks expression of Crx and Nrl transcription factors to inhibit photoreceptor differentiation.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dianca R; Overbeek, Paul A; Ash, John D

    2005-07-01

    Activating ligands of gp130, including leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), can block differentiation and function of retinal neurons. This study focused on determining whether LIF inhibits differentiation of photoreceptors by altering cell fate or by blocking the expression of essential transcription factors in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated that had lens-specific expression of the secreted human LIF protein. Retinal differentiation was assessed by histology and by gene expression analysis, with in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time qRT-PCR. Electroretinograms were used to assess retinal function. LIF did not prevent or alter the timing of outer and inner nuclear layer separation, but it inhibited phototransduction gene expression in both rods and cones, thereby blocking functional maturation of photoreceptors. LIF also reduced the expression of Crx, Nrl, and Nr2e3, and upregulated the expression of transcription inhibitors Baf and Fiz1. LIF expression did not appear to alter photoreceptor cell fate specification, but it inhibited subsequent differentiation. These results suggest that gp130 ligands can inhibit photoreceptor functional differentiation by reducing Crx- and Nrl-dependent transcription.

  9. The Differential Effect of Traditional Risk Factors on Infant Birthweight among Blacks and Whites in Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, James W., Jr.; Davis, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of the following factors on low birth weight of 103,072 Black and White infants in Chicago: (1) median family income; (2) maternal age; (3) education; and (4) marital status. Concludes that family income shows racial disparity and that traditional risk factors do not completely explain racial differences in neonatal outcome.…

  10. Factors Associated with Postpartum Maternal Functioning in Women with Positive Screens for Depression.

    PubMed

    Barkin, Jennifer L; Wisner, Katherine L; Bromberger, Joyce T; Beach, Scott R; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2016-07-01

    Functional assessment may represent a valuable addition to postpartum depression screening, providing a more thorough characterization of the mother's health and quality of life. To the authors' knowledge, this analysis represents the first examination of postpartum maternal functioning, as measured by a patient-centered validated tool aimed at ascertainment of functional status explicitly, and its clinical and sociodemographic correlates. A total of 189 women recruited from a large, urban women's hospital in the northeastern United States who both (1) screened positive for depression between 4 and 6 weeks postpartum and (2) completed a subsequent home (baseline) visit between October 1, 2008, and September 4, 2009, were included in this analysis. Multiple linear regression was conducted to ascertain which clinical and sociodemographic variables were independently associated with maternal functioning. The multivariate analysis revealed independent associations between bipolar status, atypical depression, depression score (17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression), and insurance type with postpartum maternal functioning. The beta coefficient for bipolar status indicates that on average we would expect those with bipolar disorder to have maternal functioning scores that are 5.6 points less than those without bipolar disorder. Healthcare providers treating postpartum women with complicating mental health conditions should be cognizant of the potential ramifications on maternal functioning. Impaired functioning in the maternal role is likely to impact child development, although the precise nature of this relationship is yet to be elucidated.

  11. Interrelations Between Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy, Birth Weight and Sociodemographic Factors in the Prediction of Early Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, S. C. J.; Séguin, J. R.; Zelazo, P. D.; Parent, S.; Japel, C.; Tremblay, R. E.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children’s Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions.

  12. Assessing obstetric risk factors for maternal morbidity: congruity between medical records and mothers' reports of obstetric exposures.

    PubMed

    Gartland, Deirdre; Lansakara, Nirosha; Flood, Margaret; Brown, Stephanie J

    2012-02-01

    We sought to assess congruity between data abstracted from medical records with answers to self-administered questionnaires. This was a multicenter prospective nulliparous pregnancy cohort. A total of 1507 women enrolled. Analyses were reported for 1296 with medical record data and 3-month postpartum follow-up. There was near-perfect agreement (κ ≥ 0.80) between maternal report and abstracted data for reproductive history, induction/augmentation method, epidural/spinal analgesia, method of birth, perineal repair, infant birthweight, and gestation. Agreement was poor to moderate for maternal position in second stage and duration of pushing. Maternal report of pregnancy, labor, and birth factors was very reliable and considered more accurate in relation to maternal position in labor and birth, smoking, prior terminations, and miscarriages. Use of routine birthing outcome summaries may introduce measurement error as hospitals differ in their definitions and reporting practices. Using primary data sources (eg, partograms) with clearly defined prespecified criteria will provide the most accurate obstetric exposure and outcome data. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factors associated with postpartum hemorrhage maternal death in referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali: a cross-sectional epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Tort, Julie; Rozenberg, Patrick; Traoré, Mamadou; Fournier, Pierre; Dumont, Alexandre

