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Sample records for factors impacting human

  1. Impact of the principal stroke risk factors on human movements.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Plamondon, Réjean

    2011-08-01

    In the context of the occidental population aging, new preventive approaches must be developed to reduce the disability related to brain stroke in the elderly. The stroke susceptibility assessment based on the analysis of human movements is one of the potential avenues needing investigation. As a first step in this direction, this paper reports results on the relationship linking the most important stroke risk factors to some characteristics of human movement. Various features were extracted using the Sigma-Lognormal model on 1440 stereotypical triangular movements performed by 120 subjects having different health conditions. These features were combined through a linear modeling to maximize the predictability of presence of stroke risk factors in the studied cohort. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under this curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the clinical significance of this relationship. Using only the information derived from the movements, the six tested risk factors (cardiac problems, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, obesity, and cigarette smoking) can be predicted with an AUC ranging from .68 to .82. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Race, ethnicity, and income factors impacting human papillomavirus vaccination rates.

    PubMed

    Jeudin, Patricia; Liveright, Elizabeth; Del Carmen, Marcela G; Perkins, Rebecca B

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer disproportionately affect low-income and minority women. HPV vaccines have the potential to either reduce or exacerbate racial disparities in HPV-related diseases and cervical cancers, depending on the equitability of vaccine uptake. This review aims to identify barriers and facilitators of equitable uptake of HPV vaccination among low-income and minority girls. This review discusses factors related to race, ethnicity, and income that are associated with initiation and completion rates of the 3-dose HPV vaccine series and presents targets for intervention. We reviewed relevant English-language literature to identify current vaccination rates and factors associated with vaccine uptake. Study findings related to race (black, Latino, Asian), and incomes were summarized. Current trends in the United States indicate low uptake among all adolescents, and that rates stagnated between 2011 and 2012. Low-income and minority adolescents are equally or more likely to start the HPV vaccination series than are white and higher-income adolescents, but are less likely to complete all 3 shots. Provider recommendation is a key factor in HPV vaccination, and minorities are less likely to report receiving recommendations for HPV vaccination. As black, Hispanic, and Asian populations continue to grow in the United States over the next several decades, it is imperative that we not only improve HPV vaccination rates overall, but also focus on high-risk populations to prevent an increase in cervical cancer disparities. © 2014 Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  3. The Impact of Human Factors on Decision Making in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    individual- ities of the human -- a society where all beings think, talk, walk, look, feel, decide, and act the same. The actions or reactions of a...four principal types of systems or environments. Deterministic systems are those in which a certain stimulus results in a known reaction . An example...human behavior in combat, Dupuy states: "...to study human reaction in a battlefield environment we have no choice but to go on the battlefield, not the

  4. Bibliometric analysis of Human Factors (1970-2000): a quantitative description of scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Dee, John D; Cassano-Pinché, Andrea; Vicente, Kim J

    2005-01-01

    Bibliometric analyses use the citation history of scientific articles as data to measure scientific impact. This paper describes a bibliometric analysis of the 1682 papers and 2413 authors published in Human Factors from 1970 to 2000. The results show that Human Factors has substantial relative scientific influence, as measured by impact, immediacy, and half-life, exceeding the influence of comparable journals. Like other scientific disciplines, human factors research is a highly stratified activity. Most authors have published only one paper, and many papers are cited infrequently, if ever. A small number of authors account for a disproportionately large number of the papers published and citations received. However, the degree of stratification is not as extreme as in many other disciplines, possibly reflecting the diversity of the human factors discipline. A consistent trend of more authors per paper parallels a similar trend in other fields and may reflect the increasingly interdisciplinary nature of human factors research and a trend toward addressing human-technology interaction in more complex systems. Ten of the most influential papers from each of the last 3 decades illustrate trends in human factors research. Actual or potential applications of this research include considerations for the publication and distribution policy of Human Factors.

  5. Impact of environmental factors on biometric matching during human decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, David S; Tokola, Ryan A; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Saul, Tiffany B; Sauerwein, Kelly A; Steadman, Dawnie W

    2016-01-01

    Automatic recognition systems are a valuable tool for identifying unknown deceased individuals. Immediately af- ter death fingerprint and face biometric samples are easy to collect using standard sensors and cameras and can be easily matched to anti-mortem biometric samples. Even though post-mortem fingerprints and faces have been used for decades, there are no studies that track these biomet- rics through the later stages of decomposition to determine the length of time the biometrics remain viable. This paper discusses a multimodal dataset of fingerprints, faces, and irises from 14 human cadavers that decomposed outdoors under natural conditions. Results include predictive models relating time and temperature, measured as Accumulated Degree Days (ADD), and season (winter, spring, summer) to the predicted probably of automatic verification using a commercial algorithm.

  6. Space station crew safety alternatives study. Volume 3: Safety impact of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, L. A.; Raasch, R. F.; Peercy, R. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The first 15 years of accumulated space station concepts for Initial Operational Capability (IOC) during the early 1990's was considered. Twenty-five threats to the space station are identified and selected threats addressed as impacting safety criteria, escape and rescue, and human factors safety concerns. Of the 25 threats identified, eight are discussed including strategy options for threat control: fire, biological or toxic contamination, injury/illness, explosion, loss of pressurization, radiation, meteoroid penetration and debris. Of particular interest here is volume three (of five volumes) pertaining to the safety impact of human factors.

  7. The "Human Factor" in Pure and in Applied Mathematics. Systems Everywhere: Their Impact on Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Roland

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the impact that the relationship between people and mathematics could have on the development of pure and applied mathematics. Argues for (1) a growing interest in philosophy, history and sociology of science; (2) new models in educational and psychological research; and (3) a growing awareness of the human factor in technology,…

  8. Impact Factor? Shmimpact Factor!

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The journal impact factor is a measure of the citability of articles published in that journal—the more citations generated, the more important that article is considered to be, and as a consequence the prestige of the journal is enhanced. The impact factor is not without controversy, and it can be manipulated. It no longer dominates the choices of journals to search for information. Online search engines, such as PubMed, can locate articles of interest in seconds across journals regardless of high or low impact factors. Editors desiring to increase their influence will need to focus on a fast and friendly submission and review process, early online and speedy print publication, and encourage the rapid turnaround of high-quality peer reviews. Authors desiring to have their results known to the world have never had it so good—the internet permits anyone with computer access to find the author's work. PMID:20806031

  9. Large-scale identification of sequence variants impacting human transcription factor occupancy in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Maurano, Matthew T.; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of the expanding pool of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We leverage allelically resolved genomic DNaseI footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly impact transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enable systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors, and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a novel foundation for analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes, and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants. PMID:26502339

  10. The effect of recombinant human fibroblast growth factor-18 on articular cartilage following single impact load.

    PubMed

    Barr, Lynne; Getgood, Alan; Guehring, Hans; Rushton, Neil; Henson, Frances M D

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to ascertain the effect of recombinant human Fibroblast Growth Factor-18 (rhFGF18) on the repair response of mechanically damaged articular cartilage. Articular cartilage discs were harvested from healthy mature horses (n = 4) and subjected to single impact load (SIL). The impacted explants, together with unimpacted controls were cultured in modified DMEM ± 200 ng/ml rhFGF18 for up to 30 days. Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release into the media was measured using the dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay. Aggrecan neopepitope CS846, collagen type II synthesis (CPII) and cleavage (C2C) were measured by ELISA. Histological analysis and TUNEL staining were used to assess repair cell number and cell death. Impacted explants treated with rhFGF18 showed significantly more GAG and CS846 release into the media (p < 0.05), there was also a significant decrease in C2C levels at Day 20. Loaded sections treated with rhFGF18 had more repair cells and significantly less cell death (p < 0.001) at Day 30 in culture. In an in vitro damage/repair model, rhFGF18 increases the proteoglycan synthesis, the repair cell number and prevents apoptosis at Day 30. This suggests that rhFGF18 may be a good candidate for enhancement of cartilage repair following mechanical damage. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Impacts of System and Human Factors on Online Learning Systems Use and Learner Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…

  12. The Impacts of System and Human Factors on Online Learning Systems Use and Learner Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alshare, Khaled A.; Freeze, Ronald D.; Lane, Peggy L.; Wen, H. Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Success in an online learning environment is tied to both human and system factors. This study illuminates the unique contributions of human factors (comfort with online learning, self-management of learning, and perceived Web self-efficacy) to online learning system success, which is measured in terms of usage and satisfaction. The research model…

  13. Human factors in maintenance: impact on aircraft mishap frequency and severity.

    PubMed

    Krulak, David C

    2004-05-01

    Aviation mishaps caused by maintenance factors vary in severity, but can cost untold sums in lives and equipment lost. This study proposes to demonstrate that certain specific maintenance-related human factors are significantly correlated with both mishap frequency and severity. Using information from the Maintenance Error Information Management System (MEIMS), 1,016 aircraft mishaps caused by human factors in maintenance were examined. These mishaps were previously categorized using the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System-Maintenance Extension (HFACS-ME). Frequency analysis was used to determine the most common HFACS-ME factors seen in aircraft mishaps. Logistic regression techniques were used to describe the relationship between the dichotomized outcome of mishap severity and the human factors found in the HFACS-ME. Inadequate supervision, attention/memory errors, and judgment/decision errors were the factors found most often in aircraft mishaps. The factors of inadequate design, inadequate adaptability/flexibility, inadequate lighting/light, confining workspace, and attention/memory error increased odds of being associated with a higher severity mishap. Emphasis in training and education placed in the first three factors mentioned may reduce overall number of mishaps. Concentrating resources on the final five factors may decrease the number of severe mishaps.

  14. Evolution of malaria in Africa for the past 40 years: impact of climatic and human factors.

    PubMed

    Mouchet, J; Manguin, S; Sircoulon, J; Laventure, S; Faye, O; Onapa, A W; Carnevale, P; Julvez, J; Fontenille, D

    1998-06-01

    Different malarial situations in Africa within the past 40 years are discussed in order to evaluate the impact of climatic and human factors on the disease. North of the equator, more droughts and lower rainfall have been recorded since 1972; and in eastern and southern Africa, there have been alternating dry and wet periods in relation to El Niño. Since 1955, the increase in human population from 125 to 450 million has resulted in both expansion of land cultivation and urbanization. In stable malaria areas of West and Central Africa and on the Madagascar coasts, the endemic situation has not changed since 1955. However, in unstable malaria areas such as the highlands and Sahel significant changes have occurred. In Madagascar, cessation of malaria control programs resulted in the deadly epidemic of 1987-88. The same situation was observed in Swaziland in 1984-85. In Uganda, malaria incidence has increased more than 30 times in the highlands (1,500-1,800 m), but its altitudinal limit has not overcome that of the beginning of the century. Cultivation of valley bottoms and extension of settlements are in large part responsible for this increase, along with abnormally heavy rainfall that favored the severe epidemic of 1994. A similar increase in malaria was observed in neighboring highlands of Rwanda and Burundi, and epidemics have been recorded in Ethiopia since 1958. In contrast, in the Sahel (Niayes region, Senegal), stricken by droughts since 1972, endemic malaria decreased drastically after the disappearance of the main vector, Anopheles funestus, due to the destruction of its larval sites by cultivation. Even during the very wet year of 1995. An funestus did not reinvade the region and malaria did not increase. The same situation was observed in the Sahelian zone of Niger. Therefore, the temperature increase of 0.5 degree C during the last 2 decades cannot be incriminated as a major cause for these malaria changes, which are mainly due to the combination of

  15. Impact beyond the impact factor.

    PubMed

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2014-02-01

    The journal impact factor is an annually calculated number for each scientific journal, based on the average number of times its articles published in the two preceding years have been cited. It was originally devised as a tool for librarians and publishers to provide information about the citation performance of a journal as a whole, but over the last few decades it has increasingly been used to assess the quality of specific articles and the research performance of individual investigators, institutions, and countries. In addition to this clear abuse of the journal impact factor, several conceptual and technical issues limit its usability as a measure of journal reputation, especially when journals are compared across different fields. An author's decision regarding the suitability of a scholarly journal for publication should, therefore, be based on the impact that this journal makes in the field of research, rather than on the journal impact factor.

  16. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  17. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  18. Impact of correction factors in human brain lesion-behavior inference.

    PubMed

    Sperber, Christoph; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2017-03-01

    Statistical voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) in neurological patients with brain lesions is frequently used to examine the relationship between structure and function of the healthy human brain. Only recently, two simulation studies noted reduced anatomical validity of this method, observing the results of VLBM to be systematically misplaced by about 16 mm. However, both simulation studies differed from VLBM analyses of real data in that they lacked the proper use of two correction factors: lesion size and "sufficient lesion affection." In simulation experiments on a sample of 274 real stroke patients, we found that the use of these two correction factors reduced misplacement markedly compared to uncorrected VLBM. Apparently, the misplacement is due to physiological effects of brain lesion anatomy. Voxel-wise topographies of collateral damage in the real data were generated and used to compute a metric for the inter-voxel relation of brain damage. "Anatomical bias" vectors that were solely calculated from these inter-voxel relations in the patients' real anatomical data, successfully predicted the VLBM misplacement. The latter has the potential to help in the development of new VLBM methods that provide even higher anatomical validity than currently available by the proper use of correction factors. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1692-1701, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  20. Extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch impact human cardiac fibroblast responses to transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed

    Watson, Chris J; Phelan, Dermot; Collier, Patrick; Horgan, Stephen; Glezeva, Nadia; Cooke, Gordon; Xu, Maojia; Ledwidge, Mark; McDonald, Kenneth; Baugh, John A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the impact of extracellular matrix sub-types and mechanical stretch on cardiac fibroblast activity is required to help unravel the pathophysiology of myocardial fibrotic diseases. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate pro-fibrotic responses of primary human cardiac fibroblast cells exposed to different extracellular matrix components, including collagen sub-types I, III, IV, VI and laminin. The impact of mechanical cyclical stretch and treatment with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) on collagen 1, collagen 3 and alpha smooth muscle actin mRNA expression on different matrices was assessed using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results revealed that all of the matrices studied not only affected the expression of pro-fibrotic genes in primary human cardiac fibroblast cells at rest but also affected their response to TGFβ1. In addition, differential cellular responses to mechanical cyclical stretch were observed depending on the type of matrix the cells were adhered to. These findings may give insight into the impact of selective pathological deposition of extracellular matrix proteins within different disease states and how these could impact the fibrotic environment.

  1. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  2. Impact factor distribution revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2017-09-01

    We explore the consistency of a new type of frequency distribution, where the corresponding rank distribution is Lavalette distribution. Empirical data of journal impact factors can be well described. This distribution is distinct from Poisson distribution and negative binomial distribution, which were suggested by previous study. By a log transformation, we obtain a bell-shaped distribution, which is then compared to Gaussian and catenary curves. Possible mechanisms behind the shape of impact factor distribution are suggested.

  3. Endoscope reprocessing methods: a prospective study on the impact of human factors and automation.

    PubMed

    Ofstead, Cori L; Wetzler, Harry P; Snyder, Alycea K; Horton, Rebecca A

    2010-01-01

    The main cause of endoscopy-associated infections is failure to adhere to reprocessing guidelines. More information about factors impacting compliance is needed to support the development of effective interventions. The purpose of this multisite, observational study was to evaluate reprocessing practices, employee perceptions, and occupational health issues. Data were collected utilizing interviews, surveys, and direct observation. Written reprocessing policies and procedures were in place at all five sites, and employees affirmed the importance of most recommended steps. Nevertheless, observers documented guideline adherence, with only 1.4% of endoscopes reprocessed using manual cleaning methods with automated high-level disinfection versus 75.4% of those reprocessed using an automated endoscope cleaner and reprocessor. The majority reported health problems (i.e., pain, decreased flexibility, numbness, or tingling). Physical discomfort was associated with time spent reprocessing (p = .041). Discomfort diminished after installation of automated endoscope cleaners and reprocessors (p = .001). Enhanced training and accountability, combined with increased automation, may ensure guideline adherence and patient safety while improving employee satisfaction and health.

  4. Interferon-γ differentially modulates the impact of tumor necrosis factor-α on human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Spratte, Julia; Oemus, Anne; Zygmunt, Marek; Fluhr, Herbert

    2015-09-01

    The pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)-1 cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), are immunological factors relevant at the feto-maternal interface and involved in the pathophysiology of implantation disorders. The synergistic action of the two cytokines has been described with regard to apoptotic cell death and inflammatory responses in different cell types, but little is known regarding the human endometrium. Therefore, we examined the interaction of TNF-α and IFN-γ in human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs). ESCs were isolated from specimens obtained during hysterectomy and decidualized in vitro. Cells were incubated with TNF-α, IFN-γ or signaling-inhibitor. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, prolactin (PRL), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted protein (RANTES) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 were measured using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR. Nuclear factor of transcription (NF)-κB and its inhibitor (IκBα) were analyzed by in-cell western assay and transcription factor assay. TNF-α inhibited and IFN-γ did not affect the decidualization of ESCs. In contrast, IFN-gamma differentially modulated the stimulating effect of TNF-alpha on cytokines by enhancing IL-6, RANTES and MCP-1 and attenuating LIF mRNA expression. These effects were time- and dose-dependent. IFN-γ had no impact on the initial activation of NF-κB signaling. Histone-deacetylase activity was involved in the modulating effect of IFN-γ on RANTES secretion. These observations showed a distinct pattern of interaction of the Th-1 cytokines, TNF-α and IFN-γ in the human endometrium, which could play an important role in the pathophysiology of implantation disorders.

  5. A genomic and proteomic investigation of the impact of preimplantation factor on human decidual cells

    PubMed Central

    PAIDAS, Michael J.; KRIKUN, Graciela; HUANG, S. Joseph; JONES, Richard; ROMANO, Michael; ANNUNZIATO, Jack; BARNEA, Eytan R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Preimplantation factor (PIF) is a novel, 15 amino acid peptide, secreted by viable embryos. This study aims to elucidate PIF’s effects in human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) decidualized by estrogen and progestin, which mimics the pre-implantation milieu, and in first trimester decidua cultures (FTDC). STUDY DESIGN HESC or FTDC were incubated with 100nM synthetic PIF or vehicle control. Global gene expression was analyzed using microarray and pathway-analysis. Proteins were analyzed using quantitative mass-spectrometry, and PIF binding by ProtoArray. RESULTS Gene and proteomic analysis demonstrate that PIF affects immune, adhesion and apoptotic pathways. Significant upregulation in HESC (fold-change) include: NF-k-β activation via IRAKBP1 (53); TLR5 (9); FKBP15 protein (2.3); DSCAML1 (16). BCL-2 was downregulated in HESC (21.1) and FTDC (27.1). ProtoArray demonstrates PIF interaction with intracellular targets insulin degrading enzyme and beta-K+ channels. CONCLUSION PIF displays essential multi-targeted effects, of regulating immunity, promoting embryo-decidual adhesion, and regulating adaptive apoptotic processes. PMID:20452489

  6. Impact of Patient-centered eHealth Applications on Patient Outcomes: A Review on the Mediating Influence of Human Factor Issues.

    PubMed

    Wildenbos, G A; Peute, L W; Jaspers, M W M

    2016-11-10

    To examine the evidence of the impact of patient- centered eHealth applications on patient care and to analyze if and how reported human factor issues mediated the outcomes. We searched PubMed (2014-2015) for studies evaluating the impact of patient-centered eHealth applications on patient care (behavior change, self-efficacy, and patient health-related outcomes). The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS 2.0) model was used as a guidance framework to identify the reported human factors possibly impacting the effectiveness of an eHealth intervention. Of the 348 potentially relevant papers, 10 papers were included for data analysis. None of the 10 papers reported a negative impact of the eHealth intervention. Seven papers involved a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study. Six of these RCTs reported a positive impact of the eHealth intervention on patient care. All 10 papers reported on human factor issues possibly mediating effects of patient-centered eHealth. Human factors involved patient characteristics, perceived social support, and (type of) interaction between patient and provider. While the amount of patient-centered eHealth interventions increases, many questions remain as to whether and to what extent human factors mediate their use and impact. Future research should adopt a formal theory-driven approach towards human factors when investigating those factors' influence on the effectiveness of these interventions. Insights could then be used to better tailor the content and design of eHealth solutions according to patient user profiles, so as to enhance eHealth interventions impact on patient behavior, self-efficacy, and health-related outcomes.

  7. Human Adenomyosis Endometrium Stromal Cells Secreting More Nerve Growth Factor: Impact and Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian; Zhang, Shaofen

    2015-09-01

    Abnormal expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) was found in adenomyosis (AM). We collected AM foci from patients and eutopic endometrium from non-AM controls. Endometrium stromal cells (ESCs) were cultured. Different levels of 17β-estradiol, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), CoCl2, and H2O2 were added to the culture system separately, then the expression level of NGF in ESCs was detected. After adding different levels of NGF, the proliferation and apoptosis of ESCs and aromatase expression were detected. We found that 17β-estradiol promoted NGF production in AM ESCs but not in control ESCs; TNF promoted NGF production in both AM and control ESCs; and CoCl2 inhibited NGF production in control ESCs, but had no effect in AM ESCs. Nerve growth factor promoted the proliferation and synthesis of aromatase in AM ESCs. In conclusion, locally increased estrogen levels and inflammation may cause increased NGF production in the uterus of patients with AM. Nerve growth factor stimulated the proliferation and increased aromatase expression of ESCs from AM foci, suggesting NGF might contribute to the pathology and etiology of AM.

  8. Impact of Altering Various Image Parameters on Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Image Analysis Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Liu, Chi; Huang, Yue; Guo, Huazhang; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-01-01

    The quality of data obtained from image analysis can be directly affected by several preanalytical (e.g., staining, image acquisition), analytical (e.g., algorithm, region of interest [ROI]), and postanalytical (e.g., computer processing) variables. Whole-slide scanners generate digital images that may vary depending on the type of scanner and device settings. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of altering brightness, contrast, compression, and blurring on image analysis data quality. Slides from 55 patients with invasive breast carcinoma were digitized to include a spectrum of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) scores analyzed with Visiopharm (30 cases with score 0, 10 with 1+, 5 with 2+, and 10 with 3+). For all images, an ROI was selected and four parameters (brightness, contrast, JPEG2000 compression, out-of-focus blurring) then serially adjusted. HER2 scores were obtained for each altered image. HER2 scores decreased with increased illumination, higher compression ratios, and increased blurring. HER2 scores increased with greater contrast. Cases with HER2 score 0 were least affected by image adjustments. This experiment shows that variations in image brightness, contrast, compression, and blurring can have major influences on image analysis results. Such changes can result in under- or over-scoring with image algorithms. Standardization of image analysis is recommended to minimize the undesirable impact such variations may have on data output.

  9. Impact of Altering Various Image Parameters on Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Image Analysis Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Liu, Chi; Huang, Yue; Guo, Huazhang; Rohde, Gustavo K.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of data obtained from image analysis can be directly affected by several preanalytical (e.g., staining, image acquisition), analytical (e.g., algorithm, region of interest [ROI]), and postanalytical (e.g., computer processing) variables. Whole-slide scanners generate digital images that may vary depending on the type of scanner and device settings. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of altering brightness, contrast, compression, and blurring on image analysis data quality. Methods: Slides from 55 patients with invasive breast carcinoma were digitized to include a spectrum of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) scores analyzed with Visiopharm (30 cases with score 0, 10 with 1+, 5 with 2+, and 10 with 3+). For all images, an ROI was selected and four parameters (brightness, contrast, JPEG2000 compression, out-of-focus blurring) then serially adjusted. HER2 scores were obtained for each altered image. Results: HER2 scores decreased with increased illumination, higher compression ratios, and increased blurring. HER2 scores increased with greater contrast. Cases with HER2 score 0 were least affected by image adjustments. Conclusion: This experiment shows that variations in image brightness, contrast, compression, and blurring can have major influences on image analysis results. Such changes can result in under- or over-scoring with image algorithms. Standardization of image analysis is recommended to minimize the undesirable impact such variations may have on data output. PMID:28966838

  10. Impact of health system factors on changes in human resource and expenditures levels in OECD countries.

    PubMed

    Narine, L

    2000-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the system factors responsible for changes in the health workforce, this study undertook an empirical examination of the determinants of the size of the health workforce and overall health expenditures across fifteen OECD countries. Specifically, using the latest release of OECD data, the analysis estimated and evaluated the effects of variables such as the proportion of female physicians and the elderly, expenditures on ambulatory care, enrollment levels in training programs, level of public financing, and per capita income on the size of the health workforce and level of health spending between 1970-1991. The findings of this study help to place the problem of the changing health workforce within the context of the complexity of health systems. It confirms any understanding of what accounts for changes in the size of the health labor force and expenditures require disentangling the effects of variables which needs to be taken into account when considering health system reforms.

  11. Milestones and Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Environmental Health has just received its first Impact Factor by Thomson ISI. At a level of 2.48, this achievement is quite satisfactory and places Environmental Health in the top 25% of environmental science journals. When the journal was launched in 2002, it was still unclear whether the Open Access publishing model could be made into a viable commercial enterprise within the biomedical field. During the past eight years, Open Access journals have become widely available, although still covering only about 15% of journal titles. Major funding agencies and institutions, including prominent US universities, now require that researchers publish in Open Access journals. Because of the profound role of scientific journals for the sharing of results and communication between researchers, the advent of Open Access may be of as much significance as the transition from handwriting to printing via moveable type. As Environmental Health is an electronic Open Access journal, the numbers of downloads at the journal website can be retrieved. The top-20 list of articles most frequently accessed shows that all of them have been downloaded over 10,000 times. Back in 2002, the first article published was accessed only 49 times during the following month. A year later, the server had over 1,000 downloads per month, and now the total number of monthly downloads approaches 50,000. These statistics complement the Impact Factor and confirm the viability of Open Access in our field of research. The advent of digital media and its decentralized mode of distribution - the internet - have dramatically changed the control and financing of scientific information dissemination, while facilitating peer review, accelerating editorial handling, and supporting much needed transparency. Both the meaning and means of "having an impact" are therefore changing, as will the degree and way in which scientific journals remain "factors" in that impact. PMID:20615249

  12. The potential ecotoxicological impact of pharmaceutical and personal care products on humans and freshwater, based on USEtox™ characterization factors. A Spanish case study of toxicity impact scores.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de García, Sheyla; García-Encina, Pedro A; Irusta-Mata, Rubén

    2017-12-31

    Pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) are being increasingly included in Life Cycle Assessment studies (LCAs) since they have brought into evidence both human and ecological adverse effects due to their presence in different environmental compartments, wastewater facilities and industry. Therefore, the main goal of this research was to estimate the characterization factors (CFs) of 27 PPCPs widely used worldwide in order to incorporate their values into Life Cycle Impact Assessment studies (LCIA) or to generate a toxicity impact score ranking. Physicochemical properties, degradation rates, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity and human health effects were collected from experimental data, recognized databases or estimated using EPI Suite™ and the USEtox™ software, and were subsequently used for estimating CFs. In addition, a Spanish toxicity impact score ranking was carried out for 49 PPCPs using the 27 newly calculated CFs, and 22 CFs already available in the literature, besides the data related to the occurrence of PPCPs in the environment in Spain. It has been highlighted that emissions into the continental freshwater compartment showed the highest CFs values for human effects (ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-3)Cases·kg(-1)), followed by emissions into the air (10(-9) to 10(-5)Cases·kg(-1)), soil (10(-11) to 10(5)Cases·kg(-1)) and seawater (10(-12) to 10(-4)Cases·kg(-1)). CFs regarding the affectation of freshwater aquatic environments were the highest of those proceeding from emissions into continental freshwater (between 1 to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) due to the direct contact between the source of emission and the compartment affected, followed by soil (among 10(-1) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)), and air (among 10(-2) to 10(4)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)) while the lowest were the CFs of continental seawater (among 10(-28) to 10(-3)PAF·m(3)·day·kgemission(-1)). Freshwater aquatic ecotoxicological CFs are much higher than human

  13. The "impact factor" revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Peng; Loh, Marie; Mondry, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The number of scientific journals has become so large that individuals, institutions and institutional libraries cannot completely store their physical content. In order to prioritize the choice of quality information sources, librarians and scientists are in need of reliable decision aids. The "impact factor" (IF) is the most commonly used assessment aid for deciding which journals should receive a scholarly submission or attention from research readership. It is also an often misunderstood tool. This narrative review explains how the IF is calculated, how bias is introduced into the calculation, which questions the IF can or cannot answer, and how different professional groups can benefit from IF use. PMID:16324222

  14. How is impact factor impacting our research?

    PubMed

    Rawat, Seema

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of an journal is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to recent articles published in the journal. It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field, with journals with higher impact factors deemed to be more important than those with lower ones. However it is not a perfect metric and has its own limitations. Journals are increasingly finding new ways to improve their impact factor by increasing self citation, publishing more review articles. This correspondence discuss the fallacies of the impact factor.

  15. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  16. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    PubMed

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  17. Factors impacting the formation of sphere-like bacterial cellulose particles and their biocompatibility for human osteoblast growth.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Catchmark, Jeffrey M; Vogler, Erwin A

    2013-10-14

    It has been observed that certain strains of the bacterium Gluconacetobacter xylinus can produce sphere-like cellulose particles (SCP) under orbital shaking cultivation. These unique particles may have broad applications in materials science, especially in the biomedical field. The mechanism behind SCP formation and SCP biocompatibility, however, remain unknown. In this study, several factors potentially involved in the formation of SCP have been examined including the composition of initial inoculums, inoculum volume, initial media glucose concentration, and temperature. The results revealed that cellulose fibers supposedly existing in the initial inoculums did not relate to the initiation of cellulose spherical structure. Increased inoculum volume reduced the number of SCP, and different initial glucose concentrations impacted the mean of approximate diameters of SCP, while the number of SCP remained unchanged under different initial glucose concentrations. Additionally, the formation process of SCP has been clearly identified in this study by lowering the culture temperature. Furthermore, rapid attachment and extension of human osteoblast cells grown on SCP demonstrated their good biocompatibility and the potential use of this kind of materials for biomedical applications.

  18. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  19. Human factors in resuscitation teaching.

    PubMed

    Norris, Elizabeth M; Lockey, Andrew S

    2012-04-01

    There is an increasing interest in human factors within the healthcare environment reflecting the understanding of their impact on safety. The aim of this paper is to explore how human factors might be taught on resuscitation courses, and improve course outcomes in terms of improved mortality and morbidity for patients. The delivery of human factors training is important and this review explores the work that has been delivered already and areas for future research and teaching. Medline was searched using MESH terms Resuscitation as a Major concept and Patient or Leadership as core terms. The abstracts were read and 25 full length articles reviewed. Critical incident reporting has shown four recurring problems: lack of organisation at an arrest, lack of equipment, non functioning equipment, and obstructions preventing good care. Of these, the first relates directly to the concept of human factors. Team dynamics for both team membership and leadership, management of stress, conflict and the role of debriefing are highlighted. Possible strategies for teaching them are discussed. Four strategies for improving human factors training are discussed: team dynamics (including team membership and leadership behaviour), the influence of stress, debriefing, and conflict within teams. This review illustrates how human factor training might be integrated further into life support training without jeopardising the core content and lengthening the courses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  1. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  2. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  3. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  4. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  5. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  6. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  7. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  8. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  9. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  10. Impact factors: uses and abuses.

    PubMed

    Neuberger, James; Counsell, Christopher

    2002-03-01

    Quantitative assessment of the scientific merit of journals and articles is being used increasingly to assess and compare researchers and institutions. The most commonly used measure is the 2 year Impact Factor, which broadly reflects the number of times each article in the journal has been cited over the previous 2 years. There are clear limitations to the use of such measures - not least, Impact Factors reflect the journal not the article, vary with time and correlate only poorly with perceived excellence. Simple comparison of impact factors in different specialties may be misleading. Review journals often have higher Impact Factors than those with original data. Both authors and editors can try to manipulate journal Impact Factors. However, despite valid concerns, Impact Factors are widely used and offer, at present, the best simple tool for comparison of output. Like all measures, the use of Impact Factors has to be tempered with knowledge of their limitations and common sense used in interpreting any data based on any analysis.

  11. Magnetic factor in solar-terrestrial relations and its impact on the human body: physical problems and prospects for research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, T. K.; Binhi, V. N.; Petrukovich, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The body of current heliobiological evidence suggests that very weak variable magnetic fields due to solar- and geomagnetic-activities do have a biological effect. Geomagnetic disturbances can cause a nonspecific reaction in the human body - a kind of general adaptation syndrome which occurs due to any external stress factor. Also, specific reactions can develop. One of the reasons discussed for the similarity between biological and heliogeophysical rhythms is that geomagnetic variations have a direct influence on organisms, although exact magnetoreception mechanisms are not yet clear. The paper briefly reviews the current state of empirical and theoretical work on this fundamental multidisciplinary problem.

  12. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  13. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  14. Human factors in space telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Howard, R. D.; Oliveria, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of interfacing a human with a teleoperation system, for work in space are discussed. Much of the information presented here is the result of experience gained by the M.I.T. Space Systems Laboratory during the past two years of work on the ARAMIS (Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems) project. Many factors impact the design of the man-machine interface for a teleoperator. The effects of each are described in turn. An annotated bibliography gives the key references that were used. No conclusions are presented as a best design, since much depends on the particular application desired, and the relevant technology is swiftly changing.

