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Sample records for factors influencing breastfeeding

  1. Factors influencing breast-feeding among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Neifert, M; Gray, J; Gary, N; Camp, B

    1988-11-01

    During a 15-month study period, 244 adolescent mothers under 18 years of age were surveyed, of whom 53% elected to breast-feed. A subset of 60 primiparous breast-feeding adolescents were studied regarding the influence of several factors on the duration of breast-feeding. An attitude questionnaire was administered in the hospital within 48 hours of delivery. Follow-up interviews were obtained by telephone or in person at approximately 2 weeks and 2 months after birth. Eighty-three percent made the decision to breast-feed before the third trimester. Thirty-five percent discontinued breast-feeding within the first postpartum month, the most common reason being "nipple confusion" in the infant; 22% nursed for more than 1 month but less than 2 months, and 43% breast-fed for 2 months or more. None of the variables examined (maternal age, ethnic group, education level, involvement of the baby's father, timing of the breast-feeding decision, intended duration of breast-feeding, age at which formula supplementation was started, or availability of maternal support) was predictive of the duration of breast-feeding. Contrary to adolescent stereotypes, 65% of mothers chose breast-feeding because it was "good for the baby," and 67% identified the "closeness" of the nursing relationship as the most enjoyable part of breast-feeding. Twenty-eight percent cited modesty issues about breast-feeding as the greatest disadvantage, and 17% returned to work or school within the first 2 postpartum months, posing additional obstacles to breast-feeding. Our data suggest that adolescents are receptive to breast-feeding, but they may require close follow-up and anticipatory guidance tailored to their individual needs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast milk contains all the nutrients infants need for their first 6 months of life. However, only a minority of Saudi Arabian mothers exclusively breastfeed, so the influencing factors must be examined to encourage more to do so. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and its associated factors in Tabuk, North West Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 589 mothers of healthy infants aged between 6 and 24 months were interviewed while attending Well-Baby Clinics within 5 primary health care centers. Interviews deployed a structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic information and detailed data concerning breastfeeding practices. A logistic regression analysis was then performed on the data to identify the factors independently associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice for infants at 6 months. Results: Exclusive breastfeeding was practiced by 31.4% of mothers for the first 6 months of their infant’s life. The logistic regressions indicated that exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was less likely to be practiced by working mothers, Saudi nationals, and for babies born via cesarean delivery or at low birth weights. Conversely, the mother’s awareness of the recommended exclusive breastfeeding duration was positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: Programs promoting 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding should target high-risk groups. Two factors identified by this study are modifiable: working mothers and mothers’ awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding duration recommendation. Strategies to improve exclusive breastfeeding rates should therefore focus on workplace facilities and increasing awareness of the exclusive breastfeeding recommendation. PMID:28469519

  3. Factors Influencing Exclusive Breastfeeding in Early Infancy: A Prospective Study in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi O; Kobayashi, Satomi; Anigo, Kola M; Ota, Erika; Asakura, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    To determine the association between prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intentions and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and explore other factors associated with EBF until 3 months postpartum among mothers residing in suburban parts of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja Nigeria. This longitudinal observational study involved the recruitment of 210 pregnant women who were prospectively followed until 3 months postpartum. Participants were recruited from antenatal clinics attached to four separate public secondary health facilities located in the suburban parts of Abuja. Cox regression hazards model was used to determine the risk of EBF cessation at 3 months postpartum. Over 70.0 % of women had strong intention to exclusively breastfeed. The risk of exclusive breastfeeding cessation was significantly lower in women with strong exclusive breastfeeding intentions (HR 0.87, 95 % CI 0.8-0.95). Other risk factors for cessation of exclusive breastfeeding were pre-lacteal feed administration (HR 2.93 95 % CI 1.49-5.77) and mode of delivery (HR 0.17 95 % CI 0.04-0.67). Higher maternal age (≥35 years), religion (Muslim) and having an unplanned pregnancy lowered the likelihood of having a strong intention to exclusively breastfeed an infant. Prenatal exclusive breastfeeding intention was a strong predictor of exclusive breastfeeding. Intentions to EBF were further explained by maternal characteristics. Effective promotion of exclusive breastfeeding during prenatal period should also target factors influencing breastfeeding intentions. Additional research is warranted into the influence of maternal attitudes and self-efficacy about breastfeeding on breastfeeding intentions and practice.

  4. Breastfeeding in America: a history of influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Thulier, Diane

    2009-02-01

    The author explores the history of breastfeeding in America. Popular belief is that medicine, science, and the formula industry have had the most impact on women's decisions to bottle versus breastfeed. What cannot be overlooked are other areas of influence. Cultural practices, including the beliefs of colonial Americans, the increased social value of children in the 20th century, and the emergence of a middle class, have influenced maternal decision making. The first and second waves of feminism affected women's choices. Politics and religion have had multiple and varied influences. It is this author's position that culture, gender, politics, and religion, as well as medicine, science, and industry, have combined to affect feeding choices. All of these influences, as well as others, both unforeseen and unpredictable, will continue to affect the future of breastfeeding in our society.

  5. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding among urban women.

    PubMed

    Noble, Lawrence; Hand, Ivan; Haynes, Diane; McVeigh, Tammy; Kim, MaeHee; Yoon, Jing Ja

    2003-11-01

    The objective of our study was to identify factors associated with the initiation of breast-feeding in a poor urban area. One hundred postpartum, nonadolescent, non-drug using mothers, 50 breast-feeding and 50 formula feeding, were consecutively interviewed. Breast-feeding women were more likely to be born outside of the United States (42 versus 14%, p = 0.002), have more years of education (12.1 +/- 1.9 versus 10.9 +/- 1.7, p = 0.002), be employed either prior to or during pregnancy (38 versus 16%, p = 0.000), be married (46 versus 26%, p = 0.037), be a nonsmoker (86 versus 64%, p = 0.011), have more prenatal visits (8.4 +/- 7.3 versus 5.0 +/- 5.9, p = 0.010), or have a breast-feeding mother (48 versus 26%, p = 0.023). There were no differences in age or ethnicity. The father of the breast-feeding baby was more likely to be better educated (12.0 +/- 2.8 versus 10.5 +/- 3.6 years, p = 0.022) and to work full-time (68 versus 40%, p = 0.005). Eighty-four percent of formula feeders knew that breast milk was better for their babies but decided not to breast-feed due to concerns of pain, smoking, and work. Sixty-three percent of women made the choice to breast-feed prior to the pregnancy, 26% during the pregnancy, and 11% after delivery. Significantly more multiparas decided prior to the pregnancy compared with primaparas. We recommend that breast-feeding education should be started prior to the first pregnancy and tailored to the concerns of the women.

  6. Breastfeeding Progression in Preterm Infants Is Influenced by Factors in Infants, Mothers and Clinical Practice: The Results of a National Cohort Study with High Breastfeeding Initiation Rates

    PubMed Central

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Many preterm infants are not capable of exclusive breastfeeding from birth. To guide mothers in breastfeeding, it is important to know when preterm infants can initiate breastfeeding and progress. The aim was to analyse postmenstrual age (PMA) at breastfeeding milestones in different preterm gestational age (GA) groups, to describe rates of breastfeeding duration at pre-defined times, as well as analyse factors associated with PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods The study was part of a prospective survey of a national Danish cohort of preterm infants based on questionnaires and structured telephone interviews, including 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with GA of 24–36 weeks. Results Of the preterm infants, 99% initiated breastfeeding and 68% were discharged exclusively breastfed. Breastfeeding milestones were generally reached at different PMAs for different GA groups, but preterm infants were able to initiate breastfeeding at early times, with some delay in infants less than GA 32 weeks. Very preterm infants had lowest mean PMA (35.5 weeks) at first complete breastfeed, and moderate preterm infants had lowest mean PMA at the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding (36.4 weeks). Admitting mothers to the NICU together with the infant and minimising the use of a pacifier during breastfeeding transition were associated with 1.6 (95% CI 0.4–2.8) and 1.2 days (95% CI 0.1–2.3) earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding respectively. Infants that were small for gestational age were associated with 5.6 days (95% CI 4.1–7.0) later establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion Breastfeeding competence is not developed at a fixed PMA, but is influenced by multiple factors in infants, mothers and clinical practice. Admitting mothers together with their infants to the NICU and minimising the use of pacifiers may contribute to earlier establishment of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:25251690

  7. The decision not to initiate breastfeeding--women's reasons, attitudes and influencing factors--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Atchan, Marjorie; Foureur, Maralyn; Davis, Deborah

    2011-07-01

    Breastfeeding is the biological feeding norm for human babies. Encouraging breastfeeding is a primary health promotion strategy, with studies demonstrating the risks of artificial baby milks. Each year approximately 10% of the women who give birth in New South Wales decide not to initiate breastfeeding, and the demographic characteristics of this group of women have previously been identified. This paper reviews the literature to explore the factors that influence women's decisions about breastfeeding, and their reasons for not initiating breastfeeding. The review revealed there are relatively few studies that explore the experiences of women who decide not to initiate breastfeeding, especially in the Australian context.

  8. Major factors influencing breastfeeding rates: Mother's perception of father's attitude and milk supply.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; McJunkin, C; Wehrer, J; Kuhn, P

    2000-11-01

    To determine factors influencing feeding decisions, breastfeeding and/or bottle initiation rates, as well as breastfeeding duration. A family medicine practice of a 530-bed community-based hospital in northwestern Pennsylvania. All mothers whose infants received well-child care from birth to 1 year of age. A survey of 28 simple questions was developed and mailed to 245 mothers. The survey assessed: 1) demographics, 2) prenatal and postnatal care, 3) sources of breastfeeding information, 4) timing of decision, 5) preference, 6) type of feeding selected, 7) duration of breastfeeding, 8) factors influencing decisions to breastfeed and/or to bottle-feed, and 9) factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 44.3%. By the time the infant was 6 months old, only 13% of these were still breastfeeding. The decision to breastfeed or to bottle-feed was most often made before pregnancy or during the first trimester. The most common reasons mothers chose breastfeeding included: 1) benefits the infant's health, 2) naturalness, and 3) emotional bonding with the infant. The most common reasons bottle-feeding was chosen included: 1) mother's perception of father's attitude, 2) uncertainty regarding the quantity of breast milk, and 3) return to work. By self-report, factors that would have encouraged bottle-feeding mothers to breastfeed included: 1) more information in prenatal class; 2) more information from TV, magazines, and books; and 3) family support. To overcome obstacles, issues surrounding perceived barriers, such as father's attitude, quantity of milk, and time constraints, need to be discussed with each parent. To achieve the goal of 75% of breastfeeding mothers, extensive education regarding the benefits must be provided for both parents and optimally the grandmother by physicians, nurses, and the media before pregnancy or within the first trimester.

  9. [Socioeconomic factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among primiparous women in Abidjan (Ivory Coast)].

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Amed; Ake Tano, Odile; Bénié Bi Vroh, Joseph; Traoré, Youssouf; Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice

    2014-01-01

    To ensure complete adhesion of primiparous women with exclusive breastfeeding, we need to understand the factors influencing this practice. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic factors related to exclusive breastfeeding of infants less than six months old born to primiparous mothers. This cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted over a two-month period from 4 June to 6 August 2012 in three health facilities in the city of Abidjan. A total of 188 primiparous women were surveyed by a direct face-to-face questionnaire-based interview technique. The mean age of primiparous women was 26.56 ± 5.05 years. The majority (76.60%) were in a couple relationship and 40.43% had completed higher education. 36.17% of women were working, while 23.94% were students. Only 33.51% of women performed exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding rates decreased progressively with increasing age of the infant, from 46.67% at the age of one month to 16.67% at the age of six months. Factors associated with failure to perform exclusive breastfeeding were marriage, working in the public or private sector, delivery in a private health facility, delivery by caesarean section, living in Cocody, and lack of knowledge concerning exclusive breastfeeding. It is essential to take socio-economic factors into account when developing strategies designed to increase exclusive breastfeeding rates and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding until the age of six months among primiparous women in Abidjan.

  10. Breast-feeding in South Korea: factors influencing its initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woojin; Kim, Hanjoong; Nam, Chung-Mo

    2008-03-01

    To investigate factors influencing the practices of partial breast-feeding (PBF) and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A national, cross-sectional survey was conducted among married women aged 15-49 years from May to August 2003. South Korea. A total of 865 mothers answered questions regarding the feeding practices of their youngest baby, born between January 2001 and May 2003. The initiation rates of PBF and EBF were 81% and 63%, respectively. However, the median durations of PBF and EBF were very short: 12 and 8 weeks, respectively. According to stepwise logistic and Cox regression analyses, the more prenatal care women received, the more likely they were to initiate PBF and EBF but the less likely to continue EBF. Delivery by Caesarean section decreased the initiation of PBF and EBF. The mother's education level and employment status before marriage, the amount of prenatal care, delivery method and baby's status at birth affected breast-feeding initiation, whereas the amount of prenatal care influenced breast-feeding duration. To promote breast-feeding, education and campaigning on the importance of continued breast-feeding should be provided to the general public, particularly to health workers in maternity units.

  11. Breastfeeding in Samoa: A Study to Explore Women's Knowledge and the Factors which Influence Infant Feeding Practices

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Lucy E; Dunne, Thomas F; Lock, Lauren J; Price, Lucy A

    2017-01-01

    A decline in breastfeeding rates in Samoa has been reported over the last century. To assess the length of time women breastfeed, their knowledge of both the advantages of and recommendations for breastfeeding, and the factors that influence their decisions to continue or discontinue breastfeeding, a questionnaire was distributed at Tupua Tamasese Meaole Hospital. One hundred and twenty-one eligible participants were included aged 18–50 years (mean age 28.2). Ninety percent of participants initiated breastfeeding, and the majority (78%) of babies were exclusively breastfed for at least the recommended 6 months. Many mothers introduced complementary (solid) foods later than World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nation's International Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommendations of 6 months. Awareness of the advantages of breastfeeding was mixed. The most widely known advantage was “the development of an emotional bond between mother and baby” (67%). Other advantages were less widely known. Only a small minority were aware that breastfeeding reduces risk of maternal diabetes and aids weight loss post partum. Doctors and healthcare workers were listed as the top factors encouraging breastfeeding. Participants' comments revealed a generally positive attitude towards breastfeeding, a very encouraging finding. Participants identified that the number of breastfeeding breaks available at work and the length of their maternity leave were factors discouraging breastfeeding. Future studies are necessary to determine if problems identified in this study are applicable on a national level. These could be important to determine measures to improve breastfeeding practices in Samoa. PMID:28090399

  12. [Breastfeeding (part one): Frequency, benefits and drawbacks, optimal duration and factors influencing its initiation and prolongation. Clinical guidelines for practice].

    PubMed

    Chantry, A A; Monier, I; Marcellin, L

    2015-12-01

    The objectives were to on assess the frequency and the duration of breastfeeding in France. On the other hand, the objectives were to identify its benefits and drawbacks, and to study the factors influencing its initiation and its extension. Bibliographic research in Medline, Google Scholar and in the Cochrane Library. Breastfeeding concerns in France about 70% of children at birth (EL2). Its median duration is about 15 weeks and 3 weeks ½ for exclusive breastfeeding. At three months, only one third of children breastfed at birth are still being breastfed (EL2). Whether this is due to the composition of breast milk or the behavior of mothers with their children or their socio-cultural level, or even by all these components at once, breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development children (EL2). This effect is even more reinforced that mothers breastfeed exclusively and prolonged (EL2). As part of the prevention of many diseases (ear infections, gastrointestinal infections, atopic diseases, obesity and cardiovascular diseases…), exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding (grade B) between 4 to 6 months is recommended (professional consensus). Breastfeeding is not a means of preventing postpartum depression (professional consensus). To reduce the incidence of breast cancer, prolonged breastfeeding is recommended (grade B). In order to increase the rate of initiation of breastfeeding as well as its duration, it is recommended that health professionals work closely with mothers in their project (grade A), the breastfeeding promotion messages include message to husbands (grade B), and to promote breastfeeding on demand without fixed interval between feedings (grade B). However, there is not enough data to recommend the use of a specific position during breastfeeding, or the use of one or two breast or to early start breastfeeding or not (professional consensus). Exclusive and extended breastfeeding is recommended (grade B) between 4 to 6 months (professional

  13. Sociocultural factors influencing breastfeeding practices in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wanjohi, Milka; Griffiths, Paula; Wekesah, Frederick; Muriuki, Peter; Muhia, Nelson; Musoke, Rachel N; Fouts, Hillary N; Madise, Nyovani J; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous interventions promoting optimal breastfeeding practices in Kenya, pockets of suboptimal breastfeeding practices are documented in Kenya's urban slums. This paper describes cultural and social beliefs and practices that influence breastfeeding in two urban slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Qualitative data were collected in Korogocho and Viwandani slums through 10 focus group discussions and 19 in-depth interviews with pregnant, breastfeeding women and community health volunteers and 11 key-informant interviews with community leaders. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, coded in NVIVO and analyzed thematically. Social and cultural beliefs and practices that result to suboptimal breastfeeding practices were highlighted including; considering colostrum as 'dirty' or 'curdled milk', a curse 'bad omen' associated with breastfeeding while engaging in extra marital affairs, a fear of the 'evil eye' (malevolent glare which is believed to be a curse associated with witchcraft) when breastfeeding in public and breastfeeding being associated with sagging breasts. Positive social and cultural beliefs were also identified including the association of breast milk with intellectual development and good child health. The beliefs and practices were learnt mainly from spouses, close relatives and peers. Interventions promoting behavior change with regards to breastfeeding should focus on dispelling the beliefs and practices that result to suboptimal breastfeeding practices and to build on the positive ones, while involving spouses and other family members as they are important sources of information on breastfeeding. ISRCTN83692672: December 2013 (retrospectively registered).

  14. [Factors that influence the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding in nursing mothers].

    PubMed

    Amaral, Luna Jamile Xavier; Sales, Sandra dos Santos; Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Cruz, Giovanna Karinny Pereira; Azevedo, Isabelle Campos de; Ferreira Júnior, Marcos Antonio

    2015-01-01

    To identify factors that can influence nursing mothers to interrupt exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life of the infant. Descriptive, exploratory, qualitative research. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews with 14 nursing mothers who had received prenatal care in the Family Basic Health Units in the city of Campina Grande - PB, from April to May 2013. The data were subjected to the content analysis technique proposed by Bardin. The nursing mothers had little knowledge of the mother-child bond, reduced family spending on child nutrition and the risk of bleeding after delivery. Their beliefs included insufficient milk production, the child´s rejection of the breast, and the possibility of various mammary postpartum complications. It is necessary to expand the guidance and support of breastfeeding for nursing mothers in the early postpartum period.

  15. Prevalence and factors influencing exclusive breast-feeding in Rajavithi Hospital.

    PubMed

    Plewma, Phawinee

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding after 2,4, and 6 months in Rajavithi Hospital. The present study evaluated the factors associated with discontinuing breast-feeding before the first two months of life in order to target early nursing interventions to encourage and support continued breast-feeding and increase the exclusive breast-feeding rate. From September 2010 to May 2011, mothers were interviewed prior to hospital discharge from the maternity ward and follow-up phone calls were made after 2,4 and 6 months postpartum. The prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding after 2, 4 and 6 months was 57.9% (252 out of 435), 32.0% (139 out of 435) and 4.8% (21 out of435) respectively. At 2 months postpartum, multivariate analysis was carried out to identify whether maternal obesity and breast-feeding intervals of more than 3 hours had a statistically significant association with cessation of breast-feeding. The most common reason for cessation of exclusive breast-feeding by mothers was their return to work. The prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding at 2, 4, and 6 months was 57.9%, 32.0% and 4.8%, respectively. Maternal obesity, and maternal breast-feeding for intervals of more than 3 hours prior to hospital discharge were risk factors of early breast-feeding cessation at 2 months postpartum. This is an area on which we would target nursing interventions to prevent early unintended weaning.

  16. [Breastfeeding: prevalence and determinant factors].

    PubMed

    Sandes, Ana Rita; Nascimento, C; Figueira, J; Gouveia, R; Valente, S; Martins, S; Correia, S; Rocha, E; Da Silva, L J

    2007-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the best way of feeding the baby for the first six months of life. However, in Portugal the abandonment rate of breastfeeding is very high during the baby first's months of life. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of breastfeeding and to identify related factors during the six months after delivery, as socio demographic variables and life styles. We conducted a cohort study at the Maternity of the Hospital Santa Maria. A standard questionnaire was applied to 475 women after delivery, at three and six months postpartum. We studied socio demographics aspects, life styles and the way of feeding during the six months after delivery. Multivariate analysis was performed. The women studied (mean age of 29.8 +/- 5,4 years), 52.2% were primiparous, 86.1% were Caucasian, 40% had a high school degree and 33% had a University degree. Four hundred and sixty (96.8%) received prenatal care. The mean gestational age was 38.8 +/- 2 weeks and the birth weight was 3198.3 +/- 545.3 g. At the discharge 91% were breastfeeding (77% exclusively), 54.7% at third month and 34.1% at sixth month. The main causes pointed for abandoning breastfeeding were insufficient milk production, bad sucking and return to work. The milk formula introduction was in 68.6% cases by medical recommendation. The decision in maintenance breastfeeding at third and sixth months was correlated with a previous positive breastfeed experience, high educational level, healthy lifestyles, as non-smoking, regular physical activity, and information about advantage of breastfeed for mother health. Information about breastfeeding was received by media, friends, family and only 9% by health professionals. Fifty (13%) women had no information about breastfeeding. Although breastfeeding rate at discharge was high, there was an important rate of abandonment at third and sixth month. Healthy lifestyles, high educational level, a previous positive breastfeed experience had a positive influence in

  17. Exploring the influence of psychosocial factors on exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Jahirul; Baird, Kathleen; Mazerolle, Paul; Broidy, Lisa

    2017-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding is a proven benefit for both mothers and infants and is, therefore, an important public health priority. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is regarded as one of the potential psychosocial risk factors that may negatively affect exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This study aimed to explore the influence of psychosocial factors including IPV on EBF. Cross-sectional survey data was collected from October 2015 to January 2016 in Chandpur District of Bangladesh from 426 married women, aged 15-49 years, who had at least one child 6 months of age or younger. Multivariate logistic regression models were used in order to investigate whether women who experienced IPV after childbirth, as well as other risk factors such as postpartum depression (PPD) and childhood sexual abuse, were more likely to face difficulties with EBF compared with women who had not experienced these same risk factors. Whilst the initiation rate of breastfeeding was 99.3%, at the time of the woman's interview, the overall EBF rate had fallen to 43.7%. Based on the adjusted model, women who experienced physical IPV (AOR 0.17, 95% CI [0.07, 0.40]) and psychological IPV (AOR 0.51, 95% CI [0.26, 1.00]) after childbirth and women who reported childhood sexual abuse (AOR 0.32, 95% CI [0.13, 0.80]) and PPD (AOR 0.20, 95% CI [0.09, 0.44]) were significantly less likely to exclusively breastfeed their infants than those who had not reported these experiences. Moreover, women with an intended pregnancy and high social support exhibited a higher likelihood of EBF. Our results suggest that preventing or reducing the occurrence of physical IPV, PPD and childhood sexual abuse may improve the EBF duration. Support from family members can assist in this process.

  18. Influences that affect Maori women breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Glover, Marewa; Manaena-Biddle, Harangi; Waldon, John

    2007-07-01

    This project aimed to identify the factors that influence Maori women's decision to breastfeed or not. During 2004-2005, a diverse demographic of Maori women and family members was selectively recruited from within a major urban area, small towns, and rural areas. Thirty women who had cared for a newborn within the previous three years were interviewed, alone or together with other family members. All participants self-identified as Maori and were over 16. Women who had artificially fed their babies were underrepresented. Most of the participants had breastfed and their determination to breastfeed was strong. This research proposes a new model for understanding how Maori women are diverted from breastfeeding. Five influences were identified: interruption to a breastfeeding culture; difficulty establishing breastfeeding within the first six weeks; poor or insufficient professional support; perception of inadequate milk supply; and returning to work. These influences occur in a temporal sequence and highlight opportunities for intervention. Factors that encourage breastfeeding are also discussed.

  19. Factors that influence breastfeeding decisions among special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children participants from Central Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Murimi, Mary; Dodge, Candace Mire; Pope, Janet; Erickson, Dawn

    2010-04-01

    Although human milk provides optimal nutrition for infants, fewer than one third of US infants are breastfed exclusively for 6 months or more. The objectives of this study were to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the decisions to breastfeed, and to determine the effect of formula provided by the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) on the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among WIC participants in a rural parish in central Louisiana. A cross-sectional study was done between September 2007 and March 2008 among 130 WIC participants. Approximately half (51%) of the participants reported breastfeeding their youngest child for a mean of 15.7+/-14.9 weeks, with more white mothers breastfeeding than did African-American mothers or other races (P<0.01). Significantly more people reported that incentives provided to encourage breastfeeding did not affect their decision to breastfeed than those who said incentives affected their decision to breastfeed (P<0.029). Finally, study participants who were breastfed as a child were significantly more likely to breastfeed their children than those who were not breastfed as a child (P<0.022). The majority (96%) of the participants in this study indicated that WIC is providing effective and clear education about the benefits of breastfeeding, and that this advice influenced their decision to breastfeed their children. These findings underscore the importance of emphasizing the health benefits of breastfeeding to increase initiation and duration rates among WIC participants. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [INFLUENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS, BREASTFEEDING AND OBESITY ON THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER IN MEXICAN WOMEN].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Ibarra, María Jossé; Caire-Juvera, Graciela; Ortega-Vélez, María Isabel; Bolaños-Villar, Adriana Verónica; Saucedo-Tamayo, María Del Socorro

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is considered a global public health problem, and is the most frequently type diagnosed in Mexican women. Therefore, it is important to study the risk factors associated to this neoplasia in order to establish prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hormonal contraceptives and hormone therapy (HT) use and period of use, breastfeeding practice, abdominal obesity and weight gain in adulthood, on the risk of BC in adult women from Northwest Mexico. This was a case-control study that included 162 women (81 cases and 81 controls). A sociodemographic and health questionnaire, and a survey history of body weight were applied to participants. Measurements of body weight, height and waist circumference were performed. To assess the association between BC risk and exposing factors, a multivariate logistic regression model was used. Average age of cases and controls were 51.8 ± 11.7 and 51.4 ± 11.3 years, respectively. No significant association was found between the use and period of use of hormonal contraceptives and HT with the risk of BC. The practice of breastfeeding (OR=0.34, 95%CI: 0.12- 0.92) and the time of exclusive breastfeeding (OR=0.64, 95%CI: 0.42-0.97; crude) were protective against the risk of BC. Abdominal obesity (OR=0.93, 95%CI: 0.90-0.97) and weight gain in early adulthood (OR=0.90, 95%CI: 0.85-0.95) were inversely associated to the risk of BC. In conclusion, the practice of breastfeeding may help prevent BC in Mexican women. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Traditional beliefs as forgotten influencing factors on breast-feeding performance in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hizel, Selda; Ceyhun, Gulsen; Tanzer, Fatos; Sanli, Cihat

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify the infant feeding practices and to evaluate the attitudes and beliefs of mothers on breast-feeding in Turkey. This study was established in 10 provinces of Turkey between December 2000 and March 2001 and the study group was comprised of 1,767 women between the ages of 15-49 years (mean 27.6 +/- 6.4 years). Questionnaires were self-filled by mothers in the waiting rooms of the health centers. One hundred seventy-three women (9.9%) were illiterate, 829 (47.7%) had < or =5 years of schooling, and 83.4% were housewives. A significant number of women have traditional beliefs related to breast-feeding practices. According to 23.4% of the women at least 3 calls to prayer (average 12 hours) should be waited before the first breast-feeding postpartum and more than 30% of the mothers believe that colostrum should not be given to the newborn, some mothers breast milk could harm their babies, and an evil eye could harm their breast milk. The traditional belief status and educational status of the women differed significantly between provinces, lower educational status and higher rates of women with traditional beliefs were observed in less developed eastern provinces. Overall, 60.6% of the women were knowledgeable on breast-feeding practices, whereas only 13.5% were scored as good in attitudes. Among all women with breast-feed babies, 35.8% started supplementary feeding in the first 3 months of life. Mother's age, education, occupation and traditional beliefs did not have a significant effect on supplementation time. As a result, these findings suggest the importance of taking into account the customs, local beliefs and family influences in planning community health programs.

  2. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status.

  3. Factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among Iranian mothers: A longitudinal population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H.; Chen, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) contributes to the health and survival of the newborns. Many factors influence the EBF behavior. This study aimed to identify the determinant factors in order to improve the practice of EBF among Iranian mothers. Methods: A longitudinal study was carried out in 1445 mothers with newborns in Qazvin city, Iran (September 2015-March 2016). Demographic variables as well as the constructs of theory of planned behavior (TBP) were measured by questionnaires. Bivariate analysis using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests with analysis of variance were used to investigate the associations among the variables. Both hierarchal multiple regression and logistic regression were applied to identify potential determinative factors for the EBF. Results: Nearly, 80% (CI: 77.97-82.63%) of the participants had the intention of EBF. All TPB constructs, moral norms, and self-identity were significantly correlated with each other (r: 0.09- 0.40, P < 0.01). Some demographic variables such as age, income, employment and primiparity were also correlated with the EBF (r: 0.11-0.15, P < 0.05). The constructs of the TPB were able to predict the EBF behavior, which account for 49% of the variance in the predicting factors (df = 8, F = 7.70). The self-identity and moral norms accounted for an additional 15% of the variance (df = 10, F = 3.16). Younger mothers with lower socio-economic status were at higher risk of EBF cessation. The intention has a greater impact on the initiation of EBF than perceived behavioral control (PBC) but not for the maintenance of EBF (OR, 2.88 [CI: 2.38-3.48] & 1.13 [CI:1.03- 1.23] vs. OR, 1.27 [CI:1.15-1.39] & 2.66 [CI: 2.02-3.49]). Conclusion: The interventions to promote knowledge, attitude and behavioral control towards the EBF should be considered especially in the young mothers with low socio-economic status. PMID:28058240

  4. Factors influencing breastfeeding practices and postponement of solid food to prevent allergic disease in high-risk children: results from an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Barbara; Mesters, Ilse; André Knottnerus, J; Legtenberg, Anita H G; van Schayck, Constant P

    2005-04-01

    This paper presents results of seven focus group interviews conducted to gain insight into the feelings, opinions and perceived barriers of parents with a history of asthma who have recently delivered a child. The parents participated in an educational program regarding breastfeeding and postponement of solid food to prevent their child from developing allergic symptoms. Breastfeeding exclusively for 6 months seemed an advice difficult to follow. The most important influencing factors regarding initiation and continuation of breastfeeding were health advantages for the baby, bonding, social support, modelling, knowledge about all the aspects of breastfeeding and breastfeeding confidence. In general, parents adhered to the advice to postpone solid food until the child had reached the age of 6 years. The few obstacles revealed were social pressure, hungry babies and eagerness of parents to give solid food.

  5. Factors influencing the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers in a peri-urban district of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Mensah, Kofi Akohene; Acheampong, Enoch; Anokye, Francis Owusu; Okyere, Paul; Appiah-Brempong, Emmanuel; Adjei, Rose Odotei

    2017-09-07

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is one of the optimal infant and young child feeding practices. Globally, <40% of infants under 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. In Ghana, 63% of children <6 months are exclusively breastfed which is far less than the 100% recommended by the United Nation Children Emergency Fund. This study was carried out to find out the factors that influence the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in the district. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted using structured questionnaires. A convenience sampling technique was employed to select 380 nursing mothers who attended postnatal care at the postnatal clinic in all the 13 health facilities with child welfare clinics (both public and private) and were available on the day of data collection. Data were analysed using frequency and CHISQ tables. There was a significant association between socio-demographic characteristics of mothers such as age (p = 0.129), religion (p = 0.035) type of employment (p = 0.005) and the practice of exclusive breastfeeding. Again, there was significant relationship between mothers' knowledge on EBF in terms of sources of information about EBF (p = 0.000), steps taken by mothers who perceived not to have breast milk (p = 0.000), some medical conditions of nursing mothers (p = 0.000) and the practice of EBF. Most nursing mothers use infant formula feeds as either supplement or substitute for breast milk based on their perception that breast milk may not be sufficient for the babies despite the high cost of these artificial milk. This puts the babies at a higher risk of compromised health and malnutrition which has the potential of increasing infant mortality. Most mothers are not practicing exclusive breastfeeding because their spouses and family members do not allow them.

  6. Culture and Caregivers: Factors Influencing Breastfeeding among Mothers in West Belfast, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…

  7. Culture and Caregivers: Factors Influencing Breastfeeding among Mothers in West Belfast, Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Hilary; Cousins, Wendy; Casson, Karen; Moore, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Breastfeeding is a key public health measure to protect and promote the health of one of the most vulnerable groups of the population--infants and children. Northern Ireland, however, has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates in the world. This paper reports the results of a questionnaire survey of 120 mothers attending mother and toddler groups…

  8. Factors influencing breastfeeding exclusivity during the first 6 months of life in developing countries: a quantitative and qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Olukunmi Omobolanle; Dagvadorj, Amarjagal; Anigo, Kola Mathew; Ota, Erika; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2015-10-01

    Breastfeeding is the most advantageous feeding option for infants, and epidemiological studies provide evidence for its promotion. The objective of this review was to comprehensively delineate the barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding of infants aged 0-6 months old by mothers in developing countries. A search of CINAHL, MEDLINE and PsycINFO was carried out to retrieve studies from January 2001 to January 2014. Using our inclusion criteria, we selected studies that described barriers and facilitators of exclusive breastfeeding. Qualitative and quantitative studies were considered. Twenty-five studies involving 11 025 participants from 19 countries were included. Barriers and facilitators of exclusive/full breastfeeding were identified, analysed tabulated and summarised in this review. Maternal employment was the most frequently cited barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply was pervasive among studies while medical barriers related to illness of mothers and/or infants as well as breast problems, rather than health care providers. Socio-cultural factors such as maternal and significant other's beliefs about infant nutrition also often constitute strong barriers to exclusive breastfeeding. Despite these barriers, mothers in developing countries often possess certain personal characteristics and develop strategic plans to enhance their success at breastfeeding. Health care providers should be informed about the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding and provide practical anticipatory guidance targeted at overcoming these barriers. In so doing, health care providers in developing countries can contribute to improving maternal and child health outcomes.

  9. Influence of bedsharing activity on breastfeeding duration among US mothers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Hauck, Fern R; Signore, Caroline; Yu, Airong; Raju, Tonse N K; Huang, Terry T-K; Fein, Sara B

    2013-11-01

    Some professional associations advocate bedsharing to facilitate breastfeeding, while others recommend against it to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome and suffocation deaths. A better understanding of the quantitative influence of bedsharing on breastfeeding duration is needed to guide policy. To quantify the influence of bedsharing on breastfeeding duration. Longitudinal data were from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, which enrolled mothers while pregnant and followed them through the first year of infant life. Questionnaires were sent at infant ages 1 to 7, 9, 10, and 12 months, and 1846 mothers answered at least 1 question regarding bedsharing and were breastfeeding at infant age 2 weeks. Bedsharing, defined as the mother lying down and sleeping with her infant on the same bed or other sleeping surfaces for nighttime sleep or during the major sleep period. Survival analysis to investigate the effect of bedsharing on duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding. Longer duration of bedsharing, indicated by a larger cumulative bedsharing score, was associated with a longer duration of any breastfeeding but not exclusive breastfeeding, after adjusting for covariates. Breastfeeding duration was longer among women who were better educated, were white, had previously breastfed, had planned to breastfeed, and had not returned to work in the first year postpartum. Multiple factors were associated with breastfeeding, including bedsharing. Given the risk of sudden infant death syndrome related to bedsharing, multipronged strategies to promote breastfeeding should be developed and tested.

  10. Factors influencing the initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women followed by the Canada prenatal nutrition program in 4 regions of quebec.

    PubMed

    Simard, Isabel; O'Brien, Huguette Turgeon; Beaudoin, André; Turcotte, Daniel; Damant, Dominique; Ferland, Suzanne; Marcotte, Marie-Josée; Jauvin, Nathalie; Champoux, Lyne

    2005-08-01

    The factors that influence the actual initiation and duration of breastfeeding were studied among low-income women followed by the Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program (CPNP). A group of 196 pregnant women were selected at random from a sample of 6223 pregnant women who registered with the CPNP. Two 24-hour recalls and information regarding lifestyle habits, peer support, and infant-feeding practices were obtained between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation and 21 days and 6 months after birth. Women who received a university education (completed or not completed) versus women with < or = high school education (odds ratio [OR], 8.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-69.50), women born outside Canada (OR,8.81; 95% CI, 3.34-23.19), and women of low birth weight infants (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.16-0.96) were more likely to initiate breastfeeding. Late introduction of solid foods (P = .004), nonsmoking (P = .005), multiparity (P = .012), and a higher level of education (P = .049) were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding among initiators. Understanding factors associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding among low-income women is critical to better target breastfeeding promotion.

  11. Influence of duration of total breast-feeding on bone mineral density in a Turkish population: does the priority of risk factors differ from society to society?

    PubMed

    Dursun, N; Akin, S; Dursun, E; Sade, I; Korkusuz, F

    2006-01-01

    Despite numerous studies on risk factors for osteoporosis the effect of breast-feeding on bone mineral density (BMD) is unclear. In this study our aim was to determine the influence of total duration of breast-feeding on BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. A total of 1,486 postmenopausal women over the age of 40 were included in the study. Women with diseases or who were under drug treatments known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. The BMD of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique, using either the Norland XA-26 or Lunar DPX-IQ densitometers and were transferred to standard values. Patients were placed in groups of five with respect to the duration of their breast-feeding as never, 1-12 months, 12-24 months, 24-60 months, >60 months. One-way ANOVA test showed a significant difference between the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD of these groups of women (p<0.001, p<0.001). Post hoc Bonferroni correction revealed that both the lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD results of women with longer duration of total breast-feeding were significantly lower than those of women with less duration of total breast-feeding. In subsequent analysis other potential risk factors were also considered in a multiple linear stepwise regression model. Years since menopause (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), total duration of breast-feeding (p<0.001), and body mass index (p=0.001) were found to be the most important predictors for lumbar spine BMD; and age (p<0.001), weight (p<0.001), years since menopause (p<0.001), and total duration of breast-feeding (p<0.001) for femoral neck BMD. This study showed significant associations between total duration of breast-feeding and BMD. In conclusion, total duration of breast-feeding might be an important risk factor besides age, weight, and years since menopause in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  12. Do breast-feeding and other reproductive factors influence future risk of rheumatoid arthritis? Results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    PubMed

    Karlson, Elizabeth W; Mandl, Lisa A; Hankinson, Susan E; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-11-01

    To explore the contribution of female hormonal factors occurring prior to the onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), such as age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, breast-feeding, use of oral contraceptives (OCs), irregular menstrual cycles, and postmenopausal hormone (PMH) use, to the subsequent development of RA in a large female cohort. We studied female reproductive and hormonal risk factors for RA in a cohort of 121,700 women enrolled in the longitudinal Nurses' Health Study. The diagnosis of incident RA (between 1976 and 2002) in 674 women was confirmed by a connective tissue disease screening questionnaire and blinded medical record review for American College of Rheumatology criteria. Sixty percent of the patients with RA were rheumatoid factor positive. The relationship between potential risk factors, including age, age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, total lifetime history of breast-feeding, use of OCs, and irregular menstrual cycles and the multivariate-adjusted risk of RA was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Using a multivariate model that adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, parity, and other hormonal factors, we observed a strong trend for decreasing risk of RA with increasing duration of breast-feeding (P for trend = 0.001). For women who breast-fed (compared with parous women who did not breast-feed), the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were as follows: breast-feeding for < or =3 total months, RR 1.0 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.8-1.2); for 4-11 total months, RR 0.9 (95% CI 0.7-1.1); for 12-23 total months, RR 0.8 (95% CI 0.6-1.0); and for > or =24 total months, RR 0.5 (95% CI 0.3-0.8). Very irregular menstrual cycles were associated with an increased risk of RA (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-2.0). Age at menarche < or =10 years was associated with an increased risk of seropositive RA (RR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) but not significantly associated with risk of RA. Parity, total number of children

  13. Factors Associated With Extended Breastfeeding in India.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Arpit R; Panneer, Sigamani; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2017-02-01

    Extended breastfeeding duration is common in India. Extended breastfeeding protects the infant from infectious disease and promotes child spacing. In the 1990s, the median breastfeeding duration in India was 24 months. Research aim: This study aimed to investigate the median duration of breastfeeding in India and to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding to 24 months as recommended by the World Health Organization. This cross-sectional data analysis used nationally representative data from the 2011-2012 Indian Human Development Survey II. The outcome in this study was extended breastfeeding defined as breastfeeding to 24 months or more. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with extended breastfeeding. The median duration of breastfeeding was 12 months; approximately 25% of women breastfed 24 months or more. Women were at greater odds of breastfeeding 24 months or more if the infant was a boy compared with a girl, if the women lived in a rural area compared with an urban area, if the women were married at a young age (< 17 vs. 20 years or older at marriage), and if the delivery was assisted by a friend or relative compared with a doctor. The median duration of breastfeeding has decreased by 50% from 1992-1993 to 2011-2012. The women who continue to breastfeed 24 months or more tend to be more traditional (i.e., living in rural areas, marrying young, and having family/friends as birth attendants). Further research to study the health effect of decreased breastfeeding duration is warranted.

  14. Factors associated with breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis-Kyrus, Katherine; Valentine, Christina; DeFranco, Emily

    2013-11-01

    To identify the most influential factors on breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers in order to identify the highest risk population to focus education and support services. Retrospective population-based cohort study of all non-anomalous live births in Ohio (2006-2007). Breastfeeding initiation rates were compared between adolescent mothers age ≤ 19 years and a reference group age >19 years. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the association between breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers while adjusting for important concomitant risk factors including race, socioeconomic, demographic, prenatal, and delivery factors. Of 308,380 births during the study period, following exclusions there were 30,402 mothers ≤ 19 years of age (10.5% of study population) and 257,840 mothers age >19 years. Of adolescent mothers, 44% initiated breastfeeding compared with 65% of older mothers, P < .001. Adolescents were 33% less likely to breastfeed after adjusting for important coexisting factors, adjusted relative risk 0.77 (95% CI 0.75-0.80). Socioeconomic factors had the most significant influence on breastfeeding initiation in adolescent mothers. Adolescent mothers who have the least social support and are socioeconomically disadvantaged are the least likely to breastfeed their newborn infants. In addition, maternal perception, societal barriers, and a lack of prenatal intervention contribute unique barriers to breastfeeding in adolescence. Opportunities exist for school programs, baby-friendly hospitals, and postpartum education to improve breastfeeding rates in this population. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Men's attitudes toward breastfeeding: findings from the 2007 Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Vaaler, Margaret L; Castrucci, Brian C; Parks, Sharyn E; Clark, Jamie; Stagg, Julie; Erickson, Tracy

    2011-02-01

    Past research on breastfeeding demonstrates that male partners' support is a significant factor in mothers' decisions to breastfeed. This study explored the diversity of men's opinions about breastfeeding, for the purpose of increasing breastfeeding support among men. This study used the Texas sample of the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine whether men's attitudes toward breastfeeding varied by their demographic characteristics and whether fathers' breastfeeding attitudes were related to couples' choice of infant feeding method. Descriptive statistics and linear regression estimated the influence of each demographic characteristic on breastfeeding attitudes. Among a subsample of fathers, multinomial logistic regression analyzed the influence of men's breastfeeding attitudes on their choice of infant feeding method. Findings showed that Spanish-speaking Hispanic men were most likely to agree that breastfeeding had social limitations (e.g. interfere with social life) for mothers, yet they viewed public images of breastfeeding as more acceptable compared with other men. In comparison to U.S.-born men, foreign-born men were in greater agreement that employers should accommodate breastfeeding. Among fathers, support of public images of breastfeeding and attitudes toward employers' accommodations were positively associated with the choice to use breast milk. Men's ethnicity, country of origin, education level, and socioeconomic status all contribute to different norms and expectations about breastfeeding. Men's attitudes about public images of breastfeeding and employers' accommodations for breastfeeding mothers influence the choice of breast milk as the sole infant-feeding method.

  16. [Factors associated with breastfeeding continuation in young Canadian mothers].

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda; Benoit, Annie; Simoneau-Roy, Judith; Blouin, Simon; Gallagher, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding continuation rates are lower among young mothers, while few studies have specifically focused on this population. This study describes the factors related to continued breastfeeding beyond two months among young Canadian mothers. A descriptive and correlational design was used to identify and quantify the impact offactors affecting continued breast-feeding beyond two months. Data were derived from a selection of mothers 15-19 years who responded to The Maternity Experiences Survey. The difference between subgroups (15-18 vs 19 years old) in terms of breastfeeding continuation was not significant, but non-smoking (OR 2.78, 95% C, 1.351 - 5.682), living with a partner (OR 1.96, 95% CI, 1.087 to 3.597), vaginal delivery (OR 2.22, 95% CI, 1.012 to 4.878) and experiencing a large number of stressful situations (RC 0.42, 95% CI, 0.221 to 0.788) promotes continued breastfeeding beyond two months. No significant relationship wasfound with pregnancy planning, prenatal preparation, the violence suffered, depressive symptoms and the availability of social support. Some factors related to pre-and postnatal periods, in addition to sociodemographic factors influence the choice of young Canadian mothers to continue or not continue breastfeeding beyond two months. Our results will be used to guide specific interventions for young mothers in breastfeeding protection, promotion and support programmes.

  17. [Characterizing breastfeeding and associated factors in Puerto Carreño, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Niño, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing breastfeeding in Puerto Carreño and identifying factors associated with providing breast-milk for the newborn, exclusive breastfeeding and total breastfeeding. This descriptive, cross-sectional study, using structured individual and non-random surveys, involved 609 mothers. The statistical analysis methods included univariate and bivariate analysis, survival curves, binary logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. The duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding was higher than reported times at national and regional level in most cases. The main factors associated with breastfeeding were related to occupation, family background, Indigenous status, previous maternal experience and access to healthcare services. Exclusive breastfeeding was influenced more by the mother'’s occupation, while the total duration of breastfeeding was influenced by home-based family support network. The results are significant regarding planning intervention measures addressed towards improving breastfeeding habits in the target municipality.

  18. Cultural factors and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.

  19. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  20. Breast Is Best? Reasons Why Mothers Decide to Breastfeed or Bottlefeed Their Babies and Factors Influencing the Duration of Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Seaneen; Sneddon, Helga; Stewart, Moira; Iwaniec, Dorota

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding is known to confer benefits, both in the short term and long term, to the child and also to the mother. Various health-promotion initiatives have aimed to increase breastfeeding rates and duration in the United Kingdom over the past decade. In order to assist in these endeavours, it is essential to understand the reasons why women…

  1. Canadian adolescent mothers' perceptions of influences on breastfeeding decisions: a qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Sherry A; Campbell, Karen A; Jack, Susan M; Robinson, Heather; Piehl, Kathleen; Bogdan, Janice C

    2012-12-12

    There is increased recognition of the importance of breastfeeding at a national level as evidenced by the increased number of Canadian mothers initiating breastfeeding. However, adolescent mothers (<19 years), compared to all other mothers, have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration. The purpose of this study was to examine the facilitating influences and barriers to initiating, and continuing breastfeeding, as perceived by adolescent mothers in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada. The principles of interpretive description guided this qualitative study. A purposeful, homogenous sample of 16 adolescent mothers (15-19 years) were recruited to complete individual, semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Conventional content analysis was used to code data, identify concepts and synthesize them into overall themes. Adolescent mothers in this study expressed that the decision to breastfeed was made prenatally and while partner and family member opinions about breastfeeding initiation were influential, the decision was made independently. Mothers were primarily motivated to initiate breastfeeding due to the health benefits for the infant. Lower breastfeeding duration rates were found among mothers who decided to only "try" breastfeeding when compared to the mothers who committed to breastfeeding. Influences on continued breastfeeding included: 1) the impact of breastfeeding on social and intimate relationships; 2) the availability of social support; 3) the physical demands of breastfeeding; 4) mothers' knowledge of breastfeeding practices and benefits; and 5) mothers' perceived sense of comfort in breastfeeding. The results of this study provide health care providers new conceptual insight and understanding of the factors that influence adolescents' decisions to "try" breastfeeding and to continue providing breastmilk to their infants. Professional implications drawn from this study include active engagement of adolescents in the pre and postnatal periods

  2. [Maternal breastfeeding: health factor. Historical memory].

    PubMed

    Barriuso, L; de Miguel, M; Sánchez, M

    2007-01-01

    Maternal breastfeeding is a habit that has been closely linked to the survival of the human species since time immemorial. Following a stage when it was massively abandoned in the mid-XX century, we are now witnessing a recovery of this habit, especially in the so-called "developed" world, promoted by the health institutions in light of the scientific evidence. The superiority of maternal breastfeeding over artificial feeding is beyond dispute as the scientific evidence makes clear. Maternal breastfeeding is a positive factor for the health of the mother and for the child. Hence the promotion and recovery of this habit is more than just a fashion or tendency: it is an incontrovertible factor in maternal-child health. Through the Foral Order of January 28th 2004, the government of Navarre has brought together the numerous administrative initiatives that are emerging in our province for the promotion of maternal breastfeeding by promoting a Technical Advisory Commission for the Promotion of Maternal Breastfeeding in Navarre.

  3. Do maternal quality of life and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at six months. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 and 4 months postpartum had better QOL in late pregnancy than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in QOL scores at 6 months postpartum. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 months postpartum experienced less breastfeeding difficultties during one month postpartum than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In attempts to promote EBF, mothers with poor QOL or breastfeeding difficulties in early postpartum should be identified and helped.

  4. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding in Norway.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Lande, Britt; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2010-12-01

    To identify factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding during the first year of life among Norwegian infants. Data on breast-feeding practices were collected by a semi-quantitative FFQ. In 2006-2007 about 3000 infants were invited to participate in a population-based prospective cohort study in Norway. A total of 1490 mothers/infants participated at both 6 and 12 months of age. Exclusive breast-feeding at 4 months was associated with parental education, parity and geographical region, while exclusive breast-feeding at 5·5 months was associated only with maternal age. At both ages, a negative association with exclusive breast-feeding was observed for maternal smoking. Breast-feeding at 6 months was associated with parental education, maternal age and marital status. Breast-feeding at 12 months was associated with maternal education, maternal age and number of children. At both ages, negative associations with breast-feeding were observed for maternal smoking and descending birth weight. At 12 months, a negative association was also observed for having day care by other than the parents. Even though Norway has an extensive and positive breast-feeding tradition and a maternal leave system that supports the possibility to breast-feed, factors like maternal education, maternal age and maternal smoking are strongly associated with duration of exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding. Research to better understand the reasons for inequalities in breast-feeding is needed to facilitate the development of more effective breast-feeding promotion strategies. This again may improve compliance with recommendations and reduce inequalities in infant feeding practices.

  5. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Print | Home > A-Z Health Topics > Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Photo credit: DFW Bellies & Babies The experience of ... nursing moms in the workplace Pregnancy Subscribe to breastfeeding email updates Email Content last updated: July 21, ...

  6. [The factors involved in the decision to stop breastfeeding early].

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda; Lacombe, Marie; Gallagher, Frances; Ferland, Myrianne; Couture, Marie-Estelle

    2012-01-01

    A study carried out in 2008-2009 involving 138 mothers in Quebec shows that stopping breastfeeding before three months is not only due to difficulties with breastfeeding techniques, but also to psycho-social and relational factors, notably maternal sensitivity and depression. Better support from professionals, especially during the first month following the birth, could help young mothers to continue breastfeeding.

  7. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  8. Influence of the support offered to breastfeeding by maternity hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D’Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether the support offered by maternity hospitals is associated with higher prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study including a representative sample of 916 infants less than six months who were born in maternity hospitals, in Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, 2011. The maternity hospitals were evaluated in relation to their fulfillment of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. Data were collected regarding breastfeeding patterns, the birth hospital and other characteristics. The individualized effect of the study factor on exclusive and predominant breastfeeding was analyzed using Poisson multiple regression with robust variance. RESULTS Predominant breastfeeding tended to be more prevalent when the number of fulfilled steps was higher (p of linear trend = 0.057). The step related to not offering artificial teats or pacifiers to breastfed infants and that related to encouraging the establishment of breastfeeding support groups were associated, respectively, to a higher prevalence of exclusive (PR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.04;1.54) and predominant breastfeeding (PR = 1.55; 95%CI 1.01;2.39), after an adjustment was performed for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS We observed a positive association between support offered by maternity hospitals and prevalences of exclusive and predominant breastfeeding. These results can be useful to other locations with similar characteristics (cities with hospitals that fulfill the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding) to provide incentive to breastfeeding, by means of promoting, protecting and supporting breastfeeding in maternity hospitals. PMID:26759966

  9. Breast-feeding influences thymic size in late infancy.

    PubMed

    Hasselbalch, H; Engelmann, M D; Ersboll, A K; Jeppesen, D L; Fleischer-Michaelsen, K

    1999-12-01

    We have previously shown that breast-fed infants have a considerably larger thymus at 4 months than formula-fed infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether breast-feeding also influences the thymic size in late infancy. In a cohort of 50 infants, all being partially breast-fed when recruited at 8 months, ultrasound assessment of the thymic index (a volume estimate) was performed at both 8 and 10 months of age. At 10 months the thymic index was significantly higher in those still being breast-fed compared to infants who had stopped breast-feeding between 8 and 10 months of age (P=0.05). This difference became more significant when controlled for the influence of infectious diseases (P=0.03). In infants still breast-fed at 10 months there was a significant correlation between the number of breast-feeds per day and their thymic index (P=0.01). Conclusion The effect of breast-feeding on thymus size is likely to be caused by immune modulating factors in breast milk. Breast milk influences thymic size in late infancy.

  10. Understanding the social and cultural influences on breast-feeding today.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding is a key public health target but social and cultural factors are often overlooked when encouraging mothers to choose breast-feeding as their method of infant feeding. Historically, there have always been some mothers who have sought alternatives to breast-feeding. Age, level of education and occupation impact upon a mother's choice, and the sexualization of the female breast can lead to embarrassment when mothers breast-feed outside the home. Fear of damaging their body shape can prevent some mothers from breast-feeding, while others see breast-feeding as desirable as it can lead to weight loss. The attitudes of partners, relatives and friends can influence mothers to varying degrees in their choice of infant feeding. Knowledge of various influences can assist health professionals in their public health role and help them to give mothers advice relevant to their circumstances.