    2015-09-30

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan-Africa (SSA). Although clinical guidelines treating PPH are available, their implementation remains a great challenge in resource poor settings. A better understanding of the factors associated with PPH maternal mortality is critical for preventing risk of hospital-based maternal death. The purpose of this study was thus to assess which factors contribute to maternal death occurring during PPH. The factors were as follows: women's characteristics, aspects of pregnancy and delivery; components of PPH management; and organizational characteristics of the referral hospitals in Senegal and Mali. A cross-sectional survey nested in a cluster randomized trial (QUARITE trial) was carried out in 46 referral hospitals during the pre-intervention period from October 2007 to September 2008 in Senegal and Mali. Individual and hospital characteristics data were collected through standardized questionnaires. A multivariable logistic mixed model was used to identify the factors that were significantly associated with PPH maternal death. Among the 3,278 women who experienced PPH, 178 (5.4%) of them died before hospital discharge. The factors that were significantly associated with PPH maternal mortality were: age over 35 years (adjusted OR = 2.16 [1.26-3.72]), living in Mali (adjusted OR = 1.84 [1.13-3.00]), residing outside the region location of the hospital (adjusted OR = 2.43 [1.29-4.56]), pre-existing chronic disease before pregnancy (adjusted OR = 7.54 [2.54-22.44]), prepartum severe anemia (adjusted OR = 6.65 [3.77-11.74]), forceps or vacuum delivery (adjusted OR = 2.63 [1.19-5.81]), birth weight greater than 4000 grs (adjusted OR = 2.54 [1.26-5.10]), transfusion (adjusted OR = 2.17 [1.53-3.09]), transfer to another hospital (adjusted OR = 13.35 [6.20-28.76]). There was a smaller risk of PPH maternal death in hospitals with gynecologist

  14. Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Chantry, Caroline J; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-09-01

    Delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) is most common in primiparas and increases the risk of excess neonatal weight loss, formula supplementation, and early weaning. We examined variables associated with delayed OL among first-time mothers who delivered at term and initiated breastfeeding (n = 431). We conducted in-person interviews during pregnancy and at days 0, 3, and 7 postpartum and extracted obstetric and newborn information from medical records. We defined OL as delayed if it occurred after 72 h and used chi-square analysis to examine its association with potential risk factors across 6 dimensions: 1) prenatal characteristics, 2) maternal anthropometric characteristics, 3) labor and delivery experience, 4) newborn characteristics, 5) maternal postpartum factors, and 6) infant feeding variables. We examined independent associations by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Median OL was 68.9 h postpartum; 44% of mothers experienced delayed OL. We observed significant bivariate associations between delayed OL and variables in all 6 dimensions (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model adjusted for prenatal feeding intentions, independent risk factors for delayed OL were maternal age > or =30 y, body mass index in the overweight or obese range, birth weight >3600 g, absence of nipple discomfort between 0-3 d postpartum, and infant failing to "breastfeed well" > or =2 times in the first 24 h. Postpartum edema was significant in an alternate model excluding body mass index (P < 0.05). The risk factors for delayed OL are multidimensional. Public health and obstetric and maternity care interventions are needed to address what has become an alarmingly common problem among primiparas.

  15. Factorization of differential expansion for antiparallel double-braid knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Continuing the quest for exclusive Racah matrices, which are needed for evaluation of colored arborescent-knot polynomials in Chern-Simons theory, we suggest to extract them from a new kind of a double-evolution — that of the antiparallel double-braids, which is a simple two-parametric family of two-bridge knots, generalizing the one-parametric family of twist knots. In the case of rectangular representations R = [ r s ] we found an evidence that the corresponding differential expansion miraculously factorizes and can be obtained from that for the twist knots. This reduces the problem of rectangular exclusive Racah to constructing the answers for just a few twist knots. We develop a recent conjecture on the structure of differential expansion for the simplest members of this family (the trefoil and the figure-eight knot) and provide the exhaustive answer for the first unknown case of R = [33]. The answer includes HOMFLY of arbitrary twist and double-braid knots and Racah matrices overline{S} and S — what allows to calculate [33]-colored polynomials for arbitrary arborescent (double-fat) knots. For generic rectangular representations fully described are only the contributions of the single-floor pyramids. One step still remains to be done.

  16. Effect of maternal and neonatal factors on cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayana, Sheetal G.; Sadanandan, Nidhish P.; Mehaboob, A. K.; Gopaliah, Lakshminarayana R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is most common preventable cause of mental retardation in children. Cord blood Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (CBTSH) level is an accepted screening tool for CH. Objectives: To study CBTSH profile in neonates born at tertiary care referral center and to analyze the influence of maternal and neonatal factors on their levels. Design: Cross retrospective sectional study. Methods: Study population included 979 neonates (males = 506 to females = 473). The CBTSH levels were estimated using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on Cobas analyzer. Kit based cut-offs of TSH level were used for analysis. All neonates with abnormal CBSTH levels, were started on levothyroxine supplementation 10 μg/Kg/day and TSH levels were reassessed as per departmental protocol. Results: The mean CBTSH was 7.82 μIU/mL (Range 0.112 to 81.4, SD = 5.48). The mean CBTSH level was significantly higher in first order neonates, neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, delivered at term or preterm, neonates with APGAR score <5 and those needing advanced resuscitation after birth. The CBTSH level >16.10 and <1.0 μIU/mL was found in 4.39 % and 1.02 % neonates respectively. The prevalence rate of CBTSH level >16.1 μIU/mL was significantly higher in neonates delivered by assisted vaginal delivery and normal delivery, term and preterm neonates, APAGR score of <5, presence of fetal distress, need for resuscitation beyond initial steps and in those with birth weight of <1.5 Kg. Three neonates were confirmed to have CH after retesting of TSH level. Conclusions: The CBTSH estimation is an easy, non-invasive method for screening for CH. The cutoff level of CB TSH (μIU/mL) >16.10 and <1.0 led to a recall of 5.41% of neonates which is practicable given the scenario in our Country. The mode of delivery and perinatal stress factors have a significant impact on CBTSH levels and any rise to be seen in the light of these factors. The prevalence