  15. Plasma activity of endothelial lipase impacts high-density lipoprotein metabolism and coronary risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Ishida, Tatsuro; Miyashita, Kazuya; Kinoshita, Noriaki; Mori, Kenta; Yasuda, Tomoyuki; Toh, Ryuji; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Imamura, Shigeyuki; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a determinant of plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). However, little is known about the impact of EL activity on plasma lipid profile. We aimed to establish a new method to evaluate EL-specific phospholipase activity in humans. Plasma samples were obtained from 115 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 154 patients without CAD. Plasma EL protein was immunoprecipitated using an anti-EL monoclonal antibody after plasma non-specific immunoglobulins were removed by incubation with ProteinA. The phospholipase activity of the immunoprecipitated samples was measured using a fluorogenic phospholipase substrate, Bis-BODIPY FL C11-PC. The EL-specific phospholipase assay revealed that plasma EL activity was inversely correlated with HDL-C levels (R = -0.3088, p<0.0001). In addition, the EL activity was associated with cigarette smoking. Furthermore, EL activity in CAD patients was significantly higher than that in nonCAD patients. Concomitantly, the HDL-C level in CAD patients were significantly lower than that in non-CAD patients. We have established a method for human plasma EL-specific phospholipase activity by combination of EL immunoprecipitation and a fluorogenic phospholipid substrate. Plasma EL activity was associated with not only plasma HDL-C levels but also the risks for CAD.

  16. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  17. Impact of Age and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 on DNA Damage Responses in UV-Irradiated Human Skin.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael G; Spandau, Dan F; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2017-02-26

    The growing incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) necessitates a thorough understanding of its primary risk factors, which include exposure to ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of sunlight and age. Whereas UV radiation (UVR) has long been known to generate photoproducts in genomic DNA that promote genetic mutations that drive skin carcinogenesis, the mechanism by which age contributes to disease pathogenesis is less understood and has not been sufficiently studied. In this review, we highlight studies that have considered age as a variable in examining DNA damage responses in UV-irradiated skin and then discuss emerging evidence that the reduced production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) by senescent fibroblasts in the dermis of geriatric skin creates an environment that negatively impacts how epidermal keratinocytes respond to UVR-induced DNA damage. In particular, recent data suggest that two principle components of the cellular response to DNA damage, including nucleotide excision repair and DNA damage checkpoint signaling, are both partially defective in keratinocytes with inactive IGF-1 receptors. Overcoming these tumor-promoting conditions in aged skin may therefore provide a way to lower aging-associated skin cancer risk, and thus we will consider how dermal wounding and related clinical interventions may work to rejuvenate the skin, re-activate IGF-1 signaling, and prevent the initiation of NMSC.

  18. USEtox - The UNEP-SETAC toxicity model: recommended characterisation factors for human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity in Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Bachmann, Till M.; Swirsky Gold, Lois; Huijbregts, Mark A.J.; Jolliet, Olivier; Juraske, Ronnie; Koehler, Annette; Larsen, Henrik F.; MacLeod, Matthew; Margni, Manuele; McKone, Thomas E.; Payet, Jerome; Schuhmacher, Marta; van de Meent, Dik; Hauschild, Michael Z.

    2008-02-03

    Background, Aim and Scope. In 2005 a comprehensive comparison of LCIA toxicity characterisation models was initiated by the UNEP-SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, directly involving the model developers of CalTOX, IMPACT 2002, USES-LCA, BETR, EDIP, WATSON, and EcoSense. In this paper we describe this model-comparison process and its results--in particular the scientific consensus model developed by the model developers. The main objectives of this effort were (i) to identify specific sources of differences between the models' results and structure, (ii) to detect the indispensable model components, and (iii) to build a scientific consensus model from them, representing recommended practice. Methods. A chemical test set of 45 organics covering a wide range of property combinations was selected for this purpose. All models used this set. In three workshops, the model comparison participants identified key fate, exposure and effect issues via comparison of the final characterisation factors and selected intermediate outputs for fate, human exposure and toxic effects for the test set applied to all models. Results. Through this process, we were able to reduce inter-model variation from an initial range of up to 13 orders of magnitude down to no more than 2 orders of magnitude for any substance. This led to the development of USEtox, a scientific consensus model that contains only the most influential model elements. These were, for example, process formulations accounting for intermittent rain, defining a closed or open system environment, or nesting an urban box in a continental box. Discussion. The precision of the new characterisation factors (CFs) is within a factor of 100-1000 for human health and 10-100 for freshwater ecotoxicity of all other models compared to 12 orders of magnitude variation between the CFs of each model respectively. The achieved reduction of inter-model variability by up to 11 orders of magnitude is a significant improvement.Conclusions. USEtox

  19. Anthrax Lethal Factor as an Immune Target in Humans and Transgenic Mice and the Impact of HLA Polymorphism on CD4+ T Cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Chu, Karen K.; Reynolds, Catherine J.; Musson, Julie A.; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Theresa B.; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E. Diane; Robinson, John H.; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J.; Altmann, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified. PMID:24788397

  20. Anthrax lethal factor as an immune target in humans and transgenic mice and the impact of HLA polymorphism on CD4+ T cell immunity.

    PubMed

    Ascough, Stephanie; Ingram, Rebecca J; Chu, Karen K; Reynolds, Catherine J; Musson, Julie A; Doganay, Mehmet; Metan, Gökhan; Ozkul, Yusuf; Baillie, Les; Sriskandan, Shiranee; Moore, Stephen J; Gallagher, Theresa B; Dyson, Hugh; Williamson, E Diane; Robinson, John H; Maillere, Bernard; Boyton, Rosemary J; Altmann, Daniel M

    2014-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis produces a binary toxin composed of protective antigen (PA) and one of two subunits, lethal factor (LF) or edema factor (EF). Most studies have concentrated on induction of toxin-specific antibodies as the correlate of protective immunity, in contrast to which understanding of cellular immunity to these toxins and its impact on infection is limited. We characterized CD4+ T cell immunity to LF in a panel of humanized HLA-DR and DQ transgenic mice and in naturally exposed patients. As the variation in antigen presentation governed by HLA polymorphism has a major impact on protective immunity to specific epitopes, we examined relative binding affinities of LF peptides to purified HLA class II molecules, identifying those regions likely to be of broad applicability to human immune studies through their ability to bind multiple alleles. Transgenics differing only in their expression of human HLA class II alleles showed a marked hierarchy of immunity to LF. Immunogenicity in HLA transgenics was primarily restricted to epitopes from domains II and IV of LF and promiscuous, dominant epitopes, common to all HLA types, were identified in domain II. The relevance of this model was further demonstrated by the fact that a number of the immunodominant epitopes identified in mice were recognized by T cells from humans previously infected with cutaneous anthrax and from vaccinated individuals. The ability of the identified epitopes to confer protective immunity was demonstrated by lethal anthrax challenge of HLA transgenic mice immunized with a peptide subunit vaccine comprising the immunodominant epitopes that we identified.

  1. NASA human factors programmatic overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors addresses humans in their active and interactive capacities, i.e., in the mental and physical activities that they perform and in the contributions they make to achieving the goals of the mission. The overall goal of space human factors in NASA is to support the safety, productivity, and reliability of both the on-board crew and the ground support staff. Safety and reliability are fundamental requirements that human factors shares with other disciplines, while productivity represents the defining contribution of the human factors discipline.

  2. Example of a Human Factors Engineering approach to a medication administration work system: potential impact on patient safety.

    PubMed

    Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia; Bernonville, Stéphanie

    2010-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are: In this approach, the implementation of such a complex IT solution is considered a major redesign of the work system. The paper describes the Human Factor (HF) tasks embedded in the project lifecycle: (1) analysis and modelling of the current work system and usability assessment of the medication CPOE solution; (2) HF recommendations for work re-design and usability recommendations for IT system re-engineering both aiming at a safer and more efficient work situation. Standard ethnographic methods were used to support the analysis of the current work system and work situations, coupled with cognitive task analysis methods and documents review. Usability inspection (heuristic evaluation) and both in-lab (simulated tasks) and on-site (real tasks) usability tests were performed for the evaluation of the CPOE candidate. Adapted software engineering models were used in combination with usual textual descriptions, tasks models and mock-ups to support the recommendations for work and product re-design. The analysis of the work situations identified different work organisations and procedures across the hospital's departments. The most important differences concerned the doctor-nurse communications and cooperation modes and the procedures for preparing and administering the medications. The assessment of the medication CPOE functions uncovered a number of usability problems including severe ones leading to impossible to detect or to catch errors. Models of the actual and possible distribution of tasks and roles were used to support decision making in the work design process. The results of the usability assessment were translated into requirements to support the necessary re-engineering of the IT application. The HFE approach to medication CPOE efficiently identifies and distinguishes currently unsafe or uncomfortable work situations that could obviously benefit from an IT solution from other work situations incorporating efficient work

  3. Research Needs for Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Arlington, VA.

    Human factors engineering can be defined as the application of scientific principles, methods, and data drawn from a variety of disciplines to the development of engineering systems in which people play a significant role. Since human factors issues arise in every domain in which humans interact with the products of a technological society, six…

  4. Impact of palbociclib combinations on treatment of advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boér, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple subgroups based on clinical and molecular characteristics. For the largest subgroup of breast cancers, hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors, hormone treatment is the mainstay of therapy and is likely to result in significant improvement in disease outcomes. However, some of these cancers demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. Despite intensive research to develop new strategies to enhance the efficacy of currently available treatment options for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, progress has been slow, and there were few advances for a period of 10 years. In 2012, a new molecularly targeted therapeutic strategy, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, was introduced into clinical practice. Everolimus, in combination with a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, resulted in an increase in progression-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ve advanced disease who had progressed on hormone therapy. In 2015, the first cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, palbociclib, received accelerated US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal ER+ve/HER2−ve advanced breast cancer as initial, endocrine-based therapy. The addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than letrozole alone. One year later, palbociclib received a new indication, use in combination with fulvestrant, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females with advanced breast cancer of the same subtype with disease progression following endocrine therapy. Adding palbociclib to fulvestrant resulted in a significantly increased median progression-free survival compared to fulvestrant monotherapy. These new combination regimens of palbociclib with endocrine agents represent an important

  5. Impact of palbociclib combinations on treatment of advanced estrogen receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Boér, Katalin

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with multiple subgroups based on clinical and molecular characteristics. For the largest subgroup of breast cancers, hormone receptor-positive/human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)-negative tumors, hormone treatment is the mainstay of therapy and is likely to result in significant improvement in disease outcomes. However, some of these cancers demonstrate de novo or acquired resistance to endocrine therapy. Despite intensive research to develop new strategies to enhance the efficacy of currently available treatment options for hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, progress has been slow, and there were few advances for a period of 10 years. In 2012, a new molecularly targeted therapeutic strategy, inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, was introduced into clinical practice. Everolimus, in combination with a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, exemestane, resulted in an increase in progression-free survival, but not overall survival in patients with estrogen receptor (ER)+ve advanced disease who had progressed on hormone therapy. In 2015, the first cyclin-dependent kinases 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, palbociclib, received accelerated US Food and Drug Administration approval for use in combination with letrozole for the treatment of postmenopausal ER+ve/HER2-ve advanced breast cancer as initial, endocrine-based therapy. The addition of palbociclib to endocrine therapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than letrozole alone. One year later, palbociclib received a new indication, use in combination with fulvestrant, in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females with advanced breast cancer of the same subtype with disease progression following endocrine therapy. Adding palbociclib to fulvestrant resulted in a significantly increased median progression-free survival compared to fulvestrant monotherapy. These new combination regimens of palbociclib with endocrine agents represent an important addition

  6. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  7. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin; Sandor, Aniko

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 08 (FY08) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: (1) Risk associated with poor task design (2) Risk of error due to inadequate information (3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design

  8. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byme, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current Shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. Training efforts in FY07 strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center operations. Beginning in January 2008, the training research effort will include team training prototypes and tools. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  9. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  10. Human factors and operating room safety.

    PubMed

    ElBardissi, Andrew W; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2012-02-01

    A human factors model is used to highlight the nature of many systems factors that affect surgical performance, including the OR environment, teamwork and communication, technology and equipment, tasks and workload factors, and organizational variables. If further improvements in the success rate and reliability of cardiac surgery are to be realized, interventions need to be developed to reduce the negative impact that work system failures can have on surgical performance. Some recommendations are proposed here; however, several challenges remain.

  11. Impact of nanoparticles on human and environment: review of toxicity factors, exposures, control strategies, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Ilyas, Muhammad; Basheer, Chanbasha; Tariq, Madiha; Daud, Muhammad; Baig, Nadeem; Shehzad, Farrukh

    2015-03-01

    Nanotechnology has revolutionized the world through introduction of a unique class of materials and consumer products in many arenas. It has led to production of innovative materials and devices. Despite of their unique advantages and applications in domestic and industrial sectors, use of materials with dimensions in nanometers has raised the issue of safety for workers, consumers, and human environment. Because of their small size and other unique characteristics, nanoparticles have ability to harm human and wildlife by interacting through various mechanisms. We have reviewed the characteristics of nanoparticles which form the basis of their toxicity. This paper also reviews possible routes of exposure of nanoparticles to human body. Dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion have been discussed in detail. As very limited data is available for long-term human exposures, there is a pressing need to develop the methods which can determine short and long-term effects of nanoparticles on human and environment. We also discuss in brief the strategies which can help to control human exposures to toxic nanoparticles. We have outlined the current status of toxicological studies dealing with nanoparticles, accomplishments, weaknesses, and future challenges.

  12. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  13. Some Human Factors in Codebreaking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-01

    thereafter. Some human factors that can lead to vital ‘breaks’ are highlighted. Bletchley Park’s current rôle in Anglo-Polish diplomatic relations...Human Factors in Codebreaking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  14. Factors Impacting Decommissioning Costs - 13576

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Karen; McGrath, Richard

    2013-07-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) studied United States experience with decommissioning cost estimates and the factors that impact the actual cost of decommissioning projects. This study gathered available estimated and actual decommissioning costs from eight nuclear power plants in the United States to understand the major components of decommissioning costs. Major costs categories for decommissioning a nuclear power plant are removal costs, radioactive waste costs, staffing costs, and other costs. The technical factors that impact the costs were analyzed based on the plants' decommissioning experiences. Detailed cost breakdowns by major projects and other cost categories from actual power plant decommissioning experiences will be presented. Such information will be useful in planning future decommissioning and designing new plants. (authors)

  15. Human factors in visualization research.

    PubMed

    Tory, Melanie; Möller, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. However, how people perceive and interact with a visualization tool can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the system's usefulness. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should play an important role in the design and evaluation of visualization tools. Several research initiatives have begun to explore human factors in visualization, particularly in perception-based design. Nonetheless, visualization work involving human factors is in its infancy, and many potentially promising areas have yet to be explored. Therefore, this paper aims to 1) review known methodology for doing human factors research, with specific emphasis on visualization, 2) review current human factors research in visualization to provide a basis for future investigation, and 3) identify promising areas for future research.

  16. Impact fact-or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Pulverer, Bernd

    2013-01-01

    The Journal Impact Factor dominates research assessment in many disciplines and in many countries. While research assessment will always have to rely to some extent on quantitative, standardized metrics, the focus on this single measure has gone so far as to hamper and distort scientific research. The Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA), signed by influential journals, funders, academic institutions and individuals across the natural sciences, aims to raise awareness and to redress the use of non-objective research assessment practices. PMID:23685358

  17. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  18. The impact of human factors, crashworthiness and optical performance design requirements on helmet-mounted display development from the 1970s to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Rash, Clarence E.; McLean, William E.; Martin, John S.

    2015-05-01

    Driven by the operational needs of modern warfare, the helmet-mounted display (HMD) has matured from a revolutionary, but impractical, World War I era idea for an infantry marksman's helmet-mounted weapon delivery system to a sophisticated and ubiquitous display and targeting system that dominates current night warfighting operations. One of the most demanding applications for HMD designs has been in Army rotary-wing aviation, where HMDs offer greater direct access to visual information and increased situational awareness in an operational environment where information availability is critical on a second-to-second basis. However, over the past 40 years of extensive HMD development, a myriad of crashworthiness, optical, and human factors issues have both frustrated and challenged designers. While it may be difficult to attain a full consensus on which are the most important HMD design factors, certainly head-supported weight (HSW), exit pupil size, field-of-view, image resolution and physical eye relief have been among the most critical. A confounding factor has been the interrelationship between the many design issues, such as early attempts to use non-glass optical elements to lower HSW, but at the cost of image quality, and hence, pilot visual performance. This paper traces how the role of the demanding performance requirements placed on HMDs by the U.S. Army aviation community has impacted the progress of HMD designs towards the Holy Grail of HMD design: a wide field-of-view, high resolution, binocular, full-color, totally crashworthy system.

  19. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  20. Activation of human factor IX (Christmas factor).

    PubMed Central

    Di Scipio, R G; Kurachi, K; Davie, E W

    1978-01-01

    Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) is a single-chain plasma glycoprotein (mol wt 57,000) that participates in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It is present in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease, Factor IXabeta, by Factor XIa (activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in the presence of calcium ions. In the activation reaction, two internal peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in Factor IX. These cleavages occur at a specific arginyl-alanine peptide bond and a specific arginyl-valine peptide bond. This results in the release of an activation peptide (mol wt approximately equal to 11,000) from the internal region of the precursor molecule and the generation of Factor IXabeta (mol wt approximately equal to 46,000). Factor IXabeta is composed of a light chain (mol wt approximately equal to 18,000) and a heavy chain (mol wt approximately equal to 28,000), and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain originates from the amino terminal portion of the precursor molecule and has an amino terminal sequence of Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gly-Lys. The heavy chain originates from the carboxyl terminal region of the precursor molecule and contains an amino terminal sequence of Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Glu. The heavy chain of Factor IXabeta also contains the active site sequence of Phe-Cys-Ala-Gly-Phe-His-Glu-Gly-Arg-Asp-Ser-Cys-Gln-Gly-Asp-SER-Gly-Gly-Pro. The active site serine residue is shown in capital letters. Factor IX is also converted to Factor IXaalpha by a protease from Russell's viper venom. This activation reaction, however, occurs in a single step and involves only the cleavage of the internal arginyl-valine peptide bond. Human Factor IXabeta was inhibited by human antithrombin III by the formation of a one-to-one complex of enzyme and inhibitor. In this reaction, the inhibitor was tightly bound to the heavy chain of the enzyme. These data indicate that the mechanism of activation of human Factor IX and its

  1. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  2. The Use of Adjustment Factors to Address the Impact of Inflammation on Vitamin A and Iron Status in Humans123

    PubMed Central

    Thurnham, David I; Northrop-Clewes, Christine A; Knowles, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Many nutrient biomarkers are altered by inflammation. We calculated adjustment factors for retinol and ferritin by using meta-analyses of studies containing the respective biomarker and 2 acute phase proteins in serum, C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). With the use of CRP and AGP we identified 4 groups in each study: reference (CRP ≤5 mg/L, AGP ≤1 g/L), incubation (CRP >5 mg/L, AGP ≤1 g/L), early convalescence (CRP >5 mg/L, AGP >1 g/L), and late convalescence (CRP ≤5 mg/L, AGP >1 g/L). For each biomarker, ratios of the geometric means of the reference to each inflammation group concentration were used to calculate adjustment factors for retinol (1.13, 1.24, and 1.11) and ferritin (0.77, 0.53, and 0.75) for the incubation, early, and late convalescent groups, respectively. The application of the meta-analysis factors in more recent studies compares well with study-specific factors. The same method was used to calculate adjustment factors for soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and body iron stores (BISs) in Lao children. We found no advantage in adjusting sTfR for inflammation; in fact, adjustment decreased iron deficiency. Neither adjusted (10% <0 mg/kg) nor nonadjusted (12% <0 mg/kg) BISs detected as much iron deficiency as did ferritin (18% <12μg/L) and adjusted ferritin (21% <12 μg/L) unless the cutoff for BISs was increased from 0 to <3 mg/kg. However, we could find no evidence that the larger number of children identified as having BISs <3 mg/kg had risks of anemia comparable to those identified by using ferritin <12 μg/L. In conclusion, both corrected and uncorrected ferritin concentrations <12 μg/L are associated with more iron deficiency and anemia than either sTfR >8.3 mg/L or BISs <0 mg/kg in Lao children. PMID:25833890

  3. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  4. Human impacts on bear habitat use

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.

    1990-01-01

    : Human effects on bear habitat use are mediated through food biomass changes, bear tolerance of humans and their impacts, and human tolerance of bears. Large-scale changes in bear food biomass have been caused by conversion of wildlands and waterways to intensive human use, and by the introduction of exotic pathogens. Bears consume virtually all human foods that have been established in former wildlands, but bear use has been limited by access. Air pollution has also affected bear food biomass on a small scale and is likely to have major future impacts on bear habitat through climatic warming. Major changes in disturbance cycles and landscape mosaics wrought by humans have further altered temporal and spatial pulses of bear food production. These changes have brought short-term benefits in places, but have also added long-term stresses to most bear populations. Although bears tend to avoid humans, they will also use exotic and native foods in close proximity to humans. Subadult males and adult females are more often impelled to forage closer to humans because of their energetic predicament and because more secure sites are often preempted by adult males. Although male bears are typically responsible for most livestock predation, adult females and subadult males are more likely to be habituated to humans because they tend to forage closer to humans. Elimination of human-habituated bears predictably reduces effective carrying capacity and is more likely to be a factor in preserving bear populations where humans are present in moderate-to-high densities. If humans desire to preserve viable bear populations, they will either have to accept increased risk of injury associated with preserving habituated animals, or continue to crop habituated bears while at the same time preserving large tracts of wildlands free from significant human intrusion.

  5. Budget impact analysis of everolimus for the treatment of hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jipan; Diener, Melissa; De, Gourab; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Namjoshi, Madhav

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of everolimus as the first and second treatment option after letrozole or anastrozole (L/A) failure for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). Pharmacy and medical budget impacts (2011 USD) were estimated over the first year of everolimus use in HR+, HER2- ABC from a US payer perspective. Epidemiology data were used to estimate target population size. Pre-everolimus entry treatment options included exemestane, fulvestrant, and tamoxifen. Pre- and post-everolimus entry market shares were estimated based on market research and assumptions. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition cost. Patients were assumed to be on treatment until progression or death. Annual medical costs were calculated as the average of pre- and post-progression medical costs weighted by the time in each period, adjusted for survival. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the model robustness. In a hypothetical 1,000,000 member plan, 72 and 159 patients were expected to be candidates for everolimus treatment as first and second treatment option, respectively, after L/A failure. The total budget impact for the first year post-everolimus entry was $0.044 per member per month [PMPM] (pharmacy budget: $0.058 PMPM; medical budget: -$0.014 PMPM), assuming 10% of the target population would receive everolimus. The total budget impacts for the first and second treatment options after L/A failure were $0.014 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.018; medical budget: -$0.004) and $0.030 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.040; medical budget: -$0.010), respectively. Results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. Assumptions about some model input parameters were necessary and may impact results. Increased pharmacy costs for HR+, HER2- ABC following everolimus entry are expected to be partially offset by reduced medical service costs. Pharmacy and total

  6. Nuclear-physical analysis methods in medical geology: Assessment of the impact of environmental factors on human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Lyapunov, S. M.; Okina, O. I.; Frontas'eva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Il'chenko, I. N.

    2015-05-01

    The procedure for geomedical studies is outlined, and the niche occupied by the nuclear-physical analysis methods in these studies is pointed out. The necessity of construction of an efficient complex of the most modern analytical methods is demonstrated. The metrological parameters of methods applied in the analysis of natural environments and biological materials are evaluated. The current state of pollution of natural environments with heavy and toxic metals is characterized in two specific industrial hubs: the towns of Gus-Khrustalny and Podolsk. The levels of pollution of diagnostic biological materials (hair and blood) from children living in various urban districts are studied in the light of specific features of the manufacturing industry in these towns and the life environment of child population. The results of studies focused on evaluating the effect of environment on the health of child population are detailed. The actual damage to child health, their neuropsychic development and behavior, and the effect of socioeconomic factors are determined. Preventive problems among the child population exposed to lead and other toxic metals are evaluated, and ways to solve them are proposed. A system of early diagnosis and preventive measures for the mitigation of adverse effect of toxic metals (Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn, Cr, Ni, As, etc.) on the neuropsychic development of children is developed based on an actual ecogeochemical estimation of the state of the region under study.

  7. Human factors simulation in construction management education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-06-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management be taught effectively? Although simulations are applied in construction management education, they have not incorporated human factors sufficiently. The focus on human factors as part of the simulation of construction management situations increases students' learning effectiveness within a cross-cultural teaching setting. This paper shows the development of discrete-event human factors in construction management simulation. A description of the source code is given. Learning effectiveness in a cross-cultural education setting was analysed by evaluating data obtained through student questionnaire surveys. The mean score obtained by the students using the simulator was 32% better than those not exposed to the simulator. The spread of results was noticeably greater for the students not exposed to the simulator. The human factors simulation provides an effective means to teach students the complexities and dynamics of interpersonal relationships in construction management.

  8. Applications of Human Factors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The main question for human factors practitioners is to determine if the user population can be accommodated within a design. Given the wide range of variables feeding into a design, just one of which is human factors, oftentimes designers will have restrictions that may potentially impact the level of accommodation. This paper focuses on two case studies where there have been impacts at the design level that may be detrimental to the ability of the design to meet certain criteria. The studies use novel approaches to determine what, if any, changes in population accommodation levels have occurred and what factors are important when manipulating the design in the future. The results of these studies provide a backbone for future analyses when working with design considerations.

  9. The impact factor of Angewandte Chemie ….

    PubMed

    Gölitz, Peter

    2015-01-02

    What does the Impact Factor tell us? This question is addressed by Peter Glitz in his Editorial, particularly in light of the surprising drop in the 2013 Impact Factor of Angewandte Chemie. An explanation is sought and found. Most importantly the influence of the individual variables that determine the Impact Factor needs to be understood.

  10. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  11. Human Factors in CAI Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambally, Gerard K.; Rambally, Rodney S.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies human factor issues involved in the student-computer interface in computer assisted instruction and makes specific recommendations for screen design. Factors considered include simplicity, spaciousness, relevance, standardization, changing display screen contents, color coding, shape and size coding, and brightness coding. (Author/LRW)

  12. Human Platelets and Factor XI

    PubMed Central

    Lipscomb, Myatt S.; Walsh, Peter N.

    1979-01-01

    Because human platelets participate in the contact phase of intrinsic coagulation and contain a Factor XI-like coagulant activity, the nature of the Factor XI-like activity was examined and compared with purified plasma Factor XI. The platelet factor XI-like activity was sedimented with the particulate fraction of a platelet lysate, was inactivated by heat (t1/2 3.5 min, 56°C), was not a nonspecific phospholipid activity, and was destroyed by treatment with Triton X-100. Isolated platelet membranes were four-fold enriched in Factor XI activity and similarly enriched in plasma membrane marker enzymes. The Factor XI-like activity of platelet membranes was detected only when assayed in the presence of kaolin, which suggests that it is present in an unactivated form and can participate in contact activation. Concanavalin A inhibited the Factor XI-like activity of platelet lysates and platelet membranes but not of plasma or purified Factor XI. A platelet membrane-Factor XI complex was isolated after incubation of membranes with purified Factor XI. The Factor XI activity of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex was inhibited by concanavalin A, whereas unbound plasma Factor XI retained activity. An antibody raised against plasma Factor XI inhibited the in vitro Factor XI activity of plasma and of the platelet membrane-plasma Factor XI complex but had no effect on the endogenous Factor XI-like activity of washed lysed platelets or isolated platelet membranes. Washed platelets and isolated platelet membranes obtained from a Factor XI-deficient donor without a history of excessive bleeding had normal quantities of platelet Factor XI-like activity and normal behavior in the contact phase of coagulation (collagen-induced coagulant activity). These results indicate that platelet membranes contain an endogenous Factor XI-like activity that is functionally distinct from plasma Factor XI. PMID:447822

  13. Impact of human papilloma virus infection on the response of head and neck cancers to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy.

    PubMed

    Pogorzelski, M; Ting, S; Gauler, T C; Breitenbuecher, F; Vossebein, I; Hoffarth, S; Markowetz, J; Lang, S; Bergmann, C; Brandau, S; Jawad, J A; Schmid, K W; Schuler, M; Kasper, S

    2014-02-27

    Infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) characterizes a distinct subset of head and neck squamous cell cancers (HNSCCs). HPV-positive HNSCC preferentially affect the oropharynx and tonsils. Localized HPV-positive HNSCCs have a favorable prognosis and treatment outcome. However, the impact of HPV in advanced or metastatic HNSCC remains to be defined. In particular, it is unclear whether HPV modulates the response to cetuximab, an antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is a mainstay of treatment of advanced HNSCC. To this end, we have examined the sensitivity of HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC models to cetuximab and cytotoxic drugs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we have stably expressed the HPV oncogenes E6 and E7 in cetuximab-sensitive cancer cell lines to specifically investigate their role in the antibody response. The endogenous HPV status or the expression of HPV oncogenes had no significant impact on cetuximab-mediated suppression of EGFR signaling and proliferation in vitro. Cetuximab effectively inhibited the growth of E6- and E7-expressing tumors grafted in NOD/SCID mice. In support, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor samples from cetuximab-treated patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC were probed for p16(INK4a) expression, an established biomarker of HPV infection. Response rates (45.5% versus 45.5%) and median progression-free survival (97 versus 92 days) following cetuximab-based therapy were similar in patients with p16(INK4A)-positive and p16(INK4A)-negative tumors. In conclusion, HPV oncogenes do not modulate the anti-EGFR antibody response in HSNCC. Cetuximab treatment should be administered independently of HPV status.

  14. Human Factors Feedback: Brain Acoustic Monitor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    gloves (nitrile rubber or latex ) or working in extreme heat or cold could also impact the ease-of- use of the touchpad. To remedy this problem, a standard...considerations for improving the device’s functionality based on applied human factor domain principles assessed during subject testing. This report focuses...board is permanently integrated into the laptop, would be highly preferable to improve portability and ruggedness. Such a design would decrease

  15. Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    significant effect on the design of new systems but it can also mitigate problems found in the sub-optimal designs of current systems. 2. Human Factors...and parts 3. Airplane design and configuration 4. Job and task 5. Technical knowledge and skills 6. Factors affecting individual performance-e.g...software failures (e.g. documentation design ) were found. Note that there are typically multiple latent failures for each hazard pattern, so that

  16. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  17. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  18. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  19. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  20. Contrasting human versus climatic impacts on erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Timothy L.; Yellen, Brian C.; Woodruff, Jonathon D.; Miller, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    Both human activity and climate change can influence erosion rates and initiate rapid landscape change. Understanding the relative impact of these factors is critical to managing the risks of extreme erosion related to flooding and landslide occurrence. Here we present a 2100 year record of sediment mass accumulation and inferred erosion based on lacustrine sediment cores from Amherst Lake, Vermont, USA. Using deposition from August 2011 Tropical Storm Irene as a modern analogue, we identified distinct event deposits indicative of destructive erosion events. These deposits record a prolonged (multidecadal) interval of enhanced erosion following the initial storm-induced landscape disturbance. The direct impact of human land cover alteration is minimal in comparison to the more recent twentieth century increase in the occurrence of catastrophic erosion linked to overall wetter conditions that favor high erosion rates and more easily trigger landslides during periods of extreme precipitation.

  1. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  2. Human Casualties in Impact Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritzner, C.

    1997-10-01

    It is widespread error to believe that people were never killed by meteorites. It was concluded that there no human casualties due to meteorite falls because there were no reports about such incidents, but there are reports of these rare events. The statement of no one ever being killed by a meteorite may intend that the danger even of asteroid and comet impacts onto the Earth is only fiction, but the danger is real. It is a low-probability-high-consequence event for large impactors (more than 1 km). Even from meteorites, however, people were reported struck to death. This article gives a survey over reports of human casualties from 616 A.D. well to our century.

  3. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  4. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  5. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  6. Human factors in contingency operations.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon J; Khan, M A; Scott, T; Matthews, J J; Henning, Dcw; Stapley, S

    2016-06-10

    The UK Defence Medical Services are currently supporting contingency operations following a period of intensive activity in relatively mature trauma systems in Iraq and Afghanistan. Among the key lessons identified, human factors or non-technical skills played an important role in the improvement of patient care. This article describes the importance of human factors on Role 2 Afloat, one of the Royal Navy's maritime contingency capabilities, and illustrates how they are vital to ensuring that correct decisions are made for patient care in a timely manner. Teamwork and communication are particularly important to ensure that limited resources such as blood products and other consumables are best used and that patients are evacuated promptly, allowing the facility to accept further casualties and therefore maintain operational capability. These ideas may be transferred to any small specialist team given a particular role to perform.

  7. Human factors in incident reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

  8. Human factors in incident reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

  9. Human factors in waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Moray, N.

    1994-10-01

    This article examines the role of human factors in radioactive waste management. Although few problems and ergonomics are special to radioactive waste management, some problems are unique especially with long term storage. The entire sociotechnical system must be looked at in order to see where improvement can take place because operator errors, as seen in Chernobyl and Bhopal, are ultimately the result of management errors.

  10. Assessment of lichen diversity by index of atmospheric purity (IAP), index of human impact (IHI) and other environmental factors in an urban area (Grenoble, southeast France).