  11. Does body image influence the relationship between body weight and breastfeeding maintenance in new mothers?

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Keely, Alice; Denison, Fiona C

    2017-09-01

    Obese women have lower breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates than healthy weight women. Research generally focuses on biomedical explanations for this. Psychosocial factors including body image and well-being after childbirth are less well understood as predictors of breastfeeding. In obese and healthy weight women, we investigated changes in body image between 72 hrs post-delivery and 6-8 weeks post-natal, studying how women's body image related to breastfeeding initiation and maintenance. We also investigated how psychological distress was related to body image. Longitudinal semi-structured questionnaire survey. Body image and psychological distress were assessed within 72 hrs of birth and by postal questionnaire at 6-8 weeks, for 70 obese and 70 healthy weight women initiating exclusive (breastmilk only) breastfeeding or mixed feeding (with formula milk) in hospital. Breastfeeding was re-assessed at 6-8 weeks. Obese women were less likely to exclusively breastfeed in hospital and maintain breastfeeding to 6-8 weeks. Better body image was related to maintaining breastfeeding and to lower post-natal psychological distress for all women, but education level was the most significant predictor of maintenance in multivariate regression including body image and weight status. Body image mediated, but did not moderate the relationship between weight and breastfeeding maintenance. Body image was lower overall in obese women, but all women had low body image satisfaction around childbirth, reducing further at 6-8 weeks. Health professionals should consider women's body image when discussing breastfeeding. A focus on breast function over form may support breastfeeding for all women. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Obesity can negatively affect breastfeeding initiation and maintenance, but there is little information about how psychosocial factors affect this relationship. Body image may be an important factor, but has not

  12. Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Breastfeeding offers many benefits to your baby. Breast milk contains the right balance of nutrients to help ... should breastfeed. If you are having problems with breastfeeding, contact a lactation consultant. NIH: National Institute of ...

  13. Influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fernanda R; Buccini, Gabriela Dos S; Venâncio, Sônia I; da Costa, Teresa H M

    To describe the profile of women with children aged under 4 months living in the Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District according to their working status and to analyze the influence of maternity leave on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among working women. This was a cross-sectional study with data extracted from the II National Maternal Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey carried out in 2008. Initially, a descriptive analysis of the profile of 12,794 women was performed, according to their working status and maternity leave and the frequency of maternity leave in the Brazilian regions and capitals. The study used a multiple model to identify the influence of maternity leave on EBF interruption, including 3766 women who declared they were working and were on maternity leave at the time of the interview. The outcome assessed in the study was the interruption of the EBF, classified by the WHO. Regarding the working status of the mothers, 63.4% did not work outside of their homes and among those who worked, 69.8% were on maternity leave. The largest prevalence among workers was of women older than 35 years of age, with more than 12 years of schooling, primiparous and from the Southeast and South regions. The lack of maternity leave increased by 23% the chance of EBF interruption. Maternity leave contributed to increase the prevalence of EBF in the Brazilian states capitals, supporting the importance of increasing the maternity leave period from four to six months. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors associated with the duration of exclusive breast-feeding in asthmatic families.

    PubMed

    Gijsbers, Barbara; Mesters, Ilse; Knottnerus, J André; van Schayck, Constant P

    2008-02-01

    This study was part of a randomized controlled trial in which verbal and written advice about exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months was provided to Dutch women expecting a child with a high risk of developing asthmatic traits. Eighty-nine women completed a theory-based self-report questionnaire between the third and sixth months of pregnancy, which served as the baseline measurement. The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. Cox multiple regression analysis showed a positive significant association between the duration of exclusive breast-feeding and the mother's breast-feeding knowledge (P < 0.01), her intended hours of work per week after maternity leave (P < 0.01) and her age (P breast-feeding experience of multiparous women appeared to be negatively associated with the duration of breast-feeding (P < 0.001). Furthermore, women who received the educational programme were more likely to succeed in breast-feeding exclusively for 6 months than the control group (48% versus 27%, P < 0.05). This study suggests that extra educational support is beneficial, and especially necessary for multiparous women with an earlier short-term, <5 weeks, or no breast-feeding experience, since they are at risk of discontinuing exclusive breast-feeding before completing the advisable 6-month period.

  15. Parents’ Health Beliefs Influence Breastfeeding Patterns among Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Parisa; Masoumi, Zahra; Parsa, Nakisa; Parsa, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors related to breastfeeding and its perceived health benefits among Iranian mothers. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using 240 postpartum women who were selected randomly from eight public health care centers in Hamadan, Iran, in 2012. Mothers who breastfed (BF) and mothers who never breastfed (NBF) were given a structured questionnaire to collect their demographic data and information regarding their health beliefs and attitude towards child-rearing. Descriptive and logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results The mean length of breastfeeding was 11.6 (standard deviation=12.5) weeks. There was no difference in demographic variables, such as age, type of medical insurance, number of living children, employment, education, and household income (p>0.050), between mothers that breastfed and those that did not. Mothers’ perception of the severity of child illness was higher in those who breastfed than those who never breastfed (p=0.050). In contrast, BF mothers had higher perceived confidence of medical care to prevent diseases (p<0.050) and a higher perception of reverse parent-child roles than NBF mothers (p<0.050). Conclusion Mothers’ health beliefs and attitude to parenting has a significant role in choosing to breastfeed. Physicians and healthcare providers may provide supportive information that influence a mother’s breastfeeding behavior. PMID:26171125

  16. Breast-feeding in Athens, Greece: factors associated with its initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Theofilogiannakou, Melina; Skouroliakou, Maria; Gounaris, Antonis; Panagiotakos, Demosthenis; Markantonis, Sophia L

    2006-09-01

    To determine the prevalence, examine the influence of hospital practices and investigate potential determinants of breast-feeding in Athens. Three hundred twelve mothers provided information regarding feeding practices at certain maternity hospitals in Athens, at 40 days and 6 months postpartum. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the initiation and maintenance of breast-feeding and potential risk factors. Although almost 90% of newborn infants were given a breast milk substitute one or more times during the first 2 days at the maternity hospital, the exclusive breast-feeding percentage on the last day of hospital stay reached 85%. Breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding percentages dropped to 55% and 35%, respectively, at 40 days postpartum and to 16% and 12%, respectively, at 6 months postpartum. While in the hospital, 3% of mothers initiated breast-feeding within 1 hour of labor, only 34% were informed about the advantages of breast-feeding by health professionals and 42% were trained to breast-feed by the midwives. "Rooming-in" was not practiced in the private hospitals. The educational level was positively associated with the initiation of breast-feeding [odds ratio (OR): 1.36, confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.81], the mother's body mass index was negatively associated with the maintenance of breast-feeding for 40 days (OR: 0.56, CI: 0.32-0.98) and 6 months (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.06-1.26) and a caesarean section was negatively associated with the initiation (OR: 0.24, CI: 0.11-0.49) and maintenance of breast-feeding (OR: 0.42, CI: 0.20-0.89). Breast-feeding is not appropriately supported in certain maternity hospitals in Athens, and this is probably the cause of observed low breast-feeding prevalence.

  17. Factors Associated with the Duration of Breastfeeding in the Freiburg Birth Collective, Germany (FreiStill).

    PubMed

    Rasenack, R; Schneider, C; Jahnz, E; Schulte-Mönting, J; Prömpeler, H; Kunze, M

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The health benefits of breastfeeding for both infants and mothers are well-documented. The aim of this study was to clarify factors associated with successful breastfeeding. Methods: We performed a prospective, multi-centre cohort study of 443 mothers in person using a standardised questionnaire on postpartum day 1. Women who had started to breast-feed were interviewed by telephone after 3, 6 and 12 months. A statistical analysis was performed using the SAS system. Results: 92 % of women (409/443) were initially breastfeeding. After three months the rate decreased to 74 %, after six months to 61 % and after 12 months to 28 %, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed a significant positive association with the following factors: maternal age > 35 years, higher educational level, intention to breastfeed on postpartum day one, high motivation after three months, partner's support of the decision to breastfeed, satisfaction with the care provided in the maternity clinic, a positive breastfeeding experience and follow-up care by a midwife. Elective caesarean delivery, the use of breastfeeding aids, formula supplementation early on and the mother's concern about the amount of milk correlated negatively. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, four factors were correlated with having a positive influence on duration of breastfeeding: higher educational level, satisfaction with the care provided within the maternity clinic, follow-up care by a midwife, and a positive current experience of breastfeeding. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate certain factors successfully influence breastfeeding. Competent care in the maternity clinic, postpartum care by a midwife and a positive experience with breastfeeding increase the rate of breastfeeding and thus have a positive impact on the health of mother and newborn.

  18. Do Maternal Quality of Life and Breastfeeding Difficulties Influence the Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding?

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study was conducted to determine whether maternal quality of life (QOL) and breastfeeding difficulties influence the continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Methods. In a survey, 358 consecutive pregnant women filled out a quality of life questionnaire in the third trimester of pregnancy and the breastfeeding experience scale at 4 weeks postpartum. We assessed breastfeeding practices every month up to 6 months postpartum. Results. Only 11.8% of women continued EBF at six months. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 and 4 months postpartum had better QOL in late pregnancy than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in QOL scores at 6 months postpartum. Mothers who continued EBF at 2 months postpartum experienced less breastfeeding difficultties during one month postpartum than mothers who discontinued it (P < 0.05). Conclusion. In attempts to promote EBF, mothers with poor QOL or breastfeeding difficulties in early postpartum should be identified and helped. PMID:24868209

  19. [Influence of the birth clinic on breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Abou-Dakn, M; Strecker, J R

    2003-10-01

    A decrease of breastfeeding culture could be observed since the 1950's. However in the 1980's the WHO and UNICEF began engaging in campaigns for breastfeeding since the benefits for mother and child are evident. In 1990 UNICEF set up the "10 steps to successful breastfeeding" that gave birth clinics around the world "guidelines" that would initiate an unproblematic breastfeeding relationship between mother and child. These guidelines can be understood as measures toward increasing staff motivation, training and instruction as well as actually helping parents and increasing their motivation. Further points cover the optimal beginning of breastfeeding and aspects of complementary feeding. Certification of departments by internationally renowned observers is a means of implementing and securing best quality breastfeeding encouragement in the birth clinics. The positive effects of this promotion on the ratio of mothers breastfeeding and thus in respect to childreńs health could be proved by randomised studies. The experience gained in the Obstetrical Department of the Vivantes Humboldt Clinic is described.

  20. Labor Epidural Anesthesia, Obstetric Factors and Breastfeeding Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Dozier, Ann M.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Wissler, Richard N.; Glantz, J. Christopher; Ternullo, Sharon R.; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly N.; Childs, Cynthia K.; Lawrence, Ruth A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia’s association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction. Methods A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data. Results Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within one month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95%confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p<.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01,1.41], p<.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p<.01). Conclusions A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies. PMID:22696104

  1. Labor epidural anesthesia, obstetric factors and breastfeeding cessation.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Ann M; Howard, Cynthia R; Brownell, Elizabeth A; Wissler, Richard N; Glantz, J Christopher; Ternullo, Sharon R; Thevenet-Morrison, Kelly N; Childs, Cynthia K; Lawrence, Ruth A

    2013-05-01

    Breastfeeding benefits both infant and maternal health. Use of epidural anesthesia during labor is increasingly common and may interfere with breastfeeding. Studies analyzing epidural anesthesia's association with breastfeeding outcomes show mixed results; many have methodological flaws. We analyzed potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breast-feeding cessation within 30 days postpartum while adjusting for standard and novel covariates and uniquely accounting for labor induction. A pooled analysis using Kaplan-Meier curves and modified Cox Proportional Hazard models included 772 breastfeeding mothers from upstate New York who had vaginal term births of healthy singleton infants. Subjects were drawn from two cohort studies (recruited postpartum between 2005 and 2008) and included maternal self-report and maternal and infant medical record data. Analyses of potential associations between epidural anesthesia and overall breastfeeding cessation within 1 month included additional covariates and uniquely accounted for labor induction. After adjusting for standard demographics and intrapartum factors, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (hazard ratio 1.26 [95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.44], p < 0.01) as did hospital type, maternal age, income, education, planned breastfeeding goal, and breastfeeding confidence. In post hoc analyses stratified by Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) status, epidural anesthesia significantly predicted breastfeeding cessation (BFH: 1.19 [1.01, 1.41], p < 0.04; non-BFH: 1.65 [1.31, 2.08], p < 0.01). A relationship between epidural anesthesia and breastfeeding was found but is complex and involves institutional, clinical, maternal and infant factors. These findings have implications for clinical care and hospital policies and point to the need for prospective studies.

  2. Breastfeeding-Friendly Environmental Factors and Continuing Breastfeeding Until 6 Months Postpartum: 2008-2011 National Surveys in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Chian; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Li-Chuan; Chien, Li-Yin

    2015-09-01

    Although policies have been implemented to improve a breastfeeding-friendly environment, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these policies in Taiwan. We examined progress in breastfeeding environmental factors from 2008 through 2011 in Taiwan and their association with continuing exclusive and any breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum. This study was a secondary data analysis, using four cross-sectional and national surveys of 1,453-12,410 postpartum women in the years 2008 through 2011. Data were collected by telephone interviews, using structured questionnaires with randomly selected postpartum women who gave birth in the indicated years. Results were weighted to enhance representativeness. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted odds ratios for the use of breastfeeding-friendly services on breastfeeding continuation. The rates of breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum generally increased from 2008 to 2011, despite a drop in 2010. The use of breastfeeding-friendly environmental factors, including breastfeeding rooms in public places or workplaces, breastfeeding consultation phone lines/websites, breastfeeding volunteers, and delivery in baby-friendly hospitals, increased from 2008 to 2011. However, the percentage of women participating in breastfeeding support groups decreased during that period. After controlling for maternal characteristics, use of each of the breastfeeding-friendly environmental factors was significantly and positively associated with continuing breastfeeding until 6 months postpartum. The adjusted odds ratios for breastfeeding-friendly environmental factors ranged from 1.15 to 5.04. The breastfeeding-friendly environment and long-term breastfeeding rates in Taiwan improved from 2008 to 2011, supporting the effectiveness of policy and public health efforts. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Factors influencing postnatal Option B+ participation and breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive women in Lilongwe District, Malawi: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L.; Hamela, Gloria; Mofolo, Innocent; Hosseinipour, Mina C.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    To ensure the health of mothers and children, prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programs test women for HIV, engage HIV-positive women in care, and promote recommended breastfeeding practices. Under Malawi’s Option B+ PMTCT program, ~20% of women are lost-to-follow-up (LTFU) and little is known about their breastfeeding practices. The purpose of this study is to describe facilitators and barriers to Option B+ participation and how participation influences breastfeeding duration. We conducted in-depth interviews with HIV-positive women in Option B+ (n = 32) or LTFU from Option B+ (n = 32). They were recruited from four government clinics in Lilongwe District and had a child aged 0–23 months. Women in Option B+ had better disclosure experiences and more social support than LTFU women. The most common reasons for LTFU were fear of HIV disclosure, anticipated or experienced stigma, and insufficient social support. Other reasons included: non-acceptance of HIV status, antiretroviral therapy (ART) side effects, lack of funds for transport, and negative experiences with clinic staff. Worries about possible transmission, even while on ART, influenced timing of weaning for some women in Option B+. Despite their knowledge of the risk of HIV transmission to the child, most LTFU women continued to breastfeed after stopping ART because they considered breastmilk to be an important source of nutrients for the child. Given that HIV-positive Malawian women LTFU from Option B+ breastfeed in the absence of ART, efforts are needed to use evidence-based strategies to address the barriers to Option B+ participation and avert preventable transmission through breastmilk. PMID:28410374

  4. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    PubMed

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  5. Breastfeeding: An Unknown Factor to Reduce Heart Disease Risk Among Breastfeeding Women.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Chopra, Ishveen; Dolly, Brandon

    2015-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers many health benefits not only to babies but also to their lactating mothers. Breastfeeding is a notable protective factor in the Gail model for breast cancer and is protective for heart disease. Although individuals in the Appalachian region have lower risk of developing breast cancer, their risk of heart disease is elevated compared with the national value for the United States. We surveyed 155 predominantly breastfeeding mothers of toddlers under 3 years old, recruited through parenting groups, daycares, and county extension in Appalachian West Virginia. Participants were asked their perceived comparative risks for breast cancer and heart disease and why they felt their risk was higher, same, or lower than that of the general population. For breast cancer, 29.7% felt their risk was lower than the general population. For heart disease, 26.5% felt their risk was lower than the general population. Although these risks were highly correlated (p=0.006), there was considerable variability in responses (p<0.03). Qualitative responses for breast cancer risk frequently included breastfeeding (30.3%) and family history (30.3%). Qualitative responses for heart disease noted family history (36.1%) but did not include breastfeeding. A regression analysis found that greater family history, shorter duration of breastfeeding, and fewer pregnancies were associated with greater breast cancer risk perceptions. Family history, lower household income, and current smoking were associated with greater heart disease risk perceptions. These well-educated, predominantly lactating women did not know the protective effects of breastfeeding for heart disease. Increased educational efforts about heart disease may be helpful to encourage more women to breastfeed.

  6. The role of support and other factors in early breastfeeding cessation: an analysis of data from a maternity survey in England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer. Methods Data from a survey of women ≥16 years who gave birth to singleton term infants in 2009 in England; questionnaires were completed approximately three months postnatally. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between postnatal support and other factors, and breastfeeding cessation at 10 days and six weeks. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to estimate the relative contribution of breastfeeding support factors to overall breastfeeding cessation at these two time points. Results Of the 3840 women who initiated breastfeeding and reported timing of breastfeeding cessation, 13% had stopped by 10 days; and of the 3354 women who were breastfeeding at 10 days, 17% had stopped by six weeks. Socio-demographic factors (maternal age, ethnicity, country of birth, deprivation, education) and antenatal feeding intention were all independently associated with breastfeeding cessation at 10 days and six weeks. Women who did not receive feeding advice or support from a parent or peer support group, voluntary organisation, or breastfeeding clinic were more likely to stop breastfeeding by 10 days. Perceived active support and encouragement from midwives was associated with a lower odds of breastfeeding cessation at both 10 days and six weeks. Estimated PAFs suggest that 34-59% of breastfeeding cessations by 10 days could be avoided if more women in the study population received breastfeeding support. Conclusion Although multiple factors influence a mother’s likelihood of continuing breastfeeding, it is clear that socio-demographic factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding continuation. However, there is evidence that breastfeeding support, including that delivered by peer or lay support workers, may have an

  7. Factors affecting breastfeeding duration in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed Central

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Psaltopoulou, Theodora; Chrousos, George; Kreatsas, George; Gryparis, Alexandros; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate factors associated with breastfeeding duration (BD) in a sample of mothers living in Greece. METHODS Four hundred and twenty-eight mothers (438 infants) were initially recruited in a tertiary University Hospital. Monthly telephone interviews (1665 in total) using a structured questionnaire (one for each infant) were conducted until the sixth postpartum month. Cox regression analysis was used to assess factors influencing any BD. RESULTS Any breastfeeding rates in the first, third, and sixth month of the infant’s life reached 87.5%, 57.0% and 38.75%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, maternal smoking in the lactation period [hazard-ratio (HR) = 4.20] and psychological status (HR = 1.72), and the introduction of a pacifier (HR = 2.08), were inversely associated, while higher maternal education (HRuniversity/college vs primary/high school = 0.53, HRmaster’s vs primary/high school = 0.20), and being an immigrant (HR = 0.35) were positively associated with BD. CONCLUSION Public health interventions should focus on campaigns against smoking during lactation, target women of lower educational status, and endorse the delayed introduction of pacifiers. PMID:27610353

  8. Changing Societal and Lifestyle Factors and Breastfeeding Patterns Over Time.

    PubMed

    Logan, Chad; Zittel, Tatjana; Striebel, Stefanie; Reister, Frank; Brenner, Hermann; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Genuneit, Jon

    2016-05-01

    Breastfeeding is an important determinant of early infant immune function and potentially future health. Although numerous studies have reported rising breastfeeding initiation rates and duration, few longitudinally investigated the impact of shifting societal and lifestyle factors on breastfeeding patterns in developed nations. The Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS) and Ulm SPATZ Health Study (SPATZ) cohorts consist of newborns and their mothers recruited, respectively, from 2000 to 2001 and 2012 to 2013 at the University Medical Center Ulm, Germany. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate crude and mutually adjusted hazard ratios for study effect (time trend) and individual risk factors on noninitiation and duration of predominant and total breastfeeding. Compared with UBCS mothers, SPATZ mothers had lower cessation rates of both predominant breastfeeding by 4 months and total breastfeeding by 6 months: hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.79 (0.67-0.93) and 0.71 (0.60-0.82), respectively. However, this crude time trend was limited to mothers with higher educational achievement. Similar time trend effects were observed among less educated mothers only after adjustment for early cessation risk factors. Mutually adjusted hazard ratios for individual risk factors were similar in both studies: low education, high BMI, smoking within 6 weeks of delivery, and cesarean delivery were associated with early breastfeeding cessation beginning at 6 weeks. In addition, actively abstaining from drinking alcohol was associated with lower rates of early cessation. Our results suggest widening socioeconomic disparity in breastfeeding and potentially subsequent child health, which may require new targeted interventions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Impact of Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy and Sociocultural Factors on Early Breastfeeding in an Urban, Predominantly Dominican Community

    PubMed Central

    McKearney, Karen; Saslaw, Minna; Sirota, Dana R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Latinas have high breastfeeding initiation rates that decrease significantly in the first postpartum months. Little is known about the effects of self-efficacy and sociocultural factors on early breastfeeding among low-income Latinas. This study quantifies early breastfeeding rates and identifies factors associated with breastfeeding at 4–6 weeks postpartum in our community. Subjects and Methods: Mothers were recruited from a newborn clinic (NBC) in the first postpartum week. Questionnaires in the NBC and 4–6 weeks later assessed feeding practices, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and sociocultural factors. Feeding practices in the well baby nursery (WBN) were obtained by chart review. A scale from “1” (exclusive formula feeding) to “5” (exclusive breastfeeding) characterized feeding practices. Paired-sample t tests assessed change in feeding practices, and regression analysis assessed the impact of factors on breastfeeding at 4–6 weeks. Results: We interviewed 209 women: 86.1% Latina, 47.3% foreign-born, and 94.2% Medicaid-recipients. Breastfeeding increased from WBN to NBC (2.6±1.2 to 2.9±1.4; p<0.05) and then decreased by 4–6 weeks (2.9±1.4 to 2.5±1.44; p<0.05), without significant change between WBN and 4–6 weeks. Higher levels of education [β=0.21 (0.08, 0.56)], breastfeeding a previous child for ≥6 months [β=0.35 (0.57, 1.8)], foreign birth [β=0.2 (0.06, 1.07)], and higher breastfeeding self-efficacy scores [β=0.38 (0.02, 0.05)] were associated with more breastfeeding. Higher breastfeeding self-efficacy scores were associated with exclusive breastfeeding [adjusted odds ratio=1.18 (1.05, 1.32)]. Conclusions: Breastfeeding self-efficacy was the sole, modifiable factor associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Efforts to improve breastfeeding self-efficacy may serve to support breastfeeding in this population. PMID:24902047

  10. Factors associated with breastfeeding patterns in women who recourse to health centres in Zahedan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Roudbari, M; Roudbari, S; Fazaeli, A

    2009-02-01

    The practice of breastfeeding, an important need for infants, can be affected by several factors that need to be investigated. This study was designed to survey the patterns and period of breastfeeding and its associated factors in women. The study was performed in Zahedan, southeast Iran, in 2004-2005, with a sample of 450 mothers via a questionnaire to collect information about the period of breastfeeding and some important factors concerning both mothers and children. The exclusive breastfeeding ratio obtained from this study was 98 percent. The proportion of breastfeeding in months 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 after birth were 92 percent, 85 percent, 69 percent, 56 percent and 8 percent, respectively. The median breastfeeding period was 15 months, with a standard error of 1.17. The period of breastfeeding showed a significant relationship with the age of the children and mothers, the mothers' education level, night breastfeeding, breastfeeding to an ill child, breastfeeding during a mother's illness and the frequency of breastfeeding per 24 hours. The Cox regression also confirmed a significant relationship between the period of breastfeeding and the above-mentioned variables, except for mother's education level and breastfeeding to an ill child. Young pregnant women need to be aware of the importance of breastfeeding and of avoiding the reduction or interruption of the breastfeeding period. It is recommended that the health authorities incorporate training and education programmes as well as healthcare measures to their family health programmes in order to overcome the problems of insufficient breastfeeding.

  11. Factors related to breastfeeding discontinuation between hospital discharge and 2 weeks postpartum.

    PubMed

    Brand, Elizabeth; Kothari, Catherine; Stark, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although breastfeeding is known to be beneficial to both mother and infant, many women encounter barriers to breastfeeding, even after successful breastfeeding initiation, which may put them at greater risk for early cessation of breastfeeding. The objectives of this study were to conduct a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal study of postpartum depression to (a) examine factors related to very early discontinuation of breastfeeding (at 2 weeks postpartum) following hospital discharge and (b) identify women's reasons for very early cessation of breastfeeding. The results of this study support findings from previous research. Having a perceived support system, whether it is personal or professional, may have an effect on both the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Educating expectant and new mothers, especially women who encounter multiple barriers and are at risk for very early cessation of breastfeeding, of the benefits of breastfeeding and supporting them in developing efficient techniques and problem-solving skills can help increase the duration of breastfeeding.

  12. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors.

    PubMed

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers' social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother's negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  13. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mariana Campos Martins; Assis, Karine Franklin; Oliveira, Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral; Cury, Alexandre Faisal; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process. PMID:26039402

  14. The influence of infant feeding attitudes on breastfeeding duration: evidence from a cohort study in rural Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kylee N; Giglia, Roslyn C; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for infants in the first six months of life. Promoting and protecting breastfeeding is reflected in public health policy across the globe, but breastfeeding rates in both developing and industrialised countries continue to demonstrate that few mothers meet these recommendations. In addition to sociodemographic factors such as age, education and income, modifiable factors such as maternal infant feeding attitudes have been shown to influence breastfeeding duration. The objective of this paper was to describe the influence of infant feeding attitudes on breastfeeding duration in rural Western Australia. A cohort of 427 women and their infants were recruited from hospitals in rural Western Australia and followed for a period of 12 months. Information about feeding methods was gathered in hospital and at a further seven follow-up contacts. Infant feeding attitude was measured using the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS), and a score of > 65 was considered positive towards breastfeeding. Mothers with an IIFAS score of > 65 were approximately twice as likely to be exclusively breastfeeding at six months, and breastfeeding at any intensity to 12 months. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding for mothers with an IIFAS score of > 65 was 16 weeks (95 % CI 13.5, 18.5) compared with 5 weeks for those with a score < 65 (95 % CI 3.2, 6.8) (p < 0.0001). The median duration of any breastfeeding to 12 months was more than twice as long for mothers with an IIFAS score > 65 (48 vs. 22 weeks, p < 0.001). Women in this rural cohort who had a more positive attitude towards breastfeeding had a longer duration of both exclusive breastfeeding to six months and any breastfeeding to 12 months. Further research examining the breastfeeding attitudes of specific subgroups such as men, grandparents and adolescents in rural areas will contribute to the evidence base and help to ensure that breastfeeding is

  15. [Promoting factors for breastfeeding: the role of health professionals].

    PubMed

    Flores Quijano, María Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    By the end of their first year of life, infants are ready to sit at the dinner table, to eat the same food as their family and to accept a variety of foods in sufficient quantity to maintain adequate nutritional status. In this context, breastfeeding contributes through different mechanisms such as: self-regulation in milk consumption and exposure to different flavors to assure a good nutrition and to create adequate feeding habits. However, breastfeeding is one of several options available to feed a newborn and a behavior that women need to learn. Today, the responsibility to counsel and guide women and their families in breastfeeding falls upon health professionals, specifically the general practitioner. This paper discusses the characteristics and functioning of the mammary gland as well as anatomical and physiological bases of suction exerted by the baby on the breast, so the health professional can recognize the factors that promote successful breastfeeding and to solve the problems or difficulties that could arise. Also are discussed here the main elements of a practice and proper technique, which are essential to provide breastfeeding counseling.

  16. Mothers' expectations and other factors affecting breastfeeding at six months in Greece.

    PubMed

    Bouras, Georgios; Mexi-Bourna, Panagioula; Bournas, Nicolaos; Christodoulou, Christos; Daskalaki, Anna; Tasiopoulou, Ioanna; Poulios, Antonios

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing breastfeeding duration in Greece. A total of 145 women were interviewed, on the third day post-partum. Women were followed up by telephone interviews at three and six months post-partum. Chi-square test and binomial sequential logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis. Results from this study show that baby-friendly hospital, antenatal courses, mother's perception of her capability to successfully breastfeed her infant, mother's intention to breastfeed for a duration of six months or more, mother's and father's education level, introduction of complementary foods or fluids, caesarean delivery, smoking and ethnicity were significantly associated with the duration of breastfeeding. In conclusion, additional antenatal and postnatal framework is necessary. Mothers' prediction of the duration of breastfeeding is an additional tool for identification of women with a high probability for early weaning.

  17. Factors influencing the sustainability of volunteer peer support for breast-feeding mothers within a hospital environment: An exploratory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Hopper, Heather; Skirton, Heather

    2016-01-01

    the objectives of this study were to explore breast feeding peer supporters' motivation to volunteer within a hospital environment, to describe their experiences of volunteering within a hospital environment, to examine the relationships between peer supporters and ward staff, and to identify factors contributing to the future sustainability of the service. a qualitative study; peer supporters and clinical ward staff were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule and data were analysed using Thematic Analysis with an inductive approach. six peer supporters and ten ward staff, whose role included giving breast feeding support, working on a maternity ward in one consultant-led unit in England that had been hosting breast feeding peer support volunteers for the previous three years. three main themes were identified: 1. What peer supporters brought to the maternity ward; this included providing breast-feeding mothers with confidence, reassurance and empowerment, and spending 'unhurried time' with mothers; 2. What motivated the peer supporters; this included an interest in midwifery as a future career and a desire to help people; 3. Factors contributing to the sustainability of the service; these included an existing rolling training programme, however recruitment processes were causing long delays and some aspects of operational management needed improvement. individuals with a passion for breast feeding were willing to volunteer as peer supporters and their experience of the activity was positive. Organisational processes did not always provide peer supporters with a positive experience of the organisation and these needed to be improved as they contributed to the future sustainability of the service. the study indicates that a sustainable hospital-based volunteer service for breast feeding peer support requires a rolling training programme for peer supporters, efficient recruitment processes and effective operational management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  18. Energy-related influences on variation in breastfeeding duration among indigenous Maya women from Guatemala.

    PubMed

    McKerracher, Luseadra J; Collard, Mark; Altman, Rachel M; Sellen, Daniel; Nepomnaschy, Pablo A

    2017-04-01

    The causes of variation in breastfeeding duration in humans are poorly understood, but life history factors related to maternal energetics drive much of the variation in lactation duration in nonhuman animals. With this in mind, we investigated whether four energy-related factors influence variation in breastfeeding duration in a non-industrial human population: (1) mortality risk during mother's development (assessed via mother's adult height), (2) reliance on nutrient-dense weaning foods, (3) access to and need for help with infant feeding and care ("allomaternal care"), and (4) maternal tradeoffs between current and future reproduction (measured via child's birth order). The data pertain to 51 Kakchiquel-speaking Maya mothers and 283 children from a village in rural Guatemala. We developed a linear mixed model to evaluate the relationships between breastfeeding duration and the energy-related factors. Duration of breastfeeding was associated with two of the energy-related factors in the ways we predicted but not with the other two. Contrary to predictions, taller mothers breastfed for shorter periods and we found no evidence that weanling diet quality impacts breastfeeding duration. As predicted, women who had more help with infants breastfed for shorter periods, and later-born infants breastfed longer than earlier-born ones. The results regarding allomaternal care suggest that help reduces mothers' lactation demands. The energy saved may be redirected to increasing fecundity or investment in other children. The birth order result suggests that children born to mothers nearing reproductive senescence receive higher levels of investment, which likely impacts children's fitness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Lack of Breastfeeding: A Potential Risk Factor in the Multifactorial Genesis of Borderline Personality Disorder and Impaired Maternal Bonding.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Cornelia E; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Stroehle, Verena; Lieb, Klaus; Mobascher, Arian

    2015-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by a pattern of intense but unstable interpersonal relationships. These interpersonal dysfunctions may originate from impaired bonding and attachment that is determined during early life. Remarkably, it has been reported that the quality of mother-infant relationship is influenced by the feeding mode. Thus, bottle feeding instead of breastfeeding and possible lack of maternal bonding-related behavior may increase the risk for later psychopathology and attachment problems as seen in BPD. A total of 100 BPD patients and 100 matched healthy controls underwent semistructured interviews, based on retrospective information about early risk factors and breastfeeding during infancy. The authors' analyses revealed that BPD patients were significantly less breastfed compared to healthy controls (no breastfeeding in BPD: 42.4%; no breastfeeding in controls: 18.2%; p < .001). The BPD diagnosis was significantly predicted by the variable "no breastfeeding" (p < .001; odds ratio [OR] = 3.32; confidence interval [CI] [1.74, 6.34]), even after adjustment for childhood trauma and several confounding factors (p = .001). The variable "no breastfeeding" accounts for 9.1% of the variance of the BPD diagnosis and is associated with low perceived maternal bonding (p = .006). Breastfeeding may act as an early indicator of the mother-infant relationship that seems to be relevant for bonding and attachment later in life.

  20. Could associations between breastfeeding and insulin-like growth factors underlie associations of breastfeeding with adult chronic disease? The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard M; Holly, Jeff M P; Smith, George Davey; Ness, Andrew R; Emmett, Pauline; Rogers, Imogen; Gunnell, David

    2005-06-01

    The influence of infant feeding method (breast/formula) on growth factor levels could underlie associations of breastfeeding with childhood growth and risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We investigated associations of having been breastfed with serum IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in childhood. Prospective birth cohort study (subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK) based on 871 children born in 1991/1992 who underwent clinical follow-up and blood tests at age 7-8 years. A total of 488 (56%) children had complete data. In children with complete data, the age- and sex-standardized IGF-I levels of those who were partially or exclusively breastfed were 6.1 and 13.8 ng/ml higher, respectively, than those who were never breastfed (increase in IGF-I levels per category of breastfeeding exclusivity: 7.1 ng/ml; 95% CI: 0.3-13.9; P = 0.04). In models also controlling for birthweight, gestational age, mother's age, and socioeconomic and dietary factors, the breastfeeding-IGF-I association was attenuated (regression coefficient: 3.3 ng/ml; -4.2-10.7; P = 0.4); further adjustment for IGFBP-3 made little difference (regression coefficient: 4.1 ng/ml; -2.8-10.9; P = 0.2). There was little evidence for an association between breastfeeding and IGFBP-3 or the molar ratio IGF-I/IGFBP-3. The positive association between breastfeeding and IGF-I could be due to residual confounding or to chance. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the fully adjusted effect estimate and the novelty of the association suggest that larger studies should now be conducted to confirm or refute the hypothesis that variations in IGF-I by infant feeding mode explain associations of breastfeeding with health in later life.

  1. Infant feeding practices and maternal socio-demographic factors that influence practice of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers in Nnewi South-East Nigeria: a cross-sectional and analytical study.

    PubMed

    Onah, Stanley; Osuorah, Donatus Ignatius Chidiebere; Ebenebe, Joy; Ezechukwu, Clement; Ekwochi, Uchenna; Ndukwu, Ifeyinwa

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition is an underlying factor in more than 50% of the major cause of infant mortality-Pneumonia, diarrhoeal disease and measles which account for 70% of infant mortality. Therefore, programs to promote adequate nutrition for age can help reduce mortality from these disease conditions and indispensible to achievement of MDG 4. To describe the feeding practices of infants below six months of age and determine maternal socio-demographic factors that influences the practice of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among mothers in Nnewi, south-east Nigeria. Four hundred mother-infant pairs attending the infant welfare clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University teaching hospital (NAUTH) during 2012 were consecutively recruited after meeting the study inclusion criteria. Data on breastfeeding were based on infant feeding practice in the previous 24 hours. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as infant feeding with only breast milk. Awareness (95.3%) and knowledge (82.0%) of EBF was high among surveyed mother but the practice of EBF (33.5%) was very low. Positive attitude towards EBF practice was shown by many (71.0%) of surveyed mothers. EBF practice decreased with increasing infant age, OR 0.72 (95% CI 0.34, 1.51) for 1-2 months, OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.23, 1.44) for 3-4 months and OR 0.20 (95% CI 0.06, 0.73) for 5-6 months compared to infants < 1 month old. Maternal education, socioeconomic class, mode of delivery and infants first feed were retained as important maternal predictors of EBF practice after adjustment for confounders. Decreased likelihood of EBF practice was found among mothers of lower educational attainment, OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.13, 0.81), mothers who delivered through caesarean section, OR 0.38 (95% CI 0.18, 0.84), mothers of higher socio-economic status [(middle class, OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.22, 0.99) and upper class, OR 0.32 (95% CI 0.14, 0.74)] while increased likelihood of EBF practice was seen in mothers who gave their infants breast milk as their first feed

  2. The influence of ethnicity on breastfeeding rates in Ireland: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ladewig, Emma L; Hayes, Catherine; Browne, John; Layte, Richard; Reulbach, Udo

    2014-04-01

    Historically, breastfeeding rates in Ireland have been low compared with international averages. It has been suggested that maternal ethnicity and citizenship may influence breastfeeding rates, with ethnic minorities thought more likely to breast feed. The aim of this study is to investigate the association among maternal citizenship, ethnicity, birthplace and breast feeding. It is hypothesised that Irish mothers (identified through Irish citizenship, self-identified Irish ethnicity or Irish birthplace) are less likely to breast feed than non-Irish mothers. The study population of Growing Up in Ireland: the National Longitudinal Study of Children was used for this study. Analysis was restricted to 11 092 biological mother and infant pairs with a complete breastfeeding history. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs for breast feeding relative to maternal citizenship and ethnicity, controlling for the confounding effects of other maternal variables. Results indicated that 55.9% (6202 of 11 092) of mothers had initiated breast feeding, with only 7.9% (874 of 11 092) of mothers currently breast feeding their infant (at 9 months of age). Irish citizens (4693 of 9368, 50.0%) were significantly less likely to have initiated breast feeding compared with non-Irish citizens (1503 of 1695, 88.7%). Irish born mothers (4179 of 8627, 48.8%) were also significantly less likely to have initiated breast feeding than mothers born elsewhere (2023 of 2462, 82.2%). Maternal citizenship and ethnicity appear to be the strongest influencing factors on breastfeeding initiation and duration. However, this raises a possibility that the increase in breastfeeding rates seen recently may be the result of increased immigration into Ireland, rather than the success of policy and research efforts.

  3. UK Breastfeeding Helpline support: An investigation of influences upon satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Helpline services have become an increasingly popular mode of providing community access to information and expert information and advice in the health and welfare sector. This paper reports on data collected from 908 callers to UK-based breastfeeding helplines. Methods A mixed methods design was adopted utilising a structured interview schedule to elicit callers experiences of the help and support received. In this paper we report on a series of multiple regression models undertaken to elicit the variables associated with callers’ ‘overall satisfaction’ with the helpline service. Three models were constructed; 1) caller demographic/call characteristics; 2) attitudes and effectiveness of service characteristics and 3) impact of support on caller wellbeing. Results Overall, 74.6% of callers were very satisfied, and 19.8% were satisfied with the help and support received by the helpline service. The caller demographic/call characteristics found to have a significant relationship with overall satisfaction related to the ease of getting through to the helpline and whether the woman had previously breastfed. Service characteristics associated with overall satisfaction related to whether the information received was helpful and whether the support helped to resolve their issues. The extent to which the volunteer was perceived to have enough time, whether the support had encouraged them to continue breastfeeding, met the caller’s expectations and/or provided the support the caller needed were also significantly associated. Caller outcomes contributing significantly to overall satisfaction concerned callers feeling less stressed, more confident, reassured and determined to continue breastfeeding following the call. Consideration of the effect sizes indicated that key factors associated with overall satisfaction related to: volunteers having sufficient time to deal with the callers’ issues; the information being perceived as helpful; the volunteers

  4. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Methods Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD) and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. Results The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks) and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks). White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]). Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. Conclusion In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio

  5. Factors associated with breastfeeding cessation in nursing mothers in a peer support programme in Eastern Lancashire.

    PubMed

    Agboado, Gabriel; Michel, Elaine; Jackson, Elaine; Verma, Arpana

    2010-01-27

    The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates worldwide and in recent years the Government has made breastfeeding promotion one of its priorities. The UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative is likely to increase breastfeeding initiation but not duration. Other strategies which involve provision of support for breastfeeding mothers in the early weeks after birth are therefore required to encourage UK mothers to breastfeed for the recommended duration. This paper examines the effects of maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal obstetric factors, and in-hospital infant feeding practices on breastfeeding cessation in a peer support setting. Data on mothers from Blackburn with Darwen (BwD) and Hyndburn in Eastern Lancashire who gave birth at the Royal Blackburn Hospital and initiated breastfeeding while in hospital were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD). The data were analysed to describe infant feeding methods up to 6 months and the association between breastfeeding cessation, and maternal factors and in-hospital infant feeding practices. The mean breastfeeding duration was 21.6 weeks (95% CI 20.86 to 22.37 weeks) and the median duration was 27 weeks (95% CI 25.6 to 28.30 weeks). White mothers were 69% more likely to stop breastfeeding compared with non-White mothers (HR: 0.59; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.67 [White mothers were the reference group]). Breastfeeding cessation was also independently associated with parity and infant feeding practices in hospital. There were no significant associations between breastfeeding cessation and marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation. In this study ethnicity, parity and in-hospital infant feeding practices remained independent predictors of breastfeeding cessation in this peer support setting. However other recognised predictors such as marital status, mode of delivery, timing of breastfeeding initiation and socio-economic deprivation were not found to be

  6. [Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Estrella, Manuel; Duque-López, María Ximena; Trejo y Pérez, Juan Antonio

    2003-01-01

    To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS) Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old. Mothers were divided into two groups, based on breast-feeding duration: those who breast-fed for less than 3 months and those who did so for three months or more. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding. One-hundred and twelve mothers (42.3%) abandoned breast-feeding early. Risk factors were: poor maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, odds ratio (OR) 5.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.67-20.67; mothers with no previous breast-feeding experience OR 2.98, 95% CI 1.66-5.36; mothers planning to breast-feed their babies for less than 3 months (OR 16.24, 95% CI 5.37-49.12); and mothers with no access to breast-feeding facilities at work (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.12-3.56). The main factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding were the maternal ones. The only work-related factor associated with short duration of breast-feeding was the absence of breast-feeding facilities. It is probable that maternal knowledge on breast-feeding, previous breast-feeding experience, and the availability of facilities at work for breast-feeding affect the maternal decisions on breast-feeding duration.

  7. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  8. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  9. [The factors facilitating and constraining the continuation of breastfeeding in women in Estrie (Quebec)].

    PubMed

    Bell, Linda; Lacombe, Marie; Yergeau, Eric; Moutquin, Jean-Marie; Tribble, Denise St-cyr; Royer, Francine; Garant, Marie-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    To document breastfeeding rates from birth to six months as well as the factors facilitating and constraining the continuation of breastfeeding in women in the Eastern Townships of Quebec and to compare these to the results obtained in 1999. Postal questionnaire sent to 374 mothers who had breastfed and analysis of archival data. Breastfeeding rates were 86.3% at birth and 75% at discharge from hospital in all mothers who gave birth to a child in 2004-2005. Breastfeeding rates in the 272 mothers who answered the questionnaire were reported to be 67.3% and 47.4% at three and six months respectively. Results indicate that 8.9% of infants were still receiving breast milk exclusively after the third month. However, 27.9% of the mothers had stopped breastfeeding during the infant's first week. Support from the nurses was the primary factor facilitating breastfeeding. The main reasons the mothers gave for stopping breastfeeding were problems with breastfeeding and fatigue. Breastfeeding rates in this area of Quebec have increased significantly in the past five years and are comparable with those in the rest of Canada. Breastfeeding exclusively up to six months is rare, and initiatives to support breastfeeding mothers in the hospital and in the community are having success.

  10. Effective Factors on Shortage of Breastfeeding According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    PubMed

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Mohammad; Namazi, Nazli

    2016-05-01

    Support for breastfeeding is a public health priority. One of the major factors that can negatively affect breastfeeding is the lack of breast milk. There are many instructions on the subject of breast milk in Iranian traditional medicine resources. This article attempts to investigate causes and reasons for the lack of breast milk from the perspective of the great scholars in this field. This study reviews the literature based on the Iranian traditional medicine. The literature review included traditional medicine resources and a survey of reputable databases using keywords such as "morzae", "sady", "pestan", "sheer", "sheerkhar", and "hifzossehhe". The content analysis was used after collecting data. According to the viewpoint stated in traditional medicine literature, the primary substance for milk production is blood that transforms to milk after crossing the breast glandular tissue. The main causes of milk shortage can be classified into four categories, namely food-related factors, factors related to blood impaired, factors related to breast tissue and psychological and physical factors. One of the main reasons for milk shortage is the impaired quality and quantity of food. Appropriate mizaj of breast tissue is required for adequate milk production as it develops sufficient ability to absorb and transform the substance into milk. On the other hand, the ability of breast tissue is greatly influenced by the main organs of the body, particularly the heart; being the core of understanding psychological factors. Thus, psychological factors can have a significant effect on the process of milk production. Due to the importance of breastfeeding, reflection on other viewpoints, such as those mentioned in Iranian traditional medicine, could pave the way towards new research areas. It could also steer policies towards an extra focus on breastfeeding by mothers.

  11. Does breastfeeding influence the risk of developing diabetes mellitus in children? A review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G; Araújo, Raquel Maria A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a review to investigate the influence of breastfeeding as a protective agent against the onset of diabetes in children. non-systematic review of SciELO, LILACS, MEDLINE, Scopus, and VHL databases, and selection of the 52 most relevant studies. A total of 21 articles, specifically on the topic, were analyzed (nine related to type 1 diabetes and 12 to type 2 diabetes). The duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, as well as the early use of cow's milk, have been shown to be important risk factors for developing diabetes. It is believed that human milk contains substances that promote the maturation of the immune system, which protect against the onset of type 1 diabetes. Moreover, human milk has bioactive substances that promote satiety and energy balance, preventing excess weight gain during childhood, thus protecting against the development of type 2 diabetes. Although the above mentioned benefits have not been observed by some researchers, inaccuracies on dietary habit reports during childhood and the presence of interfering factors have been considered responsible for the lack of identification of beneficial effects. Given the scientific evidence indicated in most published studies, it is believed that the lack of breastfeeding can be a modifiable risk factor for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Strategies aiming at the promotion and support of breastfeeding should be used by trained healthcare professionals in order to prevent the onset of diabetes. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of breast-feeding on weight loss, jaundice, and waste elimination in neonates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Fu; Hsu, Mei-Ching; Shen, Chin-Hua; Wang, Chun-Lung; Chang, Shou-Chin; Wu, Keng-Gu; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chen, Shu-Jen

    2011-04-01

    The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative began promoting exclusive breast-feeding in 2001 in Taiwan; however, few studies have investigated its impact. This study evaluated the influence of breast-feeding on Taiwanese neonates with regard to the frequency of jaundice, body weight loss (BWL), and elimination of both urine and stool. The medical records of 313 healthy mother-neonate pairs admitted at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively and divided into three groups: exclusively breast-feeding (n=161), mixed (breast/formula) feeding (n=80), and exclusively formula feeding (n=72). Compared with the exclusively formula feeding group, in the exclusively breast-fed neonates, the average total serum bilirubin level at 3 days after birth (p < 0.001) and the rate of significant hyperbilirubinemia ≥ 15 mg/dL (p<0.05) were significantly higher; the average BWLs at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and the rate of BWL ≥ 10% (p < 0.05) were significantly higher; the average frequency of stool passage at 2 and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and urination at 1, 2, and 3 days after birth (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) were significantly less. The factors associated with a mother's choice of infant feeding type include maternal age and delivery method. Breast-feeding during the initial days of life has a significant influence on the degree of jaundice, amount of BWL, and the frequency of stool passage and urination. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge in rural Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kylee; Giglia, Roslyn; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W

    2014-11-01

    Breastfeeding is accepted as the best way of feeding infants, and health authorities recommend exclusive breastfeeding to around 6 months of age, but despite the evidence of its benefits, few mothers meet this goal. Infants who are exclusively breastfed in the early postpartum period are more likely to continue breastfeeding at 6 and 12 months, reinforcing the role that Baby-Friendly hospital practices play in supporting exclusive breastfeeding. This study aimed to determine the rate of breastfeeding initiation and identify the factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at discharge from hospital for rural mothers. The prospective cohort study recruited 489 women from hospitals in regional Western Australia following the birth of their infant. Breastfeeding exclusivity at discharge was assessed based on mothers' self-reported infant feeding behavior during her hospital stay. The self-administered baseline questionnaire was completed by 427 mothers. Breastfeeding was initiated by 97.7% of the mothers in this cohort, with 82.7% exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge. The odds of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge were more than 4 times higher for women whose infants did not require admission to the special care nursery (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 4.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.98-9.99). Demand feeding (aOR = 3.33; 95% CI, 1.59-6.95) and 24-hour rooming-in (aOR = 2.31; 95% CI, 1.15-4.62) were also significant positive factors. The findings suggest that hospital practices are strong predictors of exclusive breastfeeding. Greater emphasis on Baby-Friendly hospital practices in the early postpartum period may help the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, assisting rural mothers to reach established international breastfeeding recommendations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Breastfeeding initiation in a rural sample: predictive factors and the role of smoking.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Beth A; Wright, Heather N

    2011-02-01

    The study objective was to identify demographic, medical, and health behavior factors that predict breastfeeding initiation in a rural population with low breastfeeding rates. Participants were 2323 women who experienced consecutive deliveries at 2 hospitals, with data obtained through detailed chart review. Only half the women initiated breastfeeding, which was significantly associated with higher levels of education, private insurance, nonsmoking and non-drug-using status, and primiparity, after controlling for confounders. Follow-up analyses revealed that smoking status was the strongest predictor of failure to breastfeed, with nonsmokers nearly twice as likely to breastfeed as smokers and with those who had smoked a pack per day or more the least likely to breastfeed. Findings reveal many factors placing women at risk for not breastfeeding and suggest that intervention efforts should encourage a combination of smoking cessation and breastfeeding while emphasizing that breastfeeding is not contraindicated even if the mother continues to smoke.

  15. Breast-feeding and responses to infant vaccines: constitutional and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Dórea, José G

    2012-11-01

    Neonates and nursing infants are special with regard to immune development and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Although breast-feeding is essential to modulate and prime immune defenses, vaccines (an interventional prophylaxis) are crucial to prevent and control infectious diseases. During nursing, the type of feeding influences infants' natural defenses (including gut colonization) and their response to vaccines, both through cell-mediated immunity and specific antibody production. Given the variety and combination of vaccine components (antigens and excipients, preservative thimerosal, and aluminum adjuvants) and route of administration, there is a need to examine the role of infant feeding practices in intended and nonintended outcomes of vaccination. Maternal factors related to milk constituents (nutrients and pollutants) and feeding practices can affect response to vaccines. Collectively, studies that compared type of feeding (or used breast-feeding-adjusted statistical models) showed significant influence on some vaccines taken during infancy. Nurslings deprived of the full benefit of breast-feeding could have altered immune responses affecting vaccine outcome. In the absence of studies elucidating neurodevelopment (including excitoxicity) and immunotoxicity issues, vaccination practices should promote and support breast-feeding. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Continuous exclusive breastfeeding and some related factors in the selected hospitals of Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Fathizadeh, Nahid

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exclusive nutrition with breastfeeding is the health provider of the infant and mothers and its continuing would provide more advantages. Exclusive nutrition on different communities is affected by different factors. This study aimed to determine continuous exclusive breastfeeding and some of the related factors. METHODS: This was a descriptive-analysis prospective study. The study population included all the breastfed mothers admitted in the obstetrics wards of the selected hospitals. Selecting the hospitals also was done randomly. Data collection tools included a questionnaire completed by 291 mothers. To obtain the data about breastfeeding duration, mothers were phone called at the first and sixth postpartum months. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics and software SPSS. RESULTS: Estimation of mean and standard deviation of exclusive breastfeeding duration at the first and sixth months after the delivery, respectively, were 3.86 (0.55) and 23.67 (6.63) weeks. One month after the delivery, 93.1%, 6.2% and 0.7% of the mothers, respectively, had exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding with formula milk or other ingredients and discontinuation of breastfeeding; 6 months after the delivery, these values changed to 86.3, 12 and 1.7%, respectively. The most frequent period of breastfeeding discontinuation (6.9%) was related to 1-4 weeks. The results indicated that statistically there was a significant correlation between breastfeeding duration and age and the birth hospital. While the results of the study showed no association between breastfeeding duration and number of the children, duration of marriage, educational level and mothers’ occupation. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study represented a high continuous exclusive breastfeeding which perhaps was due to applied baby-friendly hospitals strategies. Furthermore, to prevent from discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding, knowing the discontinuation

  17. The impact of knowledge and social influences on adolescents' breast-feeding beliefs and intentions.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Power, Kevin; Kaur, Binder; Carter, Harden; Shepherd, Kim

    2006-05-01

    Many health promotion educational interventions assume that increasing knowledge directly influences beliefs, intentions and behaviour, whereas research suggests that knowledge alone is insufficient for behavioural change. Social cognition frameworks such as the Theory of Reasoned Action propose a central role for beliefs and social normative influences. This Scottish study evaluates the role of knowledge and social influences (subjective norms, exposure to breast-feeding, social barriers) on beliefs and future intentions to breast-feed or bottle-feed. Social influences from family and peers are investigated. A cross-sectional between-subjects observational design was used. A questionnaire was administered to a sample of 229 (46%) male and 267 (54%) female adolescents aged 11-18 years. Participants completed questionnaires during lessons at three secondary schools in Central Scotland. Knowledge about health benefits of breast-feeding was generally poor. Analyses found that perceived social barriers to breast-feeding moderated the relationship between knowledge and beliefs. More knowledge, positive beliefs and supportive subjective norms also predicted future intentions to breast-feed. Parental norms exerted greater influence than peer norms on adolescents' breast-feeding beliefs. Knowledge and social influences are important predictors of positive breast-feeding beliefs and future intentions to breast-feed in adolescents. This has important implications for breast-feeding health promotion interventions in young people.