  17. The maternal genes Ci-p53/p73-a and Ci-p53/p73-b regulate zygotic ZicL expression and notochord differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    PubMed

    Noda, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    I isolated a Ciona intestinalis homolog of p53, Ci-p53/p73-a, in a microarray screen of rapidly degraded maternal mRNA by comparing the transcriptomes of unfertilized eggs and 32-cell stage embryos. Higher expression of the gene in eggs and lower expression in later embryonic stages were confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); expression was ubiquitous in eggs and early embryos. Knockdown of Ci-p53/p73-a by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) severely perturbed gastrulation cell movements and expression of notochord marker genes. A key regulator of notochord differentiation in Ciona embryos is Brachyury (Ci-Bra), which is directly activated by a zic-like gene (Ci-ZicL). The expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors was downregulated in Ci-p53/p73-a knockdown embryos. Maternal expression of Ci-p53/p73-b, a homolog of Ci-p53/p73-a, was also detected. In Ci-p53/p73-b knockdown embryos, gastrulation cell movements, expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors, and expression of notochord marker gene at later stages were perturbed. The upstream region of Ci-ZicL contains putative p53-binding sites. Cis-regulatory analysis of Ci-ZicL showed that these sites are involved in expression of Ci-ZicL in A-line notochord precursors at the 32-cell and early gastrula stages. These results suggest that p53 genes are maternal factors that play a crucial role in A-line notochord differentiation in C. intestinalis embryos by regulating Ci-ZicL expression.

  18. Human milk bactericidal properties: effect of lyophilization and relation to maternal factors and milk components.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, Jaime; Gormaz, Maria; López-Mendoza, Maria C; Nogarotto, Elisabetta; Silvestre, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relation between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid, and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat, and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and Staphylococcus epidermidis when compared with storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared with freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein, or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in mature milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days 1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with preterm delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.

  19. Combined folate gene MTHFD and TC polymorphisms as maternal risk factors for Down syndrome in China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Y P; Zhang, D; Zhou, W; Meng, F M; Bao, M S; Xiang, P; Liu, C Q

    2014-03-17

    We examined whether polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD) and transcobalamin (TC) genes, which are involved in folate metabolism, affect maternal risk for Down syndrome. We investigated 76 Down syndrome mothers and 115 control mothers from Bengbu, China. Genomic DNA was isolated from the peripheral lymphocytes. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to examine the polymorphisms of MTHFD G1958A and TC C776G. The frequencies of the polymorphic alleles were 24.3 and 19.1% for MTHFD 1958A, 53.9 and 54.2% for TC 776G, in the case and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between two groups in relation to either the allele or the genotype frequency for both polymorphisms. However, when gene-gene interactions between these two polymorphisms together with previous studied C677T and A1298C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene were analyzed, the combined MTHFR 677CT/TT and MTHFD 1958AA/GA genotype was found to be significantly associated with the risk of having a Down syndrome child [odds ratio (OR) = 3.11; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.07-9.02]. In addition, the combined TC 776CG and MTHFR 677TT genotype increased the risk of having a child with Down syndrome 3.64-fold (OR = 3.64; 95%CI = 1.28-10.31). In conclusion, neither MTHFD G1958A nor TC C776G polymorphisms are an independent risk factor for Down syndrome. However, the combined MTHFD/MTHFR, TC/MTHFR genotypes play a role in the risk of bearing a Down syndrome child in the Chinese population.