    PubMed

    Gombert, S; Asta, J; Seaward, M R D

    2004-05-25

    An assessment of air quality in the Grenoble area was made using the index of atmospheric purity (IAP). The survey area was divided into 198 units (0.7 x 1 km), in which 345 average lichen relevés were analyzed according to the Braun-Blanquet method. Each relevé station was characterized in the field by a subjective index of human impact (IHI) calculated according to four local environmental parameters influencing the epiphytic lichen flora: urbanization (urban, suburban or rural area), road traffic (low or high), local developments (stations located within crop fields, green areas, housing sites or car parks), and exposure (trees isolated, in rows or grouped). Eighty-three epiphytic lichen species and two algae were recorded and grouped into three ecological categories defined according to bark type and nutrient needs: nitrophytic, neutrophytic and acidophytic species. IAP values, varying from 5.9 to 71.7, were clustered into five categories in order to produce an air-quality map. The geographical pattern of the IAP map showed no clear connection with local sources of pollution, such as the vicinity of a road or an industrial plant, and was not correlated with annual mean values of SO(2), NO(2) and NO for the years 1994-1997. IAP appeared to be influenced by environmental artificiality as shown by a polynomial trend observed between IAP and IHI, even if IAP values were broadly scattered. Multivariate analysis (canonical correspondence) showed that high IAP values could be observed in stations of "natural" environments at high elevations and in stations of "artificial" environments at low elevations. It was also shown that IAP varied in relation to the relative proportion of ecological groups of lichen relevés: although a majority of neutrophytic species (>50%) with a much lower percentage of nitrophytic species generally characterized high IAP, a predominance of acidophytic or nitrophytic species led to a decrease in the IAP. A correlation between nitrophytic

  11. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  12. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  13. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's ability...

  14. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's ability...

  15. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's ability...

  16. Critical Questions for Space Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Bagian, Tandi

    2000-01-01

    Traditional human factors contributions to NASA's crewed space programs have been rooted in the classic approaches to quantifying human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations in the environment of interest, and producing recommendations and standards for the selection or design of mission equipment. Crews then evaluate the interfaces, displays, or equipment, and with the assistance of human factors experts, improvements are made as funds, time, control documentation, and weight allow. We have come a long way from the early spaceflight days, where men with the ' right stuff were the solution to operating whatever equipment was given to them. The large and diverse Shuttle astronaut corps has impacted mission designs to accommodate a wide range of human capabilities and preferences. Yet with existing long duration experience, we have seen the need to address a different set of dynamics when designing for optimal crew performance: critical equipment and mission situations degrade, and human function changes with mission environment, situation, and duration. Strategies for quantifying the critical nature of human factors requirements are being worked by NASA. Any exploration-class mission will place new responsibilities on mission designers to provide the crew with the information and resources to accomplish the mission. The current duties of a Mission Control Center to monitor system status, detect degradation or malfunction, and provide a proven solution, will need to be incorporated into on-board systems to allow the crew autonomous decision-making. The current option to resupply and replace mission systems and resources, including both vehicle equipment and human operators, will be removed, so considerations of maintenance, onboard training, and proficiency assessment are critical to providing a self-sufficient crew. As we 'move in' to the International Space Station, there are tremendous opportunities to investigate our ability to design for autonomous

  17. Human factors training for aviation personnel.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A N; Maurino, D E

    1990-05-01

    The authors examine the reasons for new human factors training requirements contained in the ICAO circular 227-AN/136, Training of Operational Personnel in Human Factors. The circular, produced by the ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors Study Group, includes a philosophical approach, a conceptual approach, and a model of software, hardware, environment, and liveware or the human element (SHEL model). Guidelines for human factors training, curriculum development, and trainee performance appraisal are included.

  18. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  19. RETHINKING HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT. (R825758)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most EIA programs around the world require the consideration of human health impacts. Yet relatively few EIA documents adequately address those impacts. This article examines how, why, and to what extent health impacts are analyzed in environmental impact assessments in the U.S. ...

  20. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  1. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches.

    PubMed

    Molina, Marirosa; Hunter, Shayla; Cyterski, Mike; Peed, Lindsay A; Kelty, Catherine A; Sivaganesan, Mano; Mooney, Thomas; Prieto, Lourdes; Shanks, Orin C

    2014-11-01

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamination could be present at beaches solely impacted by urban runoff. Accurately estimating risk requires understanding sources, concentrations, and transport mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these environments. By applying microbial source tracking methods and empirical modeling, we assessed the presence and level of human contamination at urban runoff impacted recreational beaches. We also identified environmental parameters and pollution sources that can influence the concentration and transport of culturable and molecular fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in systems impacted solely by urban runoff. Water samples and physico-chemical parameters were collected from shoreline locations from three South Carolina (SC) beaches (five locations per beach) and two Florida (FL) beaches (three locations per beach). Each SC beach was directly impacted by swashes or tidal creeks receiving stormwater runoff from the urbanized area and therefore were designated as swash drain associated (SDA) beaches, while FL beaches were designated as non-swash drain associated (NSDA). Sampling in swash drains (SD; three sites per SD) directly impacting each SC beach was also conducted. Results indicate that although culturable (enterococci) and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) (EC23S857, Entero1, and GenBac3) FIB concentrations were, on average, higher at SD locations, SDA beaches did not have consistently higher molecular FIB signals compared to NSDA beaches. Both human-associated markers (HF183 and HumM2) were concomitantly found only at SDA beaches. Bacteroidales species-specific qPCR markers (BsteriF1 and BuniF2) identified differences in the Bacteroidales community, depending on beach

  2. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed

    Reason, J

    1995-06-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  3. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  4. Human Factors Principles in Information Dashboard Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo, Jacques V.; St. Germain, Shawn

    2016-06-01

    When planning for control room upgrades, nuclear power plants have to deal with a multitude of engineering and operational impacts. This will inevitably include several human factors considerations, including physical ergonomics of workstations, viewing angles, lighting, seating, new communication requirements, and new concepts of operation. In helping nuclear power utilities to deal with these challenges, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed effective methods to manage the various phases of the upgrade life cycle. These methods focus on integrating human factors engineering processes with the plant’s systems engineering process, a large part of which is the development of end-state concepts for control room modernization. Such an end-state concept is a description of a set of required conditions that define the achievement of the plant’s objectives for the upgrade. Typically, the end-state concept describes the transition of a conventional control room, over time, to a facility that employs advanced digital automation technologies in a way that significantly improves system reliability, reduces human and control room-related hazards, reduces system and component obsolescence, and significantly improves operator performance. To make the various upgrade phases as concrete and as visible as possible, an end-state concept would include a set of visual representations of the control room before and after various upgrade phases to provide the context and a framework within which to consider the various options in the upgrade. This includes the various control systems, human-system interfaces to be replaced, and possible changes to operator workstations. This paper describes how this framework helps to ensure an integrated and cohesive outcome that is consistent with human factors engineering principles and also provide substantial improvement in operator performance. The paper further describes the application of this integrated approach in the

  5. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  6. Human Factors Checklist: Think Human Factors - Focus on the People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy; Stelges, Katrine; Barth, Timothy; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Dischinger, Charles; Kanki, Barbara; Kramer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A quick-look Human Factors (HF) Checklist condenses industry and NASA Agency standards consisting of thousands of requirements into 14 main categories. With support from contractor HF and Safety Practitioners, NASA developed a means to share key HF messages with Design, Engineering, Safety, Project Management, and others. It is often difficult to complete timely assessments due to the large volume of HF information. The HF Checklist evolved over time into a simple way to consider the most important concepts. A wide audience can apply the checklist early in design or through planning phases, even before hardware or processes are finalized or implemented. The checklist is a good place to start to supplement formal HF evaluation. The HF Checklist was based on many Space Shuttle processing experiences and lessons learned. It is now being applied to ground processing of new space vehicles and adjusted for new facilities and systems.

  7. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  8. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  9. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-06

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future.

  10. Picture THIS: Taking Human Impact Seriously

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Patrick, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Unfortunately, middle school students often view human impact as an abstract idea over which they have no control and do not see themselves as contributing to the Earth's environmental decline. How better to uncover students' ideas concerning human impact in their local community than to have them take photographs. With this objective in mind, the…

  11. Factors Influencing Observed Tillage Impacts on Herbicide Transport

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The widespread use and potential human health effects of the herbicides atrazine and glyphosate have generated interest in establishing how no-tillage impacts loading of these herbicides to runoff water in comparison to other tillage practices. In this study, potentially confounding factors such as ...

  12. Vulvodynia: Definition, Prevalence, Impact, and Pathophysiological Factors.

    PubMed

    Pukall, Caroline F; Goldstein, Andrew T; Bergeron, Sophie; Foster, David; Stein, Amy; Kellogg-Spadt, Susan; Bachmann, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    Vulvodynia constitutes a highly prevalent form of chronic genital pain in women, and current information regarding its definition, prevalence, impact, and pathophysiologic factors involved is needed. To update the scientific evidence published in 2010 from the Third International Consultation of Sexual Medicine pertaining to the definition, prevalence, impact, and pathophysiologic factors of women's sexual pain. An expert committee, as part of the Fourth International Consultation of Sexual Medicine, comprised of researchers and clinicians from biological and social science disciplines, reviewed the scientific evidence on the definition, prevalence, impact, and pathophysiologic factors related to chronic genital pain. A review of the definition, prevalence, impact, and pathophysiological factors involved in vulvodynia. Vulvodynia is a prevalent and highly impactful genital pain condition. Numerous factors have been implicated in its development and maintenance. What is becoming increasingly apparent is that it likely represents the end point of different factors that can differ from patient to patient. Longitudinal research is needed to shed light on risk factors involved in the expression of vulvodynia, as well as in potential subgroups of affected patients, in order to develop an empirically supported treatment algorithm. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A biomedical informatics perspective on human factors - How human factors influence information technology adoption.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R

    2011-01-01

    to select and summarize excellent research published in 2010 in the field of bio-medical informatics human factors. we attempt to derive a synthetic overview of the activity and new trends in this field, from a selection of worldwide research papers published during 2010. this year again, healthcare information technology (HIT) adoption occupies a central role in the field and leads to research focused mainly on measuring impact and factors influencing it. One of the selected papers especially dissects the anatomy of a nationwide personal electronic health record adoption failure. Due to the vast and increasing amount of excellent works, choosing the best papers in human factors is a challenge. More and more the published work takes into account fundamental principles expressed in Grudin's Laws, one form of which is: "When those who beneût from a technology are not those who do the work, then the technology is likely to fail or be subverted.".

  14. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  15. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  16. Photon impact factor in the NLO

    SciTech Connect

    Balitsky, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  17. Impact of PTEN on the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Ho-Keun; Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Pyoung-Han; Kim, Chan-Young; Yang, Doo-Hyun; Oh, Youngman; Lee, Dae-Yeol . E-mail: leedy@chonbuk.ac.kr

    2005-05-13

    PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently mutated or deleted in a variety of human cancers including human gastric cancer. PTEN functions primarily as a lipid phosphatase and plays a key role in the regulation of the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway, thereby modulating cell proliferation and cell survival. On the other hand, the IGF system plays an important role in cell proliferation and cell survival via the PI3 kinase/Akt and MAP kinase pathways in many cancer cells. To characterize the impact of PTEN on the IGF-IGFR-IGFBP axis in gastric cancer, we overexpressed PTEN using an adenovirus gene transfer system in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, SNU-484 and SNU-663, which lack PTEN. Overexpression of PTEN inhibited serum-induced as well as IGF-I-induced cell proliferation as compared to control cells. PTEN overexpression resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of IGF-I, -II, and IGF-IR. Interestingly, amongst the six IGFBPs, only IGFBP-3 was upregulated by PTEN, whereas IGFBP-4 and -6 were reduced. The IGFBP-3 promoter activity assay and Western immunoblotting demonstrate that PTEN regulates IGFBP-3 at the transcriptional level. In addition, the PI3 kinase inhibitor, LY294002, upregulates IGFBP-3 expression but downregulates IGF-I and IGF-II, indicating that PTEN controls IGFBP-3 and IGFs by an Akt-dependent pathway. These findings suggest that PTEN may inhibit antiapoptotic IGF actions not only by blocking the IGF-IGFR-induced Akt activity, but also by regulating expression of components of the IGF system, in particular, upregulation of IGFBP-3, which is known to exert antiproliferative effects through IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms in cancer cells.

  18. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-01-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path. PMID:24814674

  19. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-01

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  20. Author Impact Factor: tracking the dynamics of individual scientific impact.

    PubMed

    Pan, Raj Kumar; Fortunato, Santo

    2014-05-12

    The impact factor (IF) of scientific journals has acquired a major role in the evaluations of the output of scholars, departments and whole institutions. Typically papers appearing in journals with large values of the IF receive a high weight in such evaluations. However, at the end of the day one is interested in assessing the impact of individuals, rather than papers. Here we introduce Author Impact Factor (AIF), which is the extension of the IF to authors. The AIF of an author A in year t is the average number of citations given by papers published in year t to papers published by A in a period of Δt years before year t. Due to its intrinsic dynamic character, AIF is capable to capture trends and variations of the impact of the scientific output of scholars in time, unlike the h-index, which is a growing measure taking into account the whole career path.

  1. [Review of influence of landing impact on human body (correction of boby) and its medical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao-yu; Tan, Cheng; Liu, Bing-kun; Jiang, Shi-zhong

    2002-12-01

    Landing impact is the dynamic factor that manned spaceship will inevitably meet after the mission has been completed, and impact force may cause damages to human tissues [correction of tissuses] and organs, even death. This paper described the characteristics of pathological and dynamic response of human body to landing impact, and discussed various related factors such as impact angle, fetters, design of cushion, harness and terrain condition. Medical evaluation of +Gx, +Gz, +/- Gy impacts were summarized.

  2. Rising publication delays inflate journal impact factors.

    PubMed

    Tort, Adriano B L; Targino, Zé H; Amaral, Olavo B

    2012-01-01

    Journal impact factors have become an important criterion to judge the quality of scientific publications over the years, influencing the evaluation of institutions and individual researchers worldwide. However, they are also subject to a number of criticisms. Here we point out that the calculation of a journal's impact factor is mainly based on the date of publication of its articles in print form, despite the fact that most journals now make their articles available online before that date. We analyze 61 neuroscience journals and show that delays between online and print publication of articles increased steadily over the last decade. Importantly, such a practice varies widely among journals, as some of them have no delays, while for others this period is longer than a year. Using a modified impact factor based on online rather than print publication dates, we demonstrate that online-to-print delays can artificially raise a journal's impact factor, and that this inflation is greater for longer publication lags. We also show that correcting the effect of publication delay on impact factors changes journal rankings based on this metric. We thus suggest that indexing of articles in citation databases and calculation of citation metrics should be based on the date of an article's online appearance, rather than on that of its publication in print.

  3. Rising Publication Delays Inflate Journal Impact Factors

    PubMed Central

    Tort, Adriano B. L.; Targino, Zé H.; Amaral, Olavo B.

    2012-01-01

    Journal impact factors have become an important criterion to judge the quality of scientific publications over the years, influencing the evaluation of institutions and individual researchers worldwide. However, they are also subject to a number of criticisms. Here we point out that the calculation of a journal’s impact factor is mainly based on the date of publication of its articles in print form, despite the fact that most journals now make their articles available online before that date. We analyze 61 neuroscience journals and show that delays between online and print publication of articles increased steadily over the last decade. Importantly, such a practice varies widely among journals, as some of them have no delays, while for others this period is longer than a year. Using a modified impact factor based on online rather than print publication dates, we demonstrate that online-to-print delays can artificially raise a journal’s impact factor, and that this inflation is greater for longer publication lags. We also show that correcting the effect of publication delay on impact factors changes journal rankings based on this metric. We thus suggest that indexing of articles in citation databases and calculation of citation metrics should be based on the date of an article’s online appearance, rather than on that of its publication in print. PMID:23300920

  4. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  5. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  6. [Obtaining the Impact Factor by Ginekologia Polska].

    PubMed

    Spaczyński, Marek; Januszek-Michalecka, Lucyna; Nowak-Markwitz, Ewa; Kedzia, Witold; Spaczyński, Robert; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2011-08-01

    Scientific journals are ranked and evaluated to measure their relative importance and influence on science within a specific field. One of the tools most widely used to evaluate and compare journals is the Thomson Reuters Impact Factor In Poland a specific value of a scientist's Impact Factor is required for academic promotion. Ginekologia Polska was placed on the Master Journal List in 2008 in the result of changes introduced in 2007 by the new Chief Editor prof. Marek Spaczynski. In 2010, first time in its history the journal was listed in the Journal Citation Reports with the Impact Factor 0.367. The analysis of Ginekologia Polska contemporary value, as well as of prospects for its development was conducted on the basis of the Journal Citation Reports. In the light of the JCR data, Ginekologia Polska is a highly regarded title compared to other Polish journals. Its value and importance is gradually growing.

  7. Accounting for the Human Factor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

    1994-01-01

    College governing boards must address six areas of campus human resources management: composition of the new workforce; leadership and motivation; quality of work life; performance evaluation; compensation; and the role of the campus human resource management department. (MSE)

  8. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  9. Addressing Human Factors Gaps in Cyber Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-23

    Air Force Research Laboratory 711th Human Performance Wing Airman Systems Directorate Warfighter Interface Division Applied Neuroscience Branch...NOTES 88ABW Cleared 03/18/2016; 88ABW-2016-1329. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2016 Annual Meeting (HFES) 19 – 23 September 2016 14... Human Factors community has begun to address human -centered issues in cyber operations, but in comparison to technological communities, we have only

  10. A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2013-01-01

    One disadvantage of the JCR impact factor, the most commonly used assessment tool for ranking and evaluating scientific journals, is its inability in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, leading to unfair evaluation of journals in some cases. This paper aims to put forward an alternative impact factor (IF′) that can properly reflect citation distributions. The two impact factors are linearly and positively correlated, and have roughly the same order of magnitude. Because of the ability of IF′ in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, IF′ may properly reflect the academic performance of a scientific journal in a way that is different from the JCR impact factor with some unique features that reward journals with highly cited papers. Therefore, it is suggested that IF′ could be used to complement the JCR impact factor. PMID:24296521

  11. A proposal for a novel impact factor as an alternative to the JCR impact factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zu-Guo; Zhang, Chun-Ting

    2013-12-03

    One disadvantage of the JCR impact factor, the most commonly used assessment tool for ranking and evaluating scientific journals, is its inability in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, leading to unfair evaluation of journals in some cases. This paper aims to put forward an alternative impact factor (IF') that can properly reflect citation distributions. The two impact factors are linearly and positively correlated, and have roughly the same order of magnitude. Because of the ability of IF' in distinguishing among different shapes of citation distribution curves, IF' may properly reflect the academic performance of a scientific journal in a way that is different from the JCR impact factor with some unique features that reward journals with highly cited papers. Therefore, it is suggested that IF' could be used to complement the JCR impact factor.

  12. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Fiscal year 1989 descriptions of technical accomplishments in seven sections are presented: automation and robotics; communications; computer sciences; controls and guidance; data systems; human factors; and sensor technology.

  13. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  14. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Mciver, Duncan E.; Dibattista, John D.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Wallgren, Ken; Sokoloski, Marty; Wasicko, Dick

    1985-01-01

    This report contains FY 1984/85 descriptions and accomplishments in six sections: Computer Science and Automation, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, Sensor Technology, and Communications.

  15. Evaluating the Impact of Human Resource Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on evaluating the impact of human resource development (HRD). "Pre-Job Training and the Earnings of High-Tech Employees in Taiwan" (Tung-Chun Huang) reports on a study that concludes that public training programs have no impact on participants' earnings in later jobs, but participation in private…

  16. Human Factors in Aeronautics at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a briefing to a regularly meeting DoD group called the Human Systems Community of Interest: Mission Effectiveness. I was asked to address human factors in aeronautics at NASA. (Exploration (space) human factors has apparently already been covered.) The briefing describes human factors organizations at NASA Ames and Langley. It then summarizes some aeronautics tasks that involve the application of human factors in the development of specific tools and capabilities. The tasks covered include aircrew checklists, dispatch operations, Playbook, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. I mention that most of our aeronautics work involves human factors as embedded in development tasks rather than basic research.

  17. Human Impacts on Wildfires in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calef, M. P.; McGuire, A. D.; Chapin, F. S.; Dewilde, L.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of human activities on the fire regime of high latitude ecosystems, which has not been well investigated, has the potential to influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange with the atmosphere by influencing land cover and ecosystem dynamics. In this study we assessed the potential footprint of human presence on fire regime in Interior Alaska by investigating three research questions: 1) Does the type of fire ignition (human or lightning) have a significant impact on fire size?; 2) Does human impact on fire regime vary with population size?; and 3) Does distance from towns, roads or rivers affect fire size and ignition? To evaluate these questions, we overlaid the large-firescar database (fires >0.4 km2 for 1988-2002) and the fire ignition database (1956-2000) of the Alaska Fire Service with towns (all named settlements), major roads, and major rivers in Interior Alaska. Currently, humans are responsible for high fire frequency near towns and roads; however, human caused fires are generally much smaller than lightning ignited fires. Human impact on fire regime is a function of town size, and distance to roads and to a lesser extent rivers play an important role as they allow humans access to remote areas. Thus, it is clear that human activities influence fire regime in localized areas of Interior Alaska. Our next challenge is to evaluate if these effects of humans on the fire regime influence water, energy, and carbon dioxide exchange at the regional scale.

  18. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  19. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  20. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  1. Natural Resources and Human Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starkel, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    It is rotational movement of the Earth that decides on the climatic zonation of natural resources, as modified by the positions of the continents and oceans and the irregular spread of fossil fuels. Intensive human activity poses threats to the development of natural geoecosystems. The last century also brought growing civilizational threats to the environment on the global, regional and local scales. The author characterise the prospects in regard to global changes, and discuss the solutions needing to be pursued if human geoecosystems are to be protected (through management and education).

  2. Cumulative human impacts on marine predators.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Sara M; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Halpern, Benjamin S; Breed, Greg A; Nickel, Barry; Teutschel, Nicole M; Crowder, Larry B; Benson, Scott; Dutton, Peter H; Bailey, Helen; Kappes, Michelle A; Kuhn, Carey E; Weise, Michael J; Mate, Bruce; Shaffer, Scott A; Hassrick, Jason L; Henry, Robert W; Irvine, Ladd; McDonald, Birgitte I; Robinson, Patrick W; Block, Barbara A; Costa, Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Stressors associated with human activities interact in complex ways to affect marine ecosystems, yet we lack spatially explicit assessments of cumulative impacts on ecologically and economically key components such as marine predators. Here we develop a metric of cumulative utilization and impact (CUI) on marine predators by combining electronic tracking data of eight protected predator species (n=685 individuals) in the California Current Ecosystem with data on 24 anthropogenic stressors. We show significant variation in CUI with some of the highest impacts within US National Marine Sanctuaries. High variation in underlying species and cumulative impact distributions means that neither alone is sufficient for effective spatial management. Instead, comprehensive management approaches accounting for both cumulative human impacts and trade-offs among multiple stressors must be applied in planning the use of marine resources.

  3. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  4. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  5. The impact of platelet-activating factor (PAF)-like mediators on the functional activity of neutrophils: anti-inflammatory effects of human PAF-acetylhydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Kuijpers, T W; Van Den Berg1, J M; Tool, A T J; Roos, D

    2001-01-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a proinflammatory agent in infectious and inflammatory diseases, partly due to the activation of infiltrating phagocytes. PAF exerts its actions after binding to a monospecific PAF receptor (PAFR). The potent bioactivity is reflected by its ability to activate neutrophils at picomolar concentrations, as defined by changes in levels of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and induction of chemotaxis and actin polymerization at nanomolar concentration. The role of PAF in neutrophil survival is, however, less well appreciated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of synthetic PAFR-antagonists on various neutrophil functions were compared with the effect of recombinant human plasma-derived PAF-acetylhydrolase (rPAF-AH), as an important enzyme for PAF degradation in blood and extracellular fluids. We found that endogenously produced PAF (–like) substances were involved in the spontaneous apoptosis of neutrophils. At concentrations of 8 µg/ml or higher than normal plasma levels, rPAF-AH prevented spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis (21 ± 4% of surviving cells (mean ± SD; control) versus 62 ± 12% of surviving cells (mean ± SD; rPAF-AH 20 µg/ml); P < 0·01), during overnight cultures of 15 h. This effect depended on intact enzymatic activity of rPAF-AH and was not due to the resulting product lyso-PAF. The anti-inflammatory activity of rPAF-AH toward neutrophils was substantiated by its inhibition of PAF-induced chemotaxis and changes in [Ca2+]i. In conclusion, the efficient and stable enzymatic activity of rPAF-AH over so many hours of coculture with neutrophils demonstrates the potential for its use in the many inflammatory processes in which PAF (–like) substances are believed to be involved. PMID:11298128

  6. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  7. Rail human factors: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R; Norris, Beverley J

    2005-11-01

    Rail human factors research has grown rapidly in both quantity and quality of output over the past few years. There was an early base of work at a few institutions carried out over the 1960s and 1970s, followed by a lull in the 1980s and early 1990s. The continual influences of safety concerns, new technical system opportunities, reorganisation of the business, needs to increase effective, reliable and safe use of capacity, and increased society, media and government interest have now accelerated rail human factors research programmes in several countries. In this paper we review the literature on rail human factors research, covering driving, signalling and control, maintenance, reporting systems, passenger interests, planning and technical systems change. Current major rail human factors programmes are summarised and future research needs proposed. It is asserted that general human factors models and methods are being re-assessed, and new ones developed, to meet the requirements of the railways.

  8. Coding Human Factors Observations in Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tara N; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Reeves, Scott T; Boquet, Albert J; Shappell, Scott A

    2016-10-25

    The reliability of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) for classifying retrospective observational human factors data in the cardiovascular operating room is examined. Three trained analysts independently used HFACS to categorize observational human factors data collected at a teaching and nonteaching hospital system. Results revealed that the framework was substantially reliable overall (Study I: k = 0.635; Study II: k = 0.642). Reliability increased when only preconditions for unsafe acts were investigated (Study I: k =0.660; Study II: k = 0.726). Preconditions for unsafe acts were the most commonly identified issues, with HFACS categories being similarly populated across both hospitals. HFACS is a reliable tool for systematically categorizing observational data of human factors issues in the operating room. Findings have implications for the development of a HFACS tool for proactively collecting observational human factors data, eliminating the necessity for classification post hoc.

  9. Human factors considerations for contraindication alerts.

    PubMed

    van der Sijs, Heleen; Baboe, Imtiaaz; Phansalkar, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Alert fatigue is a ubiquitous problem in clinical decision support systems. Several remedies to alert fatigue have been proposed including improving the specificity of alerts and compliance with human factors principles. Human factors principles that are relevant for drug safety alerting have been identified and operationalized for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), resulting in a previously developed and validated quantitative instrument. Such an instrument is lacking for contraindications. This study describes the operationalization of human factors principles for contraindication alerting. Thirty items associated with 10 human factors principles are included in the instrument: 4 items are new, 5 are similar, and 21 are equal to the DDI-instrument. The instrument was further operationalized to a test protocol. Three independent persons used the test protocol. Inter-rater reliability indicated moderate agreement (κ=0.540) It is feasible to test the implementation of human factors in contraindication alert design with the newly developed instrument.

  10. Human Factors in Cabin Accident Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chute, Rebecca D.; Rosekind, Mark R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Human factors has become an integral part of the accident investigation protocol. However, much of the investigative process remains focussed on the flight deck, airframe, and power plant systems. As a consequence, little data has been collected regarding the human factors issues within and involving the cabin during an accident. Therefore, the possibility exists that contributing factors that lie within that domain may be overlooked. The FAA Office of Accident Investigation is sponsoring a two-day workshop on cabin safety accident investigation. This course, within the workshop, will be of two hours duration and will explore relevant areas of human factors research. Specifically, the three areas of discussion are: Information transfer and resource management, fatigue and other physical stressors, and the human/machine interface. Integration of these areas will be accomplished by providing a suggested checklist of specific cabin-related human factors questions for investigators to probe following an accident.

  11. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  12. TNO Human Factors - The Netherlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    making in naval command and control. SCI-129 Symposium on ‘Critical Design Issues for the Human- Machine Interface ’, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-21...System Interaction (Environnements virtuels dinteraction Homme -Système Intuitive)., The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15...to develop and test new concepts of team organisation, human- system task integration and intelligent interfaces for efficient and effective command

  13. Space operations and the human factor.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R

    1993-10-01

    The effects of human error on aviation and space flight are discussed and the role of human factor engineering in aviation and aerospace safety is examined. Specific areas discussed are docking and extravehicular activity; quantification of human capacity for space station design; and measurement of habitability, workload, and task analysis.

  14. An overview of a nuclear reprocessing plant Human Factors programme.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Barry

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a case study of a large Human Factors programme applied in the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry (1987-1991). The paper outlines the key Human Factors issues addressed, as well as the impacts achieved, and gives an indication of the resources utilised (approximately 15 person-years of effort). It also considers the starting point of the programme, in terms of the factors that led to the need for such an extensive programme. Some general lessons learned are given at the end of the paper.

  15. Life on Guam: Human Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falanruw, Margie Cushing

    This unit is a part of a series of materials produced in a project to develop locally applicable class, lab, and field materials in ecology and social studies for Guam junior and senior high schools. While the materials were designed for Guam, many of the activities can be adapted to other localities. This unit covers ecological factors involving…

  16. Human health impacts of ecosystem alteration

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Samuel S.; Gaffikin, Lynne; Golden, Christopher D.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; H. Redford, Kent; H. Ricketts, Taylor; Turner, Will R.; Osofsky, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Human activity is rapidly transforming most of Earth’s natural systems. How this transformation is impacting human health, whose health is at greatest risk, and the magnitude of the associated disease burden are relatively new subjects within the field of environmental health. We discuss what is known about the human health implications of changes in the structure and function of natural systems and propose that these changes are affecting human health in a variety of important ways. We identify several gaps and limitations in the research that has been done to date and propose a more systematic and comprehensive approach to applied research in this field. Such efforts could lead to a more robust understanding of the human health impacts of accelerating environmental change and inform decision making in the land-use planning, environmental conservation, and public health policy realms. PMID:24218556

  17. Emergency Management: The Human Factor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    Nigg’s (1982) research on the impact of the California earthquake prediction made by Minturn illustrates this principle. The initial high levels of...awareness, then, might be viewed as a consequence of unusual circumstances in 1976 -- the widespread media attention to earthquake prediction , major rumors

  18. Median Citation Index vs Journal Impact Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2015-03-01

    The Journal Impact Factor is an arithmetic mean: It is the average number of citations, in a year, to a journal's articles that were published the previous two years. But for the vast majority of scholarly journals, the distribution of these citations is skewed (non-symmetric). We argue that a more representative member of the skewed distribution of citations is its median, not the mean. We thus introduce the Median Citation Index (MCI) and compare it to the journal Impact Factor (JIF) as a potentially more suitable choice of the ``center'' of the distribution, or its typical value. Unlike the JIF, the MCI is far less sensitive to outlier (very highly cited) papers or to gaming, and does not lend itself to the hype of calculating it to three decimal digits.

  19. Awareness grows of importance of human factors issues in aircraft maintenance and inspection.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Until recently, the role of human factors in maintenance operations was not adequately addressed. That is changing, because it is clear that human error in aircraft maintenance can have a serious impact on flight safety.

  20. Basic Research in Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    in the fields of experimental psychology , bimeccanics, mathematical psychology , cognitive and information sciences, sociology, business...administration, organizational and industrial psychology , and engineering. Each of these experts serves on the ccmittee or its subgroup without reimbursement other...studies on macro models and has identified researh needed for the description and prediction of human performance. Its report, which will recammend

  1. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  2. Human factors for Mars missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    A manned mission to Mars will challenge the human capacity to cope with extreme environments and solve new problems associated with them. Life support systems capable of preventing the accumulation of toxic chemicals will be necessary. Psychological issues may gain greater importance.

  3. [The "impact factor" and the impact of medical journals].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    1998-02-01

    Original articles published in scientific journals are important parameters for committees when they evaluate academic promotions or research grant applications. The analysis usually tries to give each paper a qualitative/quantitative assessment. An article's citation by others is accepted as a fair estimate of the value assigned to its originality and importance. A main determinant of every citation index is the international relevance attained by the journal where the article appeared. The "impact factor" of journals enlisted in the mainstream literature, as defined by the Journal Citation Reports (ISI), is being used by many assessors worldwide. But this index appears to be an unfair unit of measurement for journals that, although included in the main international data bases, are published in non-English languages. Furthermore, some local journals that are not enlisted by the Institute for Scientific Information apply external peer review to select their publications. In contrast, those same journals may have great relevance for their contributing authors and a high impact in their readers. The Editor's proposal is to classify original articles published in biomedical sciences, clinical medicine and public health topics using a three steps scale: a low score to articles published in local journals that use the peer review system, even though they were not enlisted in international data bases; a higher score to articles published in journals included in the mainstream literature, without considering their "impact factors" as differential values; and the highest score to articles published in journals recognized as international leaders in biomedicine, general medicine or in the subspecialties. Therefore, mainstream journals published in non-English languages would not be discriminated from other journals having higher "impact factors" mainly due to their use of the English language.