  18. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation in Adolescent Pregnancies: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Leclair, Emily; Robert, Nicole; Sprague, Ann E; Fleming, Nathalie

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent mothers have a lower breastfeeding rate than adult women. The objective is to determine the association between multiple high-risk characteristics of pregnant adolescents with intention and initiation of breastfeeding. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study in Ontario (2006-2012) using the Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN) database. Breastfeeding outcomes of adolescent women (younger than 20 years) with a singleton live-born infant at term gestation (37 weeks or greater) were analyzed. The χ(2) and independent-sample t tests were used where appropriate. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was also performed. This study included 22,023 adolescent women with complete breastfeeding information. Almost half (48.8%, n = 10,749) exclusively breastfed their infant at time of hospital discharge. Breastfeeding was significantly more likely in the older adolescents (odds ratio 1.10); other factors significantly associated with breastfeeding included intention to breastfeed, prenatal classes attendance, living in a higher-income neighborhood, having a spontaneous vaginal delivery, being a nonsmoker, not using substances during pregnancy, and not having any preexisting health problems or obstetrical complications (P < .0001). A significant interaction between smoking and intention to breastfeed was identified. Intention to breastfeed was found to be protective against the reduction in breastfeeding seen with smoking. This large-cohort study confirms that high-risk factors are associated with lower breastfeeding in Canadian adolescent term singleton births. Breastfeeding intention is a very important driver of breastfeeding. These findings highlight the importance of early multidisciplinary adolescent pregnancy care targeting these risks factors and education in order to improve breastfeeding rates in this population. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  19. [Immigration and factors associated with breastfeeding. CALINA study].

    PubMed

    Oves Suárez, B; Escartín Madurga, L; Samper Villagrasa, M P; Cuadrón Andrés, L; Alvarez Sauras, M L; Lasarte Velillas, J J; Moreno Aznar, L A; Rodríguez Martínez, G

    2014-07-01

    To identify socio-cultural, obstetric and perinatal characteristics associated with complete breastfeeding (CBF) during the first 4 months of age, depending on maternal origin. Socio-cultural, obstetric and perinatal aspects associated with breastfeeding depending on maternal origin were evaluated in a longitudinal study in a representative infant population from Aragon (n = 1452). The prevalence of CBF was higher in immigrant mothers than in those from Spain. CBF was maintained in 37.2% of mothers from Spain at 4 months, compared with 43% of immigrants (P=.039) (RR Spanish/immigrants=0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.99); at 6 months this occurred in 13.9% vs. 23.8%, respectively (P<.001) (RR Spanish/immigrants=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37-0.72). The factors associated with CBF at 4 months are different between both groups. Mothers born in Spain are older (P=.002), have higher academic level (P=.001), greater parity (P=.003), and a higher probability of vaginal delivery (P=.005); and their children have the highest anthropometric values at birth. However, in immigrant mothers, the maintenance of CBF was associated with a higher maternal body mass index and with working at home. In both groups, CBF remains more frequently in those mothers who do not smoke (P=.001). The prevalence of CBF during the first months of life is higher in immigrant mothers than in those from Spain, and socio-cultural, obstetric and perinatal factors are different, depending on maternal origin. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors affecting breastfeeding practices among working women in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Soomro, J A; Shaikh, Z N; Bijarani, S A; Saheer, T B

    2017-02-01

    In urban areas of Pakistan, women's return to work after giving birth has frequently been found to be a main contributor to the early termination of breastfeeding. This study aimed to assess workplace breastfeeding support provided to working mothers in Pakistan. In a cross-sectional survey in 2014, mothers and employers from a representative sample of 297 workplaces were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire. Mothers from 36 (12.1%) sites reported receiving breastfeeding breaks, and 86% of the mothers had received 3 months paid maternity leave. Provision of a lighter job and information about breastfeeding options on return to work were reported from 15% and 5% of the workplaces, respectively. Only two sites had designated breastfeeding corners. Significantly different results were found between types of employer (government or private) and type of organization (national or multinational) with regard to breastfeeding breaks, breastfeeding corners, lighter jobs and paid maternity leave. Public and multinational companies were slightly better than private and national ones in providing breastfeeding facilities.

  1. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Methods Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Results Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having ‘some university’ was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. Conclusions and Implications for Practice While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors. PMID:27902741

  2. Factors Associated with Breastfeeding Initiation: A Comparison between France and French-Speaking Canada.

    PubMed

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Côté, Sylvana M; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Dubois, Lise; Falissard, Bruno; Forhan, Anne; Doyle, Orla; Bernard, Jonathan Y; Heude, Barbara; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Kaminski, Monique; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with multiple domains of health for both mothers and children. Nevertheless, breastfeeding initiation is low within certain developed countries. Furthermore, comparative studies of initiation rates using harmonised data across multiple regions is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare individual-level determinants of breastfeeding initiation using two French-speaking cohorts. Participants included ~ 3,900 mothers enrolled in two cohort studies in Canada and France. Interviews, questionnaires, and medical records were utilised to collect information on maternal, family, and medical factors associated with breastfeeding initiation. Rates of breastfeeding initiation were similar across cohorts, slightly above 70%. Women in both Canada and France who had higher levels of maternal education, were born outside of their respective countries and who did not smoke during pregnancy were more likely to initiate breastfeeding with the cohort infant. Notably, cohort effects of maternal education at the university level were found, whereby having 'some university' was not statistically significant for mothers in France. Further, younger mothers in Canada, who delivered by caesarean section and who had previous children, had reduced odds of breastfeeding initiation. These results were not found for mothers in France. While some similar determinants were observed, programming efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation should be tailored to the characteristics of specific geographical regions which may be heavily impacted by the social, cultural and political climate of the region, in addition to individual and family level factors.

  3. [The influence of the "Friend of Children Hospital" campaign on breast-feeding].

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; Bulhosa, Michele Salum

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates the awareness of women who gave birth in a 'Friend of Children' Hospital (FCH) of the influence of this campaign on their decision to breast-feed. We conducted semi-structured interviews, focusing the maternal breast-feeding process, expectations, experiences, and the importance of the health staff. The data analysis was based on the "Ten Steps to Successful Maternal Breast-Feeding." We found out that in situations regarded by women as problematic and lacking in answers that could attenuate their discomfort and suffering in the face of their desire to breast-feed, they stopped breast-feeding. We believe that by maintaining the FCH support to women (so that they can face those difficulties), its influence can be decisive to the continuation of breast-feeding.

  4. Breastfeeding Trends and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nuaimi, Nisreen; Katende, Godfrey; Arulappan, Judie

    2017-01-01

    Optimal breastfeeding practices entail the early initiation of breastfeeding soon after delivery of the baby, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and the continuation of breastfeeding complemented by solid food up until two years of age. Breastfeeding has wide-ranging health benefits for both the mother and her child; however, many factors contribute to low rates of exclusive breastfeeding. This article highlights the benefits of optimal breastfeeding as well as trends and determinants associated with breastfeeding both worldwide and in Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Strategies to optimise breastfeeding and overcome breastfeeding barriers in the GCC region are recommended, including community health and education programmes and ‘baby-friendly’ hospital initiatives. Advocates of breastfeeding are needed at the national, community and family levels. In addition, more systematic research should be conducted to examine breastfeeding practices and the best strategies to promote breastfeeding in this region. PMID:28690886

  5. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. Methods A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007–2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n = 2 407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power. Results The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p = 0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR = 1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p = 0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed

  6. Influence of neighbourhood purchasing power on breastfeeding at four months of age: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Almquist-Tangen, Gerd; Strömberg, Ulf; Holmén, Anders; Alm, Bernt; Roswall, Josefine; Bergman, Stefan; Dahlgren, Jovanna

    2013-11-15

    Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an important determinant in child health, influencing beneficial factors such as breastfeeding. A better understanding of the influence of neighbourhood-level SES measures, relating to spatial determinants, might lead to targeted actions to promote breastfeeding during infancy. A cross-sectional study analysis the association between breastfeeding at four months of age and neighbourhood purchasing power, taking account of individual-level variables including maternal age, smoking and parental level of education. Data were obtained from a prospective population- based cohort study recruited from birth in 2007-2008 in the Halland region, southwestern Sweden. Questionnaire data on the individual-level variables and the outcome variable of breastfeeding at four months (yes/no) were used (n=2,407). Each mother was geo-coded with respect to her residential parish (there are 61 parishes in the region) and then stratified by parish-level household purchasing power. It emerged that four neighbourhood characteristics were reasonable to use, viz. <10%, 10-19%, 20-29% and ≥ 30% of the resident families with low purchasing power. The proportion of mothers not breastfeeding at four months of age showed a highly significant trend across the neighbourhood strata (p=0.00004): from 16.3% (< 10% with low purchasing power) to 29.4% (≥ 30% with low purchasing power), yielding an OR of 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-3.16). After adjusting for the individual-level variables, the corresponding OR=1.63 (1.07-2.56) was significant and the trend across the strata was still evident (p=0.05). A multi-level analysis estimated that, in the neighbourhoods with ≥ 30% of the families with low purchasing power, 20% more mothers than expected, taking account of the individual-level factors, reported no breastfeeding at four months of age (≥ 95% posterior probability of an elevated observed-to-expected ratio). The neighbourhood purchasing power

  7. Breastfeeding attitudes of Finnish parents during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding attitudes are known to influence infant feeding but little information exists on the prenatal breastfeeding attitudes of parents. The purpose of this study was to describe Finnish parents' prenatal breastfeeding attitudes and their relationships with demographic characteristics. Methods The electronic Breastfeeding Knowledge, Attitude and Confidence scale was developed and 172 people (123 mothers, 49 fathers) completed the study. The data were analysed using factor analysis and nonparametric methods. Results Breastfeeding was regarded as important, but 54% of the respondents wanted both parents to feed the newborn. The mean rank values of breastfeeding attitudes differed significantly when parity, gender, education, age, breastfeeding history and level of breastfeeding knowledge were considered. The respondents who were expecting their first child, were 18-26 years old or had vocational qualifications or moderate breastfeeding knowledge had more negative feelings and were more worried about breastfeeding than respondents who had at least one child, had a higher vocational diploma or academic degree or had high levels of breastfeeding knowledge. Respondents with high levels of breastfeeding knowledge did not appear concerned about equality in feeding. Conclusions Both mothers and fathers found breastfeeding important. A father's eagerness to participate in their newborn's life should be included in prenatal breastfeeding counselling and ways in which to support breastfeeding discussed. Relevant information about breastfeeding should focus on the parents who are expecting their first child, those who are young, those with low levels of education or those who have gaps in breastfeeding knowledge, so that fears and negative views can be resolved. PMID:21126368

  8. Marketing breastfeeding--reversing corporate influence on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Deborah L; Graff, Kristina M

    2008-07-01

    Breast milk is the gold standard for infant nutrition and the only necessary food for the first 6 months of an infant's life. Infant formula is deficient and inferior to breast milk in meeting infants' nutritional needs. The infant formula industry has contributed to low rates of breastfeeding through various methods of marketing and advertising infant formula. Today, in New York City, although the majority of mothers initiate breastfeeding (approximately 85%), a minority of infants is breastfed exclusively at 8 weeks postpartum (approximately 25%). The article reviews the practices of the formula industry and the impact of these practices. It then presents the strategic approach taken by the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and its partners to change hospital practices and educate health care providers and the public on the benefits of breast milk, and provides lessons learned from these efforts to make breastfeeding the normative and usual method of infant feeding in New York City.

  9. Breast-feeding and cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Owen, Christopher G; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G

    2011-11-01

    This paper considers the body of observational evidence examining the association of being breast-fed to cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life, and whether any potentially advantageous findings are causal. Early cardiovascular consequences/correlates of breast-feeding, compared to being formula fed, include markedly higher levels of total blood cholesterol, lower levels of pre-prandial blood glucose and insulin and lower levels of adiposity. However, a key issue is whether these early differences at a period of rapid development programme/influence cardiovascular risk factors and outcomes in later life. Evidence of long-term effects of early feeding, largely from observational studies, has shown that those breast-fed have lower levels of blood total cholesterol, lower risk of type-2 diabetes and marginally lower levels of adiposity and blood pressure in adult life. There is no strong evidence to suggest effects of early feeding on adult levels of blood glucose, blood insulin and CHD outcomes, although further data are needed. However, the influence of confounding factors, such as maternal body size, maternal smoking and socio-demographic factors, and exclusivity of early feeding on these potentially beneficial associations needs to be considered before inferring any causal effects. Moreover, fewer studies have examined whether duration of exclusive breast-feeding has a graded influence on these risk factors and outcomes; such data would help further in deciding upon causal associations. While strong observational evidence suggests nutritional programming of adult cholesterol levels, associations with other markers of cardiometabolic risk and their consequences in later life need to be confirmed in well-conducted observational and experimental studies.

  10. Breast-feeding influences on later life--cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leon, D A; Ronalds, G

    2009-01-01

    Current evidence, almost exclusively from observational studies, provides a rather mixed picture. From the few studies that have been able to look at fatal or non-fatal cardiovascular events, there is little indication that breast-feeding is associated with either an increased or decreased risk. With respect to blood pressure, the meta-analyses suggest a small but statistically significant lowering of around 1 mmHg SBP associated with having been breast-fed in infancy. However, there is a strong indication from the meta-analyses that even this small effect may partly be accounted for by publication bias. The strongest evidence for an effect of breast-feeding reviewed in this chapter is for serum lipids, where there is good evidence that being breast-fed is associated with an increase in serum total cholesterol in infancy. In childhood there appears to be no association, while in adults there is some indication of breast-feeding being associated with a small decline in total cholesterol levels. As already outlined at the start of the chapter, this whole area of research is made particularly difficult by the fact that breast-feeding can be defined in many different ways. Some studies use definitions that are equivalent to exclusive breast-feeding prior to weaning, while others define it as having ever been breast-fed. This problem of classification is likely to dilute any real associations that may exist. The other major problem is one of interpretation. A result implying that breast-feeding is a "good thing" for cardiovascular health could equally be construed as evidence for a "bad" effect of bottle-feeding. From these data alone, we cannot convincingly determine which conclusion is correct. This is not simply a philosophical debating point. As discussed above in relation to the interpretation of results from the randomised trial of infant feeding, the issue has implications for all research on this topic. Some progress in this area will be made if studies are

  11. The Short Form of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale as a Prognostic Factor of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Mothers.

    PubMed

    Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling; Choi, Kai-Chow; Chau, Janita Pak-Chun; Xiao, Yang

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of maternal perceived breastfeeding self-efficacy on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum in mainland China. The aim of this study was to examine the relative effect of maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy and selected relevant factors on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 6 months postpartum. The internal consistency and construct validity of the Chinese (Mandarin) version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) were also examined. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at a regional teaching hospital in Guangzhou, China. A total of 562 in-hospital mothers who were within 72 hours postpartum were recruited to the study and followed up by telephone for 6 months. Although all of the mothers breastfed their babies within 72 hours postpartum, only 25% of the mothers breastfed exclusively. The mean survival time of continuation of exclusive breastfeeding was 16.7 days. The proportion of mothers who breastfed exclusively after discharge was 14.8%, 2.0%, and 0.2% at 1, 4, and 6 months, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that the mothers who had a higher BSES-SF score at baseline, underwent cesarean section, and practiced exclusive breastfeeding within 72 hours after delivery were significantly associated with a lower hazard of discontinuation of exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum. The exclusive breastfeeding rate among Chinese women is far from satisfactory. The Chinese (Mandarin) version of the BSES-SF can help in identifying mothers who need more support for exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months postpartum.

  12. Prolonged breast-feeding is an independent risk factor for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Okyay, Duygu Ozkale; Okyay, Emre; Dogan, Erbil; Kurtulmus, Secil; Acet, Ferruh; Taner, Cuneyt Eftal

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of parity and age at first pregnancy and breast-feeding, as well as duration of BF for total and per child on postmenopausal osteoporosis. The study was conducted among 542 cases who were divided based on the presence or absence of osteoporosis. Patients were separated according to their first pregnancy and breast-feeding age as before or after 27 years. Osteoporosis was defined as a T score of -2.5 or lower. Parity, age at first pregnancy and breast-feeding, breast-feeding period for total and average duration per child according to a questionnaire were assessed. Osteoporosis group had significantly lower parity compared to non-osteoporosis group. The age at first pregnancy and breast-feeding<27 age were significantly more frequent in osteoporosis group. They also had prolonged breast-feeding period. Women who had a breast-feeding period per child>1 year under age 27 was higher in osteoporosis group. In multivariate analysis, women who breast-fed>1 year per child had the highest risk for osteoporosis (odds ratio: 12.92; 95% confidence interval, 3.1-52.6) and osteoporosis risk for women who breast-fed>1 year per child under age 27 was 7.1. Increased parity was associated with a significant protective effect for osteoporosis. Extended breast-feeding period per child>1 year is the highest risk factor for osteoporosis independent of first breast-feeding age. However, high parity has a protective effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months of life in Tehran: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Noughabi, Z S; Tehrani, S Golian; Foroushani, A R; Nayeri, F; Baheiraei, A

    2014-02-11

    Exclusive breastfeeding is the best form of nutrition for infants in the first 6 months of life. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran in the first 6 months of life, and the factors that influence it. In a population-based, cross-sectional study 538 mothers with children aged 6-24 months completed an interview questionnaire. Only 46.5% of mothers exclusively breastfed their infant in the first 6 months of life. In multivariate analysis formula supplementation in the hospital (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.17-0.95) and mother receiving conflicting infant feeding advice (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.37-0.78) had a negative effect on exclusive breastfeeding. Mother's intention to exclusively breastfeed (OR = 5.85, 95% CI: 2.88-11.9) and infant having first breast contact 6-30 minutes after delivery (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.17-4.72) had positive effects on exclusive breastfeeding.

  14. Breast-feeding Duration: Early Weaning-Do We Sufficiently Consider the Risk Factors?

    PubMed

    Karall, Daniela; Ndayisaba, Jean-Pierre; Heichlinger, Angelika; Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Ursula; Stojakovic, Sarah; Leitner, Hermann; Scholl-Bürgi, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the recommended form of nutrition for the first 6 months. This target is unmet, however, in most industrialized regions. We evaluated aspects of breast-feeding in a cohort of mother-baby dyads. Breast-feeding practices in 555 mother-baby dyads were prospectively studied for 24 months (personal interview at birth and 7 structured telephone interviews). Of the babies, 71.3% were fully breast-fed on discharge from maternity hospitals and 11.9% were partially breast-feed. Median breast-feeding duration was 6.93 (interquartile range 2.57-11.00) months; for full (exclusive) breast-feeding 5.62 (interquartile range 3.12-7.77) months; 61.7% received supplemental feedings during the first days of life. Breast-feeding duration in babies receiving supplemental feedings was significantly shorter (median 5.06 months versus 8.21 months, P < 0.001). At 6 months, 9.4% of the mothers were exclusively and 39.5% partially breast-feeding. Risk factors for early weaning were early supplemental feedings (odds ratio [OR] 2.87, 95% CI 1.65-4.98), perceived milk insufficiency (OR 7.35, 95% CI 3.59-15.07), low breast-feeding self-efficacy (a mother's self-confidence in her ability to adequately feed her baby) (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.48-7.94), lower maternal age (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.45-10.46), and lower education level of the mother (OR 7.30, 95% CI 2.93-18.20). The recommended full breast-feeding duration of the first 6 months of life was not reached. Sociodemographic variables and factors directly related to breast-feeding practices play an important role on breast-feeding duration/weaning in our region. Understanding risk factors will provide insights to give better support to mothers and prevent short- and long-term morbidity following early weaning.

  15. Influences of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to media on breast-feeding patterns: experience of Nigeria and Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ukwuani, F A; Suchindran, C M; Cornwell, G T

    2001-01-01

    This study uses data from the Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1990 and the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey collected in 1995 to examine the implications of mother's work, childhood place of residence, and exposure to the media for breast-feeding patterns (exclusivity and intensity) in Nigeria and Uganda. Nigeria and Uganda present an interesting contrast because Nigeria is more modernized and economically developed than Uganda, thus providing a good indication of the influence of modernization on breast-feeding patterns. Mother's work status is defined by considering whether mothers earned cash from work and took their children to work, hence emphasizing the compatibility of work with child care. Work least compatible with child care had a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Nigeria. The negative effect of mother's work on exclusive breast-feeding (that is, if the mothers used formula or milk instead) observed for some working mothers in Nigeria and Uganda was partly confounded by urban residence, exposure to media, and other socioeconomic factors. Mother's work did not have a negative effect on breast-feeding intensity in Uganda. The relationship between mother's work, urban residence, media exposure, and breast-feeding practice seems to be stronger in Nigeria than Uganda.

  16. The influence of mode of delivery on breastfeeding initiation in women with a prior cesarean delivery: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Regan, Jodi; Thompson, Amy; DeFranco, Emily

    2013-04-01

    This study compared breastfeeding initiation following repeat cesarean delivery, successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), and unsuccessful trial of labor. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of Ohio births (2006-2007) with a previous cesarean delivery. The primary outcomes were breastfeeding initiation rates among women with a previous cesarean delivery. Breastfeeding initiation rates were compared among three different delivery types: repeat cesarean delivery, successful VBAC, and unsuccessful trial of labor. Sociodemographic factors, medical risk factors, and pregnancy-related risk factors were also compared to assess influence on breastfeeding initiation rates. Women delivered by successful VBAC were 47% more likely to initiate breastfeeding than women delivered by scheduled repeat cesarean (adjusted relative risk 1.47; 95% confidence interval 1.35, 1.60). Women who ultimately delivered by cesarean section with unsuccessful trial of labor were also more likely to breastfeed than women with a scheduled repeat cesarean section (61% vs. 58.7%, respectively) (adjusted relative risk 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.04, 1.33). Patients who undergo a scheduled repeat cesarean delivery are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Women who attempt and succeed in achieving vaginal birth after a previous cesarean section are more likely to breastfeed than are women who deliver by repeat cesarean section. Also, those women who ultimately deliver by cesarean section after an unsuccessful trial of labor were also more likely to breastfeed than those women with a scheduled repeat cesarean section. This suggests there are influences on patient choice for delivery that also may influence the patient's decision to breastfeed.

  17. The Influence of Mode of Delivery on Breastfeeding Initiation in Women with a Prior Cesarean Delivery: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Amy; DeFranco, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study compared breastfeeding initiation following repeat cesarean delivery, successful vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), and unsuccessful trial of labor. Subjects and Methods We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of Ohio births (2006–2007) with a previous cesarean delivery. The primary outcomes were breastfeeding initiation rates among women with a previous cesarean delivery. Breastfeeding initiation rates were compared among three different delivery types: repeat cesarean delivery, successful VBAC, and unsuccessful trial of labor. Sociodemographic factors, medical risk factors, and pregnancy-related risk factors were also compared to assess influence on breastfeeding initiation rates. Results Women delivered by successful VBAC were 47% more likely to initiate breastfeeding than women delivered by scheduled repeat cesarean (adjusted relative risk 1.47; 95% confidence interval 1.35, 1.60). Women who ultimately delivered by cesarean section with unsuccessful trial of labor were also more likely to breastfeed than women with a scheduled repeat cesarean section (61% vs. 58.7%, respectively) (adjusted relative risk 1.17; 95% confidence interval 1.04, 1.33). Conclusions Patients who undergo a scheduled repeat cesarean delivery are less likely to initiate breastfeeding. Women who attempt and succeed in achieving vaginal birth after a previous cesarean section are more likely to breastfeed than are women who deliver by repeat cesarean section. Also, those women who ultimately deliver by cesarean section after an unsuccessful trial of labor were also more likely to breastfeed than those women with a scheduled repeat cesarean section. This suggests there are influences on patient choice for delivery that also may influence the patient's decision to breastfeed. PMID:23186385

  18. [A structural model for primiparas' breastfeeding behavior].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun-Joo; Seo, Ji-Min

    2013-06-01

    The study was done to construct and test a structural model to explain primipara breastfeeding behavior. The participants were 213 primiparas on postpartum wards. Data were analyzed using the PASW 18.0 and AMOS 19.0 programs. Fitness statistics for the hypothetical model were appropriate (χ² =38.50, p=.070, GFI=.96, RMSEA=.05, AGFI=.93, NFI=.95, TLI=.97, CFI=.98, PNFI=.57, χ²/df=1.43). Breastfeeding behaviors were directly influenced by intention to breastfeed, perceived effectiveness of breastfeeding, and the amount of supplementary feeding. The amount of supplementary feeding had the largest direct impact on breastfeeding behavior. The largest total effect on breastfeeding behavior was intention to breastfeed. The environment of the maternity hospital indirectly influenced breastfeeding behavior. These factors explained 18.9% of variance in the primipara breastfeeding behavior. The results of the study indicate that in order to promote primipara breastfeeding the amount of supplementary feeding immediately after the birth should be limited and an environment that encourages exclusive breastfeeding in the hospital should be provided. The results also suggest it is necessary to provide nursing interventions that increase the intention to breastfeed and the perceived effectiveness of breastfeeding.

  19. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother’s statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. Results: The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant’s illness (only up to six months), mother’s consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother’s educational level, child’s gender, place of birth, pregnancies’ interval, mother’s ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother’s breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child’s crying and discomfort. Conclusions: It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child’s gender as far as cultural

  20. Breast-feeding Continuation in South-Eastern of Iran: the Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Roostaee, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Zaboli, Maryam; Keykhaie, Razieh; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Shahrak, Paridokht; Soroush, Fatemeh

    2015-04-01

    Breast-feeding not only promotes health in an infancy period, but also leads to human vigor and safety at varied life periods viz. adolescence, youth, middle-age, or even adulthood. The present study was aimed to determine the factors affecting the breast-feeding continuation effectively for a selected region of Iran. This cross-sectional study was performed on 523 women having less than two year old babies from the selected counties covered by the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (Khash, Saravan, Sarbaz, Chabahar, Zahedan, Nikshahr, Iranshahr, and Konark) using the stratified sampling method. The Data was completed for the target group by using the check-list which included 3 parts: demographic data, case history of pregnancy, childbirth and mother's statue, and previous records of the newborn up to two years. The obtained data were fed into SPSS software, and all parametric and non-parametric statistical methods were used to analyze the data, especially appropriate to the data type. The results showed that the most important factors associated with breast-feeding discontinuation were infant's illness (only up to six months), mother's consciousness, parental support, practical breastfeeding training to the mother, mother's educational level, child's gender, place of birth, pregnancies' interval, mother's ethnicity and residence and the statue of taking (using) narcotics. The data also indicated that on maternal reasons the main factor which impelled most of the mothers to discontinue their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was milk shortage in mother's breasts. Moreover, the main child- related factor that compelled most of the mothers for non-continuance of their breast-feeding up to six months or even before two years was child's crying and discomfort. It can be safely concluded that promotion of parental education, neglecting child's gender as far as cultural context and preference of a son is considered, observance of pregnancy

  1. Nipple candidiasis among breastfeeding mothers. Case-control study of predisposing factors.

    PubMed Central

    Tanguay, K. E.; McBean, M. R.; Jain, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors that predispose breastfeeding mothers to nipple candidiasis. DESIGN: A retrospective case-control study of women attending the Calgary Breastfeeding Clinic. SETTING: Ambulatory breastfeeding referral centre. PARTICIPANTS: All women (105) who attended the clinic during a 3.5-month study period. All were referred for problems with breastfeeding; 27 (the case group) had positive diagnostic criteria for nipple candidiasis. The other 78 formed a control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: A patient information sheet, completed while taking a medical history, recorded the presence or absence of four possible predisposing factors. Two infant variables were also noted on physical examination. Patients were diagnosed as having or not having nipple candidiasis on the basis of specific clinical criteria, and statistics on other variables were compared for those with positive and with negative diagnoses. RESULTS: A statistically significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between nipple candidiasis and three factors: vaginal candidiasis (P = 0.001), previous antibiotic use (P = 0.036), and nipple trauma (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is required to establish clear causality. However, we recommend that physicians be suspicious of nipple candidiasis; avoid antibiotics or use the shortest effective course; treat yeast vaginitis during the third trimester and after delivery aggressively; and treat mothers for nipple yeast if babies have oral or diaper candidiasis. Breastfeeding mothers can also be counseled in preventive measures. PMID:8081120

  2. The relationship between psychological factors and maternal social support to breastfeeding process

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Mitra; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Aliyari, Roqayeh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Childbirth is a stressful factor that can trigger disorders such as depression in women. The various problems characteristic to the puerperal period make mothers more prone than ever to stress, anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to determine relationship between psychological factors and social support and breastfeeding process in mothers presenting to healthcare centers in Shahrood, Iran. Methods The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 465 mothers with infants aged one to six months, presenting to Shahrood healthcare centers in 2015–16. Data were obtained using a researcher-designed demographic and breastfeeding questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Data were analyzed in SPSS-18 using measures of central tendency, the Chi-square test, the t-test, Mann-Whitney’s test and Fisher’s exact test and Logistic Regression Model. The level of statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 68.4% in the study population. The results revealed a significant relationship between state and trait anxiety and exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.004 and p=0.006, respectively). According to the results of the logistic regression, each unit of increase in the mother’s mean state of anxiety protects the chances of non-exclusive breastfeeding up to about 54% (OR=0.462). Conclusion The findings suggest that maternal anxiety can reduce the chances of exclusive breastfeeding. It is therefore recommended to actively monitor and manage maternal anxiety in the postpartum period so as to support exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:28243407

  3. Factors contributing to early breast-feeding cessation among Chinese mothers: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Marie; Dodgson, Joan E; Wu, Kendra M

    2014-10-01

    Although more than 85% of all new mothers in Hong Kong now initiate breast feeding, few exclusively breast feed and the overall duration is short. More than one-third stop breast feeding within the first month post partum. To explore the breast-feeding experiences of Hong Kong Chinese mothers who prematurely discontinue breast feeding and to identify contributing factors that might be remediated to help women breast feed longer. Qualitative exploratory study. In-depth, exploratory interviews were carried out with 24 new mothers who stopped breast feeding within one month after birth, and content analysis was used to analyse the data. Five core themes emerged from the data: unnatural expectations, left to figure it out, uncertainty, unfulfilling experiences, and guilt versus relief. Because breast feeding is 'natural' participants expected that it would come naturally and thus be easy. When breast feeding did not happen naturally, however, midwives were too busy to provide breast-feeding support and mothers were left to figure it out on their own. Participants also reported difficulty in gauging whether the infant was getting adequate nutrition from their breastmilk. Few participants had positive breast-feeding experiences; while the decision to stop breast feeding caused guilt for most participants, others expressed relief at stopping breast feeding. Greater postnatal breast-feeding support, both in the hospital and after the mother returns home, would likely increase the mother׳s confidence and enhance her mothering experience. Further antenatal and postnatal education on the realistic breast-feeding expectations and the amount of breastmilk required by babies is also important. More research is needed to test professional and peer support breast-feeding interventions to provide guidance to policy makers on the most effective breast-feeding support strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factors determining the suspension of breast-feeding in an urban population group.

    PubMed

    Avila, H; Arroyo, P; García, D; Huerta, F; Díaz, R; Casanueva, E

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective study of breastfeeding patterns in a socioeconomically homogeneous sample of 2520 mothers visiting Mexican outpatient clinics was conducted. During May and June 1975, mothers attending the outpatient departments of 4 clinics of the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS) were interviewed. The mothers ranged in age from 15 to 48 years. In 56.1% of the cases, the child's father was a laborer; in 19.5% he performed domestic services activities; and in 15.9% he held a commercial or administrative position. 22.5% of the mothers did renumerative work. To analyze factors relating to the suspension of breastfeeding, the mothers who had practiced breastfeeding (i.e., had practiced it for a month or more) were divided into 2 groups: those who had fed their infants from the breast for 1-3 months, and those who had continued to do so for 4 months or more. In 1061 cases (42.7% of the total), the mothers cited a lack or insufficiency of milk; 1/2 the mothers citing this cause breastfed their infants but did so for only 1-3 months. Other common reasons given for early suspension of breastfeeding were that the child failed to accept the breast or hurt it, breast infection or maternal illness, sickness of the child, and job problems. Mothers who did not practice breastfeeding often cited absent or insufficient milk, growth of the child, rejection of the breast, or another pregnancy as their reasons. Powdered milk was used in 1868 cases and was particularly favored when breastfeeding was not practiced or was practiced for 3 months or less. In 662 cases some kind of substitute milk was introduced before breastfeeding ended.

  5. Factors affecting breast-feeding initiation in Greece: What is important?

    PubMed

    Tavoulari, Evangelia-Filothei; Benetou, Vassiliki; Vlastarakos, Petros V; Andriopoulou, Eirini; Kreatsas, George; Linos, Athena

    2015-02-01

    to investigate the association between breast-feeding initiation and socio-demographic, lifestyle-related, clinical and lactation-related factors in a sample of mothers living in Greece. cross-sectional study. Tertiary University Hospital, maternity ward. 428 mothers were interviewed (43.2% response rate) from February until December 2009, using a structured face-to-face questionnaire after at least 24 hours from childbirth. 71.0% of mothers were Greeks and 29.0% immigrants; the mean age was 32.0 years. 44.4% initiated exclusive breast feeding, 7.9% artificial milk -feeding and 47.7% partial feeding. In the multivariate analysis, exclusive breast feeding was inversely related to maternal body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of gestation (odds ratio (OR)=0.93, 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)=0.89-0.98) and caesarean section (OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.35-0.84). Lactation-related factors which favourably affected exclusive breast-feeding initiation included previous breast-feeding experience (OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.39-3.78), information about breast feeding (OR=2.38, 95% CI=1.41-4.01) and rooming-in (OR=1.62 95% CI=1.03-2.54), whilst any breast feeding was favourably affected by encouraging women to breast feed (OR=5.42, 95% CI=1.90-15.50), providing information about breast feeding (OR=6.92, 95% CI=2.53-18.89), and rooming-in (OR=6.93 95% CI=2.01-23.88), and negatively associated with caesarean section (OR=0.11, 95% CI=0.03-0.39). Being an immigrant mother was also positively associated with any breast-feeding initiation (OR=7.97, 95% CI=1.02-62.19). Maternal age, education and income, as well as, smoking status, were not associated with any breast-feeding initiation. maternal BMI and immigrant status, information provided by midwives and encouragement, rooming-in and mode of childbirth (caesarean section), were found to be important for breast-feeding initiation in this study population. No other indicator of socio-demographic status was found to be associated with breast-feeding

  6. Duration of breast-feeding in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Giashuddin, M S; Kabir, M

    2004-06-01

    The duration of exclusive breast-feeding in Bangladesh is low. Though several studies have been carried out on breast-feeding in Bangladesh, the factors influencing the duration of breast-feeding are not studied. The purpose of this study was to assess the duration of breast-feeding among children in Bangladesh and to study socio-economic and demographic factors affecting the duration. The study included 5068 mother-child pairs, selected on the basis of Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) of 1999-2000. The risk of giving supplementary food at different ages was estimated by life table survival method. Independent effects of total duration of breast-feeding of each of the study variables were estimated by using Cox's regression model. The median duration of full breast-feeding was 3.67 months whereas mean and median durations of total breast-feeding was 31.3 and 30 months respectively. Life table analysis showed that 69.9 per cent women gave supplementary food to their babies before reaching six months of age. Cox's regression analysis revealed that women who had lived in rural areas were less likely to terminate breast-feeding than those living in urban areas. Women who had completed at least secondary education were more likely to stop breast-feeding than less or uneducated mothers. Children born in high economic status families had higher risk of stopping breast-feeding compared to those in low economic status families. Further, the deliveries assisted by the relatives had lower risk of terminating breastfeeding than by the health professionals. According to the study results, women with higher education, high economic level, lower birth interval and delivery assisted by health personnel had lower duration of breastfeeding. Future breast-feeding programme in Bangladesh should give special attention to these women since they breast-feed relatively shorter periods of time.

  7. Polish women's experiences of breastfeeding in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Szafranska, Marcelina; Gallagher, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding among Polish mothers at three-four months (38.6 per cent) is in keeping with the low rates of breastfeeding in Ireland overall (Begley et al 2008), and suggests that Polish women have begun to adopt the infant feeding practices of Irish women. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the factors that influence Polish women's decisions to initiate and continue breastfeeding in Ireland. A descriptive qualitative approach was utilised to explore participants' perspectives of breastfeeding. Results showed that professional and family support are key to a successful breastfeeding experience for these mothers. Recommendations include further individualised support in order to meet the needs of Polish women breastfeeding in Ireland.

  8. Health factors which may interfere with breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Breast-feeding is the feeding method of choice for all normal infants because of its many advantages for the health of infants and mothers alike. There are, however, a number of situations—fortunately relatively infrequent—where infants cannot, or should not, be breast-fed. Such circumstances can be related to the health of infants or mothers; in either case, breast-milk substitutes may be needed for extended periods. In this context, it is useful to distinguish between infants who should not receive breast milk at all and infants who cannot be fed at the breast, but for whom breast milk is still the food of choice. There is also a tiny minority of infants who should not be fed either on breast milk or any milk-based substitute; special preparations are required in such cases. Finally, there are also a number of situations which are frequently thought to be an impediment to breast-feeding but which in fact generally are not; these, too, are discussed. PMID:20604469

  9. Social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hinde, P R; Mturi, A J

    1996-07-01

    Some social and economic factors related to breast-feeding durations in Tanzania are analysed using current status data taken from the 1991-92 Tanzanian Demographic and Health Survey. Proportional hazards and proportional odds models are estimated. The results show that breast-feeding durations vary according to the region of residence of the mother and child (and whether they are living in a rural or an urban area), the age of the mother at the time of the birth, the order of the birth, and the mother's religion.

  10. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  11. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  12. [Immigration, breastfeeding and smoking habit].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Bayle, M; Cano Fernández, C; García García, M C; Yep Chullen, G; Pérez Suárez, E

    2008-05-01

    The advantages of breastfeeding for child and mother are widely recognised. Many factors seem to influence the mother's decision of breastfeed. The immigrant state of parents is one of the relevant factors considered. Previous studies founded higher breastfeeding rates among the immigrant population. The present work studies the rates of starting and duration of breastfeeding in the Spanish native population and in immigrants, as well as its relationship with other factors, such as tobacco habit and other perinatal factors. The study included 911 children over a 10 months period. Age, sex, pregnancy duration, birth weight, parents' age, parent's smoking habits and smoking during pregnancy and their relationship the starting and duration of breastfeeding (OR and 95 % CI was obtained) in both immigrant and native population groups and a final multivariate analysis was performed for the starting of breastfeeding and continuing it at three months, including all studied variables. Immigrant and Native population were similar in all variables apart from mother age and smoking habit. Only mother smoking status (initial: OR 0.610 [ 0.429-0.867]; three months: OR 0.540 [0.458-0.636]) and birth weight (initial: OR 0.411 [0.268-0.629]; three months: OR 0.525 [0.407-0.677]) reached statistical significance in the final multivariate analysis. Our findings show that smoking habit and low birth weight are risk factors for not breastfeeding. Immigration status seems to be a confounding factor.

  13. Influence of mother's occupation and education on breast-feeding and weaning in infants and children in Makurdi, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Igbedioh, S O

    1994-01-01

    The influence of Mother's Occupation and education on breastfeeding and weaning in infants and children in Makurdi was investigated. A pre-tested and validated standard questionnaire was used to collect data from 100 healthy randomly-selected mothers who regularly visited the post-natal health clinics in Makurdi. The result showed that occupation and education influenced the frequency and duration of breastfeeding, in addition to the nutritional quality and the type of weaning food fed.

  14. Programmes to promote breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, E F

    1986-03-01

    Modern concepts about the development of breastfeeding programs are presented focusing on the need for community analysis, the importance of changing attitudes and stimulating motivation in the general public, and both small-scale and national level programs. Some form of community analysis is essential to develop a breastfeeding program. Information needs to be gathered on the prevalence of breastfeeding and the main social factors influencing the lactation reflexes, maternal knowledge about practical management, and the health of mothers. Experience suggests that this can most usefully be obtained by covering 4 topics: general information and attitudes, health services, women in the work force, and the influence of the infant food industry. From all 4 sources, information needs to be gathered on anxiety inducing factors and the limitation of opportunities for sucking, on the knowledge of the practical management of breastfeeding (modern versus traditional methods) by mothers, and on maternal health and nutrition. Breastfeeding programs need to change attitudes and to simulate motivation in the general public and particularly among mothers and fathers. In addition, programs need to convince and motivate other groups whose actions can support breastfeeding or make its accomplishment easier or more difficult. These groups include policymakers and legislators, health workers of various types, research scientists, and industrialists and the infant food industry. For the health professional, there are several procedures which need to be modified, including "rooming-in." Breastfeeding programs have been undertaken successfully on a relatively small scale, often in hospitals, by modifying existing maternity unit practices. The most significant "package" of activities for the hospital is "rooming-in." Positive results are available from hospitals in several European and various less technically developed countries. Various countries have shown an increase in breastfeeding

  15. Longer breastfeeding is an independent protective factor against development of type 1 diabetes mellitus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Sadauskaite-Kuehne, Vaiva; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Padaiga, Zilvinas; Jasinskiene, Edita; Samuelsson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    Early weaning diet, early introduction of breast milk substitution and cow's milk have been shown to increase the risk of type 1 diabetes later in life. It is also shown that older maternal age, maternal education, preeclampsia, prematurity, neonatal illness and neonatal icterus caused by blood group incompatibility, infections and stress might be risk factors for type 1 diabetes. We aimed to determine whether early nutrition is an independent risk factor for diabetes despite other life events. Data from 517 children (268 boys and 249 girls) in south-east of Sweden and 286 children (133 boys and 153 girls) in Lithuania in the age group of 0 to 15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus were included into analysis. Three age- and sex-matched healthy controls were randomly selected. Response rate in control families in Sweden was 72.9% and in Lithuania 94.8%. Information was collected via questionnaires. Exclusive breastfeeding longer than five months (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.36-0.81) and total breastfeeding longer than 7 (0.56, 0.38-0.84) or 9 months (0.61, 0.38-0.84), breastfeeding substitution that started later than the third month (0.57, 0.33-0.98) among Swedish children 5 to 9 years old and later than the seventh month (0.24, 0.07-0.84) among all Swedish children is protective against diabetes when adjusted for all other above-listed risk factors. In Lithuania, exclusive breastfeeding longer than two months in the age group of 5 to 9 years is protective (0.58, 0.34-0.99) when adjusted for other factors. Longer exclusive and total breastfeeding appears as an independent protective factor against type 1 diabetes. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Breastfeeding practices in a hospital-based study of Vietnamese women.

    PubMed

    Ramoo, Shamini; Trinh, Tuyet Anh; Hirst, Jane Elizabeth; Jeffery, Heather Elizabeth

    2014-11-01

    The benefits of breastfeeding to both maternal and infant health are vast and widely known. The aim of this study was to elicit the rates of exclusive breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, and colostrum feeding and to determine the attitudes, knowledge, and influences around breastfeeding in postpartum Vietnamese women. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hung Vuong Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, between December 2010 and January 2011. Postpartum women were randomly selected and interviewed within 48 hours of delivery. Of the 223 women interviewed, 86% had initiated breastfeeding at the time of the interview. Modes of feeding included exclusive breastfeeding (7%), mixed feeding (79%), which included breastmilk and formula or water, and exclusive formula feeding (14%). Of the breastfeeding women, 14% had initiated breastfeeding within 60 minutes of delivery, 92% had initiated within 24 hours, and 8% had initiated after 24 hours of delivery. Of women who had initiated breastfeeding, 37% had discarded their colostrum. Factors that positively influenced breastfeeding were knowledge that breastfeeding is good for the infant, advice obtained from "public information," and the influence of health professionals and family on the decision to breastfeed. Factors that influenced the decision not to initiate breastfeeding included pain or fever after cesarean section and perceived lack of breastmilk after delivery. The rate of exclusive breastfeeding at Hung Vuong Hospital in this study was lower than the national average of 17%. Specific interventions targeting this must be formulated to increase these rates.

  17. Initiation of Breastfeeding and Factors Associated with Prelacteal Feeds in Central Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H; Khanal, Vishnu; Binns, Colin W

    2014-08-01

    Prelacteal feeds and delayed initiation of breastfeeding may lead to undernutrition of the infant but are still prevalent in many countries. A prospective cohort community-based study was conducted in central Nepal to ascertain the rate of early breastfeeding initiation and factors associated with the introduction of prelacteal feeds. Breastfeeding information was collected from 639 women who recently gave birth in the Kaski district of central Nepal. Backward stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the use of prelacteal feeds. The incidence of prelacteal feeds was 9.1%, with infant formula being the most common prelacteal food. Approximately 67% and 90% of mothers breastfed within 1 hour and 4 hours of delivery, respectively. Women who reside in urban areas (odds ratio [OR] = 2.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-5.39), first-time mothers (OR = 2.15; 95% CI, 1.15-4.02), and those who underwent cesarean section (OR = 10.10; 95% CI, 5.47-18.67) were more likely to give prelacteal feeds to their infants. The early initiation of breastfeeding with colostrum as the first feed was common in the study area. The introduction of prelacteal feeds was associated with urban residency, first-time motherhood, and cesarean delivery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Factors affecting exclusive breast-feeding during the first 6 months in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myo Jing; Kim, Yu-Mi; Yoo, Jae-Ho

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the status of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in Korea and analyze the factors affecting exclusive breast-feeding at 6 months of age. This study was based on data obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) IV, conducted from January 2007 to December 2008. A total of 404 mother-infant pairs were recruited. Exclusive breast-feeding was defined according to the criteria established by the World Health Organization. The rate of EBF was 60.9% for 1 month, 55.0% for 3 months, 35.4% for 6 months, 3.7% for 9 months and 1.2% for 12 months after birth. According to a stepwise logistic regression analysis, factors that were positively associated with EBF at 6 months were younger maternal age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.79-0.92), higher maternal education level (OR = 2.29, 95%CI: 1.17-4.46) and living in a capital city (OR = 2.64, 95%CI: 1.46-4.75). The rate of EBF in Korea is still suboptimal. To promote EBF, persistent and systematic education and campaigns for breast-feeding should be provided, particularly in vulnerable regions. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  19. The influence of social support on the duration of breast-feeding among antenatal patients in Ibadan.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, O; Aimakhu, C O; Bello, F A; Motayo, V O; Ogunleye, A A; Odunukan, O W; Ojengbede, O A

    2007-11-01

    In Nigeria, breast-feeding has been shown to be very closely related to infant survival. Prolonged and adequate breast-feeding is critical to most infants' nutritional health and growth. This study aims to determine the influence of family support on the duration of exclusive and total breast-feeding of infants of antenatal patients. This cross-sectional study was conducted between 1 September and 30 December 2005. The tool was a structured questionnaire. The main outcome variables were the duration of breast-feeding; both total and exclusive explanatory variables were mainly related to support obtained during breast-feeding from husband and older female relations. Husbands support significantly increased the total duration of breast-feeding by a mean of 1.69 months (95% CI 0.88, 2.51), however, exclusive breast-feeding was not significantly affected by the husband's support (OR 0.94; 95% CI 0.63, 1.39). Female support had a significant influence on both the total duration of breast-feeding which is increased by a mean of 1.08 months (95% CI 0.14, 2.02), and the adequate conduct of exclusive breast-feeding (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.17, 2.86). The cultural practice of having additional female support in the postpartum period has been shown by this study to be beneficial. Therefore, this cultural practice should be encouraged and catalogued as a beneficial cultural practice. This practice is also cheap and sustainable.

  20. Breastfeeding attitudes among couples planning exclusive breastfeeding or mixed feeding.

    PubMed

    Chezem, Jo Carol

    2012-06-01

    The goals of the study were to describe maternal and paternal attitudes toward breastfeeding among couples planning exclusive breastfeeding and those planning mixed feeding and to compare maternal predictions of paternal attitudes with actual paternal attitudes. Expectant parents with the intention to breastfeed were recruited from outpatient clinics. During the third trimester of pregnancy, mothers and fathers independently completed a demographic questionnaire and a breastfeeding attitude survey. In addition, mothers were asked to predict fathers' attitudes. Seventy-one subjects completed all study requirements: 56 planned to exclusively breastfeed, and 15 planned to mix feed. The majority of subjects were white, educated beyond high school, and married. Expectant parents planning to exclusively breastfeed were significantly more likely to report higher paternal age (p=0.019), higher maternal age (p=0.006), and higher maternal education (p=0.023) than those planning to mix feed. Among fathers, those planning exclusive breastfeeding expressed more favorable attitudes related to naturalness (p=0.009) and closeness (p=0.036) than their mixed-feeding peers. Compared with mothers planning mixed feeding, those planning exclusive breastfeeding indicated more favorable attitudes related to naturalness (p=0.006) and respect for breastfeeding women (p=0.005). Overall, mothers reported more favorable attitudes toward breastfeeding than fathers in several areas, including disease protection (p=0.004), respect for breastfeeding women (p=0.043), and naturalness (p=0.011). The mother's predictions were less favorable than the father's actual attitudes in the areas of purpose of breasts (p=0.007), respect (p=0.049), and closeness (p=0.024). Results suggest expectant parents who plan to mix feed may be fundamentally different from those planning to exclusively breastfeed. There is a continued need to identify factors that influence the prenatal decision to mix feed and to develop

  1. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p < 0.001). Children breastfed for at least 12 months had significantly higher average scores, regardless of bottle-feeding or pacifier use. Children who were breastfed for longer were more likely to score satisfactorily across all tested parameters. Conclusions Breastfeeding has a positive impact on mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  2. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; de Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro; de Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life in Brazil. METHODS Systematic review of epidemiological studies conducted in Brazil with exclusive breastfeeding as outcome. Medline and LILACS databases were used. After the selection of articles, a hierarchical theoretical model was proposed according to the proximity of the variable to the outcome. RESULTS Of the 67 articles identified, we selected 20 cross-sectional studies and seven cohort studies, conducted between 1998 and 2010, comprising 77,866 children. We identified 36 factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding, being more often associated the distal factors: place of residence, maternal age and education, and the proximal factors: maternal labor, age of the child, use of a pacifier, and financing of primary health care. CONCLUSIONS The theoretical model developed may contribute to future research, and factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding may subsidize public policies on health and nutrition. PMID:26759970

  3. Perspectives of common breastfeeding situations: a known group comparison.

    PubMed

    Libbus, M K

    1992-12-01

    Infant feeding choice is influenced by social and cultural factors, as reflected in sociodemographic correlates of breastfeeding, which show consistently low breastfeeding rates among women from low-income populations. This study examines attitudes and beliefs that are thought to affect feeding choice and breastfeeding behavior among diverse social and cultural groups. A breastfeeding behavior questionnaire asking women to respond to a variety of breastfeeding situations presented as narratives was administered to members of a La Leche League group and to a group of WIC participants. Results support the idea that different social groups of women display divergent attitudes toward and perceptions of breastfeeding. Although small sample size prohibits generalization of results, the findings reinforce the necessity of designing breastfeeding education programs within specific cultural contexts.

  4. Modeling the physiological factors that affect drug delivery from a nipple shield delivery system to breastfeeding infants.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Stephen E; Orlu-Gul, Mine; Tuleu, Catherine; Slater, Nigel K H

    2013-10-01

    An apparatus was designed to mimic lactation from a human breast. It was used to determine the influence of milk fat content and flow rate, and suction pulse rate of a breastfeeding infant upon the release of a model compound from a nipple shield delivery system (NSDS). The NSDS would be worn by a mother to deliver drugs and nutrients to her infant during breastfeeding. Sulforhodamine B dye (SB) was used as model compound and formulated as a dispersible tablet to be placed within the NSDS. Increasing suction pulse rate from 30 to 120 pulses/min clearly correlated with increased cumulative release of SB for the same volume of milk passed through the NSDS. No distinct correlation was found between flow rates (1, 5, and 8 mL/min) and SB release, possibly because of competing factors controlling release rate at different flow rates. A highly similar SB release rate into two fat content fluids (2.9 and 4.2 wt %) was observed for identical flow conditions. This proof of concept study outlines a novel method to mimic lactation from a breast, and future studies will lead to effective methods to identify key physiological factors that influence drug release from a NSDS. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  5. Influence of pregnancy and breast-feeding on quantitative ultrasonometry of bone in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hadji, P; Ziller, V; Kalder, M; Gottschalk, M; Hellmeyer, L; Hars, O; Schmidt, S; Schulz, K-D

    2002-09-01

    Reproductive factors such as parity and breast-feeding may be associated with low bone mass and osteoporotic fractures in later years. In this study, os calcis quantitative ultrasonometry was used to elucidate the relationship between parity, lactation and bone mass in postmenopausal women. This was a comparison study using subsequent matched pairs analysis as well as multiple linear regression analysis. The study was carried out at five centers in Germany. The study included 2,080 postmenopausal women (age (mean +/- SD) 58.8 +/- 8.2 years), who were attending for routine check-up and in whom diseases and drug treatments known to affect bone metabolism had been excluded. Women underwent quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS) measurement at the heel. Values of the ultrasonometry variables -speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness index -were calculated and compared for nulliparous and parous women and for women who had and had not breast-fed. Because of some significant intergroup differences, and to determine any effect of the number of live births and the duration of breast-feeding on ultrasonometry results, second analyses were undertaken using equally sized samples, matched for possible confounding variables such as age and body mass index (matched pairs). In these analyses, nulliparous women were compared with parous women, grouped according to number of live births, and women who had never breast-fed were compared with women who had breast-fed, grouped according to duration of breast-feeding. Furthermore, a multiple linear regression analysis was performed to examine the combined effects of reproductive factors on QUS variables. No statistically significant associations were found between ultrasonometry variables and parity or breast-feeding, even after controlling for confounding variables in matched-pairs analysis or in a multiple linear regression analysis.

  6. Predictors of Breastfeeding Attitudes Among College-Educated African Americans.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding initiation among African American women has reached 60%; however, it is the lowest rate among all races. This racial disparity is a public health concern considering the impact of breastfeeding on infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore breastfeeding exposure and determinants of breastfeeding attitudes among African Americans. The theory of planned behavior guided this study focusing on the impact of background factors on determinants of breastfeeding attitudes. This secondary analysis included 348 African American college students with a mean age of 22 years with no children. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and a demographic questionnaire were used to collect data. A significant association between knowing someone who breastfed her infant and being breastfed as an infant (p < .001) was observed. Although gender, education, and breastfeeding exposure explained 15% of the variance in breastfeeding attitudes, being breastfed as an infant had no significant (p = .611) contribution. Breastfeeding exposure to someone who has breastfed her infant is a modifiable factor that influenced positive breastfeeding attitudes. Therefore, it is essential to identify strategies in practice to increase breastfeeding exposure for vulnerable populations in efforts to improve breastfeeding attitudes, intentions, and initiation.

  7. Case–control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition. PMID:24902596

  8. Case-control study of risk factors for infectious mastitis in Spanish breastfeeding women.

    PubMed

    Mediano, Pilar; Fernández, Leónides; Rodríguez, Juan M; Marín, María

    2014-06-06

    The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. We conducted a case-control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.