  20. A systematic review of factors influencing uptake of invasive fetal genetic testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Godino, Lea; Turchetti, Daniela; Skirton, Heather

    2013-11-01

    Women of advanced maternal age have a higher risk of having a child affected by a chromosomal disorder than younger childbearing women and are frequently offered invasive testing during pregnancy. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and analyse the current evidence base regarding factors that influence the uptake of invasive fetal testing by pregnant women of advanced maternal age. We conducted a systematic review. A search of The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Embase and Medline databases was undertaken for papers published in English and Italian from January 2002 to May 2012. Eleven studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, were subjected to quality assessment and included in the review. We analysed the data using thematic analysis. The factors influencing women were classified as either external or psychosocial factors. External factors included the opportunity for screening, screening results and use of genetic counselling. Psychosocial factors related to ethnicity, socio-demographic status and attendance of partners during counselling. It is difficult to draw firm conclusions as to the principle factors that influence uptake of invasive tests by women of AMA. More research is needed to enhance understanding of relevant factors to ensure that services are offered in a way that acknowledges practical as well as psychosocial influences. This type of research will help to equip midwives and other professionals caring for women during pregnancy to ensure that women are supported to make the choices that are appropriate for them and their families. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    PubMed

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Prevalence rates (PR) of overweight and obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  2. Association between malnutrition in children living in slums, maternal nutritional status, and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Kátia B R; Alves, Jullyana F R; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the association of malnutrition in children living in substandard settlements (slums) of Maceió, Brazil, with maternal nutritional status and environmental conditions. Cross-sectional study involving a probability sample of 2,075 mothers (18 to 45 years) and their children (4 months to 6 years), living in the slums of the city of Maceió. First, we conducted a cluster analysis with the purpose of choosing the settlements and the administrative region of the city of Maceió with the lowest human development index. After this analysis, the 7th Administrative Region was designated for the study, including its 23 substandard settlements. Socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and maternal and child health data were collected by means of household survey. The statistical analysis included the odds ratio of a child to be malnourished, and the univariate regression was used to check which maternal variables were associated with this malnutrition. Chronic malnutrition (-2 standard deviations/height for age) was found in 8.6% of children and was associated with mother's age and educational level, type of residence, number of rooms, flooring, water supply, and low birth weight (< 2,500 g) in children aged < or = 24 months. We also found an association between child malnutrition and maternal height. Such association was not observed regarding body mass index. The high prevalence of malnutrition observed in these settlements was related to social and environmental conditions and short maternal height, who had weight deficit or weight excess.

  3. Expression of the novel maternal centrosome assembly factor Wdr8 is required for vertebrate embryonic mitoses

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Daigo; Stemmer, Manuel; Thumberger, Thomas; Ruppert, Thomas; Bärenz, Felix; Wittbrodt, Joachim; Gruss, Oliver J.

    2017-01-01

    The assembly of the first centrosome occurs upon fertilisation when male centrioles recruit pericentriolar material (PCM) from the egg cytoplasm. The mechanisms underlying the proper assembly of centrosomes during early embryogenesis remain obscure. We identify Wdr8 as a novel maternally essential protein that is required for centrosome assembly during embryonic mitoses of medaka (Oryzias latipes). By CRISPR–Cas9-mediated knockout, maternal/zygotic Wdr8-null (m/zWdr8−/−) blastomeres exhibit severe defects in centrosome structure that lead to asymmetric division, multipolar mitotic spindles and chromosome alignment errors. Via its WD40 domains, Wdr8 interacts with the centriolar satellite protein SSX2IP. Combining targeted gene knockout and in vivo reconstitution of the maternally essential Wdr8–SSX2IP complex reveals an essential link between maternal centrosome proteins and the stability of the zygotic genome for accurate vertebrate embryogenesis. Our approach provides a way of distinguishing maternal from paternal effects in early embryos and should contribute to understanding molecular defects in human infertility. PMID:28098238

  4. Risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haddad, B; Barton, J R; Livingston, J C; Chahine, R; Sibai, B M

    2000-08-01

    This study was undertake to determine risk factors for adverse maternal outcomes among women with HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count) syndrome. Maternal medical records of pregnancies complicated by HELLP syndrome managed between July 1, 1992, and April 30, 1999, were reviewed. Risk factors evaluated included maternal age, parity, race, previous preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, gestational age at diagnosis, mean arterial blood pressure, nadir blood platelet count (<50,000 cells/microL vs > or =50,000 cells/microL), and peak serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. Maternal outcome variables analyzed included eclampsia, abruptio placentae, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, pulmonary edema, pleural effusion, ascites, acute renal failure, liver hematoma, need for transfusion of blood products, cesarean delivery, and death. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student t test, the chi(2) test, and logistic regression analysis. A total of 183 women with HELLP syndrome were studied. Eclampsia was present in 6%, abruptio placentae was present in 10%, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was present in 8%. Forty-one women (22%) required transfusion of blood products. Incidence of eclampsia significantly decreased with increasing gestational age, from 16% at < or =28 weeks' gestation to 3% at >32 weeks' gestation (P <.05) and was higher among African American patients than among white patients (12% vs 3%; P <.05). Logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between eclampsia and race (P <.05). Incidence of abruptio placentae was higher among women with previous preeclampsia than among women without this clinical history (26% vs 5%; P <.05). Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was significantly associated with abruptio placentae (P <.0001) and acute renal failure (P <.0001). A nadir platelet count of <50, 000/microL, a peak serum aspartate aminotransferase level of >150

  5. The Role of Cultural Factors in Differentiating Pathological Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Venuleo, Claudia; Salvatore, Sergio; Mossi, Piergiorgio