  4. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  5. Human factors and simulation in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Emily M; Wong, Ambrose H; Ackerman, Jeremy; Sande, Margaret K; Lei, Charles; Kobayashi, Leo; Cassara, Michael; Cooper, Dylan D; Perry, Kimberly; Lewandowski, William E; Scerbo, Mark W

    2017-09-19

    This consensus group from the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes" held in Orlando, Florida on May 16, 2017 focused on the use of human factors and simulation in the field of emergency medicine. The human factors discipline is often underutilized within emergency medicine but has significant potential in improving the interface between technologies and individuals in the field. The discussion explored the domain of human factors, its benefits in medicine, how simulation can be a catalyst for human factors work in emergency medicine, and how emergency medicine can collaborate with human factors professionals to affect change. Implementing human factors in emergency medicine through healthcare simulation will require a demonstration of clinical and safety outcomes, advocacy to stakeholders and administrators, and establishment of structured collaborations between human factors professionals and emergency medicine, such as in this breakout group. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.

  7. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, S; Tschan, F; Semmer, N K; Howell, M D; Marsch, S

    2010-01-01

    Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field. PMID:21063563

  8. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

  9. Factors affecting the presence of human-associated and fecal indicator real-time quantitative PCR genetic markers in urban-impacted recreational beaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban runoff can carry a variety of pollutants into recreational beaches, often including bacterial pathogens and indicators of fecal contamination. To develop complete recreational criteria and risk assessments, it is necessary to understand conditions under which human contamin...

  10. Summary report of the Human Factors Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, G. E.

    1978-01-01

    Reduced visibility as a human factors problem was studied in terms of the number of lives lost and cost of aircraft accidents and incidents. Human factors in flight through turbulence in detection and avoidance techniques, pilot and crew procedures for handling workloads and distractions caused by turbulence, and aircraft handling techniques for safe flights through turbulence are investigated. Education and training were reviewed in icing problems on aircraft. Pilots failure to recognize and detect wind shear in severe storms is examined. The pilots avoidance of lightning is discussed from the human factors point of view.

  11. Human factors certification: A useful concept?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Alistair

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers what is involved in certification processes and their relation to human factors aspects of systems. It derives from recognition of a lack of understanding of the processes and purposes of certification. This was encountered when attempting to address the workshop topic by integrating an understanding of human factors with the observed processes of certification. The paper considers what human factors (HF) certification might be and then develops a simple model of the elements of a certification process. It then tries to relate these elements to the needs of the aviation communities and other parties with an interest in the certification of advance aviation technologies.

  12. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  13. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  14. Impact of estrogen receptor (ER) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) co-expression on breast cancer disease characteristics: implications for tumor biology and research.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Abeer; Chen, Li; Romond, Edward; Chambers, Mara; Stevens, Mark; Pasley, Grace; Awasthi, Mukta; Massarweh, Suleiman

    2014-11-01

    ER and HER2 are critical drivers of breast cancer biology and can interact when co-expressed, but less data describe the impact of ER/HER2 co-expression on clinical disease characteristics. We studied the impact of ER and HER2 (co)-expression in a cohort of 1,187 patients with invasive breast cancer and compared disease characteristics among different groups according to ER and HER2 status. Age, tumor size, grade, nodal status, TNM stage, and metastatic sites were compared and significance determined using the appropriate t tests. All p values were two-tailed. Compared to ER-negative/HER2-negative disease as the control group, ER expression was associated with older age, smaller tumors, lower grade, earlier TNM stage, and increased bone involvement in de novo metastasis, while HER2 had no significant impact on these characteristics. ER and HER2 co-expression was associated with lower grade and higher bone involvement in de novo metastasis, reflecting a retained impact for ER. HER2 impact on ER-positive disease was reflected by younger age, higher grade and TNM stage, and increased frequency of visceral involvement in de novo metastasis. Within the ER-positive/HER2-positive group, triple positive breast cancer (ER+/PgR+/HER2+) was associated with younger age compared to ER+/PgR-/HER2+ disease (mean age of 50.8 vs. 56 years, p = 0.0226). PgR was also associated with younger age in ER+/HER2- disease with a mean age of 57.6 years in ER+/PgR+/HER2- disease vs. 63.4 years in ER+/PgR-/HER2- disease (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, ER has a profound impact on breast cancer characteristics, including a retained impact when co-expressed with HER2. Similarly, HER2 dramatically modulates ER-positive breast cancer making it more aggressive. PgR association with young age may be related to hormonal levels of the premenopausal state, with HER2 providing an earlier growth advantage in triple positive disease, suggesting a specific dependence for this subset on high estrogen

  15. Human Factors in Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-21

    mentioned, two other factors stimulate interest in network data security. These are; extensive telecomunications systems binding networks together, and the...This is a procedure that increases security by providing multiple, overlapping controls. A physical analogy is a facility where a fence is used in...unavailable. A physical analogy (Figure 2), shows that with a LAN built in the star configuration, failure of the central node will mean the network is

  16. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  17. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  18. Human factors and information transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Alfred T.

    1989-01-01

    Key problem areas in the management and transfer of information in the National Airspace System, contributing to human errors are identified. Information-management aspects supporting the user's ability to assess prevailing situations accurately with adequate time to make an informed decision are considered. The relationship between judgment biases and requirements for managing weather information is illustrated by examining such hazardous weather phenomena as microbursts and windshears. The system of air-ground communication relying almost exclusively on voice transmissions is discussed, and recommendations in the areas of communications procedures and technology development are provided.

  19. Article and journal impact factor in various scientific fields.

    PubMed

    Falagas, Matthew E; Charitidou, Eustratia; Alexiou, Vangelis G

    2008-03-01

    We tried to provide the scientific community with data to answer the following simple question: What proportion of publications in the various scientific fields is published in journals with impact factor above the median and mean values of the distribution of journal impact factor? We analyzed and compared the distribution of the impact factor data reduced to the unit of science publication, the article. We calculated the proportion of articles published in journals with impact factor above the journal mean impact factor, journal median impact factor, and article mean impact. For all categories examined, at the article level, the mean impact factor was higher than the median (by 13.7% to 500% for the various scientific categories). The mean impact factor of journals was considerably lower than the mean impact factor of articles (by 0.3 to 6.4 units). The proportion of articles that were published in journals with impact factor above the journals' median impact factor was well above 50% in 17 of 19 scientific fields examined (all except mathematics and computer science). Our analysis shows that in most scientific fields examined, it is quite easier to publish an article in the top 50% of journals (based on impact factor calculations) than it is for the article to be included in the top 50% of published articles (based on the assumption made regarding the article' impact factor).

  20. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  1. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  2. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee (Editor); Hood, Ray (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin (Editor); Sokoloski, Martin M. (Editor); Jenkins, James P. (Editor); Smith, Paul H. (Editor); Dibattista, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The FY 1987 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained for seven areas: automation and robotics, communications systems, computer sciences, controls and guidance, data systems, human factors, and sensor technology.

  3. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Sokoloski, Martin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 descriptions of technical accomplishments is presented in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications Systems, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  4. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  5. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  6. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    HUMAN HEALTH IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ESTROGENIC CHEMICALS.

    Robert J. Kavlock, Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC USA.

    Over the past several decades a hypothesis has been put forth that a numb...

  7. Human factors in cockpit automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    The rapid advance in microprocessor technology has made it possible to automate many functions that were previously performed manually. Several research areas have been identified which are basic to the question of the implementation of automation in the cockpit. One of the identified areas deserving further research is warning and alerting systems. Modern transport aircraft have had one after another warning and alerting systems added, and computer-based cockpit systems make it possible to add even more. Three major areas of concern are: input methods (including voice, keyboard, touch panel, etc.), output methods and displays (from traditional instruments to CRTs, to exotic displays including the human voice), and training for automation. Training for operating highly automatic systems requires considerably more attention than it has been given in the past. Training methods have not kept pace with the advent of flight-deck automation.

  8. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  9. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  10. Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Micky P; Knott, David S; Moss, Michael A; Clegg, Chris W; Horton, Robin P

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains.

  11. Nuclear and related analytical techniques in ecology: Impact of geoecological factors on the balance of trace elements in the human organism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, A. V.; Lyapunov, S. M.; Okina, O. I.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    Current capabilities of the nuclear and related analytical techniques: neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescent analysis, and atomic adsorption spectrometry—are used to carry out multielement analysis of a wide range of foodstuffs and drinking water in various regions of Russia. The results of a more than 20-year-long collaboration of the Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Neutron Activation Analysis and Applied Research Sector, Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, in this field are presented. It is shown that the trace element content of agricultural products depends on the ecological and geochemical conditions in a particular region. A possibility of lettuce and spinach variety determination with respect to Cd and Pb contamination of the soil is demonstrated in the experiment with artificially produced soil contamination. Principles that may underlie accumulation of heavy metals and toxic elements by basidiomycetes are determined. Out of a great deal of human diets in use, the six most typical ones are selected and the intake of macro- and micronutrients from these diets by a human is evaluated. The effect produced on the human organism by the basic elements intake with the food and possible risks are discussed. Dependence of the trace element content of the drinking water on the ecological and geochemical conditions is investigated in three regions of Russia. It is shown that the quality of drinking water critically depends on the condition of the water supply system.

  12. Causes for the Persistence of Impact Factor Mania

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as “impact factor mania.” Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the “tragedy of the commons,” in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. PMID:24643863

  13. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  14. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  15. The motion commotion: Human factors in transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, A. E., Jr. (Editor); Rosen, R. L. (Editor); Gibson, J. D. (Editor); Crum, R. G. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The program for a systems approach to the problem of incorporating human factors in designing transportation systems is summarized. The importance of the human side of transportation is discussed along with the three major factors related to maintaining a mobile and quality life. These factors are (1) people, as individuals and groups, (2) society as a whole, and (3) the natural environment and man-made environs. The problems and bottlenecks are presented along with approaches to their solutions through systems analysis. Specific recommendations essential to achieving improved mobility within environmental constraints are presented.

  16. Excessive Cellular Proliferation Negatively Impacts Reprogramming Efficiency of Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manoj K.; Teo, Adrian Kee Keong; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Bhatt, Shweta; Kleinridders, Andre; Shirakawa, Jun; Takatani, Tomozumi; Hu, Jiang; De Jesus, Dario F.; Windmueller, Rebecca; Wagers, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of somatic cell proliferation rate on induction of pluripotent stem cells remains controversial. Herein, we report that rapid proliferation of human somatic fibroblasts is detrimental to reprogramming efficiency when reprogrammed using a lentiviral vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and cMYC in insulin-rich defined medium. Human fibroblasts grown in this medium showed higher proliferation, enhanced expression of insulin signaling and cell cycle genes, and a switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, but they displayed poor reprogramming efficiency compared with cells grown in normal medium. Thus, in contrast to previous studies, our work reveals an inverse correlation between the proliferation rate of somatic cells and reprogramming efficiency, and also suggests that upregulation of proteins in the growth factor signaling pathway limits the ability to induce pluripotency in human somatic fibroblasts. Significance The efficiency with which human cells can be reprogrammed is of interest to stem cell biology. In this study, human fibroblasts cultured in media containing different concentrations of growth factors such as insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 exhibited variable abilities to proliferate, with consequences on pluripotency. This occurred in part because of changes in the expression of proteins involved in the growth factor signaling pathway, glycolysis, and oxidative phosphorylation. These findings have implications for efficient reprogramming of human cells. PMID:26253715

  17. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  18. [Comparative analysis of impact of hereditary and environmental factors on development of some parameters of a human's cardiovascular system on different ontogenesis stages (twin studies)].

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    Mono- and dizygoted 12-70 year-old twins' permanent ontogenesis on different stages of cardiovascular system had been studied. Zygote was diagnosed with modern methods of research (anthropologic, immune-serologic, mathematic, and dermatogliphic). Altogether 194 couple twins had been examined, from whom 79 couple were monozygotic and 115 - dizygotic. They were divided into three age groups: the first group - of 12-17 year-old, the second - of 30-45 year-old ones, and the third - of 50-70 year-old ones. Modern methods helped to discern importance of genetic and environmental components in whole phenotypic dispersion of cardiac shortening frequency, average arterial pressure, shock and minute volume of heart left ventricle. It was ascertained, already examined hereditary determinacy is conditioned by genetic additive component, and environmental factors are influenced by general family components. With growing of age correlative role of hereditary and environmental factors are either strengthening, or fading. This depends on gender too. Gender dimorphism was also revealed.

  19. HUMAN IMPACTS. The unique ecology of human predators.

    PubMed

    Darimont, Chris T; Fox, Caroline H; Bryan, Heather M; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2015-08-21

    Paradigms of sustainable exploitation focus on population dynamics of prey and yields to humanity but ignore the behavior of humans as predators. We compared patterns of predation by contemporary hunters and fishers with those of other predators that compete over shared prey (terrestrial mammals and marine fishes). Our global survey (2125 estimates of annual finite exploitation rate) revealed that humans kill adult prey, the reproductive capital of populations, at much higher median rates than other predators (up to 14 times higher), with particularly intense exploitation of terrestrial carnivores and fishes. Given this competitive dominance, impacts on predators, and other unique predatory behavior, we suggest that humans function as an unsustainable "super predator," which—unless additionally constrained by managers—will continue to alter ecological and evolutionary processes globally.

  20. Surgical Never Events and Contributing Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Thiels, Cornelius A.; Lal, Tarun Mohan; Nienow, Joseph M.; Pasupathy, Kalyan S.; Blocker, Renaldo C.; Aho, Johnathon M.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Cima, Robert R.; Hallbeck, Susan; Bingener, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report the first prospective analysis of human factors elements contributing to invasive procedural never events using a validated Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Methods From 8/2009 - 8/2014 surgical and invasive procedural “Never Events” (retained foreign object, wrong site/side procedure, wrong implant, wrong procedure) underwent systematic causation analysis promptly after the event. Contributing human factors were categorized using Reason's 4 levels of error causation and 161 HFACS subcategories (nano-codes). Results During the study approximately 1.5 million procedures were performed and 69 never events were identified. A total of 628 contributing human factors nano-codes were identified. Action-based errors (n=260) and preconditions to actions (n=296) accounted for the majority of the nano-codes across all four types of events, with individual cognitive factors contributing half of the nano-codes. The most common action nano-codes were confirmation bias (n=36) and failed to understand (n=36). The most common pre-condition nano-codes were channeled attention on a single issue (n=33) and inadequate communication (n=30). Conclusion Targeting quality and system improvement interventions addressing cognitive factors and team resource management as well as perceptual biases may reduce errors and further improve patient safety. These results delineate targets to further reduce never events from our healthcare system. PMID:26032826

  1. Impact of Personal Characteristics and Technical Factors on Quantification of Sodium 18F-Fluoride Uptake in Human Arteries: Prospective Evaluation of Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Thomassen, Anders; de Jong, Pim A; Simonsen, Jane A; Lam, Marnix G E H; Nielsen, Anne L; Mickley, Hans; Mali, Willem P T M; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul F

    2015-10-01

    Sodium 18F-fluoride (18F-NaF) PET/CT imaging is a promising imaging technique for the assessment of atherosclerosis but is hampered by a lack of validated quantification protocols. Both personal characteristics and technical factors can affect quantification of arterial 18F-NaF uptake. This study investigated whether blood activity, renal function, injected dose, circulating time, and PET/CT system affect quantification of arterial 18F-NaF uptake. Eighty-nine healthy subjects were prospectively examined by 18F-NaF PET/CT imaging. Arterial 18F-NaF uptake was quantified at the level of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta, and coronary arteries by calculating the maximum 18F-NaF activity (NaFmax), the maximum/mean target-to-background ratio (TBRmax/mean), and the maximum blood-subtracted 18F-NaF activity (bsNaFmax). Multivariable linear regression assessed the effect of personal characteristics and technical factors on quantification of arterial 18F-NaF uptake. NaFmax and TBRmax/mean were dependent on blood activity (β=0.34 to 0.44, P<0.001, and β=-0.68 to -0.58, P<0.001, respectively) and PET/CT system (β=-0.80 to -0.53, P<0.001, and β=-0.80 to -0.23, P<0.031, respectively). bsNaFmax depended on PET/CT system (β=-0.91 to -0.57, P<0.001) but not blood activity. This finding was observed at the level of the ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending thoracic aorta, and the coronary arteries. In addition to blood activity and PET/CT system, injected dose affected quantification of arterial 18F-NaF uptake, whereas renal function and circulating time did not. The prospective evaluation of 89 healthy subjects demonstrated that quantification of arterial 18F-NaF uptake is affected by blood activity, injected dose, and PET/CT system. Therefore, blood activity, injected dose, and PET/CT system should be considered to generate accurate estimates of arterial 18F-NaF uptake. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  2. Human factors in air traffic control: problems at the interfaces.

    PubMed

    Shouksmith, George

    2003-10-01

    The triangular ISIS model for describing the operation of human factors in complex sociotechnical organisations or systems is applied in this research to a large international air traffic control system. A large sample of senior Air Traffic Controllers were randomly assigned to small focus discussion groups, whose task was to identify problems occurring at the interfaces of the three major human factor components: individual, system impacts, and social. From these discussions, a number of significant interface problems, which could adversely affect the functioning of the Air Traffic Control System, emerged. The majority of these occurred at the Individual-System Impact and Individual-Social interfaces and involved a perceived need for further interface centered training.

  3. Cumulative knowledge and progress in human factors.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a cumulative perspective on current human factors research by first briefly acknowledging previous Annual Review articles. We show that several recent conceptual advances are an outgrowth of the information-processing approach adopted by the field and present several areas of current research that are built directly on prior work. Topic areas that provide fundamental tools for human factors analyses are summarized, and several current application areas are reviewed. We end by considering alternatives to the information-processing approach that have been proposed and placing those alternatives in context. We argue that the information-processing language provides the foundation that has enabled much of the growth in human factors. This growth reflects a cumulative development of concepts and methods that continues today.

  4. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  5. Human factors of the high technology cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid advance of cockpit automation in the last decade has outstripped the ability of the human factors profession to understand the changes in human functions required. High technology cockpits require less physical (observable) workload, but are highly demanding of cognitive functions such as planning, alternative selection, and monitoring. Furthermore, automation creates opportunity for new and more serious forms of human error, and many pilots are concerned about the possibility of complacency affecting their performance. On the positive side, the equipment works as advertized with high reliability, offering highly efficient, computer-based flight. These findings from the cockpit studies probably apply equally to other industries, such as nuclear power production, other modes of transportation, medicine, and manufacturing, all of which traditionally have looked to aviation for technological leadership. The challenge to the human factors profession is to aid designers, operators, and training departments in exploiting the positive side of automation, while seeking solutions to the negative side. Viewgraphs are given.

  6. Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations show decreased activity on BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), an important regulator of energy balance: testing impact of novel SF-1 mutations beyond steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E

    2014-01-01

    Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations.

  7. Human NR5A1/SF-1 Mutations Show Decreased Activity on BDNF (Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), an Important Regulator of Energy Balance: Testing Impact of Novel SF-1 Mutations Beyond Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Malikova, Jana; Camats, Núria; Fernández-Cancio, Mónica; Heath, Karen; González, Isabel; Caimarí, María; del Campo, Miguel; Albisu, Marian; Kolouskova, Stanislava; Audí, Laura; Flück, Christa E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Human NR5A1/SF-1 mutations cause 46,XY disorder of sex development (DSD) with broad phenotypic variability, and rarely cause adrenal insufficiency although SF-1 is an important transcription factor for many genes involved in steroidogenesis. In addition, the Sf-1 knockout mouse develops obesity with age. Obesity might be mediated through Sf-1 regulating activity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important regulator of energy balance in the ventromedial hypothalamus. Objective To characterize novel SF-1 gene variants in 4 families, clinical, genetic and functional studies were performed with respect to steroidogenesis and energy balance. Patients 5 patients with 46,XY DSD were found to harbor NR5A1/SF-1 mutations including 2 novel variations. One patient harboring a novel mutation also suffered from adrenal insufficiency. Methods SF-1 mutations were studied in cell systems (HEK293, JEG3) for impact on transcription of genes involved in steroidogenesis (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B2) and in energy balance (BDNF). BDNF regulation by SF-1 was studied by promoter assays (JEG3). Results Two novel NR5A1/SF-1 mutations (Glu7Stop, His408Profs*159) were confirmed. Glu7Stop is the 4th reported SF-1 mutation causing DSD and adrenal insufficiency. In vitro studies revealed that transcription of the BDNF gene is regulated by SF-1, and that mutant SF-1 decreased BDNF promoter activation (similar to steroid enzyme promoters). However, clinical data from 16 subjects carrying SF-1 mutations showed normal birth weight and BMI. Conclusions Glu7Stop and His408Profs*159 are novel SF-1 mutations identified in patients with 46,XY DSD and adrenal insufficiency (Glu7Stop). In vitro, SF-1 mutations affect not only steroidogenesis but also transcription of BDNF which is involved in energy balance. However, in contrast to mice, consequences on weight were not found in humans with SF-1 mutations. PMID:25122490

  8. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  9. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  10. Information sciences and human factors overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  11. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  12. E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaoui, Claude, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    "E-Education Applications: Human Factors and Innovative Approaches" enforces the need to take multi-disciplinary and/or inter-disciplinary approaches, when solutions for e-education (or online-, e-learning) are introduced. By focusing on the issues that have impact on the usability of e-learning, the book specifically fills-in a gap in this area,…

  13. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  14. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  15. Human factors considerations for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Even with traditional system design and development programs military systems are developed that end up being difficult for the target audience to use. Over the years the military has learned to incorporate human factors considerations and requirements in system requirements documents in order to minimize this problem. However in today's environment of procuring GOTS/COTS equipment to quickly field a needed capability, the human factors aspects are not always considered or they may have to be traded for other considerations. This occurs for a variety of reasons with the driving reason being the willingness of commanders and agencies to trade capabilities for speed of fielding. This paper addresses human factors considerations that should be observed in the design of unattended ground sensors (UGS) at the component, equipment and system levels. This is not an abstract paper on human factors engineering but an examination of current trends and applications. Lessons learned from recent fieldings and example designs from the Harris Falcon Watch system are provided. What Harris has found is that design considerations, development schedules, understanding of the target audience and the mission scenarios, and training are all key factors in determining whether a system will be found to have utility by a broad spectrum of users.

  16. Environmental Factors Impacting Bone-Relevant Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin T.; Schneider, Andrew D.; Katchko, Karina M.; Yun, Chawon; Hsu, Erin L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemokines play an important role in normal bone physiology and the pathophysiology of many bone diseases. The recent increased focus on the individual roles of this class of proteins in the context of bone has shown that members of the two major chemokine subfamilies—CC and CXC—support or promote the formation of new bone and the remodeling of existing bone in response to a myriad of stimuli. These chemotactic molecules are crucial in orchestrating appropriate cellular homing, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis during normal bone repair. Bone healing is a complex cascade of carefully regulated processes, including inflammation, progenitor cell recruitment, differentiation, and remodeling. The extensive role of chemokines in these processes and the known links between environmental contaminants and chemokine expression/activity leaves ample opportunity for disruption of bone healing by environmental factors. However, despite increased clinical awareness, the potential impact of many of these environmental factors on bone-related chemokines is still ill defined. A great deal of focus has been placed on environmental exposure to various endocrine disruptors (bisphenol A, phthalate esters, etc.), volatile organic compounds, dioxins, and heavy metals, though mainly in other tissues. Awareness of the impact of other less well-studied bone toxicants, such as fluoride, mold and fungal toxins, asbestos, and chlorine, is also reviewed. In many cases, the literature on these toxins in osteogenic models is lacking. However, research focused on their effects in other tissues and cell lines provides clues for where future resources could be best utilized. This review aims to serve as a current and exhaustive resource detailing the known links between several classes of high-interest environmental pollutants and their interaction with the chemokines relevant to bone healing. PMID:28261155

  17. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  18. Human genetic factors in tuberculosis: an update.

    PubMed

    van Tong, Hoang; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P; Thye, Thorsten; Meyer, Christian G

    2017-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major threat to human health, especially in many developing countries. Human genetic variability has been recognised to be of great relevance in host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and in regulating both the establishment and the progression of the disease. An increasing number of candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have focused on human genetic factors contributing to susceptibility or resistance to TB. To update previous reviews on human genetic factors in TB we searched the MEDLINE database and PubMed for articles from 1 January 2014 through 31 March 2017 and reviewed the role of human genetic variability in TB. Search terms applied in various combinations were 'tuberculosis', 'human genetics', 'candidate gene studies', 'genome-wide association studies' and 'Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Articles in English retrieved and relevant references cited in these articles were reviewed. Abstracts and reports from meetings were also included. This review provides a recent summary of associations of polymorphisms of human genes with susceptibility/resistance to TB. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Host resistance factors in human milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A S; Smith, C W

    1973-06-01

    This paper discusses the nature of host resistance factors in human milk and epidemiologic studies regarding infections and mortality rates in breastfed and nonbreastfed babies. The defense factors and their proposed modes of action are: 1) a growth enhancer of lactobacilli, which interferes with intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens; 2) antistaphylococcal factors, which inhibit staphylococci; 3) secretory IgA and other immunoglobulins, which protect the gut and respiratory tract; 4) C4 and C3 (complement components; C3 fragments have opsonic, chemotactic, and anaphylatoxic activities); 5) lysozome, lysis of bacterial cell wall; 6) lactoperoxidase, killing of streptococci; 7) lactoferrin, kills microorganism by chelating iron, and 8) macrophages and lymphocytes, phagocytosis and cell-mediated immunity. Although it can be postulated that the breastfed infant's resistance to infection would be superior on account of the greater presence of these factors in human milk compared to cow's milk, little is known about the effects of these defense factors on the infant. Epidemiologic studies have reported on the lower morbidity and mortality rates of breastfed infants as compared to bottlefed infants. Other studies have focused on the protective effects of human milk upon the infant, but these have been inconclusive. In countries with poor sanitation and high infection rates, the incidence of bacterial infections is lowest in breastfed infants. The advantages of human milk however are difficult to demonstrate in societies with high standards of sanitation and low infection rates. Infection and mortality rates in infants have in fact declined in developed countries as the practice of breastfeeding declined. Until it is established that immunity to common pathogens is transmitted to the infant by human milk, it will not be known whether human milk does have protective effects.

  20. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  1. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    representing the government, the military, academe, and private industry were surveyed to identify those tools that are most frequently used or viewed...tools by HFE researchers and practitioners within the academic, industrial , and military settings. % .. J. &@ossion For XTIS GR&&I DTIC TAS 0...267 E. Human Factors Engineering Tools Questionnaire .. ......... . 279 F. Listing of Industry , Government, and Academe

  2. Human and Mechanical Factors in Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, M. J.; Hubbard, R. P.

    Analysis of the human and mechanical factors inherent in ergometry suggest many strategies for the improvement of experiments related to exertion. The resistive principles of gravitation, friction, elasticity, viscosity, magnetism, and inertia used in ergometers impose different restraints on experiments. The suitability of different resistive…

  3. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care.

  4. Human impacts and the global distribution of extinction risk

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Richard G; Orme, C. David L; Olson, Valerie; Thomas, Gavin H; Ross, Simon G; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Stattersfield, Ali J; Bennett, Peter M; Blackburn, Tim M; Owens, Ian P.F; Gaston, Kevin J

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the global geographical distribution of extinction risk is a key challenge in conservation biology. It remains controversial, however, to what extent areas become threat hotspots simply because of high human impacts or due to predisposing ecological conditions. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent, resolution and quality of previously available data have precluded a full global assessment of the relative roles of these factors. Here, we use a new global database on the geographical distributions of birds on continents and continental islands to show that, after controlling for species richness, the best predictors of the global pattern of extinction risk are measures of human impact. Ecological gradients are of secondary importance at a global scale. The converse is true for individual biogeographic realms, within which variation in human impact is reduced and its influence on extinction risk globally is therefore underestimated. These results underline the importance of a global perspective on the mechanisms driving spatial patterns of extinction risk, and the key role of anthropogenic factors in driving the current extinction crisis. PMID:16901831

  5. Human impacts and the global distribution of extinction risk.

    PubMed

    Davies, Richard G; Orme, C David L; Olson, Valerie; Thomas, Gavin H; Ross, Simon G; Ding, Tzung-Su; Rasmussen, Pamela C; Stattersfield, Ali J; Bennett, Peter M; Blackburn, Tim M; Owens, Ian P F; Gaston, Kevin J

    2006-09-07

    Understanding the global geographical distribution of extinction risk is a key challenge in conservation biology. It remains controversial, however, to what extent areas become threat hotspots simply because of high human impacts or due to predisposing ecological conditions. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent, resolution and quality of previously available data have precluded a full global assessment of the relative roles of these factors. Here, we use a new global database on the geographical distributions of birds on continents and continental islands to show that, after controlling for species richness, the best predictors of the global pattern of extinction risk are measures of human impact. Ecological gradients are of secondary importance at a global scale. The converse is true for individual biogeographic realms, within which variation in human impact is reduced and its influence on extinction risk globally is therefore underestimated. These results underline the importance of a global perspective on the mechanisms driving spatial patterns of extinction risk, and the key role of anthropogenic factors in driving the current extinction crisis.

  6. The human physiological impact of global deoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel; McKenna, Helen; Livina, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    There has been a clear decline in the volume of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere over the past 20 years. Although the magnitude of this decrease appears small compared to the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere, it is difficult to predict how this process may evolve, due to the brevity of the collected records. A recently proposed model predicts a non-linear decay, which would result in an increasingly rapid fall-off in atmospheric oxygen concentration, with potentially devastating consequences for human health. We discuss the impact that global deoxygenation, over hundreds of generations, might have on human physiology. Exploring the changes between different native high-altitude populations provides a paradigm of how humans might tolerate worsening hypoxia over time. Using this model of atmospheric change, we predict that humans may continue to survive in an unprotected atmosphere for ~3600 years. Accordingly, without dramatic changes to the way in which we interact with our planet, humans may lose their dominance on Earth during the next few millennia.

  7. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  8. Human factors engineering and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Gosbee, J

    2002-01-01

    

 The case study and analyses presented here illustrate the crucial role of human factors engineering (HFE) in patient safety. HFE is a framework for efficient and constructive thinking which includes methods and tools to help healthcare teams perform patient safety analyses, such as root cause analyses. The literature on HFE over several decades contains theories and applied studies to help to solve difficult patient safety problems and design issues. A case study is presented which illustrates the vulnerabilities of human factors design in a transport monitor. The subsequent analysis highlights how to move beyond the more obvious contributing factors like training to design problems and the establishment of informal norms. General advice is offered to address these issues and design issues specific to this case are discussed. PMID:12468696

  9. ISI's Impact Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To Assess Journal Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "impact factor," a measure of journal impact defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "impact factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to assess the impact of…

  10. ISI's Impact Factor as Misnomer: A Proposed New Measure To Assess Journal Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephen P.; Nisonger, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses "impact factor," a measure of journal impact defined by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) and available in Journal Citation Reports. Argues that "impact factor" is misnamed and misused, suggesting an alternative name and interpretation of the measure, and proposes two new measures to assess the impact of…

  11. Virtual impact: visualizing the potential effects of cosmic impact in human history

    SciTech Connect

    Masse, W Bruce; Janecky, David R; Forte, Maurizio; Barrientos, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Current models indicate that catastrophic impacts by asteroids and comets capable of killing more than one quarter of Earth's human population have occurred on average once every million years; smaller impacts, such the 1908 Tunguska impact that leveled more than 2,000 square km of Siberian forest, occur every 200-300 years. Therefore, cosmic impact likely significantly affected hominine evolution and conceivably played a role in Holocene period human culture history. Regrettably, few archaeologists are trained to appreciate the nature and potential effects of cosmic impact. We have developed a conceptual model for an extensible set of educational and research tools based on virtual reality collaborative environments to engage archaeologists and the general public on the topic of the role of cosmic impact in human history. Our initial focus is on two documented asteroid impacts in Argentina during the period of 4000 to 1000 B.C. Campo del Cicio resulted in an energy release of around 2-3 megatons (100-150 times the Hiroshima atomic weapon), and left several craters and a strewn field covering 493 km{sup 2} in northeastern Argentina. Rio Cuarto was likely more than 1000 megatons and may have devastated an area greater than 50,000 km{sup 2} in central Argentina. We are focusing on reconstructions of these events and their potential effects on contemporary hunter and gatherers. Our vinual reality tools also introduce interactive variables (e.g., impactor physical properties, climate, vegetation, topography, and social complexity) to allow researchers and students to better investigate and evaluate the factors that significantly influence cosmic impact effects.

  12. Environmental impacts of human action in watercourses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes do Carmo, J. S.

    2014-10-01

    The economic, social and environmental conditions of various European river basins and estuarine systems have changed dramatically in the last decades as a consequence of anthropogenic effects, and they will go on changing in the years to come due to increasing human pressure. Particularly in Portugal, various river-estuary systems have undergone several human interventions, notably engineering works to restore considerable stretches of channels and river banks. Whenever the characteristics and natural evolution of a river are altered as a result of human intervention there is an environmental impact. In other words, it is understood that differences can be observed between any present situation that is the result of the evolution of an environment after human intervention, and the natural situation that would have existed if this type of intervention had not taken place, taking into account our previous knowledge of the situation. A thorough understanding of the fluvial processes and new strategies are needed to develop a multifunctional use structure, which must take into account the many-faceted aims of sustainable development. This paper provides a brief description of the nature and distribution of the direct and indirect types of impact arising out of building and operating large dams, as well as some specific points that should be taken into consideration. It also reflects on the way in which the problem of extracting inert material from water environments has been dealt with in Portugal and offers a brief technical contribution which, although qualitative, provides a basic record and explanation of the consequences of significant interventions in water environments that have not been properly assessed or have not taken other mitigating circumstances into consideration.