  9. Breastfeeding increases microbial community resilience.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Ramos, Isabel I; Duarte, Rubens T D; Brandt, Katia; Martinez, Marina B; Taddei, Carla R

    2017-09-05

    Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors. Fecal samples were collected from 11 infants monthly during the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding clinical and diet information and characterized according to breastfeeding practices. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of each child and subjected to denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. The results revealed a pattern of similarity between the time points for those who were on exclusive breastfeeding or predominant breastfeeding. Although there were changes in intensity and fluctuation of some bands, the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis patterns in the one-year microbial analysis were stable for breastfeeding children. There was uninterrupted ecological succession despite the influence of external factors, such as complementary feeding and antibiotic administration, suggesting microbiota resilience. This was not observed for those children who had mixed feeding and introduction of solid food before the 5(th) month of life. These results suggested an intestinal microbiota pattern resilient to external forces, due to the probiotic and prebiotic effects of exclusive breastfeeding, reinforcing the importance of exclusive breastfeeding until the 6(th) month of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of breastfeeding on the risk factors for metabolic syndrome in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, N; Shoji, H; Murano, Y; Mori, M; Matsunaga, N; Suganuma, H; Ikeno, M; Hisata, K; Hirayama, S; Ueno, T; Miida, T; Shimizu, T

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that breastfeeding during infancy lowers the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its attendant risk factors in adult life. To investigate the influence of feeding type on the risk factors of MS, we assessed insulin sensitivity and lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism in preterm infants. Blood samples were collected from preterm infants at the time of discharge. Infants were separated into two groups: a breast milk (BM) group receiving ⩾90% of their intake from BM, and a mixed-fed (MF) group receiving ⩾50% of their intake from formula. The following indices were then compared between the two groups. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were used to calculate the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). We also measured serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc), apolipoprotein-A1 (apoA1) and apolipoprotein-B (apoB) levels, and the ratios of TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1. The mean gestational age was 32.9 weeks at birth, and blood samples were collected at a mean corrected age of 37.4 weeks. There were 22 infants in the BM group and 19 in the MF group. QUICKI was significantly higher in the BM group. TC, HDLc and apoA1 were not significantly different between the groups, but LDLc and apoB levels were significantly higher in the BM group. The TC/HDLc, LDLc/HDLc and apoB/apoA1 ratios were significantly higher in the BM group. In preterm infants, the type of feeding exposure in the early postnatal period may influence glucose, lipid and apolipoprotein metabolism, and affect markers of MS.

  11. Chemotherapy, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors in human milk: how should we counsel cancer patients about breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Pistilli, Barbara; Bellettini, Giulia; Giovannetti, Elisa; Codacci-Pisanelli, Giovanni; Azim, Hatem A; Benedetti, Giovanni; Sarno, Maria Anna; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2013-05-01

    An increasing number of women are diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy and lactation. Women are usually advised to interrupt breastfeeding during systemic anticancer treatment for fear of serious adverse effects to the nursed infant. However, the issue is poorly addressed in the literature and very few studies have evaluated the safety of breastfeeding during or after cytotoxic drugs or target agents administration. In this review we will analyze the available evidence that addresses the issue of anticancer drugs, targeted agents, antiemetics and growth-factors excretion in human milk. This could serve as a unique resource that may aid physicians in the management of breastfeeding cancer patients interested in maintaining lactation during treatment.

  12. Contraception and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pieh Holder, Kelly Lynne

    2015-12-01

    Postpartum contraception is important to lengthening birth intervals and improving the health of women and children. For breastfeeding women the choice and timing of contraception may influence breastfeeding and infant growth patterns. Nonhormonal methods of contraception are the preferred choice for breastfeeding women. Progestin-only methods comprise a viable next option. Combined hormonal methods of contraception containing estrogen and progestin may be considered as a third option for birth control in breastfeeding women. The objective of this chapter is to review the current literature and recommendations for the use of hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception while breastfeeding.

  13. Relationship between breastfeeding factors and breast cancer in women referred to Seyed Al-Shohada Hospital in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Mehdiabad, Farahnaz; Savabi-Esfahani, Mitra; Mokaryan, Fariborz; Kazemi, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and a major cause of cancer deaths among women. Breastfeeding is presented as a probable protective factor against breast cancer, however, the effect of different breastfeeding patterns and duration of breastfeeding on this factor is not well determined. Thus, the aim of this research was to evaluate factors related to breastfeeding and breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This case–control study was conducted on 98 women with breast cancer and 198 healthy women who were selected through systematic random sampling method. Studied variables included demographic characteristics, reproduction characteristics, duration of breastfeeding, and breastfeeding pattern. The study variables were measured using a researcher-made questionnaire through self-report method. The two groups were matched in terms of place of residence and age. The data analysis was performed using logistic regression. Results: A relationship was observed between breast cancer and marital status (P = 0.04), education level (P = 0.02), individuals’ perspectives of their economic status (P = 0.001), and lack of breastfeeding (P = 0.006). However, no relationship was found between breast cancer and reproductive factors. Moreover, multiple logistic regression analysis results showed that breast cancer only had a relationship with individuals’ perspectives of their economic status with OR of 0.31 (95% CI: 0.16–0.59). Conclusions: The results showed that there was no relationship between breast cancer and reproductive factors and breastfeeding pattern. Due to the difference between the findings of this research and other researches, genetic, epigenetic, and cultural differences must be considered in the evaluation of risk factors for breast cancer. PMID:28194204

  14. Influences of household structure and composition on breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Deang, L P; Doan, R M; Popkin, B M

    1988-01-01

    Researchers applied longitudinal data on 2884 women who were at least 6 months pregnant between May 1983-April 1984 and living in the Cebu metropolitan area, the Philippines to examine assumptions which may explain the association between lower breast feeding levels and dwindling social support for mothers who breast feed in urban areas. Extended family households were much more common in urban areas than rural areas (46.3% vs. 27.5%). This finding did not support the 3rd assumption of falling extended family patterns with urbanization. Further as the levels of complexity and extension of the household rose so did infant care support regardless of location. For example, the number of hours of help with infant care for mothers in nuclear families in urban areas was 1.23 which climbed from 2.53 for horizontal extended families to 2.9 for vertical extended families and to 3.09 for horizontal and vertical extended families. This result supported the 2nd assumption of much more social support in extended families than nuclear families. Yet social support did not translate into promotion of breast feeding--the 1st assumption. Mothers in horizontally extended families had a lower likelihood of breast feeding than those in nuclear families. Further only adult female relatives of the same generation as the mother has a negative influence on breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In fact, female children of at least 7 years old, female servants, and yayas all negatively affect breast feeding in urban mothers, but not rural mothers. In rural households, young female relatives (at least 7 years old) significantly increased the probability of breast feeding whereas young male relatives decreased the probability.

  15. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Timor-Leste: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; da Cruz, Jonia Lourenca Nunes Brites; Karkee, Rajendra; Lee, Andy H

    2014-04-22

    Exclusive breastfeeding is known to have nutritional and health benefits. This study investigated factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among infants aged five months or less in Timor-Leste. The latest data from the national Demographic and Health Survey 2009-2010 were analyzed by binary logistic regression. Of the 975 infants included in the study, overall 49% (95% confidence interval 45.4% to 52.7%) were exclusively breastfed. The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence declined with increasing infant age, from 68.0% at less than one month to 24.9% at five months. Increasing infant age, mothers with a paid occupation, who perceived their newborn as non-average size, and residence in the capital city Dili, were associated with a lower likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. On the other hand, women who could decide health-related matters tended to breastfeed exclusively, which was not the case for others whose decisions were made by someone else. The results suggested the need of breastfeeding promotion programs to improve the exclusive breastfeeding rate. Antenatal counseling, peer support network, and home visits by health workers could be feasible options to promote exclusive breastfeeding given that the majority of births occur at home.

  16. Perceptions of Public Breastfeeding Images and Their Association With Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitudes Among an Internet Panel of Men Ages 21-44 in the United States.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Brianna M; Thackeray, Callie R; Van Wagenen, Sarah A; Davis, Siena F; Richards, Rickelle; Merrill, Ray M

    2017-02-01

    Men's attitudes toward public breastfeeding may influence a woman's decisions about breastfeeding and her perceived comfort with public breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to evaluate factors associated with men's visual perception of images of public breastfeeding. A 95-item online survey was administered to 502 U.S. men ages 21 to 44. Respondents were presented with four images of women breastfeeding and asked to evaluate agreement with 15 adjectives describing each image. Based on factor analysis, 13 of these adjectives were combined to create the Breastfeeding Images Scale for each image. An 8-item Situational Statements Scale and the 17-item Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS) were used to assess breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes. Multiple regression was used to evaluate the association between breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge and the Breastfeeding Images Scale. The image depicting a woman breastfeeding privately at home had the highest mean score of 71.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) [70.69, 73.22], on the Breastfeeding Images Scale, compared with 61.93, 95% CI [60.51, 63.36], for the image of a woman breastfeeding in a public setting. The overall mean scale score for the IIFAS was 56.99, 95% CI [56.27, 57.70], and for the Situational Statements Scale was 28.80, 95% CI [27.92, 29.69]. For all images, increasing breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes measured by the IIFAS and the Situational Statements Scale were associated with a more positive perception of the image. Images of public breastfeeding are viewed less favorably by men in the sample than are images of private breastfeeding. Knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding are positively associated with perception of breastfeeding images.

  17. [Breastfeeding: health benefits for child and mother].

    PubMed

    Turck, D; Vidailhet, M; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Chouraqui, J-P; Darmaun, D; Dupont, C; Frelut, M-L; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Simeoni, U

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of breastfeeding in France is one of the lowest in Europe: 65% of infants born in France in 2010 were breastfed when leaving the maternity ward. Exclusive breastfeeding allows normal growth until at least 6 months of age, and can be prolonged until the age of 2 years or more, provided that complementary feeding is started after 6 months. Breast milk contains hormones, growth factors, cytokines, immunocompetent cells, etc., and has many biological properties. The composition of breast milk is influenced by gestational and postnatal age, as well as by the moment of the feed. Breastfeeding is associated with slightly enhanced performance on tests of cognitive development. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 3 months is associated with a lower incidence and severity of diarrhoea, otitis media and respiratory infection. Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months is associated with a lower incidence of allergic disease (asthma, atopic dermatitis) during the first 2 to 3 years of life in at-risk infants (infants with at least one first-degree relative presenting with allergy). Breastfeeding is also associated with a lower incidence of obesity during childhood and adolescence, as well as with a lower blood pressure and cholesterolemia in adulthood. However, no beneficial effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality has been shown. Maternal infection with hepatitis B and C virus is not a contraindication to breastfeeding, as opposed to HIV infection and galactosemia. A supplementation with vitamin D and K is necessary in the breastfed infant. Very few medications contraindicate breastfeeding. Premature babies can be breastfed and/or receive mother's milk and/or bank milk, provided they receive energy, protein and mineral supplements. Return to prepregnancy weight is earlier in breastfeeding mothers during the 6 months following delivery. Breastfeeding is also associated with a decreased risk of breast and ovarian cancer in the

  18. Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: power, beliefs and decision making.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Margaret E; Dee, Deborah L; Jensen, Joan L

    2003-01-01

    Breastfeeding rates among African-American women lag behind all other ethnic groups. National data show that only 45% of African-American women reported ever breastfeeding compared to 66 and 68% of Hispanic and white women, respectively. Of African-American women who do choose to breastfeed, duration is short, with many discontinuing in the first days after birth. This report applies a social ecological framework to breastfeeding to investigate macrolevel-microlevel linkages. We posit that macrolevel factors, such as the media, aggressive marketing of breastmilk substitutes, welfare reform, hospital policy and breastfeeding legislation, interact with microlevel factors to influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. These microlevel factors include features of the community, neighborhoods, workplaces that support or discourage breastfeeding, social and personal networks and cultural norms and individual beliefs about breastfeeding. The report discusses how power operates at each level to influence women's choices and also emphasizes the value of ethnographic data in breastfeeding studies. Through a case study of a sample of low income, African-American women living in Baltimore, MD, where breastfeeding role models are few, beliefs that discourage breastfeeding are many, and where everyday life is full of danger and fear, it is understandable that breastfeeding is not considered practical. The narrative data provide important information that can be used to enhance intervention efforts. To reach the Surgeon General's Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding goals requires a shift in cultural norms and structures at all levels that will support breastfeeding for all women.

  19. [Breastfeeding as a protective factor against overweight and obesity among pre-school children].

    PubMed

    Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. [Determinants of breastfeeding in the Brussels Region].

    PubMed

    Robert, E; Coppieters, V; Swennen, B; Dramaix, M

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this paper is to study the prevalence of breastfeeding in Brussels, to assess whether the targets of the Maternal and Child Health program (MCH) were met (prevalence's of breastfeeding of 85 and 75% of exclusive breastfeeding) and finally to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at the birth. The cross-sectional survey is representative of children 18 to 24 months living in Brussels. Data on breastfeeding are anamnestic and retrospective. A face to face questionnaire was administered by trained investigators, 16 questions about breastfeeding as well socio-demographic information were collected from 544 mothers. The survey took place in 2012. At the birth, 83.3% (95% CI 80.1-86.4) of mothers exclusively breastfed and 9.7% of the mothers (7.3-12.2) partially. When discharged from maternity unit, 80.9% (77.6-84.2) of mothers breastfed exclusively and 9.7% (7.3-12.2) partially. When fitting a logistic model, predictors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at the birth were gestation, type of birth, father's education level and the main influencing factor was the partner's attitude. The targets of the MCH were reached in Brussels. Until now, transversal surveys are the only way of knowing the prevalence and the factors associated with breastfeeding in Brussels. These first representative data on breastfeeding came from the 2012 vaccine coverage survey. Given the primary role of the father in choosing a breastfeeding it is necessary that the father is more often taken into account in regard to the promotion of AM during the prenatal period. A rigorous use of definitions of AM should be systematized.

  1. [Factors affecting the duration of maternal breast-feeding in a cohort of urban mothers studied longitudinally].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, F J; Cravioto, A

    1989-11-01

    A prospective study on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding in a cohort of urban women of the city of Tlaxcala was carried-out in a private pediatric clinic from January, 1983 to December, 1987. In a total of 547 women studied, breastfeeding had a median of three months, and only 5% of the children continued to be breastfed at one year of age. Family tradition of breastfeeding, late introduction of solid foods and/or whole milk and less formal education of the mother were factors related with breastfeeding beyond three months. About 70% of the mothers weaned their children claiming a rejection of the breast-milk by the child, a lack of sufficient quantity to fulfill the child's needs or because of their work outside the home.

  2. [Prevalence of factors associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life in the INMA birth cohort in Gipuzkoa].

    PubMed

    Oribe, Madalen; Lertxundi, Aitana; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Santa Marina, Loreto; Villar, María; Dorronsoro, Miren; Amiano, Pilar; Ibarluzea, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EB) during the first 6 months of life in the Gipuzkoa birth cohort, identify the reasons for abandonment of EB, and establish the associated factors. The study population consisted of 638 pregnant women from the INMA-Gipuzkoa (Infancia y Medio Ambiente, www.proyectoinma.org) birth cohort, who were followed up from the third trimester of pregnancy until the child was aged 14 months. To determine the factors related to abandonment of EB, logistic regression models were used in two different stages (4 months or early stage and 6 months or late stage). The prevalence of EB within the Gipuzkoa cohort was 84.8% after hospital discharge, 53.7% at 4 months of life and 15.4% at 6 months of life. The reasons given by the mothers for early EB cessation were: breastfeeding problems, low weight gain and hypogalactia. Other factors influencing the early phase were the intention to provide EB, parity, area of residence and social class. Abandonment in the late stage was influenced by the length of maternity leave. From a public health perspective, the results of this study could help health professionals to develop strategies to support breastfeeding mothers, taking into account the main reasons for early and late abandonment. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor

    PubMed Central

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. Design A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. Subjects 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. Results The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Conclusion Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key pointsBreastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors’ advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that:GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding.GPs had

  4. Norwegian general practitioners' knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding, and their self-rated ability as breastfeeding counsellor.

    PubMed

    Svendby, Heidi R; Løland, Beate F; Omtvedt, Marianne; Holmsen, Solveig T; Lagerløv, Per

    2016-06-01

    Breastfeeding is considered the best infant-feeding method. Norway is one of the leading countries in terms of breastfeeding initiation and duration. To maintain this high breastfeeding rate, it is important to understand the factors that influence breastfeeding. A doctor s advice can improve the rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration, but not all doctors are competent in breastfeeding counselling. The aim of this study was to identify the knowledge and beliefs of general practitioners (GPs) about breastfeeding in Norway and to investigate how important they considered guidance about breastfeeding initiation and duration before and after birth. A questionnaire study about knowledge and beliefs according to predefined correct responses and about self-perceived competence as an advisor. 122 GPs engaged in apprenticeship for medical students. The response rate was 57%, 69 GPs participated. The questions were answered correctly according to national consensus for 49 % for the knowledge items and 64 % of the belief items. The GPs believed that their guidance was more important after than before birth. Female GPs had more confidence in their guidance ability than male GPs. Confidence in the GPs own guidance after birth was associated with knowledge about contraindications to breastfeeding. Although the GPs expressed beliefs favouring breastfeeding they partly lacked basic knowledge. The GPs confidence in own guidance was better after than before birth and was higher among those with more knowledge. Improved knowledge and emphasis on guidance before birth should be promoted among GPs. Key points Breastfeeding is the best infant-feeding method. Doctors' advice improves the rates of breastfeeding, but not all doctors have sufficient knowledge. This study mapped the knowledge and beliefs among Norwegian GPs. The study revealed that: GPs partly lacked basic knowledge to effectively promote breastfeeding. GPs had less confidence as advisers during pregnancy than after

  5. Factors associated with not breastfeeding exclusively among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Butler, Sarnia; Williams, Maynard; Tukuitonga, Colin; Paterson, Janis

    2004-06-04

    This study investigated the association between not breastfeeding exclusively (among mothers of a cohort of Pacific infants in New Zealand) and several maternal, sociodemographic, and infant care factors. The data were gathered as part of the Pacific Islands Families (PIF) Study. Infant feeding information was obtained through interviews with mothers (6 weeks post-birth) and from hospital records for 1247 of the 1365 biological mothers. Factors significantly associated with not exclusively breastfeeding at hospital discharge included smoking, unemployment prior to pregnancy, years in New Zealand, not seeing a midwife during pregnancy, caesarean delivery, and twin birth status. Factors significantly associated with cessation (before 6 weeks post-birth) of exclusive breastfeeding (for mothers who initially breastfed exclusively) included smoking, employment prior to pregnancy, being in current employment, high parity, dummy use, not receiving a visit from Plunket, infant not discharged at the same time as the mother, infant not sharing the same room as the parent(s) at night, regular childcare, and having a home visit for the infant from a traditional healer. Aside from smoking, different factors were associated with initiation and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding. Identification of risk factors should assist targeting women who are at heightened risk of not breastfeeding exclusively.

  6. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  7. Liminality and breastfeeding: women negotiating space and two bodies.

    PubMed

    Mahon-Daly, Patricia; Andrews, Gavin J

    2002-06-01

    It is almost universally accepted that breastfeeding infants is nutritionally superior to bottle-feeding. However, despite this medical advice, in many countries breastfeeding rates remain low and in the UK, rates are relatively static. The literature on breastfeeding has discussed international rates and the broad socio-economic factors influencing these rates. Through an observational study of a group of breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women in the United Kingdom, this research utilises contemporary theoretical perspectives on the body, space and rites of passage, and investigates the reasons why some breastfeeding mothers may be in a liminal period, and the breastfeeding event itself, at times, a liminal and marginalised act. The paper argues that, for the group studied, breastfeeding is sometimes discouraged by its medicalisation, and that breastmilk and breastfeeding are often considered by mothers to be embarrassing. Many of the women studied regarded certain public and private places to be unacceptable places to breastfeed and claimed to modify their behaviour accordingly. The paper demonstrates the value of conducting locally based qualitative research into breastfeeding experiences, and of using theoretical perspectives from post-medical geography to interpret women's experiences.

  8. Breastfeeding - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - breastfeeding ... The following organizations are good resources for information on breastfeeding and breastfeeding problems : La Leche League International Inc. -- www.lalecheleague.org March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.com/ ...

  9. Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale: Validation of the Italian Version and Correlation With Breast-feeding at 3 Months.

    PubMed

    Petrozzi, Angela; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Psychological factors can influence breast-feeding. We translated into Italian and validated the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale Short Form (BSES-SF) and investigated its predictive ability and its relation with postpartum depression symptoms.BSES-SF and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered 2 to 3 days after delivery to 122 mothers. Breast-feeding was assessed at 3 months.The BSES-SF displayed good validity (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.69) for predicting full breast-feeding at 3 months. In multivariate analysis, the probability of full breast-feeding increased 2.4% for 1-point increase of BSES-SF. The BSES-SF and EPDS scores were inversely correlated. BSES-SF is a useful tool to identify the risk of early breast-feeding attrition.

  10. The breastfeeding experience of women with major difficulties who use the services of a breastfeeding clinic: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Lamontagne, Caroline; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; St-Pierre, Monik

    2008-01-01

    Background Many women experience breastfeeding difficulties. Sometimes these difficulties lead to breastfeeding cessation. Breastfeeding clinics provide support for women facing such problems. This study aims to describe the breastfeeding experience of women, particularly those who use the services of the breastfeeding clinic located in the Greater Quebec City area. Methods This is a descriptive study based on information gathered through telephone questionnaires that were administered in 2006 to a sample of 86 women and semi-structured interviews conducted with 12 of these women. Results Painful nipples/breasts, low milk supply and latching difficulties were the three most frequent major breastfeeding problems identified by women. Their personal characteristics as well as the moral and physical support provided by family and friends and by health professional and clinicians at the breastfeeding clinic were the factors identified most often as having a positive influence on the breastfeeding experience. Conclusion The results suggest that breastfeeding clinics have a critical role to play in improving the breastfeeding experience of women with major difficulties. PMID:18680602

  11. Breast-feeding modulates the influence of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARG2) Pro12Ala polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: The Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Verier, Caroline; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Bokor, Szilvia; Breidenassel, Christina; Manios, Yannis; Molnár, Dénes; Artero, Enrique G; Nova, Esther; De Henauw, Stefaan; Moreno, Luis A; Amouyel, Philippe; Labayen, Idoia; Bevilacqua, Noemi; Turck, Dominique; Béghin, Laurent; Dallongeville, Jean; Gottrand, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 (PPARG2) Pro12Ala polymorphism has been associated with a higher BMI and a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. The association between adiposity and PPARG variants can be influenced by environmental factors such as early growth, dietary fat, and (as recently shown) breast-feeding. The objectives of this study were to assess 1) the influence of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on adiposity markers in adolescents and 2) a possible modulating effect of breast-feeding on these associations. Data on breast-feeding duration, BMI, and genotypes for the Pro12Ala polymorphism were available for 945 adolescents (mean age 14.7 years). The breast-feeding duration was obtained from parental records. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and six skinfold thicknesses. No significant associations between the Pro12Ala polymorphism and any of the above-mentioned anthropometric parameters were found. There were significant interactions between the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism and breast-feeding with regard to adiposity measurements (all adjusted P < 0.05). Indeed, in children who had not been breast-fed, Ala12 allele carriers had higher adiposity parameters (e.g., Delta BMI +1.88 kg/m(2), adjusted for age, sex, and center, P = 0.007) than Pro12Pro adolescents. In contrast, in breast-fed subjects, there was no significant difference between Ala12 allele carriers and Pro12Pro children in terms of adiposity measurements, whatever the duration of breast-feeding. Breast-feeding appears to counter the deleterious effect of the PPARG2 Pro12Ala polymorphism on anthropometric parameters in adolescents.

  12. Sociocultural influences on the determinants of breast-feeding by Latina mothers in the Cincinnati area.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Ireton, Candace; Geraghty, Sheela R; Diers, Tiffiny; Niño, Vanessa; Falciglia, Grace A; Valenzuela, Jessica; Mosbaugh, Christine

    2010-01-01

    While breast-feeding initiation and duration among US Latina women appear to decrease with acculturation, health care providers in the Greater Cincinnati area have noted lower rates of breast-feeding among even first-generation Latina immigrants. This study's purpose was to identify determinants of breast-feeding for Latina mothers in Cincinnati through qualitative interviews and Spanish Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale ratings. Our findings suggest that, along with similar levels of breast-feeding self-confidence, foreign-born Latina women in the Greater Cincinnati area share similar breast-feeding determinants with the general population. However, characteristics of these determinants and their impact vary because of unique pressures experienced by this community.

  13. Infant feeding practices and breastfeeding duration in Japan: A review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese health system places great emphasis on healthy development. However, the prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding at one month postpartum between 1980 and 2005 has remained unchanged, fluctuating between 42% and 49%. At the same time, the Any Breastfeeding prevalence has gradually increased from about 80% to 95%. In 2010, the latest national breastfeeding report showed that ‘exclusive’ and ‘any’ breastfeeding rates have improved. However, as the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of breastfeeding practices was not used in this study or in other national surveys, it is difficult to interpret these latest results. While the Japanese government has launched several promotion projects, there have been few studies and reviews of risk factors that influence breastfeeding duration. The objectives of this review were to summarise the factors that have influenced the duration of breastfeeding in Japan to provide information relevant to breastfeeding promotion programs. A search of electronic databases in Japanese and English was undertaken up to 2011. The inclusion criteria for this review were studies that focused on infant feeding practices and targeted Japanese mothers, fathers, or health professionals, but excluded mothers’ friends and peer groups. In total, 12 articles were selected for the final analysis. Smoking status, low birth weight of infants and maternal perceptions of insufficient breast milk supply were negative influences on breastfeeding duration, while support from husbands/partners is associated with continued breastfeeding. Some factors that have been found to be associated with breastfeeding in other countries, including maternal age, family income, maternal educational levels, and living with grandparents of infants have not been confirmed in Japan. While the national breastfeeding rates were higher than other countries of similar health status, inconsistent knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and inappropriate hospital

  14. Breastfeeding in mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Noviani, M; Wasserman, S; Clowse, M E B

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding is known to improve the well-being of a mother and her infant, and about half of all new mothers breastfeed, but it is unknown how breastfeeding is pursued in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; lupus) patients. We sought to determine the rate of breastfeeding and the factors influencing this among women with lupus. In addition, we reassessed the current safety data in lactation of lupus medications. Data were collected from lupus patients enrolled in a prospective registry who fulfilled the 2012 SLICC criteria, had a live birth, and for whom postpartum breastfeeding status was known. Data included physician assessments of lupus activity and medications, breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and practice following pregnancy. The safety of medications in breastfed infants was assessed through a comprehensive review of LactMed, a national database about medications in lactation. A total of 51 pregnancies in 84 women with lupus were included in the study. Half of the lupus patients (n = 25, 49%) chose to breastfeed. The rate of breastfeeding was not significantly affected by socioeconomic factors. In contrast, low postpartum lupus activity, term delivery, and a plan to breastfeed early in pregnancy were significantly associated with breastfeeding in lupus patients. In reviewing the most up-to-date data, the majority of lupus medications appear to have very minimal transfer into breast milk and are likely compatible with breastfeeding. Half of women with lupus breastfed and most desire to breastfeed. Hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, methotrexate, and prednisone have very limited transfer into breast milk and may be continued while breastfeeding. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Examining the correspondence of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding couples' infant feeding attitudes.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, C K; Power, K G; Carter, H

    2000-03-01

    Examining the correspondence of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding couples' infant feeding attitudes This report focuses on the comparison of infant feeding attitudes within breastfeeding (n = 126) and bottle-feeding (n = 101) couples and their socio-demographic details. The findings from this study reinforce the view that socio-demographic factors are associated with the mothers' choice of feeding method. However, this study highlights the influence of maternal and of paternal knowledge and attitudes which distinguish between breastfeeding and bottle-feeding couples. Fathers of bottle-feeding babies were found to have limited knowledge of health benefits of breastfeeding to both mothers and infants. However, bottle-feeding mothers, when compared with their partners, were more supportive towards bottle feeding and less negative towards breastfeeding. Fathers of breastfeeding babies, compared with their partners were found to be less aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. Furthermore, breastfeeding mothers when compared with their partners were more supportive towards breastfeeding. Fathers of both bottle and breast feeding babies were also found to be more embarrassed than their partners about mothers in general breastfeeding in front of nonfamily members. It seems that bottle-feeding mothers and all fathers could be better prepared in many aspects of breastfeeding by the nursing professions to allay the many misconceptions and the social embarrassment associated with breastfeeding, by providing appropriate information and support.

  16. Influence of test weighing before/after nursing on breastfeeding in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Funkquist, Eva-Lotta; Tuvemo, Torsten; Jonsson, Björn; Serenius, Fredrik; Nyqvist, Kerstin Hedberg

    2010-02-01

    Swedish hospitals apply various regimens for preterm infants' nutrition in connection with their mothers' establishment of breastfeeding. Milk intake is assessed either by test weighing before and after breastfeeding or by observing the infant's suckling behavior (ie, clinical indices). These differing policies may lead to differences in infants' feeding progress. The purpose of this study was to compare effects on breastfeeding and weight gain of preterm infants, depending on whether the volume of breast milk intake when suckled in the hospital was estimated by "clinical indices" or determined by test weighing. Sixty-four infants treated at a unit applying test weighing were compared with 59 infants treated at a unit assessing milk intake by "clinical indices." A retrospective, descriptive, and comparative design was used to explore the consequences of different nutrition regimens. Data were obtained from a review of hospital medical records. The infants treated at the hospital where test weighing was practiced attained exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier postmenstrual age (PMA) and were also discharged at an earlier PMA. However, the 2 study units were alike regarding the proportion of infants attaining exclusive breastfeeding, the postnatal age when this occurred, and the weight pattern in hospital. To establish breastfeeding in preterm infants, test weighing before and after breastfeeding and gradual reduction of supplementation are both applicable regimens. Mothers can be encouraged to choose either of them, although test weighing may help infants attain exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier PMA.

  17. 'Both parents should care for babies': A cross-sectional, cross-cultural comparison of adolescents' breastfeeding intentions, and the influence of shared-parenting beliefs.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Vivien; Hannula, Leena; Eriksson, Linda; Wallin, Malin Häggkvist; Strutton, Joan

    2017-06-29

    Many young men and women expect to co-parent their newborn infant. This may have a positive or negative impact on decisions to breastfeed, which is an important health behaviour, influenced by cultural and psycho-social norms. We investigated the relationship between shared parenting, infant feeding beliefs and intentions in male and female (non-parent) adolescents, comparing Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland) with high breastfeeding rates with others with low rates (Scotland, USA). We utilised cross-sectional surveys of male and female adolescents (n = 1064, age 12-18) administered directly in schools or via the internet. We assessed attitudes to breast and formula feeding and shared parenting, using a Theory of Planned Behaviour framework, assessing beliefs, attitudes, norms and control as predictors of intention. Male and female adolescents' breastfeeding intentions varied in line with national cultural norms. Young people from Nordic countries (high breastfeeding rates) were significantly more likely to intend to breastfeed than those from Scotland or the USA (low breastfeeding rates). Positive beliefs about breastfeeding, norms and 'exposure' to breastfeeding and feeding confidence were consistently stronger in Nordic countries, whereas young people in Scotland had more positive beliefs, norms and 'exposure' to formula feeding. Differences in parenting beliefs, norms and confidence were less consistent. In logistic regression, cultural group, positive breastfeeding beliefs and exposure, norms, and shared parenting beliefs were significant predictors of breastfeeding feeding intention. Positive beliefs about shared parenting and equal gender norms were related to future breastfeeding intentions for female and male adolescents. Health education programmes for young people could encourage positive breastfeeding choices by considering how this would fit with young people's ideal parenting roles, and by emphasising benefits of complementary maternal and

  18. Breastfeeding experiences of mothers from disadvantaged groups: a review.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, Elizabeth; Hughes, Mark

    2010-07-01

    Despite the World Health Organization promoting breastfeeding as the optimal feeding method for infants, the breastfeeding initiation rates within these disadvantaged groups' remains low. It is important to identify the factors that prevent these groups from initiating and establishing successful breastfeeding. This review aims to identify the breastfeeding experiences of teenage mothers and mothers from low income groups. Qualitative research papers were identified using electronic and manual searches by following a systematic methodology. Nine relevant articles were critically analysed using a qualitative Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Coding of the nine papers generated six themes. The benefits of breastfeeding known to these mothers were often superseded by the perceived barriers of breastfeeding, while the decision to breastfeed was frequently influenced by their social support network and prior exposure to breastfeeding. Disadvantaged mothers may require extra input and support to overcome any problems associated with breastfeeding. Developing healthcare professionals' capabilities to educate these disadvantaged groups, their social networks and the public about breastfeeding is crucial if it is to become established within our society.

  19. [Knowledge about breastfeeding profits among primiparas].

    PubMed

    Bączyk, Grażyna; Klejewski, Andrzej; Cichocka, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding is the only way to nourish newborns and toddlers and it enables them to have an optimal health condition and growth. Both a child and a mother draw a lot of profits from breastfeeding. Woman's milk is perfectly balanced as far as quantity and quality is concerned. It has specific generic nourishment that ensures optimal psychological emotional and physical development of a child. Breastfeeding also protects infants from immunological problems and infections. Having the skills and knowledge about breastfeeding is the main factor that enables a smooth process of lactation. All the medical staff and midwives especially are obliged to promote breastfeeding and they should provide information as well as emotional and technical support for mums through the whole period of lactation. The aim of this thesis was to examine the level of knowledge about breastfeeding among first-time mothers. An anonymous survey was used as an analytic tool. The survey was specifically created for this research and it contained 30 questions. Majority of responders (98%) declared a will for breastfeeding. Also majority of women (94%) knew that their milk contains all the needed ingredients for proper development of their young. According to the pregnant women in labor (98%) breastfeeding is a key element in establishing an emotional connection with the child. Most of the responders knew the influence of breastfeeding on child's health. Minority of the questioned women (14%) attended birthing courses. The responders were equipped in knowledge on various levels. It proves the necessity of systematic and planned education for women. The system of lactation counseling should be an integral part of post-labor care in obstetrician clinics.

  20. Breastfeeding initiation in immigrant and non-immigrant women in Spain.

    PubMed

    Río, I; Castelló-Pastor, A; Del Val Sandín-Vázquez, M; Barona, C; Jané, M; Más, R; Rebagliato, M; Bolúmar, F

    2011-12-01

    Research about inequities between native and immigrant women regarding the quality of health care is still scarce. Initiation of breastfeeding in hospital is considered a quality care indicator. In this study, we explore the association between the geographical origin of the women and the establishment of breastfeeding in Spanish hospitals. Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation is higher for women from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Maghreb or sub-Saharan Africa than for Spanish women, and lower for Chinese women. Compared with Spanish women the odds of not breastfeeding in hospital were lower in all these immigrant groups but more than five times higher for Chinese immigrants. Culturally adapted health services are necessary to maintain breastfeeding rates in most immigrant groups. Moreover, it seems urgent to identify the factors influencing patterns of breastfeeding in Chinese immigrants and to develop innovative strategies to encourage breastfeeding initiation in hospital.

  1. Changes in Breastfeeding Attitudes in a Metropolitan Community in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Nouer, Simonne S; Ware, Julie L; Baldwin, Katherine M; Hare, Marion E

    2015-08-01

    The Southern United States has low breastfeeding rates, particularly among African Americans. Breastfeeding rates are influenced by community attitudes and norms. This study aimed to examine changes in breastfeeding attitudes and demographic factors related to these attitudes. Cross-sectional data from a community-based survey, repeated annually from 2004 to 2008, were analyzed. Univariable analysis examined trends over time and log binomial regression estimated the strength of the association between year of the survey, demographic factors, and outcome responses related to the survey questions. After adjusting for sex, race, marital status, age, and education, compared to 2004, 2008 respondents were 26% more likely to rate breastfeeding as extremely important compared to formula feeding (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.43). Similarly, 2008 respondents were 29% more likely to rate the importance of breastfeeding for long-term health as extremely important (PR = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14-1.46). Comfort levels with breastfeeding outside the home also increased. Respondents to the 2008 survey were more likely to report that they were comfortable with a mother breastfeeding in their workplace (PR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.31) and in a mall or restaurant (PR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.26). After controlling for demographic factors, there were no significant differences in responses between African Americans and other races. Despite significantly lower breastfeeding rates among African Americans, this analysis revealed significant positive changes in attitudes regarding breastfeeding between 2004 and 2008, regardless of race. These changes in attitude coincided with increased breastfeeding initiation rates, suggesting that federal, state, and local breastfeeding promotion efforts had an effect. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Life Course Factors Associated with Initiation and Continuation of Exclusive Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Pitonyak, Jennifer S; Jessop, Amy B; Pontiggia, Laura; Crivelli-Kovach, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) benefits the life course health development of infants, families, and society. Professional health associations recommend EBF for 4 months, and many now recommend EBF for 6 months. Yet only 18.8 % of US infants born in 2011 were exclusively breastfed. Numerous studies on breastfeeding are published, but few describe EBF. This study describes characteristics of women who initiated EBF and examines the associations of those factors with EBF lasting ≥4 months. The Life Course Health Development (LCHD)framework was used to structure the analysis and interpret results. Data collected through the Infant Feeding Practices Study II survey (2005-2007) were used to identify a cohort of women (n = 1226) practicing EBF at the time of hospital discharge and their sociodemographic, health, work, and child care characteristics. Associations of these characteristics with EBF lasting ≥4 months were studied by bivariate and logistic regression analyses. College education [odds ratio (OR) 2.14, 95 %confidence interval (CI) 1.58-2.89] and marriage (OR2.19, 95 % CI 1.43-3.37) were associated with greater odds of EBF lasting ≥4 months, whereas the plan to return to work after birth (OR 0.57, 95 % CI 0.43-0.74), living in the south (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.47-0.95), and postpartum depression risk (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28–0.66)were associated with lower odds of EBF lasting ≥ 4 months. Several factors associated with disparities in continued EBF were identified. The application of the LCHD framework furthers understanding of the multiple and interacting risks associated with early discontinuation of EBF.

  3. Breastfeeding practices of ethnic Indian immigrant women in Melbourne, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The health benefits of breastfeeding are well documented in public health and medical literature worldwide. Despite this, global rates of breastfeeding steadily decline during the first couple of months postpartum. Although immigrant women have higher initiation rates and a longer duration of breastfeeding overall, breastfeeding practices are compromised because of a myriad of socioeconomic and cultural factors, including the acculturation process. The objective of this study was to show how acculturation and cultural identity influenced breastfeeding practices among Indian immigrants in Melbourne, Australia. Methods Twelve case studies were employed to gather narratives of women’s lived experiences. Ethnographic field research methods were used to collect data, including participant observation, semi-structured interviews, case studies, and life histories. This provided in-depth information from women on various aspects of the immigrant experience of motherhood, including infant care and feeding. Participants were opportunistically recruited from Indian obstetricians and gynaecologists. Women identifying as ethnic Indian and in their third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Interviews were conducted in women’s homes in metropolitan Melbourne over a 12 month period between 2004 and 2005. Data were coded and analysed thematically. Results All women identified as ethnic Indian and initiated breastfeeding in accordance with their cultural identity. Social support and cultural connectivity impacted positively on duration of breastfeeding. However, acculturation (adopting Australian cultural values and gender norms, including returning to paid employment) negatively influenced breastfeeding duration. In addition, the high reliance of recent immigrants on the advice of healthcare professionals who gave inconsistent advice negatively affected exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions For ethnic Indian immigrant women breastfeeding practice is closely linked

  4. Severe physical violence between intimate partners during pregnancy: a risk factor for early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Claudia L; de Oliveira, Alessandra S D; Reichenheim, Michael E; Lobato, Gustavo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the role of severe physical violence during pregnancy (SPVP) between intimate partners in early cessation of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF). A health services survey. The revised Conflict Tactics Scale was used to characterize SPVP; premature breast-feeding cessation was identified using a current status data approach, which was based on the information reported from food recall during the preceding 7 d. The cumulative hazard function was estimated by complementary log-log transformation models, which allowed the ensuing estimation of early breast-feeding cessation rates in different age groups and the ratio of rates of weaning between women exposed and not exposed to violence. Five large public primary health-care facilities of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The sample comprised 811 randomly selected mothers of children under 5 months of age who were waiting to be consulted. SPVP is an independent risk factor of cessation of EBF since, after controlling for socio-economic, demographic, reproductive and lifestyle variables, women exposed to violence presented an incidence density that was 31% higher than those who were not exposed (hazard ratio = 1·30, 95% CI 1·01, 1·69). The findings corroborate the hypothesis that SPVP is an important risk factor for EBF. This indicates the need for incentives to adequately train health-care personnel in dealing with lactating women in order to gain a broader view of breast-feeding beyond the biological aspects of lactation, including the maternal psychological dimension.

  5. Breastfeeding Among Minority Women: Moving From Risk Factors to Interventions123

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Donna J.; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The gap between current breastfeeding practices and the Healthy People 2020 breastfeeding goals is widest for black women compared with all other ethnic groups. Also of concern, Hispanic and black women have the highest rates of formula supplementation of breast-fed infants before 2 d of life. These disparities must be addressed through the scale-up of effective interventions. The objective of this critical review is to identify and evaluate U.S.-based randomized trials evaluating breastfeeding interventions targeting minorities and highlight promising public health approaches for minimizing breastfeeding disparities. Through PubMed searches, we identified 22 relevant publications evaluating 18 interventions targeting minorities (peer counseling [n = 4], professional support [n = 4], a breastfeeding team [peer + professional support, n = 3], breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments [n = 2], group prenatal education [n = 3], and enhanced breastfeeding programs [n = 2]). Peer counseling interventions (alone or in combination with a health professional), breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and hospital/Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children enhancements were all found to greatly improve breastfeeding initiation, duration, or exclusivity. Postpartum professional support delivered by nurses was found to be the least effective intervention type. Beyond improving breastfeeding outcomes, 6 interventions resulted in reductions in infant morbidity or health care use. Future research should include further evaluations of successful interventions, with an emphasis on determining the optimal timeframe for the provision of support, the effect of educating women’s family members, and the impact on infant health care use and cost-effectiveness. PMID:22332107

  6. Availability of lactation counseling services influences breastfeeding among infants admitted to to neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Hoover, Kathleen L; Lim, Suet; Maus, Katherine C

    2007-01-01

    To assess the association between the presence of international board-certified lactation consultant (IBCLC) services at a delivery hospital and the breastfeeding practices of women whose infants required neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. Cross-sectional study using population-level data. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 2132 infants admitted to the NICU. Breastfeeding at hospital discharge was measured with the question, "Is the infant being breastfed?" Delivery hospitals were dichotomized as to the presence or absence of an IBCLC on staff Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between breastfeeding at discharge and the presence of an IBCLC at the delivery facility while adjusting for maternal characteristics and birth outcomes. Among mothers of infants admitted to the NICU, breastfeeding rates among mothers who delivered at hospitals with an IBCLC were nearly 50% compared with 36.9% among mothers who delivered at hospitals without an IBCLC. The adjusted odds of breastfeeding initiation prior to hospital discharge were 1.34 (95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1.76) times higher for women who delivered at a facility with an IBCLC. To increase breastfeeding rates among the NICU population, these findings support the need for universal availability of IBCLCs at delivery facilities that have NICUs.

  7. Factors Influencing Army Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    ARI Research Note 89-11 (N 00 Factors Influencing Army Maintenance LOloD Debra C. Evans and J. Thomas Roth Applied Science Associates, Inc. for...1.2.7 .2.7.C.1 11. TITLE (Include Security ClassifIcarIon) Factors Influencing Army Maintenance i2. FERSONAL AuTtiOR(S) Evans, Debra C., and Roth, J...y • ’ Factors and variables that influence maintenance for systems and related manpower, per- sonnel, and training (MPT) characteristics were

  8. The influence of breastfeeding beliefs on the sexual behavior of the Tarok in north-central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Orisaremi, Titilayo Cordelia

    2013-12-01

    The paper investigated some of the beliefs around the breastfeeding norm of the postpartum abstinence and how these influence sexual behavior. It was based on a larger project which explored how gender relations affect reproductive processes and the reproductive health of Tarok women in north-central Nigeria. Research was conducted in four Tarok communities using qualitative instruments, namely in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus group discussion (FGD) guides. Participants were female and male community members of 15 years and above. Sixteen IDIs (four per community) were conducted with women, religious and traditional leaders as well as senior health providers. Twenty-four FGD sessions (six per community) were held with different groups in the community and data were descriptively analyzed. Findings demonstrated customary double standards in sexual matters; the significance and influence of certain unfounded traditional beliefs around breastfeeding on sexual behavior and choices; as well as some of the changes that characterize sexual relationships among modern Tarok couples brought about by Christianity, Western education and modernity. Traditional breastfeeding norms and beliefs seek to overly control women's sexuality while giving precedence to the interest of the child and its father. The study calls for a change in attitude to meet the demands of the current reality in order to strengthen marital unions and guarantee healthy families. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Breastfeeding and contraception].

    PubMed

    Treffers, P E

    1999-09-18

    In the Netherlands many women stop breastfeeding in the first few months postpartum. In 1997, only 16.9% of all 3-month-old babies received full breastfeeding. One of the causes may be insufficient support by the medical profession. A second factor is that often combined oral contraceptives are prescribed to breastfeeding women. As it has been shown that estrogens in these contraceptives inhibit lactation, this is probably one of the reasons why breastfeeding frequently fails in this country. WHO advises not to use estrogens during lactation. According to recent research the lactational amenorrhoea method of contraception (LAM) is highly effective during the first 4 months postpartum. In the 5th and 6th month the effectiveness is strongly dependent on the accuracy by which the conditions are met. The medical profession should pay more attention to the support of breastfeeding and contraception in relation to each other.

  10. Breastfeeding promotion in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hangchaovanich, Yupayong; Voramongkol, Nipunporn

    2006-10-01

    National Breastfeeding Project in Thailand began in 1989. The main activities were the promotion of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; legislation on maternity leave; and the Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes and related products. The development of Baby - Friendly Hospital Initiative may in part explain the increasing of prevalence rate of breastfeeding. However exclusive breastfeeding has not shown favorable increases. The survey in 2005 found exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months was 14.5% while the national target of the Ninth National Health Development Plan (NHDP) has been set at 30%. There are many factors affecting the success of breastfeeding promotion. The Ministry of Public Health, which is responsible for infant/child health, has to find solutions with the most potential for any problem related to such a matter especially prevention of childhood diseases. Furthermore, it must also create an environment where good health fundamentals for physical and intellectual developments from infancy to childhood and maturity exist.

  11. Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum in Valdivia, Chile.

    PubMed

    Barría, R Mauricio; Santander, Gema; Victoriano, Tatiana

    2008-11-01

    A prospective cohort study was conducted in 315 mother-newborn dyads from Valdivia, Chile. A questionnaire was administered to mothers before 48 hours postpartum, and sociodemographic, obstetric, and neonatal data were collected. At 3 months postpartum, a follow-up by telephone interview or home visit was made, determining the proportion of mothers providing exclusive breastfeeding. Multivariate logistic regression was carried out to identify variables significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Follow-up data showed 98.1% were breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding reached 69.5%. Withdrawal of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with single marital status (odds ratio, 2.49; 95% confidence interval: 1.48-4.20) and smoking during pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.48-4.60), while maternal education greater than 8 years was associated with continuation of exclusive breastfeeding (odds ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval: 0.24-0.84). Breastfeeding education strategies addressed to high-risk pregnant women (single with a low education level) must be emphasized in addition to prevention of nonhealthy habits, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption during gestation.

  12. Effects of work-related factors on the breastfeeding behavior of working mothers in a Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi Chun; Wu, Ya-Chi; Chie, Wei-Chu

    2006-06-21

    In recent years, the creation of supportive environments for encouraging mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged as a key health issue for women and children. The provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks have helped mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work, but their effectiveness is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies and work-related factors on the behaviour of working mothers. This study was conducted at a large Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer in August-September 2003. Questionnaires were used to collect data on female employees' breastfeeding behaviour, child rearing and work status when raising their most recently born child. A total of 998 valid questionnaires were collected, giving a response rate of 75.3%. The results showed that 66.9% of survey respondents breastfed initially during their maternity leave, which averaged 56 days. Despite the provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks, only 10.6% mothers continued to breastfeed after returning to work, primarily office workers and those who were aware of their company's breastfeeding-friendly policies. In conclusion, breastfeeding-friendly policies can significantly affect breastfeeding behaviour. However, an unfavourable working environment, especially for fab workers, can make it difficult to implement breastfeeding measures. With health professionals emphasizing that the importance of breastfeeding for infant health, and as only females can perform lactation, it is vital that women's work "productive role" and family "reproductive role" be respected and accommodated by society.

  13. Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction: Implications for Black Mothers.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Erica H; Shoemaker, Meredith L; Barrera, Chloe M; O'Neil, Mary Elizabeth; Verma, Ashley B; Holman, Dawn M

    2017-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and a leading cause of death from cancer among U.S. women. Studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces breast cancer risk among parous women, and there is mounting evidence that this association may differ by subtype such that breastfeeding may be more protective of some invasive breast cancer types. The purpose of this review is to discuss breast cancer disparities in the context of breastfeeding and the implications for black mothers. Black women in the U.S. have lower rates of breastfeeding and nearly twice the rates of triple-negative breast cancer (an aggressive subtype) compared with white women. In addition to individual challenges to breastfeeding, black women may also differentially face contextual barriers such as a lack of social and cultural acceptance in their communities, inadequate support from the healthcare community, and unsupportive work environments. More work is needed to improve the social factors and policies that influence breastfeeding rates at a population level. Such efforts should give special consideration to the needs of black mothers to adequately address disparities in breastfeeding among this group and possibly help reduce breast cancer risk. Interventions such as peer counseling, hospital policy changes, breastfeeding-specific clinic appointments, group prenatal education, and enhanced breastfeeding programs have been shown to be effective in communities of color. A comprehensive approach that integrates interventions across multiple levels and settings may be most successful in helping mothers reach their breastfeeding goals and reducing disparities in breastfeeding and potentially breast cancer incidence. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. A twin study of breastfeeding with a preliminary genome wide association scan

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, L.; Zhu, G.; Power, R. A.; Henders, A.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Medland, S. E.; Ordoñana, J.R.; Martin, N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding has been an important survival trait during human history, though it has long been recognised that individuals differ in their exact breastfeeding behaviour. Here our aims were, first, to explore to what extent genetic and environmental influences contributed to the individual differences in breastfeeding behaviour; second, to detect possible genetic variants related to breastfeeding; and lastly, to test if the genetic variants associated with breastfeeding have been previously found to be related with breast size. Data were collected from a large community-based cohort of Australian twins, with 3,364 women for the twin modelling analyses and 1,521 of them included in the genome wide association study. Monozygotic twin correlations (rMZ = .52, 95% CI .46 – .57) were larger than dizygotic twin correlations (rDZ = .35, 95% CI .25 – .43) and the best-fitting model was the one composed by additive genetics and unique environmental factors, explaining 53% and 47% of the variance in breastfeeding behaviour, respectively. No breastfeeding-related genetic variants reached genome-wide significance. The polygenic risk score analyses showed no significant results, suggesting breast size does not influence breastfeeding. This study confers a replication of a previous one exploring the sources of variance of breastfeeding and, to our knowledge, is the first one to conduct a Genome-Wide Association Study on breastfeeding and look at the overlap with variants for breast size. PMID:25475840

  15. [Natural factors influencing sleep].

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Marek K; Bobek-Billewicz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sleep is a universal phenomenon of human and animal lives, although the importance of sleep for homeo-stasis is still unknown. Sleep disturbances influence many behavioral and physiologic processes, leading to health complications including death. On the other hand, sleep improvement can beneficially influence the course of healing of many disorders and can be a prognostic of health recovery. The factors influencing sleep have different biological and chemical origins. They are classical hormones, hypothalamic releasing and inhibitory hormones, neuropeptides, peptides and others as cytokines, prostaglandins, oleamid, adenosine, nitric oxide. These factors regulate most physiologic processes and are likely elements integrating sleep with physiology and physiology with sleep in health and disorders.

  16. Lactation Consultants' Perceived Barriers to Providing Professional Breastfeeding Support.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Erica H; Coulter, Martha; Jevitt, Cecilia M; Perrin, Kay M; Dabrow, Sharon; Klasko-Foster, Lynne B; Daley, Ellen M

    2017-08-01

    Addressing suboptimal breastfeeding initiation and duration rates is a priority in the United States. To address challenges to improving these rates, the voices of the providers who work with breastfeeding mothers should be heard. Research aim: The purpose of this study was to explore lactation consultants' perceived barriers to managing early breastfeeding problems. This qualitative study was conducted with a grounded theory methodological approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 International Board Certified Lactation Consultants across Florida. Lactation consultants were from a range of practice settings, including hospitals, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinics, private practice, and pediatric offices. Data were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed in Atlas.ti. A range of barriers was identified and grouped into the following categories/themes: indirect barriers (social norms, knowledge, attitudes); direct occupational barriers (institutional constraints, lack of coordination, poor service delivery); and direct individual barriers (social support, mother's self-efficacy). A model was developed illustrating the factors that influence the role enactment of lactation consultants in managing breastfeeding problems. Inadequate support for addressing early breastfeeding challenges is compounded by a lack of collaboration among various healthcare providers and the family. Findings provide insight into the professional management issues of early breastfeeding problems faced by lactation consultants. Team-based, interprofessional approaches to breastfeeding support for mothers and their families are needed; improving interdisciplinary collaboration could lead to better integration of lactation consultants who are educated and experienced in providing lactation support and management of breastfeeding problems.

  17. Dad's Role in Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Dad's Role in Breastfeeding Page Content Article Body Let’s say you and ... you can be when the time comes. Successful nursing depends on a host of factors, many of ...

  18. Breastfeeding rates and factors related to cessation in a military population.

    PubMed

    Bales, Karrn; Washburn, John; Bales, James

    2012-12-01

    Evidence continues to accumulate showing the benefits of breastfeeding to infants, mothers, and society as a whole. However, breastfeeding success rates nationwide have consistently fallen short of recommendations set forth by the American Academy of Pediatrics. There are several potential barriers to successful breastfeeding, and many of these could be magnified in the demanding careers of military members and their families. We surveyed 254 women at a regional military medical facility, both active duty members and dependents of active duty members, regarding their ability to successfully breastfeed their infants. We found that American Academy of Pediatrics target goals in this population as a whole were indeed nearly met at this facility, but also found that active duty members and those who encountered military-related difficulty fell well short of these goals. These findings suggest potential barriers to breastfeeding success that warrant further study from the U.S. Department of Defense.