    2015-12-01

    It is recognised that cultural factors play a role in the onset and continuation of several mental health problems. However, there is a significant lack of empirical studies investigating the relationships between cultural factors and gambling behavior. This study assessed whether the subjective cultures through which subjects interpret and enact their experience of the social environment play a major role in increasing (or decreasing) the probability of pathological gambling. Participants, recruited in three different contexts (public health services for the treatment of addiction, casino, undergraduate course) were subjected to the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) (Lesieur and Blume in Am J Psychiatry 144(9):1184-1188, 1987), in order to identify a group of pathological gamblers-and with the Questionnaire on the Interpretation of the Social Environment (QUISE) (Mossi and Salvatore in Eur J Educ Psychol 4(2):153-169, 2011)-in order to detect their subjective cultures. The study compares pathological group (scoring >5 on SOGS, n = 34) and a healthy control group (scoring <1 on SOGS, n = 35). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare groups on QUISE scores of subjective culture. Moreover, a logistic regression was applied in order to esteem the capability of the QUISE scores to differentiate between pathological gamblers and control. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that pathological group expresses different subjective cultures compared with no gambler subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications of the results are discussed.

  6. Differential sensitivity of transcription factors to mustard-damaged DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Gray, P J; Cullinane, C; Phillips, D R

    1999-03-01

    Nitrogen mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) methylamine, HN2) inhibited the binding of upstream factors Sp1 and AP2 to their consensus sequences. At concentrations where 50% of the consensus sequence DNA contained at least one lesion, HN2 inhibited formation of the Sp1 complex by 37% (40 microM HN2) and the AP2 complex by 40% (50 microM HN2). The binding of the TATA binding protein (TBP) to the TATA element was also inhibited by HN2, whereas sulphur mustard and the monofunctional sulphur mustard 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) resulted in a disproportional extent of inhibition with respect to the level of alkylation. The level of alkylation of the TBP oligonucleotide varied significantly at 100 microM drug, with 80, 42 and 15% of HN2, sulphur mustard and CEES, respectively. However, this level of alkylation inhibited formation of the TBP-DNA complex by 70, 70 and 45%, respectively. This differential sensitivity of transcription factors to mustard-induced DNA damage therefore appears to reside dominantly in the stereochemical differences between the specific mustard lesions.

  7. Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Lesschen, Jan Peter; Velthof, Gerard L; de Vries, Wim; Kros, Johannes

    2011-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N(2)O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N(2)O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor regulates the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes in a differentiation-stage-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Hirobe, Tomohisa; Shibata, Tatako; Fujiwara, Rumiko; Sato, Kiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Although many kinds of keratinocyte-derived factors are known to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes, it is not well defined whether dermis-derived factors work in a similar way. The aim of this study is to clarify whether dermal factors are involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes. Human epidermal melanoblasts were cultured serially in a serum-free growth medium. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) was supplemented to the medium, and the effects on the proliferation of melanoblasts/melanocytes and the differentiation of melanocytes were studied. PDGF-BB stimulated the proliferation of melanoblasts cultured in melanoblast-proliferation medium, but inhibited the proliferation of melanocytes cultured in melanocyte-proliferation medium. By contrast, PDGF-BB stimulated the differentiation, dendritogenesis, and melanogenesis of melanocytes through the stimulation of tyrosinase activity and the expressions of tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein-1. These results suggest that PDGF-BB regulates the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes in a differentiation-stage-specific manner. PDGF-BB seems to be one of the dermal factors that regulate the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-11-07

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality.

  10. Evidence for maternally inherited factors favouring male homosexuality and promoting female fecundity.

    PubMed Central

    Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Corna, Francesca; Capiluppi, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The Darwinian paradox of male homosexuality in humans is examined, i.e. if male homosexuality has a genetic component and homosexuals reproduce less than heterosexuals, then why is this trait maintained in the population? In a sample of 98 homosexual and 100 heterosexual men and their relatives (a total of over 4600 individuals), we found that female maternal relatives of homosexuals have higher fecundity than female maternal relatives of heterosexuals and that this difference is not found in female paternal relatives. The study confirms previous reports, in particular that homosexuals have more maternal than paternal male homosexual relatives, that homosexual males are more often later-born than first-born and that they have more older brothers than older sisters. We discuss the findings and their implications for current research on male homosexuality. PMID:15539346