  13. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  14. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals.

    PubMed

    Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Francis; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-09-01

    To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF) as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000-2013. In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, P< 0.001). When studying the field of ophthalmology a positive correlation between the number of journals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, P< 0.001) and between number of journals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, P< 0.001) was detected. Our findings suggest that the variation in the IF can be explained by the number of journals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals.

  15. Trends in impact factors of ophthalmology journals

    PubMed Central

    Vainer, Igor; Mimouni, Francis; Blumenthal, Eytan Z; Mimouni, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether there is an association between the growth in the number of ophthalmic journals in the past years and their mean and maximum impact factor (IF) as a common sign of scientific proliferation. Methods: Using data from the 2013 Journal Citation Report database a study of the major clinical medical fields was conducted to assess the correlation between the number of journals and maximum IF in a given field in the year 2013. In the field of ophthalmology, we examined the correlation between year, number of journals, mean IF and maximum IF in the field of ophthalmology throughout the years 2000–2013. Results: In the major medical fields, a positive correlation was found between the number of journals and the maximum IF (quadratic R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001). When studying the field of ophthalmology a positive correlation between the number of journals and mean IF (R2 = 0.84, P < 0.001) and between number of journals and maximum IF (R2 = 0.71, P < 0.001) was detected. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the variation in the IF can be explained by the number of journals in the field of ophthalmology. In the future, the formation of additional ophthalmology journals is likely to further increase the IFs of existing journals. PMID:27853016

  16. Space human factors publications: 1980-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Katherine J.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 year cummulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the NASA Space Human Factors Program of the Life Science Division is provided. The goal of this program is to understand the basic mechanisms underlying behavioral adaptation to space and to develop and validate system design requirements, protocols, and countermeasures to ensure the psychological well-being, safety, and productivity of crewmembers. Subjects encompassed by this bibliography include selection and training, group dynamics, psychophysiological interactions, habitability issues, human-machine interactions, psychological support measures, and anthropometric data. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk.

  17. Steady impact factor growth for MDPI open access journals.

    PubMed

    Thiesen, Alexander

    2012-09-12

    For the past three years MDPI has announced the newly released impact factors for its Open Access journals by the means of an annual editorial [1-3]. In 2012 we are-once again-pleased to report that the growth of the impact factors of MDPI's Open Access journals continues. This year's edition of the Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which is published annually by Thomson Reuters, includes 10 journals published by MDPI, including three that have received their first official Impact Factors- International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), Materials Nutrients. Table 1 reports the latest Impact Factors for 2011. Figure 1 graphically depicts the evolution of the Impact Factors for four MDPI open access journals that have received Impact Factors in the past. Table 2 reports the ranking of the MDPI journals within the subject categories of the Science Citation Index Expanded.

  18. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  19. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  20. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  1. The space station: Human factors and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

  2. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  3. Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    A ugmented reality (AR) has been part of computergraphics methodology for decades. A number of prototype AR systems have shown the possibilities this...and predicting what might happen in the near future in your environment. We per- formed a domain analysis to determine which AR capa- bilities most...user’s location and then per- forming the (cognitive) task of Mark A. Livingston Naval Research Laboratory Evaluating Human Factors in Augmented Reality

  4. Human factors by descent energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  5. Human Factors Representations for Combat Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    decicion rules. Existing rules in most versions do not make such requests. 5-B. Based on user-specified decision tables. 6-A. Relocation of command posts...on such simu- lations. The report makes explicit the presently implicit assumptions re- e •lated to human factors and provides a structure within which...tasks under adverse conditions; (2) decision making ; and (3) recognition of features and patterns. vii ’ . vii a

  6. Heresies: Brief Essays on Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    uncertain? Does this increasing experience of deJa vu (the experience of, I already know this) mean that HF (and other behavioral research) tends, as some...government. Industry and universities are unlikely to provide the necessary support for Human Factors research and application. 10. In addition to internal...might be considered a crude parallel to a sonar/radar classification task. Does the situation accurately represent a MIS? Does the CRT aifect the

  7. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  8. Human factors aspects of air traffic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Older, H. J.; Cameron, B. J.

    1972-01-01

    An overview of human factors problems associated with the operation of present and future air traffic control systems is presented. A description is included of those activities and tasks performed by air traffic controllers at each operational position within the present system. Judgemental data obtained from controllers concerning psychological dimensions related to these tasks and activities are also presented. The analysis includes consideration of psychophysiological dimensions of human performance. The role of the human controller in present air traffic control systems and his predicted role in future systems is described, particularly as that role changes as the result of the system's evolution towards a more automated configuration. Special attention is directed towards problems of staffing, training, and system operation. A series of ten specific research and development projects are recommended and suggested work plans for their implementation are included.

  9. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  11. Human factors in modern traffic systems.

    PubMed

    Noy, Y I

    1997-10-01

    Traffic systems are undergoing enormous change with the advent of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Although productivity and quality of mobility are emerging interests, safety remains the predominant preoccupation of ITS human factors. It should be evident that while intelligent technologies may have the potential to improve traffic safety, they also have the potential to adversely affect it. Ultimately, the effect on safety depends on the specific technologies that are invoked and the manner in which they are incorporated within the vehicle as well as within the larger road transportation system. Current automotive developments can be characterized as technology-centred solutions rather than user-centred solutions. Greater effort must be directed at understanding and accommodating the human element in the road transportation system in order that future transportation objectives can be achieved. There is a need to expand the scope of traditional human factors to include macro-level effects as well as to place greater emphasis on understanding human interactions with other elements of the system. There is also increasing recognition of the urgent need for systematic procedures and criteria for testing the safety of ITS prior to large-scale market penetration.

  12. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  13. Safe surgery, the human factors approach.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tony; Papanikolaou, V; Keogh, I

    2010-04-01

    Studies estimate that a degree of error occurs in 5-15% of all hospital admissions, with 45% of errors occurring in the operating theatre. Staffing limitations, high turnover rates, site and side-specific surgical procedures, make operating theatres a high-risk environment. Valuable lessons may be learned from the aviation experience with error management. With over 70% of air-crashes occurring due to human rather than technical error, the Human Factors Approach to error recognises the potential for errors occurring due to human limitations, such as stress and fatigue. It encourages error reporting in a non-punitive environment, where it is seen as a valuable source of information, facilitating education and future error prevention. Errors in healthcare and surgery however, have been traditionally associated with secrecy and embarrassment, often reaching an unsatisfactory endpoint with no resultant education. Application of the Human Factors Approach to error management in healthcare, can only serve to improve safety standards in our hospitals and satisfy ever-increasing public expectations. Copyright 2009 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat. © RSNA, 2015.

  15. Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollma, Merita

    2010-05-01

    Human impact on the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin This paper is about the natural and human factors role impact on the geomorphology of the coastal area of Ishem -Shengjin. The morphotectonic and morphologic evolution of this zone is closely connected to the Adriatic sea and Mat, Ishem rivers activities. An important role in this evolution has also played the tectonic faults, where Mat and Ishem rivers flow. River delta advancing in this zone, besides the littoral cordons, is connected to the river solid loads (about 5380 ton/km2), which manage to compensate the continuous tectonic subsidents of its structural basement. The presence of the lagoons (Patok, Merxhan, Ceka), dead meanders and marshlands along a distance of 2-4 km of this zone, are the evidences of continues morphologic evolution of the present coastline, especially between these two rivers. The higher tectonic subsident values of the basement along Mat fault have also defined the smaller size of the alluvial field of this river compare to the alluvial field created by Ishem river. This tectonic phenomena is evidenced with the different thickness of the quaternary depositions along the Ishem river sector (30-80m) and along Mati river (250-290 m). Human impact on the geomorphologic evolution of this zone has caused the total destruction of Patok beach, due to the deviation of the Ishem river flow to the lagoon of Patok. The creation of the artificial reservoirs along Mat river (Ulez, Shkopet) and Ishem river (Bovilla), besides the extraction of the river inert materials along Mati riverbed and destruction of the river banks concretes, have decreased the solid river load. This has caused the beginning of the erosion process of the coastline in some sectors of this zone. Consequently the damages on the natural environment of this zone caused by the human impact are severe and their rehabilitation and management needs an integrated approach from different actors.

  16. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  17. Human adipocytes secrete mineralocorticoid-releasing factors.

    PubMed

    Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Lamounier-Zepter, V; Schraven, A; Langenbach, J; Willenberg, H S; Barthel, A; Hauner, H; McCann, S M; Scherbaum, W A; Bornstein, S R

    2003-11-25

    Obesity has become an epidemic problem in western societies, contributing to metabolic diseases, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Overweight and obesity are frequently associated with increased plasma levels of aldosterone. Recent evidence suggests that human fat is a highly active endocrine tissue. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that adipocyte secretory products directly stimulate adrenocortical aldosterone secretion. Secretory products from isolated human adipocytes strongly stimulated steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical cells (NCI-H295R) with a predominant effect on mineralocorticoid secretion. Aldosterone secretion increased 7-fold during 24 h of incubation. This stimulation was comparable to maximal stimulation of these cells with forskolin (2 x 10(-5) M). On the molecular level, there was a 10-fold increase in the expression of steroid acute regulatory peptide mRNA. This effect was independent of adipose angiotensin II as revealed by the stimulatory effect of fat cell-conditioned medium even in the presence of the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist, valsartan. None of the recently defined adipocytokines accounted for the effect. Mineralocorticoid-stimulating activity was heat sensitive and could be blunted by heating fat cell-conditioned medium to 99 degrees C. Centrifugal filtration based on molecular mass revealed at least two releasing factors: a heat sensitive fraction (molecular mass >50 kDa) representing 60% of total activity, and an inactive fraction (molecular mass <50 kDa). However, the recovery rate increased to 92% when combining these two fractions, indicating the interaction of at least two factors. In conclusion, human adipocytes secrete potent mineralocorticoid-releasing factors, suggesting a direct link between obesity and hypertension.

  18. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  19. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  20. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  1. Factors That Impact the Ethical Behavior of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This study examines factors impacting ethical behavior of 182 college students in the midwestern and northwestern United States. Ethical behavior of peers had the most significant impact on ethical behavior of students. Success (in terms of grade point average) of students, and gender of the respondents, also significantly impacted ethical…

  2. Publication trends and impact factors in the Medical Informatics literature.

    PubMed

    Lavallie, Donna L; Wolf, Fredric M

    2005-01-01

    We survey the "evolution" of the field of Medical Informatics by describing trends in volume(quantity) of Medical Informatics-indexed publications, identifying major journals of publication and their focus areas and presenting trends in impact factor scores during the 1994-2003 period. Changes in total impact-scores suggest an increasing trend of publication in journals of higher impact.

  3. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  4. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are…

  5. Building a List of Journals with Constructed Impact Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegmann, Johannes

    1999-01-01

    Describes the building of a list of constructed-impact factors (CIF) for biomedical journals not included in the 1996 editions of the "Journal Citation Reports." The online retrieval from the host DIMDI of the data needed for impact-factor calculation is described. The top 100 (of 338 titles, ranked according to their CIFs) are…

  6. HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION FACTORS IN THE HUMAN LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Whipple, G. H.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.

    1942-01-01

    Human liver tissue has been assayed to determine the amount of hemoglobin production factors in normal and abnormal states. Standardized dogs made anemic by blood removal have been used in this biological assay. Normal animal liver as control is rated as 100 per cent. Normal human liver tissue as compared with the normal animal control contains more of these hemoglobin production factors—a biological assay ratio of 120 to 160 per cent. Infections, acute and chronic, do not appear to modify these values, the concentration of hemoglobin-producing factors falling within the normal range. Pernicious anemia and aplastic anemia both show large liver stores of hemoglobin-producing factors—a biological assay ratio of 200 to 240 per cent. Therapy in pernicious anemia reduces these liver stores as new red cells are formed. Secondary anemia presents a low normal or subnormal liver store of hemoglobin-producing factors—an assay of 60 to 130 per cent. Hemochromatosis, erythroblastic anemia, and hemolytic icterus in spite of large iron deposits in the liver usually show a biological assay which is normal or close to normal. Polycythemia shows low reserve stores of hemoglobin-producing factors. Leukemias present a wide range of values discussed above. Hypoproteinemia almost always is associated with low reserve stores of hemoglobin-producing factors in the liver—biological assays of 60 to 80 per cent. Hypoproteinemia means a depletion of body protein reserve stores including the labile protein liver reserves—a strong indication that the prehemoglobin material (or globin) is related to these liver stores. Pregnancy, eclampsia, and lactation all may present subnormal liver stores of hemoglobin-producing factors. Exhaustion of protein stores lowers the barrier to infection and renders the liver very susceptible to many toxic substances. It should not be difficult to correct hypoproteinemia under these conditions and thus relieve the patient of a real hazard. PMID:19871236

  7. Factors Impacting the Child with Behavioral Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbuckle, Suzanne R.

    2010-01-01

    Various factors influence the developmental course of the behaviorally inhibited child. These factors include reciprocating, contextual factors, such as the child's own traits, the environment, the maternal characteristics, and the environment. Behaviorally inhibited children show physiological and behavioral signs of fear and anxiety when…

  8. Human factors in primary care telemedicine encounters.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional delivery of primary care takes place in a face-to-face transaction between provider and patient. In telemedicine, however, the transaction is 'filtered' by the distance and technology. The potential problem of filtered communication in a telemedicine encounter was examined from a human factors perspective. Patients with and without experience of telemedicine, and providers who had experience of telemedicine, were asked about patient-provider relationships in interviews and focus groups. Seven themes emerged: initial impressions, style of questions, field of view, physical interaction, social talk, control of encounter and ancillary services. This suggests that communication can be improved and better patient-provider relationships can be developed in a primary care telemedicine encounter if attention is paid to four areas of the interaction: verbal, non-verbal, relational and actions/transactional. The human factors dimension of telemedicine is an important element in delivery of health care at a distance - and is one of few factors over which the provider has direct control.

  9. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3.

    PubMed

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M; Smith, M Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie H D; Nogales, Eva

    2013-06-04

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans.

  10. Harvesting the biosphere: the human impact.

    PubMed

    Smil, Vaclav

    2011-01-01

    The human species has evolved to dominate the biosphere: global anthropomass is now an order of magnitude greater than the mass of all wild terrestrial mammals. As a result, our dependence on harvesting the products of photosynthesis for food, animal feed, raw materials, and energy has grown to make substantial global impacts. During the past two millennia these harvests, and changes of land use due to deforestation and conversions of grasslands and wetlands, have reduced the stock of global terrestrial plant mass by as much as 45 percent, with the twentieth-century reduction amounting to more than 15 percent. Current annual harvests of phytomass have been a significant share of the global net primary productivity (NPP, the total amount of new plant tissues created by photosynthesis). Some studies put the human appropriation of NPP (the ratio of these two variables) as high as 40 percent but the measure itself is problematic. Future population growth and improved quality of life will result in additional claims on the biosphere, but options to accommodate these demands exist without severely compromising the irreplaceable biospheric services.

  11. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  12. Space human factors discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive areas of behavior, performance, and human factors. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas, and identifies technological priorities. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and Exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters program offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area.

  13. Job performance aids: Human factoring maintenance procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Macris, A.C.; Fleming, S.T

    1991-11-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) are human factors engineering techniques used to strengthen operating, maintenance, and engineering procedures. They are not a new concept, but one whose time has come. This paper focuses on the application of JPAs to maintenance procedures. Job performance aids research originates from US Department of Defense (DOD) efforts, primarily in maintenance-oriented tasks. While at Connecticut Yankee power plant, the authors, an instructional consultant, and the training manager were investigating ways to enhance training effectiveness. Based on historic research efforts, there is strong evidence that JPAs have the potential to improve human performance and realize additional benefits of reduced training time and should be incorporated into the training time and should be incorporated into the training curriculum.

  14. Space Cabin Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-12-01

    December 1964 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Space Cabin Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Landing Impact Vector Effects on Human Physiology COLONEL JOHN P. STAPP, USAF, MC, and MAJOR ELLIS R. TAYLOR, USAF, MC ABSTRACT stimulation of carotid...LANDING IMPACT VECTOR EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY -STAPP AND TAYLOR tion and pallor occurred on exposure to more than 30 facing seated and bottom

  15. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  16. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  18. Exercise training as vascular medicine: direct impacts on the vasculature in humans.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Exercise training decreases cardiovascular risk, but effects on traditional risk factors do not fully account for this benefit. Exercise directly impacts upon arterial shear stress, a stimulus to antiatherogenic adaptation in vascular function and remodeling. This review considers the impact of exercise training on vascular adaptation in large and small arteries in humans.

  19. Research on the Relationships between Chinese Journal Impact Factors and External Web Link Counts and Web Impact Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    An, Lu; Qiu, Junping

    2004-01-01

    Journal impact factors (JIFs) as determined by the Institute for Scientific and Technological Information of China (ISTIC) of forty-two Chinese engineering journals were compared with external Web link counts, obtained from Lycos, and Web Impact Factors (WIFs) of corresponding journal Web sites to determine if any significant correlation existed…

  20. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  1. Human factors in anaesthesia: lessons from aviation.

    PubMed

    Toff, N J

    2010-07-01

    Aviation safety has evolved over more than a century and has achieved remarkable results. Applying some of the lessons learned may help make healthcare safer. From the perspective of an anaesthetic background and some thousands of hours of airline flying, I offer a personal perspective, try to give a sense of the place of human factors in airline operations and some of the current problems, and make some suggestions as to what the NHS and anaesthesia might learn from this. Although many of the ingredients for safe operation are frequently already present in our hospitals, and some individual clinical areas and departments achieve high levels of reliability and safety, I will emphasize my firm belief that we cannot expect improvements in human factors training and awareness to be fully effective in the healthcare setting without the parallel development of a simple and strong safety system across organizations. In the process, we may find that the safe hospital turns out somewhat differently to the safe airline.

  2. An International Survey of Maintenance Human Factors Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    maintenance and repair organizations. Questions focused on training, error management , fatigue management , and other human factors issues. An online link was... Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Fatgue... Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 human Factors Metrcs

  3. [Growth factors in human tooth development].

    PubMed

    Bellone, C; Barni, T; Pagni, L; Balboni, G C; Vannelli, G B

    1990-03-01

    Our research concerns the immunohistochemical localization of EGF and IGF-I receptors in the tooth germ, using monoclonal antibodies. The results show that in the early phases of human tooth development EGF and IGF-I receptors are present. At bud stage both receptors are localized at dental laminae level, in some epithelial cells of the tooth bud and in some mesenchymal cells. At cap stage the receptors are present in the outer and inner enamel epithelium, and in some cells of stellate reticulum. As far as concerns the mesenchymal cells, some cells of dental papilla in contact with enamel organ, are intensely positive. The immunopositivity is present also in some mesenchymal cells at follicular level. At late cap stage and at early bell stage receptors are not present at inner enamel epithelium level but they can be detectable in the mesenchyma of dental papilla and in some cells of the follicle. On the basis of these results it may be hypothesized that EGF and IGF-I can act as growth factors in the modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during the human tooth morphogenesis. Moreover, it is possible that these substances can play a role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in the developing human tooth.

  4. Examining the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Shawn M; Li, Jian; Rumrill, Phillip D; Merchant, William; Bishop, Malachy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29) to assess its suitability for modeling the impact of MS on a nation-wide sample of individuals from the United States. Investigators completed a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to examine the two-factor structure proposed by Hobart et al. [17]. Although the original MSIS-29 factor structure did not fit the data exactly, the hypothesized two-factor model was partially supported in the current data. Implications for future instrument development and rehabilitation practice are discussed.

  5. [The invalidity of the impact factor as indicator of the impact of Latin American scientific journals].

    PubMed

    Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-03-01

    Use of the Impact Factor is currently being discarded in industrialized countries where, to name one case, up to 40% of the articles published in Nature are never cited, despite the high Impact Factor of that journal. However, it is still used in Latin America to evaluate journals and authors, potentially influencing who are given positions and who receives funding. To find out how valid the Impact Factor is for Latin American research, 1 used the database BINABITROP to see how much of the relevant literature was used to measure impact. I found that the Science Citation Index (SCI) excluded 96% of the relevant literature when measuring the impact of biological articles about Costa Rica for the studied year (2011). Therefore, the impact of Latin American science is unknown and the Impact Factor should not be used to assess how often a journal, institution or author are cited.

  6. Impact of Life Factors upon Attitudes toward Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Kevin J.; Durlak, Joseph A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated impact of life factors on college students' (N=47) feelings about death. Most important life factors clustered into three categories: Death of Significant Other, Religious Upbringing, and Near-Death Experiences. Although factors had mixed effects across individuals, they were significant predictors of current feelings about death.…

  7. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  8. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  9. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  10. Human borna disease virus infection impacts host proteome and histone lysine acetylation in human oligodendroglia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Xia; Zhao, Libo; Yang, Yongtao; Bode, Liv; Huang, Hua; Liu, Chengyu; Huang, Rongzhong; Zhang, Liang; and others

    2014-09-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) replicates in the nucleus and establishes persistent infections in mammalian hosts. A human BDV strain was used to address the first time, how BDV infection impacts the proteome and histone lysine acetylation (Kac) of human oligodendroglial (OL) cells, thus allowing a better understanding of infection-driven pathophysiology in vitro. Methods: Proteome and histone lysine acetylation were profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Histone acetylation changes were validated by biochemistry assays. Results: Post BDV infection, 4383 quantifiable differential proteins were identified and functionally annotated to metabolism pathways, immune response, DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. Sixteen of the thirty identified Kac sites in core histones presented altered acetylation levels post infection. Conclusions: BDV infection using a human strain impacted the whole proteome and histone lysine acetylation in OL cells. - Highlights: • A human strain of BDV (BDV Hu-H1) was used to infect human oligodendroglial cells (OL cells). • This study is the first to reveal the host proteomic and histone Kac profiles in BDV-infected OL cells. • BDV infection affected the expression of many transcription factors and several HATs and HDACs.

  11. Host and Environmental Factors Influencing Individual Human Cytokine Responses.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Rob; Jaeger, Martin; Smeekens, Sanne P; Oosting, Marije; Swertz, Morris A; Li, Yang; Kumar, Vinod; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Jansen, Anne F M; Lemmers, Heidi; Toenhake-Dijkstra, Helga; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Janssen, Matthijs; van der Molen, Renate G; Joosten, Irma; Sweep, Fred C G J; Smit, Johannes W; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Koenders, Mieke M J F; Xavier, Ramnik J; van der Meer, Jos W M; Dinarello, Charles A; Pavelka, Norman; Wijmenga, Cisca; Notebaart, Richard A; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-11-03

    Differences in susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases are determined by variability in immune responses. In three studies within the Human Functional Genomics Project, we assessed the effect of environmental and non-genetic host factors of the genetic make-up of the host and of the intestinal microbiome on the cytokine responses in humans. We analyzed the association of these factors with circulating mediators and with six cytokines after stimulation with 19 bacterial, fungal, viral, and non-microbial metabolic stimuli in 534 healthy subjects. In this first study, we show a strong impact of non-genetic host factors (e.g., age and gender) on cytokine production and circulating mediators. Additionally, annual seasonality is found to be an important environmental factor influencing cytokine production. Alpha-1-antitrypsin concentrations partially mediate the seasonality of cytokine responses, whereas the effect of vitamin D levels is limited. The complete dataset has been made publicly available as a comprehensive resource for future studies. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Do we need sustainability as a new approach in human factors and ergonomics?

    PubMed

    Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.

  13. [Factors associated with job satisfaction of human resources in healthcare].

    PubMed

    Вежновець, Тетяна А; Парій, Валентин Д; Вишнивецький, Іван І; Москаленко, Максим В

    Healthcare employee satisfaction is an important criterion for the efficiency of human resource management and prognostic impact factor for high turnover of staff. Furthermore, job satisfaction positively affects patient satisfaction, which is an important indicator for quality of care. The goal of our study was to identify factors associated with job satisfaction in healthcare organizations in Ukraine. We conducted sociological and psychological survey of 190 healthcare professionals (81% response rate) in Kherson City Hospital. Job satisfaction and organizational climate was assessed through developed questionnaire, "Test Motype" method of Gerchikov (motivational profile designing) and "Diagnosis Syndrome emotional burnout" method of Boyko. Spearman rank correlation was used for analysis. Job satisfaction positively correlated with personnel age and time record, career prospects, professional development, superior-subordinate, peer-to-peer and patient communications (p<0,01 for all), teamwork environment, among executives with achievement and affiliation motivations (р<0,001, accordingly). It negatively correlated with reward-oriented and lumpen-style motivational profile (р<0,001 and <0,01, accordingly). Job satisfaction did not correlate with responsibility of executives, factors for satisfaction of job description, working conditions and range of wages (all p> 0.05). Based on findings we developed dual job satisfaction-dissatisfaction approach specific for healthcare employee in Ukraine. This model includes internal factors such as work experience, career prospects, professional motivation; external factors such as leadership, governance, work environment, customer satisfaction and preventive factors such as staff role, job description, company policies, salary and benefits.

  14. Quantifying human impacts on catchment sediment yield: A continental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanmaercke, Matthias; Poesen, Jean; Govers, Gerard; Verstraeten, Gert

    2015-07-01

    Both from a scientific and environmental management perspective, there is a large need to assess the magnitude and controlling factors of human impacts on catchment sediment yield. Quantifying this impact is difficult, since it requires knowing both the actual sediment yield (SYa, [t km- 2 y- 1]) as well as the corresponding "pristine" value of a catchment (SYp, [t km- 2 y- 1]; i.e. the sediment yield that can be expected if the catchment was not affected by humans). Here we address this problem by comparing measured SYa values for 165 European catchments that were unaffected by dams or reservoirs with their corresponding SYp, which were predicted using a recently developed regression model. The ratio between these two values is expected to reflect the degree of human impact on catchment sediment yield (HIF). Correlation and partial correlation analyses showed that spatial variability in HIF is mainly explained by differences in land use (i.e. the fraction of arable land) and catchment area. The effect of these two factors was clearly linked in western and central Europe: whereas SYa can be easily 40 times higher than SYp in intensively cultivated small (≤ 1 km2) catchments, the difference is negligible for large (> 1000 km2) catchments with the same land use. While, this concurs with our knowledge that the effects of land use (change) on erosion rates can be buffered at the catchment scale, this study provides a first robust quantification of this effect. Apart from a potential climatic effect (i.e. a correlation between HIF and the average annual air temperature) no other factors could be identified that are significant in explaining observed differences in HIF. This indicates that HIF is mainly controlled by catchment scale and land use, while other factors may be only of secondary importance at an intra-continental scale. Nonetheless, more accurate quantifications of these HIF values and more refined characterizations of the catchments in terms of (historical

  15. Human Factors in Patient Safety as an Innovation

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    The use of Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) tools, methods, concepts and theories has been advocated by many experts and organizations to improve patient safety. To facilitate and support the spread of HFE knowledge and skills in health care and patient safety, we propose to conceptualize HFE as innovations whose diffusion, dissemination, implementation and sustainability need to be understood and specified. Using Greenhalgh et al. (2004) model of innovation, we identified various factors that can either hinder or facilitate the spread of HFE innovations in healthcare organizations. Barriers include lack of systems thinking, complexity of HFE innovations and lack of understanding about the benefits of HFE innovations. Positive impact of HFE interventions on task performance and the presence of local champions can facilitate the adoption, implementation and sustainability of HFE innovations. This analysis concludes with a series of recommendations for HFE professionals, researchers and educators. PMID:20106468

  16. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  17. Human factors in Spacelab - Crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    At NASA-Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Flight Experiments Project Office two payloads for the Shuttle Spacelab are currently in development. The first payload, Spacelab-3, will launch in November 1984. Unique life sciences hardware designed to support animals in 0-g will fly for the first time. Flight crew training sessions for the Spacelab-3 astronauts began in June 1982. Human factors involvement is extensive. A thorough understanding of both the 1-g and 0-g environments is necessary. The weightlessness of the space environment creates special conditions; e.g., the time required for a 1-g laboratory experiment significantly increases in 0-g. The transportation of objects in 0-g uses different techniques than on earth. These considerations, plus others, are incorporated into the design of the Spacelab-3 crew training program.

  18. Human factors technology for America's space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montemerlo, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is initiating a space human factors research and technology development program in October 1982. The impetus for this program stems from: the frequent and economical access to space provided by the Shuttle, the advances in control and display hardware/software made possible through the recent explosion in microelectronics technology, heightened interest in a space station, heightened interest by the military in space operations, and the fact that the technology for long duration stay times for man in space has received relatively little attention since the Apollo and Skylab missions. The rationale for and issues in the five thrusts of the new program are described. The main thrusts are: basic methodology, crew station design, ground control/operations, teleoperations and extra vehicular activity.

  19. Human factors in Spacelab - Crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    At NASA-Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Flight Experiments Project Office two payloads for the Shuttle Spacelab are currently in development. The first payload, Spacelab-3, will launch in November 1984. Unique life sciences hardware designed to support animals in 0-g will fly for the first time. Flight crew training sessions for the Spacelab-3 astronauts began in June 1982. Human factors involvement is extensive. A thorough understanding of both the 1-g and 0-g environments is necessary. The weightlessness of the space environment creates special conditions; e.g., the time required for a 1-g laboratory experiment significantly increases in 0-g. The transportation of objects in 0-g uses different techniques than on earth. These considerations, plus others, are incorporated into the design of the Spacelab-3 crew training program.

  20. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  1. Human factors and ergonomics for primary care.

    PubMed

    Bowie, Paul; Jeffcott, Shelly

    2016-03-01

    In the second paper of this series, we provide a brief overview of the scientific discipline of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). Traditionally the HFE focus in healthcare has been in acute hospital settings which are perceived to exhibit characteristics more similar to other high-risk industries already applying related principles and methods. This paper argues that primary care is an area which could benefit extensively from an HFE approach, specifically in improving the performance and well-being of people and organisations. To this end, we define the purpose of HFE, outline its three specialist sub-domains (physical, cognitive and organisational HFE) and provide examples of guiding HFE principles and practices. Additionally, we describe HFE issues of significance to primary care education, improvement and research and outline early plans for building capacity and capability in this setting.

  2. Aesthetical Information Impact of Artworks on the Human Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.

    The major areas of concern in this paper are the information and aesthetical impacts of artwork on the human mind, and the modes, structures, and media of artwork which influence the formulation of aesthetical impact. The analysis of aesthetical information impact follows current discoveries in the disciplines of biocybernetics, system and…

  3. Impacts of Launch Vehicle Fairing Size on Human Exploration Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferies, Sharon; Collins, Tim; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Polsgrove, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Human missions to Mars, particularly to the Martian surface, are grand endeavors that place extensive demands on ground infrastructure, launch capabilities, and mission systems. The interplay of capabilities and limitations among these areas can have significant impacts on the costs and ability to conduct Mars missions and campaigns. From a mission and campaign perspective, decisions that affect element designs, including those based on launch vehicle and ground considerations, can create effects that ripple through all phases of the mission and have significant impact on the overall campaign. These effects result in impacts to element designs and performance, launch and surface manifesting, and mission operations. In current Evolvable Mars Campaign concepts, the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) is the primary launch vehicle for delivering crew and payloads to cis-lunar space. SLS is currently developing an 8.4m diameter cargo fairing, with a planned upgrade to a 10m diameter fairing in the future. Fairing diameter is a driving factor that impacts many aspects of system design, vehicle performance, and operational concepts. It creates a ripple effect that influences all aspects of a Mars mission, including: element designs, grounds operations, launch vehicle design, payload packaging on the lander, launch vehicle adapter design to meet structural launch requirements, control and thermal protection during entry and descent at Mars, landing stability, and surface operations. Analyses have been performed in each of these areas to assess and, where possible, quantify the impacts of fairing diameter selection on all aspects of a Mars mission. Several potential impacts of launch fairing diameter selection are identified in each of these areas, along with changes to system designs that result. Solutions for addressing these impacts generally result in increased systems mass and propellant needs, which can further exacerbate packaging and flight challenges. This paper

  4. The Photon Impact Factor for DIS at NLO: analytic result

    SciTech Connect

    Chirilli, Giovanni A.

    2011-07-15

    Using the Operator Product Expansion for high-energy scattering processes, we compute the photon impact factor at next-to-leading order accuracy. We obtain an analytic expression as a linear combination of five independent conformal tensor structures.

  5. Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Army Research Laboratory Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction by Sidney C Smith ARL-TR-7092 September 2014 Approved for...Proving Ground, MD 21005-5067 ARL-TR-7092 September 2014 Impact of Cognitive Architectures on Human-Computer Interaction Sidney C Smith Computational...PAGES 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 September 2014 Final Impact of

  6. [Impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama Zurián, Juan Carlos; Miguel-Dasit, Alberto; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio

    2004-12-01

    The impact factor is a bibliometric indicator published annually in the Journal Citation Reports, and widely regarded as a quality ranking of the journals included in this database. The problem with this indicator is that the impact factor of several journals not listed in the Science Citation Index database is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the 2001 national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. The National impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was obtained by adding the number of cites in 2001 from a total of 87 Spanish medical journals of greater scientific quality. Also, bibliographical references from Spanish journals indexed in the 2001 Journal Citation reports database have been included to determine the international impact factor of this analyzed journal. Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received a total of 62 cites from published articles in 1999 to 2001, coming from 20 different journals, being their self-citation index 10.1%. The journal with the highest number of cites to Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was Journal of Clinical Microbiology, with 12 cites (19.3%). According to this findings the national and international impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología was 0.266 and 0.606, respectively. The impact factor of Revista Iberoamericana de Micología, although not included in the Science Citation Index database, was higher than other Journal Citation Reports. Moreover, Revista Iberoamericana de Micología received most of its citations from high impact factor journals included in the Journal Citation Reports database. These data support the international recognition of the scientific level of the journal.