  19. Effect of a prenatal nutritional intervention program on initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Léger-Leblanc, Gisèle; Rioux, France M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate initiation and duration of breastfeeding of infants born to mothers who participated in the Early Childhood Initiative (ECI) program. Factors affecting the initiation and the early cessation of breastfeeding were also explored. Twenty-five pregnant women participating in the ECI program completed this prospective study. At 36 weeks' gestation, a questionnaire was administered to assess socioeconomic status, intention to breastfeed and breastfeeding experience. When the infants were three and six months of age, feeding practices were assessed with a questionnaire. The breastfeeding initiation rate was 62.5%. At one and three months postpartum, exclusive breastfeeding rates were 39% and 4%, respectively. At six months, none of the women was exclusively breastfeeding. Primiparity, prenatal classes, having been breastfed and intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with breastfeeding initiation. Father's education, intention to breastfeed at 36 weeks' gestation, no water or formula given to the infant during hospitalization and higher maternal hemoglobin level at 36 weeks' gestation were positively associated with the duration of breastfeeding. The rate of initiation and duration of breastfeeding for ECI participants were low. To achieve successful interventions, it is important to target modifiable factors known to influence the initiation and duration of breastfeeding within this population.

  20. Determinants of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K; Pathak, K B; Pandey, A

    1989-07-01

    A life table analysis is made of the duration of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea in Orissa, India, taking one variable at a time using data from a baseline survey of fertility and mortality (BSFM) conducted on the lines of the World Fertility Survey. Then a multivariate (proportional hazard) analysis showed that socioeconomic factors including residence, caste status and education influence the breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea periods. There was no effect of maternal age on the length of breast-feeding, but mean length of post-partum amenorrhoea varied with age. The durations of breast-feeding and post-partum amenorrhoea are strongly related.

  1. The breastfeeding team: the role of involved fathers in the breastfeeding family.

    PubMed

    Rempel, Lynn A; Rempel, John K

    2011-05-01

    Fathers influence mothers' breastfeeding decisions and experiences. Fathers' perceptions of their roles as members of the breastfeeding family are likely important components of that influence. To explore that possibility, 21 involved fathers of breastfeeding babies volunteered to be interviewed regarding their fathering breastfed babies and their roles in the breastfeeding family. Fathers identified their unique roles as team members ensuring that their babies received the benefits of breastfeeding. A primary fathering role was that of supporting breastfeeding by becoming breastfeeding savvy, by using their knowledge to encourage and assist mothers in breastfeeding, by valuing the breastfeeding mothers, and by sharing housework and child care. Fathers' nurturing roles involved fostering positive father-infant relationships in the face of limited opportunities to bond with their babies through feeding. The experiences of these fathers suggest the importance of assisting them to recognize their unique contributions to the nurture of their children as members of the breastfeeding team.

  2. Evaluation of breastfeeding promotion, support, and knowledge of benefits on breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kornides, Melanie; Kitsantas, Panagiota

    2013-09-01

    We examined how prenatal exposure to breastfeeding information from various media sources, maternal knowledge of benefits, family and clinician support, and peer practices influence breastfeeding outcomes in early infancy. Initiation of breastfeeding, any breastfeeding at two months, and exclusivity of breastfeeding at two months were examined in a cohort of US women using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II. Descriptive statistics, chi-square analyses and logistic regression were conducted. Approximately 85 percent of the women initiated breastfeeding. At two months, 63.8 percent continued breastfeeding, while only 38.1 percent breastfed exclusively. Mothers with greater knowledge about breastfeeding benefits were 11.2 (95% CI: 6.87-18.45) times more likely to initiate breastfeeding and 5.62 (95% CI: 4.19-7.54) times more likely to breastfeed at two months than those with lower levels of knowledge. Women whose families prenatally supported exclusive breastfeeding were 8.21(5.12-13.2) times more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding (OR 3.21, 95% CI: 2.51-4.11). Clinicians who supported breastfeeding only also increased the odds of a woman initiating breastfeeding (OR 1.95, 95% CI: 1.31-2.88). Interventions to increase maternal knowledge of breastfeeding benefits and family and clinician support of breastfeeding in the prenatal period may help increase breastfeeding rates. The encouragement of breastfeeding needs to be a priority among health care providers to improve the health of mothers and infants.

  3. Factors Affecting Exclusive Breastfeeding among Women in Muheza District Tanga Northeastern Tanzania: A Mixed Method Community Based Study.

    PubMed

    Maonga, Aubrey R; Mahande, Michael J; Damian, Damian J; Msuya, Sia E

    2016-01-01

    Estimates shows exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has the potential to prevent 11.6% of all under-five deaths in developing countries. Prevalence of EBF is low globally (35%), and in sub Saharan Africa ranges between 22 and 33%. Like other developing countries the prevalence of EBF is 50% in Tanzania. There is limited information in Tanzania on factors influencing EBF apart from information specific for HIV positive women. This study aimed at examining factors that affect EBF practice among women in Muheza district, Tanga region, northeastern Tanzania. A community based cross-sectional study using both qualitative and quantitative methods was conducted from April to June 2014. To collect relevant information, a total of 316 women with infants aged 6-12 months were interviewed using a questionnaire and 12 key informants using in-depth interview guide. Qualitative data was analyzed using thematic analysis while bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used assess association between EBF and predictor variables. The prevalence of EBF was 24.1%. The perception that mothers' breast milk is insufficient for child's growth, child being thirsty and the need to introduce herbal medicine for cultural purposes were among the important factors for early mixed feeding. In multivariate analysis advanced maternal age (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.18-5.59) and knowledge on EBF duration and advantages (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.2-3.8) remained significantly associated with EBF practice. The prevalence of EBF in our study is low compared with the national prevalence. Strategies to target beliefs that breast milk is insufficient for growth need to be strengthened in the community. Furthermore opportunity to increase EBF training during ante and postnatal visits for women should be enhanced as more than 90% of women in the district use skilled attendants during pregnancy and delivery.

  4. Determinants of breastfeeding in developing countries: overview and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Huffman, S L

    1984-01-01

    Breastfeeding can play a major role in fertility regulation in developing countries. The effect of breastfeeding is enhanced when the incidence of breastfeeding is high and the duration extended. These factors are more likely to occur when suckling at the breast is frequent. Sociological and behavioral factors can also influence a woman's decision to initiate and terminate breastfeeding. The effects of urbanization, maternal education, and socioeconomic status act through the intervening variables of sociocultural factors, health services, employment status of women, and availability of breastmilk substitutes. Strategies to alter these intervening variables include educational campaigns and support groups for lactating women, changes in health services, availability of child care facilities near employment centers, and enforcement of the international code of marketing of breastmilk substitutes.

  5. Promoting breast-feeding in a deprived area: the influence of a peer support initiative.

    PubMed

    Raine, Pamela

    2003-11-01

    The present article describes a qualitative study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-support intervention to promote breast-feeding in a deprived area. The aims of the study were to: explore stakeholders' experiences of the intervention; explore the development of a 'culture' of breast-feeding; and consider the potential of the initiative for building community capacity. The methods used in the research were in-depth interviews, diaries and direct observation. The findings describe the social and cultural barriers to breast-feeding experienced by women, and the ways in which professional and lay participants in the peer-support project attempt to reduce them. The advantages of partnership working between health professionals and lay volunteers are then explored. These include: sharing the workload; providing an informal tier of support to mothers; and importantly, offering support and advice stemming from personal experience. For lay supporters, the benefits of taking part in the project range from personal satisfaction at being recognised as skilled, to gains in confidence which potentially open up further educational and training opportunities. In conclusion, it is suggested that the 'success' of such interventions is unlikely to be captured solely by monitoring breast-feeding rates, but needs to take into account the wider context of community development.

  6. The Influence of Acculturation on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration for Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Lynch, Scott M.; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to test the hypotheses that (1) Similar to other positive pre- and post-natal outcomes, Mexican immigrant mothers are more likely to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer, than white or Mexican-American mothers; and (2) Acculturation accounts for the ethnic/nativity differential in breastfeeding initiation and duration. The results support both hypotheses. Mexican immigrants to the U.S. are much more likely than whites to breastfeed, and to breastfeed longer. Mexican-American mothers, after controlling for background characteristics, have similar initiation and duration to whites. Using expanded acculturation measures developed for this paper, acculturation accounts for some of the difference between whites and Mexican immigrants in breastfeeding initiation, and much of the difference for breastfeeding duration. The results suggest that low levels of acculturation operate to protect Mexican immigrants from choosing to formula-feed, which gives their babies many health advantages, and may be associated with better health outcomes across the life course. The results also suggest that successive generations of Mexican immigrants may abandon breastfeeding, which is deleterious for their infants. PMID:21399755

  7. Breast-feeding duration: influence on taste acceptance over the first year of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Camille; Chabanet, Claire; Laval, Caroline; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-03-28

    Early feeding experiences, e.g. related to milk feeding, can affect later food and taste preferences. However, consequences of breast-feeding on taste acceptance are under-investigated. The objective of the present study was to examine the impact of exclusive breast-feeding duration (DEB) on taste acceptance at 6 and 12 months in the same infants (n 122). Mothers recorded the DEB. Acceptance of solutions of each of the five basic tastes relative to water was evaluated in the laboratory at 6 and 12 months by the ingestion ratio (IR). Kendall correlations were calculated between the DEB and the IR. Only 16 % completed at least 6 months of exclusive breast-feeding; 79 % had begun complementary feeding by 6 months. At 6 months, infants preferred sweet, salty and umami solutions over water and were indifferent to sour and bitter solutions. The longer an infant was breast-fed, the more s/he accepted the umami solution at 6 months. At 12 months, infants preferred sweet and salty solutions over water and were indifferent to sour, bitter and umami solutions. The relationship between the DEB and acceptance of the umami solution was not observed at 12 months. No relationship was observed between the DEB and sweet, salty, sour and bitter taste acceptance at 6 or 12 months. The association between the DEB and umami taste acceptance at 6 months may relate to the higher glutamate content of human milk compared with formula milk. Beyond the acknowledged metabolic benefits of breast-feeding, this suggests that prolonged breast-feeding could also be associated with an impact on sensory preference at the beginning of complementary feeding.

  8. Factors Associated with Exclusive Breastfeeding of Preterm Infants. Results from a Prospective National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Maastrup, Ragnhild; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Kronborg, Hanne; Bojesen, Susanne Norby; Hallum, Karin; Frandsen, Annemi; Kyhnaeb, Anne; Svarer, Inge; Hallström, Inger

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Evidence-based knowledge of how to guide the mothers of preterm infants in breastfeeding establishment is contradictive or sparse. The aim was to investigate the associations between pre-specified clinical practices for facilitating breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding at discharge as well as adequate duration thereof. Methods A prospective survey based on questionnaires was conducted with a Danish national cohort, comprised of 1,221 mothers and their 1,488 preterm infants with a gestational age of 24–36 weeks. Adjusted for covariates, the pre-specified clinical practices were analysed by multiple logistic regression analyses. Results At discharge 68% of the preterm infants were exclusively breastfed and 17% partially. Test-weighing the infant, and minimizing the use of a pacifier, showed a protective effect to exclusive breastfeeding at discharge (OR 0.6 (95% CI 0.4–0.8) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3–0.6), respectively). The use of nipple shields (OR 2.3 (95% CI 1.6–3.2)) and the initiation of breast milk expression later than 48 hours postpartum (OR 4.9 (95% CI 1.9–12.6)) were associated with failure of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge. The clinical practices associated with an inadequate breastfeeding duration were the initiation of breast milk expression at 12–24 hours (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.0–2.4)) and 24–48 hours (OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.0–3.1)) vs. before six hours postpartum, and the use of nipple shields (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–1.9)). Conclusion Early initiation of breast milk pumping before 12 hours postpartum may increase breastfeeding rates, and it seems that the use of nipple shields should be restricted. The use of test-weighing and minimizing the use of a pacifier may promote the establishment of exclusive breastfeeding, but more research is needed regarding adequate support to the mother when test-weighing is ceased, as more of these mothers ceased exclusive breastfeeding at an early stage after discharge. PMID:24586513

  9. Breastfeeding and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Gartner, L M

    2001-12-01

    In the breastfed infant, prolongation of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia into the third and later weeks of life in the healthy newborn is a normal and regularly occurring extension of physiologic jaundice. This is known as breastmilk jaundice. A factor in human milk increases the enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin. Insufficient caloric intake resulting from maternal and/or infant breastfeeding difficulties may also increase serum unconjugated bilirubin concentrations. This is the infantile equivalent of adult starvation jaundice. It is known as breastfeeding jaundice or "breast-nonfeeding jaundice." This increase in severity of physiologic jaundice of the newborn also results from increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin, but not because of a factor in human milk. In extreme cases, it may place the infant at risk for development of bilirubin encephalopathy. Optimal breastfeeding practices, which result in minimal initial weight loss and early onset of weight gain, are associated with both reduced breastfeeding jaundice and minimization of the intensity of breastmilk jaundice.

  10. Prevalence and associated factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers at Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tilahun, Getachew; Degu, Getu; Azale, Telake; Tigabu, Askal

    2016-01-01

    Timely initiation of breastfeeding is defined as putting the newborn to breast within one hour of birth. It serves as the starting point for continuum of care for the newborn health and development. In Ethiopia, there is a considerable variation on timely initiation of breastfeeding among regions. The main aim of this study was to determine prevalence rate and investigate factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding practice among mothers in Debre Berhan town, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted at Debre Berhan town from April 1 to 30, 2013. A total of 416 mothers who had given birth within the last six months were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding. The prevalence rate of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 62.6 %. The odds of timely initiation of breastfeeding was high among mothers who have monthly income of greater than 1969 Ethiopian Birr (ETB) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.77; 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.21, 6.32). Having extended family (AOR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.27, 0.95), not being counseled about timely initiation of breastfeeding during antenatal care (AOR 0.40; 95 % CI 0.18, 0.88), delivered by cesarean section (AOR 0.11; 95 % CI 0.04, 0.33), delivery attended by traditional birth attendants or relatives (AOR 0.22; 95 % CI 0.05, 0.87), and not feeding colostrum (AOR 0.07; 95 % CI 0.02, 0.23) were negatively associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding. The practice of timely, also known as early, initiation of breastfeeding was suboptimal. Nearly 40 % of the mothers did not start breastfeeding within one hour after delivery. Findings suggest that in order to improve timely initiation of breastfeeding practice, interventions need to target mothers with extended family, poor socioeconomic status and caesarean delivery

  11. Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding and associated factors among mothers in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means that the infant receives only breast milk for the first six months of life after birth. In Bangladesh, the prevalence of EBF remained largely unchanged for nearly two decades and was 43% in 2007. However, in 2011, a prevalence of 64% was reported, an increase by 21 percentage points. The reasons for this large change remain speculative at this point. Thus to investigate the issue further, this study was conducted. The objective was to assess the prevalence of EBF and associated factors among mothers having children aged 0–6 months in rural Bangladesh. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mirzapur Upazilla (sub district) among 121 mothers of infants aged 0–6 months. Eligible mothers were identified and randomly selected using the demographic surveillance system’s computerized database that is updated weekly. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for interviews that inquired information on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric, health service, breastfeeding related factors (initiation of breastfeeding, prelacteal feeding and colostrum feeding) and economic factors. EBF prevalence was calculated using 24 hour recall method. In multivariate analysis, a logistic regression model was developed using stepwise modeling to analyze the factors associated with EBF. Results The prevalence of EBF in the last 24 hours preceding the survey was 36%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis revealed no significant association between EBF and its possible predictors at 0.05 level of alpha. However, there was some evidence of an association between EBF and having a caesarean delivery (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.21, 1.06). In multivariate analysis, type of delivery: caesarean (AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.19, 1.03) and wealth quintile: richer (AOR = 2.40, 95% CI: 0.94, 6.16) also showed some evidence of an association with EBF. Conclusion The prevalence of EBF in Mirzapur (36%) is lower than the national figure (64

  12. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  13. Academy of breastfeeding medicine founder's lecture 2011: inequalities and inequities in breastfeeding: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    Breastfeeding is the biological norm for infant feeding but is also a social construct. As such, its rates and practices are determined by the same social determinants that shape health inequalities and inequities. In the past 30 years, several reports have drawn attention to the changing pattern of breastfeeding inequalities across countries and population groups. Breastfeeding rates tend to fall and rise following a similar pattern everywhere, although at different times and speed. The role of women within families and societies, the routines of maternity hospitals and other healthcare services, and the pressure exerted by the baby food industry are among the factors that influence the time and speed of changes in breastfeeding rates and practices across countries and population groups. Inequities (i.e., inequalities considered unfair and avoidable by reasonable action) can be redressed by interventions for the protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding. Evidence-based and quality-implemented support and promotion activities, if applied without an equity lens, may increase inequities. Activities for the protection of breastfeeding (e.g., implementation and enforcement of the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; legislations, regulations, and policies to remove obstacles and barriers to good-quality breastfeeding support and to protect women and mothers in the workforce; elimination of obstacles and barriers to breastfeeding anywhere, anyhow, and anytime mothers want) apply to all women and are less dependent on take up by the target population. If well designed and enforced, protective interventions contribute to reducing inequalities and inequities and to delivering promotion and support activities more effectively.

  14. Exposed: younger mothers and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Noble-Carr, Debbie; Bell, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study, conducted by volunteers from the Australian Capital Territory/Southern New South Wales (ACT/SNSW) Branch of the Australian Breastfeeding Association (ABA), explored the breastfeeding experiences of younger mothers (under the age of 26 years) in the ACT by conducting three focus groups. The study aimed to gain an understanding of how, when and where younger mothers want and need to receive breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers provided important insights into their breastfeeding experiences, which were often characterised by judgement from health professionals and the wider public. A number of key issues were identified including: breastfeeding is far from a cultural norm in our society and as such the risks of artificial baby milk are not clearly understood by many younger mothers; younger mothers are strongly influenced by their partners, mothers and peers and they rely upon them for breastfeeding information and support. Younger mothers indicated that a number of improvements could be made to the way that breastfeeding information and support is currently provided within the ACT. The findings indicated that younger mothers (and their significant others) would benefit from receiving clear, concise and consistent breastfeeding information early on in their pregnancy, that is positive in tone, not necessarily 'young mum' specific and consistent with a 'less is more' approach. Younger mothers indicated that after the birth of their baby this breastfeeding information needs to be complemented by readily accessible, seamless, respectful support for as long as they need to establish breastfeeding and overcome any breastfeeding challenges. The focus group findings were largely consistent with the existing literature available on younger mothers and breastfeeding and provide valuable insights to all stakeholders responsible for providing breastfeeding information and support to younger mothers.

  15. Antibiotics and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    de Sá Del Fiol, Fernando; Barberato-Filho, Silvio; de Cássia Bergamaschi, Cristiane; Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Gauthier, Timothy P

    2016-01-01

    During the breastfeeding period, bacterial infections can occur in the nursing mother, requiring the use of antibiotics. A lack of accurate information may lead health care professionals and mothers to suspend breastfeeding, which may be unnecessary. This article provides information on the main antibiotics that are appropriate for clinical use and the interference of these antibiotics with the infant to support medical decisions regarding the discontinuation of breastfeeding. We aim to provide information on the pharmacokinetic factors that interfere with the passage of antibiotics into breast milk and the toxicological implications of absorption by the infant. Publications related to the 20 most frequently employed antibiotics and their transfer into breast milk were evaluated. The results demonstrate that most antibiotics in clinical use are considered suitable during breastfeeding; however, the pharmacokinetic profile of each drug must be observed to ensure the resolution of the maternal infection and the safety of the infant.

  16. WIC peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women with lower incomes

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Tyra T.; Powell, Rachel; Anderson, Alex K.; Hall, Jori; Davis, Marsha; Hilyard, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Background African-American women have the lowest breastfeeding rates among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States. Peer counseling is an effective intervention in improving breastfeeding in this population. However, little is known on peer counselors’ perceptions of breastfeeding in African-American women. Objectives As part of a larger qualitative study, the goal of this study was to understand the contextual factors influencing breastfeeding decisions of low-income African-American women from the perspective of breastfeeding peer counselors (PCs). Methods Three focus groups were conducted with 23 PCs from the WIC program in a Southeastern state. All focus group discussions were audio-recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Bronfenbrenner’s socio-ecological model was used to group categories into themes. Results Of the sample, 48% were African-American, 78.2% were married, 56.5% had some college education. Five main themes emerged to describe factors at multiple-levels influencing breastfeeding in PCs’ low-income African-American clients: Individual, Microsystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, and Chronosystem. Novel findings included 1) having breast-pumps may give African-American women a “sense of security”, 2) cultural pressures to be a “strong black woman” can impede breastfeeding support, and 3) breastfeeding “generational gaps” have resulted from American “slavery” and when formula was “a sign of wealth”. Conclusions As PCs described, low-income African-American women breastfeeding decisions are impacted by numerous contextual factors. Findings from this study suggest a need to broaden public health approach to breastfeeding promotion in this population by moving beyond individual characteristics to examining historical and socio-cultural factors underlying breastfeeding practices in African-American women. PMID:25480019

  17. Association between prolonged breastfeeding and bone mineral density and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: KNHANES 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I R; Choi, Y K; Lee, W K; Kim, J G; Lee, I K; Kim, S W; Park, K G

    2016-01-01

    This study showed that a negative correlation between duration of breastfeeding and bone mineral density (BMD) in the lumbar spine and prolonged breastfeeding is an independent risk for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The present study suggests that postmenopausal women with a history of prolonged breastfeeding require more careful screening for osteoporosis. Several studies suggest that breastfeeding and childbirth lead to maternal calcium loss and a decline in BMD. While the association between breastfeeding and BMD immediately after weaning is well-established, the effects of breastfeeding on postmenopausal women have been controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of breastfeeding on bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. The present study was a cross-sectional survey based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010 and 2011 data. The association between breastfeeding and BMD and osteoporosis was examined in 1222 postmenopausal women. The duration of breastfeeding and BMD in the lumbar spine showed a negative correlation. The association between duration of breastfeeding and BMD remained significant after adjustment for reproductive factors and other confounding factors (P = 0.008). However, the number of deliveries and age at the time of delivery did not correlate with BMD at any site after adjustment. Moreover, the prevalence of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with a history of prolonged breastfeeding was significantly higher than that in women with a short history of breastfeeding (≥37 months, OR = 3.292; 95 % CI 1.485-7.299). The prevalence of lumbar spine fracture showed a significant increasing trend with the increase in the duration of breastfeeding. Prolonged breastfeeding was significantly associated with low BMD in the lumbar spine and higher prevalence of osteoporosis. However, the number of deliveries or age at the time of

  18. Breastfeeding and allergies: time for a change in paradigm?

    PubMed

    Duncan, Joanne M; Sears, Malcolm R

    2008-10-01

    This review examines recent studies of the relationships between breastfeeding and the epidemiology of allergic diseases, especially atopic dermatitis in infants and asthma in early and later childhood. Results from observational birth cohort studies, case-control studies, and one cluster randomized intervention trial have generally failed to demonstrate a protective effect of breastfeeding on outcomes of atopic dermatitis, allergic sensitization, wheezing, or asthma. Difficulties in interpretation relate to the absence of nonbreastfed control or reference groups in some studies, meaning outcomes can only be compared between different durations of breastfeeding. Studies with a nonbreastfed control group suggest there is an increased risk for atopy and asthma associated with breastfeeding and that prolonged breastfeeding may eventually reduce this increased risk. The family history, sex of the child, and the presence of other risk factors for allergy and asthma also influence the outcome. Although breastfeeding is strongly recommended for its multiple benefits on child health, most recent studies do not confirm the 'conventional wisdom' that breastfeeding is protective against allergy and asthma. Early reduction in childhood wheezing may reflect protection from viral infections, but allergies and asthma at later ages may be increased.

  19. First-time mothers' breast-feeding maintenance: role of experiences and changes in maternal perceptions.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Ellen J; Campo, Shelly; Colaizy, Tarah T; Mulder, Pamela J; Breheny, Patrick; Ashida, Sato

    2017-09-07

    Breast-feeding initiation rates have increased in the USA; however, maintenance of breast-feeding for recommended durations is low. The objective of the present study was to identify factors that may facilitate breast-feeding for longer durations among first-time mothers, including physiological and social experiences and changes in maternal perceptions. Survival analysis and linear regression methods were used to explore the relationship between experiences and breast-feeding duration, and the possible mediating effect of changes in maternal perceptions. Secondary data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. Data from 762 first-time mothers who ever breast-fed were analysed. Experiencing trouble with baby's latch, problems with milk flow/supply and painful breast-feeding were significantly associated with breast-feeding duration (64, 26 and 36 % shorter duration, respectively). Meanwhile, positive changes in perception with respect to breast-feeding self-efficacy, opinion about infant feeding and belief about breast milk were associated with 16-27 % longer duration. Furthermore, changes in perception were observed to partially mediate the impact of physiological experiences on breast-feeding duration. Perceptions of breast-feeding self-efficacy, beliefs and opinions can change over time and are influenced by breast-feeding experiences. The combined effect of experience and perception plays a key role in influencing breast-feeding duration. Future research should explore interventions to maintain or improve these perceptions while accounting for physiological experiences to support breast-feeding for recommended durations among first-time mothers.

  20. Effects of work-related factors on the breastfeeding behavior of working mothers in a Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi Chun; Wu, Ya-Chi; Chie, Wei-Chu

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, the creation of supportive environments for encouraging mothers to breastfeed their children has emerged as a key health issue for women and children. The provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks have helped mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work, but their effectiveness is uncertain. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of worksite breastfeeding-friendly policies and work-related factors on the behaviour of working mothers. Methods This study was conducted at a large Taiwanese semiconductor manufacturer in August-September 2003. Questionnaires were used to collect data on female employees' breastfeeding behaviour, child rearing and work status when raising their most recently born child. A total of 998 valid questionnaires were collected, giving a response rate of 75.3%. Results The results showed that 66.9% of survey respondents breastfed initially during their maternity leave, which averaged 56 days. Despite the provision of lactation rooms and breast pumping breaks, only 10.6% mothers continued to breastfeed after returning to work, primarily office workers and those who were aware of their company's breastfeeding-friendly policies. Conclusion In conclusion, breastfeeding-friendly policies can significantly affect breastfeeding behaviour. However, an unfavourable working environment, especially for fab workers, can make it difficult to implement breastfeeding measures. With health professionals emphasizing that the importance of breastfeeding for infant health, and as only females can perform lactation, it is vital that women's work "productive role" and family "reproductive role" be respected and accommodated by society. PMID:16787546

  1. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    PubMed

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of <0.05 were considered significant. Prevalence rates (PR) of overweight and obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  2. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours.

  3. Does breastfeeding increase risk of early childhood caries?

    PubMed

    Paglia, L

    2015-09-01

    According to the WHO, "breastfeeding is the normal way of providing young infants with the nutrients they need for healthy growth and development. Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended up to 6 months of age, with continued breastfeeding along with appropriate complementary foods up to two years of age or beyond". However, several studies have reported prolonged and unrestricted breastfeeding as a potential risk factor for primary tooth caries (ECC). On-demand breastfeeding, particularly while lying down at night, would seem to cause ECC because milk remains in the baby's mouth for long periods of time. There is lack of evidence that human milk is cariogenic; other factors, such as oral hygiene, may be more influential in caries development than on-demand breastfeeding. Moreover the biomechanics of breastfeeding differs from those of bottle feeding and milk is expressed into the soft palate and swallowed without remaining on teeth. Indeed we cannot forget that the main factor influencing caries development in infants is the presence of bacteria streptococcus mutans that thrives in a combination of sugars, small amounts of saliva and a low pH. Today the question is open and recently Chaffee, Felines, Vitolo et al. [2014] have found that breastfeeding for 24 months or longer increases the prevalence of severe early childhood caries in low-income families in Porto Alegre, Brazil. These results do not claim that prolonged breastfeeding is the cause of tooth decay; we can expect an association with food for infants often rich in refined sugars, which cause the reduction of the protective effect of saliva on the deciduous teeth enamel. In Japan, Kato, Yorifuji, Yamakawa et al. [2015] have found that infants who had been breastfed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively fed with formula. The authors themselves say, however, that further studies

  4. Online Continuing Education for Expanding Clinicians' Roles in Breastfeeding Support.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina

    2015-11-01

    Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Correlates of breastfeeding frequency among nomadic pastoralists of Turkana, Kenya: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gray, S J

    1995-11-01

    Recent research has shown that significant variation in breast-feeding behavior exists among natural fertility populations, all of whom have been characterized as practicing "on-demand" breastfeeding. A number of recent prospective studies have contributed to a better understanding of breastfeeding structure and of its consequences for population differences in fertility. Currently, there is a growing interest in quantifying the complex environmental and biocultural interactions which influence that structure; in other words, in establishing an ecology of breastfeeding. In this paper, a carefully structured retrospective study of breastfeeding behavior among nomadic Turkana is used to identify environmental, biobehavioral, and socioeconomic factors associated with variation in breastfeeding frequency among Turkana women. In agreement with the results of a prospective study conducted as part of the same research, the age (growth) and physical development of nurslings show significant correlations with breastfeeding frequency. Maternal physical status, the depth of the maternal social network, and, to a lesser degree, rainfall patterns are also significant. All of these factors appear to influence breastfeeding through their effects on maternal participation in herding activities and related absences from camp. Finally, the study also presents new strategies for collecting and utilizing retrospective data, which are notoriously unreliable and difficult to classify according to operational definitions recently developed for prospective studies. Results of the present study suggest methods by which the quality and reliability of recall data may be enhanced.

  6. Maternal breastfeeding attitudes: association with breastfeeding intent and socio-demographics among urban primiparas.

    PubMed

    Persad, Malini D; Mensinger, Janell L

    2008-04-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with improved developmental and social outcomes for an infant. Despite these health benefits, only 54% of women breastfeed in the early postpartum period. Although an understanding of socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding intent, and breastfeeding attitudes can facilitate breastfeeding initiatives, these factors have not been characterized particularly for urban and immigrant mothers. The objectives of this study are to provide a descriptive analysis of the socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding intent, and breastfeeding attitudes of primiparas presenting to an inner city prenatal clinic and determine if breastfeeding attitudes are associated with breastfeeding intent and socio-demographic variables. Of 100 primiparas, 79 reported the intent to breastfeed. Breastfeeding intent was associated with 1) positive breastfeeding attitudes, 2) higher household incomes, 3) being born outside the US, 4) being Afro-Caribbean as opposed to African American, 5) having family, peer, and partner support for breastfeeding, 6) attending breastfeeding classes, and 7) greater years of education. These findings suggest that targeting breastfeeding initiatives towards low-income, less educated, US born mothers who lack breastfeeding support from their loved ones may improve breastfeeding rates among urban primiparas.

  7. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices.

  8. Are US mothers meeting the Healthy People 2010 breastfeeding targets for initiation, duration, and exclusivity? The 2003 and 2004 National Immunization Surveys.

    PubMed

    Forste, Renata; Hoffmann, John P

    2008-08-01

    Using data from the National Immunization Surveys (2003 and 2004), the authors model the influence of child, maternal, and state- or metropolitan-level factors on the initiation, duration, and exclusivity of breastfeeding to determine the characteristics of groups meeting the Healthy People 2010 targets. Analyses indicate that only children of college graduates meet the targets for breastfeeding at initiation, 6 months, and 12 months; no groups meet the target for exclusive breastfeeding. Results indicate a low prevalence of breastfeeding among children of single mothers, less educated mothers, participants in the Women, Children, and Infants program, and those living in nonwestern states and in areas of high newborn risk. Hispanic children, children of college graduates, and children living in the West consistently have higher odds of breastfeeding. Only the prevalence of breastfeeding early postpartum is near the Healthy People 2010 target of 75%, the percentages for 6 or 12 months and exclusive breastfeeding are well below.

  9. Cumulative duration of breast-feeding influences cortisol levels in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lankarani-Fard, A; Kritz-Silverstein, D; Barrett-Connor, E; Goodman-Gruen, D

    2001-09-01

    Cortisol levels dramatically increase during pregnancy, peak at birth, and subsequently decline. However, all previous studies examined women during pregnancy and early postpartum. None examined the long-term association of parity and lactation with cortisol levels. We examined the relation of reproductive history to cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Subjects were 749 women, aged 50-89, who were not using estrogen in 1984-1987 when morning cortisol was measured. Parity was not significantly associated with cortisol. However, women who breast-fed for >12 months had significantly higher cortisol levels than women who breast-fed for shorter durations or not at all (p = 0.003). This association was stronger among women with three or more births. Duration of breast-feeding is a determinant of cortisol levels in postmenopausal women. Because both increased cortisol and increased duration of breast-feeding may play protective roles in certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, we suggest that the beneficial effect of lactation on the course of these diseases may be mediated by cortisol.

  10. Incorporating cultural beliefs in promoting exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Reinsma, Kathryn; Bolima, Nancy; Fonteh, Florence; Okwen, Patrick; Yota, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Since 2003, the World Health Organization has recommended exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life. In the Northwest region of Cameroon approximately 90% of women initiate breastfeeding, yet only 34% of these women exclusively breastfeed for the recommended six months. Aim To determine influences on women’s exclusive breastfeeding practices. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six women and six men followed by focus group discussions with three groups of women and three groups of men in the Kumbo West Health District, Northwest region, Cameroon. All participants were selected using theoretical sampling to assure triangulation. Results Three themes emerged that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices: woman’s readiness to exclusively breastfeed; cultural influences towards exclusive breastfeeding; and perceived constraints to exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusion These emergent themes were used to create a theoretical framework that is useful for developing a breastfeeding health education intervention in non-Western settings. PMID:26973717

  11. Breastfeeding experiences of Turkish women.

    PubMed

    Demirtas, Basak; Ergocmen, Banu; Taskin, Lale

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of Turkish women regarding traditional breastfeeding practices. Breastfeeding is a popular practice in Turkey. Nevertheless, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life is quite low. Merely about 16% of infants aged between 2-3 months are exclusively breastfed, whereas those fed with supplementary foods are 78%. In the light of this data, we argue that traditional breastfeeding practices may be the underlying reason for low rate of breastfeeding. Significant as it is, however, this subject matter has largely been overlooked in the literature in Turkey. A descriptive, qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, with a purposive sample of 24 mothers of four to- 24-month-old babies. The background information of the mothers was obtained from the Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Centre that offers specific services for mothers. Mothers were visited at home and data were gathered through semistructured and in-depth, audio-taped interviews. The collected data were analysed using the content analysis method. Three themes emerged from the participants' descriptions of their breastfeeding experiences: (1) influence of the older family members, (2) influence of social learning and (3) influence of the religion. This study concluded that traditional breastfeeding practices are still prevalent among mothers, regardless of their age and level of education. Breastfeeding behaviour of mothers was mostly shaped by various cultural social and religious influences imposed on them by their family, close social network and religious community. Nurses can encourage mothers for exclusive breastfeeding by means of individual- and social-based training programmes, which they will prepare in view of traditional breastfeeding practices. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Breastfeeding behavior among adolescents: Initiation, duration, and exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Sipsma, Heather L.; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Gordon, Derrick; Gabzdyl, Elizabeth; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Despite a substantial amount of evidence on breastfeeding among non-adolescent mothers, research and strategies uniquely designed to target adolescent mothers are critical as their rates of breastfeeding are disproportionately low and their transition to parenthood is often unlike that of older mothers. Literature to date, however, offers limited evidence for designing effective interventions. Therefore, we aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining breastfeeding behaviors among a cohort of female adolescents as they transition to parenthood. Methods Data are derived from a longitudinal cohort of pregnant adolescent females (ages 14-21) and their male partners followed from pregnancy through 6 months postpartum. Means and frequencies were used to describe breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding behaviors, and sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify factors independently associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding duration. Results Approximately 71% initiated breastfeeding. Intending to breastfeed, having had complications in labor and delivery, and lower social support were associated with greater odds of breastfeeding initiation. Of the adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding, 84% had stopped by 6 months postpartum and among those, average breastfeeding duration was 5 weeks. Participants who exclusively breastfed had longer breastfeeding duration, and participants who had experienced intimate partner violence had shorter breastfeeding duration. Obese women and women who had more difficulty breastfeeding had lower odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions Enhanced clinical support and the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding should be considered when designing interventions to improve breastfeeding rates among adolescent mothers. PMID:23725911

  13. Toxoplasmosis and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ...

  14. Growth trajectories are influenced by breast-feeding and infant health in an afro-colombian community.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Delisle, Hélène; Osorno, Jairo

    2005-09-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study among an Afro-Colombian population to investigate the influence of feeding practices and child morbidity on linear and ponderal growth during infancy. We enrolled 133 children at 5-7 mo and followed them until 18 mo. Repeated anthropometric measures were taken every 2-3 mo, with monthly interviews on feeding practices and daily self-reports on morbid conditions by the mothers of the infants. Mothers' social conditions and infants' fixed variables (gender and gestational age at birth) were measured at baseline. Growth starting points and trajectories were modeled via Hierarchical Linear Models (HLM). Children started with a mean length of 64.8 cm (95% CI: 59.8-69.7) and a mean weight of 7.68 kg (95% CI: 5.37-9.9), and gained length at a rate of 1.13-1.70 cm/mo, and weight at 66.5-319 g/mo. Breast-feeding, defined as receiving breast milk at any time within a 2-3-mo interval, was positively related to length gain (regression coefficient = 0.27 cm/mo; P = 0.04), after adjusting for social conditions and food consumption. Among mothers with low levels of education, breast-feeding had a positive effect on weight gain (regression coefficient = 0.30 kg/mo; P = 0.04); among nonbreast-fed infants, complementary food diversity generated a positive effect on weight (regression coefficient = 0.14 kg/mo; P = 0.03). Mean differences in length were related to the total proportion of healthy time (regression coefficient = 3.1; P = 0.02), whereas weight-gain rates were negatively associated with changes during illness (regression coefficient = -0.70; P = 0.04 for fever). No association was found between diarrhea episodes and infant growth. Our study confirms that breast-feeding after 6 mo of life is important for nutrition and health, likely by mitigating the negative effects of poor social conditions and diarrhea on infant growth.

  15. The Relation of Pre and Postnatal Depression and Anxiety with Exclusive Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Farangis; Nouraei, Soheila; Shahverdi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Studies on the relationship between prenatal psychosocial risk factors and breastfeeding are disjointed. Maternal health status has a great influence on breastfeeding, growth, and general health of the neonates. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relation between maternal mental health and breastfeeding status of mothers in Kazerun (Fars province, Iran). Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on a total of 92 pregnant women recruited from clinics in Kazerun in 2015. Participants were divided into two groups subject to exclusive breastfeeding. Spielberger Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were used for data collection. Data analysis was performed by the SPSS version 16 using descriptive statistics, Chi-square, and Fisher’s exact test. Results The average of state anxiety score according to Spielberger Anxiety Inventory was 1.97±0.51 in the exclusive breastfeeding group versus 1.77±0.66 in the non-exclusive breastfeeding group (p = 0.229). The mean trait anxiety score according to Spielberger Anxiety Inventory was 1.98±0.44 in the exclusive breastfeeding group versus 2.22±0.44 in the non-exclusive breastfeeding group (p=0.132). An average of Beck Depression Inventory score was 1.35±0.84 totally (1.33±0.81 in the exclusive breastfeeding group vs. 1.33±1.00, P=0.584). An average of EPDS score was 1.65±1.11, 1.64±1.11, and 1.44±0.88 in total, in the exclusive breastfeeding and non-exclusive breastfeeding groups, respectively (p=0.604). Conclusions Screening anxiety and depression before and during pregnancy appeared to be necessary. PMID:28070257

  16. Breast-feeding in Bangkok, Thailand: current status, maternal knowledge, attitude and social support.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Kong, L; Hotta, M; Wongkhomthong, S A; Ushijima, H

    1999-12-01

    The promotion of breast-feeding is one of the essential interventions for reduction of infant mortality and improving infant development worldwide. The aim of the present study was to examine the current status of infant feeding and the influences of suspected family sociodemographic characteristics and social support as well as maternal knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in infant feeding since the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative was launched in Thailand. A total of 221 mother-infant pairs were randomly drawn from six health care centers in Bangkok from 20 April to 1 May 1998. Health care staff, using a structured questionnaire, interviewed the mothers in the health care centers. Most sampled mothers believed that breast milk was the best food for their infants and knew that breast milk had many advantages for infants, mothers and families. Ninety-five percent of mothers breast-fed their infants up to 3 months postpartum, but the prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding was relatively low (62.4%). Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that the following factors independently increased the risk of mixed or formula feeding during the first 3 months of life: (i) mothers with a full-time job; (ii) grandmothers and other people as the main child caretakers; (iii) mothers who did not have an antenatal plan of exclusive breast-feeding; and (iv) newborns' non-exclusive breast-feeding in hospitals after birth. However, the mother being a housewife, mother as the main child caretaker, an antenatal plan of exclusive breast-feeding and exclusive breast-feeding in hospital were more likely to improve exclusive breast-feeding. The prevalence of exclusive breast-feeding was relatively low. Antenatal plans for exclusive breast-feeding and newborn feeding type in hospital after birth may play key roles in the duration of exclusive breast-feeding. These findings suggest the importance of strengthening implementation of the Baby-Friendly Hospital policy and prenatal health

  17. [The influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the breastfeeding: the strategic role of the relatives and professionals of health].

    PubMed

    Marques, Emanuele Souza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Magalhães, Kelly Alves; Sant'Ana, Luciana Ferreira da Rocha; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2010-06-01

    The objective was to raise and classify scientific works on the influence of the social net of lactating mothers in the context of the breastfeeding. A bibliographical review was done in the main databases (MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO), using as keywords: breastfeeding, weaning and family (and their versions in English and Spanish). Books, thesis, dissertations, and publications in international and national institutions were consulted (WHO, UNICEF, Ministry of Health). It could be observed that the actors that compose the social net of the lactating mothers can interfere in the decision of breastfeeding, through different extents, such as the encouragement/support to the initiative; reviewing the knowledge and cultural values; family tradition; and the cultivation of the indifference/discourage and the pressure exercised on the lactating mothers in relation to the form of feeding the child. In this way, it can infer on the need of the implementation of new health practices regarding to the care of this group. It is worth to highlight, the importance of the professionals to be qualified for the sensitive listening on the meaning of the nursing under the glance of the lactating mothers . Finally, it stands out the importance role of the social net of the lactating mothers, especially the family, for a successful breastfeeding.

  18. Influence of Breastfeeding Time on Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Human Milk of a Mexican Population.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Almazán, Luis A; Diaz-Ortiz, Jesús; Alarcón-Romero, Mario; Davila-Vazquez, Gustavo; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Sampedro-Rosas, Laura; López-Silva, Saúl; Santiago-Moreno, Agustín; Rosas-Acevedo, José L; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted with the objective of determining whether there is a depuration of organochlorine pesticides in breast milk according to breastfeeding time. In total, 171 samples from mothers that lived in the State of Guerrero, Mexico were analyzed. There was a weak negative relationship between pp'DDE (r = -0.216) and Σ-DDT (r = -0.222) concentrations with the days of lactation. In a comparison analysis, a statistically significant decrease of pp'DDT and pp'DDE levels was observed, as well as the Σ-DDT from the first to the fifth week of lactation. A reduction of 0.188 mg/kg lipid of pp'DDE and 0.181 mg/kg lipid of Σ-DDT per week was obtained. HCB, β-HCH and op'DDT concentrations were low and had no major fluctuations between subgroups. The low levels found and the observed reduction in time involve less exposure to the infant to these pollutants. Through this methodology changes in levels of certain organochlorine pesticides in various stages of human milk production may be shown.

  19. A qualitative study of the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding by health professionals in Niamey, Niger

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The practice of exclusive breastfeeding depends on various factors related to both mothers and their environment, including the services delivered by health professionals. It is known that support and counseling by health professionals can improve rates, early initiation and total duration of breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers' decisions are influenced by health professionals' advice. However, in Niger the practice of exclusive breastfeeding is almost non-existent. The purpose of this exploratory study, of which some results are presented here, was to document health professionals' attitudes and practices with regard to exclusive breastfeeding promotion in hospital settings in the urban community of Niamey, Niger. Methods Fieldwork was conducted in Niamey, Niger. A qualitative approach was employed. Health professionals' practices were observed in a sample of frontline public healthcare facilities. Results The field observation results presented here indicate that exclusive breastfeeding is not promoted in healthcare facilities because the health professionals do not encourage it and their practices are inappropriate. Some still have limited knowledge or are misinformed about this practice or do not believe in it. They do not systematically discuss exclusive breastfeeding with mothers, or they mention it only briefly and without giving any explanation. Worse still, some encourage the use of breast milk substitutes, which are frequently promoted in healthcare facilities. Thus mothers often receive contradictory messages. Conclusion The results suggest the need to train or retrain health professionals with regard to exclusive breastfeeding, and regularly supervise their activities. PMID:20691108

  20. A study of in-hospital midwifery practices that affect breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Helen; Bradshaw, Sue; Ross-Adjie, Gail

    2009-11-01

    Whilst breastfeeding is undoubtedly best for both mother and baby, many factors influence a woman's decision about whether to start and when to cease feeding. This study sought to determine which variables, influenced by midwifery practice, may influence the length of breastfeeding. Mothers who had given birth to a live baby at a Perth private hospital were invited to complete a validated, anonymous questionnaire asking about their breastfeeding experience, both in hospital and following discharge. The response rate was 50% (n=266). Although 94% of women were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital, this rate reduced to 59% at 6 months and 21% at 12 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 7.4 months (SD +/- 4.1). Of five variables thought to be associated with an increased length of breastfeeding, only two were found to be statistically significant: whether a mother could independently attach the baby on discharge (p=0.003) and whether or not artificial baby milk was administered in hospital (p<0.001). In order to improve breastfeeding rates, education for both mothers and midwives must be targeted towards ensuring mothers are able to independently attach their baby on discharge from hospital. The findings also support the discouragement of artificial feeding unless there is a medical indication or the mother has made an informed request.

  1. [Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education].

    PubMed

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2,826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher educational level (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction <0.01). This interaction was not found in older children (11-14 years). Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of breastfeeding on obesity of schoolchildren: influence of maternal education

    PubMed Central

    Pudla, Katia Jakovljevic; Gonzaléz-Chica, David Alejandro; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the association between duration of breastfeeding (BF) and obesity in schoolchildren of Florianópolis (SC), and the role of possible effect modifiers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 2826 schoolchildren (7-14 years). Weight and height were measured according to standardized procedures. Data concerning BF and sociodemographic variables were obtained from a questionnaire sent to parents/guardians. Children's nutritional status was evaluated by BMI-for-age z-score for gender (WHO reference curves). Adjusted analyses were performed through logistic regression, considering a possible interaction among variables. Results: Prevalence of obesity was 8.6% (95% CI: 7.6-9.7%) and 55.7% (95% CI: 53.8-57.6%) received breastmilk for ≥6 months. BF was not associated with obesity, even in the adjusted analysis. Stratified analysis according to maternal schooling showed that, in children aged 7-10 years and children whose mothers had 0-8 years of schooling, the chance of obesity was lower among those breastfeed for >1 month, especially among those who received breastmilk for 1-5 months (OR=0.22; 95% CI 0.08-0.62). Among children of women with higher schooling (>8 years), the chance of obesity was 44% lower in those who were breastfed for >12 months (p-value for interaction <0.01). This interaction was not found in older children (11-14 years). Conclusions: Among children of women with lower schooling, BF for any period longer than 1 month is protective against obesity; however, for a higher maternal schooling, BF for less than 12 months increases the odds of obesity. PMID:26100592

  3. Increasing loyalty to breastfeeding: investigating a product development strategy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Joy; Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Previte, Josephine

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates how social marketing insights were used to influence women's loyalty to breastfeeding. The article reports on a social marketing campaign undertaken by the Australian Breastfeeding Association and a government health department, which used a product development strategy in order to increase breastfeeding loyalty. Seeking new approaches to support breastfeeding behaviors is critical and timely, because while initiation rates of breastfeeding are high in developed countries such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and the United States, duration rates are significantly lower. Results indicate that a product- focused strategy influences pregnant women's loyalty to exclusively breastfeeding.

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers in Blantyre, Malawi: a correlation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding is an important component of child survival and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in resource-poor settings like Malawi. In Malawi, children under the age of six months are exclusively breastfed for an average duration of 3.7 months. This falls short of the recommendations by the World Health Organization as well as the Malawi Ministry of Health that mothers exclusively breastfeed for the first six months of the child’s life. Understanding factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding duration among HIV-positive mothers is important in promoting exclusive breastfeeding among these mothers. An exploratory study was therefore conducted to determine factors that influence HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Methods This paper is based on data from a longitudinal, descriptive and correlation study that was conducted at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre, Malawi between May 12, 2009 and March 22, 2010. Theory of Planned Behavior guided the study. A face-to-face survey was utilized to collect data from a convenience sample of 110 HIV-positive mothers who were at least 36 weeks pregnant at baseline. A modified and pre-tested breastfeeding attrition prediction tool was used to measure exclusive breastfeeding beliefs, intentions and external influences at baseline. Data were analyzed using descriptive and association statistics. Additionally, multiple regressions were run to determine significant predictors of HIV-positive mothers’ prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding and their likelihood to exclusively breastfeed for six months. Results Results revealed high exclusive breastfeeding prenatal intentions among HIV-positive mothers. Prenatal intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with normative, control beliefs and negatively associated with positive beliefs

  5. Exclusive Breastfeeding Experiences among Mexican American Women.

    PubMed

    Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli

    2016-02-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Factors influencing plant invasiveness

    Treesearch

    Yvette Ortega; Dean Pearson

    2009-01-01

    Invasiveness of spotted knapweed and biological control agents. Dean and Yvette are examining the influence of drought on the invasiveness of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) and its susceptibility to herbivory by biological control agents. In collaboration with the University of Montana and Forest Health Protection, researchers have constructed 150...

  7. A qualitative investigation of breast cancer survivors' experiences with breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Jessica R; Usita, Paula M; Madlensky, Lisa; Pierce, John P

    2009-09-01

    This is an exploratory, qualitative investigation of breast cancer survivors' experiences with breastfeeding. Previous studies have focused on the physiology of lactation after surgery and treatment, but have not explored factors influencing breastfeeding decisions and behavior. We used purposeful sampling to identify 11 breast cancer survivors who had a child after their diagnosis and treatment. Participants were recruited from among those in the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study and a Young Survival Coalition (YSC) affiliate. We conducted semi-structured, open-ended telephone interviews lasting 45-75 min. We used social cognitive theory (SCT) to structure questions regarding influences on breastfeeding behavior. We transcribed interviews and used cross-case, inductive analysis to identify themes. Ten of 11 participants initiated breastfeeding. The following main themes emerged: 1) Cautiously hopeful, 2) Exhausting to rely on one breast, 3) Motivated despite challenges, 4) Support and lack of support, and 5) Encouraging to others. Study participants were highly motivated to breastfeed but faced considerable challenges. Participants described problems that are not unique to women with breast cancer, but experienced these to a much greater degree because they relied mostly or entirely on one lactating breast. This study revealed a need for improved access to information and support and greater sensitivity to the obstacles faced by breast cancer survivors. Results of this qualitative analysis indicate that interventions to support the efforts of breast cancer survivors who are interested in breastfeeding are warranted. Additional research would aid in the development of such interventions.

  8. Breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its influence on child growth and development: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Carlos; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-02-01

    A systematic review was undertaken to identify studies describing the global prevalence of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond and its effects on child growth and development. The MEDLINE and LILACS databases were searched without any language or date restrictions, retrieving 3,561 titles. All retrieved titles, 453 abstracts and 49 full-text articles were read. Articles with maximum breastfeeding duration of over two years were included. An analysis was carried out of 19 articles that met the inclusion criteria resulting in a combined prevalence of breastfeeding at two years of age of 33 % (95%CI: 0.23; 0.42). Increasing trends towards breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond were observed in the past decades in South Asia. The six studies analyzing the effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond on child growth showed contradictory results. No association was found with child development. It is concluded that evidence on the medium-term effects of breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond is scarce and contradictory. Hence, further research is needed regarding this practice.

  9. [Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Nilza M E; Ribeiro, Manoel A S

    2004-11-01

    To find scientific evidence that can prove or refute the assumption that nocturnal and on demand breastfeeding are associated with caries in infants and preschool children. MEDLINE, Lilacs, and SciELO articles were searched, as well as important internet sites, technical books and consensus publications of national and international organisms. The following keywords were used: "early childhood caries", "dental caries", "dental decay" and "breastfeeding". References cited in the articles selected were also included. Studies associating caries with breastfeeding invariably observe factors associated with how this disease develops, letting aside those associated with breastfeeding. Many of these factors act as confusing variables because in the same way as they interfere in breastfeeding, they also influence the development of caries. Besides, current studies have already demonstrated the cariogenic potential of some types of aliments given to children against the non-cariogenic potential of the human milk. There is no scientific evidence proving that human milk can be associated with the development of caries. This is a complex relation to be established, as it is often blurred by too many variables.

  10. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  11. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  12. ABM clinical protocol #13: contraception during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may influence breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  13. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    MedlinePlus

    Plugged milk ducts; Nipple soreness when breastfeeding; Breastfeeding - overcoming problems; Let-down reflex ... Breastfeeding (nursing) your baby can be a good experience for both the mother and the baby. It ...

  14. Fathers Can Support Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... System Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Fathers Supporting Breastfeeding Last Published: 06/06/2017 Fathers S upporting Breastfeeding ... in each of the materials. FATHERS CAN SUPPORT BREASTFEEDING Poster - FNS 354 Be a Part of the ...

  15. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  16. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  17. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  18. Benefits of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Experts say that breastfeeding your baby is good for you and your baby. If you breastfeed for any length of time, no matter ... is, you and your baby will benefit from breastfeeding. Learn about breastfeeding your baby and decide if ...

  19. Breastfeeding Report Card 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Breastfeeding Report Cards Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... National Immunization Survey data from 2014 and 2015. Breastfeeding Report Card, 2016 Download report [PDF-2.72MB] ...

  20. Breastfeeding Your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ029 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Breastfeeding Your Baby • How long should I breastfeed my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit my baby? • How does breastfeeding benefit me? • ...

  1. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  2. Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Serious Illnesses and Breastfeeding Ages & Stages ...

  3. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeeding helps lower the risk of breast cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and also may help decrease the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer. previous continue Breastfeeding Challenges Breastfeeding can be easy from the get- ...

  4. Environmental factors in the relationship between breastfeeding and infant mortality: the role of sanitation and water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Butz, W P; Habicht, J P; DaVanzo, J

    1984-04-01

    Mothers' recall data collected in Malaysia in 1976-1977 are analyzed to study correlates of mortality of 5471 infants. Respondent population is 1262 women living in 52 primary sampling units of Peninsular Malaysia. Lengths of unsupplemented and supplemented breastfeeding and presence of piped household water and toilet sanitation are related to infant mortality in regressions that also control other correlates. The analysis is disaggregated into three periods of infancy. Through six months of feeding, unsupplemented breastfeeding is more strongly associated with fewer infant deaths than is supplemented breastfeeding. Type of sanitation is generally more strongly associated with mortality than is type of water supply. The effects of breastfeeding and the environmental variables are shown to be strongly interactive and to change systematically during the course of infancy. Breastfeeding is more strongly associated with infant survival in homes without piped water or toilet sanitation. In homes with both modern facilities, supplemented breastfeeding has no significant effect, and unsupplemented breastfeeding is statistically significant only for mortality in days 8-28. Presence of modern water and sanitation systems appears unimportant for mortality of infants who are breastfed without supplementation for six months.