  11. Differential Contributions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Pathways to Thrombin Generation in Adult, Maternal and Cord Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Nicklaus T.; Szlam, Fania; Varner, Jeffrey D.; Bernstein, Peter S.; Szlam, Arthur D.; Tanaka, Kenichi A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Thrombin generation (TG) is a pivotal process in achieving hemostasis. Coagulation profiles during pregnancy and early neonatal period are different from that of normal (non-pregnant) adults. In this ex vivo study, the differences in TG in maternal and cord plasma relative to normal adult plasma were studied. Methods Twenty consented pregnant women and ten consented healthy adults were included in the study. Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at the time of delivery. Platelet-poor plasma was isolated for the measurement of TG. In some samples, anti-FIXa aptamer, RB006, or a TFPI inhibitor, BAX499 were added to elucidate the contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic pathway to TG. Additionally, procoagulant and inhibitor levels were measured in maternal and cord plasma, and these values were used to mathematically simulate TG. Results Peak TG was increased in maternal plasma (393.6±57.9 nM) compared to adult and cord samples (323.2±38.9 nM and 209.9±29.5 nM, respectively). Inhibitory effects of RB006 on TG were less robust in maternal or cord plasma (52% vs. 12% respectively) than in adult plasma (81%). Likewise the effectiveness of BAX499 as represented by the increase in peak TG was much greater in adult (21%) than in maternal (10%) or cord plasma (12%). Further, BAX499 was more effective in reversing RB006 in adult plasma than in maternal or cord plasma. Ex vivo data were reproducible with the results of the mathematical simulation of TG. Conclusion Normal parturient plasma shows a large intrinsic pathway reserve for TG compared to adult and cord plasma, while TG in cord plasma is sustained by extrinsic pathway, and low levels of TFPI and AT. PMID:27196067

  12. Evidence for differential regulation of the adipokine visfatin in the maternal and fetal compartments in normal spontaneous labor at term

    PubMed Central

    Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Vaisbuch, Edi; Kim, Sun Kwon; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Dong, Zhong; Pacora, Percy; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Visfatin, a novel adipokine with metabolic and immunoregulatory properties, has been implicated in the regulation of fetal growth, as well as in preterm labor. A gap in knowledge is whether spontaneous labor at term is associated with changes in the maternal and fetal concentrations of visfatin. The aim of this study was to determine if the presence of labor at term is associated with alterations in maternal and neonatal plasma visfatin concentrations. Study design This cross-sectional study included 50 normal pregnant women at term and their appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) neonates in the following groups: 1) 25 mother-neonate pairs delivered by elective cesarean section without spontaneous labor, and 2) 25 mother-neonate pairs who delivered vaginally following spontaneous labor. Maternal plasma and cord blood visfatin concentrations were determined by ELISA. Non-parametric statistics were used for analyses. Results 1) The median visfatin concentration was higher in umbilical cord plasma of neonates born following a spontaneous labor at term than that of those who were born by an elective cesarean section (p=0.02); 2) in contrast, the median maternal plasma visfatin concentration did not differ significantly between patients with and without labor (p=0.44); and 3) there was a significant correlation between umbilical cord plasma concentration of visfatin and both maternal visfatin concentration (r= 0.54, p=0.005) and gestational age at delivery (r= 0.58; p=0.002) only in the absence of labor. Conclusion Term labor is associated with increased fetal, but not maternal, circulating visfatin concentrations. Previous reports indicate that preterm labor leading to preterm delivery is characterized by an increase in maternal plasma concentrations of visfatin. The observations reported herein support the view that there are fundamental differences in the endocrine and metabolic adaptations in normal labor at term and preterm labor. PMID:20146661

  13. Estimation of preterm birth rate, associated factors and maternal morbidity from a demographic and health survey in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Ricardo P; Passini, Renato; Cecatti, José G; Camargo, Rodrigo S; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Sousa, Maria H

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of preterm birth from self-reports by Brazilian women, to assess complications, interventions and outcomes, to identify factors associated with preterm birth, and to improve the preterm birth rates estimates. This is a secondary analysis of data from a Demographic Health Survey. It interviewed a sample of 4,743 Brazilian women who had 6,113 live births from 2001 to 2007. Estimates of preterm birth rates were obtained per region and per year according to self-reported gestational age. The prevalence rate and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for preterm was determined according to the characteristics of mothers and offspring. Odds ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for complications such as severe maternal morbidity. The preterm birth rate was 9.9 %, with regional variations. Preterm birth was more likely to be associated with neonatal death, low birth weight, and longer hospital stay. Maternal factors associated with preterm birth were: white ethnicity, living in an urban area, history of hypertension or heart disease, twin gestation, non-elective Cesarean section, medical insurance for delivery, low number of antenatal visits, and severe morbidity. A self-report survey has indicated that the preterm birth rate in Brazil is higher than official data suggest, with an increasing trend in more developed areas, and is associated with poor neonatal and maternal outcomes.