  7. [The impact factor and those who dislike it].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András

    2015-06-28

    Since its introduction in 1976, the impact factor is permanently a subject of both criticism and glorification. This paper gives an overview on what actually the reservations and objections attack. A closer look often reveals that the criticisms are not against the specific substantial features of the impact factor. They may formulate much more general doubts or, on the other hand, superficial technical details, easily remediable flaws or inconsistensies resulting erroneous use.

  8. Causes for the persistence of impact factor mania.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-03-18

    ABSTRACT Numerous essays have addressed the misuse of the journal impact factor for judging the value of science, but the practice continues, primarily as a result of the actions of scientists themselves. This seemingly irrational behavior is referred to as "impact factor mania." Although the literature on the impact factor is extensive, little has been written on the underlying causes of impact factor mania. In this perspective, we consider the reasons for the persistence of impact factor mania and its pernicious effects on science. We conclude that impact factor mania persists because it confers significant benefits to individual scientists and journals. Impact factor mania is a variation of the economic theory known as the "tragedy of the commons," in which scientists act rationally in their own self-interests despite the detrimental consequences of their actions on the overall scientific enterprise. Various measures to reduce the influence of the impact factor are considered. IMPORTANCE Science and scientists are currently afflicted by an epidemic of mania manifested by associating the value of research with the journal where the work is published rather than the content of the work itself. The mania is causing profound distortions in the way science is done that are deleterious to the overall scientific enterprise. In this essay, we consider the forces responsible for the persistence of the mania and conclude that it is maintained because it disproportionately benefits elements of the scientific enterprise, including certain well-established scientists, journals, and administrative interests. Our essay suggests steps that can be taken to deal with this debilitating and destructive epidemic.

  9. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  10. The Status of Cognitive Psychology Journals: An Impact Factor Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togia, Aspasia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact factor of cognitive psychology journals indexed in the Science and Social Sciences edition of "Journal Citation Reports" ("JCR") database over a period of 10 consecutive years. Cognitive psychology journals were indexed in 11 different subject categories of the database. Their mean impact factor…

  11. Human factors paradigm and customer care perceptions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin; Eales-Reynolds, Lesley-Jane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine if customer care (CC) can be directly linked to patient safety through a human factors (HF) framework. Data from an online questionnaire, completed by a convenience healthcare worker sample (n=373), was interrogated using thematic analysis within Vincent et al.'s (1998) HF theoretical framework. This proposes seven areas affecting patient safety: institutional context, organisation and management, work environment, team factors, individual, task and patient. Analysis identified responses addressing all framework areas. Responses (597) principally focused on work environment 40.7 per cent (n=243), organisation and management 28.8 per cent (n=172). Nevertheless, reference to other framework areas were clearly visible within the data: teams 10.2 per cent (n=61), individual 6.7 per cent (n=40), patients 6.0 per cent (n=36), tasks 4.2 per cent (n=24) and institution 3.5 per cent (n=21). Findings demonstrate congruence between CC perceptions and patient safety within a HF framework. The questionnaire requested participants to identify barriers to rather than CC enablers. Although this was at a single site complex organisation, it was similar to those throughout the NHS and other international health systems. CC can be viewed as consonant with patient safety rather than the potentially dangerous consumerisation stance, which could ultimately compromise patient safety. This work provides an original perspective on the link between CC and patient safety and has the potential to re-focus healthcare perceptions.

  12. [Dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate to different impacts under 30 degrees supine position].

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheng; Guo, Yao-yu; Yang, Hong-hui; Jiang, Shi-zhong

    2005-04-01

    To study the difference between the dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate under 30 degrees supine position, and to discuss impact probability of substituting human body with human surrogate in impact tests. Five volunteers experienced half-sine impact pulses, averaged 4.76, 8.96, 11.33 G, lasting for 40-60 ms on an impact tower. The human surrogate was exposed to half-sine impact pulses, averaged 6.77, 10.39, 16.93, 21.11, 24.98, 31.11 G, lasting for 40-60 ms, two times for each G level. ECG changes of the volunteers were continuously monitored before, during and after each impact. Output responses at forehead and chest of human body and human surrogate increased with input increments. But there was obvious difference of the dynamic responses between human body and the surrogate to impact of low G levels. Heart rate of each volunteer had temporary increase during the process of impact, and returned to normal level soon after the impact. There is difference in a certain extend between the dynamic responses of human body and human surrogate. The ECG changes are induced mainly by mental stress during process of impact.

  13. Factors impacting patient cooperation during elective gastroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Pyo; Sung, In-Kyung; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Sun-Young; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup

    2017-09-01

    Some people have difficulty tolerating upper endoscopy. The cause of and risk factors for this are not well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors involved in poor cooperation during screening upper endoscopy. A total of 4,422 subjects who underwent a health inspection with upper endoscopy carried out by a single experienced endoscopist were included. We retrospectively investigated subjects' self-reporting questionnaires and medical records, including endoscopic and histologic findings. The examinees' cooperation and the completeness of endoscopic examination were evaluated based on the operator's subjective judgment. Examinee cooperation during the endoscopic procedure was poor in 358 out of 4,422 subjects (8.1%). Of the subjects with poor cooperation, the endoscopic examination was incomplete in 36 subjects (10.1%). Multivariate analysis revealed that young age (< 40 years), female sex, high body mass index (≥ 25), hiatal hernia, and procedural sedation using midazolam were independent risk factors for poor cooperation. Cooperation during screening upper endoscopy was poor in a considerable number of examinees. Endoscopists must keep in mind that examinee cooperation is more likely to be poor in the young, obese people, women, patients with hiatal hernias, and those who receive procedural sedation.

  14. Medical error and human factors engineering: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Gawron, Valerie J; Drury, Colin G; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Berger, Roseanne C

    2006-01-01

    The goal of human factors engineering is to optimize the relationship between humans and systems by studying human behavior, abilities, and limitations and using this knowledge to design systems for safe and effective human use. With the assumption that the human component of any system will inevitably produce errors, human factors engineers design systems and human/machine interfaces that are robust enough to reduce error rates and the effect of the inevitable error within the system. In this article, we review the extent and nature of medical error and then discuss human factors engineering tools that have potential applicability. These tools include taxonomies of human and system error and error data collection and analysis methods. Finally, we describe studies that have examined medical error, and on the basis of these studies, present conclusions about how human factors engineering can significantly reduce medical errors and their effects.

  15. Chromothripsis: how does such a catastrophic event impact human reproduction?

    PubMed

    Pellestor, Franck

    2014-03-01

    The recent discovery of a new kind of massive chromosomal rearrangement, baptized chromothripsis (chromo for chromosomes, thripsis for shattering into pieces), greatly modifies our understanding of molecular mechanisms implicated in the repair of DNA damage and the genesis of complex chromosomal rearrangements. Initially described in cancers, and then in constitutional rearrangements, chromothripsis is characterized by the shattering of one (or a few) chromosome(s) segments followed by a chaotic reassembly of the chromosomal fragments, occurring during one unique cellular event. The diversity and the high complexity of chromothripsis events raise questions about their origin, their ties to chromosome instability and their impact in pathology. Several causative mechanisms, involving abortive apoptosis, telomere erosion, mitotic errors, micronuclei formation and p53 inactivation, have been proposed. The remarkable point is that all these mechanisms have been identified in the field of human reproduction as causal factors for reproductive failures and chromosomal abnormalities. Consequently, it seems important to consider this unexpected catastrophic phenomenon in the context of fertilization and early embryonic development in order to discuss its potential impact on human reproduction.

  16. Identifying Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veinott, Elizabeth S.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Maintenance operations incidents submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) between 1986-1992 were systematically analyzed in order to identify issues relevant to human factors and crew coordination. This exploratory analysis involved 95 ASRS reports which represented a wide range of maintenance incidents. The reports were coded and analyzed according to the type of error (e.g, wrong part, procedural error, non-procedural error), contributing factors (e.g., individual, within-team, cross-team, procedure, tools), result of the error (e.g., aircraft damage or not) as well as the operational impact (e.g., aircraft flown to destination, air return, delay at gate). The main findings indicate that procedural errors were most common (48.4%) and that individual and team actions contributed to the errors in more than 50% of the cases. As for operational results, most errors were either corrected after landing at the destination (51.6%) or required the flight crew to stop enroute (29.5%). Interactions among these variables are also discussed. This analysis is a first step toward developing a taxonomy of crew coordination problems in maintenance. By understanding what variables are important and how they are interrelated, we may develop intervention strategies that are better tailored to the human factor issues involved.

  17. Review of Empirical Studies on Impact of Religion, Religiosity and Spirituality as Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salgado, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the empirical researches supporting the positive impact of religion, religiosity and spirituality as protective factors in various areas of human life. An analysis of each variable is performed individually and collectively. Among the conclusions of this work, researches show that they help people to have…

  18. The science of human factors: separating fact from fiction

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Alissa L; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Militello, Laura G; Saleem, Jason J; Wears, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in human factors has increased across healthcare communities and institutions as the value of human centred design in healthcare becomes increasingly clear. However, as human factors is becoming more prominent, there is growing evidence of confusion about human factors science, both anecdotally and in scientific literature. Some of the misconceptions about human factors may inadvertently create missed opportunities for healthcare improvement. Methods The objective of this article is to describe the scientific discipline of human factors and provide common ground for partnerships between healthcare and human factors communities. Results The primary goal of human factors science is to promote efficiency, safety and effectiveness by improving the design of technologies, processes and work systems. As described in this article, human factors also provides insight on when training is likely (or unlikely) to be effective for improving patient safety. Finally, we outline human factors specialty areas that may be particularly relevant for improving healthcare delivery and provide examples to demonstrate their value. Conclusions The human factors concepts presented in this article may foster interdisciplinary collaborations to yield new, sustainable solutions for healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23592760

  19. 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 2 - 3, 2015. The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Mission, Process and Task Design (MPTask Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (Hab Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP is pleased with the progress and responsiveness of the SHFE team. The presentations were much improved this year. The SRP is also pleased with the human-centered design approach. Below are some of the more extensive comments from the SRP. We have also made comments in each section concerning gaps/tasks in each. The comments below reflect more significant changes that impact more than just one particular section.

  20. Is the impact factor the only game in town?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    “Not everything that can be counted counts. Not everything that counts can be counted.” William Bruce Cameron Journal metrics mania started over 50 years ago with the impact factor that has since become so well entrenched in publishing. Ask anyone where they would like to publish their research and most will reply by saying in a journal with the highest impact factor. While this suggests quality and a degree of vetting by the scientific community, the impact factor has also been used to benchmark and compare journals. Impact factors are often used as a proxy of a journal 's quality and scientific prestige. However, is medicine dependent on a valuation system that may be grounded in falsity? Much about this measure is imperfect and destructive. Journals can manipulate the impact factor by refusing to publish articles like case reports that are unlikely to be cited or, conversely, by publishing a large proportion of review articles, which tend to attract more citations. Another tactic that may be used is to publish articles that could be highly cited early in the year, thereby leaving more time to collect citations. Many use the impact factor as an important determinant of grants, awards, promotions and career advancement, and also as a basis for an individual's reputation and professional standing. Nevertheless, you should remember that the impact factor is not a measure of an individual article, let alone an individual scientist. As long as an article has been cited, the citation will contribute to the journal's impact factor. This is regardless of whether the article's premise is true or false, or whether the cited paper was being credited or criticised. Perversely, a weak paper that is being refuted will augment the impact factor, as will a retracted article, because although the article may have been retracted, the citations of this article will still count. The impact factor has weathered many storms in the past but criticisms against it are increasing, as

  1. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  2. Norming of Student Evaluations of Instruction: Impact of Noninstructional Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nargundkar, Satish; Shrikhande, Milind

    2014-01-01

    Student Evaluations of Instruction (SEIs) from about 6,000 sections over 4 years representing over 100,000 students at the college of business at a large public university are analyzed, to study the impact of noninstructional factors on student ratings. Administrative factors like semester, time of day, location, and instructor attributes like…

  3. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  4. Characterizing climate change impacts on human exposures to air pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposures to air pollutants such as ozone (O3) have the potential to be altered by changes in climate through multiple factors that drive population exposures, including: ambient pollutant concentrations, human activity patterns, population sizes and distributions, and hous...

  5. Impact of human interventions on mangrove ecosystem in spatial perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasyid, Abd.; Akbar AS, M.; Nurdin, Nurjannah; Jaya, Ilham; Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Climate change components that affect mangroves include changes in sea level, high water events, storms, precipitation, temperature, and oceanic circulation. Cumulative impacts of these factors have a distinct synergy with respect to an accelerated rate of mangrove degradation. development of coastal agricultural land and shrimp farming ponds in intertidal areas are considered as the major factors behind mangrove delineation. There is no agreement for the extensive of mangrove forest in Indonesia, but invarious forums it is usually used the number of 4.25 million ha for that. At approximately 9 years ago, the extensive vast of mangrove forest in Indonesia was about 4.13 million ha but now it is only 2.49 million ha (60%). The methodology of this study consisted of two main steps: (1) image analysis, and (2) post classification. The aim of this study is to analysis the human intervention base on spatial dynamic of mangrove. The study site was selected Sagara island in Spermonde Archipelago. The results of analyze shows that decreasing of mangrove is caused human intervention.

  6. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Many structural failures have occasionally been attributed to human factors in engineering design, analyses maintenance, and fabrication processes. Every facet of the engineering process is heavily governed by human factors and the degree of uncertainty associated with them. Factors such as societal, physical, professional, psychological, and many others introduce uncertainties that significantly influence the reliability of human performance. Quantifying human factors and associated uncertainties in structural reliability require: (1) identification of the fundamental factors that influence human performance, and (2) models to describe the interaction of these factors. An approach is being developed to quantify the uncertainties associated with the human performance. This approach consists of a multi factor model in conjunction with direct Monte-Carlo simulation.

  7. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  8. Factors That Influence Human Behavior And Negatively Affect Energy Consumption In USMC Ground Units During Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    without an adverse impact on performance . 46 3. What benefits can be realized by changing human behavior to avoid unnecessary energy expenditures...INFLUENCE HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND NEGATIVELY AFFECT ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN USMC GROUND UNITS DURING OPERATIONS by John A. Peters September 2016...REPORT DATE September 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE HUMAN BEHAVIOR AND

  9. The ecology of seamounts: structure, function, and human impacts.

    PubMed

    Clark, Malcolm R; Rowden, Ashley A; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I; Rogers, Alex D; O'Hara, Timothy D; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M; Hall-Spencer, Jason M

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.

  10. The Ecology of Seamounts: Structure, Function, and Human Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Schlacher, Thomas; Williams, Alan; Consalvey, Mireille; Stocks, Karen I.; Rogers, Alex D.; O'Hara, Timothy D.; White, Martin; Shank, Timothy M.; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review of seamount ecology, we address a number of key scientific issues concerning the structure and function of benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation. We consider whether community composition and diversity differ between seamounts and continental slopes, how important dispersal capabilities are in seamount connectivity, what environmental factors drive species composition and diversity, whether seamounts are centers of enhanced biological productivity, and whether they have unique trophic architecture. We discuss how vulnerable seamount communities are to fishing and mining, and how we can balance exploitation of resources and conservation of habitat. Despite considerable advances in recent years, there remain many questions about seamount ecosystems that need closer integration of molecular, oceanographic, and ecological research.

  11. What factors are associated with impacted canines in cleft patients?

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Anna; Sjöström, Mats; Björnström, Lena; Ransjö, Maria

    2014-11-01

    It is important to predict and prevent the impaction of canines. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of impacted canines in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and to identify factors associated with impaction. This retrospective cohort study included patients with nonsyndromic UCLP. The predictors were pre-eruptive inclination angle, deviation in tooth number (agenesis or supernumerary lateral incisors), and reoperation of bone transplant. The outcome variable was impacted and surgically exposed canines. The prevalence of impacted and surgically exposed canines in the 68 consecutive patients with UCLP was 20.6%. The pre-eruptive inclination angle was significantly larger (34.4°) for the impacted canines on the cleft side compared with the spontaneously erupted canines on the cleft and non-cleft sides (25.5° vs 15.4; P < .05). Reoperation of the bone transplant significantly increased canine impaction (50%; P < .05). The eruption of maxillary canines needs to be supervised carefully in patients with UCLP, because the prevalence of impaction is 10 times higher compared with the general population. Factors associated with canine impaction are a pre-eruptive inclination larger than 30° and reoperation of the bone transplant. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dentinal innervation of impacted human third molars.

    PubMed

    Lilja, J; Fagerberg-Mohlin, B

    1984-12-01

    Five totally impacted third molars were studied in the transmission electron microscope for the presence of nervous structures in the dentin before eruption. In contradiction to earlier studies available, nervous structures were found in the predentin and the dentin of the impacted third molars in different parts of the crown and also in the predentin of the root.

  13. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  14. Human adipocyte function is impacted by mechanical cues.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, V; Heuvingh, J; du Roure, O; Rouault, C; Devulder, A; Klein, C; Lacasa, M; Clément, E; Lacasa, D; Clément, K

    2014-06-01

    Fibrosis is a hallmark of human white adipose tissue (WAT) during obesity-induced chronic inflammation. The functional impact of increased interstitial fibrosis (peri-adipocyte fibrosis) on adjacent adipocytes remains unknown. Here we developed a novel in vitro 3D culture system in which human adipocytes and decellularized material of adipose tissue (dMAT) from obese subjects are embedded in a peptide hydrogel. When cultured with dMAT, adipocytes showed decreased lipolysis and adipokine secretion and increased expression/production of cytokines (IL-6, G-CSF) and fibrotic mediators (LOXL2 and the matricellular proteins THSB2 and CTGF). Moreover, some alterations including lipolytic activity and fibro-inflammation also occurred when the adipocyte/hydrogel culture was mechanically compressed. Notably, CTGF expression levels correlated with the amount of peri-adipocyte fibrosis in WAT from obese individuals. Moreover, dMAT-dependent CTGF promoter activity, which depends on β1-integrin/cytoskeleton pathways, was enhanced in the presence of YAP, a mechanosensitive co-activator of TEAD transcription factors. Mutation of TEAD binding sites abolished the dMAT-induced promoter activity. In conclusion, fibrosis may negatively affect human adipocyte function via mechanosensitive molecules, in part stimulated by cell deformation.

  15. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  16. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-06-01

    The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals.

  17. Are "Human Factors" the Primary Cause of Complications in the Field of Implant Dentistry?

    PubMed

    Renouard, Franck; Amalberti, René; Renouard, Erell

    Complications in medicine and dentistry are usually analyzed from a purely technical point of view. Rarely is the role of human behavior or judgment considered as a reason for adverse outcomes. When the role of human factors is considered, these are usually described in general terms rather than specifically identifying the factors responsible for an adverse event. The impact of cognitive and behavioral factors in the explanation of adverse events has been studied in other high-stakes areas such as aviation and nuclear power. Specific protocols have been developed to reduce rates of human error, and, where human error is unavoidable, to lessen its impact. This approach has dramatically reduced the incidence of accidents in these fields. This article aims to review how a similar approach may prove valuable in the reduction of complications in implant dentistry.

  18. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  19. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  20. Assessing corporate project impacts in changeable contexts: A human rights perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Wielga, Mark; Utzinger, Jürg

    2014-07-01

    Project-level impact assessment was originally conceived as a snapshot taken in advance of project implementation, contrasting current conditions with a likely future scenario involving a variety of predicted impacts. Current best practice guidance has encouraged a shift towards longitudinal assessments from the pre-project stage through the implementation and operating phases. Experience and study show, however, that assessment of infrastructure-intensive projects rarely endures past the project's construction phase. Negative consequences for environmental, social and health outcomes have been documented. Such consequences clarify the pressing need for longitudinal assessment in each of these domains, with human rights impact assessment (HRIA) as an umbrella over, and critical augmentation of, environmental, social and health assessments. Project impacts on human rights are more closely linked to political, economic and other factors beyond immediate effects of a company's policy and action throughout the project lifecycle. Delineating these processes requires an adequate framework, with strategies for collecting longitudinal data, protocols that provide core information for impact assessment and guidance for adaptive mitigation strategies as project-related effects change over time. This article presents general principles for the design and implementation of sustained, longitudinal HRIA, based on experience assessing and responding to human rights impact in a uranium mining project in Malawi. The case study demonstrates the value of longitudinal assessment both for limiting corporate risk and improving human welfare. - Graphical abstract: Assessing changes in human rights condition as affected by both project and context, over time. - Highlights: • Corporate capital projects affect human rights in myriad ways. • Ongoing, longitudinal impact assessment techniques are needed. • We present an approach for conducting longitudinal human rights impact assessment

  1. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  2. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  3. Functional Impact of the Human Mobilome

    PubMed Central

    Babatz, Timothy D.; Burns, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    The human genome is replete with interspersed repetitive sequences derived from the propagation of mobile DNA elements. Three families of human retrotransposons remain active today: LINE1, Alu, and SVA elements. Since 1988, de novo insertions at previously recognized disease loci have been shown to generate highly penetrant alleles in Mendelian disorders. Only recently has the extent of germline-transmitted retrotransposon insertion polymorphism (RIP) in human populations been fully realized. Also exciting are recent studies of somatic retrotransposition in human tissues and reports of tumor-specific insertions, suggesting roles in tissue heterogeneity and tumorigenesis. Here we discuss mobile elements in human disease with an emphasis on exciting developments from the last several years. PMID:23523050

  4. Electronic cigarettes: incorporating human factors engineering into risk assessments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling; Rudy, Susan F; Cheng, James M; Durmowicz, Elizabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Objective A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the impact of human factors (HF) on the risks associated with electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and to identify research gaps. HF is the evaluation of human interactions with products and includes the analysis of user, environment and product complexity. Consideration of HF may mitigate known and potential hazards from the use and misuse of a consumer product, including e-cigarettes. Methods Five databases were searched through January 2014 and publications relevant to HF were incorporated. Voluntary adverse event (AE) reports submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the package labelling of 12 e-cigarette products were analysed. Results No studies specifically addressing the impact of HF on e-cigarette use risks were identified. Most e-cigarette users are smokers, but data on the user population are inconsistent. No articles focused specifically on e-cigarette use environments, storage conditions, product operational requirements, product complexities, user errors or misuse. Twelve published studies analysed e-cigarette labelling and concluded that labelling was inadequate or misleading. FDA labelling analysis revealed similar concerns described in the literature. AE reports related to design concerns are increasing and fatalities related to accidental exposure and misuse have occurred; however, no publications evaluating the relationship between AEs and HF were identified. Conclusions The HF impacting e-cigarette use and related hazards are inadequately characterised. Thorough analyses of user–product–environment interfaces, product complexities and AEs associated with typical and atypical use are needed to better incorporate HF engineering principles to inform and potentially reduce or mitigate the emerging hazards associated with e-cigarette products. PMID:24732164

  5. Publication activities of German junior researchers in academic medicine: which factors impact impact factors?

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Mona; Fischer, Martin R; Bauer, Daniel

    2016-07-25

    Previous studies have shown medical students in Germany to have little interest in research while at the same time there is a lack of physician scientists. This study's aim is to investigate factors influencing publication productivity of physicians during and after finishing their medical doctorate. We conducted a PubMed search for physicians having received their doctoral degree at Ludwig-Maxmilians-University Munich Faculty of Medicine between 2011 and 2013 (N = 924) and identified the appropriate impact factor (IF) for each journal the participants had published in. Gender, age, final grade of the doctorate, participation in a structured doctoral study program and joint publication activities between graduate and academic supervisor were defined as factors. For analyses we used nonparametric procedures. Men show significantly more publications than women. Before their doctoral graduation men publish 1.98 (SD ± 3.64) articles on average, women 1.15 (±2.67) (p < 0.0001, d = 0.27). After completion of the doctorate (up to 06/2015), 40 % of men still publish, while only 24.3 % of women (p < 0.0001, φ = 0.17) continue to publish. No differences were found concerning the value of IFs. Similar results were found regarding the variable 'participation in a structured doctoral study program'. Until doctoral graduation, program participants publish 2.82 (±5.41) articles, whereas participants doing their doctorate individually only publish 1.39 (±2.87) articles (p < 0.0001, d = 0.46). These differences persist in publication activities after graduation (45.5 vs. 29.7 %, p = 0.008, φ = 0.09). A structured doctorate seems to have positive influence on IFs (4.33 ± 2.91 vs. 3.37 ± 2.82, p = 0.006, d = 0.34). Further significant results concern the variables 'final grade' and 'age': An early doctoral graduation and an excellent or very good grade for the doctoral thesis positively influence publication

  6. Possible DNA Viral Factors of Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chun-Ru; Lu, Tsong-Ming; Chin, Lengsu William; Yang, Chi-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are considered to be one of the high-risk factors closely related to human breast cancer. However, different studies of viruses in breast cancer present conflicting results and some of these works remain in dispute. DNA viruses, such as specific types of human papillomaviruses (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and human herpes virus type 8 (HHV-8), have emerged as causal factors of some human cancers. These respective exogenous viruses and the possibility of multiple viral factors are discussed in this review. PMID:24281079

  7. Asteroid impact effects and their immediate hazards for human populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Clemens M.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2017-04-01

    A set of 50,000 artificial Earth impacting asteroids was used to obtain, for the first time, information about the dominance of individual impact effects such as wind blast, overpressure shock, thermal radiation, cratering, seismic shaking, ejecta deposition, and tsunami for the loss of human life during an impact event for impactor sizes between 15 and 400 m and how the dominance of impact effects changes over size. Information about the dominance of each impact effect can enable disaster managers to plan for the most relevant effects in the event of an asteroid impact. Furthermore, the analysis of average casualty numbers per impactor shows that there is a significant difference in expected loss for airburst and surface impacts and that the average impact over land is an order of magnitude more dangerous than one over water.

  8. Partial gravity - Human impacts on facility design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capps, Stephen; Moore, Nathan

    1990-01-01

    Partial gravity affects the body differently than earth gravity and microgravity environments. The main difference from earth gravity is human locomotion; while the main dfference from microgravity is the specific updown orientation and reach envelopes which increase volume requirements. Much data are available on earth gravity and microgravity design; however, very little information is available on human reactions to reduced gravity levels in IVA situations (without pressure suits). Therefore, if humans commit to permanent lunar habitation, much research should be conducted in the area of partial gravity effects on habitat design.

  9. Impact of environmental factors and poverty on pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weck, Rebekah L; Paulose, Tessie; Flaws, Jodi A

    2008-06-01

    Studies have indicated that various societal factors such as toxicant exposure, maternal habits, occupational hazards, psychosocial factors, socioeconomic status, racial disparity, chronic stress, and infection may impact pregnancy outcomes. These outcomes include spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, alterations in the development of the fetus, and long-term health of offspring. Although much is known about individual pregnancy outcomes, little is known about the associations between societal factors and pregnancy outcomes. This manuscript reviews some of the literature available on the effects of the above-mentioned societal factors on pregnancy outcomes and examines some potential remedies for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in the future.

  10. Impact of haze-fog days to radon progeny equilibrium factor and discussion of related factors.

    PubMed

    Hou, Changsong; Shang, Bing; Zhang, Qingzhao; Cui, Hongxing; Wu, Yunyun; Deng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    The equilibrium factor F between radon and its short-lived progenies is an important parameter to estimate radon exposure of humans. Therefore, indoor and outdoor concentrations of radon and its short-lived radon progeny were measured in Beijing area using a continuously measuring device, in an effort to obtain information on the F value. The results showed that the mean values of F were 0.58 ± 0.13 (0.25-0.95, n = 305) and 0.52 ± 0.12 (0.31-0.91, n = 64) for indoor and outdoor, respectively. The indoor F value during haze-fog days was higher than the typical value of 0.4 recommended by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and it was also higher than the values of 0.47 and 0.49 reported in the literature. A positive correlation was observed between indoor F values and PM2.5 concentrations (R (2) = 0.71). Since 2013, owing to frequent heavy haze-fog events in Beijing and surrounding areas, the number of the days with severe pollution remains at a high level. Future studies on the impact of the ambient fine particulate matter on indoor radon progeny equilibrium factor F could be important.

  11. Human Maxilla Bone Response to 30° Oriented Impacts and Comparison With Frontal Bone Impacts

    PubMed Central

    Karine, BRUYERE; François, BERMOND; Robert, BOUQUET; Yves, CAIRE; Michelle, RAMET; Eric, VOÏGLIO

    2000-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the responses of human maxilla and frontal bones under 30°-oriented impacts. Maxilla and frontal bones of the same subject were impacted by a guided horizontal steel cylinder. Linear acceleration time histories and force time histories were plotted and corridors were proposed for maxilla bone response. Sensitivity of head dynamics in regard to impact energy level and localization showed the protection of the intracranial contents by the facial bones crushing. Injury risk curves were established for impact on frontal bone, showing a 50% risk injury for impact energy of 265 J or impact force of 7500 N. PMID:11558085

  12. The impact of mycotoxicoses on human history.

    PubMed

    Peraica, Maja; Rašić, Dubravka

    2012-12-01

    Mycotoxicoses are acute or chronic diseases of humans and animals caused by mycotoxins, toxic compounds produced by moulds. Of about 400 known mycotoxins only a small number are known to cause mycotoxicoses in humans. Organs that are most targeted are those in which mycotoxins are metabolised, that is, the liver and kidneys, but the lesions may affect the neurological, respiratory, digestive, haematological, endocrine, and immune systems as well. The epidemics of mycotoxicoses are often connected with times of famine, when population consumes food that would not be consumed in normal circumstances. Mycotoxicoses have influenced human history, causing demographic changes, migrations, or even influencing the outcomes of wars. Fortunately, epidemics affecting so many persons and with so many fatalities belong to the past. Today they only appear in small communities such as schools and factory canteens. This paper presents epidemics and pandemics of mycotoxicoses that influenced human history.

  13. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  14. The Impact of Aging on Human Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rienzo, Barbara A.

    1985-01-01

    Lay persons and professionals need to be educated on the effects of aging on human sexuality. Effective communication techniques and accurate sexuality information can lead to prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction. (Author/DF)

  15. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  16. HUMAN HEALTH IMPACTS OF EXPOSURE TO POPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was adopted in 2001 to protect human health and the environment from chemicals that are highly toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and undergo long range transport. These POPs include 9 pesticides, polychlorinated d...

  17. Global Impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Gayle, Helene D.; Hill, Gena L.

    2001-01-01

    This review provides information on the epidemiology, economic impact, and intervention strategies for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in developing countries. According to the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) at the end of 1999, an estimated 34.3 million people were living with HIV/AIDS. Most of the people living with HIV, 95% of the global total, live in developing countries. Examples of the impact of HIV/AIDS in Africa, Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Newly Independent States provide insight into the demographics, modes of exposure, treatment and prevention options, and the economic effect of the epidemic on the global community. The epidemic in each region of the world is influenced by the specific risk factors that are associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS and the responses that have evolved to address it. These influences are important in developing HIV/AIDS policies and programs to effectively address the global pandemic. PMID:11292641

  18. Differential effects of temperature change and human impact on European Late Quaternary mammalian extinctions.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Storch, David

    2015-04-01

    Species that inhabited Europe during the Late Quaternary were impacted by temperature changes and early humans, resulting in the disappearance of half of the European large mammals. However, quantifying the relative importance that each factor had in the extinction risk of species has been challenging, mostly due to the spatio-temporal biases of fossil records, which complicate the calibration of realistic and accurate ecological niche modeling. Here, we overcome this problem by using ecotypes, and not real species, to run our models. We created 40 ecotypes with different temperature requirements (mean temperature from -20 °C to 25 °C and temperature range from 10 °C to 40 °C) and used them to quantify the effect of climate change and human impact. Our results show that cold-adapted ecotypes would have been highly affected by past temperature changes in Europe, whereas temperate and warm-adapted ecotypes would have been positively affected by temperature change. Human impact affected all ecotypes negatively, and temperate ecotypes suffered the greatest impacts. Based on these results, the extinction of cold-adapted species like Mammuthus primigenius may be related to temperature change, while the extinction of temperate species, like Crocuta crocuta, may be related to human impact. Our results suggest that temperature change and human impact affected different ecotypes in distinct ways, and that the interaction of both impacts may have shaped species extinctions in Europe. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. AGU journals increase in importance according to 2010 Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2011-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in many categories in the 2010 Journal Citation Report (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. JCR reports on several measures of journal usage, including a journal's Eigenfactor score, its Article Influence score, its Impact Factor, and its rank within a cohort of similar journals. According to the 2010 statistics, AGU again has outperformed its larger competitors. Four different AGU titles are ranked in the top three journals in six different cohorts. The Impact Factor of several AGU journals increased significantly over the previous year.