  5. Fathers' experiences of supporting breastfeeding: challenges for breastfeeding promotion and education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Davies, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates is a strategic priority in the UK and understanding the factors that promote and encourage breastfeeding is critical to achieving this. It is established that women who have strong social support from their partner are more likely to initiate and continue breastfeeding. However, little research has explored the fathers' role in breastfeeding support and more importantly, the information and guidance he may need. In the current study, 117 men whose partner had given birth in the previous 2 years and initiated breastfeeding at birth completed an open-ended questionnaire exploring their experiences of breastfeeding, the information and support they received and their ideas for future breastfeeding education and promotion aimed at fathers and families. Overall, the findings showed that fathers were encouraging of breastfeeding and wanted to be able to support their partner. However, they often felt left out of the breastfeeding relationships and helpless to support their partner at this time. Many reported being excluded from antenatal breastfeeding education or being considered unimportant in post-natal support. Men wanted more information about breastfeeding to be directed towards them alongside ideas about how they could practically support their partner. The importance of support mechanisms for themselves during this time was also raised. The results highlight the need for health professionals to direct support and information towards fathers as well as the mother-infant dyad and to recognise their importance in promoting and enabling breastfeeding. © 2014 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Fosu-Brefo, Rita; Arthur, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practices have been argued to be one of the important ways of ensuring child health. Unfortunately, owing to modernization, most nursing mothers fail to adhere to such practices. This is believed to be a factor contributory to poor child health in Ghana. Thus, this study investigated the effect of timely initiation of breastfeeding on child health in Ghana. Cross sectional data using secondary data based on the positivism approach to research was employed. The Ordinary least squares and the Instrumental variables approach were used in estimating the effect of breastfeeding and other socio demographic indicators on the health of the child. Data for the study was sourced from the 2008 round of the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The results indicate that timely initiation of breastfeeding, both immediately and hours after birth are important factors that influence the child's health. Additionally, factors such as the wealth of the household, mother's education, age and size of the child at birth and age of the mother are important factors that also influence the health of the child in Ghana. The findings imply that efforts should be made on encouraging appropriate breastfeeding practices among nursing mothers to ensure proper child development and growth in Ghana.

  7. Breastfeeding Education: disagreement of meanings.

    PubMed

    Caicedo Martínez, Nydia Stella; Carrillo Pineda, Marcela; Gómez Dávila, Joaquín Guillermo

    2016-06-01

    This work sought to analyze how educational processes have been developed for breastfeeding in a health institution, starting from the meanings mothers, families, and health staff construct thereon. This was qualitative research of ethnographic approach, which included observations during the group educational activities of the programs, focal groups, and interviews of mothers, their families, and the health staff of a hospital unit in the city of Medellín, Colombia. The analysis was guided by the constant comparison method. The categories emerging from the data were: 1) breast milk is an ideal food. 2) The mothers' experiences influence upon the breastfeeding practice. 3) Family beliefs sometimes operate as cultural barriers. 4) Disagreements are revealed in the educational process. The way educational processes have taken place for breastfeeding reveals a break expressed by the scarce interaction between the meanings professionals have constructed on the topic and those the mothers and their families give to the experience of breastfeeding.

  8. Socio-economic factors and use of maternal health services are associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia: secondary analysis of Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys 2002/2003 and 2007.

    PubMed

    Titaley, Christiana R; Loh, Philips C; Prasetyo, Sabarinah; Ariawan, Iwan; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2014-01-01

    This analysis aims to examine factors associated with delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. Data were derived from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey. Information from 12,191 singleton live-born infants aged 0-23 months was used to examine factors associated with delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Furthermore, information from 3,187 singleton live-born infants aged 0-5 months was used to identify factors associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Associations between potential predictors and study outcomes were examined using logistic regression. Our study found that infants from high household wealth-index had significantly increased odds of both delayed initiation and non-exclusive breastfeeding. Other factors associated with an increased odds of delayed initiation of breastfeeding included infants from Sumatera region (OR=1.64, 95% CI: 1.38-1.95), Caesarean-section deliveries (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.39-2.44) and deliveries in government-owned (OR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.08-1.76) and non-health facility (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.00-1.43). Other factors associated with an increased odds for non-exclusive breastfeeding included parents who were in the workforce (OR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.78) and mothers with obstetric complication at childbirth (OR=1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.74). However, the odds reduced for infants from Eastern Indonesia (OR=0.64, 95% CI: 0.49-0.85). Poor breastfeeding practices are associated with environmental, socio-economic, pregnancy-birthing characteristics and maternal health services factors. Efforts to promote breastfeeding practices should be conducted comprehensively to target population at risk for poor breastfeeding practices.

  9. 2006-07 north metropolitan Perth breastfeeding cohort study: how long are mothers breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Forde, Karen A; Miller, Laura J

    2010-07-01

    Information about local breastfeeding rates and predictors of breastfeeding outcomes can assist with improving health planning and community support. Longitudinal infant feeding data were collected during scheduled contacts with a Community Child Health Nurse and a telephone survey at 6 months for 3828 infants in Perth, Western Australia. Breastfeeding rates were below recommended targets. Regression analyses identified several significant protective and risk predictors of breastfeeding outcomes. Factors that increased the likelihood of use of artificial baby milk in hospital were low birth weight, multiple births, private hospital, primiparity and mother of Asian ethnicity. At 6 months, factors that reduced the likelihood of breastfeeding were young mother, no tertiary education, multiple births, use of artiicial baby milk in hospital, low birth weight and mother seeking postnatal professional breastfeeding advice within 14 days. A strong commitment by health leaders and professionals is required across the continuum of care to provide timely and consistent support to maintain breastfeeding.

  10. Jaundice and breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperbilirubinemia - breast milk; Breast milk jaundice; Breastfeeding failure jaundice ... first few days of life. It is called "breastfeeding failure jaundice," "breast-non-feeding jaundice," or even " ...

  11. Knowledge and beliefs about breastfeeding are not determinants for successful breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Shareena; Adzan, Nur Azeanny M; Quan, Lee K; Shafie, M Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed.

  12. Knowledge and Beliefs About Breastfeeding Are Not Determinants for Successful Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Adzan, Nur Azeanny M.; Quan, Lee K.; Shafie, M. Hasli; Rani, Nor Azila; Ramli, Kazzoma G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A cross-sectional prospective study was performed to assess knowledge and attitude toward breastfeeding among mothers in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia and its influence on their breastfeeding practices. Two hundred thirteen women who had delivered healthy babies at term were enrolled. A structured questionnaire containing demographic data and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Score were used, followed by a telephone interview after 8 weeks to determine the feeding outcome. Women of Malay ethnicity with higher education level who had received breastfeeding counseling had a significantly more favorable attitude toward breastfeeding. Ethnicity was found to be a significant determinant in the success of breastfeeding, whereas returning to work was a major reason for discontinuing breastfeeding. In ensuring a successful breastfeeding practice, apart from knowledge and attitude, issues surrounding culture and traditions as well as improving deliverance of readily available support should be addressed. PMID:24893127

  13. Breastfeeding Practices among Poor Women in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey; Desai, Sima S; Haakenstad, Annie; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding is an effective intervention to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of practices and predictors of breastfeeding among the poor in Mesoamerica has not been well described. We estimated the prevalence of ever breastfeeding, early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and breastfeeding between 6 mo and 2 y of age using household survey data for the poorest quintile of families living in 6 Mesoamerican countries. We also assessed the predictors of breastfeeding behaviors to identify factors amenable to policy interventions. We analyzed data from 12,529 children in Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, Panama, and El Salvador using baseline survey data from the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 Initiative. We created multivariable Poisson regression models with robust variance estimates to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% CIs for breastfeeding outcomes and to control for sociodemographic and healthcare-related factors. Approximately 97% of women in all countries breastfed their child at least once, and 65.1% (Nicaragua) to 79.0% (Panama) continued to do so between 6 mo and 2 y of age. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life varied by country (P < 0.001), with the highest proportion reported in Panama (89.8%) and the lowest in El Salvador (65.6%). Exclusive breastfeeding also varied by country (P = 0.037), ranging from 44.5% in Panama to 76.8% in Guatemala. For every 20% increase in the proportion of peers who exclusively breastfed, there was an 11% (aRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.18) increase in the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding. Our study revealed significant variation in the prevalence of breastfeeding practices by poor women across countries surveyed by the Salud Mesoamérica 2015 initiative. Future interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding should consider ways to leverage the role of the community in supporting individual women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Nipple care, sore nipples, and breastfeeding: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Centuori, S; Burmaz, T; Ronfani, L; Fragiacomo, M; Quintero, S; Pavan, C; Davanzo, R; Cattaneo, A

    1999-06-01

    Sore and cracked nipples are common and may represent an obstacle to successful breastfeeding. In Italy, it is customary for health professionals to prescribe some type of ointment to prevent or treat sore and cracked nipples. The efficacy of these ointments is insufficiently documented. The incidence of sore and cracked nipples was compared between mothers given routine nipple care, including an ointment (control group), and mothers instructed to avoid the use of nipple creams and other products (intervention group). Breastfeeding duration was also compared between the two groups. Eligible mothers were randomly assigned, after informed consent, to one of the two groups. No difference was found between the control (n = 96) and the intervention group (n = 123) in the incidence of sore and cracked nipples and in breastfeeding duration. However, several factors were associated with sore nipples and with breastfeeding duration. The use of a pacifier and of a feeding bottle in the hospital were both associated with sore nipples at discharge (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Full breastfeeding up to 4 months postpartum was significantly associated with the following early practices: breastfeeding on demand, rooming-in at least 20 hours/day, non-use of formula and pacifier, no test-weighing at each breastfeed. The incidence of sore and cracked nipples and the duration of breastfeeding were not influenced by the use of a nipple ointment. Other interventions, such as providing the mother with guidance and support on positioning and latching, and modifications of hospital practices may be more effective in reducing nipple problems.

  15. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  16. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood.

  17. Economic determinants of breastfeeding in Haiti: The effects of poverty, food insecurity, and employment on exclusive breastfeeding in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Bond, Caitlin; Dulience, Sherlie Jean Louis; Iannotti, Lora

    2017-10-04

    There is limited and inconsistent empirical evidence regarding the role of economic factors in breastfeeding practices, globally. Studies have found both negative and positive associations between low income and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Employment, which should improve household income, may reduce EBF due to separation of mother and infant. In the context of a randomized controlled study of lipid-based complementary feeding in an urban slum in Cap Haitien, Haiti, we examined the economic factors influencing breastfeeding practices using mixed methods. Findings demonstrate relationships between urban context, economic factors, and breastfeeding practices. Poverty, food insecurity, time constraints, and limited social support create challenges for EBF. Maternal employment is associated with lower rates of EBF and less frequent breastfeeding. Extreme food insecurity sometimes leads to increased exclusive breastfeeding among Haitian mothers, what we call "last resort EBF." In this case, women practice EBF because they have no alternative food source for the infant. Suggested policies and programs to address economic constraints and promote EBF in this population include maternal and child allowances, quality child care options, and small-scale household urban food production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Breastfeeding laws and breastfeeding practices by race and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Smith-Gagen, Julie; Hollen, Robin; Walker, Marsha; Cook, Daniel M; Yang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    We sought to examine breastfeeding practices by race and ethnicity in areas with and without eight specific breastfeeding laws. The 2003 through 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides national breastfeeding practice information. We assessed eight breastfeeding laws before and after legislation was enacted and linked to population-based estimates of breastfeeding initiation and duration for children between birth and age one. Relative to Whites, Mexican-American infants were 30% more likely to breastfeed for at least 6 months in areas with laws protecting break-time from work to pump, and 20% more likely to breastfeed for at least 6 months in areas with pumping law enforcement provisions. Unexpectedly, five laws with the intention of supporting breastfeeding duration were significantly less helpful for African-American women relative to White women. African-American women were nearly half as likely to breastfeed for at least 6 months, relative to Whites in areas with provisions to provide break-time from work (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.8), private areas to pump at work (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8), exemption from jury duty (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.9), awareness education campaigns (AOR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8), and pumping law enforcement provisions (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8). Breastfeeding laws influence African Americans and Mexican Americans differently than Whites. Examination of specific laws in conjunction with the interaction of known specific barriers for African-American mothers could help to achieve the Healthy People 2020 goals for breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors That Influence Teacher Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    External, employment, and personal factors which influence teacher decisions to stay, leave, or transfer from teaching assignments are discussed, with emphasis on special education teachers. Factors attributed to teacher attrition in urban and rural environments also are briefly reviewed, along with attrition of related services professionals.…

  20. Alternative Hospital Gift Bags and Breastfeeding Exclusivity

    PubMed Central

    Wunderlich, Shahla M.; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01). PMID:24959548

  1. Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie

    2013-01-01

    The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).

  2. The influence of acculturation on breast-feeding initiation and duration in low-income women in the US.

    PubMed

    Sussner, Katarina M; Lindsay, Ana C; Peterson, Karen E

    2008-09-01

    While the 'immigrant health paradox' posits better health behaviours and outcomes for immigrants upon arrival to the US, research suggests that this advantage may deteriorate over time. This study analysed the relationship of acculturation and breast-feeding initiation and duration among a sample of predominantly Latina, low-income women in the US. The four measures of acculturation included: mother's nativity (foreign born vs US born), mother's parents' nativity (foreign born vs US born), years of US residence (<8 years vs > or =8 years) and a dichotomous measure of language acculturation adapted from three items on Marin's acculturation scale (preferred language spoken at home, reading language and writing language) as exclusive use of native language versus non-exclusive use (mixed or English only) (Marin et al., 1987; Marin & Gamba, 1996). Final multivariable models showed that mothers who exclusively used their native language were more likely to initiate breast-feeding as well as breast-feed for longer duration compared with mothers with non-exclusive use, whereas years of US residence and mother's nativity were not significantly associated with breast-feeding initiation or duration. Mother's parents' nativity also emerged as a significant predictor of breast-feeding duration, both within final models for immigrants and across study participants. Programmes providing nutrition education to low-income women may wish to consider the role of language as an important determinant of breast-feeding. The role of mother's parents' nativity on breast-feeding practices deserves exploration in future studies, as the cultural practices taught by family members born outside the US may exert strong pressure within immigrant families now living in the US.

  3. Breastfeeding and sucking habits in children enrolled in a mother-child health program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early weaning can cause changes in posture and strength of the phonoarticulatory organs, favoring the installation of undesirable oral habits. The objective of the research was to evaluate the relationship between the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and its influence on the development of deleterious oral habits in children. This was a cross sectional observational study with 252 children of both sexes, between 30 and 48 months of age, attending a program of dental care for mothers and newborns. As an instrument of data collection was a questionnaire semistructured mothers of children with questions about the form and duration of breastfeeding and non-nutritive oral habits in children. Results In this sample, 48.4% of the children were exclusively breastfed for six months; 20.2% exhibited sucking habits involving the use of a pacifier, which was more frequent among the girls. As factors associated with the decreasing of the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits, are a longer exclusive breastfeeding, predominant breastfeeding and breastfeeding. Children who were breastfed for six months until twelve months in an exclusive way decreased by 69.0% chances of coming to have non-nutritive sucking habits when compared with those who were breastfed up to one month. Conclusion The longer the duration of breastfeeding, that is, exclusive, predominant or breastfeeding, the lower are the chances of children develop non-nutritive sucking habits. PMID:24927634

  4. Medications and breast-feeding: Current concepts.

    PubMed

    Nice, Frank J; Luo, Amy C

    2012-01-01

    To describe the various factors that come into play when a breast-feeding mother is taking medications, including use of prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications, recreational drugs, galactogogues, and herbal remedies and to provide a framework used for counseling breast-feeding women. Community and hospital pharmacy and health care settings. Consultative services provided to breast-feeding mothers who had been prescribed or were using medications. Use of pharmacokinetic factors, maternal and child factors, a list of questions to ask breast-feeding mothers, and a stepwise approach to counsel breast-feeding mothers on the compatibility of using medications while breast-feeding. By positive intervention of pharmacists and health care providers, up to 1 million breast-feeding mothers, who must use medications, can continue to breast-feed while taking medications. Objectively weighing the benefits of drugs and breast-feeding versus the risks of drugs and not breast-feeding, in most cases, allows for pharmacists to give current and practical advice to mothers and other health professionals who counsel mothers.

  5. Duration of breast-feeding and cardiovascular risk factors among Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN III study.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Vajihe; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Esmaeilmotlagh, Mohammad; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Azadbakht, Leila

    2013-05-01

    Studies examining the relationship between breast-feeding (BF) duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have reached contradictory results. This study aims to investigate the relationship between BF duration and CVD risk factors in adolescents. This national population-based study was conducted among 5258 Iranian students, ages 10 to 18 y living in central cities of 27 provinces of Iran. Association was examined between duration of BF and adolescent blood pressure, overweight, obesity, and fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders. Low birth weight was less frequent in the longer than in the shorter BF duration categories (P < 0.0001). Number of children was lower in individuals with longer BF duration (P = 0.01). Individuals with longer BF duration used more homemade food than those with shorter BF duration (P < 0.0001). Means of total cholesterol and systolic blood pressure were lower in participants with the longest BF period compared with those with the shortest BF duration; this difference was marginally significant (P = 0.06). No significant association was found between BF duration and CVD risk factors in logistic regression after adjustment for potential confounders. Although the long-term benefits of BF on preventing CVDs are well documented, controversies exist as to the association of BF duration with such beneficial effects. In this study, there was no substantial evidence that longer BF duration was protective against CVD risk factors among adolescents. More prospective studies are recommended to clarify this association. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Delayed onset of lactogenesis among first-time mothers is related to maternal obesity and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Nommsen-Rivers, Laurie A; Chantry, Caroline J; Peerson, Janet M; Cohen, Roberta J; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2010-09-01

    Delayed onset of lactogenesis (OL) is most common in primiparas and increases the risk of excess neonatal weight loss, formula supplementation, and early weaning. We examined variables associated with delayed OL among first-time mothers who delivered at term and initiated breastfeeding (n = 431). We conducted in-person interviews during pregnancy and at days 0, 3, and 7 postpartum and extracted obstetric and newborn information from medical records. We defined OL as delayed if it occurred after 72 h and used chi-square analysis to examine its association with potential risk factors across 6 dimensions: 1) prenatal characteristics, 2) maternal anthropometric characteristics, 3) labor and delivery experience, 4) newborn characteristics, 5) maternal postpartum factors, and 6) infant feeding variables. We examined independent associations by using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Median OL was 68.9 h postpartum; 44% of mothers experienced delayed OL. We observed significant bivariate associations between delayed OL and variables in all 6 dimensions (P < 0.05). In a multivariate model adjusted for prenatal feeding intentions, independent risk factors for delayed OL were maternal age > or =30 y, body mass index in the overweight or obese range, birth weight >3600 g, absence of nipple discomfort between 0-3 d postpartum, and infant failing to "breastfeed well" > or =2 times in the first 24 h. Postpartum edema was significant in an alternate model excluding body mass index (P < 0.05). The risk factors for delayed OL are multidimensional. Public health and obstetric and maternity care interventions are needed to address what has become an alarmingly common problem among primiparas.

  7. Excessive milk production during breast-feeding prior to breast cancer diagnosis is associated with increased risk for early events.

    PubMed

    Gustbée, Emma; Anesten, Charlotte; Markkula, Andrea; Simonsson, Maria; Rose, Carsten; Ingvar, Christian; Jernström, Helena

    2013-12-01

    Breast-feeding is a known protective factor against breast cancer. Breast-feeding duration is influenced by hormone levels, milk production, and lifestyle factors. The aims were to investigate how breast-feeding duration and milk production affected tumor characteristics and risk for early breast cancer events in primary breast cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2008, 634 breast cancer patients in Lund, Sweden, took part in an ongoing prospective cohort study. Data were extracted from questionnaires, pathology reports, and patients' charts from 592 patients without preoperative treatment. Breast-feeding duration ≤12 months of the first child was associated with higher frequency of ER+/PgR+ tumors (P=0.02). Median follow-up time was 4.9 years. Higher risk for early events was observed for breast-feeding duration of first child >12 months (LogRank P=0.001), total breast-feeding duration >12 months (LogRank P=0.008), as well as 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding of the first child (LogRank P=0.001). Patients with 'almost no milk production' had no events. In a multivariable model including both 'excessive milk production' and breast-feeding duration of the first child >12 months, both were associated with a two-fold risk for early events, adjusted HRs 2.33 (95% CI: 1.25-4.36) and 2.39 (0.97-5.85), respectively, while total breast-feeding duration was not. 'Excessive milk production' was associated with a two-fold risk of early distant metastases, adjusted HR 2.59 (1.13-5.94), but not duration. In conclusion, 'excessive milk production' during breast-feeding was associated with higher risk for early events independent of tumor characteristics, stressing the need to consider host factors in the evaluation of prognostic markers.

  8. Conquering common breast-feeding problems.

    PubMed

    Walker, Marsha

    2008-01-01

    Meeting mothers' personal breast-feeding goals depends on a number of factors, including the timely resolution of any problems she encounters. Nurses are often the first providers who interact with the mother during the perinatal period and are positioned to guide mothers through the prevention and solving of breast-feeding problems. Although many problems may be "common," failure to remedy conditions that cause pain, frustration, and anxiety can lead to premature weaning and avoidance of breast-feeding subsequent children. This article describes strategies and interventions to alleviate common problems that breast-feeding mothers frequently encounter.

  9. Effects of promoting increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on adiposity and insulin-like growth factor-I at age 11.5 years: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Richard M; Patel, Rita; Kramer, Michael S.; Guthrie, Lauren; Vilchuck, Konstantin; Bogdanovich, Natalia; Sergeichick, Natalia; Gusina, Nina; Foo, Ying; Palmer, Tom; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Gillman, Matthew W; Davey Smith, George; Oken, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Importance Evidence that increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding reduces child obesity risk is based on observational studies that are prone to confounding. Objective To investigate effects of an intervention to promote increased duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding on child adiposity and circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (which regulates growth). Design Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting 31 Belarusian maternity hospitals and their affiliated polyclinics, randomized to usual practices (n=15) or a breastfeeding promotion intervention (n=16). Participants 17,046 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs enrolled in 1996/7, of whom 13,879 (81.4%) were followed-up between January 2008 and December 2010 at a median age of 11.5 years. Intervention Breastfeeding promotion intervention modeled on the WHO/UNICEF Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI), fat and fat-free mass indices (FMI and FFMI), percent body fat, waist circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses, overweight and obesity, and whole-blood IGF-I. Primary analysis was based on modified intention-to-treat (without imputation), accounting for clustering within hospitals/clinics. Results The experimental intervention substantially increased breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (43% vs. 6% and 7.9% vs. 0.6% exclusively breastfed at 3 and 6 months, respectively) versus the control intervention. Cluster-adjusted mean differences in outcomes at 11.5 years between experimental vs. control groups were: 0.19 kg/m2 (95% 4 CI: −0.09, 0.46) for BMI; 0.12 kg/m2 (−0.03, 0.28) for FMI; 0.04 kg/m2 (−0.11, 0.18) for FFMI; 0.47% (−0.11, 1.05) for % body fat; 0.30 cm (−1.41, 2.01) for waist circumference; −0.07 mm (−1.71, 1.57) for triceps and −0.02 mm (−0.79, 0.75) for subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and −0.02 standard deviations (−0.12, 0.08) for IGF-I. The cluster-adjusted odds ratio for overweight / obesity (BMI

  10. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    PubMed

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  11. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A prospective follow up health facility-based study with quantitative methods was used with a sample of 233 primiparous women. Both structured and semi-structured questions were used for collection of data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data analysis. Findings at the 95% confidence interval and P-value of 5% were reported as statistically significant. Results 39.1% (n = 59) of the respondents were found to have high breastfeeding self-efficacy, 51.4% (n = 71) have good breastfeeding outcome expectancies, and 6.5% (n = 9) respondents had supportive breastfeeding socio-structural factors. Bivariate correlation analysis showed positive and statistically significant correlation between each of breastfeeding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and socio-structural factors, with EBF practice. However, only breastfeeding self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were statistically significant predictors of EBF among the primiparous women when controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions and Recommendations Health programmes aimed at improving EBF among primiparous mothers should look beyond providing health information alone. Rather improving

  12. Interactions between breast-feeding, specific parental atopy, and sex on development of asthma and atopy.

    PubMed

    Mandhane, Piush J; Greene, Justina M; Sears, Malcolm R

    2007-06-01

    The influence of breast-feeding on the risk of developing atopy and asthma remains controversial. To examine asthma and atopy outcomes by sex, reported specific parental history of atopy, and breast-feeding. In a birth cohort, we examined childhood asthma and atopy (positive skin prick tests) by sex and breast-feeding in relation to maternal and paternal atopy. Interactions were explored in logistic regression models. For boys, breast-feeding (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% CI, 0.93-2.87; P = .09) and maternal atopy (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.93-4.08; P = .08) were each associated with atopy at age 13 years. Breast-feeding increased the risk for atopy among boys with paternal atopy (OR, 7.39; 95% CI, 2.21-24.66) compared with non-breast-fed boys with paternal atopy, but did not significantly further increase risk among subjects with maternal atopy. For girls, breast-feeding (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41-1.31) and maternal and paternal atopy were not independent risk factors for atopy at age 13 years. However, breast-feeding increased the risk for atopy in girls with maternal atopy (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.20-8.14) compared with non-breast-fed girls with maternal atopy. There was no such effect among subjects with paternal atopy. Results for the outcome of asthma followed a similar pattern. The influence of breast-feeding on development of atopy and asthma differs by sex and by maternal and paternal atopy, and is most significant among subjects at lower baseline risk. Analyses of environmental risk factors for asthma and atopy should be stratified by specific parental atopy and sex.

  13. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  14. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  15. Soft Factors Influence College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence about the role that "soft factors" like student engagement and school environment play in influencing whether high school students go on to enroll in college is hard to come by. Over the past two years, the Center for Labor Market Studies (CLMS) of Northeastern University, with support from the Nellie Mae Education Foundation…

  16. Factors Influencing College Science Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tai, Robert H.; Sadler, Philip M.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report some of the salient findings of a large-scale, four-year national study, conducted at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, entitled "Factors Influencing College Science Success" (FICSS), which surveyed college students who enrolled in first-year biology, chemistry, and physics courses…

  17. Development of the Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory: a measure of women's confidence about breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Ann Pollard; McCrone, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The newly developed Breastfeeding Personal Efficacy Beliefs Inventory (BPEBI) was tested as a measure of breastfeeding confidence to support breastfeeding promotion research. Participants were 479 volunteers who returned the BPEBI after it was mailed to 700 randomly selected female students enrolled at a land grant university in a predominately White Appalachian state. Internal consistency reliability was .89. Five factors emerged during factor analysis (eigenvalue = 7.3 to 1.2, variance explained = 53%) consistent with the conceptual basis of the inventory. Further reliability and validity assessments were recommended with ethnically and academically heterogeneous women with different breastfeeding experience.

  18. Perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women using herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Some herbal galactagogues have gained reputation and recognition by the public and health professionals as alternative approaches to increase breast milk supply. This study explores the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal galactagogues while breastfeeding, their experiences, and why and how they have chosen an alternative option over conventional treatments to enhance breastfeeding performance. Methods This exploratory research was conducted through in-depth semi-structured interviews with women living in Perth, Western Australia, who were using one or more herbal galactagogues during breastfeeding. Purposeful and subsequent snowball sampling methods were employed to recruit participants. All interviews, facilitated by an interview guide, were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data to construct themes and subthemes. Results The perspectives and attitudes of the 20 participants are classified under three main headings: i) use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding, ii) available herbal medicines resources, and iii) level of breastfeeding support received. Throughout the interviews, participants described how their perseverance and determination to breastfeed, as well as concerns over breastfed infants’ safety with conventional treatments, influenced their choice of therapy. A sense of self-efficacy and autonomy over their own health needs was seen as influential to their confidence level, supported self-empowerment and provided reassurance throughout the breastfeeding journey. There was also a desire for more evidence-based information and expectations of health professionals to provide credible and reliable information regarding the use of herbal medicines during breastfeeding. Conclusions This study has enhanced our understanding of the perspectives and attitudes of breastfeeding women towards the use of herbal medicines, in particular galactagogues

  19. Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Some Common Concerns KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... breastfeeding is not necessary. My baby bites during breastfeeding. Can I stop it? Babies will often play ...

  20. Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Women Pregnancy, Breastfeeding, and Bone Health Publication available in: PDF (63 ... to get enough calcium during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Breastfeeding and Bone Health Breastfeeding also affects a mother’s ...

  1. The effect of breastfeeding on breast aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Brian; Veneracion, Melissa; Walsh, Catherine P

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of breast milk for infants are well documented, but breastfeeding is avoided by many women because of concerns about a negative effect upon breast appearance. However, there is very little objective data to either support or refute this view. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for the development of breast ptosis after pregnancy and to determine whether breastfeeding has an adverse effect on breast shape. Charts were reviewed of all patients seeking consultation for aesthetic breast surgery between 1998 and 2006. History of pregnancies, breastfeeding, and weight gain were obtained via telephone interview. Degree of breast ptosis was determined from preoperative photos. Nulliparous women were excluded. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of postpregnancy breast ptosis. Ninety-three patients met the study criteria. Fifty-four patients (58%) reported a history of breastfeeding. The mean age at surgery in the breastfeeding group was 41 years, compared to 37 years in the nonbreastfeeding group. An adverse change in breast shape following pregnancy was described by 51 respondents (55%). Greater age, higher body mass index, greater number of pregnancies, larger prepregnancy bra size, and smoking were identified as significant independent risk factors for postpregnancy breast ptosis (P < .05). Breastfeeding was not found to be an independent risk factor for ptosis. The risk of breast ptosis increases with each pregnancy, but breastfeeding does not seem to worsen these effects. Expectant mothers should be reassured that breastfeeding does not appear to have an adverse effect upon breast appearance.

  2. Timely initiation of breastfeeding is associated with the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Paramashanti, Bunga Astria; Hadi, Hamam; Gunawan, I Made Alit

    2016-12-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding has been proven to be essential for optimal health, and for reducing infections and mortality in children. However, exclusive breastfeeding coverage both in Indonesia and in globalremains low. This study evaluated the relationship between the timely initiation of breastfeeding and the practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Indonesia. This cross-sectional study used Riskesdas 2013 data. Participants were 7,667 mothers whose children were aged 6-23 months in Indonesia, and were selected based on the completeness of the variables. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chisquare tests, and a multiple logistic regression that considered the sampling weight. STATA 13.0 was used for the analyses, and the significance level was set at p<0.05. Timely initiation of breastfeeding within 1 hour of parturition (OR=3.66, 95% CI: 2.14-3.64), timely initiation of breastfeeding at or after 1 hour following parturition (OR=2.79, 95% CI: 3.00-4.46), and neonatal illness (OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.53-0.91) were significantly associated with an exclusive breastfeeding history among children aged 6-23 months. Other factors, such as the mother's age, mother's educational level, child's birth weight, household economic status, and residential area were not associated with an exclusive breastfeeding history. Timely initiation of breastfeeding and the prevention of neonatal illness should be the main interventions to improve exclusive breastfeeding coverage in Indonesia.

  3. Breast-feeding and adherence to infant feeding guidelines do not influence bone mass at age 4 years.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Nicholas C; Robinson, Sian M; Crozier, Sarah R; Marriott, Lynne D; Gale, Catharine R; Cole, Zoe A; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus

    2009-09-01

    The impact of variations in current infant feeding practice on bone mineral accrual is not known. We examined the associations between duration of breast-feeding and compliance with infant dietary guidelines and later bone size and density at age 4 years. At total of 599 (318 boys) mother-child pairs were recruited from the Southampton Women's Survey. Duration of breast-feeding was recorded and infant diet was assessed at 6 and 12 months using FFQ. At 6 and 12 months the most important dietary pattern, defined by principal component analysis, was characterised by high consumption of vegetables, fruits and home-prepared foods. As this was consistent with infant feeding recommendations, it was denoted the 'infant guidelines' pattern. At age 4 years, children underwent assessment of whole-body bone size and density using a Hologic Discovery dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instrument. Correlation methods were used to explore the relationships between infant dietary variables and bone mineral. There was no association between duration of breast-feeding in the first year of life and 4-year bone size or density. 'Infant guidelines' pattern scores at 6 and 12 months were also unrelated to bone mass at age 4 years. We observed wide variations in current infant feeding practice, but these variations were not associated with differences in childhood bone mass at age 4 years.

  4. Factors influencing susceptibility to metals.

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, M

    1997-01-01

    Although the long-neglected field of human susceptibility to environmental toxicants is currently receiving renewed attention, there is only scant literature on factors influencing susceptibility to heavy metals. Genetic factors may influence the availability of sulfhydryl-containing compounds such as glutathione and metallothionein, which modify the distribution and toxicity of certain metals. Age and gender play a role in modifying uptake and distribution, although the mechanisms are often obscure. Concurrent exposure to divalent cations may enhance or reduce the toxicity of certain metals through competition for receptor-mediated transport or targets. Increasing use of biomarkers of exposure should greatly increase our understanding of the underlying distribution of susceptibility to various environmental agents. PMID:9255566

  5. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Sam SX; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon. PMID:25258562

  6. Factors influencing pacing in triathlon.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sam Sx; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori; Abbiss, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    Triathlon is a multisport event consisting of sequential swim, cycle, and run disciplines performed over a variety of distances. This complex and unique sport requires athletes to appropriately distribute their speed or energy expenditure (ie, pacing) within each discipline as well as over the entire event. As with most physical activity, the regulation of pacing in triathlon may be influenced by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. The majority of current research focuses mainly on the Olympic distance, whilst much less literature is available on other triathlon distances such as the sprint, half-Ironman, and Ironman distances. Furthermore, little is understood regarding the specific physiological, environmental, and interdisciplinary effects on pacing. Therefore, this article discusses the pacing strategies observed in triathlon across different distances, and elucidates the possible factors influencing pacing within the three specific disciplines of a triathlon.

  7. Degree of malnutrition and its relationship with major structural and eating factors in Honduran preschool population. Prevalence of breastfeeding

    PubMed

    Fernández Palacios, Lorena; Barrientos Augustinus, Elsa; Raudales Urquía, Carolina; Frontela Saseta, Carmen; Ros Berruezo, Gaspar

    2017-06-05

    Introduction: Child malnutrition remains a serious public health problem in Honduras, with a national prevalence according to the World Health Organization (WHO) reference values of 29% in children under fi ve. In addition, the average chronic malnutrition in the region amounts to 80% in poor and indigenous communities, making Honduras the second country in Central America with the highest incidence of chronic malnutrition. Another problem of the region is the early cessation of exclusive breastfeeding: only 29.7% of children were exclusively breastfed until they were six months. Therefore, the study seeks to understand, identify and quantify the situation determinants and provide information for the design of public policies. Material and method:: The study consisted of a cross-sectional descriptive anthropometric assessment in which the nutritional status and the prevalence of undernourishment, malnutrition and malnutrition in 141 children aged between six months and fi ve years, belonging to urban and rural regions of the country, were analyzed, as well as assessing the prevalence of breastfeeding in fi ve Honduran departments (Intibucá, Lempira, Atlántida, Olancho and Francisco Morazán). Results and conclusion: When making the analysis by departments, differences regarding nutritional status and breastfeeding were observed between urban and rural areas, the latter being doubled in the case of chronic malnutrition and underweight, with percentages of 14.6% in urban areas versus28.8% in rural areas, and 4.6% in urban areas compared to 9% in rural areas, respectively. However, with respect to acute malnutrition and overweight in both regions, similar values were observed, above 1.1% for acute and 14% for overweight malnutrition. In relation to exclusive breastfeeding for six months, the departments of Olancho and Lempira maintained it for two years, with a percentage distribution of 80% and 48%, respectively. It must be noted that 36% of mothers did not provide

  8. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Hursti, Ulla-Kaisa Koivisto

    1999-01-01

    Although food habits arc not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  9. Factors influencing children's food choice.

    PubMed

    Koivisto Hursti, U K

    1999-04-01

    Although food habits are not stable and unchanging during a person's lifetime, a base for healthy food habits can be created in early childhood. Children's food habits can be assumed to be influenced by their parents' food habits and choices. The aim of this article is to review factors influencing food choice in children as well as in adults. The results demonstrate that the development of children's food habits is influenced by a multitude of factors. Parents play an important role in the formation of food habits and preferences of young children. They can influence their children's food choice by making specific foods available, by acting as models for their children and by their behaviour in specific situations. Children tend to be afraid of new foods and do not readily accept them. However, experience is known to enhance preference, and earlier experiences of a particular food are the major determinants of the development of children's food acceptance patterns. Thus, parents should be encouraged to make healthy foods easily available to the child and serve these foods in positive mealtime situations in order to help their child to develop healthy food habits.

  10. [Breast feeding rates and factors influencing breast feeding practice in late preterm infants: comparison with preterm born at less than 34 weeks of gestational age].

    PubMed

    Jang, Gun Ja; Lee, Sang Lak; Kim, Hyeon Mi

    2012-04-01

    This study was done to compare breast feeding rates and factors influencing feeding practice between late preterm (34 ≤ GA < 37) and preterm infants (GA<34). A survey was done of 207 late preterm and 117 preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) of 4 university hospitals in D city. Data were collected from July 2009 to June 2010 from 324 medical records in the NICU. Breast-feeding at home was checked either by telephone survey or questioning during hospital visits. Rate of breast feeding for late preterm infants was significantly lower than for preterm infants. There was no significant difference in breast-feeding at home. We found differences in factors influencing breast feeding between the two groups. Factors influencing feeding for late preterm infants were type of delivery, mothers' occupation, feeding type during hospitalization, time elapse from hospital discharge, total admission days, infant's body weight at first feeding and length of NPO (nothing by mouth). Factors influencing feeding for preterm infants were birth order, maternal disease and obstetric complications, and one-minute Apgar score. Results of the study show low rates of breast-feeding for late preterm infants indicating a need for breast-feeding education for mothers of these infants.

  11. Breast-feeding in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, M J; Martín-Calama, J; Hernandez-Aguilar, M T

    2001-12-01

    Human milk is the best way to nurture the human infant. By breast-feeding their babies, mothers provide them with the best opportunities to wholly develop their potential, while protecting the infants and themselves from a whole range of diseases in the near future and in the years to come. Even though these benefits are widely known and there is ample scientific evidence on the topic, it seems from published data that Spanish women are not breast-feeding their babies as much and for as long as they should. Less than 90% start breast-feeding, at 1 month there is already an attrition of 30%, at 3 months more than half of the infants are taking artificial milk and by 6 months only 10% continue to breast-feed their infants. Low birth weight, Caesarean section and low study level are among the more significant factors that negatively affect breast-feeding. There is still work to do to improve this situation. Promotion of breast-feeding among the general population, mothers and health professionals is needed.

  12. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  13. What about Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu What We Do Cleft & Craniofacial Educational Materials What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  14. Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Breastfeeding After Cesarean Delivery Page Content Article Body A ... delivered vaginally. It is especially important to begin breastfeeding as soon as you are able and to ...

  15. FAQ: Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Resources Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... Top of Page If I am pregnant or breastfeeding, should I use insect repellents? Yes. Protecting yourself ...

  16. What about Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fundraising Ideas Vehicle Donation Volunteer Efforts What about Breastfeeding? skip to submenu Parents & Individuals Information for Parents & Individuals What about Breastfeeding? To download the PDF version of this factsheet, ...

  17. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  18. Association of birth weight and breast-feeding with coronary heart disease risk factors at the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, I; Gunnarsdottir, I; Palsson, G I

    2003-10-01

    It has been shown that early growth and nutrition affect health in childhood and later life. The aim of this study was to assess the association of birth weight and breast-feeding in infancy with body mass index (BMI) and serum lipids at the age of six years. The contributions of current macronutrient intake, maternal age and BMI were assessed. This was a longitudinal observational study of 120 randomly chosen children whose birth weight and duration of breast-feeding had been recorded. At the age of six years, their weight and height, and serum cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) and triglyceride levels were measured at healthcare centres in Iceland. Dietary intake at six years was estimated using 3-day weighed food records. The duration of breast-feeding negatively correlated with BMI in 6-year-old boys (B = -0.19 +/- 0.07, p = 0.011) but not in girls; after adjusting for maternal BMI, the relationship in boys was of borderline significance (p = 0.087). The 6-year-old boys who had been breast-fed for < 6 months had a significantly higher BMI (18.0 +/- 2.5 kg/m2) than those breast-fed for 8-9 months (15.8 +/- 1.2 kg/m2, p = 0.006) or > or = 10 months (15.7 +/- 1.2 kg/m2, p = 0.005). A longer duration of breast-feeding was related to higher HDL-cholesterol levels in 6-year-old girls (B = 0.03 +/- 0.01, p = 0.032), but not boys. Birth weight was not related to BMI or serum lipid levels at the age of 6 years. In this high birth weight population, a longer duration of breast-feeding may be effective in preventing childhood overweight, at least among boys. Breast-feeding also seems to be related to an improved lipid profile in girls.

  19. Ankyloglossia its impact breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lydia; Hayman, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    This article contrasts two very different experiences of one mother breastfeeding her two sons to demonstrate the potential impact of ankyloglossia on breastfeeding. When too restrictive, ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, can cause the newborn to ineffectively suckle at the breast. Breastfeeding difficulties can occur, such as long feedings or damaged nipples. When nurses, lactation consultants and other providers recognize this situation, they can refer women for further care and treatment, which can ultimately lead to breastfeeding success.

  20. Breast-feeding after inferior pedicle reduction mammaplasty.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, D; Niessen, M; Evans, H B; Hurst, L N

    2000-02-01

    The breast-feeding practices of a series of postpartum women, who had undergone prior reduction mammaplasty by means of an inferior pedicle approach, are reported in this retrospective study. Also identified are the factors that influenced the decision to breast-feed postoperatively. From a patient pool of 544 individuals who elected to have reduction mammaplasty between 1984 and 1994 (age range, 15 to 35 years), 334 could be contacted and interviewed by means of telephone by using a standardized questionnaire. Successful breast-feeding was defined as the ability to feed for a duration equal to or greater than 2 weeks. Seventy-eight patients had children after their breast reduction surgery. Fifteen of the 78 patients (19.2 percent) breast-fed exclusively, 8 (10.3 percent) breast-fed with formula supplementation, 14 (17.9 percent) had an unsuccessful breast-feeding attempt, and 41 (52.6 percent) did not attempt breast-feeding. Of the 41 patients not attempting to breast-feed, 9 patients did so as a direct consequence of discouragement by a health care professional. Further reasons for feeding with supplementation, having an unsuccessful attempt, and not attempting to breast-feed are presented. Of the 78 women who had children postoperatively, a total of 27 were discouraged from breast-feeding by medical professionals with only 8 of the 27 (29.6 percent) subsequently attempting, despite this recommendation. In comparison, 26 patients were encouraged to breast-feed; nineteen (73.1 percent) of them did subsequently attempt breast-feeding. This rate is statistically significant by using a chi2 test with 1 df(p = 0.0016). Postpartum breast engorgement and lactation was experienced by 31 of the 41 patients not attempting to breast-feed. Of these 31 patients, 19 believed that they would have been able to breast-feed due to the extent of breast engorgement and lactation experienced. Given the use of an inferior flap mammaplasty technique and patient encouragement, the

  1. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding FAQs: Pumping Print A A A What's in ... a new mom or a seasoned parenting pro, breastfeeding often comes with its fair share of questions. ...

  2. Imprinting, latchment and displacement: a mini review of early instinctual behaviour in newborn infants influencing breastfeeding success.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Elsie J; Mobbs, George A; Mobbs, Anthony E D

    2016-01-01

    Instinctive behaviours have evolved favouring the mother-infant dyad based on fundamental processes of neurological development, including oral tactile imprinting and latchment. Latchment is the first stage of emotional development based on the successful achievement of biological imprinting. The mechanisms underpinning imprinting are identified and the evolutionary benefits discussed. It is proposed that the oral tactile imprint to the breast is a keystone for optimal latchment and breastfeeding, promoting evolutionary success. ©2015 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  3. Factors influencing healthcare service quality

    PubMed Central

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify factors that influence healthcare quality in the Iranian context. Methods: Exploratory in-depth individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 222 healthcare stakeholders including healthcare providers, managers, policy-makers, and payers to identify factors affecting the quality of healthcare services provided in Iranian healthcare organisations. Results: Quality in healthcare is a production of cooperation between the patient and the healthcare provider in a supportive environment. Personal factors of the provider and the patient, and factors pertaining to the healthcare organisation, healthcare system, and the broader environment affect healthcare service quality. Healthcare quality can be improved by supportive visionary leadership, proper planning, education and training, availability of resources, effective management of resources, employees and processes, and collaboration and cooperation among providers. Conclusion: This article contributes to healthcare theory and practice by developing a conceptual framework that provides policy-makers and managers a practical understanding of factors that affect healthcare service quality. PMID:25114946

  4. Protective benefit of predominant breastfeeding against otitis media may be limited to early childhood: results from a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brennan-Jones, C G; Eikelboom, R H; Jacques, A; Swanepoel, D; Atlas, M D; Whitehouse, A J O; Jamieson, S E; Oddy, W H

    2017-02-01

    To examine the long-term effects of predominant breastfeeding on incidence of otitis media. Prospective birth cohort study. The West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study recruited 2900 mothers through antenatal clinics at the major tertiary obstetric hospital in Perth, Western Australia, between 1989 and 1992. In total, 2237 children participated in a 6-year cohort follow-up, and a subset of 1344 were given ear and hearing assessments. OM diagnosis at 6 years of age (diagnosed by low-compliance tympanograms, 0-0.1 mmho). This was compared to OM diagnosed at the 3-year cohort follow-up using parent-report measures. Main exposure measures were duration of predominant breastfeeding (defined as the age other milk was introduced) and duration of partial (any) breastfeeding (defined as the age breastfeeding was stopped). There was a significant, independent association between predominant breastfeeding (OR = 1.33 [1.04, 1.69]; P = 0.02) and OM, and breastfeeding duration (OR = 1.35 [1.08, 1.68]; P = 0.01) with OM at 3 years of age. However, at 6 years of age, this relationship was no longer statistically significant (predominant breastfeeding OR = 0.78 [0.48, 1.06]; P = 0.09; duration of breastfeeding, OR = 1.34 [0.81, 2.23]; P = 0.25). Our findings are in line with a number of epidemiological studies which show a positive association between breastfeeding and OM in early childhood. However, the long-term follow-up of these children revealed that by 6 years of age, there was no significant influence of breastfeeding on presence of OM. These results suggest that the protective effect of predominant breastfeeding for at least 6 months does not extend to school-age children, where other social and environmental factors may be stronger predictors of OM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  6. Who Supports Breastfeeding Mothers? : An Investigation of Kin Investment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Jayme

    2017-02-18

    Breastfeeding is one important form of maternal investment that is influenced by support from kin and non-kin. This paper investigates who provides support for breastfeeding mothers and their children, what type of support they provide, and how support impacts breastfeeding duration. The data were derived from a survey of 594 American mothers and were analyzed using quantitative methods, including Cox regression. Analyses indicate that mothers receive significant support, particularly from spouses and maternal grandmothers. More frequent breastfeeding discussions with La Leche League and maternal grandfathers were associated with longer duration, whereas discussions with physicians were associated with shorter breastfeeding duration. Results indicate that consulting others specifically about breastfeeding may influence breastfeeding decisions. The results are consistent with the idea that social support may influence breastfeeding duration and that some types of support are more influential than others. Furthermore, support persons should be educated about breastfeeding to prevent early weaning.

  7. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast.

  8. Does breast-feeding affect severity of familial Mediterranean fever?

    PubMed

    Makay, Balahan; Unsal, Erbil

    2009-12-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common inherited autoinflammatory disease, which is caused by an inborn error in innate immune system. It was shown that disease severity of patients of the same ethnic origin differed according to different country of residence, suggesting an influence of environment on phenotype of FMF. Different microbial milieus of the countries were accused. Breast-feeding has an important role on innate immunity and protects the infant from infections. The aim of this study is to investigate whether being breast-fed and duration of breast-feeding has an impact on disease severity of FMF. The mothers of patients were asked to fill a questionnaire about the feeding type in infancy. Mode of delivery, gestational age, and age at onset of FMF symptoms were also asked. The disease severity score of each patient was calculated according to the scoring system suggested by Pras et al. (Am J Med Genet 75:216-219, 1998). MEFV mutations were noted. The mothers of 81 FMF patients completed the questionnaire. Fifteen patients (18.5%) had mild, 49 (60.5%) had moderate, and 17 (21%) had severe disease. All the patients except four were breast-fed for some period. The duration of breast-feeding was similar between three severity groups. Time to introduce cow's milk and complementary foods also did not differ between groups. Longer duration of breast-feeding did not delay the onset of FMF symptoms. Mode of delivery and gestational age had no effect on disease severity. Patients homozygous for M694V had higher severity scores. This preliminary study suggests that breast-feeding is not an exogenous factor having an influence on phenotype of FMF. M694V genotype seems to cause more severe disease.

  9. Promoting and supporting breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Moreland, J; Coombs, J

    2000-04-01

    The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and identifies potential problem areas. Hospital practices should focus on rooming-in, early and frequent breast-feeding, skilled support and avoidance of artificial nipples, pacifiers and formula. Infant follow-up should be two to four days postdischarge, with liberal use of referral and support groups, including lactation consultants and peer counselors.

  10. [BREASTFEEDING AND FORMATION OF POSTNATAL ANXIETY].

    PubMed

    Klymenko, V A; Lupaltsova, O S

    2015-01-01

    This article has been performed the investigation of psychological characteristics in mothers with the breastfeeding, the mixed feeding, the artificial feeding. There has been identified factors of the unfavourable prognosis for the postnatal anxiety.

  11. Barriers to breast-feeding in obese women: A qualitative exploration.

    PubMed

    Keely, Alice; Lawton, Julia; Swanson, Vivien; Denison, Fiona C

    2015-05-01

    to explore the factors that influence breast-feeding practices in obese women who had either stopped breast-feeding or were no longer exclusively breast-feeding 6-10 weeks following the birth of their babies, despite an original intention to do so for 16 weeks or longer. Specifically (i) to identify the barriers to successful breast-feeding and reasons for introducing formula and/or stopping breast-feeding, and (ii) to explore the women׳s views and experiences of current breast-feeding support services. descriptive, qualitative study comprising semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. participants recruited from one large maternity unit in Scotland and interviewed in their homes. 28 obese women at 6-10 weeks following birth. three major themes emerged from the data analysis: the impact of birth complications, a lack of privacy, and a low uptake of specialist breast-feeding support. Impact of birth complications: 19 of 28 women had given birth by caesarean section and some felt this led to feeling 'out of it' post-operatively, a delay in establishing skin-to-skin contact, and in establishing breast-feeding. Lack of privacy; several women described reluctance to breast feed in front of others, difficulties in achieving privacy, in hospital, at home and in public. Low uptake of postnatal breast-feeding support; despite experiencing problems such as physical difficulties during breast-feeding or a perception of low milk supply, breast-feeding support services were underused by this sample of women. A small number of the women in this study used breast-feeding clinics and reported finding these useful. A further small number felt they benefitted from the support of a friend who was successfully breast-feeding. midwives should be mindful of the presence of additional factors alongside maternal obesity, such as caesarean delivery, physical difficulties when breast-feeding

  12. Breastfeeding patterns in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use.

    PubMed

    Aarts, C; Hörnell, A; Kylberg, E; Hofvander, Y; Gebre-Medhin, M

    1999-10-01

    To analyze the influence of thumb sucking and pacifier use on breastfeeding patterns in exclusively breastfed infants, on the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and on the total breastfeeding duration. Descriptive, longitudinal, prospective study. The subjects were recruited from a population of 15 189 infants born in the maternity ward at the University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden between May 1989 and December 1992. 506 mother-infant pairs. Daily recordings by the mothers on infant feeding from the first week after delivery through the duration of the study. Fortnightly home visits with structured interviews by a research assistant. Pacifier use was associated with fewer feeds and shorter suckling duration per 24 hours, shorter duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and shorter total breastfeeding duration compared with no pacifier use. These associations were not found for thumb sucking. The possible negative effects of pacifiers on breastfeeding seemed to be related to the frequency of their use. Maternal age and education only slightly modified the association between pacifier use and breastfeeding duration. More frequent use of a pacifier was associated with shorter breastfeeding duration, even among a group of mothers who were highly motivated to breastfeed. breastfeeding duration, breastfeeding pattern, exclusive breastfeeding, pacifier use, thumb sucking.