  14. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Frequency and risk factors for the birth of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a public maternity hospital

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Marina Parca Cavelagna; Queiroga, Tatiana Peloso Reis; Mesquita, Maria dos Anjos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the frequency and risk factors of small-for-gestational-age newborns in a high-risk maternity. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, and case-control study, conducted in a public tertiary care maternity hospital. Data from 998 newborns and their mothers were collected through interviews and review of medical records and prenatal care cards. Some placentas underwent histopathological analysis. The variables of small-for-gestational-age and non-small-for-gestational-age newborns and of their mothers were statistically compared by means of Student's t test, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio. The significance level used was 0.050. Results: There was a 17.9% frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns. The statistically significant factors associated with the birth of these babies were female sex (p=0.012); positive history of another small-for-gestational-age child (p=0.006); inadequate prenatal care (p=0.019); smoking (p=0.003); hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (p=0.007); placental bleeding (p=0.009) and infarction (p=0.001). Conclusion: In the population studied, the frequency of small-for-gestational-age newborns was high and associated with sex, inappropriate prenatal care, presence of maternal diseases and addictions, and placental abnormalities. PMID:27759818

  16. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  17. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Nyamtema, Angelo S; Urassa, David P; Pembe, Andrea B; Kisanga, Felix; van Roosmalen, Jos

    2010-06-03

    Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385) and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147). Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in these institutions.

  18. Factors for change in maternal and perinatal audit systems in Dar es Salaam hospitals, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective maternal and perinatal audits are associated with improved quality of care and reduction of severe adverse outcome. Although audits at the level of care were formally introduced in Tanzania around 25 years ago, little information is available about their existence, performance, and practical barriers to their implementation. This study assessed the structure, process and impacts of maternal and perinatal death audit systems in clinical practice and presents a detailed account on how they could be improved. Methods A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in eight major hospitals in Dar es Salaam in January 2009. An in-depth interview guide was used for 29 health managers and members of the audit committees to investigate the existence, structure, process and outcome of such audits in clinical practice. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 30 health care providers in the maternity wards to assess their awareness, attitude and practice towards audit systems. The 2007 institutional pregnancy outcome records were reviewed. Results Overall hospital based maternal mortality ratio was 218/100,000 live births (range: 0 - 385) and perinatal mortality rate was 44/1000 births (range: 17 - 147). Maternal and perinatal audit systems existed only in 4 and 3 hospitals respectively, and key decision makers did not take part in audit committees. Sixty percent of care providers were not aware of even a single action which had ever been implemented in their hospitals because of audit recommendations. There were neither records of the key decision points, action plan, nor regular analysis of the audit reports in any of the facilities where such audit systems existed. Conclusions Maternal and perinatal audit systems in these institutions are poorly established in structure and process; and are less effective to improve the quality of care. Fundamental changes are urgently needed for successful audit systems in these institutions. PMID

  19. Factors that differentiate acceleration ability in field sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Knight, Timothy J; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K

    2011-10-01

    Speed and acceleration are essential for field sport athletes. However, the mechanical factors important for field sport acceleration have not been established in the scientific literature. The purpose of this study was to determine the biomechanical and performance factors that differentiate sprint acceleration ability in field sport athletes. Twenty men completed sprint tests for biomechanical analysis and tests of power, strength, and leg stiffness. The sprint intervals analyzed were 0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m. The subjects were split into a faster and slower group based on 0- to 10-m velocity. A 1-way analysis of variance determined variables that significantly (p ≤ 0.05) distinguished between faster and slower acceleration. All subject data were then pooled for a correlation analysis to determine factors contributing most to acceleration. The results showed that 0- to 5-m (∼16% difference) and 0- to 10-m (∼11% difference) contact times for the faster group were significantly lower. Times to peak vertical and horizontal force during ground contact were lower for the faster group. This was associated with the reduced support times achieved by faster accelerators and their ability to generate force quickly. Ground contact force profiles during initial acceleration are useful discriminators of sprint performance in field sport athletes. For the strength and power measures, the faster group demonstrated a 14% greater countermovement jump and 48% greater reactive strength index. Significant correlations were found between velocity (0-5, 5-10, and 0-10 m) and most strength and power measures. The novel finding of this study is that training programs directed toward improving field sport sprint acceleration should aim to reduce contact time and improve ground force efficiency. It is important that even during the short sprints required for field sports, practitioners focus on good technique with short contact times.

  20. Endocannabinoid receptor deficiency affects maternal care and alters the dam's hippocampal oxytocin receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Schechter, M; Weller, A; Pittel, Z; Gross, M; Zimmer, A; Pinhasov, A

    2013-10-01

    Maternal care is the newborn's first experience of social interaction, and this influences infant survival, development and social competences throughout life. We recently found that postpartum blocking of the endocannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1R) altered maternal behaviour. In the present study, maternal care was assessed by the time taken to retrieve pups, pups' ultrasonic vocalisations (USVs) and pup body weight, comparing CB1R deleted (CB1R KO) versus wild-type (WT) mice. After culling on postpartum day 8, hippocampal expression of oxytocin receptor (OXTR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and stress-mediating factors were evaluated in CB1R KO and WT dams. Comparisons were also performed with nulliparous (NP) CB1R KO and WT mice. Compared to WT, CB1R KO dams were slower to retrieve their pups. Although the body weight of the KO pups did not differ from the weight of WT pups, they emitted fewer USVs. This impairment of the dam-pup relationship correlated with a significant reduction of OXTR mRNA and protein levels among CB1R KO dams compared to WT dams. Furthermore, WT dams exhibited elevated OXTR mRNA expression, as well as increased levels of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors, compared to WT NP mice. By contrast, CB1R KO dams showed no such elevation of OXTR expression, alongside lower BDNF and mineralocorticoid receptors, as well as elevated corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA levels, when compared to CB1R KO NP. Thus, it appears that the disruption of endocannabinoid signalling by CB1R deletion alters expression of the OXTR, apparently leading to deleterious effects upon maternal behaviour.