  20. Rethinking the meaning and significance of journal impact factors.

    PubMed

    Ironside, Pamela M

    2007-06-01

    It is not the case that impact factors are unhelpful and that their use should be abolished. Indeed, ISI is continuing to refine existing and develop new databases to provide important information to researchers, administrators, librarians, and editors. Impact factor data do provide useful information for the review process if used judiciously and with an awareness of what these data do and do not indicate. Perhaps it is timely for members of the nursing discipline to think more broadly about the nature of impact and to talk more about the ways in which review processes can account for the many ways the impact of research can be demonstrated. For example, as part of the review process, reviewers might ask each researcher to provide exemplars from teaching or clinical practice settings in which their research is actually being used. Researchers might also be asked to describe the impact that has occurred in ways other than through publication (e.g., presentations, consulting) and how this impact was determined. Creating review processes that allow researchers to describe their decision making related to disseminating their research and how this reflects their ability to influence the discipline may provide a more realistic picture of impact than calculated figures alone.

  1. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  2. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  3. The impact of von Willebrand factor on factor VIII memory immune responses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Schroeder, Jocelyn A; Luo, Xiaofeng; Shi, Qizhen

    2017-08-22

    Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with aggressive infusion of factor VIII (FVIII) is the current strategy used to eradicate FVIII inhibitors and restore normal FVIII pharmacokinetics in inhibitor patients. Whether the use of FVIII products containing von Willebrand factor (VWF) will affect the efficacy of ITI is still controversial. In this study, we explored the impact of VWF on FVIII memory immune responses in hemophilia A (HA) mice. A T-cell proliferation assay and cytokine profile analysis were used to study FVIII-primed CD4(+) T cells. When CD4(+) T cells from primed FVIII(null) mice were restimulated with recombinant human FVIII (rhF8) plus recombinant human VWF (rhVWF) in vitro, the percentages of daughter CD4(+) T cells were significantly decreased compared with the groups cultured with rhF8 only. Levels of interferon-γ and interleukin 10 were significantly lower in the rhF8 plus rhVWF groups than in the rhF8 groups. When memory B-cell pools from primed FVIII(null) mice were cultured with rhF8 with or without rhVWF to induce differentiation of memory B cells into antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), the number of ASCs was significantly lower in the rhF8 plus VWF group than in the rhF8 group. When memory B-cell pools were transferred into NSGF8KO mice followed by rhF8 immunization with or without rhVWF, the titers of anti-F8 inhibitors and total immunoglobulin G were significantly higher in the rhF8 group than in the rhF8 plus rhVWF group, with an average difference of 2.23- and 2.04-fold. Together, our data demonstrate that VWF attenuates FVIII memory immune responses in HA mice.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile

    PubMed Central

    John, Mike T.; Feuerstahler, Leah; Waller, Niels; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Larsson, Pernilla; Čelebić, Asja; Kende, Dóra; Rener-Sitar, Ksenija; Reißmann, Daniel R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontics patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (N=5,022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4,993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model, and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA=0.05, CFI=0.99), and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors—which we have named Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Orofacial Appearance, and Psychosocial Impact —can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high inter-factor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score.

  6. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    PubMed

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-09-16

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated.

  7. Possible human health impacts of a global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, M.C.; Kalkstein, L.S.; Cheng, S.

    1995-03-01

    Some ways in which a global warming may affect human health are discussed. Research is presented which explores the hypothesis that heat stress-induced mortality may increase substantially in the event of a worldwide temperature increase. Two procedures are applied to four disparate nations: the US, Canada, China and Egypt. Results indicate that significant increases in heat-related mortality are likely to occur, particularly in developing nations. Factors which might help to mitigate these increases, such as acclimatization and air conditioning, are also examined. Another human health impact of a global warming is the likely spread of certain vector-borne diseases into areas of the world where they do not currently exist. Two of these, onchocerciasis and malaria, have been chosen for a detailed international study. The initial steps in this effort are discussed. Policy options are proposed which may prepare international organizations and public officials for difficulties which may arise. Implementation of these procedures, which include continuation of internationally sponsored research, could help to ameliorate many of the problems outlined in this paper.

  8. The impact of Arabidopsis on human health: diversifying our portfolio.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan M; Chory, Joanne; Dangl, Jeffery L; Estelle, Mark; Jacobsen, Steven E; Meyerowitz, Elliot M; Nordborg, Magnus; Weigel, Detlef

    2008-06-13

    Studies of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana may seem to have little impact on advances in medical research, yet a survey of the scientific literature shows that this is a misconception. Many discoveries with direct relevance to human health and disease have been elaborated using Arabidopsis, and several processes important to human biology are more easily studied in this versatile model plant.

  9. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  10. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  11. Climate change in the oceans: Human impacts and responses.

    PubMed

    Allison, Edward H; Bassett, Hannah R

    2015-11-13

    Although it has far-reaching consequences for humanity, attention to climate change impacts on the ocean lags behind concern for impacts on the atmosphere and land. Understanding these impacts, as well as society's diverse perspectives and multiscale responses to the changing oceans, requires a correspondingly diverse body of scholarship in the physical, biological, and social sciences and humanities. This can ensure that a plurality of values and viewpoints is reflected in the research that informs climate policy and may enable the concerns of maritime societies and economic sectors to be heard in key adaptation and mitigation discussions.

  12. Climate change in the oceans: Human impacts and responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Edward H.; Bassett, Hannah R.

    2015-11-01

    Although it has far-reaching consequences for humanity, attention to climate change impacts on the ocean lags behind concern for impacts on the atmosphere and land. Understanding these impacts, as well as society’s diverse perspectives and multiscale responses to the changing oceans, requires a correspondingly diverse body of scholarship in the physical, biological, and social sciences and humanities. This can ensure that a plurality of values and viewpoints is reflected in the research that informs climate policy and may enable the concerns of maritime societies and economic sectors to be heard in key adaptation and mitigation discussions.

  13. Human neurobehavioral research methods: impact of subject variables.

    PubMed

    Anger, W K; Sizemore, O J; Grossmann, S J; Glasser, J A; Letz, R; Bowler, R

    1997-01-01

    Behavioral tests are used in work site and community research to detect and characterize the effects of neurotoxic chemical exposures in human populations, but the influence of subject variables on test performance has not been well studied in normal adult populations. This research sought to evaluate the impact of two variables, education and cultural group, on 18 widely used tests of neurotoxic insult. Behavioral tests from the two consensus neurotoxicity test batteries (established by the World Health Organization and the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry) were administered to 715 people aged 26-45 with 0-18 years of education, drawn from European descent United States majority, American Indian, African American, and Latin American populations. Education, cultural group, age, and gender affected the outcome of behavioral tests as revealed by ANOVA, MANOVA, and multiple regression techniques. Education, followed by cultural group, accounted for the most variance in the tests studied. More importantly, years of education and cultural group had 13-25% shared variance on the cognitive tests and highly significant interactions derived from ANOVA tests. This suggests that these factors should be controlled in the design of a study rather than in the statistical analysis. Because these factors can mimic a neurotoxic insult, failure to adequately control and analyze them could lead to inaccurate conclusions about the association between poor performance and neurotoxic insult. Copyright 1997 Academic Press.

  14. Characterizing the impact of projected changes in climate and air quality on human exposures to ozone

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impact of climate change on human and environmental health is of critical concern. Population exposures to air pollutants both indoors and outdoors are influenced by a wide range of air quality, meteorological, behavioral, and housing-related factors, many of which are also i...

  15. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  16. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  17. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    PubMed

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  18. A Voice-Radio Method for Collecting Human Factors Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; And Others

    Available methods for collecting human factors data rely heavily on observations, interviews, and questionnaires. A need exists for other methods. The feasibility of using two-way voice-radio for this purpose was studied. The data collection methodology consisted of a human factors analyst talking from a radio base station with technicians wearing…

  19. Advanced Video Activity Analytics (AVAA): Human Factors Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    ARL-TR-7286 ● MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Advanced Video Activity Analytics (AVAA): Human Factors Evaluation by...TR-7286 ● MAY 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Advanced Video Activity Analytics (AVAA): Human Factors Evaluation Patricia L McDermott...

  20. Quantifying Ecosystem Services, Assessing Human Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and managed ecosystems provide a multitude of resources and services vital to human well-being – provisioning of food, fiber, clean water and air, habitat for fish and wildlife, recreational opportunities, prevention of flooding, reduction of greenhouse gases, among many ...

  1. Cultural Impact on Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A human figure drawing instrument was administered to Black children from the Virgin Islands and Georgia and to White children from Mexico. Both cultural and sex differences occurred, influencing the drawings. Black children from different cultures differed from each other on this instrument. (Author/BEF)

  2. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  3. Quantifying Ecosystem Services, Assessing Human Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural and managed ecosystems provide a multitude of resources and services vital to human well-being – provisioning of food, fiber, clean water and air, habitat for fish and wildlife, recreational opportunities, prevention of flooding, reduction of greenhouse gases, among many ...

  4. Human Experimentation: Impact on Health Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacalis, T. Demetri; Griffis, Kathleen

    1980-01-01

    The problems of the use of humans as subjects of medical research and the protection of their rights are discussed. Issues include the use of informed consent, the evaluation of risks and benefits, and the review of research plans by a committee. (JD)

  5. Assessing human rights impacts in corporate development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Weiss, Mitchell G.; Münch, Anna K.; Singer, Burton H.; Krieger, Gary R.; Wielga, Mark

    2013-09-15

    Human rights impact assessment (HRIA) is a process for systematically identifying, predicting and responding to the potential impact on human rights of a business operation, capital project, government policy or trade agreement. Traditionally, it has been conducted as a desktop exercise to predict the effects of trade agreements and government policies on individuals and communities. In line with a growing call for multinational corporations to ensure they do not violate human rights in their activities, HRIA is increasingly incorporated into the standard suite of corporate development project impact assessments. In this context, the policy world's non-structured, desk-based approaches to HRIA are insufficient. Although a number of corporations have commissioned and conducted HRIA, no broadly accepted and validated assessment tool is currently available. The lack of standardisation has complicated efforts to evaluate the effectiveness of HRIA as a risk mitigation tool, and has caused confusion in the corporate world regarding company duties. Hence, clarification is needed. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe an HRIA methodology, (ii) to provide a rationale for its components and design, and (iii) to illustrate implementation of HRIA using the methodology in two selected corporate development projects—a uranium mine in Malawi and a tree farm in Tanzania. We found that as a prognostic tool, HRIA could examine potential positive and negative human rights impacts and provide effective recommendations for mitigation. However, longer-term monitoring revealed that recommendations were unevenly implemented, dependent on market conditions and personnel movements. This instability in the approach to human rights suggests a need for on-going monitoring and surveillance. -- Highlights: • We developed a novel methodology for corporate human rights impact assessment. • We piloted the methodology on two corporate projects—a mine and a plantation. • Human

  6. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  7. Principals and School Factors that Impact Elementary School Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gieselmann, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study examined principals and school factors associated with elementary school student achievement. Nine predictor variables were analyzed to determine their impact on student state assessment scores: (a) years of principal experience, (b) years of teaching experience by the principal, (c) years of principal experience at present site, (d)…

  8. Watson's theory of transpersonal caring: factors impacting nurses professional caring.

    PubMed

    Vandenhouten, Christine; Kubsch, Sylvia; Peterson, Margaret; Murdock, Jennifer; Lehrer, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to identify factors impacting nurses' perceived professional caring. The sample of 242 nurses completed a researcher-developed survey based on Watson's theory of transpersonal caring. Results showed that experienced, hospital-based nurses and those demonstrating greater familiarity with Watson's theory had higher caring scores. Implications for education, practice, and research are suggested.

  9. Evaluating Academic Journals without Impact Factors for Collection Management Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilevko, Juris; Atkinson, Esther

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of evaluating academic journals for collection management decisions focuses on a methodological framework for evaluating journals not ranked by impact factors in Journal Citation Reports. Compares nonranked journals with ranked journals and then applies this framework to a case study in the field of medical science. (LRW)

  10. Impact factor for exclusive diffractive dijet production with NLO accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boussarie, R.; Grabovsky, A. V.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2017-03-01

    Relying on the shockwave approach, we present the main steps of the computation of the impact factor for the exclusive diffractive photo- or electro- production of a forward dijet with NLO accuracy. We provide details of the cancellation mechanisms for all the divergences which appear in the intermediate results.

  11. AGU journals continue to rank highly in Impact Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Jon; Warner, Mary

    2012-07-01

    AGU journals continue to rank highly in the 2011 Journal Citation Reports (JCR), which was released by Thomson Reuters on 28 June. The impact factor of several AGU journals increased significantly, continuing their trend over the previous 5 years, while others remained consistent with the previous year's ranking. Paleoceanography is an outstanding performer in both the Paleontology and Oceanography categories. Since 1995, Paleoceanography has been the top-ranked journal in the Paleontology category (of 49 titles in 2011), with an Impact Factor of 3.357. In the Oceanography group (59 journals total), Paleoceanography ranks third in Impact Factor. Reviews of Geophysics, with an Impact Factor of 12.364 (an increase of 2.826 from the prior year's score of 9.538), ranks second in Geochemistry and Geophysics out of a total of 77 journals in this cohort. Water Resources Research comes in at second place in the Limnology group, with 19 titles, and third place in the Water Resources group, which has a cohort of 78 titles.

  12. Evaluating Academic Journals Using Impact Factor and Local Citation Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a method for journal collection evaluation using citation analysis. Cost-per-use (CPU) for each title is used to measure cost-effectiveness with higher CPU scores indicating cost-effective titles. Use data are based on the impact factor and locally collected citation score of each title and is compared to the cost of managing…

  13. The Impact of Categorization with Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiStefano, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the impact of categorization on confirmatory factor analysis parameter estimates, standard errors, and five ad hoc fit indexes through simulation studies. Results replicate some previous studies but also suggest that tests of parameter estimates will be underestimated and the amount of underestimation will increase as saturation…

  14. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  15. A Systematic Approach to Human Factors Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    that system. Previous Verification tests (see Askren and Newton , 1969) have examined the following: a. Human design considerations relative to...process. In actual maintenance operationm4 there Is, of course, a performance standard which is usually defined as mecan -time-to-repair (HTTR). However...Askren, W. B. and Newton , R. R. Review and analysis of personnel subsystem test and evaluation literature (AFHRL-TR-68-7). Air Force Human Resources

  16. NASA: Model development for human factors interfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an intensive literature review in the general topics of human error analysis, stress and job performance, and accident and safety analysis revealed no usable techniques or approaches for analyzing human error in ground or space operations tasks. A task review model is described and proposed to be developed in order to reduce the degree of labor intensiveness in ground and space operations tasks. An extensive number of annotated references are provided.

  17. Prognostic impact of human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 and hormone receptor status in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC): analysis of 2,014 IBC patient cases from the California Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Zell, Jason A; Tsang, Walter Y; Taylor, Thomas H; Mehta, Rita S; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer associated with overexpression of Her2/Neu (human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 (HER2)) and poor survival. We investigated survival differences for IBC patient cases based on hormone receptor status and HER2 receptor status using data from the California Cancer Registry, as contrasted with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), metastatic breast cancer (MBC) and non-T4 breast cancer. A case-only analysis of 80,099 incident female breast cancer patient cases in the California Cancer Registry during 1999 to 2003 was performed, with follow-up through March 2007. Overall survival (OS) and breast cancer-specific survival (BC-SS) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazards ratios. A total of 2,014 IBC, 1,268 LABC, 3,059 MBC, and 73,758 non-T4 breast cancer patient cases were identified. HER2+ was associated with advanced tumor stage (P < 0.0001). IBC patient cases were more likely to be HER2+ (40%) and less likely to be hormone receptor-positive (HmR+) (59%) compared with LABC (35% and 69%, respectively), MBC (35% and 74%), and non-T4 patient cases (22% and 82%). HmR+ status was associated with improved OS and BC-SS for each breast cancer subtype after adjustment for clinically relevant factors. In multivariate analysis, HER2+ (versus HER2-) status was associated with poor BC-SS for non-T4 patient cases (hazards ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.28) and had a borderline significant association with improved BC-SS for IBC (hazards ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.68 to 0.99). Despite an association with advanced tumor stage, HER2+ status is not an independent adverse prognostic factor for survival among IBC patient cases.

  18. Photon impact factor and k{sub T} factorization in the next-to-leading order

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Balitsky

    2012-12-01

    The photon impact factor for the BFKL pomeron is calculated in the next-to-leading order (NLO) approximation using the operator expansion in Wilson lines. The result is represented as a NLO k{sub T}-factorization formula for the structure functions of small-x deep inelastic scattering.

  19. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th annual meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These volumes cover the proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the Human Factors Society. Topics include: designing for the future of nuclear power plants international perspectives on advanced control room design; human performance assessment in the nuclear power industry; validity of strength tests for predicting endurance of coal miners, psychosocial issues in hazard management and nuclear power plants; and human factors at the DOE's national laboratories.

  20. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  1. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  2. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Impact of human resource management practices on nursing home performance.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, K V; Wagar, T H

    2001-08-01

    Management scholars and practitioners alike have become increasingly interested in learning more about the ability of certain 'progressive' or 'high-performance' human resource management (HRM) practices to enhance organizational effectiveness. There is growing evidence to suggest that the contribution of various HRM practices to impact firm performance may be synergistic in effect yet contingent on a number of contextual factors, including workplace climate. A contingency theory perspective suggests that in order to be effective, HMR policies and practices must be consistent with other aspects of the organization, including its environment. This paper reports on empirical findings from research that examines the relationship between HRM practices, workplace climate and perceptions of organizational performance, in a large sample of Canadian nursing homes. Data from 283 nursing homes were collected by means of a mail survey that included questions on HRM practices, programmes, and policies, on human resource aspects of workplace climate, as well as a variety of indicators that include employee, customer/resident and facility measures of organizational performance. Results derived from ordered probit analysis suggest that nursing homes in our sample which had implemented more 'progressive' HRM practices and which reported a workplace climate that strongly values employee participation, empowerment and accountability tended to be perceived to generally perform better on a number of valued organizational outcomes. Nursing homes in our sample that performed best overall were found to be more likely to not only have implemented more of these HRM practices, but also to report having a workplace climate that reflects the seminal value that it places on its human resources. This finding is consistent with the conclusion that simply introducing HRM practices or programmes, in the absence of an appropriately supportive workplace climate, will be insufficient to attain

  4. Factor interaction influences on human performance in air traffic control: the need for a multifactorial model.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Tamsyn; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R; Kirwan, Barry

    2012-01-01

    In air traffic management (ATM) knowledge of the impact of human factors on performance is critical to address safety incidents. Previous research has largely focused on the effects of single factors on performance which has resulted in a comprehensive understanding of single factor effects. In current control environments however, the residual threats for incidents often result from the interaction of multiple human factors and the resulting cumulative impact on performance. This research uses a literature review, an analysis of over 400 European aviation incident reports and finally a survey of ATM professionals to assess the need for a multifactorial model of performance. Literature findings suggest that Human Factors approaches are fundamentally single-factor in nature, which is out of step with real ATM working contexts. An incident report analysis, supported by a survey of air traffic experts, suggests that multiple factor incident causation exists. This discrepancy suggests the need for a new approach to looking at how incidents occur, and their factors managed, on a day-to-day basis. The proposed solution is a multifactorial model of human performance.

  5. Evaluating the impact of the humanities in medical education.

    PubMed

    Wershof Schwartz, Andrea; Abramson, Jeremy S; Wojnowich, Israel; Accordino, Robert; Ronan, Edward J; Rifkin, Mary R

    2009-08-01

    The inclusion of the humanities in medical education may offer significant potential benefits to individual future physicians and to the medical community as a whole. Debate remains, however, about the definition and precise role of the humanities in medical education, whether at the premedical, medical school, or postgraduate level. Recent trends have revealed an increasing presence of the humanities in medical training. This article reviews the literature on the impact of humanities education on the performance of medical students and residents and the challenges posed by the evaluation of the impact of humanities in medical education. Students who major in the humanities as college students perform just as well, if not better, than their peers with science backgrounds during medical school and in residency on objective measures of achievement such as National Board of Medical Examiners scores and academic grades. Although many humanities electives and courses are offered in premedical and medical school curricula, measuring and quantifying their impact has proven challenging because the courses are diverse in content and goals. Many of the published studies involve self-selected groups of students and seek to measure subjective outcomes which are difficult to measure, such as increases in empathy, professionalism, and self-care. Further research is needed to define the optimal role for humanities education in medical training; in particular, more quantitative studies are needed to examine the impact that it may have on physician performance beyond medical school and residency. Medical educators must consider what potential benefits humanities education can contribute to medical education, how its impact can be measured, and what ultimate outcomes we hope to achieve.

  6. Evidence and Impact of Human Papillomavirus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Gravitt, Patti E

    2012-01-01

    At present, there is no consensus in the scientific community regarding the ability for human papillomavirus (HPV) infections to establish latency. Based on animal studies, a model of papillomavirus latency has been proposed in which papillomaviruses can be retained in the basal epithelial stem cell pool as latent infections and periodically induced to reactivate when the stem cell divides and one daughter cell is committed to terminal differentiation and induction of the viral life cycle. Tissue resident memory T-cells are hypothesized to control these periodic reactivation episodes and thus limit their duration. In this paper, evidence from human studies consistent with this model of papillomavirus latency is reviewed. Given the strong circumstantial evidence supporting a natural history of HPV infection which includes a immunologically controlled latent state, the longer term implications of HPV latency on a highly infected and aging population may warrant a more serious evaluation. PMID:23341855

  7. The impact of aging on human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rienzo, B A

    1985-02-01

    Review of gerontological and medical literature reveals the need for education for lay persons and professionals about the effects of the aging process on human sexuality. Primary prevention of psychosocial problems and sexual dysfunction could be abated by including accurate information about sexuality and aging and effective communication techniques in sexuality education programs, including those with young adults. In addition, professional preparation of health educators must include the skills and knowledge needed in this area.

  8. The Factors and Conditions for National Human Resource Development in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, Torrence E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors and conditions that influence national human resource development (NHRD) in Brazil. In this paper, the transitioning nature of the political, economic, social and educational conditions; the current challenges and trends that may impact NHRD; and the current status of NHRD research in…

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in human subjects with function-altering melanocortin-4 receptor variants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In rodents, hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression appears to be regulated by melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activity. The impact of MC4R genetic variation on circulating BDNF in humans is unknown. The objective of this study is to compare BDNF concentrations of subjects wi...

  10. The Factors and Conditions for National Human Resource Development in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, Torrence E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand the factors and conditions that influence national human resource development (NHRD) in Brazil. In this paper, the transitioning nature of the political, economic, social and educational conditions; the current challenges and trends that may impact NHRD; and the current status of NHRD research in…

  11. Implementation of human factors considerations in a coal fired generating station control room

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.W.

    1985-04-01

    Fossil fueled generating station control room design has followed a basically classical approach until recent years. However, as technological advances occurred and were retrofitted into these control rooms, some clashes occurred between the environment and the equipment which negatively impacted the operator's effectiveness. One utility's approach toward implementing the incorporation of new technology devices and of solving the resulting human factors problems is discussed.

  12. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans.

    PubMed

    Morris, Christopher J; Purvis, Taylor E; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2016-03-08

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show-by using two 8-d laboratory protocols-that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8-15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3-29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Circadian misalignment increases cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Christopher J.; Purvis, Taylor E.; Hu, Kun; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is a risk factor for hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. This increased risk cannot be fully explained by classic risk factors. One of the key features of shift workers is that their behavioral and environmental cycles are typically misaligned relative to their endogenous circadian system. However, there is little information on the impact of acute circadian misalignment on cardiovascular disease risk in humans. Here we show—by using two 8-d laboratory protocols—that short-term circadian misalignment (12-h inverted behavioral and environmental cycles for three days) adversely affects cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by 3.0 mmHg and 1.5 mmHg, respectively. These results were primarily explained by an increase in blood pressure during sleep opportunities (SBP, +5.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.9 mmHg) and, to a lesser extent, by raised blood pressure during wake periods (SBP, +1.6 mmHg; DBP, +1.4 mmHg). Circadian misalignment decreased wake cardiac vagal modulation by 8–15%, as determined by heart rate variability analysis, and decreased 24-h urinary epinephrine excretion rate by 7%, without a significant effect on 24-h urinary norepinephrine excretion rate. Circadian misalignment increased 24-h serum interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels by 3–29%. We demonstrate that circadian misalignment per se increases blood pressure and inflammatory markers. Our findings may help explain why shift work increases hypertension, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:26858430

  14. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Training and organizational analysis. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.I.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was initially performed to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of system-user interfaces, procedures, training and qualifications, and organizational policies and practices. The present work focuses solely on training and qualifications of personnel (e.g., training received before and during employment), and the potential impact of organizational factors on the performance of teletherapy. Organizational factors include such topics as adequacy of staffing, performance evaluations, commonly occurring errors, implementation of quality assurance programs, and organizational climate.

  15. Human impacts drive a global topographic signature in tree cover.

    PubMed

    Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2013-01-01

    The Anthropocene is a geological epoch marked by major human influences on processes in the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere. One of the most dramatic features of the Anthropocene is the massive alteration of the Earth's vegetation, including forests. Here we investigate the role of topography in shaping human impacts on tree cover from local to global scales. We show that human impacts have resulted in a global tendency for tree cover to be constrained to sloped terrain and losses to be concentrated on flat terrain. This effect increases in strength with increasing human pressure and is most pronounced in countries with rapidly growing economies, limited human population stress and highly effective governments. These patterns likely reflect the relative inaccessibility of sloped topography and have important implications for conservation and modelling of future tree cover.

  16. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  17. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  18. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Northern Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASAASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the northern area, specifically: Bethel, Fairbanks, Nome, Kotzebue, and Barrow. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  19. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  20. The Insertion of Human Factors Concerns into NextGen Programmatic Decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, Bettina L.; Holbrook, Jon Brian; Seely, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Since the costs of proposed improvements in air traffic management exceed available funding, FAA decision makers must select and prioritize what actually gets implemented. We discuss a set of methods to help forecast operational and human performance issues and benefits before new automation is introduced. This strategy could minimize the impact of politics, assist decision makers in selecting and prioritizing potential improvements, make the process more transparent and strengthen the link between the engineering and human factors domains.

  1. Health Impacts from Human Interaction with the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. E.

    2008-12-01

    Humans have produced far greater impact on the environment than any other living form. The impact has been so significant-particularly during the past 50 years-that a new word, Anthrposphere has started appearing in recent literature. It is now being used along with the four major components of the system earth to underscore humans' influence on the environment. Human activities have produced a myriad of impacts on the environment that span the scale from local to global. The slow process that brought humanity to the present environmental crisis began with the Industrial Revolution and has greatly accelerated since the World War II. The past 50 years mark a unique period in human history that is characterized by rapid technological advances and unprecedented population growth. While the use of technology has been very effective in meeting the needs of the growing population, it has also produced serious impact on the environment. Large scale exploitation of mineral, fuel, water, forest, and marine resources has led to severe environmental degradation; and the resulting pollution of air, water, and land has caused serious consequences to human and ecological health. The presentation deals with the adverse impact on human health associated with mining, dam and reservoir construction, improper waste management, use of fossil fuels, and climate change. Case studies are included to illustrate health impacts from metal and coal mining; dam and reservoir construction and preponderance of disease vectors; pollution caused by improper waste disposal and the resulting incidence of cancer and other diseases; and emergence of vector-borne diseases at hitherto unknown locations, cardiovascular and respiratory track ailments, and increased morbidity and mortality triggered by elevated temperatures associated with climate change. A brief discussion of possible measures to mitigate the health consequences is also included in the presentation.

  2. Comparative Human Health Impact Assessment of Engineered Nanomaterials in the Framework of Life Cycle Assessment.

    PubMed

    Fransman, Wouter; Buist, Harrie; Kuijpers, Eelco; Walser, Tobias; Meyer, David; Zondervan-van den Beuken, Esther; Westerhout, Joost; Klein Entink, Rinke H; Brouwer, Derk H

    2016-09-24

    For safe innovation, knowledge on potential human health impacts is essential. Ideally, these impacts are considered within a larger life-cycle-based context to support sustainable development of new applications and products. A methodological framework that accounts for human health impacts caused by inhalation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in an indoor air environment has been previously developed. The objectives of this study are as follows: (i) evaluate the feasibility of applying the CF framework for NP exposure in the workplace based on currently available data; and (ii) supplement any resulting knowledge gaps with methods and data from the life cycle approach and human risk assessment (LICARA) project to develop a modified case-specific version of the framework that will enable near-term inclusion of NP human health impacts in life cycle assessment (LCA) using a case study involving nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2 ). The intent is to enhance typical LCA with elements of regulatory risk assessment, including its more detailed measure of uncertainty. The proof-of-principle demonstration of the framework highlighted the lack of available data for both the workplace emissions and human health effects of ENMs that is needed to calculate generalizable characterization factors using common human health impact assessment practices in LCA. The alternative approach of using intake fractions derived from workplace air concentration measurements and effect factors based on best-available toxicity data supported the current case-by-case approach for assessing the human health life cycle impacts of ENMs. Ultimately, the proposed framework and calculations demonstrate the potential utility of integrating elements of risk assessment with LCA for ENMs once the data are available.

  3. Human Factors Considerations of Undergrounds in Insurgencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-09-01

    related to either the outbreak or the outcome of in- surgency. For instance, a country’s relative stage of economic advance- ment, as measured by its gross...other associated questions: Are there particular factors asso- ciated with the outbreak of insurgency? Are these factors related to the success or...surgency and that certain economic-social conditions are more conducive to the outbreak of insurgency than others. I t is commonly believed that

  4. Rapid Prototyping and the Human Factors Engineering Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-29

    qr-..2. 9 Rapid prototyping or ’virtual prototyping’ of human- machine interfaces offers the possibility of putting the human operator ’in the loop...facilitates an iterative approach to the development of the human- machine interface, and that is most applicable to the early stages of systems...factors engineering (HFE) process re- commended for the development of human- machine systems is based on a series of increasin¥ly detailed analyses of

  5. Human Factors Issues in Aircraft Maintenance and Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    Unaided, Colin G. Drury , Ph.D .......................................... A-65 Vigilance and Inspection Performance, Earl L. Wiener, Ph.D .... A-72 Human...Inspection and Review A- 64 The Human Operator as an Inspector: Aided and Unaided Colin G. Drury , Ph.D. Professor of Industrial Engineering SUNY, Buffalo...Continued Ballroom A - HUMAN FACTORS TECHNOLOGY - 10:15 a.m. The Human Operator as an Inspector: Aided and Unaided Colin G. Drury , Ph.D. SUNY, Buffalo

  6. Specificity of human anti-variable heavy (VH ) chain autoantibodies and impact on the design and clinical testing of a VH domain antibody antagonist of tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Cordy, J C; Morley, P J; Wright, T J; Birchler, M A; Lewis, A P; Emmins, R; Chen, Y Z; Powley, W M; Bareille, P J; Wilson, R; Tonkyn, J; Bayliffe, A I; Lazaar, A L

    2015-11-01

    During clinical trials of a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-R1 domain antibody (dAb™) antagonist (GSK1995057), infusion reactions consistent with cytokine release were observed in healthy subjects with high levels of a novel, pre-existing human anti-VH (HAVH) autoantibody. In the presence of HAVH autoantibodies, GSK1995057 induced cytokine release in vitro due to binding of HAVH autoantibodies to a framework region of the dAb. The epitope on GSK1995057 was characterized and dAbs with reduced binding to HAVH autoantibodies were generated; pharmacological comparability was determined in human in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal experiments. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted to investigate the safety and tolerability of the modified dAb (GSK2862277). A significant reduction in HAVH binding was achieved by adding a single alanine residue at the C-terminus to create GSK2862277. Screening a pool of healthy donors demonstrated a reduced frequency of pre-existing autoantibodies from 51% to 7%; in all other respects, GSK2862277 and the parent dAb were comparable. In the Phase I trial, GSK2862277 was well tolerated by both the inhaled and intravenous routes. One subject experienced a mild infusion reaction with cytokine release following intravenous dosing. Subsequently, this subject was found to have high levels of a novel pre-existing antibody specific to the extended C-terminus of GSK2862277. Despite the reduced binding of GSK2862277 to pre-existing HAVH autoantibodies, adverse effects associated with the presence of a novel pre-existing antibody response specific to the modified dAb framework were identified and highlight the challenge of developing biological antagonists to this class of receptor. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  7. Specificity of human anti-variable heavy (VH) chain autoantibodies and impact on the design and clinical testing of a VH domain antibody antagonist of tumour necrosis factor-α receptor 1

    PubMed Central

    Cordy, J C; Morley, P J; Wright, T J; Birchler, M A; Lewis, A P; Emmins, R; Chen, Y Z; Powley, W M; Bareille, P J; Wilson, R; Tonkyn, J; Bayliffe, A I; Lazaar, A L

    2015-01-01

    During clinical trials of a tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-R1 domain antibody (dAb™) antagonist (GSK1995057), infusion reactions consistent with cytokine release were observed in healthy subjects with high levels of a novel, pre-existing human anti-VH (HAVH) autoantibody. In the presence of HAVH autoantibodies, GSK1995057 induced cytokine release in vitro due to binding of HAVH autoantibodies to a framework region of the dAb. The epitope on GSK1995057 was characterized and dAbs with reduced binding to HAVH autoantibodies were generated; pharmacological comparability was determined in human in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal experiments. A Phase I clinical trial was conducted to investigate the safety and tolerability of the modified dAb (GSK2862277). A significant reduction in HAVH binding was achieved by adding a single alanine residue at the C-terminus to create GSK2862277. Screening a pool of healthy donors demonstrated a reduced frequency of pre-existing autoantibodies from 51% to 7%; in all other respects, GSK2862277 and the parent dAb were comparable. In the Phase I trial, GSK2862277 was well tolerated by both the inhaled and intravenous routes. One subject experienced a mild infusion reaction with cytokine release following intravenous dosing. Subsequently, this subject was found to have high levels of a novel pre-existing antibody specific to the extended C-terminus of GSK2862277. Despite the reduced binding of GSK2862277 to pre-existing HAVH autoantibodies, adverse effects associated with the presence of a novel pre-existing antibody response specific to the modified dAb framework were identified and highlight the challenge of developing biological antagonists to this class of receptor. PMID:26178412

  8. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Bradley J; Duffy, J Emmett; Gonzalez, Andrew; Hooper, David U; Perrings, Charles; Venail, Patrick; Narwani, Anita; Mace, Georgina M; Tilman, David; Wardle, David A; Kinzig, Ann P; Daily, Gretchen C; Loreau, Michel; Grace, James B; Larigauderie, Anne; Srivastava, Diane S; Naeem, Shahid

    2012-06-06

    The most unique feature of Earth is the existence of life, and the most extraordinary feature of life is its diversity. Approximately 9 million types of plants, animals, protists and fungi inhabit the Earth. So, too, do 7 billion people. Two decades ago, at the first Earth Summit, the vast majority of the world's nations declared that human actions were dismantling the Earth's ecosystems, eliminating genes, species and biological traits at an alarming rate. This observation led to the question of how such loss of biological diversity will alter the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide society with the goods and services needed to prosper.