  13. Breastfeeding Promotion, Support and Protection: Review of Six Country Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Mangasaryan, Nune; Martin, Luann; Brownlee, Ann; Ogunlade, Adebayo; Rudert, Christiane; Cai, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Reviews of programmes in Bangladesh, Benin, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Uzbekistan sought to identify health policy and programmatic factors that influenced breastfeeding practices during a 10 to 15 year period. Exclusive breastfeeding rates and trends were analysed in six countries in general and from an equity perspective in two of them. Success factors and challenges were identified in countries with improved and stagnated rates respectively. The disaggregated data analysis showed that progress may be unequal in population subgroups, but if appropriately designed and implemented, a programme can become a “health equalizer” and eliminate discrepancies among different subgroups. Success requires commitment, supportive policies, and comprehensiveness of programmes for breastfeeding promotion, protection and support. Community-based promotion and support was identified as a particularly important component. Although health workers’ training on infant feeding support and counselling was prioritized, further improvement of interpersonal counselling and problem solving skills is needed. More attention is advised for pre-service education, including a stronger focus on clinical practice, to ensure knowledge and skills among all health workers. Large-scale communication activities played a significant role, but essential steps were often underemphasized, including identifying social norms and influencing factors, ensuring community participation, and testing of approaches and messages. PMID:23016128

  14. Breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city African-American mothers: a risky choice?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia M; Banks, Elizabeth C; North, Angela B

    2013-02-01

    This study identified barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city African-American mothers. We used audiotaped focus groups moderated by an experienced International Board Certified Lactation Consultant, with recruitment supported by the community partner MomsFirst™ (Cleveland Department of Public Health, Cleveland, OH). Institutional Review Board approval and written informed consent were obtained. Notes-based analysis was conducted with use of a prior analytic structure called Factors Influencing Beliefs (FIBs), redefined with inclusion/exclusion criteria to address breastfeeding issues. Three focus groups included 20 high-risk inner-city expectant and delivered mothers. Relevant FIBs domains were as follows: Risk Appraisal, Self Perception, Relationship Issues/Social Support, and Structural/Environmental Factors. Risk Appraisal themes included awareness of benefits, fear of pain, misconceptions, and lack of information. Self Perception themes included low self-efficacy with fear of social isolation and limited expression of positive self-esteem. Relationship Issues/Social Support themes included formula as a cultural norm, worries about breastfeeding in public, and challenging family relationships. Structural/Environmental Factors themes included negative postpartum hospital experiences and lack of support after going home. Several findings have been previously reported, such as fear of pain with breastfeeding, but we identified new themes, including self-esteem and self-efficacy, and new concerns, for example, that large breasts would suffocate a breastfeeding infant. The FIBs analytic framework, as modified for breastfeeding issues, creates a context for future analysis and comparison of related studies and may be a useful tool to improve understanding of barriers to breastfeeding among high-risk inner-city women.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for low vitamin D status among breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in an environment with abundant sunshine

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Khalil; Al-Janahi, Najah Saleh Ali; Reedy, Adriana M; Dawodu, Adekunle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Evaluation of vitamin D (vD) status and risk factors for low vD among breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in a population at high risk for vD deficiency. Subjects and methods We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone at 1 month postpartum in 60 consecutive exclusively breastfeeding Arab mother–infant dyads enrolled in a high dose vD supplementation study to prevent vD deficiency in Doha, Qatar, (latitude 25°N) during summer months. Data were collected on demography, sun exposure, and vD supplementation. Comparison with a US cohort was evaluated. vD deficiency was defined as serum 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L and severe deficiency categorized as 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L in mothers and infants. Results Mean maternal age was 29 years and 77% had college or university education. Maternal median 25(OH)D was 32.5 nmol/L and 78% were vD-deficient and 20% had 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L. Only 42% of mothers had reportedly taken vD supplements postpartum and median dietary vD intake (119 IU/day) and calcium (490 mg/day) were low. Maternal median sun index score (sun exposure [hours/week] × body surface area exposed while outdoors) was 0. Maternal 25(OH)D correlated with percent body surface area exposure while outdoors (rs=0.37, P=0.004). Infant median 25(OH)D was 20 nmol/L and 83% were deficient, while 58% had 25(OH)D <25 nmol/L. Infant 25(OH)D correlated with maternal levels (rs=0.41, P=0.001). None of the infants received vD supplement at 1 month of age and median sun index score was 0. Infant’s parathyroid hormone showed negative correlations with 25(OH)D (rs=−0.28, P=0.03). Sun exposure, vD supplementation rate, and vD status were lower in Doha than Cincinnati, US cohort. Conclusion vD deficiency is common in breastfeeding mother–infant dyads in this sunny environment and is associated with sun avoidance and low vD intake. We suggest corrective vD supplement of breastfeeding mothers and their infants, which should preferably start during

  16. Description of breastfeeding practices among poorer sections in Calcutta Metropolitan Area and its impact on postpartum infecundity.

    PubMed

    Dihidar, S; Bhattacharya, B N; Mukherjee, K L

    2002-09-01

    Descriptions of breastfeeding practices among residents in slum areas of Kolkata and the influence of breastfeeding on postpartum amenorrhoea is the focus of this study. Three out of four women initiate breastfeeding after one hour of birth and three out of five women squeeze the first milk from the breast before breastfeeding. Though the median duration of breastfeeding is long, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is much shorter. Breastfeeding during the first six months has a significant negative influence on the rate of return to menses.

  17. [Factors influencing vitality among nurses].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji-Soon; Oh, Won-Oak

    2007-08-01

    This study was conducted to understand the degree of vitality, meaning in life and self-efficacy and to elucidate the factors influencing this vitality in the nurses of Korea. A cross-sectional survey of nurses from 4 hospitals was conducted by convenience sampling. Data collection was conducted through the use of questionnaires which were constructed to include a Vitality Self Test, Purpose in Life Test and Self-efficacy Scale. The degree of vitality in nurses was in the middle range. The nurses of this study had few goals towards meaning in life, and an existential vacuum state. A positive relationship was found between vitality and the research variables. The significant predictors influencing vitality in nurses were meaning in life, self-efficacy, and clinical career, and these variables accounted for 28.7% of the variance in vitality. This results support that vitality is an important link with meaning in life and self-efficacy. There should be a comprehensive study in the future for in-depth understanding of the vitality of nurses.

  18. Individual net-benefit maximization: a model for understanding breastfeeding cessation among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Racine, Elizabeth F; Frick, Kevin; Guthrie, Joanne F; Strobino, Donna

    2009-03-01

    We use economic theory of individual net benefit maximization to motivate a comprehensive look at 32 social, economic, and psychological disincentives that potentially influence breastfeeding cessation. The sample consists of 1,595 low-income families participating in the Healthy Steps for Young Children National Evaluation. Participants were recruited from 24 pediatric sites across the United States. Infants were enrolled at birth and followed through age 30-33 months. Survival analysis was used to assess the relation of social, economic and psychosocial factors with duration of breastfeeding. Disincentives significantly associated with cessation in multivariate hazard analysis were: WIC participation at 2-4 months (HR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.29, 1.74), mother's returning to work for 20-40 h per week (HR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.71), mother's not attending a postpartum doctor's visit (HR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.63), father's not being in the home (HR = 1.38; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.57), a smoker in the household (HR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.52), no receipt of breastfeeding instruction at the pediatric office (HR = 1.20; 95% CI:1.06, 1.37), the doctor's not encouraging breastfeeding (HR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39) and the mother experiencing depressive symptoms (HR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.33). The decision to stop breastfeeding is often complex. Research on breastfeeding cessation has been limited with regard to the social and economic issues that may influence the behavior of low-income women. The results support the need to develop interventions and policies to minimize disincentives associated with breastfeeding cessation.

  19. Using a genetically informative design to examine the relationship between breastfeeding and childhood conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Katherine H; Collishaw, Stephan; Rice, Frances J; Harold, Gordon T; Thapar, Anita

    2011-12-01

    A number of public health interventions aimed at increasing the uptake of breastfeeding are in place in the United States and other Western countries. While the physical health and nutritional benefits of breastfeeding for the mother and child are relatively well established, the evidence for psychological effects is less clear. This study aimed to examine whether there is an association between breastfeeding and later conduct problems in children. It also considered the extent to which any relationship is attributable to maternally-provided inherited characteristics that influence both likelihood of breastfeeding and child conduct problems. A prenatal cross-fostering design with a sample of 870 families with a child aged 4-11 years was used. Mothers were genetically related or unrelated to their child as a result of assisted reproductive technologies. The relationship between breastfeeding and conduct problems was assessed while controlling for theorised measured confounders by multivariate regression (e.g. maternal smoking, education, and antisocial behaviour), and for unmeasured inherited factors by testing associations separately for related and unrelated mother-child pairs. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct disorder symptoms in offspring in middle childhood. Breastfeeding was associated with lower levels of conduct problems even after controlling for observed confounders in the genetically related group, but not in the genetically unrelated group. In contrast, maternal antisocial behaviour showed robust associations with child conduct problems after controlling for measured and inherited confounders. These findings highlight the importance of using genetically sensitive designs in order to test causal environmental influences.

  20. Exploring Middle-Eastern mothers' perceptions and experiences of breastfeeding in Canada: an ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Farmer, Anna P; Olson, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore from the Middle-Eastern mothers' perspective, the experience of breastfeeding and their perceptions of attributes of the health care system, community and society on their feeding decisions after migration to Canada. New immigrant mothers from the Middle East (n = 22) were recruited from community agencies in Edmonton, Canada. Qualitative data were collected through four focus groups using an ethnographic approach to guide concurrent data collection and analysis. Survey data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics via pre-tested questionnaires. All mothers, but one who was medically exempt, breastfed their infants from birth and intended to continue for at least 2 years. Through constant comparison of data, five layers of influence emerged which described mothers' process of decision making: culture/society, community, health care system, family/friends and mother-infant dyad. Religious belief was an umbrella theme that was woven throughout all discussions and it was the strongest determining factor for choosing to breastfeed. However, cultural practices promoted pre-lacteal feeding and hence, jeopardising breastfeeding exclusivity. Although contradicted in Islamic tradition, most mothers practised fasting during breastfeeding because of misbeliefs about interpretations regarding these rules. Despite high rates of breastfeeding, there is a concern of lack of breastfeeding exclusivity among Middle-Eastern settlers in Canada. To promote successful breastfeeding in Muslim migrant communities, interventions must occur at different levels of influence and should consider religious beliefs to ensure cultural acceptability. Practitioners may support exclusive breastfeeding through cultural competency, and respectfully acknowledging Islamic beliefs and cultural practices.

  1. Risk factors for early and late transmission of HIV via breast-feeding among infants born to HIV-infected women in a randomized clinical trial in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Roger L; Smeaton, Laura; Lockman, Shahin; Thior, Ibou; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Wester, Carolyn; Stevens, Lisa; Moffat, Claire; Arimi, Peter; Ndase, Patrick; Asmelash, Aida; Leidner, Jean; Novitsky, Vladimir; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max

    2009-02-01

    Risk factors for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) via breast-feeding were evaluated in a randomized trial. HIV-infected women and their infants received zidovudine as well as single-dose nevirapine or placebo. Infants were randomized to formula-feed (FF) or breast-feed (BF) in combination with zidovudine prophylaxis. Of 1116 at-risk infants, 6 (1.1%) in the FF group and 7 (1.3%) in the BF group were infected between birth and 1 month (P=.99). Maternal receipt of nevirapine did not predict early MTCT in the BF group (P=.45). Of 547 infants in the BF group at risk for late MTCT, 24 (4.4%) were infected. Maternal HIV-1 RNA levels in plasma (P<.001) and breast milk (P<.001) predicted late MTCT. These findings support the safety of 1 month of breast-feeding in combination with maternal and infant antiretroviral prophylaxis. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00197691 and NCT00197652.

  2. Factors influencing breath ammonia determination.

    PubMed

    Solga, Steven F; Mudalel, Matthew; Spacek, Lisa A; Lewicki, Rafal; Tittel, Frank; Loccioni, Claudio; Russo, Adolfo; Risby, Terence H

    2013-09-01

    Amongst volatile compounds (VCs) present in exhaled breath, ammonia has held great promise and yet it has confounded researchers due to its inherent reactivity. Herein we have evaluated various factors in both breath instrumentation and the breath collection process in an effort to reduce variability. We found that the temperature of breath sampler and breath sensor, mouth rinse pH, and mode of breathing to be important factors. The influence of the rinses is heavily dependent upon the pH of the rinse. The basic rinse (pH 8.0) caused a mean increase of the ammonia concentration by 410 ± 221 ppb. The neutral rinse (pH 7.0), slightly acidic rinse (pH 5.8), and acidic rinse (pH 2.5) caused a mean decrease of the ammonia concentration by 498 ± 355 ppb, 527 ± 198 ppb, and 596 ± 385 ppb, respectively. Mode of breathing (mouth-open versus mouth-closed) demonstrated itself to have a large impact on the rate of recovery of breath ammonia after a water rinse. Within 30 min, breath ammonia returned to 98 ± 16% that of the baseline with mouth open breathing, while mouth closed breathing allowed breath ammonia to return to 53 ± 14% of baseline. These results contribute to a growing body of literature that will improve reproducibly in ammonia and other VCs.

  3. Duration of breastfeeding and developmental milestones during the latter half of infancy.

    PubMed

    Vestergaard, M; Obel, C; Henriksen, T B; Sørensen, H T; Skajaa, E; Ostergaard, J

    1999-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that breastfeeding has a long-term influence on brain development. However, interpretation of these findings is complicated by the presence of many potential confounding factors. Only a few studies have examined infants before 1 y of age, although very early assessment might reduce the role of environmental influence. We investigated the association between exclusive breastfeeding and three developmental milestones related to general and fine motor skills and early language development at the age of 8 mo. We followed 1656 healthy, singleton, term infants, with a birthweight of at least 2500 g, born between May 1991 and February 1992 in Aarhus, Denmark. Information was collected at 16 wk gestation, at delivery and when the infant was 8 mo old. Motor skills were evaluated by measurement of crawling and pincer grip. Early language development was defined as the ability to babble in polysyllables. The proportion of infants who mastered the specific milestones increased consistently with increasing duration of breastfeeding. The relative risk for the highest versus the lowest breastfeeding category was 1.3 (95% CI: 1.0-1.6) for crawling, 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3) for pincer grip and 1.5 (95% Cl: 1.3-1.8) for polysyllable babbling. Little change was found after adjustment for confounding. In conclusion, our data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding benefits neurodevelopment.

  4. Is there any relation between Duration of breastfeeding and anemia?

    PubMed Central

    Dalili, H; Baghersalimi, A; Dalili, S; Pakdaman, F; Hassanzadeh Rad, A; Abbasi Kakroodi, M; Rezvany, SM; Koohmanaei, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Background In the early months of life, Breastfeeding increases chance of survival, reduces recovery time after disease and mortality due to infections such as diarrhea and acute respiratory infections. However, infants who are exclusively breast-fed for more than 6 months in developing countries may be at increased risk of anemia. Therefore, the aim of study was to assess the relation between duration of breastfeeding and anemia. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, 400 neonates registered in primary health care system since birth time. Complete blood count and serum ferritin were obtained. Data were analyzed by chi- square test and regression analysis. P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant and 95% confidence interval was noted. Results Results of this study showed that 199 infants were anemic (Hemoglobin (Hb) concentration <11 mg/dl). Ten percent of anemic patients reported Ferritin< 12ng/dl and %25 of anemic children had iron deficiency anemia (IDA). In Binominal logistic regression, merely kind of delivery and duration of breastfeeding were effective factors. Binominal logistic regression also showed that natural vaginal delivery and exclusive breastfeeding up to 6 months had a significant influence on anemia. Exclusive breast feeding for 6 months or more increased the likelihood of anemia. In addition, 4 months exclusive breastfeeding decreased 0.686 fold the likelihood of anemia. Conclusion According to the results, it seems that revision of health program recommendations for iron supplementation can be constructive. National planning to promote the level of knowledge regarding natural vaginal delivery and appropriate period for clamping can be recommended. PMID:26985355

  5. Breastfeeding at 6 months and effects on infections.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Lim, C T

    1998-12-01

    To examine the pattern of and the influence of some socio-demographic factors on infant milk feedings, and the protective role of breastfeeding against infections. Mothers who breastfed their infants (exclusively or partially) at 6 weeks postpartum, and who had singleton pregnancies and healthy infants at birth, were interviewed when their infants had reached 6 months of age. Of the 234 mothers studied, only 31 (13%) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and 133 (57%) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). Solid and semi-solid foods were introduced between 4 to 6 months of life in 89% of the infants. On logistic regression analysis, mothers who were in paid employment [OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.15, 0.42] and not breast feeding at 6 weeks [OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19, 0.54] had decreased odds of EBF. Antenatal plans to breastfeed, breast-feeding difficulties, ethnicity, level of parental education, parental ages, fathers' income, primigravida status and infants' gender were not significant co-variates. In comparison, EIF was more likely in mothers who worked, practised mixed feedings at 6 weeks and of Chinese descent. There were no significant differences in the rates of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) or diarrhoeal illnesses between the infants who were or were not being breast-fed. Most mothers were unable to breastfeed their infants exclusively in the recommended first 4 to 6 months of life. Complementary changes outside the hospital and maternity services are essential in improving breastfeeding rates. Breastfeeding does not appear to confer significant protection to either URTI or gastrointestinal tract infections.

  6. Creating exclusive breastfeeding knowledge translation tools with First Nations mothers in Northwest Territories, Canada.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, Pertice; Dickinson, Raissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an ideal method of infant feeding affecting lifelong health, and yet the uptake of breastfeeding in some Indigenous communities in Canada's north is low. Objective The aims of this project were to determine the rate and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a remote community in the Northwest Territories and to create knowledge translation tools to enhance breastfeeding locally. Methods The study methodology followed three steps. Firstly, a series of retrospective chart audits were conducted from hospital birth records of Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ women (n=198) who gave birth during the period of 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. A second follow-up chart audit determined the rate of exclusive breastfeeding and was conducted in the local Community Health Centre. Chart audit data included the following factors related to breastfeeding: age of mother, parity, birthweight and Apgar scores. Secondly, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ mothers (n=8) and one Elder were conducted to identify breastfeeding practices, beliefs and the most appropriate medium to use to deliver health messages in Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ. Third, based on the information obtained in Step 2, two knowledge translation tools were developed in collaboration with a local community Advisory Committee. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the Tł [Formula: see text] chǫ region is less than 30%. Physiological and demographic factors related to breastfeeding were identified. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes from the data, namely, "the pull to formula" (lifestyle preferences, drug and alcohol use, supplementation practices and limited role models) and "the pull to breast feeding" (traditional feeding method, spiritual practice and increased bonding with infant). Conclusion There are a myriad of influences on breastfeeding for women living in remote locations. Ultimately, society

  7. Creating exclusive breastfeeding knowledge translation tools with First Nations mothers in Northwest Territories, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Pertice; Dickinson, Raissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an ideal method of infant feeding affecting lifelong health, and yet the uptake of breastfeeding in some Indigenous communities in Canada's north is low. Objective The aims of this project were to determine the rate and determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in a remote community in the Northwest Territories and to create knowledge translation tools to enhance breastfeeding locally. Methods The study methodology followed three steps. Firstly, a series of retrospective chart audits were conducted from hospital birth records of Tłı̨chǫ women (n=198) who gave birth during the period of 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012. A second follow-up chart audit determined the rate of exclusive breastfeeding and was conducted in the local Community Health Centre. Chart audit data included the following factors related to breastfeeding: age of mother, parity, birthweight and Apgar scores. Secondly, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of Tłı̨chǫ mothers (n=8) and one Elder were conducted to identify breastfeeding practices, beliefs and the most appropriate medium to use to deliver health messages in Tłı̨chǫ. Third, based on the information obtained in Step 2, two knowledge translation tools were developed in collaboration with a local community Advisory Committee. Results The rate of exclusive breastfeeding initiation in the Tłı̨chǫ region is less than 30%. Physiological and demographic factors related to breastfeeding were identified. Thematic analysis revealed two overarching themes from the data, namely, “the pull to formula” (lifestyle preferences, drug and alcohol use, supplementation practices and limited role models) and “the pull to breast feeding” (traditional feeding method, spiritual practice and increased bonding with infant). Conclusion There are a myriad of influences on breastfeeding for women living in remote locations. Ultimately, society informs the choice of infant feeding for the new mother

  8. Impact of a breastfeeding-friendly workplace on an employed mother's intention to continue breastfeeding after returning to work.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2013-04-01

    Ever-increasing populations of women in their childbearing years are choosing to become employed. Breastfeeding provides unique health advantages to both the infant and mother. A breastfeeding-friendly workplace might be an important factor for predicting breastfeeding rates among working women. To explore the impact of breastfeeding-friendly support on the intention of working mothers to continue breastfeeding, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, continued breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, access to lactation rooms, and employee perception of the breastfeeding policy and support when raising their most recently born child. A higher education level (odds ratio [OR]=2.66), lower work load (8 work hours/day) (OR=2.66), lactation room with dedicated space (OR=2.38), use of breast pumping breaks (OR=61.6), and encouragement from colleagues (OR=2.78) and supervisors (OR=2.44) to use breast pumping breaks were significant predictors of continued breastfeeding for more than 6 months after returning to work. The findings of the present study suggest that to encourage and increase the rate of continued breastfeeding, workplaces should establish dedicated breastfeeding rooms and maintain a comfortable and clean environment. Furthermore, employers should provide encouragement and support for working mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work.

  9. Paid Maternity Leave and Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Kelsey R; Perrine, Cria G; Scanlon, Kelley S

    2016-09-01

    Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates. We used data from the 2006-2010 U.S. National Survey of Family Growth on the most recent birth to employed women who delivered a child within the previous 5 years. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to describe the associations between paid leave duration (0, 1-5, 6-11, ≥ 12 weeks, maternity leave not taken) and three outcomes: 1) breastfeeding initiation, 2) 6-month duration, and 3) 6-month duration among initiators. Twenty-eight percent of prenatally employed women received no paid leave. Women who received 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding compared to women with no paid leave (87.3% vs 66.7%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.83 [95% confidence interval {CI} 1.23-6.48]). Similarly, women with 12 or more weeks of paid leave were more likely to breastfeed at 6 months, compared to women with no paid leave (24.9% vs 50.1%, aOR 2.26 [95% CI 1.20-4.26]). Among women who initiated breastfeeding, having received 12 or more weeks' paid leave increased the odds of breastfeeding for 6 or more months; however, the association was not statistically significant in the adjusted model (aOR 1.81 [95% CI 0.93-3.52]). Employed women who received 12 or more weeks of paid maternity leave were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and be breastfeeding their child at 6 months than those without paid leave. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The potential role of breast-feeding and other factors in helping to reduce early childhood caries.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Lee S; Erwin, Katherine; Lense, Elizabeth; Hicks, James

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in US children. Early childhood caries (ECC) is particularly virulent and can interfere with a child's ability to eat, grow, speak, and communicate. Studies on whether breast-feeding or bottle-feeding are more likely to reduce ECC have proven inconclusive. The study population included 175 children, aged 1 to 5, receiving dental care at the Hughes Spalding Children's Hospital in Atlanta, GA. Participation included a dental exam, chart data abstraction, and a personal interview with the mother. Too few exclusively breast-fed children prevented the adequate study of breast-feeding. However, children exclusively bottle-fed for at least 1.5 years had more decayed or filled tooth surfaces than children breast-fed part of that time but well short of a year. No bottle at night nor juice at irregular times, the mother's brushing of her child's teeth, and adequate dental care in the mother seemed to reduce ECC. Our results suggest measures that might reduce ECC risk. Medical providers must discuss oral health with new mothers and educate them on the important role they play in keeping their babies' teeth healthy

  11. Predictors of early breastfeeding cessation among HIV-infected women in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Ogwu, Anthony; Moyo, Sikhulile; Powis, Kathleen; Asmelash, Aida; Lockman, Shahin; Moffat, Claire; Leidner, Jean; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, Max; Shapiro, Roger

    2016-08-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) can be breastfed through at least 6 months with very low risk of HIV acquisition. We aimed to identify demographic and cultural factors that may influence mothers' willingness to breastfeed for the recommended duration. We evaluated factors associated with early cessation of breastfeeding (i.e. before 5 months post-partum) in a randomized clinical trial evaluating different ART regimens used for prevention of mother-to-child transmission during breastfeeding in Botswana. Univariate and multivariable Cox regressions were used to describe predictors of early exclusive BF cessation. Among 677 women who started breastfeeding, the median time to breastfeeding cessation was 178 days (IQR 150-181) and 25.1% weaned early. In multivariable analysis, urban location (aHR = 1.86 95%CI 1.27-2.73; P = 0.002), salaried employment or being a student (aHR = 2.78 95% CI 1.63-4.75; P < 0.001) and infant hospitalisation before weaning (aHR = 2.04 95% CI 1.21-3.45; P = 0.008) were independently and significantly associated with early BF cessation. Improved support for breastfeeding among employed mothers, especially in urban settings, may allow HIV-infected women who are receiving ART prophylaxis to breastfeed longer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Warning Signs of Breastfeeding Problems Ages & ...

  13. Maternal food restrictions during breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Goun; Park, Sung Won; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated self-food restriction during breastfeeding, reviewed the literature showing the effect of maternal diet on the health of breast-fed infants, and explored the validity of dietary restrictions. Methods Questionnaire data were collected from breastfeeding Korean mothers who visited the pediatric clinic of Cheil General Hospital & Women's Healthcare Center from July 2015 through August 2015. The survey included items assessing maternal age, number of children, maternal educational attainment, household income, degree of difficulty with self-food restriction, types of self-restricted foods, dietary customs during breastfeeding, and sources of information about breastfeeding. Results The questionnaire was completed by 145 mothers. More than a third (n=56, 39%) had discomfort from and usually avoided 4–5 types of food (mean, 4.92). Mothers younger than 40 years had more discomfort (odds ratio [OR], 12.762; P=0.017). Primiparas felt less discomfort than multiparas (OR, 0.436; P=0.036). Dietary practices were not influenced by maternal educational attainment or household income. The most common self-restricted foods were caffeine (n=131, 90.3%), spicy foods (n=124, 85.5%), raw foods (n=109, 75.2%), cold foods (n=100, 69%), and sikhye (traditional sweet Korean rice beverage) (n=100, 69%). Most mothers (n=122, 84.1%) avoided foods for vague reasons. Conclusion Most mothers restricted certain foods unnecessarily. Literature review identified no foods that mothers should absolutely avoid during breastfeeding unless the infant reacts negatively to the food. PMID:28392822

  14. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    PubMed

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. Maternal depressive symptoms at three months postpartum and breastfeeding rates at six months postpartum: Implications for primary care in a prospective cohort study of primiparous women in Australia.

    PubMed

    Woolhouse, Hannah; James, Jennifer; Gartland, Deirdre; McDonald, Ellie; Brown, Stephanie J

    2016-08-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding to six months postpartum, but most women in developed countries do not breastfeed this long. Prior studies exploring the relationship between breastfeeding duration and maternal depression show ambiguous findings. To explore associations between maternal depressive symptoms at three months postpartum, and breastfeeding status over the first six months postpartum. Prospective pregnancy cohort study of nulliparous women. 1507 women were recruited from six public hospitals in early pregnancy, completing baseline data in early pregnancy (mean gestation 15 weeks). Follow-up questionnaires were completed at three and six months postpartum. Women reported how many months they breastfed for (breastfeeding refers to 'any' breastfeeding, including expressed breastmilk). Depressive symptoms were measured at three months postpartum with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (scores ≥13 indicated probable major depression). Of the almost 95% of women who initiated breastfeeding, 76% were still breastfeeding at three months postpartum, and by six months postpartum this dropped to 61%. Women who reported depressive symptoms at three months had significantly lower rates of breastfeeding at six months postpartum compared to women without depressive symptoms (49% vs. 61%; adjusted OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.90). Maternal social characteristics associated with not breastfeeding at six months postpartum were: young maternal age; lower education; and smoking in pregnancy. Women's decisions around infant-feeding are influenced by a range of psycho-social factors, and early postnatal depressive symptoms appear to be a significant part of this picture, as either a cause or consequence of decisions to cease breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Maternal medication, drug use, and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Hilary; Baker, Teresa; Hale, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the necessary skills required for clinicians to make informed decisions about the use of medications in breastfeeding women. Even without specific data on certain medications, this review of kinetic principles, mechanisms of medication entry into breast milk, and important infant factors can aid in clinical decision making. In addition, the article reviews common medical conditions (eg, depression, hypertension, infections) in breastfeeding women and their appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    PubMed

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Breastfeeding and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding method for infants. The decision to allow women to breastfeed while consuming alcohol and other drugs postpartum presents a problem for the health care provider. This article discusses the biochemical properties of various drugs as they relate to breastfeeding. Women in a methadone treatment program should be allowed to breast feed; however, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of breastfeeding when women are receiving buprenorphine. Breastfeeding should not be recommended in women who abuse heroin recreationally until more information is known about the actual amount of morphine present in the breast milk.

  19. Benefits of a Dedicated Breastfeeding Facility and Support Program for Exclusive Breastfeeding among Workers in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Basrowi, Ray W; Sulistomo, Astrid B; Adi, Nuri Purwito; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-06-01

    A mother's working environment is believed to be a major determinant of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practice. We aimed to define the influence of a facility dedicated to breastfeeding and a breastfeeding support program at the workplace on breastfeeding practice. A cross-sectional study was performed in five workplaces. The inclusion criteria were female workers whose last child was between 6 and 36 months old. Observational data were obtained and a questionnaire was filled out. The World Health Organization definition for EBF was used. Data from 186 subjects (74 office workers and 112 factory workers) were collected. Just over half (52%) of the mothers were between 20 and 46 years old, 75.3% had graduated from high school and university, 12.9% had more than two children and 36.0% owned a house. The prevalence of EBF during the last 6 months was 32.3%. A proper dedicated breastfeeding facility was available for 21.5% of the mothers, but only 7.5% had been in contact with a breastfeeding support program. The presence of a dedicated breastfeeding facility increased EBF practice almost threefold, by an odds ratio (OR) of 2.74 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.34-5.64 (p<0.05). Knowledge of the breastfeeding support program increased EBF practice by almost six times (OR, 5.93; 95% CI, 1.78-19.79) (p<0.05). Our findings suggest that Governments should make it obligatory for employers to offer a breastfeeding support program and a dedicated breastfeeding facility at the workplace as these simple measures significantly increase EBF.

  20. Supporting breastfeeding: a successful experience.

    PubMed

    Albernaz, E; Giugliani, E R; Victora, C G

    1998-12-01

    This paper relates the success of a study that helped enhance breast-feeding by means of a support group in Southern Brazil. The International Multicenter Growth Reference Study was designed to help WHO develop new growth charts to measure nutritional status of populations and to evaluate individual growth. Southern Brazil was one of the sites selected for the study, and an ongoing data collection for the longitudinal component of the study (based on children aged 0-24 months) began in July 1997. The new growth reference will be based on the growth of children with the following characteristics: gestational age at birth between 37 and 42 full weeks, single birth, lack of significant perinatal morbidity, absence of maternal smoking, no economic constraints on growth, and being breast-fed for at least 1 full year and given no other foods during the first 4-6 months. Since few mothers in Brazil follow this recommendation, a lactation support group was trained to help mothers breast-feed their babies. It was found that the breast-feeding support group really made a difference, at least with regard to the duration of breast-feeding. Mothers who had support breast-fed longer and waited longer to introduce other foods into their children's diet compared to those who had no support. The factors that contributed to increased breast-feeding duration are enumerated. In conclusion, supporting mothers in breast-feeding is beneficial to both mothers and children and can lead to a better quality of life.

  1. Breast-feeding and infant health.

    PubMed

    Oseid, B

    1979-07-01

    A mother who breast-feeds makes a significant contribution to her infant's health. Currently researchers are delineating many of the unique nutritional and antiinfective factors in human milk. The psychological advantages that accrue to both the breast-feeding mother and her infant are harder to quantify. Contraindications to breast-feeding are few and relate primarily to maternal illness and need for medications, or to those rare infants who have inborn errors of metabolism. Physicians and other health personnel should advise the mother knowledgeably on breast-feeding and seek imaginative solutions to any problems so that breast-feeding can be continued well into the first year of the infant's life and into following years if both mother and child desire it.

  2. Factors Influencing Odor Sensitivity in the Dog

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Natsual Techuical Imfwmatmi Suuwie AD-A024 267 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY...PREPARED FOR AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH OCTOBER 1975 138097 FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN THE DOG Final report - October, 1975...Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FACTORS INFLUENCING ODOR SENSITIVITY IN FIP.1 Scientific Report TlE DOG "Ś. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7

  3. Evidence from peninsular Malaysia of breastfeeding as a contraceptive method.

    PubMed

    Rao, S R

    1992-01-01

    This report examines Malaysian women's perceptions of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding, the determinants of their perceptions, and any effect these perceptions might have on nursing duration and contraceptive use. The report also considers whether women are consciously replacing breastfeeding with modern contraceptive methods. Data from the 1976 Malaysian Family Life Survey are analyzed, and the author concludes that Malaysian women do perceive that breastfeeding has a contraceptive effect, but that this perception is not universal. Ethnicity and desire for a particular family size are the most significant determinants of this perception. Finally, Malaysian women's recognition of the contraceptive effect of nursing does not influence either the duration of their breastfeeding or their adoption of contraception. Malaysian women may not be abandoning breastfeeding to adopt contraception. More probably, breastfeeding declines and contraceptive prevalence increases with modernization.

  4. [Psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients].

    PubMed

    Takács, L; Kodysová, E

    2011-06-01

    To give an overview of the main psychosocial factors influencing the perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients and present recommendations for good practice. Original study. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, Charles University, Prague. Qualitative methodology--content analysis of 189 childbirth narratives written by parturients and demi-structured interviews with 44 parturients. Seven dimensions of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients were identified: 1. staff attitude and behavior; 2. staff communication; 3. parturient's participation in decision-making; 4. support of early mother-baby contact; 5. breastfeeding support; 6. mother-baby friendliness of maternity unit operation rules; 7. clarity of maternity unit operation rules. The most important dimensions include empathy and psychological support, respect for privacy and feelings of shame, relational symmetry/asymmetry and quality of provided information. Psychosocial aspects are a decisive criterion of perinatal health care satisfaction of parturients. Psychological competences of health care providers and staff make an inseparable part of their competence, with communication skills development and prevention and therapy of the burn-out syndrome deserving special attention.

  5. Obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome and breastfeeding: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Joham, Anju E; Nanayakkara, Natalie; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Zoungas, Sophia; Boyle, Jacqueline; Harrison, Cheryce L; Forder, Peta; Loxton, Deborah; Vanky, Eszter; Teede, Helena J

    2016-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 9-21% of reproductive-age women. The relations between PCOS, body mass index (BMI) and breastfeeding are unclear. Our aim was to examine breastfeeding in women with and without PCOS and the relation with BMI. This is a cross-sectional study set in the general community. Participants are women, aged 31-36 years, from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH), a large community-based study. Data was analyzed from the first child of respondents to Survey five (2009) reporting at least one live born child. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine factors associated with breastfeeding. The main outcome measures studied were breastfeeding initiation and duration and the main explanatory variables included self-reported PCOS and BMI. Of the 4898 women, 6.5% reported PCOS (95% confidence interval 5.8-7.2%). Median duration of breastfeeding was lower in women reporting PCOS (6 months, range 2-10 months) than in women not reporting PCOS (7 months, range 3-12 months) (p = 0.001). On multivariable regression analysis, there was no association between PCOS and breastfeeding outcomes. However, being overweight or obese was associated with not initiating breastfeeding and with breastfeeding for less than 6 months, after adjusting for confounders. High BMI is negatively associated with breastfeeding, whereas PCOS status per se does not appear to be related to breastfeeding initiation and duration, after adjusting for BMI. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. Surveying Lactation Professionals Regarding Marijuana Use and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Bergeria, Cecilia L; Heil, Sarah H

    2015-09-01

    Breastfeeding is associated with substantial benefits for both the child and mother. Most guidelines state that women who use illicit drugs should not breastfeed. Although this recommendation has traditionally included marijuana, this drug's changing legal status and the limited scientific research regarding marijuana's effect on breastfeeding and the nursing child may lead to varying recommendations made by lactation professionals to clients who use marijuana. Additionally, to our knowledge, there are no data estimating the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women, making it unclear how common it is. This study assessed recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use and estimated the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women. A convenience sample of lactation professionals who practice throughout New England and were attending the 2014 Vermont Lactation Consultant Association conference was offered the opportunity to complete a five-item survey. Of 120 conference attendees, 74 completed the survey. Forty-four percent reported their recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use depended on factors like the severity of maternal use. Another 41% reported recommending continued breastfeeding because the benefits outweigh the harms. The remaining 15% reported recommending that a woman should stop breastfeeding if she cannot stop using marijuana. Survey completers estimated that 15% (1,203/7,843) of their breastfeeding clients in the past year used marijuana. Lactation professionals vary widely in their recommendations to breastfeeding clients who use marijuana. The estimate of prevalence also suggests this is a relatively common issue. More research is needed to assess the generalizability of these findings.

  7. Breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, prior exposure, and intent among undergraduate students.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, Katherine F; Lou, Zixin; Nicklas, Jennifer C; Habibi, Mona F; Murphy, Lee T

    2012-11-01

    Understanding breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and exposures among nonpregnant youth who are likely to be future parents may provide significant pathways to successfully increasing breastfeeding as the normal, accepted way of feeding infants. However, based on a recent review of the literature, only 3 studies have assessed these factors in nonpregnant, young adults in the United States in the past 10 years. The objective of this study was to gather more recent data regarding breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and prior exposure among undergraduate university students. This was a cross-sectional survey, conducted in November 2010. A convenience sample, consisting of undergraduates in attendance in 2 sections of an introductory nutrition class at a large research university, was used for this project (N = 248). Breastfeeding knowledge was relatively good. However, overall breastfeeding attitudes were more neutral, which appeared to be explained by the belief that breastfeeding is painful, restrictive, and inconvenient, both in general and specifically for the working mother. Though support for breastfeeding in public was low, men were significantly less likely than women to believe it to be embarrassing or unacceptable. In addition, breastfeeding attitudes were more positive among older students and those who were breastfed as infants. Those who were breastfed as infants were also significantly more likely to intend to breastfeed future children. Though this sample indicates good breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes were more neutral, and support for breastfeeding in public appears low. This finding is contradictory and warrants further exploration.

  8. Acculturation and the initiation of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rassin, D K; Markides, K S; Baranowski, T; Richardson, C J; Mikrut, W D; Bee, D E

    1994-07-01

    Despite the fact that breastfeeding is the most appropriate form of nutrition for the healthy term infant, the rate of initiation in the U.S. is declining. One demographic factor associated with this low rate is ethnicity and so in this study we measured acculturation (one aspect of ethnicity) into the U.S. and its relationship to the successful initiation of breastfeeding in a sample of women recruited approximately 2 months prenatally in a U.S.-Mexico border city. Interviews were administered in English or Spanish by bilingual interviewers prenatally (n = 906), natally (n = 788), and postnatally (n = 715). Acculturation (measured with a 20 item instrument) was strongly related to the intent to (p < 0.001) or the successful initiation of breastfeeding (p < 0.001). Marital status (p = 0.014) and education (p = 0.002) were related to breastfeeding prenatally and natally. Initiation of breastfeeding was highest among those women least acculturated (52.9%) and lowest in those most acculturated (36.1%) indicating an inhibiting effect of acculturation. To improve the rate of initiation of breastfeeding in the U.S. (a national health goal) intervention programs must consider cultural factors.

  9. Marketing infant formula through hospitals: the impact of commercial hospital discharge packs on breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Kenneth D; Eastham, Carissa A; Kasehagen, Laurin J; Sandoval, Alfredo P

    2008-02-01

    Commercial hospital discharge packs are commonly given to new mothers at the time of newborn hospital discharge. We evaluated the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding and the receipt of commercial hospital discharge packs in a population-based sample of Oregon women who initiated breastfeeding before newborn hospital discharge. We analyzed data from the 2000 and 2001 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), a population-based survey of postpartum women (n=3895; unweighted response rate=71.6%). Among women who had initiated breastfeeding, 66.8% reported having received commercial hospital discharge packs. We found that women who received these packs were more likely to exclusively breastfeed for fewer than 10 weeks than were women who had not received the packs (multivariate adjusted odds ratio=1.39; 95% confidence interval=1.05, 1.84). Commercial hospital discharge packs are one of several factors that influence breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. The distribution of these packs to new mothers at hospitals is part of a longstanding marketing campaign by infant formula manufacturers and implies hospital and staff endorsement of infant formula. Commercial hospital discharge pack distribution should be reconsidered in light of its negative impact on exclusive breastfeeding.

  10. Prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding Practices and associated factors among mothers in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. World Health Organization (WHO) recommend exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for six months which has a great contribution in reducing under five mortality, which otherwise leads to death of 88/1000 live birth yearly in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess prevalence of EBF and associated factors in mothers in the city of Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from 10 to 25 June 2012 among mothers who delivered 12 months earlier in Bahir Dar city, Northwest Ethiopia. A cluster sampling technique was used to select a sample of 819 participants. Data were collected using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire by face-to-face interview technique. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to check associations and control confounding. Results Of 819 mother-infant pairs sampled, the overall age appropriate rate of EBF practice was found to be 50.3%. Having a young infant aged 0-1 month (AOR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.54, 9.24) and 2-3 months (AOR = 2.80, 95% CI = 1.71, 4.58), being a housewife (AOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.48, 3.16), having prenatal EBF plan (AOR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.21, 6.37), delivering at a health facility (AOR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.55, 5.89), giving birth vaginally (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.40, 3.87) and receiving infant feeding counseling/advice (AOR = 5.20, 95% CI = 2.13, 12.68) were found to be significantly associated with EBF practice. Conclusion Prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was low in Bahir Dar. Strengthening infant feeding advice/counseling both at the community and institutional levels, promoting institutional delivery, providing adequate pain relief and early assistance for mothers who gave birth by caesarean section, and enabling every mother a prenatal EBF plan during antenatal care were recommended in order to increase the proportion of women practicing EBF. PMID

  11. Intestinal microbiota of 6-week-old infants across Europe: geographic influence beyond delivery mode, breast-feeding, and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Fallani, Matteo; Young, David; Scott, Jane; Norin, Elisabeth; Amarri, Sergio; Adam, Rüdiger; Aguilera, Marga; Khanna, Sheila; Gil, Angel; Edwards, Christine A; Doré, Joël

    2010-07-01

    : There are many differences in diet and lifestyle across Europe that may influence the development of the infant gut microbiota. This work aimed to assess the impact of geographic area, mode of delivery, feeding method, and antibiotic treatment on the fecal microbiota of infants from 5 European countries with different lifestyle characteristics: Sweden, Scotland, Germany, Italy, and Spain. : Fecal samples from 606 infants (age 6 weeks) recruited within the European project INFABIO were analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization combined with flow cytometry using a panel of 10 rRNA targeted group- and species-specific oligonucleotide probes. Information on factors potentially affecting gut microbiota composition was collected with questionnaires and associations were evaluated with multivariate analyses. : The Bifidobacterium genus was predominant (40% average proportion of total detectable bacteria), followed by Bacteroides (11.4%) and enterobacteria (7.5%). Northern European countries were associated with higher proportions of bifidobacteria in infant feces, whereas a more diverse microbiota with more bacteroides characterized southern countries. Bifidobacteria dominated the microbiota of breast-fed infants, whereas formula-fed babies had significantly higher proportions of Bacteroides and members of the Clostridium coccoides and Lactobacillus groups. Newborns delivered by cesarean section or from mothers treated with antibiotics perinatally had lower proportions of Bacteroides and members of the Atopobium cluster. : Delivery mode and feeding method influenced the fecal microbiota of European infants at 6 weeks, as expected, but the effect of country of birth was more pronounced, with dominant bifidobacteria in northern countries and greater early diversification in southern European countries.

  12. Mastitis in Chinese breastfeeding mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a common problem encountered by breastfeeding mothers. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of lactation mastitis among Chinese women. A prospective cohort study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Jiangyou, Sichuan Province, China. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing the incidence of mastitis within 6 months postpartum. Of the 670 Chinese mothers who were breastfeeding at discharge, 42 women (6.3%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis during the first 6 months after delivery. The cumulative incidence of mastitis was 10.3%. Mothers with a cracked and sore nipple (incidence rate ratio 2.24; 95% confidence interval 1.38, 3.63) and those who felt stressed (incidence rate ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.56, 6.37) appeared to sustain more episodes of mastitis. The incidence of lactation mastitis was low among Chinese mothers. To further reduce the risk of mastitis, instructions on the correct positioning of the baby during breastfeeding should be emphasized. Providing new mothers with guidance on how to cope with stress may also prevent the recurrence of the condition.

  13. Buddhism and breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masashi

    2008-06-01

    Buddhism is an ancient religion that began in India and spread throughout Asia. It is prevalent in modern Japan. Breastfeeding has been a strong practice for centuries with the custom being to continue until the child is 6 or 7 years of age. The Edo period was very influential in establishing breastfeeding customs that continue today.

  14. Implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Passanha, Adriana; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venâncio, Sônia Isoyama; dos Reis, Márcia Cristina Guerreiro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between the level of implementation of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network and the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding. METHODS Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 916 infants < 6 months, in Ribeirao Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011. Data on breastfeeding, place of outpatient care and other characteristics were collected during the National Vaccination Campaign. The factor studied is where outpatient care took place: Private; Non-Network Public; Public with Network Workshop; and Public certified by Network. The individualized effect of the factor studied on the outcome was analyzed using Poisson regression with robust variance. RESULTS The comparison between private (reference category) and other outpatient care showed significant dose-response relationship with a progressive increase in the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in public non-Network, public with Network Workshop and public accredited by Network outpatient care (p = 0.047). As regards the Basic Health Units accredited by Network category, the Prevalence Ratio of exclusive breastfeeding was equal to 1.47 (95%CI 1.00;2.17), after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for infants < 6 months was higher in places accredited by the Brazilian Breastfeeding Network, which evinces the importance of investing in accreditation of Basic Units of Health by this strategy. PMID:24626552

  15. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Romano, Megan E; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M; Eliot, Melissa N; Howard, Cynthia R; Lanphear, Bruce P; Braun, Joseph M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003-2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3-6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52) and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18). Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life. PMID:21501432

  17. Maternal serum perfluoroalkyl substances during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Megan E.; Xu, Yingying; Calafat, Antonia M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Chen, Aimin; Webster, Glenys M.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Lanphear, Bruce P.; Braun, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may affect breast development and decrease duration of breastfeeding, thus interfering with the health benefits of breastfeeding. We investigated the association between maternal PFAS exposure and breastfeeding duration. Methods We measured PFAS concentrations in maternal serum collected during pregnancy in 2003–2006. After delivery, women (n=336) completed standardized breastfeeding surveys every 3 months until ending breastfeeding or 36 months postpartum. We estimated relative risks (RRs) for ending any breastfeeding within 3 or 6 months postpartum by Poisson regression, adjusted for relevant confounding factors. Results Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) serum concentration had 1.77 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 3 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 2.54; p-trend=0.003) and 1.41 times the risk of ending any breastfeeding by 6 months (95%CI: 1.06, 1.87; p-trend=0.038), compared with women in the first quartile. Women in the 4th quartile of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid serum concentration had a marginally increased risk of discontinuing any breastfeeding by 3 months (RR=1.32; 95%CI: 0.97, 1.79; p-trend=0.065). Conclusions Maternal serum PFOA concentrations were inversely related to duration of any breastfeeding in this cohort, even after controlling for prior breastfeeding. These findings suggest that PFOA exposure may adversely affect breastfeeding duration and highlight the need to consider the potential adverse effects of maternal environmental chemical exposure on breastfeeding. PMID:27179585

  18. Ecology and policy for exclusive breastfeeding in Colombia: a proposal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Breastfeeding promotion is one of the most important strategies against infant mortality and to control child undernourishment. Despite policies and plans to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia, its practice is low and its duration is short. Objective: To propose an ecology framework to interpret and incorporate contextual, interpersonal, and individual factors associated with the practice of breastfeeding and duration. Thereby, the plans and policies addressed to promote and protect breastfeeding in Colombia could be reinforced. Conclusions: To implement an ecology framework for Breastfeeding in Colombia, it is necessary to identify the effect of contextual factors in the biggest cultural regions of Colombia, to recognize the limitations of Infant-Friendly Hospital Initiatives to improve exclusive breastfeeding duration, to execute prospective studies in order to identify factors associated with breastfeeding duration, to design and implement plans and policies based on comprehensive planning strategies of healthcare interventions, to develop appropriate and cost-effective extra-institutional strategies aimed at prolonging the duration of breastfeeding, and to implement more reliable breastfeeding surveillance systems. PMID:24893193

  19. [Using SWOT to analyze breastfeeding education results in a medical center].

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2005-08-01

    The breastfeeding rate within the first month after postpartum dropped from 95% in 1962 to 25% in 1989. As a result, the Department of Health, Executive Yuan, has made a lot of effort to promote a baby-friendly hospital policy since 2001, with the aim of increasing the breastfeeding rate. However, many studies have pointed out that the Department of Health is encountering difficulties when implementing this policy. This study is designed to use the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) Analysis to evaluate the development of breastfeeding education in a certain medical center. We divide those factors that influence the effect of this policy into extrinsic environmental factors and intrinsic environmental factors. The intrinsic environmental factors are the strengths and weaknesses of the baby-friendly hospital policy. The extrinsic environmental factors are the opportunities and threats. The SWOT Matrix is also applied to develop appropriate strategies to take the greatest possible advantage of opportunities available. With the SWOT approach, managers can not only readily extinguish intrinsic advantages from intrinsic disadvantages, but also recognize external opportunities and threats. Furthermore, it assists managers in resolving problems and turning adversity into opportunity. In providing the SWOT analysis, we hope clinical nursing staff will gain a better understanding of the baby-friendly hospital policy and deliver higher quality of health care for postpartum mothers, thus increasing the breastfeeding rate.

  20. Determinants of Breastfeeding Practices and Success in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Pang, Wei Wei; Aris, Izzuddin M; Fok, Doris; Soh, Shu-E; Chua, Mei Chien; Lim, Sok Bee; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; van Dam, Rob M; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Yap-Seng

    2016-03-01

    Many countries in Asia report low breastfeeding rates and the risk factors for early weaning are not well studied. We assessed the prevalence, duration, and mode of breastfeeding (direct or expressed) among mothers of three Asian ethnic groups. Participants were 1,030 Singaporean women recruited during early pregnancy. Data collected included early breastfeeding experiences, breastfeeding duration, and mode of breastfeeding. Full breastfeeding was defined as the intake of breast milk, with or without water. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with discontinuation of any and full breastfeeding. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association of ethnicity with mode of breastfeeding. At 6 months postpartum, the prevalence of any breastfeeding was 46 percent for Chinese mothers, 22 percent for Malay mothers, and 41 percent for Indian mothers; prevalence of full breastfeeding was 11, 2, and 5 percent, respectively. More Chinese mothers fed their infants expressed breast milk, instead of directly breastfeeding them, compared with the other two ethnic groups. Duration of any and full breastfeeding were positively associated with breastfeeding a few hours after birth, higher maternal age and education, and negatively associated with irregular breastfeeding frequency and being shown how to breastfeed. Adjusting for maternal education, breastfeeding duration was similar in the three ethnic groups, but ethnicity remained a significant predictor of mode of breastfeeding. The low rates and duration of breastfeeding in this population may be improved with breastfeeding education and support, especially in mothers with lower education. Further work is needed to understand the cultural differences in mode of feeding and its implications for maternal and infant health. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Association between breast-feeding and anthropometry and CVD risk factor status in adolescence and young adulthood: the Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Valerie A; Cardwell, Chris; McKinley, Michelle C; Young, Ian S; Murray, Liam J; Boreham, Colin A; Woodside, Jayne V

    2010-06-01

    To examine the association between breast-feeding and blood pressure, anthropometry and plasma lipid profile in both adolescence and young adulthood. Longitudinal study of biological and behavioural risk factors for CVD. The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland. Schoolchildren aged 12 years and 15 years who participated in a cross-sectional study of lifestyle and health, and who were followed up as young adults aged 20-25 years. There was no significant difference in height, weight, BMI, skinfold thickness measurements, blood pressure or plasma lipid profile in adolescents who had been breast-fed compared with those who had not been breast-fed. However, by the time these adolescents had reached adulthood, those who had been breast-fed were significantly taller than those who had not been breast-fed (standing height, P = 0.013; leg length, P = 0.035). Specifically, the breast-fed group was on average taller by 1.7 cm (95 % CI 0.4, 3.0 cm) and had longer legs by 1.0 cm (95 % CI 0.1, 1.9 cm). There was no significant difference in other anthropometric measures, blood pressure or plasma lipid profile in adults who had been breast-fed compared with those who had not been breast-fed. Compared with those who had not been breast-fed, individuals who had been breast-fed were taller in adulthood. Given the known association of increased adult height with improved life expectancy, the results from the present study support a beneficial effect of breast-feeding.

  2. Tongue-tie and breastfeeding: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Edmunds, Janet; Miles, Sandra C; Fulbrook, Paul

    2011-03-01

    In Australia, initial exclusive breastfeeding rates are 80%, reducing to 14% at 6 months. One factor that contributes to early breastfeeding cessation is infant tongue-tie, a congenital abnormality occurring in 2.8-10.7% of infants, in which a thickened, tightened or shortened frenulum is present. Tongue-tie is linked to breastfeeding difficulties, speech and dental problems. It may prevent the baby from taking enough breast tissue into its mouth to form a teat and the mother may experience painful, bleeding nipples and frequent feeding with poor infant weight gain; these problems may contribute to early breastfeeding cessation. This review of research literature analyses the evidence regarding tongue-tie to determine if appropriate intervention can reduce its impact on breastfeeding cessation, concluding that, for most infants, frenotomy offers the best chance of improved and continued breastfeeding. Furthermore, studies have demonstrated that the procedure does not lead to complications for the infant or mother.

  3. Increasing exclusive breastfeeding rates in the well-baby population: an evidence-based change project.

    PubMed

    Davis, Susan Kinney; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Poeltler, Debra M

    2012-12-01

    This article describes an evidence-based project that increased the rate of exclusive breastfeeding in a well-baby population by providing breastfeeding basics to nursing staff on the Mother Infant Services (MIS) units. The clinical implications are that nurses' attitudes and care significantly influence exclusive breastfeeding rates. We contend that resources should be allocated to provide nurses with current evidence-based breastfeeding education.

  4. Factors that Influence Participation in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vonderwell, Selma; Zachariah, Sajit

    2005-01-01

    This study explored what factors influenced learner participation in two sections of a graduate online course at a Midwestern university. Findings indicated that online learner participation and patterns of participation are influenced by the following factors: technology and interface characteristics, content area experience, student roles and…

  5. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT) and Valencia (V), two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31), V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67)] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92), V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19); moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57), V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79)]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health. PMID:23270558

  6. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain.