  1. Maternal health care service seeking behaviors and associated factors among women in rural Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: a triangulated community-based cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kifle, Dereje; Azale, Telake; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu

    2017-01-13

    Regular utilization of maternal health care services reduces maternal morbidity and mortality. This study assessed the maternal health care seeking behavior and associated factors of reproductive age women in rural villages of Haramaya district, East Ethiopia. Community based cross sectional study supplemented with qualitative data was conducted in Haramaya district from November 15 to Decemeber 30, 2015. A total of 561 women in reproductive age group and who gave birth in the last 2 years were randomly included. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions model was used to identify the associated factors. Odds ratios with 95% CI were used to measure the strength of association. Maternal health care service seeking of women was found as; antenatal care 74.3% (95% CI; 72.5, 76.14), attending institutional delivery 28.7% (95% CI; 26.8, 30.6) and postnatal care 22.6% (95% CI; 20.84, 24.36). Knowledge of pregnancy complications, Educational status, and religion of women were found to be significantly associated with antenatal health care, delivery and postnatal health care service seeking behaviours triangulated with individual, institutional and socio-cultural qualitative data. The maternal health care service seeking behavior of women in the study area was low. Educational status of the women, birth order and knowledge about pregnancy complications were the major factors associated with maternal health care service seeking behavior Focused health education with kind and supportive health care provider counseling will improve the maternal health care seeking behaviors of women.

  2. Development of Fearfulness in Birds: Genetic Factors Modulate Non-Genetic Maternal Influences

    PubMed Central

    Houdelier, Cécilia; Lumineau, Sophie; Bertin, Aline; Guibert, Floriane; De Margerie, Emmanuel; Augery, Matthieu; Richard-Yris, Marie-Annick

    2011-01-01

    The development of fearfulness and the capacity of animals to cope with stressful events are particularly sensitive to early experience with mothers in a wide range of species. However, intrinsic characteristics of young animals can modulate maternal influence. This study evaluated the effect of intrinsic fearfulness on non-genetic maternal influence. Quail chicks, divergently selected for either higher (LTI) or lower fearfulness (STI) and from a control line (C), were cross-fostered by LTI or STI mothers. Behavioural tests estimated the chicks' emotional profiles after separation from the mother. Whatever their genotype, the fearfulness of chicks adopted by LTI mothers was higher than that of chicks adopted by STI mothers. However, genetic background affected the strength of maternal effects: the least emotional chicks (STI) were the least affected by early experience with mothers. We demonstrated that young animal's intrinsic fearfulness affects strongly their sensitivity to non-genetic maternal influences. A young animal's behavioural characteristics play a fundamental role in its own behavioural development processes. PMID:21298038

  3. Maternal Psychological Control and Child Internalizing Symptoms: Vulnerability and Protective Factors across Bioregulatory and Ecological Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Kelly, Ryan J.; Erath, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Background: We examined ecological (family socioeconomic status (SES)) and bioregulatory (sleep duration, sleep efficiency) moderators of the link between maternal psychological control and children's vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Method: A large socioeconomically diverse sample of third graders (N = 141) and their mothers participated.…

  4. Predicting Change in Parenting Stress across Early Childhood: Child and Maternal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined maternal parenting stress in a sample of 430 boys and girls including those at risk for externalizing behavior problems. Children and their mothers were assessed when the children were ages 2, 4, and 5. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was used to examine stability of parenting stress across early childhood and to examine…

  5. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  6. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Maternal Confidence among Japanese and Vietnamese Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…

  7. Maternal fumonisin exposure as a risk factor for neural tube defects

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by the fungus F. verticillioides, a common contaminant of maize (corn) worldwide. Maternal consumption of fumonisin B1-contaminated maize during early pregnancy has recently been associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs) in human populations th...

  8. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  9. Associations of Psychosocial Factors with Maternal Confidence among Japanese and Vietnamese Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Aya; Nguyen, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Thi Tu Van; Pham, Nghiem Minh; Chung, Thi Mong Thuy; Trinh, Huu Phuc; Yabe, Junko; Sasaki, Hitomi; Yasumura, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional study among 392 Japanese and 294 Vietnamese mothers who attended routine child health visits in a Japanese city and at a tertiary hospital in Vietnam, in order to investigate the prevalence and associated sociodemographic, parenting, and psychological characteristics of low maternal confidence in child rearing…

  10. Association of Maternal Factors with Low Birth Weight in Selected Hospitals of Nepal.

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