  9. UK: impact of European human rights law.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    2000-10-21

    The UK's Human Rights Act 1998, which incorporates into that country's law the European Convention on Rights and Freedoms, came into full operation on Oct 2, 2000. The Act imposes duties on public authorities, who must now justify their position if that is in conflict with a Convention right. Four Articles in the Convention are potential flashpoints in respect of health cases, examples being patients' rights to receive expensive life-saving treatment and disciplinary procedures, including those of the General Medical Council and National Health Service trusts.

  10. The human impact on the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation of the environment and of landscapes by human actions has become one of the most critical issues on any agenda for the 21st century. This book is a source of information to students in environmental studies, offering an expanded treatment of atmospheric effects - particularly acid deposition, ozone depletion, and the buildup of greenhouse gases - and of future scenarios relating to global warming trends. The author focuses on the critical man/land relationships that result in environmental change, hazards, or degradation, covering plants, animals, soil, waters, geomorphology, climate, and atmosphere.

  11. Biodiversity loss and its impact on humanity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinale, Bradley J.; Duffy, J. Emmett; Gonzalez, Andrew; Hooper, David U.; Perrings, Charles; Patrick, Venail; Narwani, Anita; Mace, Georgina M.; Tilman, David; Wardle, David A.; Kinzig, Ann P.; Daily, Gretchen C.; Loreau, Michel; Grace, James B.; Larigauderie, Anne; Srivastava, Diane S.; Naeem, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The most unique feature of Earth is the existence of life, and the most extraordinary feature of life is its diversity. Approximately 9 million types of plants, animals, protists and fungi inhabit the Earth. So, too, do 7 billion people. Two decades ago, at the first Earth Summit, the vast majority of the world's nations declared that human actions were dismantling the Earth's ecosystems, eliminating genes, species and biological traits at an alarming rate. This observation led to the question of how such loss of biological diversity will alter the functioning of ecosystems and their ability to provide society with the goods and services needed to prosper.

  12. Human Impacts on Coral Reefs in the Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Jufaili, S.; Al-Jabri, M.; Al-Baluchi, A.; Baldwin, R. M.; Wilson, S. C.; West, F.; Matthews, A. D.

    1999-08-01

    A rapid assessment survey of the coral reefs of the Sultanate of Oman was conducted by the Ministry of Regional Municipalities and Environment during the first half of 1996. The survey revealed new information on the distribution pattern of corals in Oman and identified impacts, threats and potential threats to coral communities for the purpose of preparation of a National Coral Reef Management Plan (Phase One of the implementation of a National Coastal Zone Management Plan). Impacts on coral reefs in Oman were found to be attributable to both natural and human causes, resulting in significant and widespread degradation. Damage resulting from fisheries activities was the most commonly recorded human impact, with the most severe effects. Other human impacts resulted from coastal construction, recreational activities, oil pollution and eutrophication. Predation of corals by Acanthaster planci, damage caused by storms, coral diseases and temperature-related stress were the most commonly recorded natural impacts to coral reefs. Further minor natural impacts were attributable to siltation, rock falls and predation by a corallivorous gastropod (Drupella sp.). Significant differences between different areas of the country were found in terms of human impacts on coral reefs and these were related to coastal demography and human activity. Eighty per cent of sites studied were recorded to have been affected by human impacts to some degree. Impacts attributable to fisheries activities were found at 69% of the sites. Lost or abandoned gill nets were found to affect coral reefs at 49% of sites throughout Oman and accounted for 70% of all severe human impacts. Lost gill nets were also found to have a negative affect on fisheries resources and other marine wildlife. Observations of the behaviour of gill nets on coral reefs suggested a predictable pattern of damage over time and a significant increase in damage intensity during storms. Fishing nets were found to act selectively

  13. Human Factors in Library Administration. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Neil

    Intended for the beginning or inexperienced supervisor, this continuing education course syllabus presents basic information on the development of human relations skills, particularly in the areas of leadership, communication, conflict, and motivation. Role playing situations set in various types of medical libraries are also outlined to provide…

  14. Aflatoxins: characteristics and impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Anna; Walkiewicz, Katarzyna; Kozieł, Paweł; Muc-Wierzgoń, Małgorzata

    2017-05-05

    Some molds commonly occurring in the natural environment produce mycotoxins in the process of secondary metabolism. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are species of molds, which are responsible for the production of aflatoxins and are crucial in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Aspergillus species present in decaying plants, the soil and their spores are transferred via air currents and insects to crops and food storages. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 are the most common derivatives of aflatoxins. Ingestion of contaminated food is the main source of exposure to aflatoxins, which adversely affect the health of both humans and animals. The compounds can cause acute or chronic toxic effects of a teratogenic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic or hepatotoxic character. Molecular aflatoxins affect DNA mutations, postranslation peptids chains modification, proteins and nucleic acids methylation and the formation of free radicals. Due to aflatoxins carcinogenic features and frequent occurrence in food and forages they are routinely examinated in some groceries and agricultural products.

  15. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile

    PubMed Central

    John, Mike T.; Reißmann, Daniel R.; Feuerstahler, Leah; Waller, Niels; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Larsson, Pernilla; Čelebić, Asja; Szabo, Gyula; Rener-Sitar, Ksenija

    2014-01-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontics patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (N=5,173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5,146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27.0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2.6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Orofacial Pain, Orofacial Appearance, and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  16. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    PubMed

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP.

  17. Human Factors Engineering. Part 2. HEDGE (Human Factors Engineering Data Guide for Evaluation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    by color, sie Point%. provided. fibeled . 6 Jack. Toaist poinfts WWI d. sign advertising of trotanki othsn, lit I -s.. n Io,,-Ieho lin..a 6_ plosg. r.pfs...DATA r EmlL-sTo- I ’.712£ L C’ T 1y FIGURE 8.8.1 COUNTERS , FLAGS, PRINTERS, AND PLOTTERS ISAII AC~tMA84. o ~- -~1ACION LoY TVl 0T1l 11I.o 8IIOA 0.-. wo...IDRST-P70-0 Test Operations Procedure 1-2-610 AD I ," ( , HUMAN FACTORS ENG PAR I I ... ..... Reproduced From Best Available Copy . ,.frpbi ees;dsrbto

  18. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis. PMID:26925907

  19. The Impact of Social Factors on Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection in a Minority Region of Si-Chuan, the People's Republic of China: A Population-Based Survey and Testing Study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Maria C.; Huang, Jun; Liu, Honglu; Deng, Bin; Lai, Wenhong; Liu, Li; Yang, Yihui; Hu, Ying; Qin, Guangming; Zhang, Linglin; Song, Zhibin; Wei, Daying; Nan, Lei; Wang, Qixing; Deng, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianxun; Wong, Frank Y.; Yang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns. Methods All residents in two towns of the Butuo county were provided a physical examination and blood tests for HIV and HCV, and then followed by an interview for questionnaire. Results In total, 10,104 residents (92.4%) were enrolled and 9,179 blood samples were collected for HIV and HCV testing, 6,072 were from individuals >14 years old. The rates of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infection were 11.4%, 14.0%, and 7.7%, respectively for >14-year-old residents. The 25–34 yr age group had the highest prevalence of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV co-infections, reaching 24.4%, 26.2% and 16.0%, respectively. Overall, males had a much higher prevalence of all infections than females (HIV: 16.3% vs. 6.8%, HCV: 24.6% vs. 3.9%, HIV/HCV co-infected: 14.7% vs. 1.1%, respectively; P = 0.000). Approximately half of intravenous drug users tested positive for HIV (48.7%) and 68.4% tested positive for HCV. Logistic regression analysis showed that five factors were significantly associated with HIV and HCV infection: gender (odds ratio [OR]  = 5.8), education (OR = 2.29); occupation (student as reference; farmer: OR = 5.02, migrant worker: OR = 6.12); drug abuse (OR = 18.0); and multiple sexual partners (OR = 2.92). Knowledge of HIV was not associated with infection. Conclusion HIV and HCV prevalence in the Liangshan region is very serious and drug use, multiple sexual partners, and low education levels were the three main risk factors. The government should focus on improving education and personal health awareness while enhancing drug control programs. PMID:24988219

  20. Impact on human health of climate changes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate is rapidly changing. These changes, which are mainly driven by the dramatic increase of greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic activities, have the potential to affect human health in several ways. These include a global rise in average temperature, an increased frequency of heat waves, of weather events such as hurricanes, cyclones and drought periods, plus an altered distribution of allergens and vector-borne infectious diseases. The cardiopulmonary system and the gastrointestinal tract are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of global warming. Moreover, some infectious diseases and their animal vectors are influenced by climate changes, resulting in higher risk of typhus, cholera, malaria, dengue and West Nile virus infection. On the other hand, at mid latitudes warming may reduce the rate of diseases related to cold temperatures (such as pneumonia, bronchitis and arthritis), but these benefits are unlikely to rebalance the risks associated to warming. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, G. )

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement.

  2. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  3. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  4. Human factor design of habitable space facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1987-01-01

    Current fundamental and applied habitability research conducted as part of the U.S. space program is reviewed with emphasis on methods, findings, and applications of the results to the planning and design of the International Space Station. The discussion covers the following six concurrent directions of habitability research: operational simulation, functional interior decor research, space crew privacy requirements, interior layout and configuration analysis, human spatial habitability model, and analogous environments research.

  5. The Human Factors of Sensor Fusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    and it was also in contrast to systems where federated or isolated sensors, acting as single sources and providing information for a single purpose...formal logic is used, humans often use more of the inductive process (called the method of discovery) or infer from the specific to the general ( Searles ...unusual cases where ambiguity is very high. If a situation does not appear to make sense or fit an established pattern, it very well may be some act of

  6. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention.

  7. Vaccine impact: Benefits for human health.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Mark; Buchy, Philippe; Standaert, Baudouin; Giaquinto, Carlo; Prado-Cohrs, David

    2016-12-20

    Unlike most drugs, whose benefit is restricted to the individual who takes the drug, prophylactic vaccines have the potential for far-reaching effects that encompass health service utilisation, general health and wellbeing, cognitive development and, ultimately, economic productivity. The impact of immunisation is measured by evaluating effects directly on the vaccinated individual, indirectly on the unvaccinated community (herd protection), the epidemiology of the pathogen (such as changing circulating serotypes or prevention of epidemic cycles), and the additional benefits arising from improved health. Aside from protection of the individual, the broader success of immunisation is dependent on achieving a level of coverage sufficient to interrupt transmission of the pathogen. When evaluating the cost-effectiveness of vaccines, all of these potential benefits need to be accounted for. In many countries where immunisation programmes have been highly successful, the control of disease has meant that the benefits of immunisation have become less obvious. Once a well-known and much-feared disease appears to have disappeared, individuals, including healthcare professionals, no longer view ongoing prevention with the same sense of urgency. Reduced coverage is inevitably associated with resurgence in disease, with outbreaks potentially leading to significant morbidity and loss of life. Ensuring the continued success of immunisation programmes is the responsibility of all: individuals, healthcare professionals, government and industry. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  9. Genome-wide inference of natural selection on human transcription factor binding sites.

    PubMed

    Arbiza, Leonardo; Gronau, Ilan; Aksoy, Bulent A; Hubisz, Melissa J; Gulko, Brad; Keinan, Alon; Siepel, Adam

    2013-07-01

    For decades, it has been hypothesized that gene regulation has had a central role in human evolution, yet much remains unknown about the genome-wide impact of regulatory mutations. Here we use whole-genome sequences and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing data to demonstrate that natural selection has profoundly influenced human transcription factor binding sites since the divergence of humans from chimpanzees 4-6 million years ago. Our analysis uses a new probabilistic method, called INSIGHT, for measuring the influence of selection on collections of short, interspersed noncoding elements. We find that, on average, transcription factor binding sites have experienced somewhat weaker selection than protein-coding genes. However, the binding sites of several transcription factors show clear evidence of adaptation. Several measures of selection are strongly correlated with predicted binding affinity. Overall, regulatory elements seem to contribute substantially to both adaptive substitutions and deleterious polymorphisms with key implications for human evolution and disease.

  10. Human health impacts in a changing South African climate.

    PubMed

    Wright, C Y; Garland, R M; Norval, M; Vogel, C

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is projected to lead to warmer temperatures, especially in southern Africa, where the warming is predicted to be 2°C higher than the global increase. Given the high burden of disease already associated with environmental factors in this region, this temperature increase may lead to grave challenges for human health and quality of life. HIV/AIDS, poverty, food and water insecurity together with inequality and unemployment will further complicate the manner in which we will need to address the challenges of a changing climate. The health impacts are direct, such as increased temperatures leading to heat exhaustion, and indirect, such as likely increases in infectious diseases from contaminated water and changes in the distribution and/or magnitude of vector-borne diseases. The most effective measures for adapting to climate change to ensure healthy populations are to implement basic public health systems and services. These range from a continuous supply of clean water to adequate primary healthcare services. Support for required interventions is required not only from government, but also from healthcare professionals and communities. The need for disease surveillance, data capturing and more focused research is paramount.

  11. [Acupuncture clinical trials published in high impact factor journals].

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Liu, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2014-12-01

    Acupuncture clinical trials are designed to provide reliable evidence of clinical efficacy, and SCI papers is one of the high-quality clinical efficacy of acupuncture research. To analyze these papers published in high impact factor journals on acupuncture clinical trials, we can study clinical trials from design to implementation, the efficacy of prevention and cure, combined with international standard practices to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture. That is the core of acupuncture clinical trials, as well as a prerequisite for outstanding academic output. A scientific and complete acupuncture clinical trial should be topically novel, designed innovative, logically clear, linguistically refining, and the most important point lies in a great discovery and solving the pragmatic problem. All of these are critical points of papers to be published in high impact factor journal, and directly affect international evaluation and promotion of acupuncture.

  12. The impact of variation in scaling factors on the estimation of ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models include values for metabolic rate parameters extrapolated from in vitro metabolism studies using scaling factors such as mg of microsomal protein per gram of liver (MPPGL) and liver mass (FVL). Variation in scaling factor values impacts metabolic rate parameter estimates (Vmax) and hence estimates of internal dose used in dose response analysis. The impacts of adult human variation in MPPGL and FVL on estimates of internal dose were assessed using a human PBPK model for BDCM for several internal dose metrics for two exposure scenarios (single 0.25 liter drink of water or 10 minute shower) under plausible (5 micrograms/L) and high level (20 micrograms/L) water concentrations. For both concentrations, all internal dose metrics were changed less than 5% for the showering scenario (combined inhalation and dermal exposure). In contrast, a 27-fold variation in area under the curve for BDCM in venous blood was observed at both oral exposure concentrations, whereas total amount of BDCM metabolized in liver was relatively unchanged. This analysis demonstrates that variability in the scaling factors used for in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for metabolic rate parameters can have a significant route-dependent impact on estimates of internal dose under environmentally relevant exposure scenarios. This indicates the need to evaluate both uncertainty and variability for scaling factors used for IVIVE. Sca

  13. Large-scale identification of sequence variants influencing human transcription factor occupancy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maurano, Matthew T; Haugen, Eric; Sandstrom, Richard; Vierstra, Jeff; Shafer, Anthony; Kaul, Rajinder; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-12-01

    The function of human regulatory regions depends exquisitely on their local genomic environment and on cellular context, complicating experimental analysis of common disease- and trait-associated variants that localize within regulatory DNA. We use allelically resolved genomic DNase I footprinting data encompassing 166 individuals and 114 cell types to identify >60,000 common variants that directly influence transcription factor occupancy and regulatory DNA accessibility in vivo. The unprecedented scale of these data enables systematic analysis of the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor occupancy in vivo. We leverage this analysis to develop accurate models of variation affecting the recognition sites for diverse transcription factors and apply these models to discriminate nearly 500,000 common regulatory variants likely to affect transcription factor occupancy across the human genome. The approach and results provide a new foundation for the analysis and interpretation of noncoding variation in complete human genomes and for systems-level investigation of disease-associated variants.

  14. Human factors issues in qualitative and quantitative safety analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.A.

    1993-10-01

    Humans are a critical and integral part of any operational system, be it a nuclear reactor, a facility for assembly or disassembling hazardous components, or a transportation network. In our concern over the safety of these systems, we often focus our attention on the hardware engineering components of such systems. However, experience has repeatedly demonstrated that it is often the human component that is the primary determinant of overall system safety. Both the nuclear reactor accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island and shipping disasters such as the Exxon Valdez and the Herald of Free Enterprise accidents are attributable to human error. Concern over human contributions to system safety prompts us to include reviews of human factors issues in our safety analyses. In the conduct of Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs), human factors issues are addressed using a quantitative method called Human Reliability Analysis (HRA). HRAs typically begin with the identification of potential sources of human error in accident sequences of interest. Human error analysis often employs plant and/or procedures walk-downs in which the analyst considers the ``goodness`` of procedures, training, and human-machine interfaces concerning their potential contribution to human error. Interviews with expert task performers may also be conducted. In the application of HRA, once candidate sources of human error have been identified, error probabilities are developed.

  15. Environment for nursing scholarship and journal impact factors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ketefian, Shaké; Dai, Yu-Tzu

    2010-06-01

    Universities are seeking objective measures to assess their faculty members' research output in order to improve their national and international standing. Despite concerns, many have adopted the impact factor of journals for this purpose. The objective of this study was to explore the conditions that have been created within Taiwan as a result of such national and institutional policies. A case study design was used. Information was sought from five senior faculty members, who responded to a questionnaire with items derived from the literature. A key participant provided context within the country. The data were summarized and described. The respondents confirmed the presence of governmental and university policies for publication in high-impact factor journals; they saw some positive aspects, yet described the obstacles faced by many scholars, felt that the policies led to competition rather than cooperation, and viewed national, compared to international, publications in opposing terms. The findings are discussed within the context of current nursing literature. It is recommended that, where impact factors are used, they not be the only quality measure. A larger and more representative study is also recommended.

  16. Tidal wetland stability in the face of human impacts and sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Matthew L; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2013-12-05

    Coastal populations and wetlands have been intertwined for centuries, whereby humans both influence and depend on the extensive ecosystem services that wetlands provide. Although coastal wetlands have long been considered vulnerable to sea-level rise, recent work has identified fascinating feedbacks between plant growth and geomorphology that allow wetlands to actively resist the deleterious effects of sea-level rise. Humans alter the strength of these feedbacks by changing the climate, nutrient inputs, sediment delivery and subsidence rates. Whether wetlands continue to survive sea-level rise depends largely on how human impacts interact with rapid sea-level rise, and socio-economic factors that influence transgression into adjacent uplands.

  17. Minimizing Human Risk: Human Performance Models in the Space Human Factors and Habitability and Behavioral Health and Performance Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Human space exploration has never been more exciting than it is today. Human presence to outer worlds is becoming a reality as humans are leveraging much of our prior knowledge to the new mission of going to Mars. Exploring the solar system at greater distances from Earth than ever before will possess some unique challenges, which can be overcome thanks to the advances in modeling and simulation technologies. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is at the forefront of exploring our solar system. NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) focuses on discovering the best methods and technologies that support safe and productive human space travel in the extreme and harsh space environment. HRP uses various methods and approaches to answer questions about the impact of long duration missions on the human in space including: gravity's impact on the human body, isolation and confinement on the human, hostile environments impact on the human, space radiation, and how the distance is likely to impact the human. Predictive models are included in the HRP research portfolio as these models provide valuable insights into human-system operations. This paper will provide an overview of NASA's HRP and will present a number of projects that have used modeling and simulation to provide insights into human-system issues (e.g. automation, habitat design, schedules) in anticipation of space exploration.

  18. Impact of climatic extremity upon human health

    SciTech Connect

    Miah, M.A.; Samad, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    The extreme climate generated in the wake of the shortage of the supply of natural water in the lower Ganges basin has triggered a number of environmental diseases in the lower Ganges basin. In the wake of improper sanitation conditions for the scarcity of water, water-borne diseases like cholera, diarrhea, hepatitis, etc., break out and take out the lives of victims. Further, the development of the dry climate has favored an increased amount of suspended particulate matter in the air. The result is the prevalent problem of asthma which is even worse than the water-borne diseases. Almost one in every four families living in this city has an asthma patient. The worst is that more than 10% of the families have three asthma patients. And, most of the elderly asthma patients suffer from diabetes and high blood pressure at the same time. The wide spread of asthma is thought to be related to the triggering allergic action suffered by patients due to the presence of excess particulate matter in the air. More than 50% of the population suffer from nasal allergy, sinusitis, and chronic bronchitis. The suspended particles are mostly fine grains of sands and carbon. The cleanest air (usually, after a heavy rainfall) contains at least one gm of particulate matter in every 2,039 cubic meter of air. An average man will inhale about 1.11 million gallons of air per year which amounts to about 2 gm of particulate matter per year. Additionally, during the dry months, major duststorms appear a couple of times with an uplift of half a million kg of dust in air over about 810 square km each time. The paper will focus on water scarcity, the climatic extremity, suspended particulate matter, the outbreaks of water-borne and the prevalent respiratory diseases, and suggestions to mitigate human sufferings.

  19. Human factors engineering for designing the next in medicine.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fuji

    2007-01-01

    Good design of emerging medical technology in an increasingly complex clinical and technological environment requires an understanding of the context of use, workload, and environment as well as appreciation for ease of use, fit into clinical workflow, and the need for user feedback in the design process. This is where human factors engineering can come into play for good design. Human factors engineering involves the application of principles about human behaviors, abilities, and limitations to the design of tools, devices, environments, and training in order to optimize human performance and safety. The human factors engineering process should be an integral part of the emerging technology development process and needs to be included upfront. This can help ensure that the new product is safe, functional, natural to use, seamlessly integrated into existing clinical workflow, and embraced by users to be incorporated into practice for maximum benefit to patient safety and healthcare quality.

  20. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Human Factors Design Issues for Spectral Exploitation Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    widely accepted or utilized in the operational community. This is primarily due to sensor collection limitations, dynamic time constraints, lack of user ... experience , and limited availability of validated exploitation tools and techniques. This effort implements human factors and cognitive engineering

  2. Overview: Human Factors Issues in Space Station Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of human factors issues in space station architecture. The status of the space station program is given. Habitability concerns such as vibroacoustics, lighting systems, privacy and work stations are discussed in detail.

  3. The first recombinant human coagulation factor VIII of human origin: human cell line and manufacturing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Casademunt, Elisabeth; Martinelle, Kristina; Jernberg, Mats; Winge, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Maya; Biesert, Lothar; Knaub, Sigurd; Walter, Olaf; Schröder, Carola

    2012-08-01

    Since the early 1990s, recombinant human clotting factor VIII (rhFVIII) produced in hamster cells has been available for haemophilia A treatment. However, the post-translational modifications of these proteins are not identical to those of native human FVIII, which may lead to immunogenic reactions and the development of inhibitors against rhFVIII. For the first time, rhFVIII produced in a human host cell line is available. We describe here the establishment of the first human production cell line for rhFVIII and the manufacturing process of this novel product. A human cell line expressing rhFVIII was derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 F cells transfected with an FVIII expression plasmid. No virus or virus-like particles could be detected following extensive testing. The stringently controlled production process is completely free from added materials of animal or human origin. Multistep purification employing a combination of filtration and chromatography steps ensures the efficient removal of impurities. Solvent/detergent treatment and a 20 nm pore size nanofiltration step, used for the first time in rhFVIII manufacturing, efficiently eliminate any hypothetically present viruses. In contrast to hamster cell-derived products, this rhFVIII product does not contain hamster-like epitopes, which might be expected to be immunogenic. HEK 293 F cells, whose parental cell line HEK 293 has been used by researchers for decades, are a suitable production cell line for rhFVIII and will help avoid immunogenic epitopes. A modern manufacturing process has been developed to ensure the highest level of purity and pathogen safety. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Combined Impact of Lifestyle Factors on Cancer Mortality in Men

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Do; Sui, EdD Xuemei; Hooker, Steven P.; Hébert, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The impact of lifestyle factors on cancer mortality in the U.S. population has not been thoroughly explored. We examined the combined effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, never smoking, and normal waist girth on total cancer mortality in men. METHODS We followed a total of 24,731 men ages 20–82 years who participated in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A low-risk profile was defined as never smoking, moderate or high fitness, and normal waist girth, and they were further categorized as having 0, 1, 2, or 3 combined low-risk factors. RESULTS During an average of 14.5 years of follow-up, there were a total of 384 cancer deaths. After adjustment for age, examination year, and multiple risk factors, men who were physically fit, never smoked, and had a normal waist girth had a 62% lower risk of total cancer mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 45%-73%) compared with men with zero low-risk factors. Men with all 3 low-risk factors had a 12-year (95% CI: 8.6–14.6) longer life expectancy compared with men with 0 low-risk factors. Approximately 37% (95% CI, 17%-52%) of total cancer deaths might have been avoided if the men had maintained all three low-risk factors. CONCLUSIONS Being physically fit, never smoking, and maintaining a normal waist girth is associated with lower risk of total cancer mortality in men. PMID:21683616

  5. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  6. Human factor roles in design of teleoperator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janow, C.; Malone, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    Teleoperator systems are considered, giving attention to types of teleoperators, a manned space vehicle attached manipulator, a free-flying teleoperator, a surface exploration roving vehicle, the human factors role in total system design, the manipulator system, the sensor system, the communication system, the control system, and the mobility system. The role of human factors in the development of teleoperator systems is also discussed, taking into account visual systems, an operator control station, and the manipulators.

  7. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  8. Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0761 TITLE: Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...23 JUL 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH) 5b. GRANT...Accomplishments 5 Reportable Outcomes 14 Conclusions 15 Appendices 17 References (appendix B) 18 Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for

  9. Regulation of immunoglobulin secretion by factor H of human complement.

    PubMed Central

    Tsokos, G C; Inghirami, G; Tsoukas, C D; Balow, J E; Lambris, J D

    1985-01-01

    As human B lymphocytes and macrophages carry surface receptors for Factor H (B1H), we investigated the possibility that this complement component regulates their function. Factor H inhibits immunoglobulin secretion by peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated with pokeweed mitogen if present at the initiation of the cultures and at concentrations greater than 50 micrograms/ml. Factor H also inhibited stimulation and differentiation of purified B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The inhibitory effect of Factor H was abrogated if anti-Factor H antibody was present in the cultures. EBV-transformed B-cell lines secreted less immunoglobulin if Factor H was present in the culture for at least 4 days. Culture of MNC with Factor H did not lead to the generation of suppressor T cells or macrophages. In contrast, Factor H did not cause proliferation of human peripheral total MNC or enriched T-cell or B-cell subpopulations. Also, Factor H did not inhibit the proliferation of MNC in response to several mitogens and antigens. Our results strongly indicate that Factor H is able to block human B-cell differentiation in vitro without blocking the proliferative ability of the cells. Factor H seems to act directly on the B cells through its receptor on their surface, since it inhibited T-dependent and T-independent B-cell differentiation but generated no suppressor cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2991125

  10. Regulation of immunoglobulin secretion by factor H of human complement.

    PubMed

    Tsokos, G C; Inghirami, G; Tsoukas, C D; Balow, J E; Lambris, J D

    1985-07-01

    As human B lymphocytes and macrophages carry surface receptors for Factor H (B1H), we investigated the possibility that this complement component regulates their function. Factor H inhibits immunoglobulin secretion by peripheral mononuclear cells (MNC) stimulated with pokeweed mitogen if present at the initiation of the cultures and at concentrations greater than 50 micrograms/ml. Factor H also inhibited stimulation and differentiation of purified B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The inhibitory effect of Factor H was abrogated if anti-Factor H antibody was present in the cultures. EBV-transformed B-cell lines secreted less immunoglobulin if Factor H was present in the culture for at least 4 days. Culture of MNC with Factor H did not lead to the generation of suppressor T cells or macrophages. In contrast, Factor H did not cause proliferation of human peripheral total MNC or enriched T-cell or B-cell subpopulations. Also, Factor H did not inhibit the proliferation of MNC in response to several mitogens and antigens. Our results strongly indicate that Factor H is able to block human B-cell differentiation in vitro without blocking the proliferative ability of the cells. Factor H seems to act directly on the B cells through its receptor on their surface, since it inhibited T-dependent and T-independent B-cell differentiation but generated no suppressor cells.

  11. Human factors measurement for future air traffic control systems.

    PubMed

    Langan-Fox, Janice; Sankey, Michael J; Canty, James M

    2009-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of research pertaining to the measurement of human factors (HF) issues in current and future air traffic control (ATC). Growing worldwide air traffic demands call for a radical departure from current ATC systems. Future systems will have a fundamental impact on the roles and responsibilities of ATC officers (ATCOs). Valid and reliable methods of assessing HF issues associated with these changes, such as a potential increase (or decrease) in workload, are of utmost importance for advancing theory and for designing systems, procedures, and training. We outline major aviation changes and how these relate to five key HF issues in ATC. Measures are outlined, compared, and evaluated and are followed by guidelines for assessing these issues in the ATC domain. Recommendations for future research are presented. A review of the literature suggests that situational awareness and workload have been widely researched and assessed using a variety of measures, but researchers have neglected the areas of trust, stress, and boredom. We make recommendations for use of particular measures and the construction of new measures. It is predicted that, given the changing role of ATCOs and profound future airspace requirements and configurations, issues of stress, trust, and boredom will become more significant. Researchers should develop and/or refine existing measures of all five key HF issues to assess their impact on ATCO performance. Furthermore, these issues should be considered in a holistic manner. The current article provides an evaluation of research and measures used in HF research on ATC that will aid research and ATC measurement.

  12. Human Factors in Financial Trading: An Analysis of Trading Incidents.

    PubMed

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W

    2016-09-01

    This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors-related issues in operational trading incidents. In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors-related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  14. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  15. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  16. Human Factors In The Design Of Video Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Good designs take account of perceptual tendencies and conceptual biases in observers. Report presents overview of evolving knowledge of interactions between video displays and human observers. Discusses relative advantages and disadvantages of static and dynamic displays, with attention to human factors combining with characteristics of video-display medium to affect observer's percepts.

  17. Impact of Design Trade Studies on System Human Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Gary V.; Askren, William B.

    This study focused on two objectives. The first objective was to identify and classify the characteristics of conceptual design trade studies that have high potential impact on human resource requirements of Air Force weapon systems. The approach used was a case history review and analysis of 129 F-15 aircraft design trade studies. The analysis…

  18. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…

  19. Cultured bacterial diversity and human impact on alpine glacier cryoconite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung Mi; Kim, So-Yeon; Jung, Jia; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Kyeung Hee; Schinner, Franz; Margesin, Rosa; Hong, Soon Gyu; Lee, Hong Kum

    2011-06-01

    The anthropogenic effect on the microbial communities in alpine glacier cryoconites was investigated by cultivation and physiological characterization of bacteria from six cryoconite samples taken at sites with different amounts of human impact. Two hundred and forty seven bacterial isolates were included in Actinobacteria (9%, particularly Arthrobacter), Bacteroidetes (14%, particularly Olleya), Firmicutes (0.8%), Alphaproteobacteria (2%), Betaproteobacteria (16%, particularly Janthinobacterium), and Gammaproteobacteria (59%, particularly Pseudomonas). Among them, isolates of Arthrobacter were detected only in samples from sites with no human impact, while isolates affiliated with Enterobacteriaceae were detected only in samples from sites with strong human impact. Bacterial isolates included in Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were frequently isolated from pristine sites and showed low maximum growth temperature and enzyme secretion. Bacterial isolates included in Gammaproteobacteria were more frequently isolated from sites with stronger human impact and showed high maximum growth temperature and enzyme secretion. Ecotypic differences were not evident among isolates of Janthinobacterium lividum, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas veronii, which were frequently isolated from sites with different degrees of anthropogenic effect.

  20. Understanding Human Impact: Second Graders Explore Watershed Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magruder, Robin; Rosenauer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a second grade science enrichment unit with a focus on human impact, both positive and negative, on the living and nonliving components of the local watershed. Investigating the local watershed gave the unit a personal and pragmatic connection to students' lives because they depend on the local watershed for what they need…