    PubMed

    Río, Isabel; Luque, Alvaro; Castelló-Pastor, Adela; Sandín-Vázquez, María Del Val; Larraz, Rosana; Barona, Carmen; Jané, Mireia; Bolúmar, Francisco

    2012-12-27

    No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT) and Valencia (V), two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31), V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67)] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92), V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19); moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57), V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79)]. Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  7. Predictors of suboptimal breastfeeding: an opportunity for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Zakarija-Grković, Irena; Šegvić, Olga; Vučković Vukušić, Ana; Lozančić, Toni; Božinović, Toni; Ćuže, Anamarija; Burmaz, Tea

    2016-04-01

    Sub-optimum breastfeeding significantly contributes to the global burden of disease. Our aim was to identify risk factors associated with suboptimal breastfeeding in Southern Croatia. Between February 2008 and August 2009, 773 mother-infant pairs were recruited from University Hospital of Split Maternity Unit. Mothers were interviewed at birth, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Ninety-nine percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding but only 2.2% of them exclusively breastfed whilst in hospital. At 24 months, 4.1% of mothers were breastfeeding. Exclusive and any breastfeeding at 3 months was negatively associated with maternal education of 12 years or less, smoking during pregnancy, intention to use a pacifier and in-hospital formula supplementation. In addition, exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was negatively associated with primiparity, antenatal course non-attendance and not receiving assistance with breastfeeding from hospital staff. Antenatal course non-attendance and discussing infant feeding with a health professional during pregnancy lowered the odds for any breastfeeding at 6 months. At 12 and 24 months, a lower level of education, antenatal course non-attendance and not receiving advice in hospital on feeding frequency was significantly associated with lower odds of breastfeeding. Additionally, intention to use a pacifier was found to be a negative predictor of breastfeeding at 12 months. Important modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with suboptimal breastfeeding include smoking during pregnancy, intention to use a pacifier, in-hospital formula supplementation, not receiving advice from hospital staff on normal feeding patterns, not receiving assistance with breastfeeding in hospital and antenatal course non-attendance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. Breastfeeding Infants with Phenylketonuria in the United States and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Press, Nancy; Knafl, Kathleen A.; Steiner, Robert D.; Houck, Gail M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study described the prevalence and duration of mothers' breastfeeding infants with phenylketonuria (PKU) and explored factors related to duration of breastfeeding as a surrogate for breastfeeding success. Subjects and Methods: Descriptive analysis as performed from an international Internet survey of mothers (n=103) who met the inclusion criteria: (1) at least 21 years of age, (2) able to read and write in English, (3) child with PKU, and (4) living in the United States or Canada. Results: Of the 103 mothers, 89 (86%) initiated breastfeeding immediately following delivery, whereas 14 (14%) chose bottle feeding. In comparison to breastfeeding after delivery, significantly fewer mothers breastfed after diagnosis (McNemar's χ2=30.33, p<0.001; n=72 vs. n=89). Breastfeeding duration ranged from less than 1 month to 24 months with one modal duration category (n=20, 22%) at less than 1 month. The timing of the addition of commercial infant formula to supplement breastfeeding or expressed mothers' milk was associated with a shorter duration of breastfeeding among infants with PKU: χ2 (42, n=73)=88.13, p<0.001. Conclusions: PKU is treated with phenylalanine (Phe) restriction. Breastfeeding infants with PKU is challenging in part because Phe intake is difficult to determine precisely. We studied breastfeeding duration in infants with PKU and factors associated with success. Further research should identify the unique needs of mothers' breastfeeding infants with PKU to guide the development of interventions specific to these mothers to support their efforts to continue breastfeeding after the diagnosis of PKU. PMID:24350704

  9. Breastfeeding-Associated Hypernatremia: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lavagno, Camilla; Camozzi, Pietro; Renzi, Samuele; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing reports on hypernatremia, a potentially devastating condition, in exclusively breastfed newborn infants. Our purposes were to describe the clinical features of the condition and identify the risk factors for it. We performed a review of the existing literature in the National Library of Medicine database and in the search engine Google Scholar. A total of 115 reports were included in the final analysis. Breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia was recognized in infants who were ≤ 21 days of age and had ≥ 10% weight loss of birth weight. Cesarean delivery, primiparity, breast anomalies or breastfeeding problems, excessive prepregnancy maternal weight, delayed first breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level were significantly associated with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremia. In addition to excessive weight loss (≥ 10%), the following clinical findings were observed: poor feeding, poor hydration state, jaundice, excessive body temperature, irritability or lethargy, decreased urine output, and epileptic seizures. In conclusion, the present survey of the literature identifies the following risk factors for breastfeeding-associated neonatal hypernatremia: cesarean delivery, primiparity, breastfeeding problems, excessive maternal body weight, delayed breastfeeding, lack of previous breastfeeding experience, and low maternal education level. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Breastfeeding attitude, health-related quality of life and maternal obesity among multi-ethnic pregnant women: A multi-group structural equation approach.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying; Htun, Tha Pyai; Lim, Peng Im; Ho-Lim, Sarah Su Tin; Chi, Claudia; Tsai, Cammy; Ong, Kai Wen; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee

    2017-02-01

    Identifying the factors influencing breastfeeding attitude is significant for the implementation of effective promotion policies and counselling activities. To our best knowledge, no previous studies have modelled the relationships among breastfeeding attitude, health-related quality of life and maternal obesity among multi-ethnic pregnant women; the current study attempts to fill this research gap. This study investigated the relationships among maternal characteristics, health-related quality of life and breastfeeding attitude amidst normal weight and overweight/obese pregnant women using a multi-group structural equation modelling approach. Exploratory cross-sectional design was used. Antenatal clinics of a university-affiliated hospital PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women were invited to participate; 708 (78.8%) agreed to participate in the study. We examined a hypothetical model on the basis of integrating the concepts of a breastfeeding decision-making model, theory of planned behaviour-based model for breastfeeding and health-related quality of life model among 708 multi-ethnic pregnant women in Singapore. The Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey were used to measure breastfeeding attitude and health-related quality of life, respectively. Two structural equation models demonstrated that better health-related quality of life, higher monthly household income, planned pregnancy and previous exclusive breastfeeding experience were significantly associated with positive breastfeeding attitude among normal and overweight/obese pregnant women. Among normal weight pregnant women, those who were older with higher educational level were more likely to have positive breastfeeding attitude. Among overweight/obese pregnant women, Chinese women with confinement nanny plan were less likely to have positive breastfeeding attitude. No significant difference existed between normal weight and overweight/obese pregnant women concerning

  11. Factors influencing dust suppressant effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, C.R.; Eisele, T.C.; Chesney, D.J.; Kawatra, S.K.

    2008-11-15

    Water sprays are a common method used to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions. Various factors such as wettability, surface area coverage, fine particle engulfment rates, interparticle adhesion forces, suppressant penetration and suppressant longevity have all been suggested as critical factors in achieving effective PM control. However, it has not been established which of these factors are the most important. Experimental work indicated that suppressant penetration is the most critical of these factors. The length of time after application that suppressants were effective was also improved by using hygroscopic reagents that retained moisture to prevent evaporation. Maximizing suppressant penetration and improving suppressant longevity led to an average 86% reduction in PM10 concentrations in laboratory dust tower tests.

  12. Breastfeeding: an emotional instinct.

    PubMed

    Díaz Meneses, Gonzalo

    2013-04-01

    The proposed objective of this research is twofold: (1) it examines the significance of emotions to the breastfeeding experience in relation to cognition, and (2) it analyzes the extent to which emotions and cognition are connected to breastfeeding. An empirical research work has been carried out based on a questionnaire that was administered in a maternity hospital in the autumn of 2008, in order to gather information regarding cognitive and emotional aspects of breastfeeding behavior. The final sample comprised 311 breastfeeding mothers, and the sampling error was 5.55%. The research shows that breastfeeding is not only more of an emotional reaction than a rational decision, but also demonstrates that the emotional development of breastfeeding is independent from the cognitive process. A new approach in the literature of breastfeeding is put forward in which the predominant cognitive techniques and theories are complemented by highlighting the importance of understanding the target group and implementing suitable and affective actions. Specific practical implications are provided for social marketing campaigns as well as future lines of research.

  13. Early Breastfeeding Problems Mediate the Negative Association between Maternal Obesity and Exclusive Breastfeeding at 1 and 2 Months Postpartum1–3

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Elizabeth J; Perrine, Cria G; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared with normal-weight women, women with obesity experience poorer breastfeeding outcomes. Successful breastfeeding among women with obesity is important for achieving national breastfeeding goals. Objectives The objectives were to determine whether the negative association between obesity and any or exclusive breastfeeding at 1 and 2 mo postpartum is mediated through breastfeeding problems that occur in the first 2 wk postpartum and if this association differs by parity. Methods Mothers (1151 normal-weight and 580 obese) in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II provided information on sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics, body mass index, and breastfeeding outcomes. At 1 mo postpartum, participants reported the breastfeeding problems they experienced in the first 2 wk postpartum from a predefined list of 17 options. We used factor analysis to condense these problems into 4 explanatory variables; continuous factor scores were computed for use in further analyses. We used maximum likelihood logistic regression to assess mediation of the association between obesity and breastfeeding outcomes through early breastfeeding problems. Results No significant effect of obesity was found on any breastfeeding at 1 or 2 mo. At 1 mo postpartum, for both primiparous and multiparous women, there was a significant direct effect of obesity on exclusive breastfeeding and a significant indirect effect of obesity through early breastfeeding problems related to the explanatory mediating variable “Insufficient Milk” (throughout the remainder of the Abstract, this factor will be denoted by upper case notation). At 2 mo postpartum both the direct effect of obesity and the indirect effect through Insufficient Milk were significant in primiparous women but only the indirect effect remained significant in multiparous women. Conclusions Early problems related to Insufficient Milk may partially explain the association between obesity and poor exclusive

  14. Sensitivity of the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale: A Known Group Analysis of First Time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Janine; Sinclair, Marlene; Kernohan, George; McCrum-Gardner, Evie; Keller, John

    2013-01-01

    Breastfeeding has immense public health value for mothers, babies, and society. But there is an undesirably large gap between the number of new mothers who undertake and persist in breastfeeding compared to what would be a preferred level of accomplishment. This gap is a reflection of the many obstacles, both physical and psychological, that confront new mothers. Previous research has illuminated many of these concerns, but research on this problem is limited in part by the unavailability of a research instrument that can measure the key differences between first-time mothers and experienced mothers, with regard to the challenges they face when breastfeeding and the instructional advice they require. An instrument was designed to measure motivational complexity associated with sustained breast feeding behaviour; the Breastfeeding Motivational Measurement Scale. It contains 51 self-report items (7 point Likert scale) that cluster into four categories related to perceived value of breast-feeding, confidence to succeed, factors that influence success or failure, and strength of intentions, or goal. However, this scale has not been validated in terms of its sensitivity to profile the motivation of new mothers and experienced mothers. This issue was investigated by having 202 breastfeeding mothers (100 first time mothers) fill out the scale. The analysis reported in this paper is a three factor solution consisting of value, midwife support, and expectancies for success that explained the characteristics of first time mothers as a known group. These results support the validity of the BMM scale as a diagnostic tool for research on first time mothers who are learning to breastfeed. Further research studies are required to further test the validity of the scale in additional subgroups. PMID:24391731

  15. The Influence of Seasonality and Community-Based Health Worker Provided Counselling on Exclusive Breastfeeding - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Aritra; Chatterjee, Rahul; Karthick, Morchan; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. We used the 'Lot Quality Assurance Sampling' technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0-5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6-8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF. We tested for association between EBF during the previous day with season of interview and EBF for full 6 months with nursing season. We also assessed if receiving counselling on EBF and complementary feeding had any association with relevant EBF indicators. Among the under-6 month old children, 76% received EBF during the previous day, whereas 92% of 6-8 (completed) months old children reportedly received EBF for the recommended duration. Proportion of 0-5 (completed) month old children receiving only breastmilk (during last 24 hours) decreased significantly with increasing age and with change of season from colder to warmer months. Odds of receiving only breastmilk during the previous day was significantly higher during the winter months (Adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.63) compared to summer. Also, the children nursed primarily during the winter season had higher odds of receiving EBF for 6 months (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.52) than those with non-winter nursing. Receiving FLW-counselling was positively associated with breastfeeding exclusively, even after adjusting for seasonality and other covariates (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.67, 1.98). Seasonality is a significant but non-modifiable risk factor for EBF. However, FLW-counselling was found to increase practice of

  16. The Influence of Seasonality and Community-Based Health Worker Provided Counselling on Exclusive Breastfeeding - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Chatterjee, Rahul; Karthick, Morchan; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Chaudhuri, Indrajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) during the first six months of life is considered a high impact but low-cost measure for reducing the morbidity and mortality among children. The current study investigated the association of seasonality and frontline worker(FLW) provided counselling with practice of EBF in Bihar, India. Methods We used the ‘Lot Quality Assurance Sampling’ technique to conduct a multi-stage sampling survey in 8 districts of Bihar. Regarding EBF, mothers of 0–5 (completed) months old children were asked if they had given only breastmilk to their children during the previous day, while mothers of 6–8 (completed) months old children were inquired about the total duration of EBF. We tested for association between EBF during the previous day with season of interview and EBF for full 6 months with nursing season. We also assessed if receiving counselling on EBF and complementary feeding had any association with relevant EBF indicators. Results Among the under-6 month old children, 76% received EBF during the previous day, whereas 92% of 6–8 (completed) months old children reportedly received EBF for the recommended duration. Proportion of 0–5 (completed) month old children receiving only breastmilk (during last 24 hours) decreased significantly with increasing age and with change of season from colder to warmer months. Odds of receiving only breastmilk during the previous day was significantly higher during the winter months (Adjusted odds ratio(AOR) = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.63) compared to summer. Also, the children nursed primarily during the winter season had higher odds of receiving EBF for 6 months (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.43, 2.52) than those with non-winter nursing. Receiving FLW-counselling was positively associated with breastfeeding exclusively, even after adjusting for seasonality and other covariates (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI = 1.67, 1.98). Conclusions Seasonality is a significant but non-modifiable risk factor for EBF. However

  17. Gender and personal breastfeeding experience of rural GP registrars in Australia--a qualitative study of their effect on breastfeeding attitudes and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Brodribb, W E; Jackson, C; Fallon, A B; Hegney, D

    2007-01-01

    While most doctors believe they have a major role to play in breastfeeding promotion, and consider it worthwhile taking time to assist women to continue to breastfeed, it appears that gender and personal breastfeeding experience affect their attitude and confidence concerning breastfeeding issues. As doctors practicing in rural and regional areas may be expected to provide a greater degree of assistance and support for breastfeeding women, their views on these topics are of particular interest. This article reports the results of qualitative interviews with eight GP registrars from rural and regional Australia, and their views about the influence gender and personal experience have on their ability to assist breastfeeding women. The study is part of a larger project investigating the breastfeeding skills and knowledge of GP registrars as a basis for designing a tailored educational breastfeeding resource. This project uses mixed methods and triangulation of data. Semi-structured, one-on-one interviews were conducted with eight GP registrars from southern Queensland, Australia. The participants were chosen so that there were eight unique combinations of age (<34 or > or =34), gender (male or female) and breastfeeding experience (self or spouse had breastfed/had not breastfed) to ensure diversity of responses and increase the transferability of results. Demographics were collected from each participant, as well as information about: their attitudes to breastfeeding and to counselling breastfeeding women; their perception of breastfeeding knowledge needs and their confidence assisting breastfeeding women; and prior training about breastfeeding. Transcripts of the recorded interviews were returned to the participants for verification before analysis. Emergent themes were identified both within and between interviews following content analysis. Four male and four female registrars with a mean age of 35 years (range 28-43 years) were recruited. Two participants of each

  18. Another Breastfeeding Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Wendy C.

    2011-01-01

    In this column, the editor of The Journal of Perinatal Education discusses the latest breastfeeding controversy—a new doll that is intended to help little girls learn to breastfeed. The goal of the doll’s manufacturers is to spread the word that breastfeeding is a normal, natural way to feed a baby. Its purpose is to raise awareness about the positive health benefits associated with breastfeeding. But not everyone seems to agree. Pros and cons are presented. The editor also describes the contents of this issue, which offer a broad range of resources, research, and inspiration for childbirth educators in their efforts to promote natural, safe, and healthy birth.

  19. Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Karleen D

    2006-01-01

    Breastfeeding an adopted child has previously been discussed as something that is nice to do but without potential for significant benefit. This paper reviews the evidence in physiological and behavioural research, that breastfeeding can play a significant role in developing the attachment relationship between child and mother. As illustrated in the case studies presented, in instances of adoption and particularly where the child has experienced abuse or neglect, the impact of breastfeeding can be considerable. Breastfeeding may assist attachment development via the provision of regular intimate interaction between mother and child; the calming, relaxing and analgesic impact of breastfeeding on children; and the stress relieving and maternal sensitivity promoting influence of breastfeeding on mothers. The impact of breastfeeding as observed in cases of adoption has applicability to all breastfeeding situations, but may be especially relevant to other at risk dyads, such as those families with a history of intergenerational relationship trauma; this deserves further investigation. PMID:16722597

  20. Insight from a breastfeeding peer support pilot program for husbands and fathers of Texas WIC participants.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Jewell; Lovera, Dalia

    2004-11-01

    A Father-to-Father Breastfeeding Support Pilot Program conducted by the Texas Department of Health provides a model of a viable way to increase breastfeeding rates in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC Program). The pilot concept was based on previous success with a breastfeeding peer counselor program and research documenting the father's attitude as an important influence on a mother's decision to breastfeed. Peer dads are fathers of breastfed infants participating in the WIC Program. They are recruited, trained, and hired to give breastfeeding and parenting information to other WIC fathers. WIC fathers rated the information they received as "very important" and indicated that counseling sessions would help them support their infants'mothers with breastfeeding and be better fathers. Breastfeeding initiation rates increased at clinics employing peer dads. Father-to-father breastfeeding education was successful in educating and empowering fathers, enabling them to support their breastfeeding family members.

  1. Breastfeeding among Mothers on Opioid Maintenance Treatment: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Lillian C; Doan, Therese Jung

    2016-08-01

    Although there is an abundance of interventional studies to increase breastfeeding rates, little is known about how to support and promote breastfeeding among mothers on opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). The studies on maternal OMT mainly focus on medication excreted in breast milk and breastfeeding benefits for infants with neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). We aim to review interventions to improve breastfeeding outcomes among mothers on OMT to make recommendations for practice and future research. We searched CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for articles, preferably experimental/quasi-experimental studies published within the past 10 years, that examined interventions to increase rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration among mothers on OMT. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 5 categories: 4 combined obstetric and addiction care, 1 rooming-in, 1 Baby-Friendly hospital, 2 inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment, and 1 divided methadone dose. Breastfeeding rates were relatively higher for divided methadone dose (81% initiated any breastfeeding) and rooming-in (62% initiated any breastfeeding); lower in Baby-Friendly hospital (24%) and inpatient/outpatient NAS treatment (45% and 24%, respectively); and mixed in combined obstetric and addiction care programs (2 studies reported 70% and 76%; 2 studies reported 17% and 28%). Studies that included both methadone and buprenorphine did not specify breastfeeding results by medication. We recommend future research to differentiate breastfeeding types and duration by OMT medication. Qualitative studies are needed to explore maternal view on breastfeeding regarding need, barrier, and motivating factors in order to develop effective interventions to promote breastfeeding among mothers on OMT. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. The Environmental Factors Influencing Attrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villella, Edward F.

    1986-01-01

    Offers an economics/business-management perspective on student attrition, focusing on the external macro-environment (including such factors as government funding of education, changing enrollment patterns, and the increased number of postsecondary institutions) and the internal micro-environment (exhibiting characteristics of intangibility,…

  3. Stakeholder views of breastfeeding education in schools: a systematic mixed studies review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Singletary, Nicola; Chetwynd, Ellen; Goodell, L Suzanne; Fogleman, April

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides numerous health benefits for mothers and infants, but worldwide breastfeeding rates fall below recommendations. As part of efforts to increase breastfeeding initiation and duration, the World Health Organization and UNICEF UK recommend educational interventions to increase awareness and positive attitudes towards breastfeeding beginning during the school years. Breastfeeding education in the school setting offers the opportunity to improve the knowledge base, address misconceptions, and positively influence beliefs and attitudes for students from a wide range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive narrative review of the literature regarding student and teacher (stakeholder) views of breastfeeding and breastfeeding education programs in schools to inform future research in the area. Articles were located through a systematic search of online databases and journals using the following keywords in various combinations: (1) breastfeeding, lactation, breast-feeding, "bottle feeding", "infant feeding" (2) student, educator, teacher, "school administrator" and (3) schools, "secondary education", "primary education", "K-12", "high school", "middle school", "elementary school", education, adolescents, curriculum, and a manual search of article references. Studies were screened for inclusion against specific criteria and included papers were assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT). This review suggests that adolescents have a deficit in breastfeeding knowledge and express negative conceptions about breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is being discussed in some school environments, but the extent of lessons and the specific messages that teachers communicate have not been explored. Students appear to be interested in receiving more information about breastfeeding, especially if delivered by health professionals or breastfeeding mothers. The majority of teachers are supportive of

  4. Breastfeeding practices and lactation mastitis.

    PubMed

    Foxman, B; Schwartz, K; Looman, S J

    1994-03-01

    Clinical impression suggests that lactation mastitis is associated with inexperienced nursers, improper nursing techniques, stress and fatigue. A pilot study was conducted to describe the frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices during the first week post partum among 100 breastfeeding women delivering at a freestanding birthing center or participating in an early discharge program. Nine cases of lactation mastitis were identified from the survey population and an additional 8 from the target population for the survey. Seventeen controls matched by delivery date were identified from survey participants. The frequency of self-reported breastfeeding practices, the presence of fatigue and stress during the week prior to the mastitis date in the case was compared among cases and controls. In the first week post partum, most women fed their babies every 2-3 hr for approx. 20 min a feeding. The cradle or Madonna position was the most frequently used nursing position. Nine percent reported supplementing feedings with formula. Women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report a history of mastitis with a previous child. In the week prior to the mastitis date of the case, women with mastitis were more likely than controls to report breast or nipple pain and cracks or breast fissures. They were less likely to report being able to take a daytime nap. Future studies should focus on the relative importance of and interrelationships among these factors.

  5. Characteristics of the NICU Work Environment Associated With Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, Sunny G.; Spatz, Diane L.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Rogowski, Jeannette A.; Lake, Eileen T.

    2015-01-01

    associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. A 1 SD higher score on the Staffing and Resource Adequacy PES-NWI subscale was associated with a 2% increase in infants provided breastfeeding support. There was no association between other NICU nursing characteristics or LCs and nurse-provided breastfeeding support. CONCLUSIONS Nurses provide breastfeeding support around the clock. On a typical shift, about 1 in 7 NICU infants receives breastfeeding support from a nurse. Lactation consultants are not routinely available in NICUs, and their presence does not influence whether nurses provide breastfeeding support. Better nurse staffing fosters nurse provision of breastfeeding support. PMID:25075926

  6. Exclusive breastfeeding: measurement and indicators.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurement of the duration of exclusive breastfeeding is complicated by factors related to definitions, timing, duration of recall, methods of analysis, and sample biases. Clearly prospective methods are likely to be more accurate but are too expensive to use in most large-scale surveys. Internationally, most surveys use a point-in-time or current status measurement (usually 24-hour recall) and report their findings using an indicator established by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1991 that involves combining all babies less than six months old in order to obtain a large enough sample size to result in stable proportions that can be compared over time. However, this indicator is complex to understand and explain and is widely misunderstood, even within the breastfeeding community. It is commonly cited in ways that greatly exaggerate how common exclusive breastfeeding actually is. A life-long or since birth indicator, introduced in 2000, counts infants as no longer exclusively breastfed as soon as anything else is fed to them. This is appropriate to do if for example data are being used to link infant feeding patterns with vertical transmission of HIV or later patterns of infant allergy. However, this indicator underestimates the total extent of exclusive breastfeeding, since some women interrupt but then resume it after a period of supplementation (which could for example only be a small amount of water given a single time). Exactly which indicator is best to use depends on the purpose for which the data are being used. However, for surveys, the best approach, rarely used, would be to report indicators based on both point-in-time and life-long data.

  7. Breastfeeding, Childhood Asthma, and Allergic Disease.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Wendy H

    2017-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies. Breastfeeding has health benefits for the mother and child. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of an infant's life, with continued breastfeeding for up to 2 years or longer, is recognized as the "gold" standard for infant feeding because human milk is uniquely suited to the human infant, and its nutritional content and bioactivity promote a healthy development. There is increasing concern that the practice of delaying complementary foods until 6 months may exacerbate the risk of allergic disease. Breast milk contains immunological components that protect against infections and allergic disease in infancy. The composition of human breast milk is complex, containing factors that interact with the infant immune system and intestinal milieu including allergens, cytokines, immunoglobulins, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and chemokines. Transforming growth factor β is a cytokine in human milk involved in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and oral tolerance development. Modern day society, with increased standards of hygiene, has changed the gut flora of Western infants, potentially impacting the risk of developing immune-mediated diseases including allergic disease and asthma. Microbial diversity is intrinsic to healthy immune maturation and function. Compared to breastfed infants, formula-fed infants had lower bacterial diversity and an altered intestinal microbiota in the first few weeks of life associated with

  8. Still nursing at 6 months: a survey of breastfeeding mothers.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Amy L; Donovan, Kathleen; Lozano, Emily A; Massucci, Diane J; Wohlgemuth, Fran

    2014-01-01

    To learn about the duration of breastfeeding and to describe the variables influencing breastfeeding practices of mothers who gave birth at a suburban community hospital. An Institutional Review Board approved this descriptive anonymous survey with 20 questions concerning patients' characteristics and experiences with breastfeeding, which was developed based on current literature. The survey was distributed to mothers through Survey Monkey via email 6 months after birth. The survey link was sent to 806 mothers, with a response rate of 50%. Over 59% were still breastfeeding at 6 months. Mothers who initiated skin-to-skin contact in the first hour had a higher rate of breastfeeding during this time frame compared to mothers who did not perform skin-to-skin contact. Women who had cesarean births and women who were primiparas reported a higher use of formula while in the hospital, and breastfed for a shorter duration. The primary reasons for stopping breastfeeding were low milk supply, returned to work, and baby did not latch and nurse well. This study adds to the knowledge base of what practices influence rates and duration of breastfeeding in the first 6 months of a baby's life. The information could enhance the care provided to mothers and babies through improving lactation programs and thereby increasing breastfeeding success rates.

  9. Intimate partner violence and breastfeeding in Africa.

    PubMed

    Misch, Emily S; Yount, Kathryn M

    2014-04-01

    We examined the associations of maternal intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization with early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding in eight African countries. For mothers 15-49 years with an infant aged less than 6 months from national Demographic and Health Surveys since 2007 for Ghana (n = 173), Kenya (n = 449), Liberia (n = 313), Malawi (n = 397), Nigeria (n = 2007), Tanzania (n = 549), Zambia (n = 454), and Zimbabwe (n = 480), logistic regression was used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations of lifetime maternal emotional, physical, and sexual IPV victimization with early initiation (less than 1 hour of birth) and exclusive breastfeeding in the prior 24 hours. Maternal lifetime IPV victimization often was adversely associated with optimal breastfeeding practices. Physical IPV in Zimbabwe (aOR 0.40, p = 0.002), sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 0.42, p = 0.017), and emotional IPV in Kenya (aOR 0.54, p = 0.050) and Tanzania (aOR 0.57, p = 0.088) were associated with lower adjusted odds of early initiation. Sexual IPV in Liberia (aOR 0.09, p = 0.026), Ghana (aOR 0.17, p = 0.033), and Kenya (aOR 0.34, p = 0.085) were associated with lower adjusted odds of exclusive breastfeeding. Atypically, physical IPV in Tanzania (aOR 2.11, p = 0.042) and sexual IPV in Zambia (aOR 2.49, p = 0.025) were associated with higher adjusted odds of early initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, respectively. Across several settings, maternal IPV victimization may adversely influence breastfeeding practices. Longitudinal research of these relationships is warranted. Screening for IPV victimization and breastfeeding counseling in prenatal and postpartum care may mitigate the potential intergenerational effects of IPV.

  10. Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.

    PubMed

    Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C

    1985-02-01

    An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.

  11. Tips for Breastfeeding Moms

    MedlinePlus

    United States Department of Agriculture Tips for Breastfeeding Moms Making healthy food choices along with regular physical activity will keep you healthy while you breastfeed. Find Your Healthy Eating Style Choose ...

  12. Timing of breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... work. Your body needs energy to produce enough milk. Be sure to eat well, rest, and sleep. ... 2 hours, day and night. Babies digest breast milk more quickly than formula. Breastfeeding babies need to ...

  13. Health basics: breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    1989-06-01

    This guide to breastfeeding presents several good reasons to breastfeed. Among these are that it is cheap, good for infants, and convenient. Breastfeeding, however, needs to be promoted because women think that bottle feeding is more modern and formula advertising is aggressive. Using drawings, tips are given on successful breastfeeding both before and after birth. There is a section on how to help a nursing mother. Facts are given about positioning the baby at the mother's breast. An illustration demonstrates expressing breast milk. Facts dealing with diarrhea and breastfeeding in general are given. Problems of breast feeding discussed include: 1) sore nipples, 2) painful breast swelling, and 3) not enough milk. Hints are given to correct these problems. A resource list includes sources of information and materials, books/manuals, audiovisuals, and newsletters.

  14. Influence of Intrinsic and Lifestyle Factors on the Development of IgE Sensitization.

    PubMed

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Klinglmayr, Eva; Moser, Stephanie; Lang, Roland; Himly, Martin; Oostingh, Gertie J; Zumbach, Joerg; Bathke, Arne C; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    IgE sensitization is a prerequisite for the development of allergic symptoms. The investigation of factors influencing the development of IgE is therefore crucial for understanding the onset of allergic diseases. This epidemiological study investigated personal, intrinsic, and lifestyle factors in a nonselected cohort of 501 Austrian adolescents (aged 12-21 years). IgE levels to 112 allergen molecules were analyzed in the serum of participants using the ImmunoCAP ISAC®. Allergic sensitization, IgE levels to single allergens, and ISAC score sums were correlated with results obtained from a questionnaire. In this adolescent cohort, male participants showed a higher sensitization frequency (56.8%) compared to females (50.9%) and significantly increased IgE levels to profilins. Underweight subjects demonstrated a stronger IgE sensitization. Family size inversely correlated with IgE levels to PR-10 allergens, and predominately paternal allergies were a predictive factor for IgE sensitization in the children. Vaccination, breastfeeding, and delivery mode showed no influence, while a highly protective effect was observed for growing up on a farm. Of all of the investigated lifestyle factors, only smoking significantly influenced the risk for IgE development. Participants with moderate frequencies of colds showed increased sensitization levels. A hereditary predisposition and lifestyle factors such as a farming environment, smoking, family size, body weight, or frequency of colds significantly influenced the development of allergen-specific IgE in this cohort of adolescents. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Factors that Influence Adolescents to Smoke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karen H.; Stutts, Mary Ann

    1999-01-01

    A survey of the factors that influence adolescents (n=246) to smoke found that family smoking behavior, peer pressure, and prior beliefs were more important in predicting smoking level than were advertising and antismoking information. (Author/JOW)

  16. Factors influencing perfect surgical outcome.

    PubMed

    Lim, A S

    1997-03-01

    With affluence and education, the population of Asia will be demanding quality surgical care. The energetic, affluent and educated Asian professionals and business communities in the cities demand the best; and in surgery, they seek perfect results. Perfect results require a combination of 3 factors: the skill, knowledge and experience of the surgeon. He must be a skilled surgeon with good basic surgical techniques and also technical skills in the management of his discipline combined with meticulous attention to details. Furthermore, he must have a clear knowledge of the basic physiopathology of surgical principles of the condition he is to manage. Experience with difficult situations and intrasurgical problems are essential for success.

  17. Pakistan's breastfeeding campaign.

    PubMed

    Martin, L

    1989-01-01

    A campaign to promote and protect breastfeeding in Pakistan was launched March 1988 with the adoption by the Pakistan Pediatric Association (PPA) of a twenty-point statement in support of breastfeeding. A national committee on breastfeeding comprised of representatives of the PPA, UNICEF, USAID, and the Nutrition Section of the Government of Pakistan was subsequently formed. The committee prepared over the course of six months a bibliography on breastfeeding studies in Pakistan, developed and coordinated two research studies on infant feeding practices, and planned a series of six regional seminars and a national workshop on Breastfeeding for Child Survival. The two-day seminars brought together almost 1000 health professionals, government officials, and representatives from the media, family planning associations, social welfare groups, and private voluntary organizations. Seminar recommendations formed the basis for discussion at the national workshop. The National Breastfeeding Committee has tried to sustain the momentum generated during the seminars through personal communication with health professionals and through journal articles and conferences. Over the next few months, the committee will be developing a national newborn feeding policy to issue to health facilities. The committee will also be identifying ways to train health care providers so that they are better able to assist lactating mothers. A study tour of infant feeding programs is being planned for health policymakers.

  18. Factors influencing perceived angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Calderone, Jack B.

    1991-01-01

    Angular velocity perception is examined for rotations both in depth and in the image plane and the influence of several object properties on this motion parameter is explored. Two major object properties are considered, namely, texture density which determines the rate of edge transitions for rotations in depth, i.e., the number of texture elements that pass an object's boundary per unit of time, and object size which determines the tangential linear velocities and 2D image velocities of texture elements for a given angular velocity. Results of experiments show that edge-transition rate biased angular velocity estimates only when edges were highly salient. Element velocities had an impact on perceived angular velocity; this bias was associated with 2D image velocity rather than 3D tangential velocity. Despite these biases judgements were most strongly determined by the true angular velocity. Sensitivity to this higher order motion parameter appeared to be good for rotations both in depth (y-axis) and parallel to the line of sight (z-axis).

  19. Breastfeeding duration and non-verbal IQ in children.

    PubMed

    Sajjad, Ayesha; Tharner, Anne; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jaddoe, Vincent V W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning; Roza, Sabine J

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding has been related to better cognitive development in children. However, due to methodological challenges, such as confounding, recall bias or insufficient power, the mechanism and nature of the relation remains subject to debate. We included 3761 participants of a population-based cohort study from fetal life onwards and examined the association of breastfeeding duration with non-verbal intelligence in children of age 6 years. Maternal and paternal lifestyle, sociodemographic factors, child factors and maternal IQ were tested for their confounding effects on the association. We observed an initial association between breastfeeding duration and child IQ conferring an advantage of 0.32 (0.20 to 0.44) points for each additional month of breastfeeding. This association strongly attenuated to 0.09 (-0.03 to 0.21) points after adjustment for child factors, sociodemographic factors, parental lifestyle factors and maternal IQ. Similarly, the associations with breastfeeding duration as a categorical variable largely disappeared after confounding factors were added to the models. The association between breastfeeding and child IQ can be largely explained by sociodemographic factors, parental lifestyle and maternal IQ. Our results cannot confirm beneficial effects of breastfeeding on child intelligence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Breastfeeding and the U.S. economy.

    PubMed

    Bartick, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    A recent study showed that current suboptimal U.S. breastfeeding rates cost the U.S. economy $13 billion per year in 2007 dollars for pediatric health cost and premature death. Cost data of excess maternal disease are not yet published but are thought to be substantial. Little is known about other costs. The approximate annual costs of many entities that impact breastfeeding or are impacted by breastfeeding were calculated and converted to 2010 dollars. Calculations assumed the United States went from 2007 breastfeeding rates to 90% compliance with medical recommendations. We included pediatric health costs, formula costs, cost of extra food for lactating women, paid leave, and additional factors. If 90% of mothers could comply with current medical recommendations around breastfeeding, our economy could save $3.7 billion in direct and indirect pediatric health costs, with $10.1 billion in premature death from pediatric disease. We would spend $3.9 billion less per year on infant formula. Additional food for nursing mothers would cost up to $1.6-2.1 billion, and more Baby-Friendly® (World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland/UNICEF, New York, NY) births would cost $0.145 billion. Paid leave would cost $6.2 billion for 12 weeks at 55% pay. Note that current formula company rebates of $2 billion to Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) are equal to 32% of net WIC expenditures. Even including paid leave, the net cost to our economy of our suboptimal breastfeeding rates would still be at least $8.7 billion. Paid leave would be expected to improve breastfeeding duration and reduce disparities. The WIC budget is dependent on formula company rebates, a conflicting situation.

  1. [Duration of breast-feeding in the Dominican Republic].

    PubMed

    Bautista, L E

    1996-05-01

    The present study reanalyzed data from the Dominican Republic National Health Survey, conducted in 1991, in order to identify the socioeconomic characteristics and the factors related to medical care, the pregnancy, and the child which influenced the total duration of breast-feeding (TDBF). A representative sample of 1984 mother-infant pairs was studied. Of the children of each mother, only the last one who was breast-fed and was less than three years old at the time of the survey was included. Data on TDBF and the factors studied were collected by interviewing the mothers. The risk of having been weaned at various ages was calculated by means of a life table, and the independent effect of each variable of interest was estimated using Cox's regression model. The median TDBF was 7 months and the relative weaning rate (RWR) was higher among weaned children (RWR = 8.56; 95%CI: 4.25-17.20), those whose mothers had a university education (RWR = 1.48; 95%CI: 1.24-1.77), those who began to suckle late (RWR = 1.25; 95%CI: 1.11-1.40), those who were born in public institutions (RWR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.24-2.11) and private institutions (RWR = 2.19; 95%CI: 1.65-2.91), and those born to first-time mothers of a low socioeconomic level (RWR = 1.80; 95%CI: 1.45-2.24). Among the strategies of programs to promote breast-feeding, the importance of delayed weaning should be underscored, since this factor has the greatest influence on duration of breast-feeding.

  2. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  3. Barriers to breastfeeding in Lebanon: A policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Akik, Chaza; Ghattas, Hala; Filteau, Suzanne; Knai, Cecile

    2017-08-01

    Although the issue of breastfeeding in Lebanon has risen on the political agenda, the country does not meet international recommendations for early breastfeeding practices. This study analysed barriers to dissemination, implementation, and enforcement of key policies to improve early breastfeeding practices. We conducted interviews with stakeholders in breastfeeding policy in Lebanon and used a framework approach for analysing data. We found a disconnect between policy endorsement and translation on the ground, weak engagement of professional associations and governmental institutions, undue influence by the breast milk substitute industry, and competing priorities-most notably the current refugee crisis. This study highlights the potential policy opportunities to counter these barriers and points to the role of international organisations and grassroots advocacy in pushing, monitoring, and implementing policies that protect breastfeeding, where government capacity is limited, and the private sector is strong.

  4. Breast-feeding and other mother-child factors associated with developmental enamel defects in the primary teeth of Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Lunardelli, Sandra Espíndola; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between developmental defects in the enamel (DDE) of the primary teeth and low birth weight or prematurity. A case-control study was carried out in Itajaí, Southern Brazil, involving 3- to 5-year-old children. The case group was composed of 102 children presenting at least 1 dental surface with DDE. The control group comprised 113 children without DDE matched by sex and age and enrolled in the same day care centers. All teeth were clinically examined using the Modified Index of Developmental Defects of Enamel. The outcome variable of the study was DDE in at least 1 dental surface, and the independent variables were: (1) birth weight; (2) gestational age; and (3) breast-feeding. Maternal schooling and health problems of the mother during pregnancy and of the child during the first year of life were collected as potential confounding factors. Simple and conditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, providing crude and adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence intervals. Prematurity (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.0-6.4) and children who did not breast-feed (OR=3.2; 95% CI=1.2-8.4) were associated with defects in tooth enamel after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In this study, premature children and those who did not breast-feed could be considered at risk for developing defects in tooth enamel.

  5. What Factors Influence Wind Perceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Tatiana

    Over the last decade, wind power has emerged as a possible source of energy and has attracted the attention of homeowners and policy makers worldwide. Many technological hurdles have been overcome in the last few years that make this technology feasible and economical. The United States has added more wind power than any other type of electric generation in 2012. Depending on the location, wind resources have shown to have the potential to offer 20% of the nation's electricity; a single, large wind turbine has the capacity to produce enough electricity to power 350 homes. Throughout the development of wind turbines, however, energy companies have seen significant public opposition towards the tall white structures. The purpose of this research was to measure peoples' perceptions on wind turbine development throughout their growth, from proposal to existing phase. Three hypotheses were developed based on the participant's political affiliation, proximity and knowledge of wind turbines. To validate these hypotheses, participants were asked an array of questions regarding their perception on economic, environmental, and social impacts of wind turbines with an online service called Amazon Mechanical Turk. The responses were from residents living in the United States and required them to provide their zip code for subsequent analysis. The analysis from the data obtained suggests that participants are favorable towards wind turbine development and would be supportive of using the technology in their community. Political affiliation and proximity to the nearest wind turbine in any phase of development (proposal, construction, existing) were also analyzed to determine if they had an effect on a person's overall perception on wind turbines and their technology. From the analysis, political affiliation was seen to be an indirect factor to understanding favorability towards wind turbines; the more liberal you are, the more supportive you will be towards renewable energy use

  6. [Breastfeeding counseling and early mother-child contact are associated with exclusive maternal breastfeeding. A hospital-based-case-control study].

    PubMed

    González-Salazar, Francisco; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Robledo-García, José A; Valdovinos-Chávez, Salvador; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and some factors that may influence breastfeeding in a closely related population attending a private hospital sponsored by a major Mexican brewing company. We carried out a retrospective hospital-based unmatched case-control study. A sample of 124 mother-newborn couples was interviewed in a private medical unit in Monterrey, Mexico, from January 2001 to January 2002. The association between EBF and 11 explanatory factors was analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Counseling and early contact between mother-newborn couples were positively associated with EBF. Counseling and early contact improve EBF practice. We believe these two practices would favor better adherence to EBF in other populations.

  7. What Do Women Really Want? Lessons for Breastfeeding Promotion and Education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy

    2016-04-01

    Promoting breastfeeding is a strategic priority, but breastfeeding rates remain low in the United Kingdom. Women value breastfeeding promotion and education, but a different strategy may be needed to continue to raise breastfeeding rates. New mothers, as the experts, are best placed to inform these changes. The current study explored new mothers' attitudes toward breastfeeding education and promotion, evaluating experiences and examining ideas for change. One thousand one hundred thirty mothers with a baby aged 0-2 years old who had planned to breastfeed at birth completed a questionnaire consisting of both closed and open-ended questions exploring their attitudes to breastfeeding promotion and support. Overall, the findings showed that mothers valued breastfeeding information, but believed that changes needed to be made to current messages. Key themes included a move away from the perception that breastfeeding is best (rather than normal), emphasis on wider values other than the health benefits of breastfeeding, and a message that every feed, rather than just 6 months exclusive breastfeeding, matters. Mothers also highlighted the need for promotion and education to target family members and wider society rather than simply mothers themselves, all of whom influenced both directly or indirectly maternal decision and ability to breastfeed. Mothers suggested ideas for promotional campaigns or how specific groups or methods could be used to increase support, including education for children, TV adverts, and using established online sources of breastfeeding information. The findings are important both for those supporting new mothers to breastfeed and those involved in breastfeeding policy and promotional messages.

  8. The association of prenatal media marketing exposure recall with breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanting; Carlton, Ewa; Fein, Sara B

    2013-11-01

    Infant formula marketing, either directly to consumers or through health care providers, may influence women's breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration. However, little is known about the impact of different types of media marketing on infant feeding intentions and behavior. This study investigated whether different types of recalled prenatal media marketing exposure to formula and breastfeeding information are related to breastfeeding intentions and behavior. Data were from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II, a longitudinal study from pregnancy through the infants' first year. Sample sizes ranged from 1384 to 2530. Negative binomial, logistic regression, and survival models were used to examine associations between recalled prenatal exposure to formula or breastfeeding information and breastfeeding intentions and behavior. Exposure to infant formula information from print media was associated with shorter intended duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and formula information from websites was related to lower odds of both intended and actual initiation. Exposure to breastfeeding information from websites was related to higher odds of both intended and actual initiation and longer intended duration of any breastfeeding. Breastfeeding information from print media was associated with longer duration of any breastfeeding, but information from broadcast media was associated with shorter duration of any breastfeeding. Mothers who recall exposure to formula information from print or websites are more likely to intend to use formula or to intend to use formula earlier and are less likely to initiate breastfeeding than mothers who do not recall seeing such information.

  9. Do state breastfeeding laws in the US promote breastfeeding?

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Stern, Ariel Dora; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite the passage of state laws promoting breastfeeding, a formal evaluation has not yet been conducted to test whether and/or what type of laws may increase breastfeeding. The enactment of breastfeeding laws in different states in the US creates a natural experiment. We examined the impact of state breastfeeding laws on breastfeeding initiation and duration as well as on disparities in these infant feeding practices. Methods Using data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we conducted differences-in-differences models to examine breastfeeding status before and after the institution of laws between 2000 and 2008 among 326,263 mothers from 32 states in the US. For each mother we coded the presence of two types of state breastfeeding laws. Mothers reported whether they ever breastfed or pumped breast milk (breastfeeding initiation) and if so, how long they continued. We defined breastfeeding duration as continuing to breastfeed for ≥4 weeks. Results Breastfeeding initiation was 1.7 percentage points higher in states with new laws to provide break time and private space for breastfeeding employees (p=0.01), particularly among Hispanic mothers (adjusted coefficient 0.058). While there was no overall effect of laws permitting mothers to breastfeed in any location, among Black mothers we observed increases in breastfeeding initiation (adjusted coefficient 0.056). Effects on breastfeeding duration were in the same direction, but slightly weaker. Conclusions State laws that support breastfeeding appear to increase breastfeeding rates. Most of these gains were observed among Hispanic and Black women and women of lower educational attainment suggesting that such state laws may help reduce disparities in breastfeeding. PMID:23087383

  10. Student nurses' attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding.

    PubMed

    Cricco-Lizza, Roberta

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs of students newly enrolled in an urban university baccalaureate nursing program. A qualitative approach was used to conduct in-depth semistructured interviews with 12 students prior to their formal course work in maternal-child nursing. Four themes emerged from the data analysis: 1. Personal experiences are important in the development of breast-feeding attitudes and beliefs. 2. The students generally believed that breast-feeding offered benefits for babies and mothers, but the beliefs were stronger for those who grew up with breast-feeding as the norm. 3. All the students believed that there were barriers to breast-feeding in the United States that they identified as the societal view of the breast, dependence/independence conflicts, and concerns about intimacy. 4. The students identified an educational rather than promotional role for nurses in breast-feeding because of conflicts about personal choice. This study suggests that students need help identifying their attitudes and beliefs about breast-feeding and reflecting how their personal experiences influence breast-feeding promotion.

  11. Pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes: parental determinants, breastfeeding, and early childhood nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Sarah; Freemark, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Among the factors predisposing to type 2 diabetes in children, adolescents, and young adults, the health and behavior of both the mother and father are critical. Prevention and treatment of parental nutritional disorders (including obesity and malnutrition), promotion of breastfeeding, and avoidance of overfeeding of young children are essential for childhood health and metabolic function. Focusing research and policy on parental influences on childhood health should reduce the risks of obesity and type 2 diabetes in future generations.

  12. Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Breastfeeding FAQs: Pain and Discomfort KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding ... have. Is it normal to have cramps while nursing? Yes. During the first few days to weeks ...

  13. Breastfeeding - skin and nipple changes

    MedlinePlus

    Inverted nipple; Nipple discharge; Breast feeding - nipple changes; Breastfeeding - nipple changes ... Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, ... and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  14. Impact of a Breastfeeding-Friendly Workplace on an Employed Mother's Intention to Continue Breastfeeding After Returning to Work

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Ever-increasing populations of women in their childbearing years are choosing to become employed. Breastfeeding provides unique health advantages to both the infant and mother. A breastfeeding-friendly workplace might be an important factor for predicting breastfeeding rates among working women. To explore the impact of breastfeeding-friendly support on the intention of working mothers to continue breastfeeding, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. Subjects and Methods A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, continued breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, access to lactation rooms, and employee perception of the breastfeeding policy and support when raising their most recently born child. Results A higher education level (odds ratio [OR]=2.66), lower work load (8 work hours/day) (OR=2.66), lactation room with dedicated space (OR=2.38), use of breast pumping breaks (OR=61.6), and encouragement from colleagues (OR=2.78) and supervisors (OR=2.44) to use breast pumping breaks were significant predictors of continued breastfeeding for more than 6 months after returning to work. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that to encourage and increase the rate of continued breastfeeding, workplaces should establish dedicated breastfeeding rooms and maintain a comfortable and clean environment. Furthermore, employers should provide encouragement and support for working mothers to continue breastfeeding after returning to work. PMID:23390987

  15. The contraceptive role of breastfeeding by educational attainment: an assessment based on Malaysian fertility and family survey.

    PubMed

    Othman, A

    1985-06-01

    In Malaysia the period between 1960 and 1974 witnessed a drop in both the % of initial breastfeeding and the duration of breastfeeding. Since the duration of breastfeeding has been shown to influence fertility in many studies, this paper investigates the impact of education on the duration of breastfeeding. The focus was the examination of the relationship between female education and duration of breastfeeding and also attendant impact of duration of breastfeeding on fertility. A negative relationship between education and duration of breastfeeding in Malaysia is shown. Higher educated women are less likely to start breastfeeding and, if they start, the average duration of breastfeeding is short. Women with no education are most likely to start with breastfeeding and to breastfeed for longer duration. However, the fact that higher educated women have smaller families implies that greater contraceptive use among higher education women has more than compensated for shorter duration of breastfeeding. Although women with no education have higher proportions of breastfeeding and breastfeed nearly 3 times longer than women with 2ndary education, the latter have slightly more than twice the proportion using contraceptives and a lower total fertility by more than 3 children. This implies a greater impact of contraception as compared to breastfeeding in reducing fertility in Malaysia. The most plausible way to reduce fertility among women with low or no education is to increase their use of contraception, perhaps via family planning programs, and at the same time to practice breastfeeding for the purpose of health and nutrition.

  16. Breastfeeding and Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    Although a large literature supports the benefits of breastfeeding, this review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women, even though their infants benefit from the breastfeeding. Depressed mothers, in part, do not breastfeed because of their concern about potentially negative effects of antidepressants on their infants. Although sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxol) concentrations are not detectable in infants’ sera, fluoxetine (Prozac) and citalopram (Celexa) do have detectable levels. Unfortunately these findings are not definitive because they are based on very small sample, uncontrolled studies. As in the literature on prenatal antidepressant effects, the question still remains whether the antidepressants or the untreated depression itself has more negative effects on the infant. It is possible that the positive effects of breastfeeding may outweigh the positive effects of the antidepressants for both the mother and the infant. In addition, some alternative therapies may substitute or attenuate the effects of antidepressants, such as vagal stimulation or massage therapy, both therapies being noted to reduce depression. Further studies of this kind are needed to determine the optimal course of therapy for the benefit of the depressed, breastfeeding mother and the breastfed infant. PMID:18272227

  17. Breastfeeding and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Field, Tiffany

    2008-09-01

    Although a large literature supports the benefits of breastfeeding, this review suggests that breastfeeding is less common among postpartum depressed women, even though their infants benefit from the breastfeeding. Depressed mothers, in part, do not breastfeed because of their concern about potentially negative effects of antidepressants on their infants. Although sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxol) concentrations are not detectable in infants' sera, fluoxetine (Prozac) and citalopram (Celexa) do have detectable levels. Unfortunately these findings are not definitive because they are based on very small sample, uncontrolled studies. As in the literature on prenatal antidepressant effects, the question still remains whether the antidepressants or the untreated depression itself has more negative effects on the infant. It is possible that the positive effects of breastfeeding may outweigh the positive effects of the antidepressants for both the mother and the infant. In addition, some alternative therapies may substitute or attenuate the effects of antidepressants, such as vagal stimulation or massage therapy, both therapies being noted to reduce depression. Further studies of this kind are needed to determine the optimal course of therapy for the benefit of the depressed, breastfeeding mother and the breastfed infant.

  18. Breastfeeding Exposure, Attitudes, and Intentions of African American and Caucasian College Students.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Urmeka T

    2017-02-01

    African American mothers lag behind in breastfeeding initiation. Research is needed to gain an understanding of potential reasons for breastfeeding disparities. Research aim: This study explored breastfeeding exposure, attitudes, and intentions of African American and Caucasian college students by race and gender. Women and men (696) attending college, who were younger than 45 years and without children, were included in this study. Survey data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and the Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale. Overall, students demonstrated favorable attitudes regarding breastfeeding but viewed formula feeding as more practical. Students who were Caucasian and female and experienced breastfeeding exposure demonstrated higher breastfeeding attitudes and intent. Breastfeeding exposure and attitudes contributed 32% of the variance in breastfeeding intentions. The odds of experiencing breastfeeding exposure and positive breastfeeding attitudes were approximately 3 times higher for Caucasian students than for African American students. External factors demonstrated a stronger association with breastfeeding intentions. The link with race and gender appears to operate through their effect on attitudes and exposure. More research is needed to identify strategies to improve breastfeeding exposure and attitudes among African Americans.

  19. Breastfeeding among low-income women with and without peer support.

    PubMed

    Arlotti, J P; Cottrell, B H; Lee, S H; Curtin, J J

    1998-01-01

    This research examined the effect of peer support on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity (breastfeeding without supplements) in a population of low-income women during the first 3 months postpartum. Participants in the peer counselor group (n = 18) exhibited higher rates of exclusive breastfeeding across time than those without a counselor (n = 18), and more exclusive breastfeeding was associated with long duration overall. Mother's career plans had the greatest effect on duration of breastfeeding. Women who intended to return to work, attend school, or both breastfed 6 to 9 weeks less than participants who intended to stay home. Attendance at a breastfeeding class and knowing someone who had breastfed was significantly correlated with a longer duration of breastfeeding. Nutritionists from the Women, Infants and Children (WIC) Program were the primary source of breastfeeding information. Two main factors discouraged women from breastfeeding: returning to work, school, or both and the perception of a diminished milk supply. Greater emphasis should be placed on prenatal breastfeeding education for low-income women, and their mothers and grandmothers should be included. Peer support is one important component of social support in the area of breastfeeding that community health nurses (CHNs) can utilize. CHNs are in a unique position to assist working mothers, provide support, and develop educational programs to enhance breastfeeding success in this population.

  20. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M L; Morrow, R C; Calva, J J; Ortega-Gallegos, H; Weller, S C; Ruiz-Palacios, G M; Morrow, A L

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population.

  1. Rapid ethnographic assessment of breastfeeding practices in periurban Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, M. L.; Morrow, R. C.; Calva, J. J.; Ortega-Gallegos, H.; Weller, S. C.; Ruiz-Palacios, G. M.; Morrow, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    Before carrying out a breastfeeding promotion programme in a periurban area of Mexico City, we conducted a rapid ethnographic study to determine the factors associated with absence of exclusive breastfeeding. The responses to pilot interviews were used to develop a standardized questionnaire regarding reasons for infant feeding choice, sources of advice, and barriers to breastfeeding. We interviewed a random sample of 150 mothers with a child < 5 years of age; 136 (91%) of them had initiated breastfeeding; but only 2% exclusively breastfed up to 4 months. The mothers consistently stated that the child's nutrition, health, growth, and hygiene were the main reasons for the type of feeding selected; cost, comfort, and the husband's opinion were less important. Physicians were ranked as the most important source of advice. Reduction or cessation of breastfeeding occurred on the doctor's advice (68%); or when the mothers encountered local folk illnesses such as "coraje" (52%) or "susto" (54%), which are associated with anger or fright; or had "not enough milk" (62%) or "bad milk" (56%); or because of illness of the mother (56%) or child (43%). During childhood illnesses and conditions, breastfeeding was reduced and the use of supplementary foods was increased. This study emphasizes the importance of cultural values in infant feeding choices, defines specific barriers to breastfeeding, and provides a basis for interventions to promote exclusive breastfeeding in the study population. PMID:10327711

  2. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    PubMed

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  3. Career Satisfaction as a Factor Influencing Retention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-14

    the influence of job satisfaction on first-term nt behavi ntent to reenlist as a criterion. Factors found to I related included not liking the work...benefits have been curtailed, largely due to the recent recession . When the economy brightens and civilian jobs become more plentiful, dissatisfactions...Satisfaction also his exchange power in the market place. Because economic value is influenced by consumer tastes and preferences, individual motivations

  4. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…

  5. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…